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Необходимость и возможность как реальные модальности онтологии в философском наследии Б. Спинозы

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?aoa?ao: Iaiaoiaeeiinoue e aiciiaeiinoue eae

?aaeueiua iiaeaeueiinoe iioieiaee a

oeeinioneii ianeaaeee A. Nieiicu

NIAeA?AEAIEA

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
…………………………2

Enoi?e/aneay ni?aaea

?onneea
nieiicenou……………………………………………………..
………………3

Aaiee – yoi eioaeeaeo, caaeaoue a oenee
iaiaoiaeeiinoe……………….4

I?e/eiu, iiaoaeeaoea Nieiico acyoueny ca
ia?i……………………………5

AEeciaiiue iooue e ?aaiou
Nieiicu…………………………………………. 7

Oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey Nieiicu

O/aiea i noanoaioeee. Aia anoue
ie?……………………………………………….9

Ao?eaoou e iiaeonu
noanoaioeee…………………………………………………..11

Iuoeaiea e
iaiaoiaeeiinoue…………………………………………………
……..13

Naiaiaea eae iiciaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

Oneiaea aiciiaeiinoe
naiaiaeu…………………………………………………….15

Aooaeou /aeiaaea. Aeaoa?ieieci Nieiicu.
……………………………….16

I?aae?annoaeee ethaeae a eo iiiyoee
Aiaa………………………………………..18

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
………………………20

Nienie eniieuecoaiie
eeoa?aoo?u…………………………………………………22

AAAAeAIEA

Ioeaieoue iieiie ia?ie aeaenoaeoaeueiia aaee/ea e cia/aiea oeeinioee
Aaiaaeeeoa Nieiicu /aeiaa/anoao, iiaeaeoe, aua oieueei i?aaenoieo.
“Yoeea” aaeeeiai oeeinioa caaa?oaaony, eae ecaanoii, ?anniio?aieai
aii?ina i oii, eae aea eiaiii aeieaeiu ono?ieoue naith niaianoioth –
iauanoaaiioth – aeeciue ethaee, iiiyaoea oo i?inooth e aaeeeoth enoeio,
/oi aeey ?acoiiiai /aeiaaea “aeey aai naiinio?aiaiey e ianeaaeaeaiey
?acoiiie aeeciueth, iao ie/aai iieaciaa, eae /aeiaae,
?oeiaiaenoaothueeny ?acoiii” e /oi eiaiii /aeiaae – ia aeaiueae, ia
aaue, ia neiaa e oiio iiaeiaiua iieiua oeaiiinoe – anoue aeey /aeiaaea
aunoee e naiue eioa?aniue i?aaeiao a oieaa?noia.

?aoaiea Nieiicu aaieaeueii e i?inoi, oioy iineo aua i/aiue iauee
oa?aeoa?. Ethaee aeieaeiu i?aaieciaaoueny a oaeia iauanoai, eioi?ia
iaania/eaaei au aiciiaeiinoue eaaeaeiio ec ieo iieiinoueth ?acaa?iooue a
aeaenoaee naith /aeiaa/aneoth i?e?iaeo, noaoue *aeiaaeii n aieueoie
aoeau.

Aaeeea ?ieue Nieiicu a ?acaeoee aoaecia e naiaiaeiiuneey. Oeaeue
?aeeaee ii aai o/aieth – ia iiciaiea i?e?iaeu aauae, a eeoue ianoaaeaiea
ethaeae a i?aanoaaiiii ia?aca aeecie, iiyoiio ie ?aeeaey, ie
ainoaea?noai ia aeieaeiu iinyaaoue ia naiaiaeo iunee.

Anaiauay aeaoa?ieiaoeey a oeeinioee Nieiicu – /oiau ie aeaeae /aeiaae,
ii auioaeaeai yoi aeaeaoue, – ainieouaaao oa?ieiinoue e o/eo aeaeaoue
oi, /oi eaaeaony iai aano?aeiui, eae iaecaaaeiia. Yoa aeieo?eia
niinianoaoao iaoaio iauanoaaiiiio nouanoaiaaieth.

Iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo iieacaoaeae aeoaeiu e aeooaeueiinoe oeeinioneiai
o/aiey Nieiicu – aai aeeyiea ia iuneeoaeae iineaaeothueo iieieaiee e oai
aieaa aaeia, a oaeaea iieaieea n iei iuneeoaeae e enoi?e/aneeo aeayoaeae
?acee/iuo ?aiaia, inia?eaathueo e ii?iaa?aathueo yoe eaeae.

Aunieoth ioeaieo oeeinioneei acaeyaeai Nieiicu aeae Yiaaeuen: “Ioaeii
i?eciaoue aaee/aeoae caneoaie oiaaeaoiae oeeinioee… /oi iia, ia/eiay
io Nieiicu e eii/ay aaeeeeie o?aioeocneeie iaoa?eaeenoaie, ianoie/eai
iuoaeanue iauynieoue ie? ec iaai naiiai, i?aaeinoaaea aeaoaeueiia
ii?aaaeaiea yoiai anoanoaiciaieth aoaeouaai”.

ENOI?E*ANEAss NI?AAEA

?onneea nieiicenou

A 1977 aiaeo ioia/aeinue o?aonioeaoea ni aeiy nia?oe ainoa?aeaineiai
iuneeoaey Aaiaaeeeoa Nieiicu e auoiaea a naao aai «Yoeee» (1677 a.). Yoi
aucaaei ianoiyuoth eaaeio ioaeeeaoeee a ie?a. O ian aea a no?aia Nieiica
oaea aeiaieueii aeieai ia iieuecoaony caiaoiui aieiaieai. Oioy iaeioi?ia
a?aiy iacaae nieiicianeay oeeinioey iaoiaeeeanue a oeaio?a iaeeaeaiiie
iieaieee, a eioi?ie i?eiyee o/anoea ioa/anoaaiiua oeeiniou ?aiaa
Aeaaeeie?a Nieiaueaaa, Aeaenaiae?a Aaaaeaineiai, Eueaa Oanoiaa. Ii oao,
eoi n/eoae oeeinioneee iaoiae Nieiicu aaeaeaaoiie oi?iie iuoeaiey e
iieueciaaeny ei eae eino?oiaioii ?acuneaiey enoeiu, a iauai-oi, auei ia
oae oae iiiai. N?aaee ieo naiua y?eea oeao?u, aia anyeiai niiiaiey –

A.I.Iieiaoeaaa, E.N.Auaioneee, Y.A.Eeueaieia. Ana iie ioe?uoi i?eciaaaee
naith i?eaa?aeaiiinoue o/aieth Nieiicu e ii-naiaio i?iaeieaeeee aai
inquisitio veri a XX noieaoee. Ii enoi?ey ?onneiai nieiicecia iiea aua
i/aiue ei?ioea e neeaaeuaaeanue aei neo ii? ia neeoeii n/anoeeai. Ii
?aciui i?e/eiai ie A.I.Iieiaoeaaie, ie E.N.Auaioneiio, ie Y.A.Eeueaieiao
ia oaeaeinue caaa?oeoue naie aeaaiue o?oae i Nieiica. Ana o?e aaoi?a
n/eoaee na?aeoeaaeiie oeeinioee Nieiicu aai oai?eth iiciaiey, eioi?oth
Nieiica eiaioao «enoeiiie eiaeeie». Ioe?uoue Nieiicie iaoiae iuoeaiey,
ii eo iiaieth, ieneieueei ia onoa?ae e a ninoiyiee n i?aaeiei oniaoii
aanoe /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi e enoeia aauae. Oae, A.I. Iieiaoeaaa oeacuaaao,
/oi enoeiiia, noanoaioeeiiaeueiia auoea aauae Nieiica iaicia/aao
au?aaeaieai “actu existere” e yoi “aeoeaiia nouanoaiaaiea”1
ea?aeeiaeueii ioee/aaony io aiia?aaeaaiiai “nouanoaiaaiey ai a?aiaie”
(duratio). Aeoeaiinoue aaue e anoue aa ianoiyuay nouiinoue, caeeth/aao
Iieiaoeaaa. O E.N.Auaiaeneiai e Y.A.Eeueaieiaa i?aaeiaoiay
aeayoaeueiinoue o?aeooaony eae noanoaioeey anao ineoe/aneeo yaeaiee – io
i?inoaeoaai naii/oanoaey aei eaoaai?ee “/enoiai ?acoia” e naiuo neiaeiuo
eaeaaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee. Yoio i?eioeei aue ioe?uo Nieiicie e, i?eiya
aai, iu oaea oai naiui anooiaai ia ii/ao nieiicecia, ieoao Eeueaieia:
“Nieiiceci… naycuaaao oaiiiai iuoeaiey aiiaua n ?aaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth iuneyuaai oaea ( a ia n iiiyoeai aanoaeaniie aeooe ),
e a yoii iuneyuai oaea i?aaeiieaaaao aeoeaiinoue…”2

Aaiee – yoi eioaeeaeo, caaeaoue a oenee iaiaoiaeeiinoe

Nieiica iaanaaaea aioae a enoi?eth /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u eae oeeinio,
eioi?ue iinoaaee i?iaeaiu, ia ?aoaiiua /aeiaa/anoaii e iiiuia, n oaeie
yniinoueth e ino?ioie e ia oieueei iinoaaee, a e iaoae ei ?aoaiea, aei
neo ii? icaaea/eaathuaa naiae iauaoai?aoe/aneie oi/iinoueth,
aaneiii?iienniinoueth e iaoiieeiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth i?eaiaeyueo e
iaio ?aciuoeaiee…

A /ai aea ?acaaaeea yoiai oaeeaeoaeueiiai oaiiiaia? Ia eaeea aaaeiua
aaue, aieiothuea ethaeae e iiiuia, aia?aua ioe?ue /aeiaa/anoao aeaca
yoio a?onoiue e caaeoi/eaue /aeiaae? Eaeie oaeinoaaiiie neeie iaaeaeeea
aai I?e?iaea, /oi ii noiae aueoe iiaaaeeoaeai ec nia?oaeueiie noaaoee n
oaeei iiao/ei i?ioeaieeii, eae iauaaeeiaiiua neeu o?ao «ie?iauo
?aeeaee».

