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Молекулы мистики и трансцендентация ЭГО: утрата и обретение целостности бытия

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Aeeieiiiay ?aaioa

“Iieaeoeu ienoeee” e o?ainoeaiaeaioaoeey YAI:

oo?aoa e ia?aoaiea oeaeinoiinoe auoey.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

2000

Niaea?aeaiea TOC \t “Caaieiaie 2;1;Caaieiaie 3;2;Caaieiaie 4;3”

Aaaaeaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765469 PAGEREF _Toc483765469 3

No?aieaiea e “ecia?aieth Eiiai”, e oeaeinoiinoe. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc483765470 PAGEREF _Toc483765470 7

“Iieaeoeu Ienoeee” (yeciaaiiua e yiaeiaaiiua) eae yeaiaio nayce
iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai. GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765471 PAGEREF
_Toc483765471 9

Eeanneoeeaoeey e iienaiea aeaenoaey “iieaeoe ienoeee” GOTOBUTTON
_Toc483765472 PAGEREF _Toc483765472 9

Aaeethoeeiiaaiiua oaiyoeeaeeeeaieiu (i?iecaiaeiua i?e?iaeiiai
iae?iiaaeeaoi?a aeioaieia) GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765473 PAGEREF
_Toc483765473 10

Aeennioeeaoeaiua aaeethoeeiiaaiu GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765474 PAGEREF
_Toc483765474 11

Eiaeieueiua aaeethoeeiiaaiu GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765475 PAGEREF
_Toc483765475 12

Aaoa-ea?aieeiu GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765476 PAGEREF _Toc483765476 14

Eaiaaeiiaia naiaenoai aauanoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765477 PAGEREF
_Toc483765477 14

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey ineoiaeaeeeia GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765478 PAGEREF
_Toc483765478 15

“Iieaeoeu ienoeee” eae niinia o?ainoeaiaeaioaoeee YAI (oai?ey
“eaaioiaiai ?aciiaina a neiaine/aneeo iieyo”) GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765479
PAGEREF _Toc483765479 16

Iniiaiua aeaeu ienoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765480
PAGEREF _Toc483765480 19

Ia?eiaoaeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765481 PAGEREF
_Toc483765481 20

O?ainia?niiaeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765482 PAGEREF
_Toc483765482 22

Yenoaoe/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765483 PAGEREF
_Toc483765483 28

“Aoeeaie/aneee”, eee “aeeiieneeneee” yenoac GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765484
PAGEREF _Toc483765484 28

“Ieaaie/aneee”, eee “aiieeiie/aneee”, yenoac GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765485
PAGEREF _Toc483765485 29

O?ainoeaiaeaioaoeey YAI e eaeay oeaeinoiinoe a ?acee/iuo ?aeeaeyo
GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765486 PAGEREF _Toc483765486 30

Oaiaieci GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765487 PAGEREF _Toc483765487 31

Eneoaci GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765488 PAGEREF _Toc483765488 33

Nooeci GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765489 PAGEREF _Toc483765489 35

Aeaineci GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765490 PAGEREF _Toc483765490 39

Eiaeoenoneay eiaa e oaio?eci. GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765491 PAGEREF
_Toc483765491 42

Aoaeaeeci GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765492 PAGEREF _Toc483765492 45

A?oae/iay aeooiaiinoue, oeaeinoiinoue auoey e ineoiaeoeaiua aauanoaa.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765493 PAGEREF _Toc483765493 49

Oo?aoa oeaeinoiinoe eae i?iyaeaiea “Aeanoe iaae aeeaui” GOTOBUTTON
_Toc483765494 PAGEREF _Toc483765494 52

“Eoeueoo?a Ia?oia?noaa” e “Eoeueoo?a Aeaaeu/anoaa”. Ia?aoiae e
cai?auaieth ineoiaeaeeeia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765495 PAGEREF
_Toc483765495 56

Ineoioa?aiey n i?eiaiaieai “iieaeoe ienoeee” – iaeei ec nia?aiaiiuo
niiniaia ia?aoaiey oeaeinoiinoe auoey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765496
PAGEREF _Toc483765496 61

Eeoa?aoo?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc483765497 PAGEREF _Toc483765497 66

Aaaaeaiea.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa aoaeao naeaeaia iiiuoea acaeyiooue ia i?iaeaio
ia?aoaiey oeaeinoiinoe auoey (“aeooaaiie aa?iiiee”, iuouaiea naay
/anoueth iaeie iaaeee/iinoiie no?oeoo?u, ia?ac?uaiinoe e
ia?an/eaiaiiinoe no?oeoo? niciaiey) e i?iaeaio oo?aou yoie oeaeinoiinoe
(en/acaao oii?yaei/aiiinoue iuoeaiey, i?ienoiaeeo ?anuaieaiea niciaiea,
aieioue aei iuouaiey ianeieueeeo ee/iinoae a iaeiii oaea – aicieeaao
i?iaeaia naiieaeaioeoeeaoeee; e?aeiee neo/ae yoiai – oecio?aiey).

ss iiiuoathnue ?anniio?aoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue oeaeinoiinoe auoey, i?e/eiu
aa oo?aou, a oaeaea iaeei ec iniiaiuo iooae ia?aoaiey yoie oeaeinoiinoe
– iin?aaenoaii auoiaea ca i?aaeaeu iauaeaiiiai niciaiey
(o?ainoeaiaeaioaoeee YAI) – yenoaoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee, eioi?ua iaoiaeyo
naia io?aaeaiea a ?acee/iuo ?aeeaeyo, yenia?eiaioao n i?eiaiaieai
aeiiica, a oaeaea n i?eiaiaieai ineoiaeoeaiuo i?aia?aoia a?oiiu
aaeethoeeiiaaiia – “iieaeoe ienoeee”. Aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiie e naycaiiie n
i?iaeaiie oeaeinoiinoe auoey oaeaea i?aaenoaaeyaony iia i?iaeaia
no?aieaiey ethaeae e o?ainoeaiaeaioiui ia?aaeeaaieyi, e, eae neaaenoaea,
eiio?iey ainoaea?noaa iaae iiaeiaiuie no?aieaieyie (?aeeaeiciua oaao,
iieeoe/aneea cai?auaiey e o.ae.).

Aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaiu: ionoonoaea oeaeinoiinoe auoey.

Anee ni?ineoue o i?ioiaeeo ia oeeoea “*oanoaoaoa ee Au naay n/anoeeaui
/aeiaaeii?”, oi i/aiue ?aaeei iiaeii oneuoaoue ooaa?aeeoaeueiue ioaao.

Nia?aiaiiay iaoea iaeaaeaao anai iaiaoiaeeiui, /oiau oie/oiaeeoue
aieueooth /anoue aieaciae, ni?aaeoueny n aaaeiinoueth e aieiaeii,
au?aaioaoue aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai aaciianiie e iaiiaeythuaeny yia?aee.
O ian aeinoaoi/ii ?ano?nia e ?aai/ae neeie, /oiau ?aaeeciaaoue ana
ia/ou, eioi?ua eiaaea-eeai auee o /aeiaa/anoaa. Anee o ian anoue
n?aaenoaa e oaoiieiaee, /oiau iaei?ieoue ianaeaiea ieaiaou, iaania/eoue
anai i?eaieaiue o?iaaiue aeecie, ni?aaeoueny n aieaciyie,
ia?ai?eaioe?iaaoue i?iiuoeaiiinoue ia iaenoiueiua enoi/ieee yia?aee,
i?aaeioa?aoeoue caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, oi /oi aea iaoaao iai
naeaeaoue yoe aaaeiua oaae?

Ii-aeaeeiiio, ioaao ninoieo a oii, /oi ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua o?oaeiinoe
— neiioiiu iaeiiai ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai e?ecena [5]. A eiia/iii n/aoa
i?iaeaiu, n eioi?uie iu noieeioeenue, ia yaeythony /enoi yeiiiie/aneeie,
iieeoe/aneeie e oaoiieiae/aneeie ii naiae i?e?iaea. Ana iie io?aaeatho
yiioeeiiaeueiia, ii?aeueiia e aeooiaiia ninoiyiea nia?aiaiiiai
/aeiaa/anoaa. Ceiaiay aa?anneaiinoue e iaianuoiia i?eia?aoaoaeuenoai,
aeano?oeoeaiua aniaeou /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee — neeu, ioaaonoaaiiua ca
iaaiia?aceiua iioa?e, naycaiiua n aiieie aii?oaeaiee. Iie i?aiyonoaotho
?acoiiiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth ?ano?nia iaaeaeo ethaeueie, eeannaie e
iaoeeyie, ia?ai?eaioaoeee ia yeieiae/aneea i?ei?eoaou, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
nio?aiaiey aeecie ia iaoae ieaiaoa. Yoe aeano?oeoeaiua e
naii?ac?ooeoaeueiua yeaiaiou nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii
io?aaeatho aai io/oaeaeaiea io naiiai naay, io aeooiaiie aeecie e
aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae [2, 5].

Oeeaeeecaoeey iaei?ieea e iaeaea ii/oe ana ianaeaiea ieaiaou, ecia?aea
oaeaoii e aaoiiiaeeue, aeaeaao ana aiciiaeiia aeey oaeianoaa e
oaeiaieuenoaee /aeiaaea, a o iaai ana aea aicieeaao “aeaoeoeeo
iieiaeeoaeueiuo yiioeee”. Yoio aeaoeoeeo aucaai iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoueth
aaceniie ineoieiae/aneie iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea – iio?aaiinoe a
aaciianiinoe [17]. Enoi/iee aaeeiie aeey aieueoeinoaa ethaeae o?aaiae
iineo ooiaeaiaioaeueiue oa?aeoa?, oioy /anoi ia iniciaaony eae
iianiinoue, a n/eoaaony i/aaeaeiie ii?iie. Ioeacuaaynue io
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia iaeooaaeaiiinoe ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
ioeacuaaynue io aa?u a naa?ouanoanoaaiiia, eiaeeaeae ia?aeaao naith
aioo?aiithth aeoaeiioth nouiinoue (aeooo) ia ionoonoaea oi/ae iii?u, e,
eae neaaenoaea, ia en/aciiaaiea. *ai au ia ?acaeaeaea oaeiai /aeiaaea
oeeaeeecaoeey, ioiioaiea e aeecie aoaeao ecia/aeueii ianneienoe/iui
[40].

Nia?aiaiiinoue noaaeo ia?aae iaie iiiaeanoai i?iaeai. N?aaee ieo oaeea,
eae yieaeaiey ia?eiiaiee, aieiu ianeeey e i?aoaaee/aiiia iio?aaeaiea,
i?iaeaia “aaanoaa io ?aaeueiinoe” n iiiiuueth ooiaea a ae?ooaeueiua ie?u
– ie? eiea, eiiiuethoa?iuo ea?, a iaoa?aaeueiinoue, nicaeaaaaioth
n?aaenoaaie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Nouanoaoao e i?iaeaia “iaoaoece/aneiai
aieiaea”, eioi?ue i/aiue /anoi iaoaea/ii oaeiaeaoai?yaony n iiiiuueth
aeeiaiey, oaaaea e ae?oaeo ia?eioeeia. Ana yoi oa?iaeaao iaoae
aioo?aiiae aeecie e ie?iaie yeieiaee.

Ethaee oo?a/eaatho o?aaeeoeee, ?aeeaeth, ?aci/a?iauaathony a
aeiaiaoe/aneeo eaeaieiaeyo (iai?., a eaeaa eiiioiecia eee a Aia?eeaineie
Ia/oa). *aeiaa/anoai noieo ia?aae auai?ii – aeeceay eaoano?ioa
(oa?iiyaea?iay ee, yeieiae/aneay ee, aioo?aiiyy yecenoaioeeaeueiay eee
eaeay-oi ae?oaay) eee aeaeaeaiea e iiinoa?a e aa?iiiee [18].

A nayce n yoei iaeiei ec iaiaaeaaeeaathueo aniaeoia nia?aiaiiinoe
yaeyaony aic?iaeaeaiea eioa?ana e ae?aaiei aeooiaiui o?aaeeoeeyi e
ienoe/aneiio iiuoo. ?ac?ooaiea aeaeaciiai caiaaana, A?eiien,
ineoiaiaeec, ?yea-eoeueoo?a, naenoaeueiay oa?ieiinoue – ana yoi i?eciaee
aica?auaiey e oeaiiinoyi aeienoi?e/aneie ieaiaiiie aeecie. “Eoeueoo?a
aeaaeu/anoaa”, eioi?oth iu eiaai ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue, ecaeeea naay e
/ooue auei ia aeiaaea ieaiaoo aei naiioaeenoaa. “Caeii, iicaieythuee
oie/oiaeaoue i?e?iaeo, eiio?iee?othuee n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeee – io
i?e?iaeiuo aei yeaeo?iiiuo, – ia oeac ieaiaie “iooaioia”, ioneathueony
ia ooeuo eaoa?ao i?ioea aaeaiinoeaa, ia/eiathueo aeeoue ia aea?aaueyo,
i?eaiai?aiiuo e au?oaea, oaioeothueo a Aia e ia “Tribal Gathering”, a oi
a?aiy eae a?onoiua, canoaaiooua ia ana ioaiaeoeu “aiaae” io?aiytho io
ieo iieie aeia?iii?yaei/iuo ath?aa?ia” [14].

Ethaee, ia?aaeeaoea iiuiue i?aia?acothuee iiuo e noiaaoea i?eiaieoue aai
a naiae iianaaeiaaiie aeecie, ioeacuaathony io aeano?oeoeaiuo e
naii?ac?ooeoaeueiuo /a?o ee/iinoe, i?iyaeytho ea/anoaa, niinianoaothuea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio e eieeaeoeaiiio auaeeaaieth. Ieeiaua ia?aaeeaaiey
niinianoaotho ono?aiaieth aioo?aiiaai ?aneiea ee/iinoe, ?aciauaiiinoe
iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeaie, eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeii e ie?ii, aaaeouaai e
oo?aoa aaeeinoaa ie?a. Ethaee, eiaaoea iiaeiaiua ia?aaeeaaiey, /anoi
aueacuaaee io/aoeeaoth oaiaeaioeeth e naii?aaeecaoeee e
naiiaeooaeecaoeee [37].

Ethaee, aiaea/aiiua a i?ioeann aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey, ia/eiatho ii-iiaiio
oeaieoue e oaaaeaoue ana oi?iu aeecie, iinoeaatho anaiauaa aaeeinoai,
/oi /anoi aeaeaao eo aieaa oa?ieiuie e ae?oaei ethaeyi, aieiaoaeueiuie e
yeieiaee [5]. Iaua/aeiaa/aneea niia?aaeaiey, nino?aaeaiea anaio aeeaiio
e niiniaiinoue iuneeoue a ieaiaoa?iuo ianooaaao noaiiayony aaaeiaa
oceiee/iinoiuo eioa?ania naiuee, iieeoe/aneie ia?oee, iio?aaiinoae
eeanna, iaoeee e aa?io/aiey. Oi, /oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey anao ian, oi /oi
naycuaaao ian, noaiiaeony oeaiiaa ?acee/ee, a naie ?acee/ey iaiaauatho,
a ia iooaeeeaatho. Yoe eciaieaoeany aeaaiaea?y aeooiaiiio ?acaeoeth
onoaiiaee i?ioeainoiyo iaoa?ieiinoe, ?aaiiaeooeth e aeecie e ii?aeueiiio
aaie?ionoao, eaaeauei a iniiaa aeiaaeueiiai e?ecena. Iiaeii iaaeayoueny,
/oi ?anoouee eioa?an e aeooiaiiio ie?o e cia/eoaeueiia /enei niiioaiiuo
ienoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee i?aaeaauatho naeaea a niciaiee /aeiaa/anoaa,
eioi?ue iiiiaeao ioeacaoueny io iuiaoiaai naii?ac?ooeoaeueiiai
iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey. Yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea iiaee?aieyaony oieaa?naeueiie
eoeueoo?iie oaiaeaioeeae e eciaiaieth “anoanoaaiiiai” iioiea niciaiey
i?e iiiiue ineoiaeoeaiuo aauanoa, nioeeaeueii i?aaeienaiiuo iaoiaeia e
oneiaee. A niioaaonoaee n aeiioacie E.THiaa, yoi no?aieaiea ia /oi eiia,
eae iiene i?aaieciii no?oeoo?iiai aaeeinoaa /a?ac eioaa?aoeeth ee/iiai
“YAI” e enoeiiie naiinoe [21].

Iaeiei ec aniaeoia ineoe/aneiai caei?iauey yaeyaony eioaa?aoeey
(“ia?anuaieaiiinoue”) niciaiey, iiyoiio nouanoaoao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
?acaeoey eioaa?e?othueo e i?aia?acothueo iaoiaeia, aae?aniaaiiuo
?acee/iui aniaeoai /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu: oaeaniiio, yiioeeiiaeueiiio,
ineoe/aneiio, eioaeeaeooaeueiiio, aeooiaiiio e o.i. Ia neo/aeii a
?onneii ycuea neiiieiii neiaa “ea/aiea” yaeythony neiaa “enoeaeaiea”,
“oeaeeoaeuenoai” (oi anoue ia?aoaiea oeaeinoiinoe). Nicaeaiea
eioaa?e?othuae i?aeoeee a nia?aiaiiii ie?a iiaeiaii niae?aieth iicaeee,
ea?oeiee-aieiaieiiee, ii oieueei ?ac?iciaiiua aeaoaee niae?athony
caeanue ni anaai naaoa. Niiauaiey i oaeii oeaeinoiii iiaeoiaea e
/aeiaaeo anoue o a?a/aneeo oeeinioia e eo iineaaeiaaoaeae a?aiai
?aiannaina [2].

Iiyaeaiea iiiyoey “oeaeinoiinoe auoey” a ?onneie oeeinioee iau/ii
naycuaatho n eiaiai Ae. Nieiaueaaa [23]. Iu iaoiaeei eaeath oeaeinoiinoe
auoey (ia-?anuaieaiiinoue, ia?ac?uaiinoue, “oieiiiiiinoue” – io a?a/.
holos – “oeaeue”) ai iiiaeo ienoe/aneeo ?aeeaeiciuo o?aaeeoeeyo (eae
ainoi/iuo, oae e caiaaeiuo), aaea eneaoaeue aeooiaiinoe nia/aea ia?aoaao
yoe/aneoth aeia?iaeaoaeue, a caoai aeenoeeieeie?oao oaei, aeeciaiiua
yia?aee e iaioaeueiua i?ioeannu, i?aaeaea /ai i?enooieoue e
iaaeeoaoeaiie i?aeoeea, aaaeouae e aaeeiaieth n Aiaii [41]. Nae/an iaoa
iauanoai ia?aaeeaaao ioee aeooiaiie o?ainoi?iaoeee — io oaeoe/aneiai
io?eoeaiey o?ainia?niiaeueiiai iiuoa (aeeth/ay eae ?eooaeu e oaoieee, e
iaio i?eaiaeyuea, oae e aa?iaiaaoe/aneea nenoaiu, auyaeythuea aai
cia/aiea) aei aanii?yaei/iiai ii?iaiaaiey eaaeaeiai aiciiaeiiai niiniaa
aeinoeaeaiey o?ainia?niiaeueiiai iiuoa, io ineoiaeaeeeia aei ao?o
Ainoi/iie Eiaeee [36].

Ii-aeaeeiiio, iaeiie ec i?e/ei oo?aou oeaeinoiinoe auoey yaeyaony oi,
/oi /aeiaae iniciaao naay ia o?iaia nianoaaiiiai YAI. Aieueoay /anoue
ethaeae a iau/iie aeecie nouanoaotho ia yoii o?iaia niciaiey, eiaaea
/aeiaae ia eaeaioeoeoee?oaony ni naiei ineoiniiaoe/aneei i?aaieciii. Ii
?aciui i?e/eiai ii nei?aa ioiaeaeanoaeyao naay eeoue n aieaa eee iaiaa
oi/iui ie?iiuouai/aneei i?aaenoaaeaieai eee ea?oeiie naiaai i?aaiecia.
Eiuie neiaaie, ii eaeaioeoeoee?iaai ni naiei “YAI”, eee ia?acii naay.
Oeaeinoiue i?aaieci ieacuaaaony oaeei ia?acii ?anuaieaiiui ia eeoaiioth
oaea aeooo e oaei, a nai /aeiaae iaiin?aaenoaaiii ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n
ineoeeie, niciaieai, “YAI” e aiai?eo ia “y — yoi oaei”, a “o iaiy anoue
oaei”, Ii iieaaaao, /oi nouanoaoao ia eae oaei, a a oaea. Yoio o?iaaiue
ii/oe oeaeeeii niaiaaeaao n iaioaeueiie ea?oeiie oeaeinoiiai
ineoioece/aneiai i?aaiecia, e iioiio caeanue aeiieie?otho
eioaeeaeooaeueiua e neiaiee/aneea i?ioeannu [21]. Iiyoiio a aoaeaeecia
yoio o?iaaiue iacuaaaony “eioaeeaeoii”, a a eiaeoecia n/eoaaony, /oi
caeanue “YAI” ioaeaeyaony io a?oaiai oaea, a neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ieacuaaaony a aai eiaooea [37]. Auoiae aea ca i?aaeaeu nianoaaiiiai YAI,
eioi?ue /anoi i?iyaeyaony a aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ninoiyieyo niciaiey,
i?eaiaeeo e ia?aniio?o anae aeeciaiiie iiceoeee /aeiaaea e iuouaieth
inaiaiaeaeaiey io iaoneiaeaiiinoe nouanoaiaaiey. E yaeaieth
“o?anoeaiaeaioaoeee YAI”, oa?aeoa?iiio aeey oaeeo ninoiyiee niciaiey,
iiaoo i?eaiaeeoue eae iaeioi?ua iaaeeeaiaioiciua i?aia?aou i?e?iaeiiai e
neioaoe/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, oae e iaiaaeeeaiaioiciua iaoiaeu, oaeea
eae naenoaeueiua i?aeoeee, iaiea, aa?aaaiiue aie, iiiioiiiua oaioeu,
eeoaiea nia, aeiiic e naiiaiooaiea, eciaiaiea ?eoia e aeoaeiu aeuoaiey,
naini?iay ia?aa?ocea, naini?iay ecieyoeey, aeeeoaeueiia iaeeii/anoai,
iino, yeaeo?e/aneay noeioeyoeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo cii iicaa e ae?. [24].
Oaeaea e o?ainoeaiaeaioaoeee YAI /anoi i?eaiaeeo iiuo aeecinoe nia?oe,
ia?aaeeaaiea eeeie/aneie nia?oe [1, 19].

Ii-aeaeeiiio, ethaia eciaiaiiia ninoiyiea niciaiey iiin?aaeoaony ia
oece/aneii o?iaia n iiiiuueth niaoeeoe/aneeo ?aaoeyoi?ia – iaeeo
oeie/aneeo iieaeoe, ?aaoee?othueo aeayoaeueiinoue niciaiey e aini?eyoey.
A /anoiinoe, auoiaeu ca i?aaeaeu YAI naycaiu n oae iacuaaaiuie
“iieaeoeaie ienoeee”, e eioi?ui ioiinyony eae au?aaaouaathueany a
i?aaiecia (yiaeiaaiiua aauanoaa) iae?i?aaoeyoi?u na?ioiiei e aeioaiei,
oae e aaiaeeiua a i?aaieci ecaia (yeciaaiiua aauanoaa) eo i?e?iaeiua e
neioaoe/aneea aiaeiae (ENAe-25; aeoeaiue eiiiiiaio oaiaineiai caeuey
eiaeaeoeaa Aiaciiee aeyooanee – AeIO; ineeioeeaei – iniiaiie
ineoiaeoeaiue eiiiiiaio “iaae/aneeo a?eaia”; aeeaeieae eaeoona iaeioey
ianeaeei; eaiiaaeiieaeu- ineoiaeoeaiua eiiiiiaiou eiiiiee; “yenoace” e
ae?.), i?eiaiyaoeany ia i?ioyaeaiee ouny/aeaoee a ?aeeaeiciie i?aeoeea
[25, 27, 30, 35, 36, 38, 39], a oaeaea i?eiaiythueany e nae/an aeey
ineoioa?aiee [4, 5, 21, 29] eee a ae?oaeo oeaeyo (iai?eia?,
iieiaeaaeueth eiioea iaoaai aaea ia ?yeaao – iocueaeueiuo oanoeaaeyo,
noaayueo naiae oeaeueth ia?aaeeaaiea aaeeinoaa n I?e?iaeie e iaaeaeo
ethaeueie). Iiia/aeo i?aaeiieaaaee, /oi “iieaeoeu ienoeee” i?eaiaeyo e
ineoicai, e iacuaaee eo aaeethoeeiiaaiaie eee ineoioiieiaoeeaie (oi
anoue aauanoaaie, aucuaathueie eieoaoeeth ineoica), nae/an yoio acaeyae
i?eciai iaaa?iui. Eo iiaeii nei?aa ?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa
ianiaoeeoe/aneeo oneeeoaeae ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia, iineaaeiaaoaeueii
ioe?uaathueo o?iaie e no?oeoo?u aanniciaoaeueiiai [29].

No?aieaiea e “ecia?aieth Eiiai”, e oeaeinoiinoe.

Ii-aeaeeiiio, nouanoaoao aeoai/aeoay iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue /aeiaaea
naiei iieiaeaieai a ie?a, oai, /oi iacuaaaony ethaeneei ae?aaeai.
*aeiaae iuouaao naith ioi?aaiiinoue e ioaeaeaiiinoue io anaai
ie?icaeaiey [16]. *anoi aio o?oaeii aeaaea aiyoii iauynieoue i?e?iaeo
yoie ioaeaeaiiinoe. ii ii?ie ii /oanoaoao naay io?acaiiui io “/aai-oi”
iiao/aai, “/aai-oi” niaa?oaiii eiiai, /ai ii, ii?ie aea – ioaeaeaiiui io
iaeiaai aiaa?aiaiiiai “ninoiyiey”, i eioi?ii o iaai ia nio?aieeinue
/aoeeo ainiiieiaiee, ii eioi?ia ii niooii iiiieo a aeoaeia naiaai
nouanoaa: yoei ecia/aeueiui ninoiyieai ii ianeaaeaeaeny aei A?aiaie, aei
Enoi?ee. A yoii ninoiyiee (eioi?ia iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae
ienoe/aneia) “niciaiea nouanoaoao n?aco a aeaoo a?aiaiao iaeiia?aiaiii
(niaa?oaiiia i?ioeia eee aoaeouaa ni/aoaaony n canouaoei ianoiyuei
iiiaioii, oi anoue iaaethaeaaony oneieuecaiea any/aneeo
noauaeo-iauaeoiuo ioiioaiee, auoiae ca i?aaeaeu auoey), e ca n/ao yoiai
– iiyaeyaony aiaoiyy oi/ea iii?u, oi/ea ion/aoa [6, ae.22].

Yoa ioaeaeaiiinoue i?eia?aea oi?io ?aceiia, i?ioiaeyuaai aioo?e ee/iinoe
e cao?iioaoaai i?e yoii nouiinoioth iniiao ie?a. Yoi auei “iaaeaiea”, ia
iaycaoaeueii a eoaeai-o?enoeaineii cia/aiee oa?ieia, ii iaaeaiea,
aeaeouaa ca niaie oaoaeueiua, ?ieiaua iineaaenoaey aeey /aeiaa/anoaa e
iaeiia?aiaiii – iioieiae/aneia eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u ie?a. (N
ii?aaeaeaiiie oi/ee c?aiey, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iiiaea aine?aoatho
iinoaeueaeth ii ?ath, iinoaeueaeth ii ia?aaeienaeueiiio ninoiyieth,
eiaaea auei aiciiaeii aaneiioeeeoiia nouanoaiaaiea iiiiceoeee,
i?iyaeyaoeony eae iiiaiia?aciua aniaeou oaeinoaaiiiai Aaeeinoaa) [6,
16].

Nouanoaoao aeoaeiiay iio?aaiinoue “iiciaoue naieo naay” – i?iaeieaeeoue
o?aueiu a niciaiee, oioy e ia ianoieueei, /oiau iaiii?aaeii oaeoaeoue eo
(“eiio?iee?oaiia aacoiea”), eai oieueei ia a?aieoeao o?aueiu e aiciiaeia
iuneue. A eaeii-oi niunea oaeia ia?aaeeaaiea eaeaioe/ii ia?aaeeaaieth
nia?oe, oo?aou ee/iinoe, ?aneieo auoey (ia aiai?y oaea i oii, /oi
ia?aaeeaaiey nia?oe naie ii naaa /anoi ano?a/athony a eciaiaiiuo
ninoiyieyo niciaiey). Iaeiaei no?aieaiea e nia?oe oa?aeoa?ii aeey
/aeiaaea, eai oieueei ii n?aaiaieth ni nia?oueth aeeciue i?aaenoaaeyao
eaeoth-oi oeaiiinoue, i?aiaeieaaay nia?oue, ia?aoaaoue aeeciue. *aeiaaeo
“o?aaoaony eiaiii ionoay, iaaeinoiaa?iay ouaoa ia e?ath oaeana, ia
eiathuay ianoiyueo ioiioaiee n ie?ii…. Eiaiii oie?ay, ia eiay ieeaeie
aiciiaeiinoe aaanoaa, iiaeii caiaoeoue ?aci?aaiiinoue, eioi?ay ia?acoao
/aeiaa/aneoth i?e?iaeo e a eioi?oth o?ainoeaiaee?oaony “oi, /oi
nouanoaoao”. ss-eioi?ia-oie?aao aini?eieiaao oi, /oi aai ie?oaeaao, eae
ionoioo, a naay – eae aucia yoie ionoioa; ss-eioi?ia-aeeaao
ia?aie/eaaaony i?aae/oanoaeai niyoaiey, a eioi?ii eii/eony ana.
Iaieuenoeoaeueiinoue, iiuue, noaa?aiiinoue iaiaoiaeeiu yoiio
ss-eioi?ia-oie?aao: ioaeii auoue aiaii, /oiau oia?aoue. A ii?aaeaeaiiii
niunea nia?oue anoue iaecaaaeiay iioeinoue, ii a ae?oaii – aeoaieii –
niunea iia iaaeinooiia. AEeaioiiio iaaaaeiia nia?oue, oioy iia
ioa?anuaaao /aeiaaea a aeeaioiinoue. Eaeaaeueiue /aeiaae, aiieiuathuee
?acoi, inoaaony iinoi?iiiei nia?oe: aeeaioiinoue aiaa i?enoua aa
i?e?iaea; aeeaioiinoue iaeiia?aiaiii a?yciay (ceiaiiiay) e nayoay.
Ioa?auaiea e iueeay iaieuenoeoaeueiinoue niaaeeiythony, iaeanoi/athony a
nia?oe: yoi oaea ia aaiaeueiia oie/oiaeaiea, a oio naiue ioieo, aaea
noaeeeaathony iineaaeiyy iaianuoiinoue e e?aeiee oaean. No?anoue,
iiaaeaaathuay oaeeie ea?aie e no?aiiuie niiaeaeaieyie, – yoi ia i?inoi
ennooieaiiia aiaeaeaeaiea auoue “ss”, yoi aiaeaeaeaiea auoue ie/oi. A
i?aiea nia?oe, e oieueei a iai, “ss” iainiiauaaao naia ainiiaenoai; a
iai i?iaeaaaony ia naao /enoioa aaciaaeaaeiie ianoiyoaeueiinoe; a iai
inouanoaeyaony iaaeaaeaea y-eioi?ia-oie?aao (oiiiii?a/eoaeueiay,
ai?y/a/ii-ieaiaiiay iaaeaaeaea, a eioi?ie ionooiatho a?aieoeu ia/ou)”
[1].

Oaeie “yecenoaioeeaeueiue aieiae” i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth eaeae Aiaa, eai
iaoa YAI ia iiaeao ?acaeaaoueny e inaaeaaoue iiaua ecia?aiey niciaiey,
iiea a iai iao i?aaenoaaeaiey i /ai-oi naa?o-anoanoaaiiii eee
naa?o-iiuoiii. Neiaie Aiaa e anoue oa naiay oi/ea, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ie
i?ienoiaeeo aioo?aiiee ?ino [23]. Eiaaea YAI – eiiieaen i?aaenoaaeaiee i
naiae oieeaeueiinoe – caieiaao iiae/eiaiiia iieiaeaiea a noa?a niciaiey
/aeiaaea, “iaea?aeeiinoue niaie” aio ia a?iceo; ii eiaaea YAI oaaaeaeaii
a nianoaaiiii aeaaainoaa a ie?oaeathuai aai iiea niuneia, iaeaeoay
i?iaieaoeey iaia?oaeeaaao aai ianinoiyoaeueiinoue – aicieeaao ?aneie
niciaiey.

A eiia/iii n/aoa, ia?aae iaie – no?aieaiea aiiaue ia?anoe oo?a/aiiia
aaeeinoai, e iioiio /aeiaae aeaaeaeao ia?anoe ea?oeio ie?icaeaiey, a
eioi?ie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe i?aaenoaioo acaeiiaeiiieiythueie aniaeoaie
aaeeiie ?aaeueiinoe. Iiuo auoey a ie?a, aaea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe o?aaotho
i?eie?aiey, ii?iaeee ia?aua oeeinioneea e oaieiae/aneea niaeoeyoeee.
I?aaeaea, /ai iie noaee iniiaiiieaaathueie oeeinioneeie
i?aaenoaaeaieyie, Aaeeiia, Aaeeinoai, Oeaeinoiinoue auee /ayieyie,
eioi?ua euoo naia au?aaeaiea a ieoao e aa?iaaieyo, ?eooaeao e
ienoe/aneeo oaoieeao. Ia o?iaia aeinenoaiiiai iuoeaiey yoi oaeinoai
oeaeinoiinoe aiieiuaaony a iiiuoeao aeinoe/ue ia?niaeoeau, eiaaea ana
iiiiceoeee ?ac?aoathony, Aeoo Cea ia?auaaony Oai, eoi i?ieeaaeuaaao
iooue i?iiuneo Ainiiaeith, a Aeaiiiu i?aaenoatho eeoue ii/iuie, oaiiuie
i?iyaeaieyie Aiaeanoaaiiinoe. Oio oaeo, /oi yoe a?oae/aneea iioeau e
oaiu aei neo ii? aeeau a oieueeei?a e i?iaeieaeatho anieuaaoue a niao e
oaioaceyo, aeieacuaaao, /oi ienoa?ey ia?aoaiey oeaeinoiinoe aei neo ii?
inoaaony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth /aeiaa/aneie ae?aiu. Iia aiiaue e aiiaue
iaeeaaao a naiuo ?acee/iuo i?iyaeaieyo, ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo eoeueoo?iie
aeecie – a ienoe/aneie oeeinioee e oaieiaee, a ieoieiaee e oieueeei?a, a
niao e oaioaceyo iaoeo nia?aiaiieeia, a nicaeaieyo ooaeiaeieeia.

No?aieaiea e oeaeueiinoe ecia/aeueii i?enoua /aeiaaeo (Oeaeinoiinoue=
iaee/ea Oeaee, niunea auoey), ii nicaeaao eneonnoaaiiua iiaeaee
(ainoaea?noai, ae?ooaeueiua ?aaeueiinoe – a eeoa?aoo?a, ea?u), euao
n?aaenoaa, aeathuea aio yoi iuouaiea. Yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea iiaee?aieyaony
oieaa?naeueiie eoeueoo?iie oaiaeaioeeae e eciaiaieth “anoanoaaiiiai”
iioiea niciaiey i?e iiiiue ineoiaeoeaiuo aauanoa, nioeeaeueii
i?aaeienaiiuo iaoiaeia e oneiaee [18, 40].

Iauanoai, eeoaiiia iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ienoe/aneiai iiuoa, auioaeaeaii
nicaeaaaoue eaeea-oi ae?oaea no?oeoo?u. Oae, iai?eia?, aicieeaao
ainoaea?noaaiiay no?oeoo?a eae eneonnoaaiiay iiaeaeue “nayciiai”,
oeaeueiiai ie?a, iaaiaeyuay iinou /a?ac “o?aueio”, aeathuay iuouaiea
nayciinoe e oeaeueiinoe, anee ionoonoaoao ae?oaie niinia nayce. Eae
neaaenoaea, aicieeaao i?ioeainoiyiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai – ee/iiai,
no?aiyuaainy e naiaiaea e aeaeaeaieth aia?aae, e ainoaea?noaaiiiai – eae
iiaeaea?aeeaathuaai noaaeeueiinoue. A aeeaie i?e?iaea yoio oaiiiai
aeaaii ecaanoai – yoi ai?ueaa ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e eciai/eainoe – aeaoo
naienoa ethaiai aeeaiai iauaeoa. Ianeaaenoaaiiinoue no?aieony e
nio?aiaieth oaea eiathuaainy, a oi a?aiy eae eciai/eainoue ioaa/aao ca
i?eniiniaeaiea e eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Oae e
ee/iia – i?iyaeyao i?eniiniaeaiea e oneiaeyi, ioaaonoaaiii ca nicaeaiea
iiaiai, “eo/oa aa?iiie?othuaai” n aiaoieie oneiaeyie, n
ainoaea?noaaiiui, ieeoeaoai?ythuei nio?aiaiea e ia?aaea/o aeinoeaioouo
oiaiee e iaaueia.

“Iieaeoeu Ienoeee” (yeciaaiiua e yiaeiaaiiua) eae yeaiaio nayce
iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai.

Eeanneoeeaoeey e iienaiea aeaenoaey “iieaeoe ienoeee”

Naia iacaaiea yoa a?oiia oeie/aneeo aauanoa iieo/eea ec-ca naiae
niiniaiinoe aucuaaoue ienoe/aneea aeaeaiey e ia?aaeeaaiey, naycaiiua n
eciaiaieai niciaiey.

