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Основные положения средневековой философии

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(. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee

N?aaeiaaaeiauea caieiaao aeeeoaeueiue io?acie enoi?ee Aa?iiu io
?aniaaea ?eineie eiia?ee a V aaea aei yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey (XIV-XV
a.a.).

Aicieeiiaaiea n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee i/aiue /anoi naycuaatho n
iaaeaieai Caiaaeiie ?eineie eiia?ee (476 aiae i.y),

iaeiaei oaeay aeaoe?iaea yaeyaony ia nianai ei??aeoiie. A yoi a?aiy
aua ainiiaenoaoao a?a/aneay oeeinioey, e n aa oi/ee c?aiey
ia/aeii anaai yaeyaony i?e?iaea. A n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee,
iai?ioea, ?aaeueiinoueth, ii?aaeaeythuae ana nouaa anoue Aia. Iiyoiio
ia?aoiae io iaeiiai iuoeaiey e ae?oaiio ia iia i?iecieoe
iaiiaaiii: caaiaaaiea ?eia ia iiaei n?aco eciaieoue ie nioeeaeueiuo
ioiioaiee (aaaeue a?a/aneay oeeinioey i?eiaaeeaaeeo yiioa aioe/iiai
?aaiaeaaeaeue/anoaa, a n?aaeiaaaeiaay oeeinioey ioiineony e yiioa
oaiaeaeecia), ie aioo?aiiaai ie?ii?aaenoaaeaiey ethaeae, ie
?aeeaeiciuo oaaaeaeaiee, iino?iaiiuo aaeaie. Oi?ie?iaaiea iiaiai oeia
iauanoaa aeeeony aanueia i?iaeieaeeoaeueii. A I-IV aaeao i.y
eiieo?e?otho iaaeaeo niaie oeeinioneea o/aiey noieeia, yieeo?aeoeaa,
iaiieaoiieeia, e a yoi aea a?aiy oi?ie?othony i/aae iiaie aa?u e
iunee, eioi?ua a iineaaenoaee ninoaayo iniiao n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee

Ei?ie oeeinioee n?aaeieo aaeia ooiaeyo a ?aeeaee aaeeiiaiaeey
(iiiioaecia). E oaeei ?aeeaeyi i?eiaaeeaaeao eoaeaeci,
o?enoeainoai e ionoeueiainoai, e eiaiii n ieie naycaii ?acaeoea eae
aa?iiaeneie, oae e a?aaneie oeeinioee n?aaeieo aaeia.

Oeeinioey, eioi?ay neeaaeuaaeanue a yoio ia?eiae eiaea aeaa iniiaiuo
enoi/ieea naiaai oi?ie?iaaiey. Ia?aue ec ieo – ae?aaiaa?a/aneay
oeeinioey, i?aaeaea anaai a aa ieaoiiianeie e a?enoioaeaaneie
o?aaeeoeeyo. Aoi?ie enoi/iee – Nayuaiiia ienaiea, iiaa?ioaoee yoo
oeeinioeth a ?onei o?enoeainoaa.

O?enoeainoai (io a?a/aneiai neiaa christos – “iiiacaiiee”, “Ianney”)
ca?iaeeeinue eae iaeia ec naeo eoaeaecia a I a. i.y. a Iaeanoeia. Yoi
ecia/aeueiia ?iaenoai n eoaeaeciii – /?acau/aeii aaaeiia aeey iiieiaiey
ei?iae o?enoeaineie ?aeeaee – i?iyaeyaony e a oii, /oi ia?aay /anoue
Aeaeee, Aaooee caaao, – nayuaiiay eieaa eae eoaeaaa, oae e
o?enoeai(aoi?ay /anoue Aeaeee, Iiaue caaao, i?eciaaony oieueei
o?enoeaiaie e yaeyaony aeey ieo aeaaiaeoae). ?ani?ino?aiyynue a n?aaea
aa?aaa Iaeanoeiu e N?aaeecaiiiii?uey, o?enoeainoai oaea a ia?aua
aeanyoeeaoey naiaai nouanoaiaaiey caaiaauaaei i?eaa?aeaioeaa e n?aaee
ae?oaeo ia?iaeia.

Aicieeiiaaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea o?enoeainoaa i?eoeinoue ia ia?eiae
aeoaieiai e?ecena aioe/iie oeeaeeecaoeee, oiaaeea aa iniiaiuo
oeaiiinoae. O?enoeaineia o/aiea i?eaeaeaei iiiaeo, ?aci/a?iaaaoeony a
?eineii iauanoaaiiii ono?ienoaa. Iii i?aaeeaaaei naiei i?eaa?aeaioeai
iooue aioo?aiiaai nianaiey: ooiae io enii?/aiiiai, a?aoiaiiai ie?a a
naay, aioo?ue nianoaaiiie ee/iinoe, a?oaui ieioneei oaeiaieuenoaeyi
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony no?iaee aneaoeci, a aunieiia?eth e ouaneaaeth
“neeueiuo ie?a naai” – niciaoaeueiia nie?aiea e iiei?iinoue, eioi?ua
aoaeoo aiciaa?aaeaeaiu iinea ianooieaiey Oea?noaa Aiaeueaai ia caiea.

Oaea ia?aua o?enoeaineea iaueiu i?eo/aee naieo /eaiia aeoiaoue ia
oieueei i naaa, ii e i noaeueaao anaai ie?a, iieeoueny ia oieueei i
naiai, ii e ia iauai nianaiee. Oaea oiaaea auyaeeny naienoaaiiue
o?enoeainoao oieaa?naeeci: iaueiu, ?aca?inaiiua ii ia?iiiiio
i?ino?ainoao ?eineie eiia?ee, iuouaee oai ia iaiaa naia aaeeinoai.
*eaiaie iauei noaiiaeeenue ethaee ?aciuo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae. O?enoeainoai
i?iaicaeaneei ?aaainoai ia?aae Aiaii anao aa?othueo e i?aaeii?aaeaeeei
aeaeueiaeoaa naia ?acaeoea eae ie?iaie ?aeeaee, ia ciathuae
iaoeeiiaeueiuo e ycueiauo a?aieoe.

Eaeaaeenoe/aneay i?eaioaoeey aieueoeinoaa oeeinioneeo nenoai
n?aaeiaaaeiauey aeeeoiaaeanue iniiaiuie aeiaiaoaie o?enoeainoaa, n?aaee
eioi?uo iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea eiaee oaeea, eae aeiaiao i ee/iinoiie oi?ia
aiaa-oai?oea, e aeiaiao i oai?aiee aiaii ie?a “ec ie/aai”. A oneiaeyo
oaeiai aeanoieiai ?aeeaeiciiai aeeeoaoa, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth, oeeinioey auea iauyaeaia “neoaeaieie
?aeeaee”, a ?aieao eioi?ie ana oeeinioneea aii?inu ?aoaeenue n iiceoeee
oaioeaio?ecia, e?aaoeeiiecia, i?iaeaeaioeeaeecia.

Oaioeaio?eci – (a?a/. theos – Aia), oaeia iiieiaiea ie?a, a
eioi?ii enoi/ieeii e i?e/eiie anaai nouaai aunooiaao Aia. Ii oeaio?
ie?icaeaiey, aeoeaiia e oai?yuaa aai ia/aei. I?eioeei oaioeaio?ecia
?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia iiciaiea, aaea ia aunooth nooiaiueeo a nenoaia
ciaiey iiiauaaony oaieiaey; ieaea aa – iaoiaeyuayny ia neoaeaa o
oaieiaee oeeinioey; aua ieaea – ?acee/iua /anoiua e i?eeeaaeiua iaoee.

O?enoeainoai ?acaeaaao nic?aaooth a eoaeaecia eaeath aaeeiiai Aiaa,
iaeaaeaoaey aaniethoiie aeaainoe, aaniethoiiai ciaiey e aaniethoiiai
iiaouanoaa. Ana nouanoaa e i?aaeiaou yaeythony aai oai?aieyie, ana
nicaeaii naiaiaeiui aeoii aiaeanoaaiiie aiee. Aeaa oeaio?aeueiuo
aeiaiaoa o?enoeainoaa aiai?yo i o?eaaeeinoaa Aiaa e aiaiaiieiuaiee.
Niaeanii ia?aiio, aioo?aiiyy aeeciue aiaeanoaa anoue ioiioaiea o?ao
“eiinoanae”, eee eeoe: Iooea (aacia/aeueiiai ia?aiia/aea), Nuia, eee
Eiaina (niuneiaiai e ioi?ieythuaai i?eioeeia), e nayoiai Aeooa
(aeeaioai?yuaai i?eioeeia). Nui “?iaeaeaaony” io Iooea, nayoie Aeoo
“enoiaeeo” io Iooea. I?e yoii e “?iaeaeaiea” e “enoiaeaeaiea” eiatho
ianoi ia ai a?aiaie, oae eae ana eeoea o?enoeaineie O?ieoeu nouanoaiaaee
anaaaea – “i?aaeaa/iu” – e ?aaiu ii aeinoieinoao – “?aaii/anoiu”.