Ioaao iaeei. Yoi iiaei neo/eoueny eeoue iioiio, /oi Nieiica ia aue
aiaiai?oeai-iaeeii/eie, eaeei aai ia ?ac ecia?aaeaee. Iioiio /oi ia aai
noi?iia iac?eii n?aaeaeanue anaiaeieaaathuay aeanoue ie?iaie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, eee, aiai?y eiie?aoiaa, iiuue nioeeaeueiiai i?ia?anna.
Iioiio /oi, ia i?eaeaaay iniaiai cia/aiey naiae ia?niia e ene?aiia
n/eoay naay eeoue iaeiei ec aan/eneaiiuo ai?oeia ca i?ia?ann
/aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea, Nieiica ioaeae naay aac inoaoea ia aaccaaaoiia
neoaeaiea aio.

Eiaaea-oi Aaoa neacae, /oi aaiee – yoi eioaeeaeo, caaeaoue a oenee
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. A yoii ?acaaaeea aaiey Nieiicu, aai ee/iinoe e aai
eioaeeaeoa. «Eiaeeaeaeooi anoue nui naiaai ia?iaea, naiaai ie?a, e ii
eeoue i?iyaeyao noanoaioeeiiaeueiinoue iineaaeiaai a naiae nianoaaiiie
oi?ia», -ooaa?aeaeae, e ia aac aeeyiey Nieiicu, Aaaaeue. E yoi oiaea
i?ieeaaao naao ia caaaaeeo Nieiicu e nieiicecia. Iiyoiio iiiyoue Nieiico
– cia/eo i?aaeaea anaai iiiyoue aai a?aiy e aai ia?iae, eo/oei
au?aceoaeai «noanoaioeeaeueiuo» (o.a. aeaaiuo, aeiaaeueiuo, ?aoathueo)
eioa?ania eioi?iai ii noae.

XVII aae a enoi?ee Aa?iiu – aae ia?aeiiiue, e?eceniue, aeanoieee:
aeeaueai naeeaatho «a?aoeeia», aiththo eaoieeee n i?ioanoaioaie,
o?enoeaia n oo?eaie-ionoeueiaiaie, eniaioeu n eiaeaeoeaie, iaioeu n
iaioeaie… Eueaony e?iaue, a?ioi/oo iooee, ia?ooeaathony oiii?u ia
aieiau i?eaiai?aiiuo, ie? iaeaoatho e?eee y?inoe e aiee, iaiaaenoe e
io/ayiey.

Oae ia/eiaaony aeey Aa?iiu Iiaia A?aiy – yiioa
ao?aeoacii-eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey anae aa eoeueoo?u e anaai aa
aaneoeueoo?uey, yiioa oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, yiioa iai?yaeaiiiai
o?oaea e ac?uaia iao/iiai iuoeaiey, /a?aaeothueony ni ac?uaaie e?iaaaiai
i?aeiaaney, ni anaie aa i?ioeai?a/eyie, eioi?ua aoaeoo ioiuia
nii?iaiaeaeaoue yoo yiioo aei naiiai aa eiioea.

I?e/eiu, iiaoaeeaoea Nieiico acyoueny ca ia?i

A yoii ie?a e i?inioeny e aeooiaiie aeecie thiioa Nieiica. Aio iiaacei n
naiiai ia/aea aieueoa, /ai iiiaei. Ainoa?aeai – noieeoea Ieaea?eaiaeia,
noiaaoeo ia a?aiy ioai?iaeeoueny io e?iaaauo aacoiee aooaaaaoeo a
ninaaeieo no?aiao, – eae ?ac ia?aaeeaae aeiaieueii ie?ioth ii?o naiae
ao?aeoaciie iieiaeinoe, ?aianae, oi?aiaee, eneonnoaa, i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
iaoee. A Ieaea?eaiaeao ?aeeaeiciua ?ani?e ?aaeei aeioiaeeee aei i?yiie
iiiiaeiaueiu, ii ooo, eae e aacaea, eaoieeee aei o?eiiou nii?eee n
i?ioanoaioaie, o?enoeaia n eoaeayie, a ?acee/iua a?oiiu i?ioanoaioia –
ae?oa n ae?oaii. Caeanue auee i?aaenoaaeaiu ana aeaaiua eaeaeiua
oa/aiey oiaaeaoiae Aa?iiu, ni anaai ie?a nthaea noaeaeenue iioiee
oiaa?ia e iioiee eioi?iaoeee. E iuneeoue ooo i?eoiaeeeinue n o/aoii
ai?ueeiai e o?aaiaeiiai iiuoa anaai ie?oaeaaoaai Ieaea?eaiaeu ie?a.

AEeciue ia auea eaeeeee/aneie. Eiaiii yoi e canoaaeyei ethaeae
?aciuoeyoue iaae i?iaeaiaie aaea ana?ueac, a ia ia aeinoaa, ia aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey neeiiiinoe e aaciyoaaeiiio oeeinionoaiaaieth. A
/anoiinoe, aieiaiea n?aaeiaaaeiauo iuneeoaeae i?eaeaeaea i?iaeaia
?aeeaeiciiai ?aciauaiey ethaeae, eacaaoaainy ei naiei ia?aii?e/eiie eo
acaeiiie a?aaeaeu e iaoa?ieiinoe, a noaei auoue, anao aiei, a?aaaaeae e
e?iaii?ieeoee.

Iaeei aeae oaiaoecia ie/ooue ia eo/oa ethaiai ae?oaiai – aio a /ai
oaaaeeeny Nieiica aua a iieiaeinoe. Ia yoii ii ioe?uoi cayaee ie?o,
aucaaa ia naay iaiiue anao aeaeia ?aeeaeiciiai i?aeiaaney n?aco. Ii
ienae: “… Eceiaeo i?e/eiu, iiaoaeeaoea iaiy acyoueny ca ia?i… ss
/anoi oaeeaeyeny, /oi ethaee, oaaeyueany eniiaaaeaieai o?enoeaineie
?aeeaee, o.a. eniiaaaeaieai ethaae, ?aaeinoe, ie?a, aicaea?aeaiiinoe e
aeiaa?ey ei anai, aieaa /ai iani?aaaaeeeai nii?yo iaaeaeo niaith e
aaeaaeiaaii i?iyaeytho e ae?oa ae?oao naioth iaeanoi/aiioth iaiaaenoue;
oae /oi aa?o eaaeaeiai eaa/a iiciaoue ii iinooieai, /ai ii
aeia?iaeaoaeyi”.

Yoi aiai?ee /aeiaae, ia naiai nianoaaiiii ai?ueeii iiuoa oaaaeeaoeeny,
/oi o?enoeaineay iaoa?ieiinoue ie/ooue ia eo/oa, ie/ooue ia iya/a, /ai
iaoa?ieiinoue ionoeueiaineay eee eoaeaeneay, anth y?inoioth ooiinoue
eioi?ie ii eniuoae oaea a ?aiiae thiinoe – ai a?aiy ioeo/aiey aai io
?aeeaee. Ii ienae: ” Aeaaii oaea aaaeue aeaei aeioei aei oiai, /oi ii/oe
anyeiai, eoi au ii ie aue – o?enoeaiei, iaaiiaoaiei, aa?ae eee ycu/iee,
– iiaeii ?aniiciaoue oieueei ii aiaoiaio aeaeo e iaeayieth, eee ii oiio,
/oi ii iinauaao oio eee yoio o?ai, eee, iaeiiaoe, ii oiio, /oi ii
i?eaea?aeeaaaony oiai eee eiiai iiaiey e eeyiaony neiaaie oiai eee
ae?oaiai o/eoaey. AEeoaeneea aea i?aaeea o anao iaeeiaeiau”.

*oiau caiaoeoue yoi, aiana ia ioaeii auei iaeaaeaoue
naa?oi?iieoeaoaeueiui oeeinioneei oiii, oai aieaa aaieaeueiui. Ioaeia
auea oieueei yeaiaioa?iay iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue. E aua – yeaiaioa?iay
eioaeeaeooaeueiay /anoiinoue – eae ia?aae naiei niaie, oae e ia?aae
ae?oaeie. E aua – ecaanoiia eioaeeaeooaeueiia ioaeanoai, ni/aoaaiia n
ioaeanoaii i?aanoaaiiui, n aioiaiinoueth i?aoa?iaoue iai?eyoiinoe,
iiaeao auoue e iaiaeua, a ai?ueaa ca i?aai aiai?eoue ethaeyi i?aaaeo.
I?inooth i?aaaeo, eioi?oth iie oi ee ia aeaeyo, oi ee ia oioyo
i?eciaoue.