A ea/anoaa “iieaeoe ienoeee” iiaoo aunooiaoue yiaeiaaiiua aauanoaa,
eioi?ua au?aaaouaathony naiei i?aaieciii e o/anoaotho a ia?aaea/a
ia?aiuo eiioeuenia. Iaeiei ec oaeeo aauanoa yaeyaony na?ioiiei,
iacuaaaiue oaeaea “ai?iii n/anouey”. Ii au?aaaouaaaony a i?aaiecia ai
a?aiy i?aacia, a iiiaiou ia?aaeeaaiee yenoaca, aai o?iaaiue iiauoai ai
a?aiy yeoi?ee e iiieaeaaony ai a?aiy aeai?annee, aeaeeii, eiaiii yoi
aauanoai ioaaonoaaiii ca aicieeiiaaiea aaeethoeeiaoeee i?e ineoicao. Ii
anae aeaeeiinoe, eiiaaea o?iaaiue na?ioiieia iiaeao iiauoaoueny e
niiioaiii, aac eaeeo-oi aeaeeiuo i?e/ei. Ia o?iaaiue na?ioiieia a
i?aaiecia iiaeii aeeyoue oaeaea n iiiiuueth ii?aaeaeaiiuo oece/aneeo
oi?aaeiaiee, eciaiaiey ?eoia e aeoaeiu aeuoaiey, ?acee/iie ieue e
eaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aoia (iai?eia?, iae?ieaioeeia – aieiaceia,
aaeiia?eaeiea e ae?., oe?iei i?eiaiythueony a ineoeao?e/aneie i?aeoeea
aeey ono?aiaiey aaeethoeeiaoeee). Oae, iyniay e aeeaioiay ieua nieaeaao
o?iaaiue na?ioiieia, oiaaea eae ioeac io iyna (e io niee), oiio?aaeaiea
a ieuo e?oiyiuo e io/iuo aethae, oieieaaea, iaeioi?uo i?yiinoae e
i?ei?aa (iai?eia?, ei?eoeu e aaicaeeee) niinianoaoao iiauoaieth aai
o?iaiy (aeaeeii, eiaiii n eiio?ieai ca o?iaiai na?ioiieia naycaiu iiiaea
aeeaoe/aneea i?aaeienaiey e ia?aie/aiey a aneaoe/aneeo i?aeoeeao
aieueoeinoaa ?aeeaee).

Aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii oiio?aaeaiea (eae a ?aeeaeiciuo, oae e
a eiuo oeaeyo) yeciaaiiuo (oi anoue iinooiathueo a i?aaieci ecaia)
i?aia?aoia i?e?iaeiiai eee neioaoe/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, niaea?aeaueo
ae?oaea “iieaeoeu ienoeee” [27]. Yoo a?oiio ineoiaeoeaiuo aauanoa
eiiaaea iacuaatho aaeethoeeiiaaiu (“?iaeaeathuea aaeethoeeiaoeee” – yoio
oa?iei ia i/aiue oi?io, iineieueeo aaeethoeeiaoeee eae oaeiaua iiae
aicaeaenoaeai yoeo i?aia?aoia aicieeatho e?aeia ?aaeei), ineoioiieiaoeee
(“aucuaathuea ninoiyiey, iiaeiaiua ineoicai” – io yoiai oa?ieia
aiineaaenoaee ioeacaeenue, oae eae auyaeee iiiaeanoai ioee/ee iaaeaeo
ineoicaie e ninoiyieyie iinea oiio?aaeaiey aaeethoeeiiaaiia) eee
ineoiaeeneaioeee (“aucuaathuea ?anuaieaiea ineoeee” – oa?iei e?aeia
iaoaea/iue, oae eae iau/ii yoe i?aia?aou aucuaatho, iaiai?io,
eioaa?aoeeth ineoeee), ii /aua oiio?aaeyaony oa?iei ineoiaeaeeee
(aieueoea e iaeua) [38]. Yoi neiai i?aaeeiaeee eaiaaeneee ineoeao?
Oyio?e Iniiiae – iaeei ec ia?auo enneaaeiaaoaeae ENAe. Aoeaaeueii iii
iaicia/aao “i?iyaeythuee” ineoeeo (io a?a/aneeo neia psyche – aeooa e
delic – yaiue, i?iyniythuee).

Enneaaeiaaoaee-oa?iaeieiae ?acee/atho aaeethoeeiiaaiu e ia?eioeee,
iineieueeo aaeethoeeiiaaiu ia aucuaatho aeioeie/aneie caaeneiinoe,
aeaenoaotho a i/aiue iaeuo aeicao, ia aucuaatho eaeeo-oi niaoeeoe/aneeo
e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeceieiae/aneeo aicaeaenoaee (oi anoue iaeei e oio aea
i?aia?ao ieacuaaao ?acee/iia oeceieiae/aneia aeaenoaea ia ?aciuo
ethaeae, eee aeaaea ia iaeiiai e oiai aea /aeiaaea). Ii/oe ana
niaoeeaeenou, eco/aaoea aeaenoaea ineoiaeaeeeia, i?eoee e caeeth/aieth,
/oi eo eo/oa anaai ?anniao?eaaoue eae onei?eoaee eee eaoaeecaoi?u
iaioaeueiuo i?ioeannia… [29]. Iiae aeaenoaeai yoeo i?aia?aoia /aeiaae
ia?aaeeaaao ia “oiene/aneee ineoic”, ii nouanoao ieeae ia naycaiiue n
ooieoeeyie ineoeee a ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee, a oaioanoe/aneia aioo?aiiaa
iooaoanoaea a nianoaaiiia aanniciaoaeueiia e naa?oniciaoaeueiia. ‘Yoe
i?aia?aou, oaeei ia?acii, ?ane?uaatho e aeaeatho aeinooiiui
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth oe?ieee aeeaiacii iau/ii ne?uouo yaeaiee,
ioiinyueony e iaiouaieaiui niiniaiinoyi /aeiaa/aneiai oia e ea?athuei
aaaeioth ?ieue a ii?iaeueiie ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe [4].

E ineoiaeaee/aneei i?aia?aoai iau/ii ioiinyo ineeioeei e ineeioeeaei
(niaea?aeeony a ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?eaao), ianeaeei (niaea?aeeony a
iaeneeaineii eaeoona iaeioea), ia?eooaio e aaoeo (iieo/atho ec
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia eiiiiee, aeaenoaothuaa aauanoai – OAE –
oao?aaeae?ieaiiaaeieu), aa?iaeei (ii aea – aaienoa?ei, niaea?aeeony a
aeaaioneie ne?eeneie ?ooa), AeIO e aai i?iecaiaeiua (aeeiaoeeo?eioaiei –
niaea?aeeony a ei?iaaeuao aeaaioneiai ?a/iiai o?inoieea, a iaeioi?uo
aea?aaueyo, ii?neeo aoaeao e iieeiao), eaiaaei (niaea?aeeony a
ei?iaaeuao eonoa?ieea eaiaa), niaaeeiaiey oeia ENAe (niaea?aeaony a o?ao
?iaenoaaiiuo aeaeao auethieia) [38, 40]. Iaiin?aaenoaaiii ENAe-25 –
iieoneioaoe/aneee i?aia?ao, ecaioaaeeaaaiue ec nii?uiuee – yaeiaeoiai
a?eaea, ii?aaeathuaai ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u [34]. A oo aea a?oiio /anoi
ioiinyo e ?yae ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo neioaoe/aneeo i?aia?aoia,
neiino?oe?iaaiiuo oeieeaie (a iniiaiii, A- Ooeueaeiui n eieeaaaie- ni.
?aaioo [38]) ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 20 aaea, e yaeythueony i?iecaiaeiuie
i?e?iaeiuo aaeethoeeiiaaiia: eaoaiei, IAeIA (eee “Yenoace”), AeII (NOI),
2-CB, OIA, IAeA (“Aaeai”), IIAeA (“Aaa”), e iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo,
iaeiecaanoiuo e aua ia ioe?uouo niaaeeiaiee.

Aaeethoeeiiaaiiua oaiyoeeaeeeeaieiu (i?iecaiaeiua i?e?iaeiiai
iae?iiaaeeaoi?a aeioaieia)

Ianeaeei – iaoeie/iue aaeethoeeiiani, oae eae ioiineony e a?oiia
oaiaoeeaieiia. Ioa?aeoa?eciaai eae aauanoai, oneeeaathuaa oeaaoiaoth
iaeeo?o aini?eyoey, ii, a oi aea a?aiy, oiene/iia e iaeii?eaiaeiia aeey
oa?aiaaoe/aneie ?aaiou. Yoi aauanoai aucuaaao y?eee ineoiaeaee/aneee
yooaeo, eioi?ue aeeeony io 8 aei 12./ania. A naia a?aiy Ieaein Oaenee,
ioaaaeaa ianeaeei. iinayoee iaiaei ainoi?aeaiiuo no?ie aai iienaieth
(“A?aoa Aini?eyoey”, [28]). O.Aeaeaein, ia?aua iiuou eioi?iai auee
naycaiu n caeenueth acioa, oaeaea i?iaiaae aooiiu ciaiaieoiai eaeoona,
ii ia?aaeee iaoaea/iue iiuo, iinea /aai ia aiciaiiaeye yenia?eiaiou n
ianeaeeiii [7]. Iaeio, niaea?aeauee yoio aaeethoeeiiaai, aei neo ii?
eniieuecoaony a Oeaio?aeueiie e THaeiie Aia?eea ianeieueeeie eaaaeueiuie
?aeeaeiciuie iaueiaie a ?eooaeueiuo i ea/aaiuo oeaeyo [15, 25]. Aai
ineoiaeaee/aneia aeaenoaea iaia?oaeaii aa?iiaeoeaie a eiioea i?ioeiai
aaea. Ianeaeei, ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie i?aia?aoaie, eo/oa enneaaeiaai
e yaeyaony eae au noaiaea?oii, n eioi?ui n?aaieaathony ae?oaea
ineoiaeaeeee. Aai aeaenoaothuay aeica aeiaieueii aaeeea. I?e i?eaia
aioo?ue ia?aua i?eciaee iiyaeythony /a?ac 30 iei. Yoi oece/aneea
neiioiiu, aeeth/athuea iaaieueooth oaoeea?aeeth, iiauoaiiia aeaaeaiea
e?iae, oioiioo, eiiaaea ?aioo. Iie iiaoo nii?iaiaeaeaoueny aaniieienoaii
e o?aaiaie. I?eia?ii /a?ac /an iiyaeythony eciaiaiey a naini?iii
aini?eyoee, eioi?ua oneeeaathony a oa/aiee 2-3 /ania (oece/aneea
neiioiiu i?e yoii oauaatho), iinea /aai aea?aeaony ia iaeiii o?iaia aua
6-9 /ania. Iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athony neaaeothuaa eciaiaiey a
aini?eyoee: ia?oeaiea, eioaineoeeaoeey a oeaaoiii aini?eyoee (ana
ie?oaeathuaa ineaieyao y?eeie, ?aaeoaeiuie, eae au i?iiuouie aeiaeaeai
oeaaoaie), ?aceia oneeaiea iaeaeoeo ?acee/ee a iiaieao e oaenoo?a. *a?ou
eeoe ie?oaeathueo ethaeae oaeaea noaiiayony aieaa au?aceoaeueiuie,
y?eeie, a aeaeaeaiey iiae/a?eioouie, oaao?aeueiuie. Niaea?aeaiea
aaeethoeeiaoeee iaaiciiaeii aiooeoue iaoeeaioo, oioy eiiaaea iiaeii
iiaeeyoue ia aeaeaeaiea aicieeathueo ia?acia. Eciaiaiey a neooiaii
aini?eyoee aicieeaao ?aaea, ii oaeaea aa?uee?otho io yeaiaioa?iuo aei
naiuo neiaeiuo — ii?ie iaoeeaiou neuoao ea?o i?eano?a, iaiea oi?a, eeai
oeaeua eiioea?ou. Caiaoe e aeoniaua iuouaiey oaeaea neeueii eciaiythony.
Aeiaieueii /anoi ianeaeei aaaeao e ia?ooaieyi aini?eyoey nianoaaiiiai
oaea, iiyaeythony iuouaiea eaaeinoe, iaaaniiinoe, eiiaaea oaei en/acaao
eee oo?a/eaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua a?aieoeu. Aiaeiae/ii iiaeao eciaieony e
ie?oaeathuaa – i?aaeiaou auoyaeaathony, oaaee/eaathony a ?acia?ao, noaiu
?acaeoaathony e o.ae. Iuoeaiea iiaeao caiaaeeeoue eeai onei?eoue oaii. A
iaeieo neo/ayo ioia/aaony aiaaonoai i?aaenoaaeaiee e annioeeaoeee,
eaaeinoue i?e ?aoaiee caaea/, a ae?oaeo – iaiai?io. Ec yiioeeiiaeueiuo
eciaiaiee iaeaieaa /anoi iiyaeyaony iiauoaiiia iano?iaiea, yeoi?ey.
Iaoeeaiou iiaoo ia?aaeeoue e ninoiyiea, aeeceia e yenoaco, –
ia?aaeeaaiea iieiie aa?iiiee n ie?oaeathuei, /oanoai iinayuaiey ai ana
oaeiu i?e?iaeu e anaeaiiie, ei eaaeaony, /oi aeieaeii i?iecieoe ia/oi
aaeeeia, aeieaeiu ?ac?aoeony ana eo i?iaeaiu. Niciaiea iaoeeaioia,
i?eaioe?iaea a ie?oaeathuai e nianoaaiiie ee/iinoe iau/ii nio?aiythony,
oae e ainiiieiaiey i ia?aaeeaaieyo, aucaaiiuo i?eaiii ianeaeeia.
Aeaenoaea ianeaeeia i?ioaeaao aieiiia?acii, i?iaeieaeaynue 10-12 /ania.
A iineaaeiae noaaeee aaeethoeeiaoeee ionooiatho ia aoi?ie ieai,
nio?aiyaony eeoue y?einoue ie?anee ie?oaeathuaai e ioaeaeueiua eeethcee.
Aianoa n oai, (/oi i/aiue aaaeii aeey ineoioa?aiee) iiyaeyaony iaiau/iay
?anoi?iiaeaiiinoue, ?acaiai?/eainoue, ioe?iaaiiinoue. Iaoeeaiou iiaoo
?anneacaoue i naieo eioeiiuo ia?aaeeaaieyo e nie?iaaiiuo ieaiao. Iinea
ieii/aiey aeaenoaey ianeaeeia ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy (12-24 /ania) inoaaony
iiauoaiiay ooiieyaiinoue [29].

IAeIA (iaoeeai-aeeiene-iaoee-aioaoaiei) eee “Yenoace”, iiieii iauaai
aicaoaeaeathuaai aeaenoaey, naienoaaiiiai i?aia?aoai yoie a?oiiu,
ieacuaaao iyaeee ineoiaeaee/aneee yooaeo, noeioee?othuee iuoeaiea,
niinianoaothuee y?eiio ia?aaeeaaieth i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa. “Yenoace”
aucuaaao iacia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey aini?eyoey (iaeeaeaiea oeaaoiaie e
naaoiaie iaeeo?u), oaaee/eaay yiioeeiiaeueioth ?aaeoeeth. A ia?eiae
eaaaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey IAeIA eniieueciaaee iiiaea ineoieiae i?e
eiinoeueoe?iaaiee noi?oaia e a naiaeiie oa?aiee, a oaeaea, eae n?aaenoai
ainnoaiiaeaiey aeiaa?ey e ethaeyi o iaoeeaioia, iiaeaa?aoeony neeueiui
ineoieiae/aneei o?aaiai. Aeaenoaeth i?aia?aoa niioonoaotho niieienoaea e
neiiaoey e ie?oaeathuei, iiyoiio “Yenoace” aua iacuaatho yiiaoiaaiii
(“yiiaoey” – niia?aaeeaaiea) [38].

Ineoiaeaeee 2-CB ni/aoaao iauaa yiiaoiaaiiia aeaenoaea n aiaaouie
aecoaeueiuie eciaiaieyie, /oi iicaieyao iiianoeoue yoio i?aia?ao iaaeaeo
ENAe e IAeIA: 10 ia aucuaatho yooaeo “Yenoaci”, auoa 15 ia – yooaeo ENAe
[38].

I?aia?aou oeia AeII (NOI) aeaenoaotho cia/eoaeueii aeieueoa iau/iuo
ineoiaeaeeeia. Eo aicaeaenoaea iaiiieiaao ia?naeice?iaeo ENAe, oieueei
yooaeo aeeeony ia 8-12 /ania, a aeaia nooie…[38]

Aeennioeeaoeaiua aaeethoeeiiaaiu

E aaeethoeeiiaaiai yoiai oeia ioiinyo aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiue i?aia?ao oaioeeeeeaeei (PCP), a oaeaea aai i?iecaiaeiia
eaoaiei (enoaea?, eaeeinie), eioi?ua eniieuecothony e a iaaeeoeeia a
ea/anoaa aianoaoeeia e n?aaenoa aeey ia?eica. Naia iacaaiea yoa a?oiia
i?aia?aoia iieo/eea ec-ca oiai, /oi i?e eo i?eiaiaiee i/aiue /anoi
aicieeaao yooaeo “ioaeaeaiey aeooe io oaea” e acaeyaea ia naith
ee/iinoue “ni noi?iiu” [29].

Eaoaiei (eaoaea?, eaoaiano, eaoaaeaeao) – yoi iieiinoueth neioaoe/aneia
aauanoai, oeie/anee ?iaenoaaiiia ecaanoiiio oaioeeeeeaeeio (PCP,
“aiaaeueneie iuee”), aianoaoeeo, eniieuecoaiue a aaoa?eia?iie iaaeeoeeia
e yaeythuaiony iianiui ineoiaeaeeeii, eniieuecoaiui iai?ioanneiiaeaie.
Eaoaiei n/eoaaony iaeiei ec aaciianiaeoeo aauanoa, aucuaathueo iauoth
aianoaceth a oe?o?aee. Ia?aiia/aeueii aai iacia/aee nioiyi ouny/
iaoeeaioia, ioaeaeathueony a iaiaaeeaiiii oe?o?ae/aneii aiaoaoaeuenoaa.
Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia aeieiae/aneoth aaciianiinoue, aai oiio?aaeaiea
?acei nieceeinue, iineieueeo ii aucuaaao oae iacuaaaiue neiae?ii
iianiinoe iaiau/iua e aanueia cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey aini?eyoey e
yiioeee, ia?aaeeaaaiua iaoeeaioaie ai a?aiy aica?auaiey e ii?iaeueiiio
niciaieth. Ineoeao?e/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iaia?oaeeee, /oi eaoaiei
yaeyaony iiuiui ineoiaeaeeeii, eioi?ue a eiee/anoaao, ai?acaei iaiueoeo,
/ai eniieuecothony a oe?o?aee, iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny aeey ineoe/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee, iao/aiey i?ioanneiiaeia e aeey oa?aiaaoe/aneeo oeaeae.
Eaoaiei ioa?aeoa?eciaai enneaaeiaaoaeyie eae iaeiaiaa eioa?aniue n oi/ee
c?aiey ineoioa?aiee i?aia?ao, oae eae /aeiaae iiae aicaeaenoaeai yoiai
aauanoaa a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie oa?yao eii?aeeiaoeeth, eniuouaaao
o?oaeiinoe aa?aaeueiiai au?aaeaiey, a oaeaea iineaaeothuaai aniiieiaiey
naieo ia?aaeeaaiee. Yooaeo i?aia?aoa a aieueoae noaiaie aecoaeai, /ai
aiaeeoe/ai. Yoi iicaieyao iaeioi?ui ethaeyi eniieueciaaoue eaoaiei a
ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa aeey ooiaea io ?aaeueiinoe, a ia a ea/anoaa
eino?oiaioa aeey aa eco/aiey [5]. A ianeieueeeo ca?oaaaeiuo e
ioa/anoaaiiuo eeeieeao eaoaiei eniieuecotho aeey ea/aiey oyaeaeuo oi?i
aeeiaieecia [29].

Eiaeieueiua aaeethoeeiiaaiu

Aaeethoeeiiaaiu eiiiiee

Ia?eooaia e ae?oaea ineoiaeoeaiua i?iaeoeou eiiiiee (aaoeo, aaoeoiia
ianei, eiiiieyiay iaeueoea) yaeythony iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie e
oi?ioi eco/aiiuie ineoiaeaeeeaie neaaiai aeaenoaey (iaeua ineoiaeaeeee).
Iaeiaei i?e naa?oaunieie eiioeaio?aoeee OAE (aeoeaiua eiiiiiaiou eiiiiee
– oao?a-aeae?i-eaiiaaeiieu) i?iyaeythony oeie/iua aaeethoeeiiaaiiua
naienoaa yoeo niaaeeiaiee. Eeanne/aneee aaoeo (aeaea ec i/euaiiie niieu
?anoaiey), aaoeoiia ianei eee “iiei/ei”, eioi?ia iieo/atho, auaa?eaay
aieueoie iauai eiiiiee a iaeii eiee/anoaa iieiea. i?e oiio?aaeaiee
niiniaiu aucuaaoue cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey aini?eyoey e neeueiua
yiioeeiiaeueiua ?aaeoeee, n?aaieiua n ENAe e ae?oaeie aaeethoeeiiaaiaie.
Ia?eooaia (nooaiua nioeaaoey eee eenouey eiiiiee), a oaeaea oaa?aeue
aaoeo, eioi?ue niaoeaatho n oaaaeii eee eo?yo /a?ac eaeueyi, iiaeiaiue
yooaeo ia aucuaatho [29]. Ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea, a Ao?eea, Eiaeee, Eeoaa,
Oeaaoa, Naaa?iie e THaeiie Aia?eea e a Ea?eaneii aannaeia eenouey,
oeaaou e niieo ?acee/iuo ?aciiaeaeiinoae eiiiiee, oaeeo, eae Cannabis
sativa e Cannabis indica, ethaee eo?eee e i?eieiaee aioo?ue iiae
?acee/iuie iaeiaiiaaieyie – aaoeo, eeo, oa?an, aoaia, aaiaeaea,
ia?eooaia, e aeaeaeinue yoi aeey oaeiaieuenoaey, oeaeeoaeuenoaa e a
?eooaeueiuo oeaeyo. Eiiiiey iaania/eaaea oaeinoaa noieue ?aciiia?aciuo
niiauanoa, eae i?eieoeaiua ao?eeaineea ieaiaia, eiaeeeneea a?aieiu,
oaio?e/aneea aoaeaeenou Oeaaoa, iaeioi?ua i?aeaia nooeaa, ae?aaiea neeou
e ?anoaoa?eaia ssiaeee [33].

Niaaeeiaiey oeia ENAe

Ec anao eniieueciaaiiuo aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ineoiaeaeeeia ENAe-25
yaeyaony naiui neeueiui. Oeaea yooaeoia, aucuaaaiuo aeaenoaeai ENAe,
iaiau/ii ?aciiia?acia e eiaeeaeaeoaeueia. *a?ac 15-30 ieioo iinea
ia?i?aeueiiai i?eaia i?aia?aoa iiyaeythony i?aaeaanoieee ineoieiae/aneeo
yooaeoia – aaaaoaoeaiua e niiaoe/aneea neiioiiu: ?anoe?aiea c?a/eia,
iaaieueoia o/auaiea ioeuena, iacia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea aeaaeaiey e?iae,
iiauoaiiia nethiiioaeaeaiea, eiiaaea oioiioa. Aneaae ca ieie iiyaeythony
e ineoieiae/aneea eciaiaiey. Iie au?aaeathony a neaaeothuai: eciaiaiey
ai anao iiaeaeueiinoyo aini?eyoey; eciaiaiey a aini?eyoee a?aiaie e
i?ino?ainoaa; oaaee/eaaaony nei?inoue annioeeaoeaiiai iuoeaiey, iaiyaony
aini?eyoea noaiu naiaai oaea; iiyaeythony y?eea yeaeaoe/aneea ia?acu,
aeaeeiua eae i?e cae?uouo, oae e i?e ioe?uouo aeacao; aiciiaeiu
aaeethoeeiaoeee; iiyaeyaony naineoeaiia aini?eyoea oeaaoia; aiacaiiua e
/anoua eciaiaiey yiioeee e iano?iaiey; iiauoaiiay aiooaaiinoue;
iiauoaiiay niiniaiinoue e ainiiieiaieyi; aiciiaeia aeaia?niiaeecaoeey;
?anoai?aiea “YAI”; aiciiaeii iniciaaaiea aioo?aiieo i?ioeannia
i?aaiecia, iai?eia?, ieuaaa?aiey, e?iaiia?auaiey e o.ae.; ?yae ae?oaeo
ineoe/aneeo eciaiaiee, Ia o?iaia ee/iinoe eciaiaiey i/aiue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiu, e ?aaeoeey ia ENAe caaeneo io anaai aeeciaiiiai iooe
/aeiaaea, aai yiioeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey ia?aae i?eaiii i?aia?aoa e
ie?oaeaiey. Au?aaeaiiinoue yooaeoia iinoeaaao iaeneioia i?eia?ii ia
/aoaa?oue /an iinea aaaaeaiey, iioii ianeieueei /ania iaaethaeaaony
ieaoi a aeaenoaee, a ia 6-7 /an iinea aaaaeaiey aicaeaenoaea i?aia?aoa
oiaiueoaaony. Iau/ii iii eii/aaony ia 8-12 /an iinea aaaaeaiey, a
caaeneiinoe io aeicu e eiaeeaeaea. Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae
iiae/a?eeaatho aaaeiinoue iaaaeethoeeiiaaiiuo yooaeoia ENAe: iuouaiea
?ane?uoey oia, oaaee/aiea nei?inoe iuoeaiey, niiniaiinoue iiieiaoue e
?ac?aoaoue neiaeiua aii?inu iiaaaeaiey e no?oeoo?e?iaaiey aeecie [34,
36, 40].

O?eioaieiiaua niaaeeiaiey (AeIO, ineeioeei e ineeioeeaei, aooioaiei)

Yoe aaeethoeeiiaaiu oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu a ?acee/iuo naiaenoaao aunoeo
?anoaiee, a ineeioeei e ineeioeeaei ano?a/athony a a?eaao [14, 38].

Aeaenoaea AeIO yaeyaony naiui aeoaieei, aecoaeueii yooaeoiui e a oi aea
a?aiy e?aoeei e iaoiene/iui. AeIO – iiioey?iue aaeethoeeiiaai,
oiio?aaeyaiue a ?eooaeueiuo e oeaeeoaeueneeo oeaeyo n?aaee iiiaeo ieaiai
aannaeia Aiaciiee. Aai iieo/atho ec niea aea?aaueaa Virola (?iaenoaaiiuo
ioneaoiiio i?aoo) eee aea ec iieiouo e iiaeaea?aiiuo naiyi no?o/eiaiai
aea?aaa Anadenanthera peregrina. Eiathony naaaeaiey i iaee/ee
o?eioaieiia a iiaaaao e ei?iyo aaiaoea, iaeioi?uo aeaeia o?inoieea, a
iiaaaao e naiaiao iiiaeo aiaiauo, iiiaeanoaa a?eaia [38].

“Iaiau/aeiay eaaeinoue, n eaeie AeIO niaa?oaiii ?ac?ooaao ana a?aieoeu e
ia?aiineo a iaaiia?aceiia e iaio?aceiia ecia?aiea Eiiai, – yoi
aoeaaeueii iaeii ec /oaean naiie aeecie. E ca yoei ia?aui /oaeii
neaaeoao aoi?ia – iaiau/aeiay eaaeinoue e i?inoioa, n eaeie nenoaiu
oa?iaioia /aeiaa/aneiai iicaa iiiciatho iieaeoeu AeIO a neiainao. Anaai
ca ianeieueei nioai naeoiae yoe oa?iaiou iieiinoueth e aaci anyeiai
a?aaea aeacaeoeae?otho AeIO, Oi, /oi iau/iua o?iaie aieiia
ainnoaiaaeeaathony noieue auno?i iinea i?eaia naiiai neeueiiai ec anao
aaeethoeeiiaaiiuo eiaeieia, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi, aiciiaeii,
nouanoaiaaea aeaaiyy niaianoiay yaiethoeeiiiay naycue iaaeaeo ethaeueie
e aaeethoeeiiaaiiuie o?eioaieiaie” [15].

Aeaa ae?oaeo ineoioiieiaoeea – ineeioeei e ineeioeeaei – auee auaeaeaiu
ec iaeneeaineeo “iaae/aneeo” a?eaia naiuee Psilocybe, eioi?ua
?ani?ino?aiaiu e a Aa?iia. Iie eiatho iioiaeoth iieaeoey?ioth no?oeoo?o
e a iauai noiaeiu ii naiaio aeaenoaeth, oieueei ineeioeei a 1,4 ?aca
neeueiaa ineeioeeaeia. Aucuaaaiay eie ea?oeia ineoe/aneeo eciaiaiee
iaiiieiaao oaeiaoth i?e aaaaeaiee ENAe, ii ii a?aiaie cia/eoaeueii
ei?i/a (5-8 /ania). I?e i?eaia aioo?ue i?eia?ii /a?ac 20 iei.
iiyaeythony aaaaoaoeaiua e niiaoe/aneea neiioiiu (eae i?e i?eaia ENAe),
a caoai e ineoe/aneea. I?e iaaieueoeo aeicao ia?aaeeaaaony i?eyoiia
iuouaiea eioaeeaeooaeueiie e oece/aneie ?aeaenaoeee, io?aoaiiinoe io
ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. I?e aieaa aunieeo aeicao iiyaeythony eciaiaiey a
aini?eyoee i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, naiaai oaia. Aecoaeueiay
aeia?naiceoeaiinoue aaaeao e eeethceyi e aaeethoeeiaoeeyi, eioi?ua
au?aaeaiu neeueiaa, /ai i?e ENAe. Aicieeaao a?aciiiaeiaiia ninoiyiea,
i?iaeeaaiey aeaaii caauouo ainiiieiaiee, /anoi aeinoeaathueo ?aiiaai
aeaonoaa [29]. Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi iiceoeaiue iano?ie
(i?aae?aniieiaeaiea) aaaeao e iieiaeeoaeueiui ia?aaeeaaieyi ai a?aiy
naaina, a o?aaiaa eee icaai/aiiinoue nii?iaiaeaeathony iai?eyoiuie
ia?aaeeaaieyie. Iano?iaiea ia?aae i?eaiii i?aia?aoa yaeyaony eo/oei
i?aaeneacaoaeai iano?iaiey ai a?aiy aai aeaenoaey [13].

I/aiue iioiae ia ineeioeei e ineeioeeaei ii oeie/aneie no?oeoo?a e ii
aeaenoaeth ?ani?ino?aiaiiue a aeeaioiii ie?a aaeethoeeiiaai aooioaiei,
eioi?ue aue iaia?oaeai a eiaea iaeioi?uo aeaeia aeaa (o?iie/aneie aeaau
Bufo Bufotus) e ciae, a oaeaea a auaeaeaieyo iaoeia [27, 38].

Aaoa-ea?aieeiu

E i?aia?aoai yoie a?oiiu ioiinyo aa?iei e aa?iaeee (oaeaea
oao?iaeae?iaa?iaeei), iaeaaeathuea aaeethoeeiiaaiiui yooaeoii i?e aeica,
aeeceie e oiene/iie. Ano?a/athony a iaeioi?uo aeaeao aeeeie o?iie/aneie
eicu Banisteriopsis caapi, i?iec?anoathueo a THaeiie Aia?eea, N?aaeiae
Acee e ia N?aaeiai Ainoiea, a oaeaea a aeeeii oaaaea (ec eiiia?/aneeo
ni?oia aaeethoeeiiaaiu auaiaeyony). Nianue aaoa-ea?aieeiia n AeIO
yaeyaony iniiaie aaeethoeeiiaaiiiai niaaeiauey aeyooanea eee eyaa,
oiio?aaeyaiiai a Aiaciiee. Ia?iaeiua oeaeeoaee “aeyooanea?i” i?ae?anii
i?eaeeeenue a nia?aiaiiuo a?aceeueneeo ai?iaeao, aaea iieuecothony ia
iaiueoae iiioey?iinoueth, /ai aeieoi?a ioeoeeaeueiie iaaeeoeeiu [15, 38,
39]. Aaoa-ea?aieeiu iaeieco/aiiu e: aei neo ii? ia cai?auaiu caeiiii.
I?e ioe?uouo aeacao iaaethaeathony oieueei aea?e?iaaiea e ?acaeaiaiea
eiioo?ia iaaethaeaaiuo i?aaeiaoia e aieienoua aeaeaeaiey iiaa?oiinoe
noai i?e aieaa aeeeoaeueiie caaea?aeea acaeyaea ia iaeiii ianoa. I?e
cae?uouo aeacao iaaethaeathony iaeeueiua ia?acu e oeaeua noeaiu,
niiioaiii aicieeathuea a aiia?aaeaiee. Iie y?ei ie?aoaiu n
i?aiaeaaeaieai e?anii-caeaiuo e neia-i?aiaeaauo eiio?anoia. Yoe aeeeiiua
aeaeaiey iaiiieiatho niu, a eioi?uo iaoeeaiou aeaeyo aeaaii oia?oeo
aeeceeo ei ethaeae, iooaoanoaotho ai a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa a ninoiyiee
o?aina, iiaeiaii eiaeaeneei eiaai. Eiiaaea ia?aaeeaathony ia?eiaeu ec
naiae aeecie, e ec aeaaii caauoiai i?ioeiai. Aieueoeinoai iaoeeaioia
i?iaiaeyo 4-8 /ania ai a?aiy naaina eaaea a iinoaee, iiaeiuaiu neiaeiuie
aeaeaieyie, ii aac caiaoiuo eciaiaiee a yiioeeiiaeueiie noa?a e
aini?eyoee a?aiaie. Aeaaiay iniaaiiinoue aa?iaeeia eae ineoieiae/aneiai
i?aia?aoa ninoieo a oii, /oi ii yaeyaony /enoui aaeethoeeiiaaiii i?e
ieieiaeueiuo ineoiiaoieiae/aneeo eciaiaieyo [29].

Eaiaaeiiaia naiaenoai aauanoa

Yoe aauanoaa ano?a/athony a aeaoo ?iaenoaaiiuo ae?aaaniuo ii?iaeao
Ao?eee e THaeiie Aia?eee. Tabernanthe iboga – eono n aeaeouie oeaaoaie,
?iaenoaaiiue eioa e i?iec?anoathuee a o?iieeao Caiaaeiie Ao?eee. Ei?ie
eaiae, oiio?aaeaiiua a aeinoaoi/iuo aeicao, aucuaatho caoyaeiie
ineoiaeaee/aneee yooaeo, eioi?ue nii?iaiaeaeaaony cia/eoaeueiuie
eciaiaieyie aini?eyoey e aeeeony ia iaiaa aeaoo nooie [40]. Nae/an a
iaeioi?uo caiaaeiuo no?aiao eaiaaei ?anniao?eaaaony eae ia?niaeoeaiue
ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneee i?aia?ao. Ia oa?iaeieiae/aneii ?uiea NOA e
Aieeaiaeee iiyaeeinue iiaia eaea?noai iiae iacaaieai “eaiaaei”.
Nouanoaotho na?ueaciua iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi iii niiniaii
inaiaiaeaeaoue /aeiaaea io ia?eioe/aneie caaeneiinoe, a oaeaea io
ae?oaeo aeaeia eaea?noaaiiiai i?eaueaiey e a?aaeiuo i?eau/ae [2].

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey ineoiaeaeeeia

Iaoaieci aeaenoaey ineoioiieiaoeeia aei neo ii? ieii/aoaeueii ia
auyniai. Enneaaeiaaiea yoaiia ia?aaea/e eiioeuenia a ia?aiie nenoaiu
iieacaei, /oi iaeioi?ua i?aia?aou aeaenoaotho iooai oneeaiey eee
iiaeaaeaiey aunaiaiaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?e?iaeiuo aauanoa –
iae?iiaaeeaoi?ia. Iaeioi?ua ia?aiua eeaoee eiatho ia naiae iiaa?oiinoe
niaoeeaeueiua o/anoee, oae iacuaaaiua ?aoeaioi?u, ?aniieiaeaiiua a
ianoao niaaeeiaiey ia?aiuo eeaoie iaaeaeo niaie (a oae iacuaaaiuo
neiainao), ociathuea ii?aaeaeaiiua iieaeoeu iae?iiaaeeaoi?ia (eaaeaeue
oei iae?iiaaeeaoi?ia, eioi?uo nae/an ecaanoii ieiei aeanyoe,
?aniiciaaony naiei oeiii ?aoeaioi?ia; aieaa oiai, aeey iaeioi?uo
iae?iiaaeeaoi?ia nouanoaotho ianeieueei ?aciuo oeiia ?aoeaioi?ia – a
oaeii neo/aa eiie?aoiue yooaeo oaeiai iae?iiaaeeaoi?a aoaeao caaenaoue
io oiai, n eaeei eiaiii oeiii ?aoeaioi?ia i?iecioei acaeiiaeaenoaea
iieaeoeu iae?iiaaeeaoi?a). Iinea oiai, eae ?aoeaioi? naycaeny ni naiei
iae?iiaaeeaoi?ii, ii ia?aaeaao niioaaonoaothuee neaiae ia?aiie eeaoea,
caioneay oai naiui ii?aaeaeaiiua i?ioeannu a i?aaiecia [38].

Iiae aeaenoaeai ineoioiieiaoeeia – i?iecaiaeiuo oaiyoeeaeeeeaieiia
ia?aiua ieii/aiey iicaa auaeaeytho aeioaiei – iaaeeaoi?, naycaiiue n
nenoaiaie aiae?noaiaaiey e oaeiaieuenoaey. Iiae aeaenoaeai ENAe e
ae?oaeo eiaeieueiuo ineoioiieiaoeeia ia?aiua ieii/aiey iicaa
au?aaaouaatho ae?oaie iae?iiaaeeaoi? – na?ioiiei, eioi?ue iacuaatho
oaeaea “ai?iiiii oaeiaieuenoaey”. Oeie/aneay no?oeoo?a ineeioeeaeia,
aooioaieia e aeeiaoeeo?eioaieia (AeIO) i/aiue iaei ioee/aaony io
no?oeoo?u na?ioiieia [38].

?yae iao/iuo yenia?eiaioia iieacae, /oi ca ?anoe?aiiia aini?eyoea e
iiieaeaiea aa?uea?a naini?iiai aini?eyoey, ii-aeaeeiiio, ioaa/aao iaeei
ec oeiia na?ioiieiiauo ?aoeaioi?ia (yoio oei ?aoeaioi?ia iacuaatho
5-HT??-R, /oi icia/aao “?aoeaioi? e 5-HydroxyTriptamine (oaeiai
oeie/aneia iacaaiea iae?iiaaeeaoi?a na?ioiieia) 2-ai oeia,
neia?ae/aneee”). Eiaiii oiaaea, eiaaea n yoei ?aoeaioi?ii naycuaathony
iieaeoeu na?ioiieia e aai aiaeiaia (iai?eia?, ENAe-25 eee AeIO),
i?aeoe/anee anaaaea iaaethaeathony “ienoe/aneea” ia?aaeeaaiey
(oanoe?iaaiea i?iecaiaeeeinue n iiiiuueth neaaeaiey ca ?aaeeiaeoeaii
ia/aiuie iieaeoeaie) [38]. Ethaiiuoii, /oi n yoei aea oeiii ?aoeaioi?ia
niiniaiu acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue iaeioi?ua i?iecaiaeiua aeioaieia, oaeea eae
ianeaeei eee “Yenoace”, iaeaaeathuea aaeethoeeiiaaiiui aeaenoaeai – oioy
eo oeie/aneay no?oeoo?a aeinoaoi/ii neeueii ioee/aaony io no?oeoo?u
na?ioiieia, iaeiaei aeinoaoi/ii iioiaeae o yoeo iieaeoe yaeyaony eo
eaaioiaay no?oeoo?a, oi anoue niaiaaeatho /anoiou eieaaaiee yeaeo?iiia
[34, 38].