Niaeanii o?enoeaineiio aeiaiaoo, Aia nioai?ee ie? ec ie/aai,
nioai?ee aicaeaenoaeai naiae aiee, aeaaiaea?y naiaio anaiiaouanoao,
eioi?ia a eaaeaeue iea nio?aiyao, iiaeaea?aeeaaao auoea ie?a. Oaeia
ie?iaicc?aiea oa?aeoa?ii aeey n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee e iacuaaaony
e?aaoeeiieciii. (creatio – oai?aiea, nicaeaiea).

Aeiaiao i oai?aiee ia?aiineo oeaio? oyaeanoe n i?e?iaeiiai ia
naa?oi?e?iaeiia ia/aei. A ioee/ea io aioe/iuo aiaia, eioi?ua auee
?iaenoaaiiu i?e?iaea, o?enoeaineee Aia noieo iaae i?e?iaeie, ii oo
noi?iio aa e iioiio yaeyaony o?ainoeaiaeaioiui Aiaii. Aeoeaiia
oai?/aneia ia/aei eae au ecuiaaony ec i?e?iaeu, ec einiina e
ia?aaeaaony Aiao; a n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee einiin iiyoiio ia anoue
aieueoa naiiaeiaeathuaa e aa/iia auoea, ia anoue aeeaia e
iaeooaaeaiiia oeaeia, eaeei aai n/eoaee iiiaea ec a?a/aneeo
oeeinioia.

A aioe/iie oeeinioee oaea auee au?aaioaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua iiaeoiaeu a
?aoaiee i?iaeaiu i?aiaeieaiey aeoaeecia ie?a e aai nouiinoe.
Ieoaai?aeoeu, Ieaoii e aai iineaaeiaaoaee caeiaeeee iniiaiua
iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu o/aiey i aeooiaiii aaeeinoaa ie?a. Ii ie
eeanneee aioe/iie oeeinioee, ie iaiieaoiieee ia nicaeaee eiioeaioeee
aiaa ( ee/iinoe. Iie o?aeoiaaee Aaeeiia, eae iaeia ia?aiia/aeueiia,
i?iecaaaeoaa ec naay ana auoea, eae aaniethoii aano?aeoii-aacee/ioth
eaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue. Ee/iinoiia iiieiaiea Aiaa aia?aua aeaii Oeeiiii
Aeaenaiae?eeneei.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea Aiaa eae ee/iinoe auea nouanoaaiiui oaaii aia?aae a
iai?aaeaiee o?enoeaineiai ie?iaicc?aiey, ii iia ia aeaaaea iieiiai
i?aiaeieaiey i?iianoe iaaeaeo Aiaii e ie?ii. Aeey i?aiaeieaiey yoie
i?iianoe iaiaoiaeeii auei aaanoe iiin?aaeothuea neeu. Aeey yoie oeaee
Oeeia eniieuecoao iaeii ec oeaio?aeueiuo iiiyoee aioe/iie oeeinioee (
iiiyoea Eiaina.

Ii a ioee/ea io aioe/iie oeeinioee, Eiain o Oeeiia aunooiaao eae
nioai?aiiue Aiaii aeoo, eioi?ue ia?aiia/aeueii anoue aiaeanoaaiiue
?acoi. A i?aaenoaaeaiee Oeeiia i Eiaina ia aeinoaaaei eeoue
ioiaeaeanoaeaiey aai n ianneae ( O?enoii.

I?iaeaeaioeeaeeci – (eao. providentia – i?iaeaeaiea), nenoaia
acaeyaeia, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie anaie ie?iauie niauoeyie, a oii
/enea enoi?eae e iiaaaeaieai ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae, oi?aaeyao
aiaeanoaaiiia i?iaeaeaiea (i?iaeaeaiea – a ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaenoaaeaieyo:
Aia, aunoaa nouanoai eee aai aeaenoaey).