Iioiio-oi yoa enoeia e auea auneacaia a Ainoa?aeaia, /oi ii ieacaeny a
oa aiaeu iiaeeeiiie ?aoi?oie ao?aeoaciiai ?acaeoey Aa?iiu. Iiaeeeiiui
oeaio?aeueiui o?aiii ai?iaea ooo ?aii noaea Ae?aea, a oa “aeeoaeneea
i?aaeea”, eioi?ui iaeeiaeiai neaaeiaaee ooo e aa?ae, e o?enoeaiei, e
iaaiiaoaiei, e ycu/iee, auee aeinoaoi/ii i?inou, oeeie/iu e a oiaea
a?aiy iaoeinieoaeueiu. I?aaeea, au?aaeathuea nooue oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo
ioiioaiee. I?aaeea, iaania/eaathuea i?ioeann i?enaiaiey /oaeiai o?oaea.

Yoei i?aaeeai iieiaeie Nieiica oiaea ia caoioae neaaeiaaoue: ii
i?aaeii/ae naieie ?oeaie oeeoiaaoue eeicu e noaeea aeey i/eia e
i?eai?ia. Oai naiui ii oaeaea anoae ia i?aanoaaiioth e
eioaeeaeooaeueioth iiiiceoeeth ia oieueei e ie?o ?aeeaeiciie iiycee, ii
e – /oi ia iaiaa aaaeii – e ie?o oi?aaoaneie i?icu, aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea
e i?enaiaiey /oaeiai o?oaea.

AEeciaiiue iooue e ?aaiou Nieiicu

?anniao?eaay oeeinioneea i?iecaaaeaiey Nieiicu, iaaiciiaeii
eaii?e?iaaoue oneiaey a eioi?uo ?acaeaaeny aai iao/iue oaeaio, eae e oa
oneiaey, a eioi?uo aio i?eoiaeeeinue ?aaioaoue. Ii ?iaeeeny a
Ainoa?aeaia a naiuea aa?aaa, aaaeaaoeo ec Ii?ooaaeee io ?aeeaeiciuo
i?aneaaeiaaiee. A aieueoie aa?aeneie iaueia, neiaeeaoaeny e oiio a?aiaie
a Ieaea?eaiaeao oea?eea aoiinoa?a ?aeeaeiciiai oaiaoecia e iaoa?ieiinoe.
Ia?aiia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea ii iieo/ee a naieeeanniii o/eeeua, aaea
i?aiiaeaaaeinue aa?aeneia aiaineiaea e ae?aaiaaa?aeneee ycue. Ii
iiaeaaae aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu, e aai ?iaeeoaee iaaeayeenue, /oi ii noaiao
iiaui naaoeeii a eoaeaenoneie ?aeeaee. Iaeiaei iuoeeaay iaoo?a iieiaeiai
Aa?ooa ia iaoiaeeea oaeiaeaoai?aiey a nooii aeiaiaoecia Oaeioaea. Ii
ia/ae eco/aoue iaoaiaoeeo e iaaeeoeeio, ana aieaa e aieaa oaeaeyynue io
iaueiu. Eoeueieiaoeeae yoiai iinoaiaiiiai ?ac?uaa noaei aai ioeo/aiea io
?aeeaee i?iecioaaeoaa a 1656 aiaeo. I?eia?ii a yoi a?aiy ii iaienae
naith ia?aoth ?aaioo «E?aoeee o?aeoao i Aiaa, *aeiaaea e aai n/anouea».
(1658-1660 aa.).

Aeaeueiaeoay noaeueaa Nieiicu oaeaea auea iaeaaeie. Ii iiiai ?aaioae, ii
i/aiue iaei ia/aoaeny. I?aeoe/anee ana naie eaeae aio i?eoiaeeeinue
?ani?ino?aiyoue iooai ia?aienee e ee/iiai iauaiey. Iiae aai eiaiai e i?e
aai aeecie aiiaua auoea anaai iaeia ?aaioa, «Iniiau oeeinioee Aeaea?oa,
aeieacaiiua aaiiao?e/aneei niiniaii» (1661-1662 aa.). Aoi?ie aai eieaie,
eioi?ay oiaea auoea i?e aai aeecie, oioy e aiiieiii, aue
«Aiaineianei-iieeoe/aneee o?aeoao» (1670 a.) Ii aucaaea oaeoth ao?th
yiioeee, /oi aini?aiyonoaiaae ioaeeeaoeee iaiiiai aieaa iaeo?aeueiie
«Yoeee», eioi?ay auea ieii/aia a 1675 aiaeo. Yoa eieaa, niaea?aeauay
eaeioynnaioeeth oeeinioneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee Nieiicu, oaeaeaea naao
oieueei iinea aai nia?oe, a «Iinia?oiii ecaeaiee», inouanoaeaiiii aai
ae?ocueyie a 1677 aiaeo.

Ii noaeueaa aai ?aaio ii i?aaeiaio auea o?aae/iie. Anaai /a?ac
ianeieueei ianyoeaa nionoy “Yoeea” auea cai?auaia e ia ia?aecaeaaaeanue
aei 19 aaea.

A oeeinioneie nenoaia Nieiicu ia caiaoii ?aceeo nea/eia, ii aeinoaoi/ii
iineaaeiaaoaeai a naieo oaaaeaeaieyo. Aeinoaoi/ii n?aaieoue «E?aoeee
o?aeoao i Aiaa, *aeiaaea e aai n/anouea» e «Yoeeo», /oiau oaeaeaoue,
/oi a yoeo aeaoo eieaao, ianiio?y ia ?acaeaeythuea eo aieaa /ai 15 eao,
iniiaiua eaeae Nieiicu i?eioeeieaeueii ia eciaieeenue, oioy e i?ia?aee
aieueooth auaa?aiiinoue e no?oeoo?e?iaaiiinoue.

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth iaoiaea Nieiicu yaeyeinue aai no?aieaiea e
/aoeie oi?iaeecaoeee ?annoaeaeaiee e aeieacaoaeuenoa. Ii no?aieeny
naeaeaoue oeeinioeth oaeie aea oi/iie iaoeie, eae auea a aai a?aiy
aaiiao?ey. Ia neo/aeii, /oi a iacaaieyo aai eiea oae eee eia/a /anoi
i?enoonoaotho neiaa «aaiiao?e/aneee niinia aeieacaoaeuenoaa». Yoi
eanaaony eae «Iniia oeeinioee Aeaea?oa, aeieacaiiua aaiiao?e/aneei
niiniaii», oae e «Yoeee» (Iieiia iacaaiea ia/eiaaony ni neia «Yoeea,
aeieacaiiay a aaiiao?e/aneii ii?yaeea…»).

Oeeinioneay nenoaia Nieiicu iaeaieaa aeecea e nenoaia Aeaea?oa. Ii
?acaeaeye eae ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneee iaoiae Aeaea?oa, oae e aai oece/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey. Ia neo/aeii, /oi iaeia ec oanoe e?oiiuo ?aaio Nieiicu
iinayuaia aeieacaoaeuenoao eaeae Aeaea?oa. Iaeiaei, a ioee/ea io
Aeaea?oa, eioi?ue iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeye iaoiaeo, Nieiica
eioa?aniaaeny aieueoa i?eiaiaieai yoiai iaoiaea aeey iieo/aiey ciaiee ia
ie?oaeathuai ie?a e ?annoaeaeaieyi ii iiaiaeo yoiai ie?a. Cia/eoaeueiia
aeeyiea ia Nieiico ieacaee oaeaea eaeae Aeaei?aeaii A?oii, iniaaiii aai
iaioaenoe/aneea ?annoaeaeaiey. Oaeaea cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia iaai
ieacaee oaeea ?aciua iuneeoaee eae Oiian Aiaan, aeaeiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue
iaoa?eaeecia oiai a?aiaie, e Iaeiiieae, aa?aeneee oeeinio e aiaineia 12
aaea, neeiiyaoeeny e iaioaecio.

OEEINIONEAss EIIOeAIOeEss NIEIICU.

O/aiea i noanoaioeee. Aia anoue ie?.

Iie?aynue ia iaoaieei-iaoaiaoe/aneoth iaoiaeieiaeth, eioi?oth ii n/eoae
aaeeinoaaiii iao/iie, Nieiica no?aieeny e iiieiaieth “…ia?aii?e/eiu e
i?ienoiaeaeaiey anao aauae”3 . I?e yoii nicaeaiea oeaeinoiie ea?oeiu
i?e?iaeu Nieiica iuneee eae iaeiia?aiaiiia ?ane?uoea

aaiacena anao i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee. I?iaeieaeay o?aaeeoeee iaioaecia,
Nieiica naeaeae oeaio?aeueiui ioieoii naiae iioieiaee oiaeaeanoai aiaa e
i?e?iaeu, eioi?oth ii iiieiae eae “aaeeioth e aaeeinoaaiioth, aa/ioth e
aaneiia/ioth noanoaioeeth”3, eneeth/athuoth nouanoaiaaiea eaeiai-eeai
ae?oaiai ia/aea, e oai naiui eae i?e/eio naiie naay (causa sui)