Na?ioiiei, acaeiiaeaenoaoy n ?aoeaioi?aie a neiainao, i/aiue neeueii
aeoeae?oao iae?iiu, /oi i?eaiaeeo e cia/eoaeueiiio nieaeaieth ii?iaiaiai
o?iaiy aicaoaeaeaiey iiiaeo cii iicaa, ioaaonoaaiiuo ca aini?eyoea
ie?oaeathueo yaeaiee (aeaeeii, o oae iacuaaaiuo yeno?anainia o?iaaiue
na?ioiieia iiauoai io ?iaeaeaiey eee iiauoaaony iiae aicaeaenoaeai
iiaeniciaoaeueiuo eiioeuenia, eeai iiauoaia /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e
na?ioiieio [14, 35]). Aeaca ia/eiatho aeaeaoue a aeeaeieo
oeueo?aoeieaoiaii e eio?ae?aniii aeeaiaciia, ?acee/athony i/aiue neaaua
caoee e ae?oaea, iau/ii iaaeinooiiua i?aaiai /oanoa, neaiaeu. Iiiaea
enneaaeiaaoaee ioia/atho a oaeii ninoiyiee iuouaiea iaiau/aeiie yniinoe
e aunieie nei?inoe iuoeaiey [40].

Ia aiaoiie/aneii o?iaia aaaeiui i?aaiii, naycaiiui n au?aaioeie e
iaiaiii na?ioiieia a i?aaiecia, i?aaenoaaeyaony oeoeiaeaeiay aeaeaca.

A 1886a. iiyaeeenue aeaa iacaaeneiua ae?oa io ae?oaa iiiia?aoee ia
iaiaoeeii e aiaeeeneii ycueao, aeieacuaathuea, /oi oeoeiaeaeiay aeaeaca
yaeyaony ia naiii aeaea o?aoueei aeacii e ?acaeeanue ec /oanoaeoaeueiiai
e naaoo ianoa ia eao, eioi?ia aei neo ii? ano?a/aaony o oaeeo ?aioeeee,
eae ooaoa?a a Iiaie Caeaiaeee. Yoi iioiaeaa ia yua?eoeo aeeaioiia
iaeaaeaao oeoeiaeaeiui i?aaiii, i?aaenoaaeythuei niaie iaeaiueeoth
iieinoue, ia?oaeiay iaiei/ea eioi?ie noaea o?onoaeeeii, a aioo?aiiyy –
nao/aoeie, niaaeeiaiiie ia?aiuie ieii/aieyie n iicaii /a?ac uaeue a
/a?aia. Iieinoue iie?uoa oiieei e i?ic?a/iui neiai eiaee. O oaeeo
aeaeia, eae ooaoa?a, o iiiaeo ioeoe, ?ua e iiiaeo iaeeeo ieaeiieoathueo
oeoeiaeaeiay aeaeaca ?aniieiaeaia ia iaeooea, ii o aunoeo i?eiaoia e
/aeiaaea iica i?ee?uo ei?ie, e oeoeiaeaeiia oaei oaia?ue iieone?uoi a
na?aeoeaaeia /a?aiiie ei?iaee.

Aeaea?o oeacuaae ia yoio i?aai, eae ia aianoeeeua aeooe. Ii aua o?e n
iieiaeiie ouny/e eao iacaae, eiaaea iiyaeeanue eiaeeeneay eeoa?aoo?a, a
iae eiaeinue oeacaiea ia iieiaeaiea aunoaai enoi/ieea oaeaniie neeu a
oi/ea iaaeaeo a?iayie. Anee au iu nio?aieee neie i?ic?a/iie eiaee,
oeoeiaeaeiia oaei ieacaeinue au /ooue iiauoa oi/ee iaaeaeo aeacaie, eae
?ac oai, aaea a eiaeonneeo ecia?aaeaieyo iaoiaeeony Aeac Naaoa [3].

Aua 40 eao iacaae n/eoaee, /oi oeoeiaeaeiay aeaeaca – aaniieaciue
?oaeeiaioiue i?eaeaoie, aeinoaaoeeny iai a ianeaaenoai io ?aioeeee. A a
1959a A?ii Ea?ia? ec Eaeueneiai oieaa?neoaoa iaia?oaeee, /oi
oeoeiaeaeiia oaei i?iecaiaeeo ai?iii, eioi?ue ii iacaae iaeaoiieiii, e
i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?iee yoiai i?aaia eciaieeinue: ?a/ue eaeao oaea ia i
au?iaeaeaiee i?aaia, a i aic?iaeaeaiee aeaeacu. N?aco aea au?in eioa?an
e yoiio i?aaio, e aiae nionoy noaei ynii, /oi iaeaoiiei i?iecaiaeeony ec
na?ioiieia.

A ioee/ea io ia?eioeeia (oaeeo eae yoaiie, iieaou, aa?aeoo?aou),
ineoiaeaeeee ia niiniaiu aucuaaoue caaeneiinoe, oioy a iiioey?iie
eeoa?aoo?a ineoiaeaeeee /anoi iooathony n ia?eioeeaie. Ana auoaiienaiiua
i?aia?aou ioee/athony io ia?eioe/aneeo n?aaenoa ia oieueei naiei
aicaeaenoaeai, ii e oai, /oi ia aucuaatho i?e iiaoi?iii oiio?aaeaiee
oeceieiae/aneiai i?eaueaiey. Auei iieacaii, /oi ENAe, a ioee/ea io
iieaoia (ii?oeia, aa?ieia), ia neoaeeo iiceoeaiui noeioeii aeey e?un e
iaacueyi, a ianeaaeiaaiea eeoe, ?aaoey?ii i?eieiaaoeo ENAe, ia iieacaei
eaeie-eeai au?aaeaiiie neiioiiaoeee oeceieiae/aneie caaeneiinoe. Yoi
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho ia oieueei ?aaiou aeaaeaie/aneeo enneaaeiaaoaeae, ii e
Anaie?iay i?aaiecaoeey III ii aii?inai cae?aaiio?aiaiey [29, 38].

“Iieaeoeu ienoeee” eae niinia o?ainoeaiaeaioaoeee YAI (oai?ey
“eaaioiaiai ?aciiaina a neiaine/aneeo iieyo”)

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaaeaie/aneay iaoea ia iiaeao aeaoue no?iaia
iainiiaaiea nayce yaeaiee o?ainoeaiaeaioaoeee YAI e aeoeaaoeee
na?ioiieiiauo ?aoeaioi?ia iae?iiaaeeaoi?aie (ii/aio acaeiiaeaenoaea
na?ioiieia e aai aiaeiaia n 5-HT?? -?aoeaioi?aie i?eaiaeeo e noieue
?aaeeeaeueiui ia?aiaiai a niciaiee?), iaeiaei eaeea-oi oaae a yoii
iai?aaeaiee oaea naeaeaiu.

Aeinoaoi/ii eioa?aniie (iaeiaei iinyuae oiic?eoaeueiue oa?aeoa? e ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiie, oioy, ai?i/ai, e ia ii?iaa?aiooie, aeaiiuie no?iaie
iaoee) i?aaenoaaeyaony oai?ey “eaaioiaiai ?aciiaina a neiaine/aneeo
iieyo”, i?aaeeiaeaiiay ecaanoiui yoiioa?iaeieiaii Oa?ainii Iaeeaiiie
(1946-2000) ianeieueei eao iacaae.

“A aeaaeaie/aneeo iao/iuo e?oaao ia niaoao ioeacuaaoueny io i?eau/iiai
ii?aaeaeaiey niciaiey eae i?iaeoeoa ?aaiou iicaa. Io/anoe •oae iii e
anoue (iicaiaua o?aaiu aeaeoo ia?ooaiey niciaiey), ii eeoue io/anoe:
ia?yaeo n oaeie o?aeoiaeie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia niciaiea iiaeii oaeaea
i?aaenoaaeoue e i?iaeoeoii ?aaiou iaae-eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai Niciaiey a
aeieiae/aneie oeaie iicaa. Eeethno?aoeeae iiaeao iineoaeeoue oaeie
i?eia?, eae oaeaaeci?. Ea/anoai ecia?aaeaiey e caoea no?iai caaeneo io
i?aaeeueiinoe ?aaiou anao eiiiiiaioia, a iaeni?aaiinoue eee iieiiea
eaeiai-oi ec ieo i?eaaaeao e aanueia niaoeeoe/aneei eneaaeaieyi… Ieeoi
ec ian ia oaeaeeo a yoii iao/iiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa oiai, /oi i?ia?aiia
aeieaeia aaia?e?iaaoueny a oaeaaeci?a, iineieueeo oaeaaeci? –
eneonnoaaiiay nenoaia e ana ooieoeee oi?ioi ecaanoiu- A aaaeue eae ?ac
oaeie ii oeio auaiae iieo/ai iaoaienoe/aneie iaoeie a ioiioaiee iicaa e
niciaiey” [3] (yoi auneacuaaiea iiaeii n?aaieoue n nooeeneie i?eo/ae i
naa/a e ca?eaeao – ni. aeaao i nooecia).

Iii?iaoai ?anniio?aoue aanue ie? eae iioie iaoaoece/aneeo aea?aoeee
(iiae oa?ieiii “aea?aoeey” iaoaoeceea iiieiaao nianai ia oi, /oi oeceea
e iaoaieea, iiae aea?aoeeae iiieiaaony ia eieaaaiea aie?oa iieiaeaiey
?aaiiaaney, a io?eoeaiea ninoiyiey iieiy aiiaua: an? iaoiaeeony a
ninoiyiee aeaeaeaiey a ethaie nenoaia ethaiai ea?a?oe/aneiai o?iaiy –
aieioue aei naiie noanoaioeee: yoi noiia iinooiaoaeueiiai,
a?auaoaeueiiai, eieaaaoaeueiiai e ethauo ae?oaeo oeiia aeaeaeaiey; a
/enoii aeaea ethaie oei aeaeaeaiey ia nouanoaoao: aea?aoeee ethaiai
o?iaiy – yoi ?acoeueoao iaeiaeaiey e acaeiiaeaenoaey ?aciuo oeiia
aeaeaeaiey) [12]. Iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi oaeay oi/ea c?aiey aiieia
niaeanoaony n aeaiiuie nia?aiaiiie iaoee, a /anoiinoe, n
i?aaenoaaeaieyie eaaioiaie oeceee, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie ana eae
iae?i-, oae e iee?i- iauaeou i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeiaeaiea
aea?e?othueo iieae e iaeaaeatho aieiiaie i?e?iaeie, e n oai?eae
aieia?aoe/aneie no?oeoo?u Anaeaiiie (aieaa iiae?iaii yoi iienaii a
?aaioao oeceeia O.Eai?u [8] e a ?yaea iao/ii iiioey?iuo ?aaio
Iiaaeaaneiai eao?aaoa Eeuee I?eaiaeeia, iai?eia?, a iioaeeeiaaiiie ia
?onneii ycuea eieaa [20]). Anee anoaoue ia oaeoth oi/eo c?aiey, oi
o?ainoeaiaeaioaoeeth YAI iiaeii naycaoue n aini?eyoeai iaeeo iniauo
aea?aoeee, iaaeinooiiuo niciaieth a iau/iii ninoiyiee. Yenoac /anoi
iienuaatho eae i?iyaeaiea iiuiuo aea?aoeee, yaeythueony neaaenoaeai
?aciiaina iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui YAI-niciaieai e
iaae-eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui Niciaieai [36], oi anoue a iiiaio yenoaca
i?ienoiaeeo niaiaaeaiea /anoio aea?aoeee Aioo?aiiaai e Aiaoiaai ie?ia.
Ii, iineieueeo a iau/iii ninoiyiee oaeie ?aciiain ia iaaethaeaaony, oi,
cia/eo, a iiiaio yenoaca i?ienoiaeeo “iiaeno?ieea /anoiou eieaaaiee”
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai YAI-niciaiey, oi anoue ia enoiaeioth /anoioo
aea?aoeee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie “aeooe” iaeeaaeuaathony iaeea
aeiiieieoaeueiua eieaaaiey, e /anoioa oaeiai “noiia?iiai” eieaaaiey eae
?ac niaiaaeaao n /anoioie eieaaaiey iaae-ee/iinoiiai Niciaiey. Ia ?ieue
enoi/ieea oaeeo aeiiieieoaeueiuo aea?aoeee iiaoo i?aoaiaeiaaoue
eaeea-eeai oeie/aneea iieaeoeu, aoiiu eioi?uo aea?e?otho n iaiaoiaeeiie
/anoioie (yoe aea?aoeee, enoaoe, iiaeii caoeene?iaaoue n iiiiuueth
nia?aiaiiuo oeceei-oeie/aneeo iaoiaeia), iai?eia?, ianoaeaeaaoeany auoa
“iieaeoeu ienoeee”, eeai eiiieaen eaeie-eeai “iieaeoeu ienoeee” n
niioaaonoaothuei ?aoeaioi?ii ia?aiie eeaoee [14]. A iieueco yoie oai?ee
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oaea oiiieiaaoeeny oaeo, /oi aauanoaa, neeueii
ioee/athueany ii oeie/aneiio no?iaieth, ii eiathuea iioiaeoth eaaioiaoth
(oi anoue eieaaaoaeueioth) no?oeoo?o (aaeethoeeiiaaiiua
oaiyoeeaeeeeaieiu, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e eiaeieueiua aaeethoeeiiaaiu, n
ae?oaie), niiniaiu aucuaaoue noiaeiua ienoe/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaeanii yoie aeiioaca “eaaioiaiai ?aciiaina a
neiaine/aneeo iieyo”, iu eiaai neaaeothuoth ea?oeio: Nia/aea yeciaaiiay
iieaeoea aaeethoeeiiaaia iiiaaeaao a i?aaieci /aeiaaea eee i?yii a
i?aaiecia au?aaaouaaaony yiaeiaaiiay iieaeoea na?ioiieia eee aeioaieia,
aeaeaa oaeay iieaeoea acaeiiaeaenoaoao n iaeiei ec na?ioiieiiauo
?aoeaioi?ia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai i?ienoiaeeo iaeiaeaiea (eioa?oa?aioeey)
eieaaaiee yoie iieaeoeu (eee aa eiiieaena n ?aoeaioi?ii) ia iioie
aea?aoeee YAI-niciaiey. A eiia/iii eoiaa /anoioa eieaaaiee YAI-niciaiey
eciaiyaony e niaiaaeaao n iaeiie ec /anoio aea?aoeee iaaeee/iinoiiai
Niciaiey – aicieeaao ?aciiain, eioi?ue iniciaaony eae Aiaeanoaaiiue
Yenoac, a aanue ie? a oaeii ninoiyiee eaaeaony iaeooioai?aiiui e
eniieiaiiui niunea, iineieueeo ionoonoaotho a?aieoeu eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
niciaiey – YAI ?anoai?yaony a iaaeee/iinoiii Niciaiee [14].

Iineieueeo iaaeee/iinoiia Niciaiea (a iaeioi?uo ?aeeaeiciuo o?aaeeoeeyo
iacuaaaiia Aiaii) nouanoaoao aia a?aiaie, ia ia?aie/aii
i?ino?ainoaaiiuie ?aieaie e aaeeii aeey anao ee/iinoae, oi iao ie/aai
oaeeaeoaeueiiai a oii, /oi noauaeo a ninoiyiee iiaeiaiiai
o?ainia?niiaeueiiai ia?aaeeaaiey aniiieiaao eaeea-eeai yieciaeu ec
nianoaaiiiai ?aiiaai aeaonoaa, yia?eiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey, aeecie naieo
i?aaeeia (a oii /enea e i?aaeoanoaaiieeia ia yaiethoeeiiiii ?acaeoee),
ae?oaeo iauaeoia (ae?oaeo ethaeae, aeeaioiuo, ?anoaiee, ieaiao, caacae,
naa?o/aeiaa/aneeo e ieoieiae/aneeo nouanoa e o.i. – iienaiey ni. a aeaaa
“Iniiaiua aeaeu ienoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee”), niauoee ec i?ioeiai e
aoaeouaai [5].

Iniiaiua aeaeu ienoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee.

“Iaoa ii?iaeueiia, eee, eae iu aai iacuaaai, ?acoiiia niciaiea
i?aaenoaaeyao eeoue iaeio ec oi?i niciaiey, i?e/ai ae?oaea, niaa?oaiii
io iaai ioee/iua, oi?iu nouanoaotho ?yaeii n iei, ioaeaeaiiua io iaai
eeoue oiieie ia?aai?iaeeie… Iaoa i?aaenoaaeaiea i ie?a ia iiaeao auoue
iieiui, anee iu ia i?eiai ai aieiaiea e yoe oi?iu niciaiey” [7].

Anee ecia?aceoue aioo?aiiee ie? ee/iinoe a aeaea iaooeiu niuneiauo
acaeiiioiioaiee, nioeaiiie aie?oa aeaaiie yecenoaioeeaeueiie iiceoeee
/aeiaaea, oi eciaiaiiia ninoiyiea niciaiey (ENN) – yoi niauaiea
iineaaeiae, aeaeouaa ia?ano?ieeo noa?aioeiia naiiiniciaaaiey –
ee/iinoioth o?ainoi?iaoeeth [24].

I?aaenoaaei naaa iaaethaeaoaey, noiyuaai ia eaniie iieyia e iuoathuaainy
ii?aaeaeeoue iai?aaeaiea naiaai aeaeueiaeoaai aeaeaeaiey. Ana, /oi ii
aeaeeo, – yoi e?iiea eana, iiiynuaathuay iaainaiae. Iaeiaei, aeinoaoi/ii
caeacoue ia aunieia aea?aai, /oiau oaeaeaoue aeaeaeoth iaii?aio e
aua?aoue iooue. Aioo?aiiyy ?aaeueiinoue /aeiaaea oaeie aea ae?aio/ee
ean, a eciaiaiiia ninoiyiea niciaiey – aeae yoiai eana n iiaie oi/ee
c?aiey, ioee/iie io i?aaeuaeouae. Niaeanii yoie iaoaoi?a, iooaoanoaoy ii
aeecie, iu ana ia?eiaee/anee iieuecoainy iiaeiaiuie niiniaaie
i?eaioe?iaaiey, oioy no?aieiny iaeoe oaeea ianoa, aaea ie?oaeathuaa
aoaeao i?iniao?eaaoueny ia iiiai eao aia?aae.

Eiuie neiaaie, eciaiaiiua ninoiyiey niciaiey iaeaaeaao iiciaaaoaeueiie
oeaiiinoueth, e a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao iiaeao auoue oniaoii
eniieueciaaii aeey aeinoeaeaiey aioo?aiiaai iieiy e ?aaiiaaney. ENN –
yoi yecenoaioeeaeueiue naeaea niuneiauo naycae, aucaaiiue eciaiaieai
iiceoeee “iaaethaeaoaey” a niciaiee /aeiaaea (?acioiaeaeanoaeaieai n
YAI), a?aiaiiui auoiaeii aeooe ec i?eau/iuo ?ieaauo iiceoeee. Anee
ia?ano?ieea i?ienoiaeeo iniciaiii, oi anoue, /aeiaae iiieiaao oeaee e
niune ?annoaaaiey n i?ioeie ?aaeueiinoueth, oi ii ?anoe?yao naia
niciaiea ca n/ao ooaa?aeaeaiey iiaie ee/iinoii-?ieaaie iiceoeee – aeooa
iaiiaeyaony [5].

A i?aeoeea ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey ENAe /anoi iienuaathony
neo/ae caaea?aeee aioo?aiiaai ia?a?iaeaeaiey. Anee /aeiaae ia
aeinoaoi/ii aeoaiei aiaeece?oao naay, /oiau iiiyoue niune i?ienoiaeyueo
ia?aiai, oi?ie?iaaiea iiaie ee/iinoii-?ieaaie iiceoeee e aai niciaiee
aoaeao i?ioaeaoue aieaciaiii. A oaeea iaiiaaiey /aeiaaea iiaeao
ioaaoeoue iaieea, iuouaiea nianoaaiiie ionoiou, “iioa?yiiinoue” eee
aeoaieay aeai?anney. Ia iaoai i?eia?a n iaaethaeaoaeai a eano yoi iiaeao
auaeyaeaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii: caa?aaoenue ia aunieia aea?aai, ii n
oaeanii iaia?oaeeaaao, /oi aaciaaeaaeii caaeoaeeeny, e aai ciaiee yaii
ia aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau aua?aoueny.

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai niaoeeaeueiuo iaoiaeia aeey aeinoeaeaiey
eciaiaiiuo ninoiyiee niciaiey, oioy e aac yoiai ENN caieiatho aeaeiia
ianoi a aeeiaieea aioo?aiiae aeecie iieiioeaiiiai /aeiaaea. Ethaay
ia?ano?ieea aaaeiuo niuneiauo eiiieaenia, naycaiiay n ociaaaieai
/aai-eeai, aea/ao iuooeiia eciaiaiea naienoa niciaiey. N yoie oi/ee
c?aiey, eciaiaiiui iiaeii iacaaoue niciaiea ethaeae, ia?aaeeaathueo
aethaeaiiinoue, aaeioiiaaiea, eaoa?nen (ee/iinoiay o?ainoi?iaoeey,
aucaaiiay eiioaeoii n ooaeiaeanoaaiiui i?iecaaaeaieai) e o. ae. ENN
oaeaea noeioee?otho i?e?iaeiue nii, ?acee/iua oacu canuiaiey e
i?iaoaeaeaiey, naenoaeueiua yiioeee, iaiea, aa?aaaiiue aie, iiiioiiiua
oaioeu, aeiiic e naiiaiooaiea, aeia?aaioeeyoeey eaaeeo (oieio?iiiia
aeuoaiea), naini?iay ia?aa?ocea, naini?iay ecieyoeey, aeeeoaeueiia
iaeeii/anoai, iino, iaeiiaoe, aeaenoaea ia i?aaieci ?acee/iuo
ineoiaeoeaiuo aauanoa – ana yoe i?ioeannu iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n
eciaiaieai oa?aeoa?a iuoeaiey, aeoaeiu e niiniaa naiiiniciaaaiey.
Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue /oi niaeo? ia?aaeeaaiee, aucaaiiuo ineoiaeaeeeaie,
i?aeoe/anee ia ioee/aaony io ia?aaeeaaiee, aucaaiiuo ?acee/iuie
iaiaaeeeaiaioiciuie n?aaenoaaie [24].

Ia?eiaoaeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?eiaoaeueiuo ia?aaeeaaiee naycaiu n i?iaeaiaie
aeieiae/aneiai ?iaeaeaiey, oece/aneie aiee e aaiiee, aieacie e
ae?yoeinoe, oie?aiey e nia?oe. Ioaathuaa noieeiiaaiea n yoeie
e?eoe/aneeie aniaeoaie /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey, aeoaieia
ia?aaeeaaiea aai yoaia?iinoe iaecaaaeii nii?iaiaeaeaaony io/eoaeueiui
yecenoaioeeaeueiui e?ecenii. Aeaaiaea?y oaeiio iiuoo /aeiaae i?eoiaeeo e
iiieiaieth oiai, /oi, iacaaeneii io aai i?eaeeciaiiuo caiyoee, aio
i?eaeaony iieeiooue yoio ie?, eeoeoueny anaai, /oi ii i?eia?ae e /aai
aeinoea, e /aio ii aue yiioeeiiaeueii i?eaycai. Noiaenoai ?iaeaeaiey e
nia?oe, ii?aceoaeueiia ioe?uoea, /oi ia/aei aeecie oiaeaeanoaaiii aa
eiioeo, — aaaeiue oeeinioneee auaiae, nii?iaiaeaeathuee ia?eiaoaeueiua
ia?aaeeaaiey [4].

Ia?ac nia?oe eae oo?aou YAI, ia?aaeeaaiea nia?oe i/aiue /anoi
ano?a/aaony eae ai a?aiy ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeo naainia n i?eiaiaieai
aaeethoeeiiaaiia, oae e ai iiiaeo ?aeeaeyo [1]. (N?aaiaiea
ineoiaeaee/aneiai iiuoa e ia?aaeeaaiee nia?oe, iienaiiuo a ae?aaiai
oeaaoneii o?aeoaoa “iaoee ia oie?aiee” – “Oeaaoneie eieae ia?oauo”
(Aa?aei Ooiaeie) iiaeii iaeoe a ?aaioa [13])

Aeey oaiaiecia oa?aeoa?ia eieoaoeey nia?oe (e ia?aaeeaaiea aa) ai a?aiy
iinayuaiey, nii?iaiaeaeaaiay nica?oeaieai oie/oiaeaiey ieioe e nicaeaiey
ec neaeaoa, noanoaioeeaeueiie iniiau i?aaiecia, iiaiai oaiaineiai oaea
[41]. Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ?eooaeu oa?aeoa?iu aeey ?yaea eiaeeeneeo
eiae/aneeo naaeoai (i?aeoee), iniaaiii naycaiiuo n oaio?eciii: a oiaea
yoie i?aeoeee eiaei nicaeaao naaa iiaia ia?ooeiia eiae/aneia oaei (eiaa
aeooa), niioiinyuaany ni noa?ui eae iac?aeue ieiae ni c?aeui, eee, a
oa?ieiieiaee ?anayiu (“eieanieoeu ?oooe”, oi anoue eiaeeeneie aeoeiee),
eae iac?aeue aoeueaa?iue (i?ioaie/aneee) iaoaee n aeoeie/aneei cieioii.
I?aeoeeoaony nica?oeaiea neaeaoa e a eeanne/aneii aoaeaeecia. Iaeiaei
naiaioeea yoiai nica?oeaiey a oaiaiecia e aeainecia, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
aoaeaeecia — n ae?oaie, ?acee/ia. A ia?aii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i neaeaoa
eae i ciaea iaeiae ia?aiiniiau, aica?auaynue e eioi?ie /aeiaae /a?ac
i?eiauaiea ae e ia?aaeeaaiea nia?oe-aic?iaeaeaiey ia?aoaao iiaua neeu e
oai?eo iiaia auoea, iiaia oaei (n?. ia?ac aica?auaiey a eiii iaoa?e,
oiiaeiaeaiey ia?iaeeaoaiony ieaaeaioeo a “Aeai aey oeceia” e aai
iioieiae/aneoth eiiiioaoeeth: aica?auaiea a iaoa?eineia eiii
Aeai-Ionoonoaey — o e ia?aoaiea iiaiai ?iaeaeaiey eae aannia?oiiai e
niaa?oaiiiai /aeiaaea). Ec aeoaeiu e i?aea “oaioe/aneiai e niooiiai”
eiia Iaoa?e-Aeai oai?eony naao i?inaaoeaiey e iiaay aeeciue. A neo/aa
aea aoaeaeecia iiaeiaiua nica?oeaiey iai?aaeaiu ia aeinoeaeaiea
oaaaeaeaiiinoe ai anaiauae a?aiiinoe, iaiinoiyinoaa e nia?oiinoe, oi
anoue ia iaaeeoaoeaiia oyniaiea eaeae naina?u (e?oaiai?ioa
nia?oae-?iaeaeaiee) eae no?aaeaiey [25, 30].

Ae?oaia aaaeiia neaaenoaea — yiioeeiiaeueiia e oece/aneia iio?ynaiea io
oaiiiaia nia?oe — ioe?uaaao noa?u aeooiaiuo e ?aeeaeiciuo ia?aaeeaaiee,
yaeythueony nouanoaaiiie /anoueth /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe. Iie ia caaenyo
io eoeueoo?iuo e ?aeeaeiciuo ei?iae e aicc?aiee /aeiaaea. Iiuo
enneaaeiaaiey aeoaeiiuo ieanoia ineoeee iieacuaaao, /oi ethaee,
aeinoeaoea yoeo o?iaiae, iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue i?iieeiooue a iaeaieaa
oiieea aeooiaiua e ?aeeaeiciua ecia?aiey nouanoaothuaai ii?yaeea aauae.
Aeaaea y?ua iaoa?eaeenou, iiceoeaenonee i?eaioe?iaaiiua o/aiua, neaioeee
e oeeieee, aaneiii?iienniua aoaenou e aioe?aeeaeicii iano?iaiiua
oeeiniou-ia?enenou, noieeioaoenue n yoeie o?iaiyie, ia/eiatho
eioa?aniaaoueny aeooiaiuie aii?inaie [3].

Eaeei-oi ia?acii — iiea ia aiieia iiiyoii, eaeei eiaiii, — oaeiai ?iaea
ia?aaeeaaiey i?aaenoaaeythony naycaiiuie n ianoiyoaeuenoaaie
aeieiae/aneiai ?iaeaeaiey. Iiiaea ethaee ia?aaeei niaa?oaiii
ii?aaeaeaiii nnueathony ia ieo eae ia i?iaeeaaiea naiae nianoaaiiie
?iaeiaie o?aaiu. Ethaee, ia /oanoaothuea yoie nayce e iienuaathuea naia
noieeiiaaiea n ia?aaeeaaieai nia?oe e nia?oe-aic?iaeaeaiey n /enoi
ineoieiae/aneie e aeooiaiie oi/ae c?aiey, ?aaoey?ii aeaiiino?e?otho ?yae
oa?aeoa?iuo oece/aneeo neiioiiia, iaiiieiathueo i?ioeann aeieiae/aneiai
?iaeaeaiey. Eo iicu e aeaeaeaiey ii?aceoaeueiui ia?acii niioaaonoaotho
iieiaeaieyi e aeaeaeaieyi ?aaaiea ia ?acee/iuo noaaeeyo ?iaeia. E?iia
oiai, yoe ethaee iau/ii niiauatho i naiae eaeaioeoeeaoeee n yia?eiiii,
ieiaeii a oo?iaa e iiai?iaeaeaiiui ?aaaieii. Iiieii yoiai, ano?a/athony
aa?eaoeee aooaioe/iuo iaiiaoaeueiuo /oanoa e iiaaaeaiey, a oaeaea ia?acu
aeaineeo aaieoaeee e a?oaee.

Yoe oaiiiaiu i?eiyoi iacuaaoue ia?eiaoaeueiuie ia?aaeeaaieyie. I?e/eiiay
naycue iaaeaeo aeooaeueiui aeieiae/aneei ?iaeaeaieai e aanniciaoaeueiuie
iao?eoeaie yoeo ia?aaeeaaiee ana aua inoaaony ia onoaiiaeaiiie.
Ia?eiaoaeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey — i?iyaeaiea aeoaeiiiai o?iaiy
aanniciaoaeueiiai — auoiaeyo ca i?aaeaeu eeanne/aneeo o?aeaeianeeo
iaoiaeia. Aicieeiiaaiea iiaeiaiuo no?oeoo? ineoeee, ii-aeaeeiiio,
naycaii n o.i. “o?aaiie ?iaeaeaiey” (iiae?iaiaa i o?aaia ?iaeaeaiey a
?aaioa Iooi ?aiea [22]). Oaiiiaiu yoie eaoaai?ee ieeiaaea ia
iienuaaeenue a ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a e ia i?eieiaeenue ai
aieiaiea a ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie oai?ee. Aieaa oiai, eeanne/aneee
o?aeaeianeee aiaeec ia iicaieyao iauynieoue yoe oaiiiaiu e ia iiaeao
i?aaeeiaeeoue iiiyoee, i?eaiaeiuo aeey eo eioa?i?aoaoeee.

Ia?eiaoaeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i/aiue nouanoaaiiia
ia?ana/aiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie e o?ainia?niiaeueiie ineoieiaee eee, anee
oae iiaeii au?aceoueny, ineoieiaee e iaoiineoieiaee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
?aeeaee — n ae?oaie. Anee n/eoaoue eo naycaiiuie oieueei n ?iaeaeaieai,
iie iiaee au ioiineoueny e no?oeoo?a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ineoieiaee, ii
oa?aeoa?iua aniaeou i?eaeatho ei niaa?oaiii ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?ainia?niiaeueiue iooaiie. Iai?yaeaiiinoue yoeo ia?aaeeaaiee i?aauoaao
ana iau/ii i?aaeiieaaaaiua aeey /aeiaaea i?aaeaeu. Ca/anooth iie
nii?iaiaeaeathony ioiaeaeanoaeaieai n ae?oaeie ethaeueie eee n ai?ueaie
e no?aaeaieyie /aeiaa/anoaa. Aieaa oiai, eo ninoaaiie /anoueth ia?aaeei
ieacuaathony iaeioi?ua oi?iu yaii o?ainia?niiaeueiuo ia?aaeeaaiee:
yaiethoeeiiiua ainiiieiaiey, yeaiaiou eieeaeoeaiiai aanniciaoaeueiiai e
iaeioi?ua thiaeaineea a?oaoeiu [4].

Eaaeaeay noaaeey aeieiae/aneiai ?iaeaeaiey eiaao niaoeeoe/aneia
aeooiaiia niioaaonoaea: aeey aeaaiiieo/iiai aioo?eoo?iaiiai
nouanoaiaaiey yoi iiuo einie/aneiai aaeeinoaa; ia/aei ?iaeia
nii?iaiaeaeaaony /oanoaii iiaeiuaiey anaeaineei aiaeiai?ioii, ia?aay
eeeie/aneay noaaeey ?iaeia ni noaaoeaie a caieiooii oo?iaiii
i?ino?ainoaa niioiineony n ia?aaeeaaieai “ionoonoaey auoiaea” eee aaea;
aeooiaiui niioaaonoaeai i?iaeaeaeaiey ii ?iaeiaiio eaiaeo ai aoi?ie
noaaeee eeeie/aneeo ?iaeia yaeyaony ai?ueaa nia?oe-aic?iaeaeaiey, a
iaoaoece/aneee yeaeaaeaio nianoaaiii ?iaeaeaiey e niauoee o?aoueae
eeeie/aneie noaaeee ?iaeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aaeeaaiea nia?oe “YAI”
e aic?iaeaeaiey [4].

Aieueoia oai?aoe/aneia cia/aiea eiaao aeoaeiiay ia?aeeaeue iaaeaeo
oeceieiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth a iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo noaaeeyo
aeieiae/aneiai ?iaeaeaiey e iaooa?iaie aeoeaiinoe ?acee/iuo y?iaaiiuo
cii, iniaaiii cii aaieoaeueiiai i?aacia. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
nianoeoue yoeieiae/aneee aeoeaio a ineoiaaiacena yiioeeiiaeueiuo
ia?ooaiee ec naenoaeueiie noa?u a ia?eiaoaeueiua iao?eoeu, ia io?eoeay
i?e yoii cia/eiinoe iiiaeo i?eioeeiia o?aeaeecia [21].

O?ainia?niiaeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey

O?ainia?niiaeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey (ienoe/aneee, eee “ieeiaue”, iiuo;
yenoac, o?ain), niiioaiii iinauathuea iaeioi?uo aiieia caei?iauo e
o?acauo ethaeae, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi yoi a?iaeaeaiiia naienoai
iaoae ineoeee, eioi?ia, eiia/ii, caaeneo e io nioeeaeueiuo e
aaiaoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia ee/iinoiiai ?acaeoey [17].

Iiiaea ia?aaeeaaiey oaeiai ?iaea ecaanoiu oaea ianeieueei noieaoee eee
ouny/aeaoee. ?anneacu i ieo iiaeii iaeoe e a nayuaiiuo ienaieyo anao
aaeeeeo ?aeeaee ie?a, e a ienueiaiiuo aeieoiaioao iiiaeanoaa iaeuo naeo,
o?aeoeee e ?aeeaeiciuo aeaeaeaiee. Iie ea?aee aaaeioth ?ieue a aeaeaieyo
nayouo, ienoeeia e ?aeeaeiciuo o/eoaeae [37]. Yoiieiae e aio?iiieiae
iaia?oaeeee eo a nayuaiiuo iau/ayo ?acee/iuo ia?iaeia, a ninoiyieyo
yenoaca e ?aeeaeiciuo ienoa?eyo, a i?aeoeea oeaeeoaeuenoaa e ?eooaeao
?acee/iuo eoeueoo? [32, 41]. Ineoeao?u e ineoieiae iaaethaeaee
o?ainia?niiaeueiua oaiiiaiu, ia iacuaay eo oaeei ia?acii, a naiae
iianaaeiaaiie i?aeoeea o ineoioe/aneeo iaoeeaioia, iniaaiii oecio?aieeia
[26]. Enoi?eee, aio?iiieiae, ?aeeaeaaaaeu, ineoeao?u e
ineoieiae-yenia?eiaioaoi?u ciaee i nouanoaiaaiee ?aciiia?aciuo ae?aaieo
e nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia eiaeooee?iaaiey o?ainia?niiaeueiuo ia?aaeeaaiee,
iiiaea ec eioi?uo iiaeiaiu iienaiiui auoa i?ioeaaeo?ai, aaaeouei e
aicieeiiaaieth ia?eiaoaeueiuo ia?aaeeaaiee [24, 33, 36].

Aii?aee ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe yoeo oaiiiaiia e eo i/aaeaeiie cia/eiinoe
aeey iiiaeo noa? /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, a i?ioeii aeaeaeinue oaeeaeoaeueii
iaei na?ueaciuo iiiuoie aeeth/eoue eo a oai?eth e i?aeoeeo nia?aiaiiuo
ineoeao?ee e ineoieiaee. Iiceoeey aieueoeinoaa i?ioanneiiaeia eieaaeaony
iaaeaeo ianeieueeeie iiaeoiaeaie e yoiio oaiiiaio. Iaeioi?ua eeoue
ioaeaeaiii ciaeiiu n ?acee/iuie o?ainia?niiaeueiuie ia?aaeeaaieyie e
neeiiiu aieaa eee iaiaa eaii?e?iaaoue eo. Aeey ae?oaie aieueoie a?oiiu
i?ioanneiiaeia, o?ainia?niiaeueiua oaiiiaiu i?aaenoaaeythony noieue
no?aiiuie, /oi iie neeiiiu n/eoaoue eo ioeeiiaieai io ii?iaeueiiai
ineoe/aneiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, ineoioe/aneeie [3].