Aiiaua, a n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee iiaeii auaeaeeoue, eae ieieioi,
aeaa yoaia aa noaiiaeaiey – iao?enoeeo e noieanoeeo, /aoeoth a?aieoeo
iaaeaeo eioi?uie i?iaanoe aeiaieueii o?oaeii.

Iao?enoeea – niaieoiiinoue oaieiai-oeeinioneeo acaeyaeia “iooeia
oea?eae”, eioi?ua acyeenue ca iainiiaaiea o?enoeainoaa, iie?aynue ia
aioe/ioth oeeinioeth e i?aaeaea anaai ia eaeae Ieaoiia.

A iao?enoeea auaeaeyaony o?e yoaia: 1) aiieiaaoeea (II-III a.a.),
nua?aaoay aaaeioth ?ieue a ioi?ieaiee e caueoa o?enoeaineiai
ie?iaicc?aiey aa i?aaenoaaeoaee iacuaaeenue aiieiaaoaie. Yoi iacaaiea
iie iieo/eee iioiio, /oi eo ni/eiaiey ia?aaeei iineee iaeiaiiaaiea e
oa?aeoa? aiieiaee, oi anoue ni/eiaiea, iai?aaeaiiuo ia caueoo e
ii?aaaeaiea o?enoeaineiai aa?io/aiey e aeayoaeueiinoe o?enoeai.

Iauaeoii iniuneaiey o?enoeaineeo aiieiaaoia yaeyeenue iiiai/eneaiiua
ieoieiae/aneea ia?acu e i?aaenoaaeaiey yiie?e/aneiai ?aeeaeiciiai
niiiciaiey, /anoe/ii caeinoaiaaiiua ec aeeaeiaainoi/iuo, a?a/aneie e
?eineie ?aeeaee, /anoe/ii caiiai noi?ie?iaaaoeany a o?enoeaineii
niciaiee iiae aeeyieai iiauo nioeeaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo oaeoi?ia.

2) eeanne/aneay iao?enoeea (IV-V a.a.), nenoaiaoece?iaaaoay
o?enoeaineia o/aiea; 3) caeeth/eoaeueiue ia?eiae (VI-VIII a.a.),
noaaeeece?iaaaoee aeiaiaoeeo.

A oaieiaee iao?enoeea yaeyaony /anoueth aeiaiaoeee, n eioi?ie iia ii
i?aeiouanoao ioiaeaeanoaeyaony. A enoi?ee oeeinioee yoi iiiyoea
eniieuecoaony aeey iaicia/aiey o?enoeaineie oaieiaee e oeeinioee I-VIII
aa., eiaaea aa i?aaenoaaeoaee caueuaee o?enoeaineoth aeieo?eio io
“ycu/ieeia”, aa?aaa, ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e aioe/iie oeeinioee.
Ia/eiay n III noieaoey iao?enoeea, iaiai?io, no?aieony i?eniiniaeoueny
e iaiieaoiiecio e eniieueciaaoue aai oeeinioneea iniiau aeey
iainiiaaiey o?enoeainoaa.

Noieanoeea – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oei oeeinionoaiaaiey, i?e eioi?ii
n?aaenoaaie /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia iuoathony iainiiaaoue i?eiyoua ia aa?o
eaeae e oi?ioeu.

Noieanoeea a n?aaeiea aaea i?ioea o?e yoaia naiaai ?acaeoey: 1)
?aiiyy oi?ia (XI-XII a.a.); 2) c?aeay oi?ia (XII-XIII a.a.); 3) iicaeiyy
noieanoeea (XIII-XIV a.a.).

Aeaaiay ioee/eoaeueiay iniaaiiinoue noieanoeee ninoieo a oii, /oi iia
niciaoaeueii ?anniao?eaaao naay eae iaoeo, iinoaaeaiioth ia neoaeao
oaieiaee.

A n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee ino?i noiye nii? iaaeaeo aeooii e iaoa?eae,
/oi iiaeaeei ca niaie nii? iaaeaeo ?aaeenoaie e iiieiaeenoaie. Nii? oae
i i?e?iaea oieaa?naeee, oi anoue i i?e?iaea iaueo iiiyoee, yaeythony ee
iauea iiiyoey aoi?e/iuie, oi anoue i?iaeoeoii aeayoaeueiinoe iuoeaiey,
eee aea iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia?ae/iia, ?aaeueiia, nouanoaotho
naiinoiyoaeueii.