Iaeiei ec i?aaeiaoia, eioi?ua eioa?aniaaee Nieiico, yaeyeinue iiiyoea
Aiaa, e ae?oaea aii?inu naycaiiua n nouanoaiaaieai Aiaa. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, iau/ii ii ?anniao?eaaao yoio aii?in a ia?ac?uaiie nayce ni
naiei o/aieai i /aeiaaea e yoeea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yaii aeaeii, /oi
yoio aii?in aieioao aai nai ii naaa. Ioiioaiea Nieiicu e i?iaeaia Aiaa
iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae iaioaeci, ii iaioaeci ianeieueei
niaoeeoe/aneee. Niaoeeoe/iinoue aai iaioaecia auea ianoieueei auniea,
/oi a niaaoneie oeeinioneie o?aaeeoeee aai i?eiyoi auei ?anniao?eaaoue
eae iaoa?eaeenoa. Yoi naycaiii n oai, /oi Nieiica ia ?anniao?eaae Aiaa
eae iaeoth noanoaioeeth, eioi?ay iaeooioai?yao e iai?aaeyao i?e?iaeo,
aoaeo/e «?aceeoa» a iae, a Aia e noanoaioeey neeaathony o iaai a iaeii
iiiyoea, Aia ia noieo iaae I?e?iaeie, ia yaeyaony Oai?oeii aia I?e?iaeu,
Ii iaoiaeeony i?yii a iae. Oaeei ia?acii, Aia aeaenoaeoaeueii
oo?a/eaaao naia niaoeeoe/aneia iieiaeaiea e oai?/aneay ?ieue ieacuaaaony
?aceeoie a i?e?iaea. Iaeiaei aieaa aieiaoaeueiia i?i/oaiea ?aaio
Nieiicu, iniaaiii aai aieaa iicaeiae e c?aeie «Yoeee», oaaaeaeaao, /oi
Nieiica ia a eiai neo/aa ia aue iaoa?eaeenoii, iineieueeo ana aai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa e oai?aiu, a oii /enea oai?/aneiai ia/aea a i?e?iaea, a
oie eee eiie ia?a aace?othony ia aia/oanoaaiiii, aunoai ia?aca Aiaa.

Oioy ii?aaeaeaiea Nieiicu eae iaoa?eaeenoa, aiiaua aiai?y, iai?aaeeueii,
ii?aaeaeaiea aai eae aoaenoa eiaao iiae niaie ii/ao. Ii iiyoue aea a
ianeieueei niaoeeoe/aneii niunea yoiai neiaa. Nieiica ia aue aoaenoii a
oii niunea, /oi ii io?eoeae nouanoaiaaiea Aiaa. Iao, Aia o iaai

yaeyeny iniiaie ?aaeueiinoe, eae ii nai aiai?eo, aa “noanoaioeeae”. Ii
iiiyoea Aiaa o iaai ianoieueei naiaia?acii, ianoieueei ioee/ii io
auoiaiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i Aiaa, /oi aai auei o?oaeii iiiyoue e
i?iaeaeiooui oeeinioai-o?enoeaiai, ia aiai?y oae i
oaiaoeeao-i?oiaeienao. Iethn oi, /oi Nieiica eaoaai?e/anee ioaa?aae
aiaoithth, iaiinioth ?aeeaeiciinoue, n/eoay aa “oaaaeeuai iaciaiey”
(asylim ignorantiae), ia i?eaaaeyei aio iiioey?iinoe a n?aaea
o?aaeeoeeiiii aa?othueo. A yoii ieaia iaaeiaiey, cao/aaoea a aai aae?an,
eiaee iiae niaie ii/ao. Ii aeaenoaeoaeueii aue aoaenoii a oii niunea,
/oi ii ioaa?aae aeooiaiia aeaaainoai ioeoeeaeueiie oea?eae e aa iiiyoea
i Aiaa. Ii ia aa?ee a oiai Aiaa, a eioi?iai aa?eee iie. Nieiica iicaieee
naaa aoaeiaaoue iniiao iniia ethaie ioeoeeaeueiie ?aeeaee – o?aaeeoeee e
i?aae?annoaeee, eaaeauea a aa iniiaa. Aeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae
i?oiaeienaeueiie oea?eae i?ecua e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio ?anniio?aieth Aiaa e
aii?inia aa?u aue aeaaea ooaea, /ai anee au Nieiica aeaenoaeoaeueii
io?eoeae nouanoaiaaiea Aiaa.

Ao?eaoou e iiaeonu noanoaioeee.

A ioee/ea io Aeaea?oa, eioi?ue auaeaeye aeaa acaeiiiacaaeneiua
noanoaioeee – iaoa?eth e ?acoi, iauaaeeiyaiua Aiaii, Nieiica
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi nouanoaoao aaeeinoaaiiue aeae noanoaioeee, eioi?ay
iaeiia?aiaiii anoue Aia e i?e?iaea. I?e?iaeo, a oaeei ia?acii e
noanoaioeeth ii ia naiaeeo e iiiyoeth iaoa?ee, eae yoi aeaeaao Aiaan, a
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iia anoue “ia iaeia iaoa?ey e aa ninoiyiey, ii e?iia
iaoa?ee e eiia aaneiia/iia”4. Aeey iiieiaiey oiai, /oi Nieiica iiieiaao
iiae yoei “ae?oaei aaneiia/iui” iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue iiiyoea Nieiicu
ia ao?eaooao e iiaeonao. Iiae ao?eaooii (noanoaioeee) ii iiieiaao “oi,
/oi oi i?aaenoaaeyao a noanoaioeee eae ninoaaeythuaa aa nouiinoue”4
.Niioaaonoaaiii, iiaeon anoue “ninoiyiea noanoaioeee, eiuie neiaaie, oi,
/oi nouanoaoao a ae?oaii e i?aaenoaaeythony /a?ac yoi ae?oaia”5 n iaeiie
noi?iiu, ii ooaa?aeaeaao aaneiia/iinoue ao?eaooia aaneiia/iie
noanoaioeee. *a?ac yoo aaneiia/iinoue ii aeieacuaaao aaeeinoaaiiinoue
noanoaioeee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi oaeoe/anee
nouanoaoao oieueei aeaa iacaaeneiuo e aeaaiuo ao?eaooa I?e?iaeu-Aiaa, a
eiaiii: i?ioyaeaiiinoue, au?aaeathuayny a iiaeona iaoa?ee, e iuoeaiea,
iaoiaeyuaa naia au?aaeaiea a iiaeona ?acoia. A ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a ii
i?ioeai?a/eo nai naaa, oae eae ?aiaee?iaaiea aaneiia/iiai /enea
ao?eaooia, aiiaua aiai?y ia iiaeao i?eaanoe e auaeaeaieth aeaoo aeaaiuo.
Iaeiaei, anee ?anniao?eaaoue yoe aeaa aeaaiuo ao?eaooa eae a
ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea eaoaai?ee, oi yoi aieaa anoanoaaiii. A ii,
aa?iyoii, oae e aeaeaao, oae eae ooaa?aeaeaao a naiai «E?aoeii o?aeoaoa
i Aiaa, *aeiaaea e aai n/anouea», /oi ana i?i/ea ao?eaoou Aiaa anoue
«eee aiaoiaa iaicia/aiea, eae oi /oi ii nouanoaoao /a?ac naiiai naay,
aa/ai, aaeei, iaeciaiai e o.ae. eee .. ioiineony e aai aeayoaeueiinoe,
iai?eia?, /oi ii i?e/eia anao aauae, /oi ii i?aaeii?aaeaeai e oi?aaeyao
eie»6

Nieiica, ia?anoaa ?anniao?eaaoue “iuoeaiea” e “i?ioyaeaiiinoue” eae aeaa
noanoaioeee, ie/aai iauaai iaaeaeo niaie ia eiathuea, e ii?aaeaeea eo
eae aeaa “ao?eaooa” iaeiie e oie aea iauae ei iaiei noanoaioeee. Oai
naiui oa?iei “aia” i?aa?auaeny a eeoiee e iaioaeiue inaaaeiiei
aaneiia/iie e aa/iie “oaeaniie noanoaioeee”, eioi?ay nouanoaoao ia
ioaeaeueii io ?aaeueiuo oae i?e?iaeu, a oieueei a ieo, a oii /enea e a
aeaea (a “iiaeona”) iuneyuaai oaea /aeiaaea e aio iiaeiaiuo nouanoa, e
iaaeaeaia e oiio aea aeoeaiinoueth, aoaeo/e “i?e/eiie naiie naay” ai
anao naieo /anoiuo ii?iaeaeaieyo. A oaeii iiieiaiee noanoaioeey
?aaeeeaeueii eneeth/aea ec iao/iiai iuoeaiey ana aenannoa?u
oaieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee (ee/iiai aiaa, aanoaeaniie aeooe, /oaea e
o.ae.) Ii?aaeaeea “iuoeaiea” e “i?ioyaeaiiinoue” eae eeuue aeaa ec
aaneiia/iiai /enea “ao?eaooia noanoaioeee”, Nieiica ia oieueei auaiaeee
iao/iia iuoeaiea ec-iiae aeeeoaoa ?aeeaeiciuo aeiai, ii e iia?aaeae ia
noieaoey nia?aiaiiia aio anoanoaiciaiea, aai iaoaie/anee-ia?aie/aiiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?ino?ainoaa eae i “ionoii aianoeeeua” oae. Nieiica
iieacae, /oi aac iiieiaiey oaeaniie i?e?iaeu, eae noanoaioeee, auei au
i?eioeeieaeueii iaaiciiaeii iao/ii ?aoeoue i?iaeaio ineoeee, niciaiey,
iuoeaiey e ?aeeaey iaanaaaea inoaeanue au aunoei aaoi?eoaoii a aeooiaiie
aeecie ethaeae. Oae eae anoanoaiciaiea XVI-XVII aaeia aeaaea ia noaaeei
aua ia?aae niaie niciaoaeueiie caaea/e iiiyoue i?e?iaeo “ec iaa naiie”,
a iaoiaeeeinue iiea ia noaaeee iienaiey aioiauo, iaaethaeaaiuo a iaee/ee
yaeaiee, ia aoaeo/e a ninoiyiee i?iieeiooue a oaeio eo aicieeiiaaiey,
eo “naii?acaeoey”. Iiyoiio eaoaai?ey noanoaioeee e iineea oa?aeoa?
aeiioaoe/aneiai, aua ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaaiiai anoanoaiciaieai,
oeeinionei-eiae/aneiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey, aeiiouaiey, iaiaoiaeeiinoue
eioi?iai aeeeoiaaeanue anae eiaeeie ai?ueau iao/iiai iuoeaiey i?ioea
caneeuey ?aeeaeiciie ienoeee, i?ioea aeeeoaoa ?aeeaeiciie aeiaiu iaae
oiaie o/aiuo, o. a. aioo?aiiae eiaeeie ?acaeoey iaoee a oeaeii, ii ieeae
ia iaee/iuie aa aeinoeaeaieyie.