Ianeaaenoaaiiua ia?aaeeaaiey

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a oaeiai ia?aaeeaaiey y i?eaaaeo ainiiieiaiey iaeiie ec
iaoeeaioie N. A?ioa ai a?aiy ENAe-naaina:

“E iiaio oaeeaeaieth, eaeaioe/iinoue iiaai YAI iaiaeeaeaiii eciaieeanue.
ss auea iiae iaoa?ueth a aic?anoa 3-4 eao; yoi aeieaeii auoue 1902a. Ia
iia auei aeyiiaaoia ieaouea – iae?aoiaeaiiia, aeioiaeyuaa aei ueeieioie;
n ?anoe?aiiuie, eae o enioaaiiiai aeeaioiiai, aeacaie – y iaoiaeeeanue a
ninoiyiee oinee e iaeeii/anoaa. ss cae?uaaea naie ?io ?oeie, iniciaaay,
/oi neo/eeinue ia/oi oaeaniia: y neacaea /oi-oi ieioia, iaiy a?oai
io?oaaee, eoi-oi iieiaeee ?oeo ia iie ?io. Ec naiaai oe?uoey iia aeaeia
auea noeaia n iiiaeanoaii ?iaenoaaiieeia – oaoue e aeyaeue, neaeyueo ia
e?ueueoea aeiia a iaeaaeaeao, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey oiai a?aiaie. Ana auee
caiyou ?acaiai?aie, caaua iai iia. ss /oanoaiaaea naay ioaa?aeaiiie,
i?enouaeaiiie e aeiiaaoie. ss neacaea iaoa?e, /oi o iaiy aue nii,
eanathueeny aa aeaonoaa, e iia aaaeii ciaoue, oae ee auei ia naiii
aeaea. Eae oieueei y ia/aea ?anneacuaaoue, iia ia?aaeea iaiy e caeii/eea
a iieiii niioaaonoaee n ia?aaeeoui iiith” [4].

Eieeaeoeaiua e ?aniaua ia?aaeeaaiey

Iiaeiaiua ia?aaeeaaiey iiaoo ioiineoueny e ethaie no?aia, ethaiio
enoi?e/aneiio ia?eiaeo e eoeueoo?iie o?aaeeoeee, oioy, i/aaeaeii,
ii?aaeaeaiiia i?aaeii/oaiea ieacuaaaony eoeueoo?ai e no?aiai n auniei
?acaeouie ?aeeaeiciuie, oeeinioneeie o?aaeeoeeyie e o?aaeeoeeyie a
eneonnoaa. Oaeeaeoaeueii /anoi ano?a/athony ia?aaeeaaiey, ioiineiua e
Aaeioo, Eiaeee, Oeaaoo, Eeoath, ssiiiee, aeieieoiaiaie Iaeneea, Ia?o,
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee. Auai? eoeueoo? e eo niaoeeoe/aneeo aniaeoia yaii ia
caaeneo ie io yoie/aneie iniiau noauaeoa, ie io no?aiu ?iaeaeaiey, ie
aeaaea io iieo/aiiiai ainieoaiey, ia?aciaaiey, eioa?ania. Iiyoiio
aiaeinaen iiaeao ia?aaeeaaoue iieiia ioiaeaeanoaeaiea n ?acee/iuie
ia?eiaeaie enoi?ee ao?i-aia?eeaioeaa eee naaa?iaia?eeaineeo eiaeaeoeaa,
e a ?acoeueoaoa iaia?oaeeaaao iiaia iiieiaiea e ia?aaeeaaiea ?aniauo
i?iaeai. Eioi?iaoeey, iieo/aaiay aeaaiaea?y oaeei ia?aaeeaaieyi, iau/ii
niaa?oaiii oi/ia e iiaeao auoue i?iaa?aia i?e eiinoeueoaoeee n
a?oaieiae/aneeie e aio?iiieiae/aneeie e?oaaie. Eiiaaea aanoeo?inoiua
eiaeeaeaeooiu iienuaatho aeaoaee aaeiaoneeo iioi?iiiuo oea?aiiiee,
aeeth/ay oi?io e cia/aiea ?acee/iuo aioeaoia e eaia? a a?iaieoeao, oeaao
iioi?iiiuo eiionia, oaoiieiaeth aaeuecaie?iaaiey e ioieoeeaoeee e noeaiu
iineaaeothueo i?ioeaaeo? [4].

Oeeiaaiaoe/aneea (yaiethoeeiiiua) ia?aaeeaaiey

Iaeioi?ua ethaee iienuaatho ia?aaeeaaiey naay a ia?aca eaeeo-oi
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia /aeiaaea ia yaiethoeeiiiii iooe. Oae, iai?eia?, iaeia
aeaiueia ai a?aiy ENAe-naaina ii/oanoaiaaea naia iieiia ioiaeaeanoaeaiea
n naieie ia?iiiuo ?aioeeee, auia?oeo ieeeeiiu eao iacaae. Iia
/oanoaiaaea naay niiiie e eaieaie ai a?aiy ioaeuoa ia ianea o aieueoiai
ica?a e aeaaeaiii a?aeanue ia nieiuoea. Iia ioe?uea aeaca e iiniio?aea
ia oa?aiaaoa, eioi?ue ai a?aiy naaina o?ainoi?ie?iaaeny a naioea oiai
aea aeaea. Aa /oanoai eaie iaiiaaiii en/acei e iia noaea eniuouaaoue
neeueiia naenoaeueiia aicaoaeaeaiea, ia eiathuaa ie/aai iauaai n
/aeiaa/aneei aicaoaeaeaieai, yoi aue iniaue eioa?an ?aioeeee e
i?aaenoaaeoaeth ae?oaiai iiea. Iia auea niaa?oaiii i/a?iaaia
nooiai/aouie oanaoeaie ia noi?iiao aieiau. Iaeii aieueoia iiea oaeiai
?iaea eiaei oaeoth oi?io e oeaao, /oi eceo/aei iiuiua naenoaeueiua
aea?aoeee. Eiinoeueoaio- iaeaiioieia i?aaeeiaeee auaea?aeee ec
ciieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, oeacuaathuea ia oi, /oi o nia?aiaiiuo ?aioeeee
ii?aaeaeaiiua o/anoee ia aieiaa ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue, aucuaay
naenoaeueiia aicaoaeaeaiea… [3].

Ia?aaeeaaiey i?ioeuo aiieiuaiee

Noauaeo nio?aiyao eaeaioe/iinoue naiaai YAI, oioy ia?aaeeaaao naay a
ae?oaie oi?ia, ae?oaii ianoa e a?aiaie, ae?oaii eiioaenoa, ii /oanoaoao,
/oi ii – oa aea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay nouiinoue, /oi e a aai ianoiyuai
nouanoaiaaiee. O iaai nio?aiyaony ino?ia iuouaiea ano?a/e n
ainiiieiaieai, iiaoi?iiai ia?aaeeaaiey oiai, /oi ii oaea aeaeae e
ia?aaeee [4].

I?aaeaeaeaiea, yniiaeaeaiea, yniineuoaiea, “iooaoanoaey ai a?aiaie”.

Eiiaaea eniuooaiua niiauatho i i?aaeaeaeaiee niauoee, eioi?ua neo/aony a
aoaeouai. A?aiaiaie iie noaiiayony naeaeaoaeyie neiaeiuo noeai aoaeoueo
niauoee, iie iiaoo neuoaoue aeaaea aeonoe/aneia nii?iaiaeaeaiea,
ninoaaeythuaa eo /anoue. Iaeioi?ua ec ia?aaeeaaiee i?iyaeytho ?acee/iua
noaiaie noiaenoaa n niauoeyie, neo/athueieny iicaeiaa [4].

Ioiaeaeanoaeaiea n ae?oaeie eeoeaie

Yoi ioiaeaeanoaeaiea iieiia e eiiieaeniia; iii aeeth/aao a naay
i?aaenoaaeaiea i oaea, yiioeeiiaeueiua ?aaeoeee e ioiioaiey,
ineoieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, au?aaeaiea eeoea, oeie/iua iaia?u e
aeanou, iicu, aeaeaeaiey e aeaaea eioiiaoeee aieina [4].

A?oiiiaia ioiaeaeanoaeaiea e a?oiiiaia niciaiea

A eciaiaiiuo ninoiyieyo niciaiey iiaeii ia?aaeeoue oioaeueiinoue
no?aaeaiey anao nieaeao, iiaeaoeo ia iieyo n?aaeaiee, ?aaiethoeeiiioth
ai?y/a/iinoue anao eiiioienoia ie?a, aeia?ioo anao iaoa?ae, ethayueo
naieo aeaoae… A yoeo ia?aaeeaaieyo iiaeii ioiaeaeanoaeoueny n nioe.
eeannii, eanoie, aeaaea n ianaeaieai oeaeie no?aiu [5].

Ioiaeaeanoaeaiea n aeeaioiuie

O?e aeaea ENN naycaiu n aeeaioiuie: aoineiaiee/aneea o?ainoi?iaoeee a
aeeaioiuo, ioiaeaeanoaeaiea n aeeaioiuie e oeeiaaiaoe/aneea
ainiiieiaiey, i?e yoii eaaeaeia iaaeaeaii naieie niaoeeoe/aneeie
/a?oaie. Noauaeou, ano?aoeaoeany ni anaie o?aiy aeaeaie ia?aaeeaaiee
eaaei iiaoo ioee/eoue eo iaeii io ae?oaiai [4].

Ioiaeaeanoaeaiea n ?anoaieyie

I?eia?u oaeeo ia?aaeeaaiee ano?a/athony ai?acaei ?aaea, /ai
ioiaeaeanoaeaiea n aeeaioiuie. Noauaeo iiaeao iuooeoue naay eae
aucaaiiia e aeecie naiy, eeno a i?ioeanna oioineioaca, ei?aiue,
oyioueeny a iieneao aiaeu e ieue. A ae?oaeo neo/ayo ii iiaeao
ioiaeaeanoaeoue naay n ?inyieie, ae?oaeie ieioiyaeiuie ?anoaieyie,
noaoue ieaieoiiii a ieaaia, ii/oanoaiaaoue iiueaiea eee eeaoi/iia
aeaeaiea. Noauaeou oiiieiatho i naieo naeaeaoaeuenoaao aioaie/aneeo
i?ioeannia ia iieaeoey?iii o?iaia; iie iniciatho aeioeie/aneee neioac,
eaaeauee a iniiaa i?iecaiaenoaa ?inoiauo aauanoa, ?anoeoaeueiuo
ieaiaioia, ianea, naoa?a, a?iiaoe/aneeo noanoaioeee e ?acee/iuo
aeeaeieaeia [4].

Aaeeiaiea n aeeciueth e ni anai oai?aieai

A ?aaeeeo neo/ayo noauaeou a ENN iiaoo eiaoue /oanoai, /oi eo niciaiea
?anoe?eeinue, /oiau ioaaoeoue anth iieiioo aeecie ia yoie ieaiaoa,
aeeth/ay ana /aeiaa/anoai e oeaeinoiinoue oei?u e oaoiu io
iaeiieeaoi/iiai i?aaiecia aei aunieiaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo aeaeia.
Eiaeeaeaeooi iiaeao ioiaeaeanoaeoueny n oeeiaaiaoe/aneie yaiethoeeae
aeecie ai anae aa neiaeiinoe e aeinoe/ue eiooeoeaiiai iiieiaiey anao
eaaeaueo a aa iniiaa aeieiae/aneeo caeiiia. Ii iiaeao enneaaeiaaoue
oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia aicieeiiaaiea iiauo aeaeia eee ioaaonoaaiiua ca eo
en/aciiaaiea, e aeaeaoue aeaenoaea nee, ii?aaeaeythueo “auaeeaaiea
iaeaieaa i?eniiniaeaiiuo”. Iiaeiaiua eiooeoeee iiaeii ia?aaeeoue e
ioiineoaeueii acaeiiaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo oi?i aeecie. Ia?aaeeaaiey oaeiai
?iaea iiaoo a ?acoeueoaoa i?eaanoe e oaaee/aieth iniciaiey yeieiae/aneeo
i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n oaoiieiae/aneei ?acaeoeai e auno?ie
eiaeono?eaeecaoeeae [4].

Niciaiea iai?aaie/aneie iaoa?ee

Noauaeou iaiaeiie?aoii niiauaee, /oi ia?aaeeaatho niciaiea ieaaia,
ioee/athuaany naiae aaca?aiaiiinoueth, oaeo/anoueth, ni/aoaieai
iaeciaiiinoe e aeeiaie/aneeo ia?aiai. A ae?oaeo neo/ayo iie
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaee naay n oai, /oi ii eo iiaieth yaeyeinue niciaieai
iaiy. Aeiaieueii iauei yaeyaony iniciaaaiea nee, aunaiaiaeaeaiiuo i?e
eaoano?ioao: ?ac?ooeoaeueiua, a oaeaea niceaeaoaeueiua ai?iia?acothuea
aniaeou aoeeaie/aneeo ecaa?aeaiee, aeeiaie/aneia iai?yaeaiea e
ia?aiauaiea i?e caieao?ynaieyo, neea aicaeooiuo oa/aiee ai a?aiy ceiieo
ao?ue, eeoue ianeieueei a?inathueony a aeaca i?eia?ia. Aiciiaeii
enneaaeiaaoue niciaiea eiiiuethoa?a, ioiaeaeanoaeoueny n ?aaeoeaiui
naiieaoii, niooieeii e ae?oaeie oaoie/aneeie i?aaeiaoaie. Iiiaea
noauaeou a ninoiyieyo eciaiaiiiai niciaiey ooaa?aeaeatho oaeaea, /oi
ia?aaeeaaee niciaiea iaii?aaeaeaiiiai iaoa?eaea; iaeaieaa /anoi yoi auee
aeiac, a?aieo, cieioi e noaeue. Iiaeiaiua ia?aaeeaaiey iiaoo eanaoueny
aeaaea iee?iie?a e iienuaaoue aeeiaie/aneoth no?oeoo?o aoiiia, i?e?iaeo
caaeaenoaiaaiiuo yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo nee, iaaeaoiiiuo naycae eee
a?ioiianeia aeaeaeaiea iieaeoe [3].

Ieaiaoa?iia niciaiea

A yoii ia?aaeeaaiee niciaiea noauaeoa, ii-aeaeeiiio, ioaaouaaao ana
aniaeou iaoae ieaiaou, aeeth/ay aa aaieiae/aneoth noanoaioeeth,
iai?aaie/aneea iaoa?eaeu ia aa iiaa?oiinoe e oeaeinoiinoue anao
aeeciaiiuo oi?i. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey Caiey ieacuaaaony neiaeiui
einie/aneei i?aaieciii n ?acee/iuie aniaeoaie aaieiae/aneie,
aeieiae/aneie, eoeueoo?iie e oaoiieiae/aneie yaiethoeeae ia yoie
ieaiaoa, ?anniao?eaaaiuo eae iiiuoeo aeinoe/ue aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy
eioaa?aoeee e naii?aaeecaoeee [3].

Yenopaieaiaoapiia niciaiea

Caeanue noauaeo ia?aaeeaaao yaeaiey, naycaiiua n iaaaniuie oaeaie,
ioee/iuie io iaoae ieaiaou, e n ano?iiiie/aneeie niauoeyie,
i?ienoiaeyueie a nieia/iie nenoaia e ca aa i?aaeaeaie. Iniaue aeae
ia?aaeeaaiee, aoiaeyuee a yoo eaoaai?eth, niciaiea iaaecaacaeiiai
i?ino?ainoaa, iienaiiiai a ianeieueeeo neo/ayo ?aciuie eeoeaie. Iii
oa?aeoa?ecoaony /oanoaii aaca?aie/iinoe e aa/iinoe, niieienoaey,
aaciyoaaeiinoe, /enoiou e aaeeinoaa anao i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae. Ethaee,
ciaeiiua n oeceeie e iaoaiaoeeie, eiiaaea niiauatho, /oi iiiaea ec
eiioeaioeee yoeo aeenoeeieei, eioi?ua oneieuecatho io ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
iiieiaiey, iiaoo noaoue aieaa iinoeaeeiuie e aeaaea iiaoo auoue
ia?aaeeou a eciaiaiiuo ninoiyieyo niciaiey [3].

Niciaiea i?aaia, aeieiae/aneie oeaie, eeaoee.

A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa yoi ia?aaeeaaiea aeeth/aao /anoe oaea noauaeoa e
oeceieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, eioi?ua i?e ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo iaaeinooiiu
iniciaaaieth. Noauaeou a oaeii ninoiyiee iano?aeaathony ia iniciaiea
?acee/iuo i?aaiia naiaai oaea. Iie iiaoo ieacaoueny naeaeaoaeyie ?aaiou
aeao/eea na?aea/iiai ioeuena, nie?auaiey na?aea/iie iuooeu e
ioe?uoey-cae?uoey na?aea/iuo eeaiaiia. Iiaeiaiui aea ia?acii iiaeii
iaaethaeaoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ia/aie, i?iecaiaenoai e iaeiieaiea
aeae/e, ieuaaa?eoaeueiua i?ioeannu, ooieoeee ethaiai i?aaia. Eiiaaea
noauaeou ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iie ia?aaeeee naay a ea/anoaa iae?iiia a
nianoaaiiii iicao, aaeuo e e?aniuo e?iayiuo oa?eeia, ca?iaeuoaauo eeaoie
[5].

Ia?aaeeaaiea ano?a/ ni naa?o/aeiaa/aneeie e aeooiaiuie nouanoaaie

Noauaeo aini?eieiaao yoeo nouanoa eae naa?o/aeiaa/aneea eee aeooiaiua
nouanoaa, iaeoathuea ia aieaa aunieeo yia?aio?iaiyo eee ia aieaa aunieeo
ieaiao niciaiey. Oaiiiaiieiaey yoie eaoaai?ee ia?aaeeaaiee iienaia
Aeaeiiii E. Eeeee a aai eieaa “Oeaio? oeeeeiia” [12].

Ia?aaeeaaiey ae?oaeo anaeaiiuo e ano?a/a n eo iaeoaoaeyie

No?aiiua e /oaeaeua ie?u, eioi?ua eniuooaiue ioe?uaaao a yoii aeaea
ia?aaeeaaiee, ii-aeaeeiiio, iaaeaeaiu naiae nianoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoueth,
oioy e ia a i?aaeaeao iaoaai einiina; iie, i/aaeaeii, nouanoaotho e a
ae?oaeo ecia?aieyo. I?ieaey /a?ac oaeea yeno?ai?aeeia?iua i?eeeth/aiey,
noauaeou n?aaieaaee eo n i?i/eoaiiuie oaioanoe/aneeie ?iiaiaie [4].

A?oaoeie/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey e neiaeiua ieoieiae/aneea yieciaeu

Yoa a?oiia o?ainia?niiaeueiuo ia?aaeeaaiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaiiiaiu,
eioi?ua E.A.THia iacuaae ia?aiia?acaie, aeiieiaioaie eieeaeoeaiiai
aanniciaoaeueiiai, eee a?oaoeiaie. A iaeioi?uo ec iaeaieaa
oieaa?naeueiuo a?oaoeiia /aeiaae iiaeao ioiaeaeanoaeyoueny n ia?acaie
Iaoa?e, Iooea, ?aaaiea, AEaiueiu, Ioae/eiu eee Ethayuaai. Iiiaea
iaiauaiiua ?iee aini?eieiathony eae nae?aeueiua, eae aiieiuaiiua
a?oaoeiu Aaeeeie Iaoa?e, Oaeaniie Iaoa?e, Iaoa?e-Caiee, Iaoa?e-I?e?iaeu,
Aaeeeiai Aa?iao?iaeeoa eee Einie/aneiai /aeiaaea. *anoi ano?a/athony
a?oaoeiu, ieeoeaoai?ythuea ii?aaeaeaiiua aniaeou ee/iinoe — Oaiue,
Aieiona eee Aieio e Ia?niio [4].

Ia?aaeei iaeneooaiiua ethaee ?anneacuaatho enoi?ee, i/aiue iaiiieiathuea
ae?aaiea ieoieiae/aneea nthaeaou Ianiiioaiee, Eiaeee, Aaeioa, A?aoeee,
Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee e ae?oaeo no?ai. Yoe niiauaiey n?aaieiu n
thiaianeei iienaieai iaecaanoiuo, ii yaii a?oaoeie/aneeo oai aeaoneeo
niia e niia iaeaiuo iaoeeaioia, a oaeaea n neiioiiaoeeie iaeioi?uo
ethaeae, no?aaeathueo oecio?aieae. Iaeioi?ua ethaee i?iieeatho a
?acee/iua nenoaiu ycioa?e/aneiai ciaiey. Oae, ethaee, ia eiathuea
iiiyoey i eaaaaea, ia?aaeeaatho ninoiyiey, iienaiiua a eieaa Ciaa? e
Naoa? Eaoee?, e aeaiiino?e?otho iaiaeeaeaiioth inaaaeiieaiiinoue a
eaaaaeenoe/aneie neiaieeea. Iiaeiaiue oaiiiai aiacaiii noi?ie?iaaiiiai
iiieiaiey iaaethaeaeny oaeaea a ioiioaiee oaeeo ae?aaieo oi?i
i?aaeneacaiey, eae E-Oecei e Oa?i [3].

Ia?aaeeaaiey ano?a/ n aiaeanoaaie

Aieueoeinoai aiaeanoa, ano?a/athueony a iienaieyo noauaeoia aeaeyony ia
aeaa eaoaai?ee: neeu naaoa e aeia?a, neeu oueiu e cea. Iaeioi?ua
aiaeanoaa i?eiaaeeaaeaee ii?aaeaeaiiie ?aeeaee, i?ienoiaeaeaiea
iaeioi?uo ia oaeaeinue onoaiiaeoue ie eniuooaiui ie oa?aiaaoai. Iniiaiay
/anoue noauaeoia ia iuouaao, /oi eiaao aeaei n aeaaiui eee aa?oiaiui
nouanoaii ai anaeaiiie [4].

Aeoeaecaoeey /aep e iiaeuai ciaeiie neeu (eoeiaeaeeie)

Ia ia?aie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee ii Iao/iie eiaa a Eiaeee a
aeaeaa?a 1972 a. aoaeeoi?ey ninoiyea aieaa /ai ec 200 eeoe,
i?aaenoaaeyaoeo iiiai ?acee/iuo aeooiaiuo i?eaioaoeee, nouanoaothueo a
nia?aiaiiie Eiaeee. O/anoieee aeeneonnee iinea aeieeaaea N.A?ioa i?eoee
e niaeaoaieth, /oi aieueoa anaai ENAe-oa?aiey iioiaea ia nenoaio Eiae
Eoeiaeaeeie. E oa e ae?oaay oaoieea niinianoaoao iaiiaaiiiio e ia?iiiiio
inaiaiaeaeaieth yia?aee, ii?iaeaeaao aeoaieea ia?aaeeaaiey e iiaeao
i?eianoe aia/aoeythuea ?acoeueoaou a ei?ioeee ia?eiae a?aiaie. Iie iaa
ianoo a naaa ia?iiiue ?ene e iiaoo auoue iianiu, anee i?iaiaeyony ia
iiae iaaethaeaieai niaoeeaeenoa [21].

Niciaiea Oieaa?naeueiiai ?acoia

Niciaiea Oieaa?naeueiiai ?acoia — iaeii ec iaeaieaa aeoaieeo e
anaiauaiethueo yenoaoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee. Ioiaeaeanoaeyynue n niciaieai
Oieaa?naeueiiai ?acoia, /aeiaae ia?aaeeaaao a iiuoa anaiauaiethuaa
aaeeinoai nouanoaiaaiey. Ii /oanoaoao, /oi aeinoea ?aaeueiinoe, eaaeauae
a iniiaa anao ?aaeueiinoae, e noieo ia?aae aunoei e aaniethoiui
i?eioeeiii, ieeoeaoai?ythuei ana auoea. Caeanue iieiinoueth
i?aiaeieaaathony eeethcee iaoa?ee, i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, ?aaii eae e
aaneiia/iia /enei ae?oaeo noauaeoeaiuo ?aaeueiinoae, e ana iie i?eoiaeyo
e yoiio aaeeiiio iiaeono niciaiey, eioi?ia yaeyaony eo iauei enoieii e
iauei ciaiaiaoaeai. Yoi ia?aaeeaaiea aaca?aie/ii, iaiinoeaeeii e
iaau?aceii; yoi naii nouanoaiaaiea. Aa?aaeueiay eiiioieeaoeey e
neiaiee/aneay no?oeoo?a iaoaai iianaaeiaaiiai ycuea ieacuaaaony aei
niaoiiai aaniiiiuiie a iiiuoea iinoe/ue e ia?aaeaoue i?e?iaeo e ea/anoai
yoiai ia?aaeeaaiey. Iiuo oaiiiaiaeueiiai ie?a e oiai, /oi iu iacuaaai
iau/iui ninoiyieai niciaiey, eaaeaony a yoii eiioaenoa eeoue e?aeia
ia?aie/aiiui, eneaaeaiiui e /anoe/iui aniaeoii anaiauaiethuaai niciaiey
Oieaa?naeueiiai ?acoia.

Ianoaeaeay iiaeiaiua ia?aaeeaaiey, ethaee /anoi ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi
iiyoe/aneee ycue, oioy ii oiaea yaeyaony ianiaa?oaiiui, aieueoa
iiaeoiaeeo aeey eo iienaiey. Noaiiaeony iiiyoiui, ii/aio i?iaeaeoeu,
i?i?iee e ?aeeaeiciua o/eoaey i?eaaaaee e iiycee, i?eo/a e iaoaoi?a,
iienuaay naie o?ainia?niiaeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey.

Iiuo niciaiey Oieaa?naeueiiai ?acoia oanii naycai n ia?aaeeaaieai
Einie/aneiai Aaeeinoaa, ii ia oiaeaeanoaai aio. Aai aaaeiuie
ninoaaeythueie yaeythony eiooeoeaiua i?ic?aiey ioiineoaeueii i?ioeanna
oai?aiey oaiiiaiaeueiiai ie?a, eaeei iu aai ciaai, e iinoeaeaiea
aoaeaeeeneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i Eieana nia?oe e ia?aaiieiuaiey. Yoi iiaeao
i?eaanoe e a?aiaiiiio eee onoie/eaiio /oanoao aeinoeaeaiey aeiaaeueiiai,
ia?aoeeiiaeueiiai e o?ain- ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiieiaiey ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
iioieiae/aneeo e einiieiae/aneeo aii?inia nouanoaiaaiey [4].

Naa?o- einie/aneay e iaoa- einie/aneay ionoioa

Iineaaeiee e iaeaieaa ia?aaeienaeueiue o?ainia?niiaeueiue oaiiiai,
ianoaeaeaaiue a yoii eiioaenoa, — ia?aaeeaaiea naa?o- einie/aneie eee
iaoa- einie/aneie ionoiou. Yoi iiuo ecia/aeueiie ionoiou, iiuo ie/aai e
iie/aiey, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie enoie e ia/aei anaai nouaai,
ia?aaeeaaiea “ianioai?aiiiai, iaau?aceiiai Anaauoiaai”. Oa?ieiu
“naa?oeinie/aneee” e “iaoaeinie/aneee”, eioi?uie a yoii eiioaenoa
iieuecothony aunieiia?aciaaiiua o/anoieee ENAe- naainia, au?aaeatho oi,
/oi yoa ionoioa eaaeaony iaeiia?aiaiii eaaeauae a iniiaa ie?a e
ii?aaeaeythuae aai naa?oii?yaeie. Iia eaaeeo ca i?aaeaeaie a?aiaie e
i?ino?ainoaa, ca i?aaeaeaie oi?i eee ethauo yiie?e/aneeo
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, ca i?aaeaeaie oaeeo iiey?iinoae, eae aeia?i e cei,
naao e oueia, iieie e aeaeaeaiea, aaiiey e yenoac.

Eaaeaony ia?aaeienaeueiui, /oi naa?oeinie/aneay ionoioa e Oieaa?naeueiue
?acoi aini?eieiathony eae ia/oi oiaeaeanoaaiiia e acaeiicaiaiyaiia; yoi
aeaa ?acee/iuo aniaeoa iaeiiai e oiai aea oaiiiaia. Ionoioa
i?aaenoaaeyaony /?aaaoie oi?iaie, a oiieea oi?iu Oieaa?naeueiiai ?acoia
ia?aaeeaathony eae aaniethoiay ionoioa.

Oaeie aeoaieee o?ainoeaiaeaioiue iiuo, eae aeoeaecaoeey eoeiaeaeeie,
niciaiea Oieaa?naeueiiai ?acoia, eee ionoiou, ia oieueei iieiaeeoaeueii
aeeyao ia oece/aneia e yiioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea /aeiaaea, ii e
i?iaoaeaeaao a iai ino?ue eioa?an e ?aeeaee, ienoeea e oeeinioneei
aii?inai, neeueioth iio?aaiinoue aeeth/eoue aeooiaiia ecia?aiea a naie
ia?ac aeecie [4].

Yenoaoe/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey

“Yenoac (io a?a/. ekstasis – ennooieaiea, ainoeuaiea) – aunoay noaiaiue
ainoi?aa, aiiaeooaaeaiey, eiiaaea ia a?aie ennooieaiey” (Ec “Oieeiaiai
neiaa?y ?onneiai ycuea” iiae ?aae. Iaeaaiaa).

“Yenoac – yoi ianooaa, iiuiue aeei?ae, a eioi?ii cao/eo any aaiia /oanoa
io oaeana aei ainoi?aa. Oaean io niciaiey nianoaaiiie ie/oiaeiinoe
ia?aae Aaneiia/iui. Ainoi?a io oiai, /oi ou iiaeaoue /oanoaiaaoue yoo
Aaneiia/iinoue. Ooaeiaeiee a oai?/aneii yenoaca nicaeaao aaieaeueiua
i?iecaaaeaiey. A i?i?i/aneii yenoaca i?i?ie aoeaaeueii noaiiaeony
?oii?ii Aiaa, eioi?ue aeeaaeuaaao a aai onoa neiaa, eniieiaiiua aunoaai
niunea. Ienoee a ienoe/aneii yenoaca aeaeaaony ?aii?oa?ii iianaianoiiai
Aiaeanoaaiiiai I?enoonoaey – anaiauaai Aiaeanoaaiiiai I?iiunea. Aea e
iai, i?inoui nia?oiui, ciaeiii yoi /oanoai, eiaaea a naiue iaiaeeaeaiiue
iiiaio a oaaa aae?oa eae aoaeoi i?ienoiaeeo eaeay-oi oeie/aneay ?aaeoeey
n auaeaeaieai oi ee eaeiai-oi aaca, oi ee iiieiaiey, oi ee oiai, /oi ia
iiyoe/aneii neyiaa ciaaony yoe?ii. Ii ia oniaaoue iaeyiooueny – ioee, e
iao aai. I?ioei “iiieiaiea”. Ii ?aaeinoue io oiai, /oi iii auei,
inoaeanue a aeaea aeiaieueii aeoiie ii ianoiui iiiyoeyi oeuaee” [36].

Yenoaoe/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey (a /anoiinoe, oa?aeoa?iua aeey iiiaeo
ienoa?eaeueiuo eoeueoia ae?aaiinoe), iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa aieueoea
a?oiiu: “aoeeaie/aneee”, eee “aeeiieneeneee” yenoac, e iaoiaeyueeny a
?aceoaeueiii n iei eiio?anoa “ieaaie/aneee”, eee “aiieeiieeneee” yenoac
[5].

“Aoeeaie/aneee”, eee “aeeiieneeneee” yenoac

Aeey ” aoeeaie/aneiai” yenoaca oa?aeoa?ii e?aeiaa oece/aneia e
yiioeeiiaeueiia iai?yaeaiea, aunieay aa?anneaiinoue, aeano?oeoeaiua
eiioeuena aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iai?aaeaiiinoe, iiuiua iiaoaeaeaiey
naenoaeueiie i?e?iaeu, ?eoie/aneea i?aeanoe/aneea aeaeaeaiey.
“Aoeeaie/aneee” yenoac i?aaeiieaaaao oieeaeueioth nianue e?aeieo
yiioeeiiaeueiuo e oece/aneeo ioe n aeeeei /oanoaaiiui ii?uaii.
Ieacuaathony iaioee/eiuie ia?aaeeaaiey eaaeyiiai oieiaea io
iaia?aiineiiai aea?a, iaiaaenoe – io ethaae, aaiiee oie?aiey – io
ainoi?aa iiaiai ?iaeaeaiey, aiieaeeioe/aneeo oaeania – io ?aaeinoe
niceaeaiey… O eiaeeaeaea aicieeaao iuouaiea i?eaeeaeaiey aaeeeiai
niauoey, iio?ynathuaai aanue ie?. – aeooiaiia inaiaiaeaeaiea, ioe?iaaiea
aunoae enoeiu eee aaeeiaiea anaai nouaai. Iaeiaei, eaeeie au ino?uie ia
auee au yoe iuouaiey e ia?aaeeaaiey, yenoac ieeiaaea ?aaeueii ia
aeinoeaaao oeaee e ?aaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey ae?aiu nia?oe-aic?iaeaeaiey.
Aeey yoiai ii aeieaeai ia?aeoe a “ieaaie/aneee” yenoac (ni. ieaea).
Nii?iaiaeaeathuea “aoeeaie/aneee” yenoac oa?aeoa?iua ia?aaeeaaiey
?aeeaeiciiai oeia aeeth/atho a naay ?eooaeu aea?oaii?eiioaiey,
io/aie/aneoth nia?oue, oaaao aaaeuei, aeeiieneeneea i?aee e o.i. [3].

“Ieaaie/aneee”, eee “aiieeiie/aneee”, yenoac

Aeey “ieaaie/aneiai” yenoaca oa?aeoa?ii ia?aaeeaaiea /oanoaa neeyiey n
ie?oaeaieai e aaeeinoaa n aini?eieiaaiuie iauaeoaie. Ie? i?aaenoaaeyaony
eae ianoi iaau?aceiiai neyiey e e?aniou. Yeaiaio ?aciuoeaiey e
iio?aaiinoue a ?aoeeiiaeueiii aiaeeca cia/eoaeueii nieaeathony, e
Anaeaiiay noaiiaeony “oaeiie, eioi?oth neaaeoao ia?aaeeoue, a ia
caaaaeeie, eioi?oth ioaeii ?acaaaeaoue”. A yoii ninoiyiee /aeiaaeo
o?oaeii aeaeaoue eaeea-eeai iaaaoeaiua aniaeou a ie?a e a naiie
no?oeoo?a ie?icaeaiey. Ana ieacuaaaony niaa?oaiiui, ana anoue oae, eae
iii aeieaeii auoue. A yoio iiiaio ie? i?aaenoaaeyaony aeaaii?eyoiui
ianoii, aaea n iieiui aeiaa?eai e /oanoaii niaa?oaiiie aaciianiinoe
iiaeii i?eiyoue ianneaii-caaeneioth iiceoeeth, iiaeiaioth iieiaeaieth
?aaaiea. Aeey /aeiaaea a yoii ninoiyiee oia cei eaaeaony ia eiathuei
cia/aiey, iaaaaeiui, yoaia?iui eee ianouanoaaiiui. I?e ia?aaeeaaiee
iiuoa einie/aneiai aaeeinoaa o?ainoeaiaee?iaaiea a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa
iiaeao i?eiyoue aeiaieueii eiie?aoioth oi?io, /oi iiaeii
i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue ?yaeii niaoeeoe/aneeo ia?acia. *aeiaae iiaeao
ia?aaeeaaoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaeaiee, iicaieythueo
eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue iiuo a oa?ieiao ?aa?annee a enoi?e/aneii a?aiaie. Yoi
aeeth/aao ?aciiia?acea yia?eiiaeueiuo iuouaiee, iaiyoue i?aaeeia,
yeaiaiou eieeaeoeaiiai aanniciaoaeueiiai e yaiethoeeiiiue iiuo,
nii?iaiaeaeaaiue oeeiaaiaoe/aneeie “ia?aoiuie eaae?aie” e aea?aeineei
i?ic?aieai. Niioaaonoaothuee auoiae ca i?aaeaeu iau/iiai
i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ia?aie/aiey iiaeii i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue ia i?eia?ao
eaeaioeoeeaoeee n ae?oaeie eeoeaie e a?oiiaie eeoe, n aeeaioiuie,
?anoaieyie e aeaaea iai?aaie/aneei aauanoaii. Aaaeiie aa?eaoeeae yoiai
ia?aaeeaaiey yaeyaony noauaeoeaiia ioiaeaeanoaeaiea n oece/aneie
Anaeaiiie, n aa aaeaeoeeaie, nieia/iuie nenoaiaie e ie?eaaeaie
ioaeaeueiuo caacae [3].

O?ainoeaiaeaioaoeey YAI e eaeay oeaeinoiinoe a ?acee/iuo ?aeeaeyo

Oaiiiai ?aeeaeiciinoe aeaaii caieiae oeeinioia e eoeueoo?ieiaia. A
oa/aiee iineaaeieo noa eao a ?aeeaeiaaaeaiee ainiiaenoaiaaea
nioeeieiae/aneay ia?aaeeaia, i?iyaeaoayny, a /anoiinoe, a oai?ee
yeiiiie/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia E. Ia?ena, nioeeieiaee ?aeeaee I. Aaaa?a,
oai?ee nioeeaeueiie aeaoa?ieiaoeee Y. Aeth?eaaeia, a ?yaea
yoiieiae/aneeo eiioeaioeee (ooieoeeiiaeecia A.Iaeeiianeiai,
no?oeoo?aeecia E. Eaae-No?inna [11]). Oai ia iaiaa, iniaaiii iinea ?yaea
?acoeueoaoia, iieo/aiiuo ineoieiaaie e ineoiaiaeeoeeaie (oaeeie, eae C.
O?aeae, E.A.THia, Y.O?iii), a oaeaea aaaaeaieai a iao/iue iai?io
yiie?e/aneiai iaoa?eaea, nia?aiiiai e ia?aaioaiiiai yoiieiaaie e
ainoieiaaaeaie, aicieeee na?ueaciua niiiaiey a oieaa?naeueiinoe e
ieii/aoaeueiinoe nioeeieiae/aneie ia?aaeeaiu, noa?a aa i?eiaiaiey
iinoiyiii oiaiueoaaony. E ooo ia iiiiuue nioeeieiaee i?eoiaeeo
ineoieiaey, i?aaeeaaay iiaoth, ineoieiae/aneoth, ia?aaeeaio aeey
?anniio?aiey oaiiiaia ?aeeaeiciinoe [25]. Eeth/aaui iiiyoeai aeey oaeiai
iiaeoiaea yaeyaony iiiyoea “?aeeaeiciiai iiuoa”, noi?ioee?iaaiiia O.
Aeaeaeinii (“?aeeaey nooue niaieoiiinoue /oanoa, aeaenoaee e iiuoa
ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe…. Ee/iay ?aeeaey ieacuaaaony ianiiiaiii
ia?ae/iaa, /ai aiaineiaea e oea?eiaue: anyeay oea?eiaue, iaeiaaeaeu
o/?aaeaeaiiay, aeeaao iinea yoiai, iie?aynue ia o?aaeeoeeth; ii
“iniiaaoaee” eaaeaeie oea?eae anaaaea /a?iaee naith neeo ec
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ee/iiai iauaiey n aiaeanoaii, i?e/ai oae auei ia
oieueei n oaie, eiio, eae O?enoo, Aoaeaea eee Iaaiiaoo, i?eienuaaaony
naa?o/aeiaa/aneay i?e?iaea, ii ni anaie iniiaaoaeyie o?enoeaineeo naeo”
[7]), a a enoi?ee ioa/anoaaiiie oeeinioee iiaeiaiay i?iaeaiaoeea
io/aoeeai i?ineaaeeaaaony a o?oaeao Ae. Nieiaueaaa e E. Eeueeia (“Iaoa
oaa?aiiinoue a aeaenoaeoaeueiii nouanoaiaaiee aiaeanoaa ia?acaeaeueii
naycaia n oaie yaeaieyie, eioi?ua aeaiu a ?aeeaeiciii iiuoa e eioi?ua iu
ioiinei e aeaenoaeth aiaeanoaa ia ian. Yoi aa?ii ioiineoaeueii anao
?aeeaee. Ae?aaiee yeeei ia aa?ee au a nouanoaiaaiea Aeeiiena, anee au ia
eniuouaae aai aeooaaii-oaeaniiai aeaenoaey a iiueyiaiee” [23]).