Iiieiaeeci i?aaenoaaeye niaie ca/aoee iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey.
O/aiea iiieiaeenoia ia iauaeoeaiii nouanoaiaaiee i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee
i?e?iaeu aaei e iiae?uao oea?eiaiie aeiaiu i ia?ae/iinoe aeooiaiiai e
aoi?e/iinoe iaoa?eaeueiiai, e ineaaeaieth aaoi?eoaoa oea?eae e
Nayuaiiiai ienaiey.

Oa?iei “iiieiaeeci” i?ienoiaeeo io eaoeineiai “nomen” – “eiy”. Niaeanii
iiieiaeenoai, iauea iiiyoey – oieueei eiaia; iie ia iaeaaeatho
ieeaeei naiinoiyoaeueiui nouanoaiaaieai e ia?acothony iaoei oiii iooai
aano?aae?iaaiey iaeioi?uo i?eciaeia, iaueo aeey oeaeiai ?yaea aauae.
Iai?eia?, iiiyoea “/aeiaae” iieo/aaony ioeeaeuaaieai anao i?eciaeia,
oa?aeoa?iuo aeey eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea a ioaeaeueiinoe, e eiioeaio?aoeee
oiai, /oi yaeyaony iauei aeey anao: /aeiaae – yoi aeeaia nouanoai,
iaaeaeaiiia ?acoiii aieueoa, /ai eoi eeai ec aeeaioiuo (ii e?aeiae
ia?a iu, ethaee oae n/eoaai). Aeaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea iiaeii, a
i?eioeeia, ooi/ieoue: o /aeiaaea iaeia aieiaa, aeaa ?oee, aeaa iiae e
o.ae., ii yoi oaea eceeoia, oae eae ia?aia ii?aaeaeaiea oaea
iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeyao nouiinoue /aeiaaea.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaeanii o/aieth iiieiaeenoia, oieaa?naeee nouanoaotho
ia aei aauae, a iinea aauae. Iaeioi?ua iiieiaeenou aeaaea aeieacuaaee,
/oi iauea iiiyoey anoue ia aieaa, /ai caoee /aeiaa/aneiai aieina.
E oaeei iiieiaeenoai i?eiaaeeaaeae, iai?eia? ?inoeaeei (XI-XII aaea).

?aaeenou iieacuaaee, /oi iauea iiiyoey ii ioiioaieth e ioaeaeueiui aauai
i?e?iaeu yaeythony ia?ae/iuie e nouanoaotho ?aaeueii, naie ii naaa. Iie
i?eienuaaee iauei iiiyoeyi naiinoiyoaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea, ia caaeneiia
io ioaeaeueiuo aauae e /aeiaaea. I?aaeiaou aea i?e?iaeu, ii eo iiaieth,
i?aaenoaaeytho eeoue oi?iu i?iyaeaiey iaueo iiiyoee. A oi a?aiy neiai
“?aaeeci” ia eiae ie/aai iauaai n nia?aiaiiui cia/aieai yoiai
neiaa. Iiae ?aaeeciii iiae?acoiaaaeinue o/aiea, niaeanii eioi?iio
iiaeeeiiie ?aaeueiinoueth iaeaaeatho oieueei iauea iiiyoey, eee
oieaa?naeee, a ia aaeeie/iua i?aaeiaou. Niaeanii n?aaeiaaaeiaui
?aaeenoai, oieaa?naeee nouanoaotho aei aauae, i?aaenoaaeyy niaie iunee,
eaeae a aiaeanoaaiiii ?acoia. E oieueei aeaaiaea?y yoiio /aeiaa/aneee
?acoi a ninoiyiee iiciaaaoue nouiinoue aauae, eai yoa nouiinoue e anoue
ia /oi eiia, eae anaiauaa iiiyoea.

N?aaeiaaaeiaue nii? i i?e?iaea oieaa?naeee cia/eoaeueii iiaeeye ia
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea eiaeee e aiinaieiaee, iniaaiii ia o/aiey oaeeo
e?oiiuo oeeinioia iiaiai a?aiaie, eae Aiaan e Eiee, Nieiica, Aa?eee e
THi . N?aaeiaaaeiaay oeeinioey aianea nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea aiinaieiaee, aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iniia anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai e
oeeinioneiai ciaiey.

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