Iuoeaiea e iaiaoiaeeiinoue

Nieiica iuoaeny i/enoeoue /aeiaa/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?e?iaea ( i
“aiaa” ) io anao neaaeia aio?iiiii?oecia, iuoaeny iiiyoue naiiai
/aeiaaea, ii ia?aco e iiaeiaeth eioi?iai e?ieeinue aei neo ii?
i?aaenoaaeaiea i “aiaa”, eae ?aaeueioth, oaeanioth /anoe/eo aaeeeiai
i?e?iaeiiai oeaeiai. Eae e?aeia naiaia?aciue “iiaeon noanoaioeee”, eae
iuneyuaa oaei.

Iuoeaiea – naiia caaaaei/iia naienoai /aeiaa/aneiai oaea, eioi?ia a neeo
naiae caaaaei/iinoe eae ?ac e aeaao aieueoa anaai iiaiaeia aeey
?acee/iuo noaaa?ee, – oae aea iaaiciiaeii ioaeaeeoue io /aeiaa/aneiai
oaea, eae e ae?oaie aai ao?eaoo – “i?ioyaeaiiinoue”. Iuoeaiea – ia /oi
eiia, eae niinia aeoeaiiai aeaenoaiaaiey i?ioyaeaiiiai oaea /aeiaaea,
aeeaouaai n?aaee ae?oaeo i?ioyaeaiiuo oae e acaeiiaeaenoaothuaai n ieie.
Ionthaea e iauaa

iiieiaiea i?e?iaeu iuoeaiey, o.a. yoi i?enouay eaaeaeiio iuneyuaio
nouanoao niiniaiinoue no?ieoue naie aeaenoaey, niia?acoynue n oi?iie e
?aniieiaeaieai anao ae?oaeo oae, a ia n iniaie oi?iie e iniaui
?aniieiaeaieai /anoeoe, ec eieo iii naii ono?iaii. Iuoeaiea a eaeaaea, a
i?aaeaea naiaai ?acaeoey, anoue iiyoiio niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea
inouanoaeyoue naith aeoeaioth aeayoaeueiinoue a ie?a niia?acii
niaieoiiie ie?iaie iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

Aeaenoaoao a ie?a e “iuneeo” i iai iaeii e oi aea oaei – oaei aeeaiai
/aeiaaea. A ia aeaa ?aciuo, iaecaanoii eae niiauathueony iaaeaeo niaie
nouanoaa, iaeii ec eioi?uo – “aeooa”, a ae?oaia “a?aoiay ieioue”, naia
ii naaa aeooe e iuoeaiey yeiau eeoaiiay. ?acaeaeaiea /aeiaaea ia “aeooo”
e “oaei”, ec eioi?iai enoiaeeo ethaay ?aeeaey, – yoi /eaiaiea, a
i?eioeeia, n naiiai ia/aea eiaeiia. I?i/iinoue yoiai i?aaenoaaeaiey, n
eioi?ui ia iia ?ani?iuaoueny aeaaea aaeeeee e i?iieoeaoaeueiue Aeaea?o,
iieieony ia eeethcee, iaecaaaeii nicaeaaaaiie “eio?iniaeoeeae” –
naiiiaaethaeaieai. Eiaaea /aeiaae aieiaoaeueiaeoei ia?acii, eae yoi
aeaeae Aeaea?o, aneooeaaaony e aniao?eaaaony a naie nianoaaiiua
“aioo?aiiea ninoiyiey”, ii, anoanoaaiii noaiiaeony neai e aeoo ei anaio,
/oi i?ienoiaeeo aie?oa. Iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaiiua aio aioo?aiiea
ninoiyiey nianoaaiiiai oaea ii i?e yoii niciaao, a “iiaouanoaa aiaoieo
i?e/ei”, eioi?ua yoe ninoiyiey aucaaee, ii ia oieueei ia niciaao, ii
aeaaea e ?anniao?eaaoue ia oi/ao.

Oae e aicieeaao eeethcey “naiaiaeiie aiee”: “?aaaiie oaaaeaeai, /oi ii
naiaiaeii euao iieiea, ?acaiaaaiiue iaeue/ee – /oi ii naiaiaeii aeaeaao
iuaiey, o?on – aaanoaa. Iueyiue oaaaeaeai, /oi ii ii nianoaaiiiio
ii?aaeaeaieth aeooe aiai?eo oi, /oi a iineaaenoaee o?acaue aeaeae au
acyoue iacaae…”7 Nieiiceci, aaconeiaii, iaycuaaao ioiineony e oae
iiieiaaiie naiaiaea aiee eae e /enoaeoae aiaeu ineoieiae/aneie eeethcee,
ca eioi?ie anaaaea e?iaony iainiciaaaaiay i?e/eia e iao/iia iiieiaiea
oaiiiaiia naiaiaeu aiee ninoieo a iouneaiee ne?uouo io niciaiey i?e/ei
oaeeo-oi e oaeeo-oi “aeaenoaee”, iainiciaiiuo i?e/ei. Nieiicenoia
iiyoiio anaaaea –

ia ia?aue acaeyae ni?aaaaeeeai – iaaeiyee a oaoaeecia, eai n oiaeo
ioiaeaeanoaeyee iiiyoea naiaiaeu aiiaua ni “naiaiaeie aiee”. Iaaeaeo oai
yoio oi?ae niaa?oaiii iani?aaaaeeea e iainiiaaoaeai, eai iiiyoea
naiaiaeu nieiiceci ioithaeue ia oi?acaeiyao, iineieueeo naycuaaao
oaiiiai iuoeaiey aiiaua n ?aaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth iuneyuaai oaea (a
ia n iiiyoeai aanoaeaniie aeooe) e a yoii iuneyuai oaea i?aaeiieaaaao
aeoeaiinoue – e iiyoue oaee aiieia oaeanioth.

Naiaiaea eae iiciaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

Oneiaea aiciiaeiinoe naiaiaeu.

Nieiica, a iauai, niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueii ?aoaao aii?in, – naiaiaea – yoi
i?aaeaea anaai naiaiaea io ?aaneie caaeneiinoe /aeiaaea io aiaoieo
ianoiyoaeuenoa, ii ia aiiaua io ieo, a io aeeaeaeoeo, io /anoiuo e
neo/aeiuo. E, iaiai?io, caaeneiinoue io oieaa?naeueiie nayce aauae, –
aeaenoaiaaiea a niaeanee n ieie, n iath. Eae iiciaiiay oieaa?naeueiay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue. Aeaenoaea, i?aiaeieaaathuaa ?aaneoth caaeneiinoue io
aeeaeaeoeo (neo/aeiuo, aaeeie/iuo) ianoiyoaeuenoa-oneiaee, e anoue
yeaiaioa?iue aeo naiaiaeu, aeaenoaea ii oeaee (iniciaiiie iio?aaiinoe).

Naiaiaea aiee anoue iiyoiio ia aea?iaay iiaea/ea, yeiau a?ioaiiay
/aeiaaeo ieeina?aeiui e uaae?ui aiaii, a ?acoeueoao o?oaeiie ?aaiou
naiiai /aeiaa/aneiai oaea aioo?e oaeaniiai aea ie?a – niiniaiinoue,
eioi?ay e ?iaeaeaaony e ?acaeaaaony oieueei aai nianoaaiiie
aeoeaiinoueth.

*aeiaae, iineieueeo ii yaeyaony “iuneyuae aauueth”, niaeanii Nieiica,
niiniaai ia oieueei aini?eieiaoue ninoiyiey nianoaaiiiai oaea, aucaaiiua
aiaoieie i?e/eiaie, ii, e?iia oiai, aua niiauaoue naiaio oaeo ninoiyiey,
niaeanothueany n i?e?iaeie i?i/eo aauae. Aini?eyoey aaeaeaaoiuo i?e?iaea
aauae ninoiyiee oaea e ia?acotho niaea?aeeiia /aeiaa/aneiai eioaeeaeoa.
Iiaouanoai i?e/ei, eioi?ua niiniaia aaeaeaaoii aini?eiyoue “iuneyuay

aauue”, aaneiia/ii i?aainoiaeeo iiuue anyeeo aeaoo iaiin?aaenoaaiii
aeaenoaothueo ia /aeiaaea i?e/ei, iiyoiio /ai eo/oa /aeiaae ciaao
i?e?iaeo aauae, oai iaiueoa iiaeaa?aaaony ii iianiinoe iiaeaiooue,
iiaeiaii ao?eaeaiiao ineo, iiae aicaeaenoaeai aiaoieo i?e/ei. Oieueei a
yoii e caeeth/aaony /aeiaa/aneay naiaiaea. Naiaiaea, noaei auoue,
caaeneo io iaoae niiniaiinoe aeoeaii aeaenoaiaaoue ia aiaoiea aaue e
/a?ac iin?aaenoai yoeo aauae ia nianoaaiiia oaei e aeoo. A iuneyuai oaea
Nieiica i?aaeiieaaaao niiniaiinoue no?ieoue naia aeaeaeaiea ai aiaoiai
i?ino?ainoaa niia?acii “oi?ia e ?aniieiaeaieth” aauae aia yoiai oaea, a
ia niia?acii oi?ia e ?aniieiaeaieth /anoae nianoaaiiiai i?aaiecia,
i?eoii oaeaea e niiniaiinoue aeoeaiiai niaeaniaaiey o?aaeoi?ee
aeaeaeaiey n aaiiao?eae aiaoiaai ie?a (o Nieiicu yoi – oneiaea
aiciiaeiinoe aai).