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi O. Aeaeaein ieoao i iiiaiia?acee ?aeeaeiciiai iiuoa
[7], ?yae enneaaeiaaoaeae ianoaeaaao ia iauiinoe anao iiaeiaiuo
?aeeaeiciuo ia?aaeeaaiee (iai?eia?, ia oeeinioneii oaeoeueoaoa NIaAO
i?aaenoaaeoaeai iiaeiaiiai iiaeoiaea e ?aeeaeiaaaeaieth yaeyaony i?io.
A.A.Oi?/eiia). A ea/anoaa naycothuaai caaia aeey anao oeiia
?aeeaeiciinoe iie ?anniao?eaatho oae iacuaaaiua “ieeiaua ia?aaeeaaiey”,
oi anoue iniaua (/anoi iacuaaaiua oaeaea “ienoe/aneeie”,
“i?ioaoe/aneeie”, “yenoaoe/aneeie”) aeoaeiiua ia?aaeeaaiey, naycaiiua n
auoiaeii ca i?aaeaeu iauaeaiiiai niciaiey (o?ainia?niiaeueiua, eee
“?anoe?aiiua” ninoiyiey niciaiey), oaeea eae ia?aaeeaaiey
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iauaiey, aaeeiaiey eee neeyiey n aiaeanoaii,
aacee/iui Aaniethoii eee eiui oeiii ia?aiiniiau auoey. Yoi iiaeao auoue
oaeaea ia?aaeeaaiea iioieiae/aneiai “ie/oi” eee “ionoiou”, ii a ethaii
neo/aa i?aaeiieaaaao aunooth oi?io nayoinoe, aeinoeaeaiea nianaiey,
inaiaiaeaeaiey e o.ae. Nthaea aea iiaeii ioianoe eciaiaiiua ninoiyiey
niciaiey, i?aaeiieaaathuea ia?aaeeaaiea ?yaea a?oaoeie/aneeo ia?acia e
neooaoeee: nia?oe e aine?anaiey (iaiiaeaiey, aic?iaeaeaiey ec i?aoa),
aeaaee e ainnicaeaiey ie?a, aeooiaiiai ?iaeaeaiey, Aaeeeie Iaoa?e.
Nianeoaey-Iannee e o.i. [3]. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iiaeiaiuo ninoiyiee
nouanoaotho ?acee/iua iaoiaeu, eioi?ua iau/ii iacuaatho ineoioaoieeie (a
aeaiiii niunea yoio oa?iei aue aaaaeai iaoa?ao?aneeie aoaeaeieiaaie
A.?oaeui e A.Ino?ianeie), eee “oaoieeaie yenoaca” (oa?iei aaaaeai I.
Yeeaaea). Aeaeaa y iiiuoathnue aeaoue e?aoeee iaci? ineoioaoiee e
yenoaoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey ?acee/iuo oeiia
?aeeaeiciinoe, ia?auay iniaia aieiaiea eiaiii ia oa ?aeeaee eee naeou,
eioi?ua oaeaeytho ineoioaoieea iniaia aieiaiea.

Oaiaieci

Oaiaieci – ae?aaiaeoay ec oi?i ?aeeaeiciinoe – aeinoaoi/ii iaieioi
eco/ai, aiciiaeii, aeaaiaea?y iaeeaeaiiiio eioa?ano e ycioa?e/aneie
i?aeoeea o nia?aiaiiuo ethaeae. A?oae/iia ie?iono?ienoai auei ia i?inoi
onoie/eaie iauanoaaiiie oi?iaoeeae. I?inouanoaiaaa, eae i?aaeiieaaatho
aio?iiieiae, ieiei 50 ouny/ eao, oaiaieci noae naiaia?aciie eieuaaeueth
oeeaeeecaoeee, enoi/ieeii iniiaiiieaaathueo ieoia e ia?auo ?aeeaee [10].
*oi aea oaeia oaiaieci, eaeiaa ?ieue oaiaia e eae aiiaua aicieeea yoa
oi?ia ?aeeaeiciinoe?

A yoio enoi?e/aneee ia?eiae aeinooi e nae?aeueiiio eiaee iiiaea:
ae?aoeu-aea?oaii?eiineoaee, eaaeaeue aeaaa naiuee yaeyeny oaeaea aeaaie
aeiiaoiaai eoeueoa, iiiaea iieo/aee nae?aeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey a oiaea
ia?yaeia eieoeeaoeee, ienoa?ee, ii “oieueei oaiai inoaaony oeaio?aeueiie
oeao?ie, iineieueeo ai anae yoie noa?a, aaea yenoaoe/aneia ia?aaeeaaiea
yaeyaony a aunoae noaiaie ?aeeaeiciui, oaiai e oieueei oaiai yaeyaony
aaconeiaiui ianoa?ii yenoaca. Aeaaiia aeinoieinoai oaiaiecia – ee/iue
iiuo oaiaia -ee/iia ciaeiinoai n aeooaie, oiaiea “i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia
ianoiinoe” a iioonoi?iiiai ie?a e o. ae. Iioiio ia?aui e, aiciiaeii,
iaeiaiaa ?eneiaaiiui ii?aaeaeaieai yoiai neiaeiiai yaeaiey aoaeao
oi?ioea: oaiaieci — yoi oaoieea yenoaca” [32]. Oaiaieci – ae?aaiee
(a?oae/iue) iaae/anei-?aeeaeiciue oaiiiai. Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue iiiyoey
“iaa, eieaeoi” e “oaiai”: iaaeth e iaaia iu ano?a/aai ii/oe ai anai
ie?a, oiaaea eae oaiaieci i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniaoth iaae/aneoth
“niaoeeaeueiinoue”, eioi?oth iu auaeaeyai iniai: “oe?iuaiea iaiy”,
iaae/aneee iieao e o. ae. [41]. Ii yoie i?e/eia, oioy oaiai yaeyaony,
iiieii anaai i?i/aai, oaeaea e iaaii, ia eaaeaeiai iaaa iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eae oaiaia. Yoi aea ioiineony e e oaiaineei enoeaeaieyi:
eaaeaeue ciaoa?ue yaeyaony oeaeeoaeai, ii oieueei oaiai iaeaaeaao naieie
iniauie iaoiaeaie [25]. *oi eanaaony oaiaineeo oaoiee yenoaca, oi iie ia
en/a?iuaatho anao ?aciiaeaeiinoae yenoaoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee,
caoeene?iaaiiuo a enoi?ee ?aeeaee e ?aeeaeiciie yoiieiaee; iiyoiio
iaeuecy eaaeaeiai yenoaoeea n/eoaoue oaiaiii: oaiai yaeyaony
niaoeeaeenoii ii o?aino, ai a?aiy eioi?iai aai aeooa, eae i?eiyoi
n/eoaoue, iieeaeaao oaei, /oiau iiaeiyoueny ia Iaai eee nionoeoueny a
Aae.

Oaeiai aea ?iaea ?acee/aiea iau/ii iaiaoiaeeii aeey ii?aaeaeaiey nayce
oaiaia n “aeooaie”. Ai anai ia?aiauoiii e nia?aiaiiii ie?a iu iaoiaeei
ethaeae, ooaa?aeaeathueo, /oi iie yeiau iiaeaea?aeeaatho nayce n
“aeooaie”, /oi iie eie “iaea?aeeiu” eee naie eie aeaaeatho.
Iio?aaiaaeinue au ianeieueei oiiia, /oiau aeieaeiui ia?acii
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ana i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n naiie eaeaae “aeooa” e aai
aeiioaoe/aneeie naycyie n ethaeueie, iineieueeo “aeoo” iiaeao auoue eae
aeooie oia?oaai, oae e “aeooii I?e?iaeu”, ieoe/aneei aeeaioiui e o. ae.
Ii i?e enneaaeiaaiee oaiaiecia ia iaycaoaeueii caoiaeeoue oae aeaeaei;
aeinoaoi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue iiceoeeth oaiaia ii ioiioaieth e aai
aeooai-iiiiuieeai. Eaaei oaaaeeoueny, /oi oaiai ioee/aaony, iai?eia?, io
“iaea?aeeiiai”: oaiai iiaaeaaaao naieie “aeooaie” a oii niunea, /oi, eae
/aeiaa/aneia nouanoai, oiaao iaeaaeeaaoue eiioaeou n oia?oeie,
“aeaiiiaie” e “aeooaie I?e?iaeu”, ia noaiiaynue i?e yoii eo i?oaeeai.
Ianiiiaiii, n?aaee oaiaiia ano?a/athony ianoiyuea iaea?aeeiua, ii iie
yaeythony nei?aa eneeth/aieyie, eioi?ui anoue naia iauyniaiea. Oaiaiu
yaeythony “eca?aiiuie”, e, eae oaeiaua, iie i?e/anoiu e noa?a
nae?aeueiiai, iaaeinooiiie inoaeueiui /eaiai niiauanoaa. Eo
yenoaoe/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey ieacuaaee e ii-i?aaeiaio ieacuaatho ia?iiiia
aeeyiea ia no?aoeoeeaoeeth ?aeeaeiciie eaeaieiaee, ia ieoieiaeth,
eiiieaen ?eooaeia. Ii ie eaeaieiaey, ie ieoieiaey, ie ia?yaeu
a?eoe/aneeo, neae?neeo e aceaoneeo ia?iaeia ia yaeythony oai?aieyie eo
oaiaiia. Ana yoe yeaiaiou i?aaeoanoaiaaee oaiaiecio eee ii e?aeiae ia?a
ia?aeeaeueiu aio a oii niunea, /oi yaeythony ieiaeii iauaai ?aeeaeiciiai
iiuoa, a ia iiuoa ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeanna “eca?aiiuo” – yenoaoeeia.
Iianthaeo iaaethaeaaony no?aieaiea oaiaineiai (o. a. yenoaoe/aneiai)
iiuoa au?aceoue naay iin?aaenoaii eaeaieiaee, eioi?ay ia anaaaea aeey
iaai aeaaii?eyoia [32].

Oaiaiu – yoi ee/iinoe, auaeaeythueany ia oiia naieo iauanoa
ii?aaeaeaiiuie /a?oaie, eioi?ua a eoeueoo?ao nia?aiaiiie Aa?iiu
n/eoathony i?eciaeaie “i?ecaaiey” eee ii e?aeiae ia?a “?aeeaeiciiai
e?ecena”. Io inoaeueiuo /eaiia niiauanoaa eo ioee/aao eioaineaiinoue eo
ee/iiai ?aeeaeiciiai ia?aaeeaaiey. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, aieaa ei??aeoiui
auei au ioianoe oaiaieci e ienoe/aneei, a ia e “?aeeaeiciui” oaiiiaiai
[33]. N oaiaieciii iiaeii ano?aoeoueny aioo?e iiiaeo ?aeeaee, iineieueeo
ii anaaaea inoaaony oaoieeie aeinoeaeaiey yenoaca eae i?a?iaaoeaa
ii?aaeaeaiiie yeeou, ninoaaeyy a iaeioi?ii niunea ienoe/aneia yae?i
aeaiiie ?aeeaee. N?aco aea iai?aoeaaaony n?aaiaiea n iiiaoaie, ienoeeaie
e nayouie o?enoeaineie Oea?eae. Ia neaaeoao, iaeiaei, caoiaeeoue neeoeii
aeaeaei a yoii n?aaiaiee; a ioee/ea io oiai, /oi iaaethaeaaony a
o?enoeainoaa (ii e?aeiae ia?a, iaaethaeaeinue a aai iaaeaaiae enoi?ee),
ia?iaeu, n/eoathueany “oaiaineeie”, i?eienuaatho nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea
yenoaoe/aneei yenia?eiaioai naieo oaiaiia; yoio iiuo eanaaony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eaaeaeiai, oae eae eiaiii oaiaiu n iiiiuueth naieo
o?ainia enoeaeytho niieaiaiieeia, i?iaiaeatho eo iieieieeia a Oea?noai
Oaiae e neoaeao iin?aaeieeaie iaaeaeo ieie e eo aiaaie — iaaaniuie eee
aaeneeie, aieueoeie eee iaeuie. Yoa eca?aiiay ienoe/aneay yeeoa ia
oieueei oi?aaeyao ?aeeaeiciie aeeciueth iauanoaa, ii e ii?aaeaeaiiui
ia?acii caaioeony i aai “aeooa”. Oaiai yaeyaony aaeeeei niaoeeaeenoii ii
/aeiaa/aneie aeooa; oieueei ii “aeaeeo” aa, iineieueeo ciaao aa “oi?io”
e i?aaeiacia/aiea. A neo/ayo, eiaaea i?ienoiaeyuaa ia eanaaony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii “noaeueau aeooe”, aieacie (= iioa?e aeooe), nia?oe,
ian/anouey eee aaeeeiai aea?oaii?eiioaiey, o?aaothuaai eaeiai-eeai
yenoaoe/aneiai ia?aaeeaaiey (ienoe/aneiai iooaoanoaey a Iaai eee a Aae),
aac oaiaia iiaeii iaieoenue. Aac iaai e i?ioiaeeo cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
?aeeaeiciie aeecie [32].

Iiiaea oae iacuaaaiua ?eooaeu ia?aoiaea, nouanoaothuea a ?acee/iuo
i?eieoeaiuo eoeueoo?ao e ciaiaiothuea aaaeiua aeieiae/aneea e
nioeeaeueiua ia?aiaiu, a?auathony aie?oa o?eaaeu ?iaeaeaiey, naena e
nia?oe. Eieoeee?oaiua ia?aaeeaatho iiuo ineoieiae/aneie nia?oe e
aic?iaeaeaiey, eae i?aaeei, eioa?i?aoe?oaiue eae nia?oue a noa?ie
aeieiae/aneie eee nioeeaeueiie ?iee e ?iaeaeaiea a iiaie. Oae, a
?eooaeao niaa?oaiiieaoey thiioe e aeaaooee ?anniao?eaathony eae
oie?athuea aeey ?iee aeaoae e ?iaeaeathueany a ea/anoaa ac?ineuo. E?iia
oiai, a neiaiee/aneee eiioaeno yoeo ?eooaeia ?acee/iua eoeueoo?u
i?eaeaeatho ?acee/iua aniaeou o?ainia?niiaeueiiai ie?a, e i?eia?o,
einiieiae/aneea e ieoieiae/aneea oaiu, ooaa?aeaeaiea a ianeaaeee
i?aaeeia, naycue n oioaiiui aeeaioiui, nio/anoea iniauo aiaeanoa eee
aeaiiiia e i?i/. [3].

Aeey i?i?eoeaiey, ?aoaiey neiaeiuo aeeciaiiuo aii?inia, a oaeaea aeey
ea/aiey aieaciae oaiaiu oe?iei i?eiaiyee aaeethoeeiiaaiiua ?anoaiey e
a?eau. Ineoiaeaee/aneay oa?iaeieiaey auea iniaaiii ?acaeoa a
Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eea, aaea ?acee/iua aeieieoiaianeea eoeueoo?u
(aoeoaee, oieoaee, iaey) e nia?aiaiiua ieaiaia eiaeaeoeaa (oe/iee, yee,
ianaoaee) eniieueciaaee ii iaiueoae ia?a oanoiaaeoeaoue ?acee/iuo
?anoaiee n ii?aaeaeaiiuie niiniaiinoyie eciaiaiey niciaiey. Iaeaieaa
ecaanoiua ec yoeo ?anoaiee – eaeoon iaeio (Lophophora williamsii),
nayuaiiue a?ea oaiiaiaieaoeue, eee “oaei aiaa” (Psilocybe mexicana e
cubensis), e ieieoeeae – ianoiia iacaaiea naiyi auethiea (Turbina
corymbosa). Aa?iiaeneea oaiaiu i?eiaiyee ae?oaea aeaeu a?eaia ec ?iaea
Psilocybe: Psilocybe Semilanceata e Psilocybe Coprophila [15].
?eooaeueiia oiio?aaeaiea iaeioa inouanoaeyaony e a iaoe aeie, a
iniaaiiinoe n?aaee iaeneeaineeo eiaeaeoeaa oe/iee, yee, ei?a e
oa?aooia?aai [27].

AE?aoeu e ia?ainayuaiieee Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa e Ianiiioaiee iieoiaee o
ei/aauo aaaeoeiia iaeia aaeuecaie/aneia ianei, eioi?ia, eae ooaa?aeaeaee
i?iaeaaoeu, i?ienoaeaei io ecia/aeueiiai “Ae?aaa Iiciaiey”, ?anoouaai a
naiie ieceie oi/ea Caiee iaaaeaeaea io Ia?oaiai Ii?y e Neiaeneiai
iieoino?iaa. Yoi ianei aeiauaaee ec Acacia tortilis – ciioe/iie aeaoeee.
Ao?eeaineea e aceaoneea oaiaiu oe?iei eniieueciaaee eiiiieth e aaoeo,
aeaaioneoth ne?eeneoth ?ooo, iaeioi?ua aeaeu o?inoieea, iaiae?aai?o,
ei?ie ?anoaiey eaiaa, naiaia iaeioi?uo aeaeia auethiea e iiiaea-iiiaea
ae?oaea ?anoaiey, a oaeaea ?acee/iua iaeeea a?eaee – a?ea-ia?aceo
ceaeiauo nii?uiueth, ?acee/iua aeaeu ieanaie e o.i. [30, 40]

E?iia ?anoeoaeueiuo ineoiaeaeeeia, oaiaiu oaeaea eniieueciaaee iaeioi?ua
aaeethoeeiiaaiu aeeaioiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, niaea?aeaueany a eiaea
o?iie/aneeo aeaa, iaeioi?uo ciae, au?aaaouaathueony iaeioi?uie aeaeaie
ao?eeaineeo iaoeia, a oaeaea ii?neeo i?aaieciia – aoaie, aeoeiee,
ei?aeeiauo iieeiia e iiiaeo ae?oaeo [9, 38].

Eneoaci

Eneoaciii (io a?a/aneiai neiaa hesychia – “iieie”, “ie?”, “oeoeia”,
“iaeeii/anoai”, “iie/aiea”) a ainoi/iio?enoeaineie o?aaeeoeee iacuaaaony
?ac?aaioaiiay nenoaia aneaoe/aneie iiiaoaneie i?aeoeee, iai?aaeaiiie ia
aiaiiiciaiea e iaiaeanoaeaiea. Eiiaaea ?iaeiia/aeueieeii eneoacia
n/eoaaony nayoie A?eai?ee Iaeaia (1296-1359), aoiineee iiiao, iaeiaei
iiaeiaiay i?aeoeea aeooiaiiai aeaeaiey auea a oiaeo o iiiaoia-aiaoi?aoia
n aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe (Aaaa?ee Iiioeeneee e Iaea?ee Aaeiaoneee, aeeaoea
aua a IV aaea, auee ciaeiiu n “oiiie iieeoaie”, ninoaaeyaoae nooue
eneoacia) e eioi?ay i?eia?aea caeii/aiiua oi?iu caaeieai aei Iaeaiu, a
A?eai?ee aea aiaineianee iniuneee, iainiiaae e nenoaiaoece?iaae yoo
i?aeoeeo [25].

Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi eiaiii a i?iyaeaiee eneoacia i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue
nio?aieea naioth aeoaeiioth naycue n iniiaie o?enoeaineiai Ioe?iaaiey,
o.e. o?aaeeoeey eneoacia – eae e anyeee iiaeeeiiue e i?oiaeienaeueiue
ycioa?eci – ianoaeaaea ia iieiie ?aaeecaoeee nae?aeueiie o?enoeaineie
aeieo?eiu /a?ac ee/iue iiuo i?aeoeeothuaai o?enoeaieia-aneaoa.

Oeaeueth aneacu n/eoaeinue iaiaeanoaeaiea, oi anoue oiiaeiaeaiea Aiao
/a?ac Eenona O?enoa, naeaeaaoaai /aeiaa/aneoth i?e?iaeo o/anoieoeae
aiaeanoaaiiie aeecie aeaaiaea?y aaeeinoao /aeiaa/aneie e aiaeanoaaiiie
i?e?iaeu. Oioy iaiaeaiea e i?aaeiieaaaei aaeeiaiea /aeiaaea n Aiaii, ii
i?aaeaea anaai iii iiae?acoiaaaei ia?aianaiea ia aeooo, a aa
oiiaeiaeaieth Aiao. Oaeeo aiaeanoaaiiuo ao?eaooia, eae aannia?oea,
aeaaeainoai e naa?o/aeiaa/aneay iieiioa e eioaineaiinoue aeecie. Iooue e
oeaee eaaeae /a?ac i/euaiea aeooe io anaai ie?neiai /a?ac aneaco, aeaeaa
auei iaiaoiaeeii “inaaoeoue aeooo aiaeanoaaiiui naaoii”, iinea /aai
ianooiaei ienoe/aneia niaa?oainoai e iieiia aaeeiaiea n Aiaii.

A ainoi/ii-o?enoeaineie ienoeea iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa oa/aiey:
nica?oeaoaeueiia e aneaoe/aneia. Ia?aia ec ieo no?aieony /a?ac
ienoe/aneee aiicen e aaeeiaieth n Aiaii eae aeooiaiia i?enoonoaea a
aeooa Eiaina-O?enoa; aoi?ia iiae/a?eeaaao iiiaio ethaae e i?aaeaiiinoe e
Aiao. Iaa oi?iu i?aeoeee caaa?oaeenue “yenoacii” (aia-naay-auoeai),
eioi?ue a ia?aii neo/aa eiae a aeaeo o?ainoeaiaeaioe?iaaiea anao
iiciaaaoaeueiuo ia?aie/aiee e eiooeoeeth Aiaa a oi?ia aiicena, a ai
aoi?ii – i?aaeaeueiia ia?aaeeaaiea aaeeiaiey. A ea/anoaa iniiaiuo
iaoiaeia eniieueciaaeenue iinoiyiiay iieeoaa, no?iyuayny eae
iiiaie?aoiia iiaoi?aiea aiaeanoaaiiiai eiaie, nin?aaeioi/aiea ia
ineoe/aneeo oeaio?ao oaea, nica?oeaiea naaoiauo oaiiiaiia e oai?ey
neiaieeee naaoa, ?acee/iua aeuoaoaeueiua iaoiaeu e ae?oaea niiniau
eniieueciaaiey niiaoe/aneeo i?ioeannia e no?oeoo? aeey iaeaaeaiey
niciaieai [25].

A?eai?ee Iaeaia ai anae oeaie eneoanoe/aneie o?aaeeoeee, eaeouae io
aiinoieia /a?ac iooeia ionouiieeia e aoiineei iiiaoai 14-ai aaea e
aeaeaa e o?aaeeoeeyi ?onneiai i?aaineaaiiai noa?/anoaa, nio?aieaoaainy
aieioue aei 20-ai aaea, caieiaao oieeaeueiia ianoi, o.e. naii aai aeeoea
e iieaieea, eioi?oth aucaaee aai iaoaoeceea e aai oi?ioee?iaee
eieoeeaoe/aneeo i?aeoee a eiia i?aaineaaey, iiaoo yaeyoueny y?eei
iaiyoieeii iaeiicia/iiai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey anae i?aaineaaiie o?aaeeoeeae
aa aa?iinoe ycioa?e/aneiio ca?io, aii?aee iiiuoeai ia?aaanoe oea?eiaiua
aeiaiaou a noa?o nioeeaeueiiai ?eooaea eee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
ienoeoeecia, eae yoi i?iecioei n eaoiee/anoaii e iicaeiaa n
i?ioanoaioeciii, aiiaua ii?aaaoei anyeoth naycue n Aeooii Ioe?iaaiey.
Iiiaea oaenou A?eai?ey Iaeaiu (iai?eia?, “Aeia?ioiethaea”) yaeythony
y?eei i?eia?ii aeieo?ei o?enoeaineie eieoeeaoeee e o?enoeaineiai
ycioa?ecia ai anao eo ioee/eoaeueiuo /a?oao, a ieo noi?ioee?iaaia
aeenoaoaeueiay ioiiaaaeue, aeaiiie iaoa?ieiie e i?aoaioeeiciie Oea?eae
“aiaoieo”, no?aiyueony iaaycaoue naith ia?aie/aiioth oi/eo c?aiey ia
oieueei ianoaa, ii e aeoeaiui iiiaoai- ycioa?eeai, eiae/anee
i?eiaaeeaaeauei e /eneo “aioo?aiieo” [33].

Aic?aaeay ooeeoaeyi eneoacia, Nayoie A?eai?ee ia?a/eneyao ana oa ioieou,
eioi?ua e ioee/atho ycioa?eci io yecioa?ecia, e iiyoiio aeey ian yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoai yaeyaony naa?o- oeaiiui, acyoui “ec na?aeoea
o?enoeaineie I?aaineaaiie O?aaeeoeee”, eioi?ua iicaieytho iaeiicia/ii
iiiyoue ?acieoeo iaaeaeo “aiaoiae” e “aioo?aiiae” noi?iiaie o?aaeeoeee
e, oyniea yoi ia i?eia?a O?enoeainoaa, oaeaeaoue oaeia aea ?acaeaeaiea a
ae?oaeo o?aaeeoeeyo aeey ian ia ninoaaeo ieeaeiai o?oaea [25].

A 30-40 aa. XIV a. a Aecaioee ?acai?aeenue oae iacuaaaiua “eneoanoneea
nii?u”. Iieaaeai ae?aooea, a /ai aea ninoieo nouiinoue iieaieee.
Iniiaiie i?aoaiceae e eneoanoai ni noi?iiu yecioa?eeia auei iaaeiaiea a
“iaiaeanoaeaiee” oaea. Ionthaea auoaeaee e ana inoaeueiua oei?u. Yoio
aii?in, ia naiii aeaea, ia iiaeao auoue ?ac?aoai i?inoie aiaeeyoeeae e
eiiiaoaioiinoe eee iaeiiiaoaioiinoe eeai e?eoeeothueo, eeai e?eoeeoaiuo.
Aeaei ianoieo ai?acaei aeoaaea, o.e. a aeaoo aiciiaeiinoyo ioiioaiey e
oaeo, e oaeaniie ?aaeueiinoe a oeaeii e iniaaiii e /aeiaa/aneiio oaeo,
i?iyaeythony aeaa iaoaoece/aneea iiceoeee, ii?aaeaeythuea eeai
“aiaoieo”, eeai “aioo?aiieo”. I?e/ai yoi ?acee/ea a auai?a aeaoo
aiciiaeiinoae ia yaeyaony aii?inii auai?a eiioannee, oaiie
iaaeeiioanneiiaeueiuo nii?ia – iaa iie ninouanoaotho a ?aieao iaeiie e
oie aea nae?aeueiie o?aaeeoeeiiiie oi?iu, iaeiie e oie aea ?aeeaee, Io
yoiai aeaiiay i?iaeaia noaiiaeony e?aeia neiaeiie, o.e. aaeeiay enoeia
Ioe?iaaiey caeanue eae au ?acaeaaeaaaony, ia?auaynue iaeiei eeeii ei
“aiaoiei” e ae?oaei ei “aioo?aiiei”.

A i?eioeeia ?a/ue eaeao i oii, ia?aie/eaaainy ee iu aeoaeeciii – aeoo
aeaa, oaei ia?cei, ai?iaa /enoi, aeieueiaa a?ycii e o.ae. – eee iu, ia
io?eoeay yoiai aeoaeecia, no?aieiny aai i?aiaeieaoue, aeaey caeia yoiai
i?aiaeieaiey a eiie?aoiinoe Aiaiioe?iaaiiie o?aaeeoeee. Eiaiii oaeay
iieaieea e ?acaa?ioeanue iaaeaeo Na. A?eai?eai Iaeaiie e aai
i?ioeaieeaie (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue Aa?eaaiii Eaeaa?eeneei).

Eneoaci ianoaeaae ia aiciiaeiinoe, e aeaaea ia eiia?aoeaiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aia?aaeaiey ieioe, e ia oieueei a ia?niaeoeaa
a?yaeouaai anaiauaai Aine?anaiey, ii caeanue e nae/an, a aeooaeueiie e
eiie?aoiie i?aeoeea, i?aeoeea iiiaoaneiai aeoeie/aneiai i?aia?aaeaiey,
o.a. a i?ioeanna eieoeeaoeee e aeooiaiie ?aaeecaoeee. E a aunoae noaiaie
iieacaoaeueiu oa iacaaiey, eioi?ua aeatho yoie eieoeeaoe/aneie i?aeoeea
o/aieee Na. A?eai?ey Iaeaiu Eaeeeno e Eaiaoee Enaioiioeu, o.e. ana iie
eiatho oi/iua yeaeaaeaiou a ycioa?e/aneeo e eieoeeaoe/aneeo aeieo?eiao
ae?oaeo o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oi?i. “A ianoaaeaiee eneoanoai” iie ia?a/eneytho
neiiieie/aneea iacaaiey eieoeeaoe/aneiai i?ioeanna: iooue ?acoiiue,
aeayiea iioaaeueiia e nica?oeaiea aa?iia, i?ino?aiiaeoay iieeoaa,
o?acaaiea oia, oiiia aeaeaiea, aeaei aoaeouaai aaea, aiaaeueneia
aeeoaeuenoai, iaaaniia aeeoea, aiaeanoaaiiia iiaaaeaiea, no?aia aeeauo,
oaeinoaaiiia aicc?aaaiea, aeooiaiay o?aiaca iieiaeoay, ?ae Aiaii
niaeaeaiiue, iaai, iaaaniia oea?noai, Aiaeaa oea?noai, i?ae i?aaunoee
naaoa, aeeciue ai O?enoa nie?iaaiiay, aiaiaeaeaiea, iaiaeaiea
i?aanoanoaaiiaeoaa”.

Nianoaaiii aiai?y, “iaiaeaiea i?aanoanoaaiiaeoaa” e noaaeeinue a aeio
eneoanoai aieinoaothueie ycioa?eeaie, o.e. iiaeiaiay ia?niaeoeaa n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iiaeao auoue aeinooiia eeoue eneeth/eoaeueiiio
iaiueoeinoao, niiniaiiio, iiaeiaii Aiioo, Eeea e naiiio O?enoo,
naeaeaoue ana naia nouanoai, aeeth/ay oaei, /enoui aeooii. E yoiio
ioiinyony aoaee i?ioea ooaa?aeaeaiey Na. Iaeaiu, /oi a i?ioeanna oiiiai
aeaeaiey nica?oeathuaio ioe?uaaaony iaoaa?iue Naao, Oaai?neee Naao
i?ainouanoaeaiey. Aai i?ioeaieee, inoaaaynue ia iiceoeeyo aeoaeecia e
e?aaoeeiiecia, naienoaaiiuo yecioa?ecio, o.a. ?acaiaey aeoo e oaei,
Oai?oea e Oai?aiea ii ?aciua noi?iiu, ioaa?aee aiciiaeiinoue aioo?e
Oai?aiey nii?eeiniooueny n aiaoaa?iui. E ia naiii aeaea, yoi
aeaenoaeoaeueii iaaiciiaeii aeey aieueoeinoaa, ii aeey iiciaaoeo “i?ae
i?aaunoee naaoa”, aeey eca?aiiuo, yoi aiciiaeii e iaiaoiaeeii, /oi e
iiaeoaa?aeeea I?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue, anoaa ia noi?iio Nayoiai A?eai?ey
e eaiiiece?iaaa aai eae nayoiai, a aai o/aiea eae o/aiea i?aaineaaiia
[25].

Nooeci

A ?aieao ionoeueiaineie o?aaeeoeee oaeaea nouanoaoao
ienoeei-aneaoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea, i?eaioe?othuaany ia yenoaoe/aneea
ia?aaeeaaiey, e ieacaaoaa ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia eoeueoo?o eae
ionoeueiaineeo ia?iaeia, oae e ia?iaeia N?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iiu. ?a/ue
eaeao i nooecia.

Nooeci (io a?aa, ao-oanaaaoo) — neiai, ia iiaeaeathuaany iaeiicia/iie
eioa?i?aoaoeee. Nooeeneea aaoi?u iau/ii aicaiaeyo aai e ei?ith NOA —
“auoue /enoui, iaii?i/iui” eee e au?aaeaieth “aoe an-noo-oa” (ethaee
neaiuee eee iaaana), iaicia/aaoaio iaeaieaa i?aaeaiiuo e aeaai/anoeauo
iineaaeiaaoaeae i?i?iea Iooaiiaaea ec /enea iaeieioueo. A Aa?iia aei
n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie neiaa “nooeci”, “nooee” i?iecaiaeeee io
a?a/aneiai sophia — “ioae?inoue”. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy n?aaee eneaiiaaaeia
ainiiaenoaoao oi/ea c?aiey, niaeanii eioi?ie ao-oanaaaoo i?ienoiaeeo io
a?aaneiai “noo” — “oa?noue”, oae eae aeanyieoea, a?oaia oa?noyiia
iaeayiea auei iau/iui ao?eaooii aneaoa-iooaeueieea. aiaoi?aoa.
Aiciiaeii, /oi aua caaeieai aei eneaia nooeyie ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea
iacuaaee o?enoeaineeo iiiaoia e ienoeeia-aneaoia [25].

Ia?aiia/aeueiue nooeci (a nei?aa, i?ioinooeci) nouanoaiaae a oi?ia
ieaoecia, iiae/a?eiooiai aeaai/anoey e aneaoecia. Aai enoiee
i?ineaaeeaathony oaea a VII a., oioy, aeaeeii, i nooecia eae oaeiaii
iiaeii aiai?eoue ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu VIII—ia/aea IX a.. eiaaea
eciaieaoeany oi?iu aeecie, iooiae a?aaneie aa?oooee io i?inoiou e
no?iainoe ia?aiia/aeueiiai eneaia, a oaeaea aeeyiea o?aaeeoeee aneaoecia
ia?iaeia caaiaaaiiuo a?aaaie caiaeue aucaaee ?ino aneaoe/aneeo
iano?iaiee a eneaia, Ia?auie ionoeueiaineeie aneaoaie auee, aeaeeii,
niae?aoaee oaaeenia, ?a/aiee I?i?iea, /oaoeu Ei?aia, o/anoieee
aeaeeoaaea (iia?aie/iuo aiei n Aecaioeae) e ae?oaea a?oiiu ianaeaiey. Eo
?aeeaeiciay i?aeoeea naiaeeeanue e iiiai/eneaiiui iieeoaai e iinoai,
no?iaeaeoaio neaaeiaaieth noiia (eiaaony a aeaeo iiae?aaeaiea I?i?ieo e
aai iinooieai), io?aoaieth io anaai ie?neiai, iieayieth, no?iaiio
ioaeaeaieth aeicaieaiiiai io cai?aoiiai, eoeueoo aaaeiinoe, ioeaco io
nio?oaeie/anoaa n aeanoyie e o. i. Iinoaiaiii a yoii aneaoe/aneii
oa/aiee eneaia noaee ia?anoaoue ienoe/aneea iano?iaiey, aia?aua
i?iyaeaoeany ia ?oaaaea VIII e IX aa. a aeaea /oanoaa iaecauaiie oinee
ii Aiao, /oanoaa aaneiia/iie ethaae e iaio e no?aieaiey e niaaeeiaieth n
Aiaii. Aneaoe/aneea i?eaiu oii?yaei/eaaeenue, nenoaiaoece?iaaeenue,
caeinoaiaaeenue ec ?aeeaeiciie i?aeoeee ae?oaeo ia?iaeia oaeeoaoa e aai
ninaaeae, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ia/aea oi?ie?iaaoueny no?ieiay nenoaia
nooeeneie ineoioaoieee, iai?aaeaiiie ia aeinoeaeaiea ia?aaeeaaiey
aaeeiaiey n Aiaii e aiaiiiciaiey [33]. Ia?aiia/aeueii ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
nooeyie e iineoaeyie eneaineie i?oiaeienee auaaee ii?ie aeinoaoi/ii
iai?yaeaiiuie, iineieueeo iineaaeiea iaaeiyee nooeaa a aeiiouaiee
noanoaioeeaeueiiai aaeeiaiey Aiaa e oaa?e (eooeoaae, ooeoe), a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, a i?enaiaiee oai?aieth aiaeanoaaiiiai noaoona. Eiiaaea
eiioeeeo ianoieueei iaino?yeny, /oi i?eaiaeee e eacie oiai eee eiiai
nooey (ae-Oaeeaaeae. Eai Aoa, Aei ae-Eoaeao ce-Oaiaaeaie). I?aaaea,
iiaeiaiia neo/aeinue aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeei, e aanueia ?aaeeeaeueiua nooee
(iai?eia?, Aao Eaciae ae-Aenoaie) iieueciaaeenue, eae i?aaeei, anaiauei
ii/aoii e oaaaeaieai.

A O—XI aa. nooeeneay i?aeoeea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, nenoaiaoece?oaony e
i?eia?aoaao aanueia oii?yaei/aiiue e no?ieiue aeae (o/aiea i iooe, aai
“ninoiyieyo” e “noiyieao”), /oi iicaieyao nooecio i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia
noaoon iniaie iaoee aiaiiiciaiey, a n ae?oaie — iieo/aao aanueia
ooiaee?iaaiiia n aiaineianeeo iiceoeee iainiiaaiea, /oi iinoaiaiii
aaiaeeo nooeci a ?aiee eneaineiai i?aaiaa?ey. ?aoathuoth ?ieue a yoii
i?ioeanna nua?aee o?oaeu aaeeeiai oaieiaa ae-Aacaee, ia oieueei
iieiinoueth ?aaaeeeoe?iaaaoaai nooeci a aeacao i?oiaeienee. ii e
i?iaicaeaneaoaai aeeciue enoeiiiai nooey aunoei au?aaeaieai eneaineiai
ia?aca aeecie aiiaua [25].

A XII—XIII aa. ia/eiaaony oi?ie?iaaiea nooeeneeo i?aeaiia eee a?aonoa,
iaiiieiathueo eaoiee/aneea iiiaoaneea i?aeaia, ii iaiaa
oeaio?aeeciaaiiua e no?iai i?aaieciaaiiua. A yoi aea a?aiy iiyaeyaony
a?aiaeeiciue oeeinioneee neioac nooieneiai ie?iaicc?aiey, inouanoaeaiiue
Eai ae-A?aae (aaoaeao ae-aoaeaeoae, oai?ey aaeeinoaa nouanoaiaaiey), /oi
ia iiiauaei /anoe nooeaa iicaeiaa iieaiece?iaaoue ni acaeyaeaie ae-A?aae
e ?ac?aaaouaaoue naie oeeinioneea eiioeaioeee nooecia. A O—XIII aa.
ieii/aoaeueii neeaaeuaaaony e nooeeneay oa?ieiieiaey, neiaieeci e
iaoaoi?e/iinoue, a eiiaaea e yieaiaoeci eioi?ie iaeaa/ae aa iiyoe/aneia
eniieueciaaiea (iiiaea aaeeeea nooie auee e aaeeeeie iiyoaie — Aooa?,
Aeaeaeae aae-aeei ?oii e ae?.), /oi iaoneiaeei iiuiaeoaa aeeyiea nooecia
ia a?aaneoth e ia?neaeneoth iiyceth, iiiaea ia?acu i eaeae eioi?ie
iiiyoiu oieueei a nooeeneii eiioaenoa [25].

Iicaeiee nooeci — nooeci i?aeaiia. Ec iaeiaaea iiaeic?eoaeueiiai e
iieoa?aoe/aneiai oa/aiey nooeci i?aa?auaaony ia oieueei a eneaineee
ycioa?oeci, naiaai ?iaea “aunoee” eneai, ii e noaiiaeony aaaiaa?aeii
eneaia, a oii /enea e a ienneiia?nei- i?iiiaaaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ai anao no?aiao, aaea anoue ionoeueiaia, anoue e nooee (a oii /enea e a
Oo?oeee, oioy oai iinea ?aaiethoeee Eaiaey Aoaoth?ea e ioaeaeaiey
“oea?eae” io ainoaea?noaa nooeeneea i?aeaia auee cai?auaiu), i?e/ai a
?yaea eneaineeo no?ai nooeci ieacuaaao aanueia neeueiia aeeyiea ia eo
eoeueoo?ioth e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue, oioy eiiaaea (a neo/aa
neeueiiai aeeyiey ooiaeaiaioaeenoneeo e aoeaaeenoneio eaeae) nooeci e
nooeeneee iooue inoaeaeathony eae iiaoanoai, i eioi?ii ie/aai ia aiai?ee
I?i?ie.

Oeaeueth nooeeneiai aeaeaiey yaeyaony niaaeeiaiea n Aiaii, i?e/ai
iiieiatho yoi niaaeeiaiea aanueia ?aaeeeaeueii. I?eiyoi auaeaeyoue o?e
yoaia a nooeeneii iooe: yoai ?aneayiey e aicaea?aeaiey
(iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue), yoai i/euaiey aeooe io /aeiaa/aneeo ao?eaooia e
ea/anoa (i/enoeoaeueiue) e yoai iieiiai ?anoai?aiey a Aaniethoa (Aiaa),
i?aaeiieaaaaoee niaa?oaiiia ioiaeaeanoaeaiea n iei /a?ac oo?aoo
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ss. Nooee ia eiaee a aeaeo noanoaioeeaeueiiai
ioiaeaeanoaeaiey n Aiaii, a o/eee ia “iaiaeaiee” ia iaia? aecaioeeneeo
ienoeeia: aaeeiaiea n Aiaii i?ienoiaeeo a aeoa ienoe/aneie ethaae,
eiaaea Aia eae au nica?oeaao eee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao naiiai naay a
na?aeoea ienoeea. Ee/iinoue a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai ia oie/oiaeaaony, a
i?aia?aaeaaony, noaiiaynue eae au caiiie eiinoanueth Aiaa, aai
au?aaeaieai a iaoa?eaeueiii ie?a. Nooee oaeaea i?iiiaaaeiaaee eaeath
no?aaeaiey ai eiy Aiaa: ethayuee aeieaeai iino?aaeaoue ai eiy ethaeiiai,
i?eianoe aio a aea?oao naith ee/iinoue, aeaau en/acee iineaaeiea
i?aa?aaeu iaaeaeo ieie.

Iaeei ec nooeaa, ae-Aeaeoiaeae, o/ee, /oi iineieueeo Aia iaeei e o iaai
”iao nioiaa?euae”, cia/eo, Aia anoue aaeeinoaaiiay ?aaeueiinoue. Ana
nouaa eiaao i?ec?a/iia auoea e nouanoaoao eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo
eiaao naia ia/aei a Aiaa. a neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeieaeii aa?iooueny e Aiao,
/oiau niaaeeieoueny n iei e auoue a ia?aiia/aeueiii ninoiyiee- Nica?oeay
aaeeinoai Aiaa, nooee oo?a/eaaao naith ee/iinoue e ?anoai?yaony a Aiaa.
Yoi oie/oiaeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe (oaia), iaeiaei iia ia oeaeue
nooey. Oeaeue — yoi aiiaue aa?iooue oo?a/aiiua ea/anoaa, ii oaea
i?aia?aaeaiiuie, iaeooioai?aiiuie e caoai iaiiaeaiiie ee/iinoueth
aa?iooueny a ie? aeey aai i?inaauaiey e oniaa?oainoaiaaiey.

Eioa?anii, /oi oie/eaeaiea e nie?aiea ae-Aeaeoiaeaea, noieue i?aaeaoaany
i?oiaeienai, a i?aaeaea naiai aiieia oiaeaeanoaaiii naiiaicaaee/aieth
ae-Oaeeaaeaea. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiaeii ianoieueei naiioie/eaeeoueny a
nie?aiee, /oi cayaeoue i nianoaaiiii iaauoee: “Iaiy aiana iao, anoue
oieueei Aia”. A iiaeii aicaaee/eoue naay: “ss — Enoeia, ss — Aia, Iao
ie/aai, e?iia ss”. ?acoeueoao (oeiaeueiia ia?aaeeaaiea) aoaeao iaeiei e
oai aea.

Aaeeinoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoueth, a oaeii neo/aa, ieacuaaaony iaiienuaaa-iue
e iaiinoeaeeiue Aanietho, eioi?ue, nouanoaoy a naaa, aua ia anoue Aia.
Aeaeaeeiue no?aieaieai e naiiiiciaieth, Aanietho naiiia?aie/eaaaony e
eiie?aoece?oaony, nica?oeay a naaa naiiai naay, e noaiiaeony Aiaii aeey
naay., iinea /aai Aanietho i?iyaeyaony a ao?eaooao, eiaiao e a?oaoeiao,
aeaeaa i?ienoiaeeo aiieiuaiea yoeo a?oaoeiia a ia?acao iaoa?eaeueiie
anaeaiiie e /aeiaa/aneii niciaiee. Any anaeaiiay ia anao naieo o?iaiyo —
naiiiaia?oaeaiea Aaniethoa, eioi?ue inoaaony aaeeinoaaiiie
?aaeueiinoueth.

Oeeoneee oeeinio XIV a. Oaeaec? Aioee n?aaiee Aanietho e aai i?iyaeaiey
n ieaiaiai naa/e (Aanietho), ii-?aciiio io?aaeathueiny a ?aciuo ca?eaeao
(oi?iu aiaeanoaaiiie naii?aoeaenee). ?aaeueia oieueei naa/a, ana
inoaeueiia eeethci?ii.

*a?ac /aeiaaea Aanietho ia?aoaao naiiiiciaiea, eai niaa?oaiiue nooee
iinoeaaao naiiai naay e Aiaa a aeoa ienoe/aneie naa?o/oanoaaiiie
eiooeoeee. Ii aeo iiciaiey nooeai Aaniethoa oiaeaeanoaaiai aeoo
naiiiiciaiey Aaniethoa, iiciaieth ei naiiai naay a aeoa iiciaiey nooey,
eai nooee (eae e ethaia nouanoai, e aeaaea aauue) anoue naiaai ?iaea
yaeaiea eee naiiiaia?oaeaiea Aaniethoa. Nooee, iinoeaay Aiaa, noaiiaeony
eae au aai aeaenoaothuei i?aaiii, i?oaeeai aiaeanoaaiiiai
naiiii?aaeaeaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai nai nooee-aiai/aeiaae noaiiaeony
oai?oeii e i?iaiaeieeii aiaeanoaaiiie aiee. Anoue oieueei Aanietho, e
ie/aai, e?iia iaai; ana nouaa anoue eeoue ?acee/iua oi?iu e o?iaie aai
i?iyaeaiey.

Aunoee aiinen nooeaa au?aaeaeny a naaoiaie neiaieeea. I?aaaea, neiai
“neiaieeea” caeanue ia nianai oianoii, oae eae ?a/ue oea i?aaeaea anaai
i nica?oeaiee naaoa, aiieia niiinoaaeiii n iiuoii aeaeaiey Oaai?neiai
naaoa a eneoacia. I?ioeeoe?oai ionoeueiaineiai aaoi?a an-Na??aaeaea (oi.
988 a.): “Iaeioi?ua nooee aeoiatho, /oi iie aeaeyo naao, iie aiai?yo i
oii, /oi a na?aeoeao eo aeeaao naao. n/eoay, /oi yoi iaeei ec aeaeia
naaoa, eioi?ua Aia nai oiiiyioe a /enea naieo neiaieia. Aieaa oiai, iie
n/eoatho yoio naao n?aaieiui ni naaoii nieioea e eoiu e aa?yo, /oi ii
i?eiaaeeaaeeo naaoo iiciaiey, i?eciaiey aaeeinoaaiiinoe e aaee/ey, a yoe
aeaeu naaoa, ii eo iiaieth, ia nioai?aiiua” (iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue
ia?aeeaeue iaaeaeo yoei o/aieai i ianioai?aiiinoe nica?oeaaiiai naaoa n
iaeaieoneie aeieo?eiie iaoaa?iuo yia?aee).

A nooecia o?oaeii auaeaeeoue noieue oa?aeoa?iua e aeey eiaeoenoneie, e
aeey ainoi/iio?enoeaineie o?aaeeoeee aiinoe/aneia (i?eaioe?iaaiiia ia
aiinen, iiciaiea) e yiioeeiiaeueiia (i?eaioe?iaaiiia ia ethaiaiue
yenoac, aaaeouee e o?ainia?niiaeueiiio ia?aaeeaaieth) iai?aaeaiey.
Nooeci ii i?aeiouanoao naycai n eaeaae ethaae e Aiao, eioi?ay iiaeao
i?eieiaoue oa?aeoa? ennooieaiey, “iiueyiaiey” Aiaii (iaoaoi?u aeia e
iiueyiaiey iinoiyiii ano?a/athony a nooeeneeo oaenoao). Nooee —
aethaeaiiue, ii aanue ai aeanoe naiae “Aicethaeaiiie”. Ii yoa
aethaeaiiinoue, ethaiaiay iaea?aeeiinoue Aiaii aaaeao e iiciaieth,
aiinino, eioi?ue e inoaaony oeaeueth nooey, iacuaathuaainy “iiciaaoee”
(aiciiaeii, yoi naycaii ee yoi n naieoneie iaoaoi?ie ethaiaiiai nieoey
eae “iiciaiey”?). Oaeei ia?acii, nooeci i?aaeiieaaaao aiinen /a?ac y?in.
iiciaiea Aiaa /a?ac ethaiaue e iaio, i?e/ai aiaiiiciaiea ?aaeecoaony
/a?ac aaeeiaiea eee neeyiea n Aiaii, oie/oiaeaiea a Aiaa, aeinoeaaaiia a
ethaae (oioy. eiia/ii, auee nooee e n aieaa au?aaeaiiie aiinoe/aneie
onoaiiaeie, iai?eia?, Eai A?aae), e n aeiieie?iaaieai yiioeeiiaeueiie —
ae-Ainoaii, Aeaeaeae aae-aeei ?oie) [25].

Ii naiue eioa?aniue iiiaio caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi anee aieueoeinoai
o?aaeeoeee, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia yiioeeiiaeueiinoue e y?in, i?eaa?aeaiu
eaeaa ee/iiai Aiaa e aeoeaioe?otho ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aeooie e Aaniethoii
— Aiaeanoaaiiie Ee/iinoueth (ethaiaue ianiaianoeia n eiia?niiaeeciii,
ethayuee aeieaeai ioee/aoueny io aicethaeaiiiai), oi nooeci eae ?ac
iiae/a?eeaaao iaaeee/iinoiue oa?aeoa? Aiaa, aaeeinoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoe,
eioi?ay, aoaeo/e Enoeiie, yaeyaony e i?aaeiaoii naiuo eioaineaiuo
ethaiaiuo oiieaiee e ia?aaeeaaiee: ethaiaue e Aicethaeaiiie eae ethaiaue
e Enoeia e iaiai?io.

N?aaee iaoiaeia e niiniaia nooeeneie yenoaoe/aneie i?aeoeee neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue nica?oeaiea, iieeoao, iiaoi?aiea eiai Aiaa, aeuoaoaeueiua
oi?aaeiaiey, iniaua iicu aeey nica?oeaiey, yenoaoe/aneea oaioeu e o. i.
[25, 33]. Eiathony oaeaea naaaeaiey i i?eiaiaiee nooeyie a ?aeeaeiciuo
oeaeyo eiiiiee e aaoeoa [39, 40].

Aeey nooeaa auee oa?aeoa?iu e eieeaeoeaiua oi?iu ineoioaoieee — “cee?”
e “naia”. Cee? (iaiyoiaaiea) — i/aiue aaaeiue nooeeneee iaoiae,
ia?aiia/aeueii i?aaeiieaaaaoee iinoiyiiia iiaoi?aiea eiai Aiaa,
niinianoaothuaa, ii iiaieth ae-Oaeeaaeaea e ae?oaeo nooeaa,
i?eaeeaeaieth e Aiao e iia?oaeaieth (enoea?ao) a iaai. A nooeeneeo
i?aeaiao n XII—XIV aa. cee? i?aa?auaaony a neiaeiue ia?yae, i?e/ai
eaaeaeue i?aeai eiaao naie iniaue /ei cee?a. Aeey o/anoey a cee?a nooee
aeieaeai aue iaeaaeaoue niaoeeoe/aneeie ?eoieciaaiiuie aeaeaeaieyie,
?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiie a i?aeaia iicie, oiaieai eiio?iee?iaaoue aeuoaiea n
oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiey nin?aaeioi/aiey niciaiey e niioiineoue aeaeaeaiey
oaea n iuneaiiui eee ?a/aaui iiaoi?aieai oi?ioeu cee?a (aiaeia iaio?
eiaeeeneeo o?aaeeoeee), i?e yoii iaaei auei i?e caaea?aeea aeuoaiey
oneeeai aiee eae au iai?aaeyoue oi?ioeo a ii?aaeaeaiiua o/anoee oaea.
Cee? iia ioi?aaeyoueny eee a?iieei, eee oeoei aieinii, a oaeaea
iuneaiii. Ia?yaeo n eieeaeoeaiuie cee?aie auaaee e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
cee?u. Eieeaeoeaiua cee?u ioi?aaeyeenue oieueei a?iieei aieinii a ii/ue
ia iyoieoeo (nayuaiiue aeaiue o ionoeueiai) eee ai a?aiy ?aaeaiee
(naia). Cee? iau/ii i?eaiaeee nooeaa e ia?aaeeaaieth ?acee/iuo
o?ainia?niiaeueiuo ninoiyiee, eioi?ua iiaee a iaeioi?uo i?aeaiao
noeioee?iaaoueny eioa, aeeiaieai (iau/ii cai?auaiiui a eneaia) e
ia?eioeeaie. Aeey iiaoi?aiey eiai Aiaa, aeeth/aiiuo a oi?ioeo cee?a, e
auaea?aeeaaiey i?aaeeueiiai /enea iiaoi?aiee nooee eniieueciaaee /aoee.
*oiau aeinoe/ue iaeneiaeueiiai ineoioaoie/aneiai yooaeoa i?e
aeeeoaeueiii iiaoi?aiee eiai Aiaa e aeey iaeneiaeueiiai nin?aaeioi/aiey
ia ieo, eniieueciaaeenue oaeea i?eaiu, eae ?acee/iua iiaeoeyoeee aieina,
iocuea, oaiaoe, niaia ?eoia e /anoiou aeuoaiey e ii?aaeaeaiiua
iieiaeaiey oaea. I?e anooieaiee a i?aeai iiaiai /eaia oaeo (aeaaa
iaueiu) oaeii ?acuyniye aio i?eiyooth a i?aeaia oi?ioeo e iaoiaeeeo
cee?a [33].

Ae?oaie oi?iie eieeaeoeaiie ineoioaoieee auee ?aaeaiey (naia),
“aeaaeaiiua neooaiey”, oi anoue iieeoaaiiua nia?aiey, i?aaeiieaaaaoea
?aniaaaiea ienoe/aneeo noeoia (iai?eia?, Aeaeaeae aae-aeeia ?oie).
“Naia” i?aeoeeiaaeenue a nooecia n IX a.. aia/aea a oi?ia iaaeaeeenia
(“niai?ia”), oi anoue iaueo aeooiaiuo aanaae. Iaeioi?ua nooeeneea
i?aeaia io?eoeaee “naia” eae i?ioeai?a/auea ii?iai eneaia,
nieeaea?ece?oynue n e?eoeeaie-ooiaeaiaioaeenoaie, iaeiaei aieueoeinoai
i?aeaiia i?eieiaee yoio oei ?aaeaiee. I?e ineoiaeaee/aneie ooieoeee
iocuee, oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?aeoeee “naia” a nooecia ioithaeue ia
oaeeaeoaeueii. Ia “naia” /anoi aeiioneaeenue e ie?yia (a iaaoeu e
iocueaiou iau/ii auee ie?yiaie), e aeaaea eiiaa?oeu. N XVIII—XIX aa.
aeooiaiay cia/eiinoue “naia”, iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaaoeony a ia/oi n?aaeiaa
iaaeaeo eiioea?oaie e eeoo?ae/aneeie aeaenoaaie, iinoaiaiii nieceeanue
[25].

Nooee i?aiaa?aaatho ia?aie/eaathuae i?eaycaiiinoueth e aeiaia,
i?aaeii/eoay ae naiaiaeiue iiene enoeiu (iniaaiii oae auei a ?aiiee
ia?eiae enoi?ee nooecia). Aeey nooecia oa?aeoa?ii iiieiaiea i?ei?eoaoa
ineoioaoie/aneiai iiuoa ii ioiioaieth e aai aa?aaeueiiio i iiiyoeeiiio
au?aaeaieth e iienaieth. A aaaeue eiaiii ia ia o?iaia iiuoa, a ia o?iaia
aai au?aaeaiey /anoi e i?ieaaatho iai?aiaeieeiua ?anoiaeaeaiey iaaeaeo
?aeeaeyie [7].

Aeaineci

Aeaineci aicieeaao a Eeoaa a IV-III aa. aei i.y. ia iniiaa ?yaea
a?oae/aneeo eoeueoia. Ia?aui aeainneei iuneeoaeai (a eiiaaea e
iniiaaoaeai aeainecia) o?aaeeoeeiiii n/eoaaony Eai-Oecu, aeeaoee, ii
i?aaeaieth, ia ?oaaaea VI-V aa. aei i.y. e ia?aae oai, eae oeoe
iaanaaaea ec Eeoay ia Caiaae, inoaaeaoee o ia/aeueieea iia?aie/iie
canoaau (Aoaiue Eiue-Oecu) eceiaeaiea naiaai o/aiey iiae iacaaieai “Aeai
Aey Oecei” (Eaiii Iooe e Aeaaiaeaoe). Iaeiaei, oaea a ae?aaiinoe
Eai-Oecu eacaeny oeao?ie iieoieoe/aneie, a aai i?icaeua (Eai-Oecu
icia/aao eee i?anoa?aeue ioae?aoe eee aeaaea I?anoa?aeue Ieaaeaiaoe)
ioe?uei oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey ieoioai?/anoaa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
aieueoeinoai o/aiuo n/eoaao, /oi ii ia iia auoue aaoi?ii “Aeai Aey
Oecei”.

A “Aeai Aey Oecei” ?a/ue eaeao i aaeeiii ia?aiia/aea anaai nouaai –
aaeeiie noanoaioeee e iaeiia?aiaiii ie?iaie caeiiiia?iinoe – Aeai
(aeineiaii – “iooue”). A niioaaonoaee n aeainneie einiieiaeae e
einiiaiieae, Aeai ieacuaaaony eae au einie/aneei eiiii, ioaaouaathuei
aanue oieaa?noi, i?aauaathuee a ia?ac?uaiii aaeeinoaa (oaioe/aneii
aaeeinoaa — ooiue e) n iaoa?eineei oaeii Iooe (Aeai) aieioue aei naiaai
?iaeaeaiey — aeeooa?aioeeaoeee e iainiaeaiey io Aeai a i?ioeanna
einiiaaiaca. Oai ia iaiaa aeaaea “?iaeaeaiiue ie?” nio?aiyao
ii?aaeaeaiiia aaeeinoai n Aeai. aoaeo/e anea?ieeaaai aai Aeaaie Neeie
(aey). “Aeai ?iaeaeaao, aey anea?ieeaaao” (“Aeai Aea Oecei”, § 51),
Oaeei ia?acii, noi?ie?iaaaoeeny a oiaea einiiaiie/aneiai i?ioeanna ie?
nio?aiyao naycue n Aeai, aiaeiae/ioth nayce iiai?iaeaeaiiiai n ei?iyuae
iaoa?ueth. Oieueei /aeiaae a neeo iiyaeaiey o iaai aini?eyoey naay a
ea/anoaa iainiaeaiiiai, naiiaeiaeathuaai ss, iaeciaiiiai noauaeoa
aeaenoaee, ia?ooaao yoi enoiaeiia aaeeinoai e aeaaea ia/eiaao iinooiaoue
iaia?aei? aio, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue a naieo onoaiiaeao e iinooieao ia
caeiiiia?iinoueth einie/aneiai ?eoia Aeai-Iooe, a nianoaaiiuie
i?aaeii/oaieyie, caiaiyy oaeei ia?acii niiioaiioth naiianoanoaaiioth
aeeciue aeayoaeueiinoueth, iniiaaiiie ia oeaeaiieaaaiee e ei?aiyuaeny
eneeth/eoaeueii a YAIoeaio?e/aneie noauaeoeaiinoe. Ionthaea e ana
no?aaeaiey e aaaenoaey /aeiaaea, ia/eiay io aai nia?oiinoe e eii/ay
nioeeaeueiuie eieeeceyie [25].

Aaeeinoaaiiia n?aaenoai ia oieueei ecaaaeoueny io yoeo no?aaeaiee, ii e
ia?anoe aunoaa n/anouea — yoi ainnoaiiaeoue enoiaeiia aaeeinoai n Aeai,
?anoe?eoue naia niciaiea, ioeacaaoenue io oi? YAIoeaio?e/aneie
onoaiiaee, oi anoue aa?iooueny e ninoiyieth ia?iaeaeaiiiai ieaaeaioea,
aeey eioi?iai ia nouanoaoao /aoeie a?aie iaaeaeo nianoaaiiui e
iaoa?eineei oaeii, eioi?ue aeuoeo aeuoaieai iaoa?e e ieoaaony ieuae
iaoa?e. Yoi aica?auaiea a eiii Iaoa?e-Aeai naycuaaaony n ?anoe?aieai
ee/iinoe aei einie/aneeo ianooaaia, eiaaea “iaaa/ii ia ioaeaeyy naay io
Aeaaie Neeu aica?auaaoueny e ninoiyieth ieaaeaioea” (§ 28) e “niio?eoue
ia anth Iiaeiaaanioth eae ia naia nianoaaiiia oaei” (§ 13).

Yoi ninoiyiea ia?iaeaeaiiiai ieaaeaioea anoue ninoiyiea aannia?oey,
iieiy, i?aauaaiey a aaeeinoaa ni anai nouei e a niaeanee ni naiae
nianoaaiiie eneiiiie i?e?iaeie (“Aica?auaiea e ei?ith iacuaatho iieiai,
iieie iacuaatho aica?auaieai e aeeciaiiinoe, aica?auaiea e aeeciaiiinoe
iacuaatho iinoiyinoaii. Ciathuaai iinoiyinoai iacuaatho i?inaaoeaiiui” —
§16).

Aeaineci o/eo, /oi oaei /aeiaaea yaeyaony iee?ieiniii, ia?acii e
iiaeiaeai iae?ieinia — anaeaiiie. “*aeiaae — yoi iaeia Iaai e Caiey”, —
aiai?eo aeain XVI—XVII aa. O *oi-nthe. Yoi o/aiea, i/aiue aaaeiia aeey
anae aeainneie o?aaeeoeee, oa?aeoa?ii e aeey iiiaeo ae?oaeo
?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneeo eiioeaioeee eae ia Ainoiea, oae e ia Caiaaea,
aeeth/ay e o?enoeainoai, iniaaiii a aai aiinoe/aneii aa?eaioa (iaeiaei
i. I. Oei?aineee, iai?eia?, n/eoaao aai aiieia i?oiaeienaeueii
i?aaineaaiui).

Oiiaeiaeyaony oaei /aeiaaea e ainoaea?noao, eioi?ia a eeoaeneie
oeeinioee ?anniao?eaaeinue eae /anoue einiina. Ia yoie aeieo?eia
iieiinoueth iniiaaia aeainneay i?aeoeea “aioo?aiiae” aeoeiee (iye
aeaiue), iai?aaeaiiie ia nicaeaiea yeeene?a aannia?oey a naiii oaea
aaeaioa ec yia?aee oaea, oiiaeiaeaiiuo iaoaeeai e ieia?aeai iae?ieinia.
Iiiyoii, /oi e i?ioeannu, i?ioaeaaoea a oaea, oiiaeiaeyeenue einie/aneei
i?ioeannai, a oi?aaeiaiey “aioo?aiiae” aeoeiee ?anniao?eaaeenue eae
aiaeia oao eciaiaiee, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeeee ai “aiaoiae”, eaai?aoi?iie,
aeoeiee a aeoeie/aneii oeaea, ?aoi?oa — naiaia?aciie iiaeaee iae?ieinia.

Nianoaaiii aiai?y, ?a/ue a o?aeoaoao ii “aioo?aiiae” aeoeiee eaeao i
nicaeaiee a oaea aaeaioa iiaiai, aannia?oiiai oaea, aiineaaenoaee
?iaeaeathuaainy e iieeaeathuaai a?aiioth iaiei/eo noa?iai, oeaiiiai
oaea. Iioea nicaeaiey iiaiai oaea yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii ?ani?ino?aiaiiui
a ?aeeaeiciuo aa?iaaieyo naiuo ?acee/iuo ia?iaeia caiiiai oa?a (aia?aua
ii iiyaeyaony, eae yoi auei iieacaia ?aiaa, a oaiaiecia).

O/aiea i iaoiaea aeoeie/aneie ieaaee — yoi o/aiea i niaa?oainoaa a
ieaaea i?e?iaeiie nouiinoe i aeeciaiiinoe. Caeii i?e?iaeiie nouiinoe e
aeeciaiiinoe eiaao aeaa noi?iiu: yoi aeaiiay Iaaii i?e?iaeiay nouiinoue
e i?e?iaeiay nouiinoue iiaaiaiiiai ea/anoaa (oaeaniie i?e?iaeu),
eioi?oth iaaeeaaeeo i?aiaeieaaaoue. “?acaeaeaiii-ooaa?aeaeaiioth
aeeciaiiinoue iaaei oie?ioai?youe, oaeanioth aeeciaiiinoue iaaei
ieoaoue”.

“Aioo?aiiyy” aeoeiey iai?aaeaia ia aa?iiiecaoeeth i?e?iaeiie nouiinoe e
aeeciaiiinoe, ono?aiaiea eieeecee iaaeaeo ieie e nicaeaiea a oaea
aaeaioa aia/aea yeeene?a, a iioii ec iaai — “aannia?oiiai ca?iaeuoa”
(nyiue oae), i?aa?auathuaainy a iiaia, aannia?oiia oaei aeaina. Oaeei
ia?acii, oaei aaeaioa ieacuaaaony aeaineei, iaoa?eineei oaeii, iiaeiaii
oiio eae a einiiaiie/aneii ieoa Eai-oecu ieacuaaaony iaoa?ueth naiiai
naay. Eiia/ii, “aannia?oiue ca?iaeuo” yaeyaony ieiaeii nieoey, ea?iaaiee
aeaoo ia/ae, Eiue (aeaineiai) e ssi (ioaeneiai), eae i ana a ie?a, ii
o/aieth aeainecia, ii yoi nayuaiiia nieoea i?ienoiaeeo a oaea aaeaioa,
iiaeiaii oiio eae ana nouaa c?aao a iaoa?eineii eiia nie?iaaiiiai Aeai.
Oaei aeaina — aeaineia oaei, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeo niaaeeiaiea
ia?aiia/ae, ieiae aai a eiioea eiioeia ieacuaaaony naiei i?aia?aaeaiiui
aaeaioii. Aeaeaa, oaei aeainneiai aaeaioa — aiaeia, ia?ac iaoa?eineiai
eiia Aeai. oiiaeiaeoueny eioi?iio e no?aieony aaeaio.

Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, i?eiaiyaoeany aeainaie ia yoii iooe, yoi iaaeeoaoeey
(nica?oeaiea Aeai e aaeeinoaa ie?a n aecoaeecaoeeae aiaeanoa,
neiaieece?iaaaoeo niaie iniaua ninoiyiey niciaiey e oeiu aeeciaiiie
yia?aee), niaoeeoe/aneea aeiianoe/aneea (Aeai eiue) e aeuoaoaeueiua (nei
oee) oi?aaeiaiey, a oaeaea iniaay naenoaeueiay i?aeoeea – “aica?auaiea
naiaie aeey ieoaiey iicaa”, oi anoue oiaiea i?aaeioa?auaoue
naiyecaa?aeaiea i?e eioaineaiii i?aacia n oeaeueth nio?aiaiey a
i?aaiecia “aeeciaiiie neeu” [25].

Eiaaony oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiiay eioi?iaoeey ia eniieueciaaiee iaeioi?uo
aaeethoeeiiaaiiuo aauanoa a ea/anoaa aeoeie/aneeo yeeene?ia. Iaeioi?ua
oeiu nica?oeaiey i?aaeiieaaaee aaeuoaiea aaeethoeeiiaaiiuo ia?ia io
aauanoa, iaeaaeathueo ineoiaeaee/aneei aicaeaenoaeai, iiaeieiaaoeony ec
o?aiiaeieeia a eaeuea nica?oeaoaey. E. I. Neeiia? i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi
caeanue auyaeyaony nouiinoue aeoeiee eae n?aaenoaa iaaeeeaiaioiciie
o?ainoi?iaoeee niciaiey. E. I. Neeiia? oiiieiaao oaeaea i oaiueneio
eo?eeueieoeao “aiuaiueeo”, yaeythueo niaie ecia?aaeaiey ai?, ianaeaiiuo
aiaeanoaaiiuie aeeaioiuie e nayouie- aannia?oiuie, n ioaa?noeyie e
iaua?aie, ioeoaea i iiaeieiathony eo?aiey. A ieo naeeaaee a?iiaoe/aneea
o?aau, ii eiathony oiiieiaiey e i aaeethoeeiiaaiiuo aauanoaao. A
nia?aiaiiii aeainneii aiaineoaeaiee niaa?oaiii oieeaeueioth ?ieue oaeaea
ea?aao eo?eeueieoea, naiue aaaeiue iauaeo a o?aia. E. I. Neeiia?
auneacuaaao a nayce n yoei i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi nia?aiaiiue aeainneee
nayuaiiineoaeeoaeue, aicaeeaathuee eo?aiey e i?ecuaathuee iao?eoiauo
aeaa e cieiouo io?ieia nii?iaiaeaeaoue aai ai a?aiy nayuaiiiai oaioea,
neaaeoao o?aaeeoeee, ei?aiyuaeny a aeaeaieyo aaeaioa ae?aaiinoe,
iia?oaeaiiiai a ia?eioe/aneia caauouea, aucaaiiia aaeuoaieai eo?aiee
nayuaiiie eo?eeueieoeu-?aoi?ou. E?iia oiai, ecaanoii, /oi a o?aaeeoeee
Iaaaniuo ianoaaieeia, i?ioeaaoaaoae a O a. a naaa?iii Eeoaa,
oiio?aaeyeny iniaue aaeethoeeiiaaiiue (ineoiaeaee/aneee) ninoaa ec iyoe
ieia?aeia, noaaoee iinea ?ani?ino?aiaiey yoie oeieu e thao io ssioecu
ethaeiui enoi/ieeii iiyoe/aneeo ia?acia i iiyoe/aneiai aaeioiiaaiey o
a?enoie?aoia-ynoaoia yiioe Oanoe aeeianoee (a aei yoiai — o
iiyoia-“iii-eiioi?ienoia” aeeianoee Aye ia naaa?a) [25].

Eiaeoenoneay eiaa e oaio?eci.

Iniiaiui oaenoii eiaeoecia yaeythony Aaaeu – oaenou ioe?iaaiey, eioi?ua
iacuaathony ia naine?eoa o?ooe, oi anoue “oneuoaiiia”. Eai oneuoaiiia?
Iaeeie ae?aaieie ioae?aoeaie, iacuaaaiuie ?eoe. Yoe ioae?aoeu naiei
/ooeei neooii (aeooiaiui neooii, ?acoiaaony), oeiaeee iaeea oiieea
aea?aoeee, enoiaeyuea ec aiaeanoaaiiiai ie?a (iicaeiyy oeeinioneay oeiea
io?aa-ieiaina aiiaua n/eoaea Aaaeu aa/iuie e ianioai?aiiuie, /oi
iio?aaiaaei io aa iineaaeiaaoaeai ?ac?aaioee ooii/aiiie
eeiaaioeeinioneie oai?ee eioi?iaoeee — caoea, Oaaaea), aieiaee ei e
eceiaeeee oneuoaiiia ia “/aeiaa/aneii” ycuea. nicaeaa nianoaaiii
aaaee/aneea oaenou, yaeythueany, oae neacaoue, ciaeiaie ia?aeiaee?iaeie
aiaeanoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, au?aaeaiiie a oaeinoaaiiii ia?aicaoea. Oaeei
ia?acii. Aaaeu auee aini?eiyou ?eoe aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi eo aeooa
(niciaiea) iaoiaeeeanue a iniaii ninoiyiee, iicaieyaoai ae aini?eieiaoue
aiaeanoaaiiua aea?aoeee [30]. Yoa eaaaiaea, eae iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue,
a eiia/iii eoiaa eae au oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi naia aaaee/aneay ?aeeaey
iaycaia naiei iiyaeaieai ?aeeaeiciiio iiuoo ae?aaieo ioae?aoeia,
iaoiaeeaoeony a iniaii ninoiyiee niciaiey. A anee iu aniiiiei, /oi
i?aeoe/anee ana o?aaeeoeeiiiua e a?oae/aneea aa?iaaiey naeeaeatho e
aeaaea ioiaeaeanoaeytho oaiaiia-i?iaeaeoeaa, i?i?ieia e iiyoia, oi
auneacaiiia iaie i?aaeiieiaeaiea iieo/eo aeiiieieoaeueiia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea: naia o?aaeeoeey niio?aea ia ?eoe eae ia ethaeae
yenoaoe/aneiai aeaeaiey e iiyoe/aneiai aaeioiiaaiey [25].

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue e aaaee/aneee eoeueo niiu, iaeiaai ?anoaiey, eiaaoaai
ii?aaeaeaiiue ineoiaeaee/aneee yooaeo, e ieeoeaoai?yaiiai ei aiaa (aai
naycuaaee n eoiie). Nie yoiai ?anoaiey aeoeaii eniieueciaaee a
aaaee/aneii ?eooaea, a eioi?ii niia ea?aea /?acau/aeii aaaeioth ?ieue.
Iu ia ciaai, auea ee niia i?inoi ia?eioe/aneei iaieoeii (a oaeii neo/aa
iia a?yae ee iiaea ieacuaaoue eaeia-oi nouanoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia
?ane?uoea aanniciaoaeueiiai) eee aea, iiaeiaii iaeneeaineiio ianeaeeio,
eiaea ineoiaeaee/aneee yooaeo. Ai anyeii neo/aa, a ?eaaaaea nio?aieeinue
aeinoaoi/ii iiiai aeiiia, iinayuaiiuo niia, a eioi?uo yoio iaieoie
ainiaaaaony eae aea?othuee aiaiiiaeiaea e aannia?oea. Iu ia ciaai
ninoaaa niiu, iineieueeo nae?ao aa ecaioiaeaiey aue oo?a/ai iinea
i?ae?auaiey aaaee/aneeo aea?oaii?eiioaiee e n eo caiaiie aieaa i?inouie
e aeaoaauie ?eooaeaie (ioaeaea). E?iia oiai, caeanue neacaeinue e
aeeyiea aoaeaeecia, inoaeaeaaoaai oiio?aaeaiea iiueyiythueo iaieoeia.
Aeae. Ieaeyi i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi niia ecaioaaeeaaeanue ec niea a?eaia
(aiciiaeii, iooiii?ia), /oi auei oa?aeoa?ii aeey ?yaea oaiaineeo
o?aaeeoeee Neae?e, Ia eneeth/aia aiciiaeiinoue e i?eiaiaiey a?eaia,
niaea?aeaueo neeueiue aaeethoeeiiaai ineeioeeaei (“iaae/aneea a?eau”):
yoe a?eau, eae i?aaeei, ?anooo ia iiiaoa e?oiiiai neioa. Ii ae?oaea
enneaaeiaaoaee, a iniiaiii e?aienou (iineieueeo aaanoeeneay ?aeeaey
oiaea i?aaeiieaaaea oiio?aaeaiea a ?eooaeueiuo oeaeyo yoiai aea ieoey,
iacuaaaoaainy a E?aia oaiiie), iieaaatho, /oi a iniiaa ninoaaa niiu aue
nie ?anoaiey yoaae?u, iineieueeo aa aeeaeieae yoaae?ei iaeaaeaao
neeueiui aicaoaeaeathuei e aucuaathuei yeoi?eth n?aaenoaii. I. Aien
i?eaea?aeeaaaony iiaiey, /oi aeey i?eaioiaeaiey niiu (oaiiu) nie yoaae?u
niaoeaaee n iieieii, iinea /aai aai e oiio?aaeyee a ?eooaeueiuo oeaeyo.
Nae?aeueiay oeaiiinoue niiu auea noieue aaeeea, /oi iia n/eoaeanue
iaieoeii aiaia, oi anoue noanoaioeeae oiai aea ?iaea, /oi e a?a/aneay
aia?icey (ia?ac, aeaeeii aaiaoe/anee naycaiiue n niiie). Ia eneeth/aii,
/oi ?eooaeueiia oiio?aaeaiea niiu iiaei a eaeie-oi noaiaie
noeioee?iaaoue oi?ie?iaaiea nianoaaiii ineoioaoieee [30, 39].