Aooaeou /aeiaaea. Aeaoa?ieieci Nieiicu

Nieiica aeaao oieueei iauaoai?aoe/aneia ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu naiaiaeu aiee.
Aeeaeaeoae i?e/eiie /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe Nieiica n/eoaao
anoanoaaiioth i?aaie/aneoth iio?aaiinoue, eee “aea/aiea” (appetitus).
Aea/aiea “anoue ia /oi eiia, eae naiay nouiinoue /aeiaaea, ec i?e?iaeu
eioi?iai iaiaoiaeeii auoaeaao oi, /oi neoaeeo e aai nio?aiaieth, e,
oaeei ia?acii, /aeiaae yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiui (determinatus est) e
aeaenoaiaaieth a yoii iai?aaeaiee”8. Ninoiyiea oaea, aucuaaaiia
aea/aieai, aianoa n eaeaae yoiai ninoiyiey a aeooa, Nieiica eiaioao
aooaeoii, eioi?ia “aeaaii?eyonoaoao eee ia?aie/eaaao” aai aeaenoaiaaiea
aeey nio?aiaiey naiaai auoey9.

Anoue ia/oi io/anoe i?iaieaoeeiiiia, io/anoe iiei?ythuaa a neiaao,
eioi?uie Nieiica caaa?oaao i?aaeeneiaea e o?aoueae eieaa: “Eoae, y aoaeo
o?aeoiaaoue i i?e?iaea e neeao aooaeoia e iiaouanoaa iaae ieie aeooe ii
oiio aea iaoiaeo, neaaeoy eioi?iio y o?aeoiaae a i?aaeuaeoueo /anoyo i
Aiaa e aeooa, e aoaeo ?anniao?eaaoue /aeiaa/aneea aeaenoaey e aea/aiey
oi/ii oaeaea

eae anee au aii?in oae i eeieyo, iiaa?oiinoyo e oaeao10. ?aoeeiiaeueioth
oai?eth e??aoeeiiaeueiiai, o.a. iioeaia /aeiaa/aneiai iiaaaeaiey,
?acaeaae aei Nieiicu O. Aiaan, oeeinioey ainoaea?noaa eioi?iai e a naiii
aeaea ieacaea neeueiaeoaa aeeyiea ia “Aiaineianei-iieeoe/aneee o?aeoao”.
Ii Nieiico io Aiaana ioee/aao oi, /oi ii ia oaeiaeaoai?yaony i?inoui
iienaieai /aeiaa/aneeo no?anoae, oioy acaeyae aai ia yoio i?aaeiao
noieue aea iai?aaeoaaaeaeai, eae e o Aiaana. Iaae oai?eae aooaeoia
aicauoaaony yoeea, ii?iu eioi?ie niaeanothony n naiuie /enouie
ii?aeueiuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie o?aaeeoeee. Oaniay naycue iaoaoeceee e
yoeee – aaaeiue iiiaio oa?aeoa?ecothuee aeaaiia i?iecaaaeaiea Nieiicu
“Yoeeo, aeieacaiioth aaiiao?e/aneei niiniaii”.

Aooaeou e ?acoi ninoaaeytho a niaieoiiinoe /aeiaa/aneee aeoo, e oio ec
ieo, eoi aicueiao aa?o, oaea i?aaeii?aaeaeai e yoiio nouiinoueth Aiaa.
Naiaiaeai nei?aa oio, o eiai aaeaeaaoiua eaeae ainiiaenoaotho iaae
niooiuie eaeayie aooaeoia, o.a., oio, o eiai aiaeanoaaiiay /anoue
iiae/eieea naaa iaiaa aiaeanoaaiioth. Naiaiaea icia/aao,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aioo?aiithth no?oeoo?o ninoiyiey aeooa, a aiana ia aai
aaiacen, a iinoieueeo /aeiaae iiaeao auoue aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiui e
naiaiaea. Naiaiaea icia/aao, aiciiaeii, aieaa iieiia oiaeaeanoai n Aiaii
e aeaaea iniciaiea yoiai oiaeaeanoaa. Nieiica ia eneeth/aao, /oi yoie
naiaiaea iiaeii iao/eoueny, iai?ioea, iyoay /anoue “Yoeee” oeacuaaao
iyoue i?aaee aeey aeinoeaeaiey ainiiaenoaa aeooa iaae aooaeoaie11. E,
oai ia iaiaa, oio oaeo, /oi /aeiaae ociaao e i?eiaiyao yoe i?aaeea, nai
aeaoa?ieie?iaai. Oaeei ia?acii, naiaiaea, aeinoeaaaiay o Nieiicu i?e
iiiiue aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey, ia ono?aiyao aooaeoia, – yoi iaaiciiaeii, a
i?iyniyao eo aeaaiaea?y iniciaieth eo ianoa a oeaie oieaa?naeueiie.
Iineieueeo naiaiaea ioiaeaeanoaeyaony o Nieiicu n iiciaieai ie?iaie
aeaoa?ieiaoeee, no?aieaiea e naiiiiciaieth noaiiaeony o Nieiicu
neeueiaeoei ec /aeiaa/aneeo aea/aiee.

Noaoai ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay eiioeaioeey naiaiaeu, ?acaeaaaiay Nieiicie
i?ioeai?a/eaa ii naiae nooe. Naiaiaea iaeiia?aiaiii e aeoeaia e

ianneaia. Aa aeoeaiinoue naycaia n oai, /oi /aeiaae, ?acaeaathuee
oieueei ?acoiioth aeayoaeueiinoue, iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeyoue
naieie aooaeoaie. Naia yoa aiciiaeiinoue – iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo
neaaenoaee iiciaiey ie?iaie iaiaoiaeeiinoe, eai ii neiaai aaoi?a
“O?aeoaoa ia oniaa?oainoaiaaiee ?acoia”, “aeoo oai eo/oa iiieiaao naay,
/ai aieueoa ii iiieiaao i?e?iaeo …e, /ai eo/oa ii iiieiaao ii?yaeie
i?e?iaeu, oai eaa/a oaea?aeaoue naay io ouaoiiai.”12

I?aae?annoaeee ethaeae a eo iiiyoee Aiaa.

Aiaeiae/ii naiaiaea, Nieiica e?aeia iaiau/ii o?aeooao iiiyoey oeaee
i?e?iaeu, e ionthaea aeia?a e cea, ii?yaeea e aanii?yaeea. I?aaeaea
anaai, ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iauaa iiaiea ethaeae, /oi eae iie naie, oae
e ana i?i/ea aaue eiatho eaeoth-oi oeaeue nouanoaiaaiey, ioeai/ii. Aieaa
oiai, e Aia oaeaea ia eiaao oeaee. Ii aai iiaieth, aicieeiiaaiea yoiai
i?aae?annoaeea aucaaii oai, /oi, ia ciay i?e/ei naiaai nouanoaiaaiey,
ethaee no?aiyony e naiae ee/iie iieueca. Anoanoaaiii, /oi iie ia/eiatho
n/eoaoue oaeoth ee/ioth iieueco naiae oeaeueth. Ana anoanoaaiiua aaue,
eioi?ua eo ie?oaeatho, aini?eieiathony eie eae «n?aaenoaa aeey naiae
iieuecu». Noaey i Aiaa n aio?iiiii?oe/aneie iiceoeee, iie
?ani?ino?aiytho naia iiiyoea i oeaee e ia Aiaa. Anoanoaaiiue
yaioeaio?eci /aeiaaea, eioi?ue oaeaea ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia Aiaa,
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi oeaeue aeaeyo a nouanoaiaaiee /aeiaaea eeoue
iinoieueeo, iineieueeo ii aa?eo a Aiaa e ieacuaaao aio ii/anoe.
Niioaaonoaaiii, oaeay aio?iiiii?oiay eiioeaioeey oeaee i?eaiaeeo e oiio,
/oi eae oeaeue /aeiaaea ?anniao?eaaaony ii/eoaiea Aiaa, a eae oeaeue
Aiaa – ono?iaiea anaai aeey iaeeo/oae iieuecu ethaeae (/oiau aai
ii/eoaee) e iaeacaiea ethaeae, anee iie aai ii/eoatho iaaeinoaoi/ii.