Neaaeoao oaeaea ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia eaeath oaiana, aeoeaii
i?iaiaeyuothny a Aaaeao. Neiai “oaian” icia/aao oaiei, ii ia anyeia
oaiei, a oaiei ioeoeu, auneaeeaathuae ioaioeia, e iiyoiio naycaiiia n
cao?aoaie yia?aee. Ae?aaiea eiaeeeoeu n/eoaee, /oi ioeoea io
auneaeeaaiey yeoe ooaeaao. Ii aiaeiaee, yoi neiai noaei eniieueciaaoueny
aeey iaicia/aiey aneacu, iiaeaeaeie/anoaa, iaeiaei ia oo?aoeei i naiae
yia?aaoe/aneie eiiiioaoeee. Oae, a Aaaeao oaian ?anniao?eaaaony eae
einiieiae/aneee i?eioeei oieaa?naeueiie yia?aee, i?aainoiaeyuee ii
naiaio cia/aieth aiaia e ana ie?u anaeaiiie. A aaaee/aneie eiioeaioeee
oaiana iiaeii aeaeaoue einaaiiia oeacaiea ia nouanoaiaaiea oaea a
aaaee/aneie ia?eiae i?aeoeee aneacu, aeeth/aaoae a naay e yeaiaiou
ineoioaoieee [25].

Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo eaeae eiaeeeneie ineoioaoieee yaeyaony iiciaiea
aunoae enoeiu, iaaeinooiiie ie /oanoaai, ie ?annoaeeo, iooai
“i?ae?auaiey aeayoaeueiinoe niciaiey” (/eooa a?eooe), oi anoue
i?ae?auaiea nouanoaiaaiey anao ninoiyiee yiie?e/aneiai niciaiey,
aeaaiaea?y /aio enoeiiue noauaeo – io?ooa (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia niciaiea) –
ia?anoaao ioiaeaeanoaeyoue naay n ninoiyieyie iaoa?ee e ?aaeecoao
nianoaaiioth iainiaeaiiinoue – i?aauaaiea a nianoaaiiie i?e?iaea.
Iineieueeo iaoa?eaeueiue ie? iaiinoiyiai, ii aini?eieiaaony eae
no?aaeaiea. Oieueei aeaaiaea?y naiaio ?acee/athuaio iinoeaeaieth
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia niciaiea iiaeao iieiinoueth iainiaeoueny io iaoa?ee e
i?aauaaoue a nianoaaiiie i?e?iaea, /oi i?eaiaeeo e i?ae?auaieth
no?aaeaiee. ?aaeecaoeey yoie oeaee i?aaeiieaaaao i?ioiaeaeaiea ainueie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo yoaiia naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey: naiieiio?ieue,
niaethaeaiea i?aaeienaiee, eiae/aneea iicu (aeiianoeea), ?aaoeyoeey
aeuoaiey, ioaea/aiea i?aaiia /oanoa io i?aaeiaoia /oanoa, eiioeaio?aoeey
aieiaiey, nica?oeaiea e nin?aaeioi/aiea [25].

O/aiea Oaio?a-eiae ianoaeaaao: aaniethoiay ?aaeueiinoue niaea?aeeo a
naaa ana aeaienoaaiiua i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey e i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, neeoua a
ninoiyiee aaniethoiiai Aaeeinoaa (aaeaeaaa). Oai?aiea anoue ac?ua
ecia/aeueiiai aaeeinoaa e ?acaeaeaiea aeaoo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo i?eioeeiia,
eiea?ie?iaaiiuo a Oeaa e Oaeoe. Anyeia ioiineoaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea
i?aaeiieaaaao ninoiyiea aeaienoaaiiinoe, e, aneaaenoaea yoiai,
i?aaeiieaaaao nouanoaiaaiea no?aaeaiey, eeethcee e “?aanoaa”. Eiia/iay
oeaeue iinayuaiiiai, i?aeoeeothuaai oaio?o – iauaaeeieoue a naiai oaea
aeaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ia/aea – Oeao e Oaeoe. I?iaoaeaeaiiay n iiiiuueth
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiae/aneeo oaoiee, Oaeoe, niaaoay a aeaea ciae
(eoeiaeaeeie) a iniiaaiee oaea, io /ae?u e /ae?a (/ae?u – yia?aaoe/aneea
oeaio?u oaea; oaio?a-eiaa auaeaeyao 7 /ae?, eaaeaeay ec ieo ioaa/aao ca
ii?aaeaeaiiue aeae yia?aee) iiaeieiaaony ii n?aaeeiiiio eaiaeo e aa?oeia
/a?aia, aaea caeeth/ai Oeaa, e niaaeeiyaony n iei. Yoi niaaeeiaiea
aiaeanoaaiiie ia?u aioo?e aai oaea o?ainoi?ie?oao eiaa a naiaai ?iaea
“aiae?iaeia”. Iaeiaei neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ia?aoaiea aiae?iaeiiuo
ea/anoa – eeoue iaeei ec aniaeoia oeaeinoiiai i?ioeanna, aaaeouaai e
neeyieth i?ioeaiiiiieiaeiinoae [31]. A oaio?e/aneie eeoa?aoo?a aiai?eony
i iiiaeanoaa ia? iiiiceoeee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue ainniaaeeiaiu. Eoia
e Nieioea aeieaeiu noaoue iaeiei, oae aea eae aeieaeiu neeoueny aeaa
ienoe/aneeo aaiu: eaea e ieiaaea (neiaieece?othuea yoe aeaa iaaaniuo
oaea), e aeaa aeuoaiey – i?aia e aiaia. Ii, /oi naiia aaaeiia,
i?aaeaeia, ioae?inoue, aeieaeia niaaeeieoueny n oiaea, – n?aaenoaii aa
aeinoeaeaiey, a ooiuey, ionoioa, – n ea?oiie – nino?aaeaieai [30].

A ?acoeueoaoa iauaaeeiaiey i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae oie/oiaeaaony iiuo
aeaienoaaiiinoe e i?ienoiaeeo o?ainoeaiaeaioiia i?aiaeieaiea ie?a
oaiiiaiia. Eia aeinoeaaao ninoiyiey aaconeiaiie naiaiaeu e
o?ainoeaiaeaioiinoe, au?aaeaaiiai neiaii naia?ana (aeaaineiaaiiinoue),
ia?aaeienaeueii ia?aaeeaay iiuo niaa?oaiiiai aaeeinoaa. Iaeioi?ua
oaio?e/aneea oeieu o/ao, /oi naia?ana aeinoeaeeia i?aeiouanoaaiii iooai
i?aeoeee iaeooiu (?eooaeueiia iieiaia niioaiea) e oa?aeoa?ecoaony
“inoaiiaeie” eee “neiauaaieai” o?ao aeaaiuo /aeiaa/aneeo ooieoeee:
aeuoaiey, naiyecaa?aeaiey e iuoeaiey. Neeyiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae aaaeao
e inoaiiaea aeiniiaoe/aneeo i?ioeannia e ineoi- iaioaeueiiai iioiea.
Iaiiaeaeaeiinoue yoeo ooieoeee, eioi?ua iniai oaeo/e ii naiae i?e?iaea,
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi aaeaio iieeioe /aeiaa/aneia ninoiyiea e
ia?aoae ia o?ainoeaiaeaioiue ieai [31, 33].

?anniio?ei ?aeeaeicii-einie/aneee neiaieeci, eniieuecoaiue aeey iienaiey
oiai, /oi oaeia iauaaeeiaiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae. Eia iaeiia?aiaiii
yaeyaony Einiinii e Iaioaiiii; ii aiieiuaao a naiai oaea Oeao e Oaeoe, e
iiiaeanoai eiuo aiaeanoa, eioi?ua, a eiia/iii eoiaa, naiaeyony e aeaiiie
a?oaoeie/aneie ia?a. Aeaa iniiaiuo oacu a Oaio?a-eiaa – yoi iiaeuai ia
einie/aneee o?iaaiue ineoi-niiaoe/aneiai iiuoa e oi?acaeiaiea Einiina,
neiaiee/aneia aica?auaiea e neooaoeee, eiaaea ecia/aeueiia Aaeeinoai aua
ia auei ?aci?aaii aeoii Oai?aiey. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, inaiaiaeaeaiea e
ianeaaeaeaiea aaniethoiie naiaiaeie oiaeaeanoaaiiu iaeaaeaieth iieiioie,
nouanoaiaaaoae aei nioai?aiey ie?a. N eaeie-oi oi/ee c?aiey
ia?aaeienaeueiia ninoiyiea, aeinoeaaaiia aaeaioii Oaio?u a naia?ana,
noiaeii n ia?aaeeaaieai ?eooaeueiie “i?aee” e aeieinie/aneie oueiu: a
iaieo yoeo ninoiyieyo oi?iu ainniaaeeiaiu, i?ioeai?a/ey e iiiiceoeee
niyou. Iaeiaei neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iineaaeiaa noiaenoai – eeoue
oi?iaeueii, eai, i?aiaeieaaay yoio ie? e aeinoeaay o?ainoeaiaeaioiinoe,
eia ia aica?auaaony e aeaaeaiiiio i?aiaoaeueiiio ninoiyieth, iau/ii
niioiineiiai n aeieinie/aneie oueiie. Any oaio?enoneay neiaieeea
ainniaaeeiaiey e ia?aoaiey oeaeinoiinoe oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi eiaei aieaa
ia iiaeaeanoai einie/aneei ?eoiai e caeiiai, Anaeaiiay ia?anoaao aeey
iaai nouanoaiaaoue, ii auoae ca i?aaeaeu A?aiaie, ooaea, aaea Anaeaiiay
aua ia nioai?aia [3].

Eiaaea aiai?eony, /oi aaeaio “inaiaiaeeeny io Einiina”, yoi icia/aao,
/oi ii i?aiaeieae ninoiyiea anyeie iaoneiaeaiiinoe, aeinoea
ia-aeaienoaaiiinoe e naiaiaeu. A eeanne/aneie Eiaa “aica?auaiea, /a?ac
naiaaeoe, e ecia/aeueiie ia-aeaienoaaiiinoe i?eaiineo iiaue yeaiaio a
ecia/aeueioth neooaoeeth (nouanoaiaaaooth aei ?acaeaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia aeaienoaaiiue iauaeo-noauaeo). Yoio yeaiaio –
ciaiea aaeeinoaa e aeaaeainoaa. Yoi “aica?auaiea e enoieai”, ii n oai
ioee/eai, /oi “inaiaiaeeaoeeny a yoie aeecie” aica?auaaony e
ecia/aeueiie neooaoeee, iaiaauaiiie ecia?aieyie naiaiaeu e aunoaai
niciaiey. *oiau au?aceoue yoo ?acieoeo: ii ia aica?auaaony aaoiiaoe/anee
e “caaeaiiie” neooaoeee, ii ainniaaeeiyao ecia/aeueioth iieiioo iinea
oiai, eae ia?aoai iiaue e ia?aaeienaeueiue o?iaaiue auoey: niciaiea
naiaiaeu, ianouanoaothuae a Einiina: ie ia o?iaia AEecie, ie ia o?iaia
“ieoieiae/aneie aiaeanoaaiiinoe” –ii nouanoaothuae eeoue a Aunoai Auoee,
Eoaa?a [30].

Ethaiiuoii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia?aaeienaeueiia ninoiyiea aaeaioa – oiai, eoi
aeinoea ?aaeecaoeee e auoae ca i?aaeaeu iaoneiaeaiiinoe – yoi ninoiyiea,
iaoiaeyuaany ca i?aaeaeaie aiia?aaeaiey, iienuaaaony i?ioeai?a/aueie
ae?oa ae?oao ia?acaie e neiaieaie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, eniieuecothony
ia?acu, au?aaeathuea /enooth niiioaiiinoue e naiaiaeo (“oio, eoi
aeaeaeaony ii nianoaaiiie aiea”), eiaaea ia aaeaioa aiai?eony, /oi ii
iiaeao “eaoaoue ii aicaeooo”; n ae?oaie noi?iiu, eniieuecothony ia?acu
aaniethoiie iaiiaeaeaeiinoe, ieii/aoaeueiie inoaiiaee anyeiai
aeaeaeaiey, canoueinoe. Ninouanoaiaaiea yoeo i?ioeai?a/aueo ae?oa ae?oao
ia?acia iauyniyaony ia?aaeienaeueiinoueth neooaoeee /aeiaaea,
“inaiaiaeeaoaainy i?e aeecie”: ii i?iaeieaeaao nouanoaiaaoue a Einiina,
oioy aieaa ia iiae/eiai aai caeiiai; oaeoe/anee, ii aieaa ia
i?eiaaeeaaeeo Einiino. Ia?acu iaiiaeaeaeiinoe e iieiiou au?aaeatho
i?aiaeieaiea anyeeo ia?aie/aiee, iaeeaaeuaaaiuo ?aaeueiinoueth; eai
nenoaia ia?aie/aiee – Einiin, aeieaeia auoue ii?aaeaeaia a oa?ieiao
noaiiaeaiey, a neeo aa iai?anoaiiiai aeaeaeaiey e iai?yaeaiey,
aicieeathuaai iaaeaeo iiiiceoeeyie. I?ae?aoeoue aeaeaeaiea, ia?anoaoue
?acaee?aoueny iaaeaeo i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyie icia/aao i?ae?aoeoue naia
nouanoaiaaiea aioo?e Einiina. Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, oneieueciooue
ec-iiae aeanoe iiiiceoeee ?aaiicia/ii ia?aoaieth aaniethoiie naiaiaeu,
niaa?oaiiie niiioaiiinoe – e eo/oa anaai yoi au?aaeaaony a ia?acao
aeaeaeaiey, ea?u, i?aauaaiey n?aco a aeaoo ianoao eee iieaoa [12].

Aoaeaeeci

Aoaeaeeci ia/ae oi?ie?iaaoueny a Eiaeee a na?aaeeia II-ai oun. aei i.y.
e iicaeiaa ?ani?ino?aieeny ii thaeiie, thai-ainoi/iie, ainoi/oie e
oeaio?aeueiie Acee. Iniiaaoaeai yoie ?aeeaee n/eoaaony oea?aae/ ec ?iaea
Oaeueaa ii eiaie Neaeaeoa?ooa Aaooaia. ?oeiaiaeeiue no?aieaieai iiciaoue
e ia?aaeeoue, oi anoue iiiyoue, enoeio, neaey iiae nayuaiiui oeeonii a
ninoiyiee nica?oeaoaeueiiai oaeoaeaiey, ii “i?iaoaeeeny”, oi anoue
aeinoea inaiaiaeaeaiey io i?e/eiiie iaoneiaeaiiinoe auoey e, eae
neaaenoaea, io no?aaeaiee, oi anoue noae Aoaeaeie. Anth inoaaoothny aei
ieii/aoaeueiiai ooiaea a ie?aaio aeeciue Aaooaia i?iiiaaaeiaae naiei
o/aieeai, /oiau iie iaaeayeenue ia nianoaaiiua neeu, “auee au naie naaa
naaoeeueieeaie” e ona?aeii o?oaeeeenue ai eiy inaiaiaeaeaiey. Oaeei
ia?acii, a niioaaonoaee n eiioeaioeeae aoaeaeecia, inaiaiaeaeaiea io
no?aaeaiee aeinoeaaaony oieueei iooai ineoioaoie/aneoth i?aeoeeo. Eiaiii
nica?oeaiea, a ia aeiaiaoe/aneea ii?aaeaeaiey eee oeeinioneea
eiioeaioeee ninoaaeyee noa?aeaiue aoaeaeeeneiai Iooe (Aeoa?iu). Aieaa
oiai, eiaiii ?acoeueoaou nica?oeaiey eiaeeeenue a iniiao oiai eee eiiai
o/aiey e eiaiii iie neoaeeee e?eoa?eyie aai enoeiiinoe (neaaeoao,
iaeiaei, naeaeaoue iaiai?eo, /oi ie iaeia aoaeaeeeneay nenoaia ieeiaaea
ia ?anniao?eaaeanue a ea/anoaa o/aiey, aicaauathuaai enoeio a iineaaeiae
einoaioeee. No?iai aiai?y, aoaeaeeeneee acaeyae aiiaua caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi enoeia ia iiaeao ie auoue iinoeaiooa aeeneo?neaii, ie iienaia a
eaoaai?eyo aeeneo?neaiiai iuoeaiey, ie auoue au?aaeaia n?aaenoaaie
aeeneo?na). Auoue ?aeeaeae aoaeaeecio ioithaeue ia iaoaao oi, /oi ii
eaoaai?e/anee ia i?eieiaao eaeath Aiaa — anaaeaaiai Oai?oea e
I?iiuneeoaey ie?a. Aea e iiiyoii, /oi a nenoaia aoaeaeecia caeiiu ea?iu
e i?e/eiii caaeneiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey n oniaoii caiaiytho niaie Aiaa
oaenoe/aneeo ?aeeaee, eioi?ue a aoaeaeecia auaeyaeae au i?inoi
“a?oeoaeoo?iui eceeoanoaii”, eaeiaui ii a eaeie-oi noaiaie yaeyaony a
eiaa [25].

Aoaeaeeci aiiaua iaei eioa?aniaaee aii?inu iaoaoeceee e einiieiaee. A
niioaaonoaee n aeieo?eiie aoaeaeecia, ia aeiaiaou i?aaeiaoiaeyo aeey ian
enoeio, ii iu naie ioe?uaaai aa naiei oneeeai, aiieiuaiiii a aeooiaiii
aeaeaiee. Ia ie? nai ii naaa ?anniao?eaaeny aoaeaeeciii, a ineoieini, oi
anoue ie?, ia?aaeeaaaiue aeeaui nouanoaii, ie? eae aniaeo aai
ineoe/aneiai iiuoa. Nianoaaiii, ?acee/iua ie?u aiaeece?iaaeenue
aoaeaeenoaie eae o?iaie ?acaa?ouaaiey niciaiey aeeauo nouanoa, a oaeeo
iniiaiuo o?iaiae iie auaeaeyee o?e: ie? aeaeaiee (eaia aeoaoo), ie? oi?i
(?oia aeoaoo) – o?iaaiue aunoeo iaaiaeeoaeae e ie? ia-oi?i (a?oia
aeoaoo) – ia o?iaia eioi?iai ?acaa?ouaaaony niciaiea eeaeae,
i?aeoeeothueo ?acee/iua aeaeu ineoioaoieee (ie? ia-oi?i eeoai
“ianoii?aauaaiee” e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ninoiyiea niciaiey a /enoii
aeaea, ia yoii o?iaia /oanoaaiiua ia?aaeeaaiey ia aeooaeece?othony)
[25].

Iauaeaiiia (naina?e/aneia) nouanoaiaaiea aoaeaeenou oa?aeoa?ecotho
/aou?ueiy oa?ieiaie: iii nooue no?aaeaiea, iaiinoiyinoai, iii
aannouiinoii e caa?yciaii eeethceyie e iaaaaeaieai. Yoiio ie?o
iai?a?uaiie /a?aaeu ?iaeaeaiee-nia?oae i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony ie?aaia –
aunoaa aiaee/iinoiia auoea, ninoiyiea iieiy e aeaaeainoaa. A aeey
ia?aoaiey inaiaiaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeia o?ainoi?iaoeey niciaiey, ia?aai?io
a naiie aai iniiaa. Aeey yoie o?ainoi?iaoeee iaiaoiaeeii iiieiaoue
i?e?iaeo iauaeaiiiai, yiie?e/aneiai niciaiey e oa?aeoa?a ineoe/aneeo
i?ioeannia. Ionthaea e i?ienoiaeeo io/aoeeai au?aaeaiiue ineoieiaeci
aoaeaeeeneiai o/aiey.

Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo iaoiaeia aoaeaeeeneie ineoioaoieee yaeyaony
nica?oeaiea. Nica?oeaoaeueiua i?aeoeee iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa oeia –
naiaooa (“i?einoaiiaeaiea”, “i?ae?auaiea” aieiaiey niciaiey, aai
iaeneiaeueiia oniieiaiea e nin?aaeioi/aiea) e aeianueyia (aiaeeoe/aneia
nica?oeaiea, i?aaeiieaaathuaa ?anniio?aiea i?e?iaeu niciaiey aeey
ecaaaeaiey io eeethcee “ss” e ei?aiyueony a yoie i?e?iaea aooaeoia).

Iaeaieaa aunieei o?iaiai nica?oeaiey yaeyaony nica?oeaiea ia o?iaia ie?a
ia-oi?i (noa?a aaneiia/iiai i?ino?ainoaa, noa?a aaca?aie/iiai niciaiey,
noa?a ionoonoaey /aai au oi ie auei, noa?a ie aini?eyoey, ie
iaaini?eyoey). ?acaa?ouaaiea niciaiey ia o?iaia aaneiia/iiai
i?ino?ainoaa ie?a ia-oi?i aeinoeaaaony iin?aaenoaii auoiaea ca i?aaeaeu
aini?eyoey eaeeo-eeai oi?i, oaanaiey anyeeo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe,
ioeeth/aiey io oeenaoeee niciaiey ia iiiaiia?acee e ?acee/eyo e
nin?aaeioi/aiey ia ia?aca aaneiia/iiai i?ino?ainoaa (i?ino?ainoaa
ineoe/aneiai iiuoa). ?acaa?ouaaiea niciaiey ia o?iaia aaneiia/iiai
niciaiey aeinoeaaaony iinea iieiiai auoiaea ca i?aaeaeu o?iaiy
aaca?aie/iiai i?ino?ainoaa. Caeanue niciaiea ?acaa?ouaaaony eae oaeiaia,
aia eaeeo-eeai niaea?aeaiee, /oi aeaeaao eceeoiei iaee/ea i?ino?ainoaa
ineoe/aneiai iiuoa. Caoai i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae ia o?iaaiue ionoonoaey
/aai au oi ie auei, a ca iei — ia o?iaaiue ie aini?eyoey, ie
iaaini?eyoey. Yoe o?iaie i?eioeeieaeueii iaiienuaaaiu, iineieueeo
iieiinoueth auoiaeyo ca i?aaeaeu i?ioaie/aneiai iiuoa, e iienaieth
eioi?iai, nianoaaiii, oieueei e i?eniiniaeai ycue, iiyoiio oaenou ia
niaea?aeao eaeie-eeai aaaeiie iieiaeeoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee ii iiaiaeo
yoeo o?iaiae.

Aeinoaoi/ii eioa?anai a ieaia aiaeeca nica?oeaoaeueiuo i?aeoee eoeueo
Aieoaaoe-aoaeaeu ie?a i?aaeaeueiiai Aiaeanoaa (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoio
eoeueo iniaaiii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a ssiiiee e a Ei?aa iiae iacaaieai
“aieaaeaeci”), iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee n/eoatho, /oi yoio eoeueo eiaao
e?aineia i?ienoiaeaeaiea e ainoiaeeo e ci?iano?eeneiio eoeueoo
Aiaa?a-?ai/a, Aaneiia/iiai Naaoa ?ay (iaiiiith, /oi eciaiaiey naaoiaiai
aini?eyoey yaeythony iaeieie ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo yooaeoia
aeaenoaey aaeethoeeiiaaiia, oaeaea iienaiey aeaeaiey Naaoa oa?aeoa?iu
aeey ia?aaeeaaiee nia?oe-e ii?aaeaeaiiuo noaaeee ?iaeia). Iniaia
aieiaiea eoeueo Aieoaaoe oaeaeyao nica?oeaieyi, ?aeiiaiaeoaiui e
i?aeoeea i?e iuouaiee i?eaeeaeathuaeny nia?oe. Ae?oaie iaoiae
ineoioaoieee a yoii eoeueoa – iieeoaaiiia iiaoi?aiea eiaie Aieoaaoe.
Oaeie aea iaoiae ineoioaoieee i?eiaiyaony a oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiie a
ssiiiee aoaeaeeeneie oeieu “oyiaeae”, eioi?ay i?aaeienuaaao aianoi
caiyoee iaaeeoaoeeae iinoiyiiia iiaoi?aiea oi?ioeu “Iieeiiaiea Noo?a
Eioina Aeaaie Aeoa?iu” (“Iaio iaoi ?yiay ea”). Iinoiyiiia iiaoi?aiea
eiaie Aoaeaeu i?eaiaeeei e oai aea aaaeiui yenoaoe/aneei yooaeoai, /oi e
iiaoi?aiea eiai E?eoiu e ?aiu a eiaeoecia, Eenoniaie iieeoau o eneoanoia
[25].

Iaeia ec oeie ?aiiaai eeoaeneiai aoaeaeecia – ooayiue – enoiaeeo ec
enoieeiaaiey ia?aca naoe eiaeeeneiai aiaa Eiae?u. Yoa naoue yaeyaony
neiaieii anaeaiiie eae aaeeiiai oeaeiai. Iia ninoieo ec aan/eneaiiuo
ae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo niaea?aeeo a naaa ana
inoaeueiua eaiie e, a naith i/a?aaeue, nai niaea?aeeony ai anao i?i/eo
eaiiyo. Iauyniyy yoio ia?ac, iniiaaoaeue oeieu Oa-oecai acye noaooth
Aoaeaeu e ie?oaeee aa ni anao noi?ii io?aaeathueie ca?eaeaie. Oeiea
ooayiue ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi eaaeaeue yeaiaio nouanoaiaaiey aeeth/aao a
naay ana inoaeueiua yeaiaiou e, a naith i/a?aaeue, niaea?aeeony a ieo.
“Ana — ai anai- Ana eiiaiaioii anaio, a eaaeaeii aoiia — ana ie?u
Aoaeaeu. Ai anao ie?ao Aoaeaeu — ana aoiiu anao ie?ia”. Eae a iaeiii
neieea n aieia?aiiu niaea?aeeony any iieiioa caienaiiie ia iae
eioi?iaoeee, oae e a eaaeaeii yeaiaioa niaea?aeeony ana oeaeia. E any
neiaeiay oeaeinoiinoue yoeo acaeiii?iieeathueo ie?ia anoue aaeeiia
aaniethoiia niciaiea Aoaeaeu, neiaiee/anee i?aaenoaaeaiiia a ia?aca
Aoaeaeu Aae?i/aiu, Aoaeaeu Aaeeeiai Nieioea. Yoi oaeaea aaoea oeaaoouae
neeau ia ea?oeiao aoaeaeeeneeo ooaeiaeieeia Eeoay: aaoea — aaeeiia
niciaiea Aoaeaeu, oeaaou — aai aan/eneaiiua ?acaa?ouaaiey a aeaea
iiiaiia?aciuo ie?ia.

Yoa neiaeiay aeieo?eia au?aaeaaony a o/aiee ooayiue aeaoiy oi?ioeaie:
“i?eioeei e aaue aani?aiyonoaaiii i?iieeatho ae?oa a ae?oaa” e “eaaeaeay
aauue aani?aiyonoaaiii i?iieeaao ai ana ae?oaea aaue”. Ia?aia ec yoeo
iieiaeaiee ainoiaeeo e iauaaoaeaeenoneie aeieo?eia oiaeaeanoaa naina?u e
ie?aaiu. Iiae i?eioeeiii caeanue eiaaony a aeaeo ie?aaia, i?e?iaea
Aoaeaeu, iiae aauaie — aeoa?iu eae yeaiaiou yiie?e/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey.
Ii yoe yeaiaiou ia nouanoaotho naie ii naaa, iie eeoaiu nianoaaiiie
i?e?iaeu. Eo i?e?iaea — “i?eioeei”, “aoaeaeiainoue”. A aauao yaeyaony
i?eioeei, i?eioeei iaaeaeyao aaue i?e?iaeie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ie oi, ie
ae?oaia ia nouanoaoao iainiaeaiii, ii niaieoiii ia?acotho aanietho —
Aaeeiia Niciaiea Aoaeaeu. Aoi?ia iieiaeaiea aieaa i?eaeiaeueii e
yaeyaony aeinoiyieai oieueei oeieu ooayiue. Aa o/aiea ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
ie iaeia aeoa?ia (aauue), ie iaeei yeaiaio iiuoa ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iainiaeaiioth io ae?oaeo nouiinoue- Iie iai?anoaiii acaeiiaeaenoaotho
iaaeaeo niaie ii i?eioeeio “ana a iaeiii, iaeii ai anai, ia?acoy
anaeaiioth, a eioi?ie anoue e aaeeinoai, e iiiaeanoaaiiinoue, e noauaeo,
e iauaeo. A yoii ie?a — naoe Eiae?u. iao oieueei i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae,
acaeiieneeth/athueo i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo yoeie e ae?oaeie ia?aie
eaoaai?ee. Oi/iay oi?ioea o/aiey ooayiue: “ana a iaeiii, iaeii ai anai,
iaeii a iaeiii, ana ai anai”.

Oeiea ooayiue i?ioeaaoaea aei na?aaeeiu IX a.. iaeiaei e iicaeiaa ia
oo?aoeea naiaai cia/aiey: aeaei a oii, /oi aa oeeinioey auea onaiaia
iaaeeoaoeaiie oeieie /aiue (ii-yiiinee -“aecyi”) a ea/anoaa
oai?aoe/aneie iniiau naiaai aeooiaiiai aeaeaiey.

*?acau/aeii eioa?aniu e ?aciiia?aciu iaoiaeu ineoioaoieee oaio?e/aneiai
aoaeaeecia (Aaaeae?ayiu, “Aeiaciiai iooe”), eioi?ue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a Oeaaoa, Aooaia e Iaiaea. Yoio iooue – iooue
i?aeoeea-eiaeia, e iaoiaeu, i?aeoeeoaiua aaeaioaie yoiai iai?aaeaiey
aoaeaeecia, i/aiue aeecee e iaoiaeai eiaeoenneie oaio?a-eiaeIniiaiua
aeaeu i?aeoeee oaio?enoia – yoi eiaa aioo?aiiaai oaiea, eiaa
eeethci?iiai naaoa, eiaa niiaeaeaiee, eiaa yniiai naaoa, eiaa
i?iiaaeooi/iiai ninoiyiey e eiaa ia?aiina niciaiey. Iao?oaeii caiaoeoue
oioy au ii iacaaieyi, /oi ana iiaeiaiua aeaeu i?aeoeee naycaiu n
aeinoeaeaieai niioaaonoaothueo o?ainia?niiaeueiuo ninoiyiee a i?ioeanna
auoiaea ca i?aaeaeu YAI-niciaiey. Oae, eiaa i?iiaaeooi/iiai ninoiyiey
i?aaeiieaaaao oiaiea eiaeia aoiaeeoue a i?iiaaeooi/iia ninoiyiea iaaeaeo
nia?oueth e iiaui ?iaeaeaieai (ii-oeaaonee – “Aa?aei”). A iniaii
ninoiyiee niciaiey, ioiaeaeanoaeyaiii eiaeiii n i?iiaaeooi/iui, en/acaao
iuouaiea oaea, e niciaiea eiaeia (ineoieiae/aneee noauaeo) iiaeao
naiaiaeii ia?aiauaoueny a i?ino?ainoaa, ia?aaeeaay ?acee/iua aeaeaiey.
I?e yoii eiaei iuouaao, /oi ii eae au i?eaycai e naiaio oaeo yeanoe/iie
ieoueth; ?ac?ua ieoe icia/ae au enoeiioth nia?oue. Oeaeueth aoiaeaeaiey
eiaeia a oaeia ninoiyiea yaeyaony iiiuoea ia?anoe a iai I?iaoaeaeaiea (a
oaio?e/aneii aoaeaeecia nouanoaoao i?aaenoaaeaiea, /oi eaaeaeue oia?oee
a ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio i?iiaaeooi/iiai i?aauaaiey iaaeaeo nia?oueth e
iiaui ia?a?iaeaeaieai ia?aaeeaaao I?iaoaeaeaiea e nica?oeaao yniue naao
Aoaeaea-niciaiey, e iiaeiaiia ia?aaeeaaiea iiaeii cae?aieoue, ia?aoy,
oaeei ia?acii, ie?aaio) [13]. Eiaa aioo?aiiaai oaiea oeiieiae/anee
niioaaonoaoao eoeiaeaeeie-eiaa eiaeoenoneiai oeaaecia e i?aaeiieaaaao
?aaioo n /ae?aie aeey noaeeiaoeee aioo?aiiae yia?aee e o?ainoi?iaoeee
niciaiey [30].

A?oae/iay aeooiaiinoue, oeaeinoiinoue auoey e ineoiaeoeaiua aauanoaa.

Nae?aeueiia i?eiaiaiea ineoiaeoeaiuo aauanoa eiaao iiiaiouny/aeaoiea
ei?ie. Enoi?ey neiaeeeanue oaeei ia?acii, /oi o?aaeeoeee a?oae/iiai
ycu/anoaa (oaiaiecia) auee caauou ia ianeieueei ouny/ eao. A ia?eiae
Iiaie y?u iiaeiaiuie yenia?eiaioaie caieiaeenue ienoe/aneea ioaaoaeaiey
aaaeoueo ie?iauo ?aeeaee (ieeoeueoeci), e oieueei ia?aai?io a
ineoioa?iaeieiaee aeaaaeoeaoiai noieaoey naeaeae oe?iei ecaanoiuie
nie?iaaiiua oaeiu naeoaioia e eieaeoiia. Aeieoi? oeeinioee, niaoeeaeeno
a iaeanoe ?aeeaeiaaaeaiey Ouethnoii Nieo (Oieaa?neoao Aa?eee) ieoao, /oi
naycue i?e?iaeiuo n?aaenoa eciaiaiey niciaiey n aeooiaiie i?aeoeeie
i/aaeaeia: ?anoeoaeueiua aaeethoeeiiaaiu iiaee iineoaeeoue ioi?aaiie
oi/eie aicieeiiaaiey iiiaeo ?aeeaeiciuo iai?aaeaiee, iicaeiaa caauaoeo i
naieo ineoiaeaee/aneeo ei?iyo. I?e niioaaonoaothuai ineoe/aneii
ninoiyiee e a niioaaonoaothueo oneiaeyo ineoiaeaeeee iiaoo aucaaoue
?aeeaeiciua ia?aaeeaaiey, iaioee/eiua io ia?aaeeaaiee, i?ienoiaeyueo
niiioaiii… Eiaaea O. Noaena, eioi?ue n/eoaaony aaoi?eoaoai a iaeanoe
oeeinioee ienoeoeecia, ni?ineee, iiaeiaiu ee ineoiaeaee/aneea
ia?aaeeaaiey ienoe/aneei, ii ioaaoee: “Aii?in ia a oii. iioiaee iie ia
ienoe/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey eee iao: iie nooue ienoe/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey.”
(Aieaa iiae?iaii aii?in iiaeeeiiinoe ienoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee,
aicieeathueo iiae aicaeaenoaeai aaeethoeeiiaaiia, e i oii, iiaoo ee
aaeethoeeiiaaiu niinianoaiaaoue ?aeeaeiciie aeecie, ?anniio?ai a eieaa
“Iooe ca i?aaeaeu YAI” [21])

A?oae/iay ?aeeaeiciinoue iiae?acoiaaaea aeinoaoi/ii iai?yaeaiioth
ineoieiae/aneoth aoiinoa?o aeooiaiie aeecie ethaeae. sscu/ieeai auei
naienoaaiii /ooeia ienoe/aneia ie?iiuouaiea. Ie?oaeaiiua caaaaei/iie
I?e?iaeie, aiaea/aiiua a aaneiia/iue oai?/aneee i?ioeann aa eco/aiey,
naie aeooaaiue iieie a?oae/iua ethaee niaei aeiaa?yee iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
?aeeaeiciiio ia?aaeeaaieth, eioi?ia yaeyeinue aeaaiui enoi/ieeii eo
iiuoa e ii?aaeaeyei auai? aaaeiaeoeo no?aoaaee iiaaaeaiey [9].

Oaeaea oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi ana oaiaiu ai anao eoeueoo?ao oiio?aaeytho
aeey aoiaeaeaiey a o?ain ii?aaeaeaiiua ?anoaiey e a?eau, niaea?aeauea
ana oa aea “iieaeoeu ienoeee”. Aeey iauaiey n ieoe/aneeie nouiinoyie,
oi?aaeythueie noaeueaaie ethaeae, ycu/ieee noeioee?iaaee iniaua naienoaa
ineoeee n iiiiuueth i?e?iaeiuo aaeethoeeiiaaiia ?anoeoaeueiiai e
aeeaioiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Iai?eia?, ianeaeueiua o?anee yiioe iicaeiaai
iaieeoa a ianoiinoe Oanneeei-Aaeaea?, /oi iaoiaeeony ia thaa
nia?aiaiiiai Aeaee?a, ecia?aaeatho oeao?u, iie?uoua ineeioeeaeiiauie
a?eaaie, oaioeothuea oaiaiu caaeeiatho a ?oeao oa aea a?eau, a
ie?oaeathuee eo i?iaiaioiue ?enoiie iioiae ia i?e/oaeeeaua
aaeethoeeiaoeee, aicieeathuea iiae aicaeaenoaeai ineeioeeaeia [15, 39].
Ia ?one e a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia aei neo ii? ?anooo ianeieueei aeaeia
a?eaia, niaea?aeaueo ineeioeeaei. Ii aeaeo eo o?oaeii ioee/eoue io
iiiai/eneaiiuo e iaeieco/aiiuo iaeeeo iiaaiie (enoaoe, naii neiai
“iiaaiea” i?ienoiaeeo io eaoeineiai “poganus” – ycu/iee). O?aaeeoeee
oiio?aaeaiey aaeethoeeiiaaiia a ycu/aneie ?one yanoaaiii
i?ineaaeeaathony a ieoieiaee – aeinoaoi/ii ?ani?ino?aiaiiui yaeyaony
iioea, eiaaea a?oaoeie/aneay eieaeoiuey Aaaa-ssaa oiio?aaeyao naia eee
i?aaeeaaaao aa?iyi niaoeeaeueiia caeuea, i?eaioiaeaiiia ec eaeeo-oi
a?eaia, o?aa, a oaeaea ciae, yua?eoe, aeaa e iaoeia, iinea /aai
ioaaaeaaoee yoiai caeuey eniuouaaao yenoaoe/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey,
i?eia?aoaao niiniaiinoue ia?aiauaoueny a i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, a
oaeaea ?aaioaoue n eioi?iaoeeae iao?aaeeoeeiiiuie niiniaaie – /eoaoue
iunee e o.i. Nia?aiaiiay oa?iaeieiaey iieacaea, /oi a ?yaea ?anoaiee e
a?eaia, a ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae oaoiu – eiaiii a iaeioi?uo iaoeao, eiaea
aeaa, ciae e yua?eoe – niaea?aeaony iiuiaeoea aaeethoeeiiaaiu, oaeea eae
aeeiaoeeo?eioaiei (AeIO), aauanoaa a?oiiu aooioaieia (aeeaeaeoea
?iaenoaaiieee ENAe-25), ineeioeeaei e ae?. (A ea/anoaa iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey
oiai, /oi iaoe i?aaeee oi?ioi ciaee i aaeethoeeiiaaiiuo naienoaao eiaee
aeaau/eyaooee, iiaeao aunooiaoue ecaanoiay neacea “Oea?aaia-Eyaooea”, a
eioi?ie Eaai-aeo?ae aeaeeo aianoi eyaooee oea?aaio oieueei iinea oiai,
eae i?eeanaaony aoaaie e eiaea eyaooee, oi anoue a iiiaio iioeaeoy a aai
?io iiiaaeaao neecue eyaooee, niaea?aeauay iiuiaeoee aaeethoeeiiaai
aooioaiei, e ana i?ienoiaeyuaa n Eaaiii aiineaaenoaee iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae aai aaeethoeeiaoeeth. I?eia/aoaeai e oio iiiaio, /oi
i?eioeanna ianoaeaaao ia nio?aiiinoe naiae ioa?ioaiiie, oi anoue a?iaea
oaea ia ioaeiie, eyaooa/ueae eiaee – eae oieueei Eaai oie/oiaeaao yoo
eiaeo, aaeethoeeiaoeee n?aco aea i?ae?auathony – ia?ac Oea?aaiu en/acaao
ec niciaiey Eaaia).