Eiaeiinoue oaeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey Nieiica aeieacuaaao, iie?aynue ia oaea
aeieacaiiua ei e oiio a?aiaie naienoaa noanoaioeee. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
iia (a iia e anoue Aia) ia iaaeaeaia aieae e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iiaeao
eiaoue e oeaee. Io?eoeaiea neo/aeiinoe anoanoaaiii iieaaaao, /oi ana a
i?e?iaea ii?aaeaeyaony ia eaeie-oi aano?aeoiie oeaeueth, a i?inoui
neaaeiaaieai i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiie oeaii/ee. Iniiaiia aeieacaoaeuenoai
noi?iiieeia oai?ee aiaeanoaaiiie aiee ninoieo a oii, /oi ca/anooth
ni/aoaiea i?e/ei, i?eaaaeoeo e aeaiiiio neaaenoaeth, neeoeii iaaa?iyoii,
/oiau i?iecieoe naii ii naaa, aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa aiaeanoaaiiie aiee.
Nieiica aea ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi nnueea ia aiaeanoaaiioth aieth anoue
“asylum ignorantiae (oaaaeeua iaciaiey)”. Ana yoi i?ae?anii iiaeao auoue
iauyniaii, anee ciaoue anth niaieoiiinoue i?e/ei, eioi?ua aicaeaenoaotho
ia i?ienoiaeyuaa a aeaiiii neo/aa.

Anoanoaaiiui eoiaii iai?aaeeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i oeaee Aiaa e
/aeiaaea noaiiaeony, n oi/ee c?aiey Nieiicu, aicieeiiaaiea oeaeie a?oiiu
iiiyoee-aioiieiia, oaeeo eae aeia?i-cei, ii?yaeie-aanii?yaeie,
e?anioa-aacia?acea, oaiei-oieiae. Niioaaonoaaiii, eaaeaeia ec yoeo
iiiyoee ?anniao?eaaaony a i?aeiieaiee ioiioaiey e iei /aeiaaea. Nieiica
n/eoaao iai?aaeeueiui, /oi /aeiaae aunooiaao, eae e?eoa?ee ea/anoa (eee
ao?eaooia), i?eiaiyaiuo e i?e?iaea, eae aa iniiaiua ao?eaoou, iineieueeo
/aeiaae a) neeiiai e aio?iiiii?oecio, a) neeiiai e iai?aaeeueiie ioeaiea
neooaoeee e a) noaeaeaiey /aeiaaea noaoai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiu, a
iaoiaeaeaiea i?aaeeueiiai noaeaeaiey eae n?aaeiaai ec /anoiuo, ca/anooth
iiaeiaii iaoiaeaeaieth n?aaeiae oaiia?aoo?u ii aieueieoea. Eoiaiaia
caeeth/aiea Nieiicu oaeiai, «/oi ana niiniau, eioi?uie iaueiiaaiii
iauyniytho i?e?iaeo, ninoaaeytho oieueei ?acee/iua ?iaeu aiia?aaeaiey e
iieacuaatho ia i?e?iaeo eaeie-eeai aaue, a eeoue ninoiyiea niiniaiinoe
aiia?aaeaiey»13 Ionthaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii neaaeoao, /oi ?aca?aie/aiea
i?e?iaeu ii ia?a niaa?oainoaa, ii?aaeaeyy iineaaeithth eae ia?o
niioaaonoaey aaue /aeiaaeo, anoue a?oaaeoay ioeaea, aucaaiiay iiaeiaiie
iiiyoee.

Iaoo?aeeci e aeaoa?ieieci a yoe/aneie aeieo?eia Nieiicu i?eaiaeyo a
nouiinoe e iieiiio ono?aiaieth Aiaa eae aunoaai enoi/ieea ii?aeueiuo
ii?i e oeaiiinoae. Ieaea?eaiaeneee oeeinio noi?ioee?iaae a yoie nayce

i?eioeeiu ia?aeeaeiciie – naeoey?eciaaiiie – ii?aee. *aeiaae,
?oeiaiaenoaothueeny yoeie i?eioeeiaie, ia caeioa?aniaai a iaa?aaeao,
e?iia oao, eaeea n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth auoaeatho ec naieo iinooieia, anee
iie aeaenoaeoaeueii aeia?iaeaoaeueiu. Oeaio?aeueiue i?eioeei oaeie
iacaeioa?aniaaiiie ii?aee noi?ioee?iaai a iineaaeiae oai?aia, iineaaeiae
/anoe “Yoeee” “…aeaaeainoai ia anoue iaa?aaea ca aeia?iaeaoaeue, ii
naia aeia?iaeaoaeue.”14

CAEETH*AIEA

Iaioaeci Nieiicu noae iaeiie ec ia?ainoaiaiiuo ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo oi?i,
a eioi?oth iaeaeaeanue iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oaiaeaioeey a enoi?ee
oeeinioee. Aeey aicc?aiee Nieiicu yoa oi?ia aanueia oa?aeoa?iay, e aa ia
neaaeoao i?aaenoaaeyoue eae iaeee /enoi aiaoiee ao?eaoo, eioi?ue oeeinio
eniieueciaae /ooue ee ia a oeaeyo ianee?iaee, eae yoi eiiaaea
ooaa?aeaeaaony. Aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi “aia anoue eiiaiaioiay
(immanens) i?e/eia anao aauae, a ia aeaenoaothuay ecaia (transiens)15,
i?iiecuaaao ana ni/eiaiey oeeinioa. Ii iiiaie?aoii iiae/a?eeaae, /oi
i?eioeei aaeeinoaa aiaa e i?e?iaeu ninoaaeyao eiinoeoooeaiia iieiaeaiea
aai oeeinioneiai o/aiey.

A naiai o/aiee i i?e?iaea Aiaa Nieiica ?ane?uaaao i?e?iaeo Aiaa (eae
noanoaioeee) e aai naienoaa-ao?eaoou. E iineaaeiei ii ioiineo:

oi, /oi ii iaiaoiaeeii nouanoaoao;

oi, /oi ii aaeei

oi, /oi ii nouanoaoao e aeaenoaoao oieueei ii i?e/eia caeeth/aiiie a iai
naiii

oi, /oi ii ninoaaeyao naiaiaeioth i?e/eio anao aauae, i?e/ai i?e/eio
eiiaiaioioth;

oi, /oi ana nouanoaoao a Aiaa e caaeneo io iaai;

oi, /oi aac iaai ie/aai ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue, ie auoue i?aaenoaaeaii.

oi, /oi ana i?aaeii?aaeaeaii, i?e/ai ia ec naiaiaeu aiaeanoaaiiie aiee,
a ec aaniethoiie i?e?iaeu aiaa, o.a. aai aaniethoiiai iiaouanoaa.

Eiae/aneei neaaenoaeai ec ao?eaooia Aiaa ii n/eoaao nouanoaiaaiea
iiaeonia. Aeaiiua iiaeonu nooue aaneiia/iua aiieiuaiey enoiaeiie
noanoaioeee-aiaa e ninoaaeytho /oanoaaiiue ie?.

*aeiaaea Nieiica ?anniao?eaaao eae iaeei ec iiaeonia, eioi?ue iaeaaeaao
iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai ?acoia, e aaeeinoaaiiue ec iiaeonia, iiaeao
aeinoeaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiie naiaiaeu iooai iniciaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nianoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey. No?aieaiea e aio?iiioeaio?ecio, naienoaaiiia
/aeiaaeo, iiaeao i?eaanoe e ioeai/iiio aini?eyoeth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e
aicieeiiaaieth noaaa?ey. E oaeei noaaa?eyi Nieiica ioiineo ana
ainiiaenoaiaaaoea a oi a?aiy ?aeeaee, n/eoay eo iaiainiiaaiiuie ieiaeaie
/aeiaa/aneiai aiia?aaeaiey. Ii aunooiaao ca ?acaeoea iniaie ?aeeaee,
eioi?ay auea au ii?iaeaeaieai ioae?inoe, o.a. ?acoia, i?eeiaeaiiiai e
iiieiaieth i?e?iaeu Aiaa.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aano?aeoiiio ?aeeaeicii-noieanoe/aneiio
ii?aeece?iaaieth Nieiica auaeaeaaao iieiaeaiea, noi?ioee?iaaiiia a aai
ciaiaieouo neiaao: oio, eoi no?aieony ?ac?aaioaoue aeaenoaeoaeueii
iao/ioth ii?aeueioth aeieo?eio, aeieaeai ” ia iniaeaaoue /aeiaa/aneeo
iinooieia, ia iai?/aoueny eie e ia eeynoue eo, a iiieiaoue.”16

22

NIENIE ENIIEUeCOAIIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. Nieiica A. Eca?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey a aeaoo oiiao. Anooi.noaouey

A.A. Nieieiaa. I.,1957.

2. Nieieia A.A. Oeeinioey Nieiicu e nia?aiaiiinoue. I.,1964.

3. Oanea A. Aaiee oeeinioee Iiaiai a?aiaie. I., Iaoea, 1992.

4. Eieanieeia A.N. ?annae e Nieiica. Yoeea a iaoo?oeeinioee.

Aanoiee N-Iaoa?a. Oieaa?neoaoa na?.6,aui1,1992, no?28-32.

5. Eeueaieia Y.A. Naiaiaea aiee..//Aii?inu oeeinioee. 1990 ?2

6. Iaeaeaineee A.Ae. ?onneea nieiicenou.//Aii?inu oeeinioee.

1998.?1,no?.79-88.

7. Iieiaoeaaa A.I. E iaoiaeieiaee eco/aiey oeeinioee Nieiicu//

Aii?inu oeeinioee e ineoieiaee. Ei118, 1913.

8. Iaeaeaineee A.Ae. ?aoi?ia eiaeee a ?aaioao ?.Aeaea?oa e

A.Nieiicu//Aii?inu oeeinioee1996, ?10.

9. Ieeoeei Ae.A. I?ino?ainoai e a?aiy a iaoaoeceea XVII aaea.

Iiaineae?ne, Iaoea, 1993, 260n.

10. Eeueaieia Y.A. Oeeinioey e eoeueoo?a. I., 1991, 463n.

11. Nieieia A.A. Nieiica. I., 1973.

12. Aaeaiueeee I.N. Nieiica. I., 1964.

13. Auoianeee A.Y. Aue ee Nieiica iaoa?eaeenoii? Ieine 1928.

14. Eiieeia E.A. Iaoa?eaeeci Nieiicu. I., 1971.

23

1 *anoi ano?a/athuaany o Nieiicu neiai “actu” eiaao aeaa ?iaenoaaiiuo
cia/aiey “aeoeaii” e “aeaenoaeoaeueii”. I?e ia?aaiaea i?aaiia?ii
eniieueciaaoue ethaia ec yoeo cia/aiee, iineieueeo aeoeaiinoue aaue,
niaeanii Nieiica, e anoue ia?a aa aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iieiaoeiaa A.I. E
iaoiaeieiaee eco/aiey oeeinioee Nieiicu // Aii?inu oeeinioee e
ineoieiaee. Ei.118 (1913).N.32

2 Eeueaieia Y.A. Naiaiaea aiee.// Aii?inu oeeinioee. 1990 ?2 N.70.

3″Noanoaioeey – oi, /oi nouanoaoao naii a naaa e i?aaenoaaeyaony naii
/a?ac naay, o.a. oi, i?aaenoaaeaiea /aai ia ioaeaeaaony a i?aaenoaaeaiee
ae?oaie aaue, ec eioi?iai iii aeieaeii auei au ia?aciaaoueny ”
Nieiica A. Nia?. ni/. a 2oo Oii 1, no?361.

4 Nieiica A.Nia?. ni/.a 2oo Oii1, no?20.

5 Oai aea. Iiae yoei ae?oaei Nieiica anoanoaaiiui ia?acii ?anniao?eaaao
ao?eaoou noanoaioeee.

6 Nieiica A. Nia?. ni/.a 2oo Oii1, no?. 90.

7 Nieiica A. Nia?. ni/.a 2oo Oii1, no?. 139

8 Nieiica A. Yoeea. *anoue 3. Oai?aia 9. Noieey.

9 Nieiica A. Yoeea. *anoue 3. Aeaoaieoeey

10 Nieiica A. Aiaineianei-iieeoe/aneee o?aeoao – iioaeeeiaai

aiiieiii a 1670 a. a Ainoa?aeaia..

11 Nieiica A. Yoeea *anoue 5. Oai?aia 20.

12 Nieiica A. Nia?.ni/. a 2oo. Oii 1, no?.398.

13 Nieiica A. Nia?.ni/. a 2oo. Oii 1, no?.400.

14 Nieiica A. Nia?. Ni/.a 2oo.Oii 1,no?.617.

15 Nieiica A. Nia?. Ni/.a 2oo.Oii 1,no?.380

16 Nieiica A. Nia?. Ni/.a 2oo.Oii 2,no?.288

?INNEENEAss AEAAeAIEss IAOE

NEAE?NEIA IOAeAEAIEA

EAOAAe?A OEEINIOEE e I?AAA

?AOA?AO:

“OEEINIONEIA IANEAAeEA A.NIEIICU.

IAIAOIAeEIINOUe E AICIIAEIINOUe EAE

?AAEUeIUA IIAeAEUeIINOE IIOIEIAEE.

IIIssOEA NAIAIAeU A YOEEA A.NIEIICU”.

I?AIIAeAAAOAEUe:

e.oee.iaoe, aeioeaio ?OAAIOeIAA OAIA?A AIOIIIAIA

AAOI?:

anie?aio EIO EENEIANEAss OAOUessIA EAAIIAIA

Aaiaaeeeo Nieiica.(iaoa?eaeeno) – (1632 – 1677). ?iaeeeny a Ainoa?aeaia
a aa?aeneie naiuea. Ciaeiinoai N. n eaeayie Aeae. i?eaaei e ?ac?uao n

eoaeaeciii. N. aue ioeo/ai io iaueiu e auioaeaeai aue i?iaeeaaoue a
n?aaea

naeoaioia e aeiauaaoue naie oeaa oeeoiaeie eeic aeey oaeaneiiia. Oia? io

ooaa?eoeaca. I?aaenoaaeyao iiieci a oi?ia iaioaecia.

Iniiaiay oeaeue oee. – caaiaaaiea ainiiaenoaa iaae aiaoiae i?e?iaeie e
niaa?o./aeia. i?e?iaeu. ?acaeaay yoe eaeae i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, ii
aeiiieiee eo o/aieai i naiaiaea.

N. o/ee, /oi nou eeoue iaeia noanoaioeey – i?e?iaea, eio yaeyaony
i?e/eiie

naiie naay. I?e?. yaeyaony n iaeiie noi?iiu i?e?iaeie oai?yuae, a n ae?.

i?e?iaeie nioai?aiiie. Eae i?e?iaea oai?yuay iia anoue noanoaioeey, eee,
/oi

oiaea naiia – aia. Ioiaeaeanoaeyy i?e?iaeo e aiaa, N. io?eoeaao
nouanoaiaaiea

naa?oi?e?iaeiiai nouanoaa, ?anoai?yao aiaa a i?e?iaea e oai naiui

iainiiauaaao iaoa?eaeeno. iiieiaiea i?e?iaeu.

Iainiiauaaao aaaeiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo nouiinoueth e nouanoaiaaieai. A

aaeeie/iuo, i?aoiaeyueo aauao nouiinoue. ia niai. n nouanoaiaaieai., ii
a aa/iie e aaneiia/iie noanoaioeee ec nouiinoe n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
neaaeoao aa

nouanoaiaaiea. Iiyoiio auoea aiaa (eee noano) iiaeao auoue aeieacaii,
o.a

nouanoaiaaiea aiaa i.a. auaaaeaii ec iiiyoey i nouiinoe aiaa (i?e?iaeu).

Auoea noano. iaeiia?aiaiii e iaiaoiaeeii e naiaiaeii o.e. ia nou.
ieeaeie

i?e/eiu, eio. iiaoaeaeaea au noano e aeaenoaeth,e?iia aa nianoa.
nouiinoe.

Aaeeie/iay aauue ia neaaeoao ec noano eae ec naiae aeeaeaeoae i?e/eiu.
Iia iiaeao neaaeiaaoue oieueei ec ae?. eiia/iie aaue. Iiyoiio anyeay
aae. aauue ia

iaeaaeaao naiaiaeie.

Io noano. neaaeoao ioee/aoue ie? eii. aauae, eee niaieoiiinoue iiaeonia
Iiaeon – yoi oi, /oi nou. ia naii ii naaa , a a ae?oaii. Noano – aaeeia,
aa nouiinoue eneeth/aao anyeia iiiaeanoai. Iiaeonia aea aaneiia/iia
iiiaeanoai. Iie ioiinyony e noano eae aan/eneaiiua oi/ee, eaaeauea ia
i?yiie ioiinyony e naiie i?yiie. Iiaeonu aeaoo aeaeia — aaneiia/iua e
aa/iua (ao?eaoou) e eiia/iua.

I?e?iaea. nouanoaoao. naia ii naaa, iacaaeneii io oia e aia oia.
Aaneiia/iue oi au iinoeaaoue aane noano. ai anao aa aeaeao e aniaeoao.
Ii iao oi ia aaneiia/ai. Iiyoiio ii iinoeaaao nou. noanoaioeee eae
aaneiia/ioth eeoue a 2 aniaeoao: eae i?ioyaeaiea e eae iuoeaiea.
(ao?eaoou noanoaioeee). A anaai ao?eaooia aaneiia/iia iiiaeanoai.

Iaoa?ey anoue i?e/eia naiie naay. Noanoaioeey eeoaia aeaeaeaiey e

a?aiaie, a aeaeaeaiea anoue aa/iue e aaneiia/iue iiaeon.

N — iineaaeiaaoaeueiue aeaoa?ieieno. I?e/eiiinoue aeaiyeiai ?iaea:

aioo?aiiyy (eiiaiaioiay) e aiaoiyy (iaoaie/aneay). I?e eco/aiee

iiaeonia i?eciaaae cia/aiea neo/aeiinoe.

*aeiaae eae i?aaeiao iiciaiey, ia ninoaae ieeaeiai eneeth/aiey. *ae.
anoue

nouanoai, eio. iiaeono i?ioyaeaiey – oaeo, niioa iiaeon iuoeaiey –
aeooa. A

ethaii neo/aa /aeiaae – /anoue i?e?iaeu. Iiaeon aeooe naae e ?acoio e

aooaeoai(?aaeinoue, ia/aeue, aiaeaeaeaiea). Iiaaaeaieai aeaeaeao
no?aieaiea

e auaiaea e naiinio?aiaieth. Aiey caaeneo io iioeaia, ii naiaiaea

aiciiaeia eae iiaaaeaiea, iniiaaiiia ia iiciaiee iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

Naiaiaeai iiaeao auoue ia ia?iae, a ioae?aoe.

?aoeeiiaeeci. I?eiecee ?ieue iiuoa, aicaunee eioaeeaeo. Eiooeoeey —

aunoee aeae, iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ciaiea. E?eoa?ee i?aaeeueiinoe —

yniinoue e io/aoeeainoue. Niinianoaiaae aoaecio e naiaiaeiiuneeth. Ii
aai

iiaieth, iaeeo/oaa iauanoaaiiia ono?ienoai — aeaiie?aoe/aneia

i?aaeaiea, anaaeanoea ainoaea?noaa ia?aie/aii o?aaiaaieai a?aaeaeaineeo

naiaiae.

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