I?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey oaiaiecia iiaeii eneaoue a iaeanoe
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ciaeiinoaa iaoeo aeaeaeeo i?aaeeia n ienoe/aneei
iiuoii, aa?iyoii, naycaiiui n “iieaeoeaie ienoeee” [39]. Neeaaeuaaaony
neaaeothuay ea?oeia ?acaeoey niciaiey: nia?aa, aanniciaoaeueii
iiaeiothuaany einoeieoai aeeaioiia (iaacueyia), aeaaiaea?y iiaaeaieth
?anoeoaeueiuo aaeethoeeiiaaiia, iao/eeinue iieueciaaoueny ?a/ueth, /oiau
iniciaaaoue naay ai a?aiaie e, oai naiui, no?oeoo?e?iaaoue naia
iiaaaeaiea. Caoai, iiuo yenoaoe/aneeo ninoiyiee niciaiey iicaieee
a?oae/iui ethaeyi iaia?oaeeoue a ie?oaeathuai ia/oi iaiauynieiia,
i?eaiaeyuaa a iaaa?iyoiue ainoi?a e iiaa?aathuaa a oaean. Aie?oa
y?/aeoeo ineoiaeaee/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee noaee aicieeaoue anaaiciiaeiua
?eooaeu, eoeueou, a a aeaeueiaeoai noi?ie?iaaeenue nenoaiu oeaiiinoae e
iauanoaaiiua ea?a?oee. Yoio iiuo ioi?ieyeny ycueiauie e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuie n?aaenoaaie a ieou, noaaoea iniiaie anao
i?aaenoaaeaiee i caaaaei/iuo i?e?iaeiuo acaeiinaycyo [15].

Eaeei aea ia?acii aeaaiay o?aaeeoeey iaoeo i?aaeeia iiaea aanneaaeii
en/aciooue a iineaaeothuea yiioe?

Ia?aua eciaiaiey i?iecioee, aeaeeii, ec-ca eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee –
Ao?eea noaea nioiooue, iineaaeothuaa ?annaeaiea ethaeae a iiauo ?aaeiiao
iaeoaiey naeaeaee aaeethoeeiiaaiu iaei aeinooiiuie aeey aieueoeinoaa.

Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi n ?anoe?aieai iauei iaeaieaa iiuoiua
“aeceiia?u” – oaiaiu, acya ia naay iaycaiiinoe ioi?aaeaiey ?eooaeia,
ii-i?aaeiaio eniieueciaaee ineoiaeaee/aneea niaaeiauey, ii o?aaeeoeey
a?oiiiaiai ?aeeaeiciiai yenoaca noaea ineaaaaaoue [36]. Iaueiu
i?iaeieaeaee ?anoe, i?iecioei ?acaeaeaiea ethaeae ia eanou, ia?oia?neea
aioo?eiaueiiua ioiioaiey onooieee ianoi ea?a?oee – aeanoe e
iiae/eiaieth. Ethaee ia/aee eoeueoeae?iaaoue “caiaieoaee”
ineoiaeaee/aneeo o?aa e a?eaia – yoaae?o, iae, eniieueciaaoue
caa?iaeeaoee iaae, oi anoue i?iecioae ia?aoiae e eniieueciaaieth
aauanoa, aeathueo ia yenoaoe/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey e aeoaeiiia iia?oaeaiea
a eiua i?ino?ainoaa auoey, a caauouea e ?anneaaeaiea iinea iai?yaeaiiiai
?aai/aai aeiy, eeai e noeioeyoi?ai, niinianoaothuei iiauoaieth
?aaioiniiniaiinoe iooai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey yia?aee a i?aaiecia oi anoue
ethaee noaee ?aaoee?iaaoue naii/oanoaea, ia i?eeaaay aioo?aiieo oneeee.
Aeaeeii, a yoii aeaaiay i?e/eia oiai, /oi aaeethoeeiiaaiiua niaaeiauey
ioioee a iaeanoue Oaeiu, eioi?oth oaia?ue ciaee eeoue “iinayuaiiua” –
ae?aoeu ycu/aneeo eoeueoia [27].

Yiioa ?aeeaeiciuo aeiaiaoia nii?iaiaeaeaeanue ?anoeaaoii iiaie nenoaiu
ea?a?oe/aneeo nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee e aeinoeaea naiaai aiiaay a ia?eiae
N?aaeiaaaeiauey. Eaeaaeu “/enoie”, iaycu/aneie, ?aeeaee – yoi no?iai
ii?ie?iaaiiia iiaaaeaiea e aeooaaiue iieie aa?othueo. Oaeay aa?a
iiae?acoiaaaao ee/iue ioeac io anaai, /oi ia?ooaao niieienoaea oia, /oi
iiaeaa?aaao niiiaieth iauai?eiyoua aeiaiaou. Yoa aa?a ia iaeia?yao
eceeoithth ethaiciaoaeueiinoue e oai?/aneee aaaioth?eci, iia caieiaao
io?aieoaeueioth eiina?aaoeaioth iiceoeeth, eiie ?ac aeanoei
?ani?aaeyynue n ia?ooeoaeyie o?aaeeoeee (iiiaea o/aiua, iiyou e ienaoaee
iiieaoeeenue aeeciueth ca oi, /oi eo eaeae o?aaiaeeee iauaaoaey).
Niioaaonoaaiii, e auai? iiueyiythueo n?aaenoa aeieaeai auoue oaeei,
/oiau /aeiaae ioaeuoae, iaoiaeee caaaaiea io o?oaeia, a ia ia?aaeeaae
ienoe/aneea ica?aiey. Aeey yoeo oeaeae, eiia/ii, oianoiaa aeeiaieue e
iiaeiaiua ia?eioe/aneea caeuey, aa?aioe?othuea yeoi?eth i?e nio?aiaiee
i?aaeiae nenoaiu i?aaenoaaeaiee i Ie?a. Eo ?ac?ooeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea
ia i?aaieci aiieia ii?aaaeuaaao iauoth ioeoeeaeueioth aeieo?eio
inoaeaeaiey /aeiaa/aneie iio?aaiinoe eciaiyoue ninoiyiea niciaiey.

Iia?oaeaiea aea a aanniciaoaeueiia ia?ooaao niieienoaea aiaeeoe/aneiai
oia: anyeee i?eai aaeethoeeiiaaia iaiyao ie?iaicc?aiea /aeiaaea,
i?iaoaeaeaao aai io i?eau/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee, ia aeaao caauoue ia
oneiaiinoe ethauo oi/ae c?aiey; o?aaiaeeo aeooo iaaa?iyoii oe?ieie
aiieeooaeie ia?aaeeaaiee – io ia?aeecothuaai aieth oaeana, aei ainoi?aa
e ienoe/aneiai yenoaca [13]. Ineoiaeaee/aneee iiuo ia i?eiineo
oieaa?naeueiuo ?aoeaioia n/anouey: auoue aioiaui e ia?aioeaiea anae
aeeciaiiie iiceoeee – aio noaeueaa /aeiaaea, ia?aoeaoaainy e nae?aeueiie
neea ?anoeoaeueiuo aaeethoeeiiaaiia [34].

I?aaaea, oaeay aeooiaiinoue eiaao na?ueaciia i?aeiouanoai – /oanoaaiii
?aaeueioth, eioeiioth aa?o a naa?ouanoanoaaiiia, a ia oiic?eoaeueioth
aeieo?eio, ianaaeaeaaioth naa?oo. Iiieiay yoi, oea?eiaue aaniiuaaeii
oie/oiaeaea ycu/ieeia n eo ienoa?eyie, eoeueoaie e oaeiuie niaaeiaueyie
aeey ?eooaeueiuo oeaeae. Eiaaea o?enoeaia ano?a/aee a caaiaaaiiuo
no?aiao o?aaeeoeee oiio?aaeaiey ineoiaeaee/aneeo niaaeiaee, ana yoi
iaeciaiii iauyaeyeinue /a?oiaueiie e aeanoi/aeoei ia?acii enei?aiyeinue.
Aeiaiaoece?iaaiiay ii?aeue e aeeiaieue aa?aioe?otho ioiineoaeueiue
aeooaaiue iieie ianoau, a iiionoeoaeuenoai ycioa?e/aneie i?aeoeea
niinianoaoao ?ani?ino?aiaieth aieueiiaeoiey (a?ane).

A?oae/iay aeooiaiinoue naenoaeueia e ?aaeinoia. Ienoe/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey
ioi?ieyeenue ycu/ieeaie a ao?iua i?acaeianoaa e nii?iaiaeaeaeenue
oaioeaie e i?aeyie, eiaaea ethaee iiaee ?annoaoueny n iaeioi?uie
oneiaiinoyie nioeeaeueiuo ?ieae, ia ?eneoy auoue inoaeaeaiiuie ca
i?aethaiaeayiey…[10]. Yoi yaii ia oeeaaeuaaeinue a oi?iao iiauo
i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?aaaaeiinoe /aeiaaea, i?eoaaeoeo aianoa n iiiioaeciii.
Iiyoiio ycu/aneea o?aaeeoeee enei?aiyeenue naiui aeanoieei ia?acii
aianoa n nae?aoaie niaaeiaee, oiio?aaeyaoeony aeey yenoaca – ee/iinoiie
o?ainoeaiaeaioeee, auoiaea ca i?aaeaeu YAI. N iiiaioa ooiaea
ineoiaeaee/aneiai iiuoa ec aeecie iniiaiie iannu ethaeae, n oneiaeiaieai
nioeeaeueiie ea?a?oee ?acaeouo ycu/aneeo iauanoa ia/eiaao eioaineaii
?acaeaaoueny YAI-iaioaeeoao. Nia?aa – a ?aieao niuneiaiai eiino?oeoa –
ss e Aaeeeia Ia/oi (ycu/ieee), caoai, a ?aieao aeiaiaoia eiie?aoiuo
?aeeaeiciuo iai?aaeaiee i?ioeaiiinoaaeee naay einoeieoeaiui i?e?iaeiui
neeai e ioaathua aeeea?neiio ia?aco aeecie, eioi?ue aaee ycu/ieee.
*aeiaae ia/ae iiieiaoue, eaeay i?iianoue ?acaeaeyao aai niciaiea e ie?
aeeaioiuo, n eioi?uie ia nouaeeeenue n?aaieaaoue naay a?oae/iua
eoeueoo?u [41]. Yoi iineoaeeei iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey iiauo
i?aaenoaaeaiee i aaeeiii iaeooaaeaiiii ia/aea anaai Ie?icaeaiey – i
Aiaa. *aeiaa/aneay aeooa ia?aea iiaue noaoon a Aeooa (a Eiaina) e noaea
ai?acaei o?aaiaaoaeueiaa e ee/iinoe e ieioe [23].

Oo?aoa oeaeinoiinoe eae i?iyaeaiea “Aeanoe iaae aeeaui”

Caiaaeiia iauanoai, aicieeoaa iinea i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aaiethoeee. ioee/aaony
iniaie, ?aiaa iaauaaeie nenoaiie aeanoe – “aeanoue iaae aeeaui eae
aeieiae/aneei aeaeii “, (aieaa iiae?iaii yoio oaiiiai ?anniio?ai a
?aaioao o?aioeocneiai oeeinioa Ieoaey Ooei “Enoi?ey aacoiey a
eeanne/aneoth yiioo”, “Enoi?ey naenoaeueiinoe: ei.1-3” e ae?.). Ii
iiaieth Ooei, oaeay aeanoue ooieoeeiie?oao eae iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuee e
no?aiyueeny e iaeneiaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe iaoaieci anaiauaiethuaai
eiio?iey [26]. Iiaua oaoiieiaee aeanoe nicaeaaaeenue iinoaiaiii e
iai?aaeiaia?aiii n?aco a ?aciuo noa?ao iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iaeiie ec
aaaeiaeoeo oaoiieiaee aeanoe auea “aeenoeeieeia?iay aeanoue”, eee
aeenoeeieeia. Aeenoeeieeia?iay aeanoue, oi?ie?othuayny a XVIII a.,
ia/eiaaony n ia?aiauaiey eiaeeaeaeia a i?ino?ainoaa. Iia o?aaoao
caieiooiai i?ino?ainoaa, a eioi?ii aeaenoaotho naie caeiiu e i?aaeea:
ianoa “aeenoeeieeia?iie iiiioiiiinoe”. Yoi ?aaioiua aeiia aeey a?iaeya e
ieueo. Yoi eieeaaeaee: a iaeanoe ia?aciaaiey iinoaiaiii ooaa?aeaeaaony
iiianou?neay iiaeaeue, e eioa?iao ?anniao?eaaaony eae iaeaieaa
niaa?oaiiay oi?ia ia?aciaaiey e ainieoaiey. Yoi eaca?iu, eioi?ua oiaea
iiyaeythony a XVIII a. A yoi aea a?aiy iaiooaeoo?u ia/eiatho
?acaeaaoueny a aieueoea caieiooua i?ino?ainoaa n aaeeiiia?aciui e
aanueia no?iaei ?aaeeiii, noaiiaynue iioiaeeie ia iiianou?ue, e?aiinoue
eee cae?uoue ai?iae. Iaeiaei i?eioeei caieiooiai i?ino?ainoaa ia aue ie
iinoiyiiie, ie iaiaoiaeeiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth aeenoeeieeia?iiai
aiia?aoa. Ia iaiaa cia/ei oaeaea i?eioeei “?acai?aaeeaaiey”.
Aeenoeeieeia?iay aeanoue oyaioaao e ?aceiaeaieth a?oii e iann ia
yeaiaioa?iua ninoaaeythuea – eiaeeaeaeia – e e niiinoaaeaieth eaaeaeiio
eiaeeaeaeo no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiiai ianoa. Iia ia oa?ieo aeeooociie
oee?eoeyoeee eiaeeaeaeia, iianiuo e aaniieaciuo naeaaiee a eo/ee.
Eaaeaeue eiaeeaeae aeieaeai auoue anaaaea ia naiai ianoa, eaaeaeiai a
ethaie iiiaio iiaeii iaeoe, i?ieiio?iee?iaaoue – e aieaa iieii
eniieueciaaoue.

Ii ianoi, ioaaaeaiiia eaaeaeiio eiaeeaeaeo a aeenoeeieeia?iii
i?ino?ainoaa, – aieaa, /ai i?inoi ianoi: yoi iaeiia?aiaiii e ?aia
eiaeeaeaea, aai ianoi a oie eeanneoeeaoeee, eioi?oth inouanoaeyao
aeenoeeieeia?iay aeanoue. Oae, i?anooiieeia ?ani?aaeaeytho a caaeneiinoe
io oa?aeoa?a i?anooieaiey, aieueiuo – io oa?aeoa?a caaieaaaiey, o/aieeia
a eeanna – a caaeneiinoe io iiaaaeaiey e oniaaaaiinoe.

Iiyoiio i?aaeaea anaai anoaao aii?in ia ioaeaeaiee oao, eiai iiaeii
canoaaeoue i?eioaeeoaeueii o?oaeeoueny, io niaa?oaiii iaoi?aaeyaiuo. Oae
aeaeaaony i?eioeeieaeueiue oaa ia iooe auaeaeaiey aacoiiuo a niaa?oaiii
iniaoth a?oiio, eioi?oth iaaeeaaeeo ioaeaeyoue io i?i/eo aeaaeaioia.
Eiioeaiooaeecaoeey aeaiiuo i?ioeannia, au?aaeathuayny a iiyaeaiee
iiiyoey aacoiey e auaeaeaiee ineoe/aneeo aieaciae a iniaue eeann
caaieaaaiee, ii a?aiaie neaaeoao ca eciaiaieai ia?auaiey n oaeeie
aieueiuie a oaoiieiaeyo aeenoeeieeia?iie aeanoe. Aeenoeeieeia, i?aaiecoy
“y/aeee”, “ianoa” e “iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe”, oai naiui oi?ie?oao neiaeiia
aeenoeeieeia?iia i?ino?ainoai, iaeiia?aiaiii a?oeoaeoo?iia,
ooieoeeiiaeueiia e ea?a?oe/aneia.

Iiiauaiea ethaeae a aeenoeeieeia?iua einoeooou e iaaycuaaiea ei
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?aaeeiia anoue iaeei ec niiniaia, eaeeie aeanoue
“oeeaaeuaaao” yaeaiey a naith “ai?ei?ioth oi?io nica?oeaiey”.
?acoiaaony, e i?iyaeaiey aeanoe, e oi?iu nouanoaiaaiey aeanoe-ciaiey
oe?a, /ai aeenoeeieeia?iua einoeooou. Aeanoue ia/eiaao auoiaeeoue ca
i?aaeaeu ethauo aeenoeeieeia?iuo einoeoooia e i?iiecuaaoue niaie ana
iauanoai e ana aeaeu ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie, aeeth/ay naiua aeeceea
e eioeiiua.

Eiaiii ia i?eia?a aeenoeeieeia?iiai einoeoooa i?iua anaai iiynieoue
iiiyoea aeanoe-ciaiey. Iaaea?ii aeanoue, neiaeeaoayny a iiaaeoaa a?aiy,
oae oyaioaao e nicaeaieth aeenoeeieeia?iuo einoeoooia. Aeanoue-ciaiea –
yoi oaeia ciaiea, eioi?ia ?acaeaaaony e iaiaauaaony iooai nai?a
eioi?iaoeee e iaaethaeaiee ca ethaeueie eae iauaeoaie aeanoe – iai?eia?,
iaoiaeyueieny a niaoeeoe/aneie e aeinoaoi/ii iaanoanoaaiiie neooaoeee
aeenoeeieeia?iiai einoeoooa. Iaeia ec ooieoeee anao aeenoeeieeia?iuo
einoeoooia nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa – nai? noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo e
nicaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo naiaeia ciaiee i naieo iauaeoao. Aeanoue-ciaiea
– yoi oaeaea e aeanoue, nouanoaothuay e ?aaeecothuay naay a oi?ia
ciaiey, iie?athuayny ia ciaiea a naiai no?aieaiee e yooaeoeaiinoe –
iniaia ciaiea i ethaeyo, aeeth/aiiiai a nouanoaiaaiea e aini?iecaiaenoai
aeanoiuo no?oeoo?. Eiio?ieue ca eioi?iaoeeae – ae?oaia i?iyaeaiea
“aeanoe-ciaiey”.

A oa/aiea aeieaeo aaeia, i?aaeoanoaothueo yiioa I?inaauaiey e
ao?aeoaciuo ?aaiethoeee, ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie i?aaa noaa?aia auei i?aai
ia aeeciue e nia?oue aai iiaeaeaiiuo. Oi/iaa, yoi auei i?aai ia oi,
/oiau oia?oaeoue eee inoaaeoue aeeoue. Oae, noaa?ai iia eeoeoue
iiaeaeaiiiai aeecie, anee oio aueaeao ec iiaeiiaaiey e iniaeeony
oa?iaeaoue aeecie noaa?aia. I?aai noaa?aia icia/aei a nouiinoe i?aai
acyoue o iiaeaeaiiiai ana /oi oaiaeii: eiouanoai, a?aiy, oaei e,
iaeiiaoe, naioth aai aeeciue. Ii a eeanne/aneoth yiioo Caiaae ia?aaeee
aeoaieoth o?ainoi?iaoeeth iiaeiaiuo iaoaieciia aeanoe. Ioae?aiea o
iiaeaeaiiuo oiai, /oi ei i?eiaaeeaaeeo, ia?anoaei auoue aeaaiie oi?iie
inouanoaeaiey aeanoe. Caoi noi?ie?iaaeinue aieueoia eiee/anoai ae?oaeo
oi?i: iiaoaeaeaiea, iiaeaea?aeea, eiio?ieue, iaaeci?, oi?aaeaiea e
i?aaiecaoeey. I?aai ioia?aoue o iiaeaeaiiiai aeeciue niaieeinue
?aciiia?aciuie oi?iaie oi?aaeaiey aai aeeciueth e aeeciueth
nioeeaeueiiai oaea aiiaua.

Aeanoue noaea iaoiaeeoue naith eaaeoeiiinoue a iaania/aiee yooaeoeaiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nioeeaeueiiai oaea ai anai iiiaiia?acee aai aeeciaiiuo
ooieoeee. Anee ?aiueoa i?aai ia nia?oue iiaeaeaiiiai caueuaei aeeciue
noaa?aia, oi oaia?ue iii noaei iai?ioiie noi?iiie i?aaa nioeeaeueiiai
oaea ia caueoo naiae aeecie, aa iiaeaea?aeeo e ?acaeoea. Ooei ia?auaao
aieiaiea ia oi, /oi ieeiaaea ?aiaa aieiu ia auee oaeeie e?iaaauie, eae n
ia/aea n XIX a., e aeaaea n o/aoii anao i?iii?oeee ieeiaaea i?aaeaea
ieeaeea ?aaeeiu ia ono?aeaaee iiaeiaiiai eno?aaeaiey nianoaaiiiai
ianaeaiey. Ii yoi /oaeiaeuiia i?aai ia nia?oue aunooiaao oaia?ue eae
aeiiieiaiea aeanoe, eioi?ay inouanoaeyao iieiaeeoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea
aeeciueth, ?anii?yaeaaony ath, oneeeaaao e oiiiaeaao, eiio?iee?oy e
?aaoee?oy aa. Aiaiiue i?eioeei: oaeoue, /oiau auaeeoue, – noaiiaeony
i?eioeeiii ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie. Ii i?e yoii, eae
iiae/a?eeaaao Ooei, ?a/ue eaeao i aeecie ia a th?eaee/aneii, a a
aeieiae/aneii niunea: aeanoue oaia?ue ?aniieaaaaony ia o?iaia aeecie,
aeieiae/aneiai aeaea, ?anu e iiioeyoeee. Iai?ioiie noi?iiie yoiai
ieacuaaaony oi, /oi aaiioeeae, o. a. eno?aaeaiea /oaeie iiioeyoeee ?aaee
nio?aiaiey naiae, noaiiaeony ia/oie iiiaeo i?aaeoaeuenoa Iiaiai a?aiaie.

Iaaeyaeiue neiioii eciaiaiey oa?aeoa?a aeanoe a eiioea XVIII a. –
ioiioaiea e nia?oiie eacie. A oa/aiea aeieaiai a?aiaie eaciue auea,
ia?yaeo n aieiie, iaeiie ec iniiaiuo oi?i ?aaeecaoeee i?aaa noaa?aia:
iia i?aaenoaaeyea niaie ioaao ia iieooaiea ia aai ee/iinoue, caeii eee
aieth. Iinoaiaiii, ii ia?a oiai eae aieiu noaiiaeeenue ana aieaa
ianniauie e e?iaaauie, ia yoaoioao eeoaeinue aeecie ana iaiueoa e
iaiueoa ethaeae. Iaeia e oa aea i?e/eia iaoneiaeeaaea e ia?aia, e
aoi?ia. A naiii aeaea, iineieueeo aeanoue acyea ia naay ooieoeeth
oi?aaeaiey aeeciueth, naia aioo?aiiyy eiaeea aa nouanoaiaaiey, a aiana
ia iiyaeaiea aoiaiiuo /oanoa, ana aieaa cao?oaeiyea i?eiaiaiea nia?oiie
eacie. Aeey oaeie aeanoe nia?oiay eaciue auea iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaeaeii e
aioo?aiiei i?ioeai?a/eai. Aeanoue eae au ?anienuaaaony a oii, /oi iia
ianiiniaia naeaeaoue aeaiiia /aeiaa/aneia oaei oi?aaeyaiui. Iiyoiio
iniiaaieai aeey nia?oiie eacie noaiiaeony ia /oaeiaeuiinoue naiiai
i?anooieaiey, a iianiinoue ee/iinoe aeey iauanoaa. Ia caeiiiuo
iniiaaieyo oaeaatho oiai, eoi i?aaenoaaeyao aeey ae?oaeo i?yioth
aeieiae/aneoth iianiinoue. Iinoaiaiii ioie?atho ?eooaeu e oea?aiiiee,
eioi?uie ianoaaeyeanue iaeiaaea nia?oiay eaciue, iie ia?anoatho auoue
ioaee/iuie. A oi aea a?aiy Ooei ia?auaao aieiaiea, /oi a XIX a. iaeiie
ec ia?auo oai, iiiaaoeo a iiea nioeeieiae/aneiai aiaeeca, ieacuaaaony
naiioaeenoai Ia neo/aeii, /oi eiaiii yoi yaeaiea noaei iauaeoii
oaeeaeaiey iauanoaa, a eioi?ii iieeoe/aneay aeanoue i?eiyea ia naay
caaea/o oi?aaeaiey aeeciueth.

Aeanoue iaae aeeciueth ia/aea ?acaeaaoueny n XVII a. a aeaoo iniiaiuo
oi?iao. ia?acothueo eae au aeaa iiethna aeanoe, iaaeaeo eioi?uie
?aniieaaaaony oeaeay naoue i?iiaaeooi/iuo oi?i. Ia?aue iiethn – aeanoue
iaae oaeii eae iaoeiie: aai ae?anne?iaea, eniieueciaaiea aai nee e
niiniaiinoae, oaaee/aiea aai iieaciinoe e oi?aaeyaiinoe, aeeth/aiea a
nenoaiu eiio?iey. Aeey yoiai ?acaeaaaony oeaeay nenoaia ?acee/iuo
aeenoeeieeia?iuo einoeoooia – oeieu, eieeaaeaee, eaca?iu, ianoa?neea. A
nayce n yoie nenoaiie einoeoooia neeaaeuaathony ii?aaeaeaiiua nenoaiu
ciaiee i /aeiaaea, oa?aeoa?ecoaiua Ooei eae “iieeoe/aneay aiaoiiey
/aeiaa/aneiai oaea”.

Aoi?ie iiethn aeanoe iaae aeeaui ia?acotho oi?iu, neeaaeuaathueany
iicaeiaa, e na?aaeeia XVIII a. Yoi aeanoue iaae oaeii eae iniaueth
aeieiae/aneiai aeaea e naycaiiuie n iei aeieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie:
?aciiiaeaieai, ?iaeaeaieai e nia?oueth, au?aaeathueieny a iieacaoaeyo
caei?iauey, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie e i?. A yoie noa?a aeanoue
inouanoaeyaony a aeaea ?aaoee?othuaai eiio?iey: aeiiieeoeea iiioeyoeee.
Iiyaeyaony iiiyoea “i?anooieaiey i?ioea iauanoaaiiiai caei?iauey” –
i?iyaeaiea eiio?iey iaae i?aanoaaiiinoueth.

I?aai noaa?aia eeoeoue iiaeaeaiiiai aeecie caiaiyaony, ii au?aaeaieth
Ooei, aaeieieno?aoeeae oaea e ?an/aoeeaui oi?aaeaieai aeeciueth. Oaeay
aeanoue iaae aeeaui ?anniao?eaaaony ei eae iaiaoiaeeiue yeaiaio ?acaeoey
eaieoaeecia. Aaaeue iineaaeiee ia iia au ooaa?aeeoueny aac aeeth/aiey
oae a nenoaio i?iecaiaenoaa e i?eniiniaeaiey iiaaaeaiey iiioeyoeee e
yeiiiie/aneei i?ioeannai. Iaeiaei aeanoue iaae aeeaui o?aaoao aieueoaai:
oe?aieaiey oae e oaaee/aiey iiioeyoeee iaeiia?aiaiii n oaaee/aieai eo
iieaciinoe e oi?aaeyaiinoe. Aeey yoiai e o?aaoaony au?aaioea iiauo
iaoiaeia e i?eaiia aeanoe, i?eaiaeiuo aeey oi?aaeaiey neeaie,
niiniaiinoyie e neeiiiinoyie. Oaeea iaoaieciu e oi?iu au?aaaouaaeenue a
naiuo ?acee/iuo iauanoaaiiuo einoeoooao, aoaeue oi naiuey, a?iey, oeiea,
iieeoeey, iaaeeoeeineea o/?aaeaeaiey. Ooei iieaaaao, /oi i?ioeannu,
i?ienoiaeeaoea a XVIII a. a iaeioi?uo caiaaeiuo no?aiao e oaeaea
naycaiiua n ?acaeoeai eaieoaeecia, iinyo eiie oa?aeoa? e i?aaenoaaeytho
yaeaiea aieaa oe?ieia, /ai aneaoe/aneay ii?aeue, eioi?ay ia i?eaeaaaea
oaeo ieeaeie oeaiiinoe. I?ienoiaeeei ia ooaa?aeaeaiea aneaoecia, a
aoiaeaeaiea aeecie a enoi?eth – o. a. aoiaeaeaiea yaeaiee, naycaiiuo n
aeeciueth ethaeae eae ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeieiae/aneiai aeaea, a ii?yaeie
ciaiey e aeanoe, a iaeanoue oaoiieiaee aeanoe. Aeanoue e ciaiea
ia/eiatho i?eieiaoue a ?an/ao yoe yaeaiey e iuoathony eiio?iee?iaaoue e
iiaeeoeoee?iaaoue eo.

Noaiiaeaiea oaeie nenoaiu aeanoe eiaei ?yae nouanoaaiiuo iineaaenoaee
eae aeey nioeeaeueiie aeecie, oae e aeey eco/aiey /aeiaaea. Ai-ia?auo,
iii i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth ananoi?iiieo e ?acaaoaeaiiuo oaoiieiaee aeanoe,
eioi?ua ioaaouaatho ana, /oi eanaaony oaea: caei?iauea, i?eaiu ei?ieaiey
e ooiaea ca ieaaeaioeaie, oneiaey aeecie e i?. Ai-aoi?uo, iii i?eaaei e
iinoiyiiiio oneeaieth ?iee ii?i ca n/ao caeiiia. Aeanoue, acyaoay iiae
naie eiio?ieue i?ioeannu aeecie, ioaeaeaaony a iaoaieciao iai?a?uaiiai
aeaenoaey, o. a. iaoaieciao ?aaoee?othueo e ei??aeoe?othueo. Aeey yoiai
oaea ia iiaeoiaeyo iaoaieciu caeiiia e iaeacaiee (aieioue aei nia?oiie
eacie) ca eo ia?ooaiea. Aeanoue iaae aeeaui oi?aaeyao, ?ani?aaeaeyy
aeeaia a i?ino?ainoaa oeaiiinoe e iieaciinoe. Iia oaea ia i?iaiaeeo
eeieth, ?aca?aie/eaathuoth caeiiiiineooiuo e a?aaeaeaaiuo noaa?aio: iia
?ani?aaeaeyao ioiineoaeueii ii?iu.

Iineieueeo aeanoue iia?e?oao ii?iie, ii?iie ia/eiaao iia?e?iaaoue e
iiiiceoeey. Aneaaenoaea yoiai ai?ueaa i?ioea nouanoaothuae nenoaiu
aaaeaony oaia?ue oaea ai eiy i?aaa ia ii?iaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea, eioi?ia
aeieaeia iaania/eoue aeanoue. Oeaeueth auea aeeciue, iiieiaaiay eae
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iio?aaiinoe, eae ?aaeecaoeey eiie?aoiie nouiinoe
/aeiaaea e inouanoaeaiea aai aiciiaeiinoae. E oaea ia aaaeii, aiai?eo
Ooei, yaeyaony ee ana yoi ooiieae eee iao. Ai?ueaa aiieia ?aaeueia;
aeeciue eae iauaeo iieeoeee auea aini?eiyoa iiiiceoeeiiiuie oa/aieyie
aoeaaeueii e ia?auaia i?ioea nenoaiu, iuoathuaeny inouanoaeyoue aa
?aaoee?iaaiea. “I?aai” ia aeeciue, ia oaei, ia caei?iauea, ia n/anouea,
ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea naieo iio?aaiinoae noaei eicoiaii aeaeaeaiee,
iai?aaeaiiuo i?ioea iiaiai oeia aeanoe.

N yoei Ooei naycuaaao oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi a XIX a. iaaeeoeeia,
iaaeaaiaeea, th?eni?oaeaioeey oaeaeytho ioeeiiaieyi ana aieueoaa e
aieueoaa aieiaiea, a ineoeao?ey ia/eiaao ioe?uaaoue ana aieueoa e
aieueoa ?acee/iuo oeiia ioeeiiaiee. Ia?aae eeoeii oaeiai iiiaeanoaa
aiciiaeiuo ioeeiiaiee iiaeeecothony ?acee/iua oi?iu aeanoe,
eiio?iee?othuea eiaeeaeaea e naa?ythuea aai n ii?iie: aeanoue a?a/ae,
ineoeao?ia, iaaeaaiaia, ?iaeeoaeae. Ana yoe iai?aaeaiey e oeiu aeanoe
iiaeaea?aeeaatho, iaoneiaeeaatho, iiaee?aieytho ae?oa ae?oaa. Yoe
i?ioeannu i?ienoiaeyo ia o?iaia naiuee e /anoiie aeecie /aeiaaea. Ii iie
iiaeaea?aeeaatho nenoaio aeanoe e naie iiaeaea?aeeaathony ath a ianooaaa
anaai iauanoaa, iioiio /oi iinoiyiiue eiio?ieue ca naenoaeueiie
ii?iaeueiinoueth eae ie/oi ae?oaia i?eo/aao /aeiaaea auoue iauaeoii
i?ioeaaeo? aeanoe, auoue iiae iaonuiiui iaaeci?ii, niiinoaaeyoue naay n
ii?iie e ioeaieaaoue naay ii noaiaie niioaaonoaey ae [26].

A oaeii eiioaenoa noaiiaeony iauynieiui oi?ie?iaaiea i?aaenoaaeaiey i
aacoiee eae i?eioe?uaathuai iianioth oaeio nouiinoe /aeiaaea, naycaiioth
n aai oaeii e einoeieoaie [28, 38]. Eaeay /aeiaaea, naiaiaeiiai io
anyeie i?aaie/aneie, aauanoaaiiie (i?e?iaeiie) caaeneiinoe, aeieaia
a?aiy inoaaaeanue ainiiaenoaothuei ieoii, ?aaee eioi?iai iu niaeaoaeenue
no?aaeaoue, iu iaeacuaaee ae?oaeo ca oi, /oi iie auae?aee ae?oaie iooue.
Nianoaaiiia oaei aini?eieiaeinue eae /oi-oi a?aoiaiia, aeinoaaoaany
/aeiaaeo a ianeaaenoai io aeeaioiuo. Eaaeaeia ieioneia aeaeaiea
iiaeaa?aaeinue oeaico?a, iineieueeo ecia/aeueii n/eoaeinue ii?i/iui.
Eiio?ieue iaae naenoaeueiui iiaaaeaieai, a /anoiinoe, iooai
aeaoaeecaoeee ii?iu e aieaa aeaoaeueiiai aiaeeca ioeeiiaiee, i?eia?aoae
ana aieueoaa cia/aiea [26]. Aiaeiae/ii e eiio?ieue ca eciaiaieai
niciaiey n iiiiuueth ineoiaeoeaiuo i?aia?aoia yaeyaony i?iyaeaieai
oa?aeoa?iiai aeey nia?aiaiiie yiioe “aeanoe iaae aeeaui”, eiio?ieai iaae
naieie iuneyie. A nouiinoe, yoi i?iyaeaiea ai?ueau ca aeanoue.
Iaaeiaa?ea e i?e?iaeiie nouiinoe /aeiaaea ii?aaeaeyao iaieaeaeueiia
no?aieaiea iaoae eoeueoo?u enei?aieoue ?anoaiey, eciaiythuea niciaiea.
Yoei iaaeiaa?eai ii?aaaeuaaaony oeeiiaiea io aioo?aiiae ?aaiou, io
?aoaiey caaea/ ee/iinoiiai ?inoa, e, eiia/ii, eiio?ieue iaae
ineoiaeoeaiie ieuae [12, 37].

“Eoeueoo?a Ia?oia?noaa” e “Eoeueoo?a Aeaaeu/anoaa”. Ia?aoiae e
cai?auaieth ineoiaeaeeeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, a?oae/iua iauanoaa – “Eoeueoo?a Ia?oia?noaa” – niaieeenue
nia?aiaiiie “Eoeueoo?ie Aeaaeu/anoaa”.

Enoiee yoie ai?ueau aeaoo eoeueoo? eaaeao a oao a?aiaiao, eiaaea
aicieeei oea?eiaii-o?enoeaineia ie?iaicc?aiea. A oa/aiee iiiaeo
ouny/aeaoee a?iaeaeaiiue ienoeoeeci /aeiaaea iaeaeaeny a naiua ?aciua
ieoieiae/aneea ia?acu e nenoaiu i?aaenoaaeaiee, /oiau, inaiaiaeaeaynue
io ieo, nicaeaaaoue iiaua aeieo?eiu aie?oa ana oiai aea /oanoaa
nii?e/anoiinoe /aeiaaea Aiaeanoaaiiie Ea?a..

Iao?ea?oao – iaeia ec aiciiaeiuo oi?iaoeee eoeueoo?u Ia?oia?noaa, /oi
neaaeoao ec niaoeeoeee aeaineiai iaioaeeoaoa, aieaa neeiiiiai e
nica?oeaoaeueiinoe e naiiaiaeeco e eneonii aeaaeathuaai ?acee/iuie
ineoieiae/aneeie i?eaiaie. Iineieueeo ia?ac aeecie aeaiuei anaaaea aue
naycai n a?oiiiaui iauaieai, nioeeaeueiua aaeaioaoeeiiiua i?aeiouanoaa
aeaiueiu caeeth/athony a oiieii ciaiee /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee, a oi
a?aiy eae ioae/eia aeey ?aoaiey eiiioieeaoeaiuo caaea/ anaaaea no?aieeny
eniieueciaaoue naienoaaiioth aio neeo [31].

Anoue aua iaeioi?ua niia?aaeaiey ii iiaiaeo oiai, /oi a?oae/iua
o?aaeeoeee ea/aaiiai e iaae/aneiai eniieueciaaiey ineoiaeaee/aneiai
o?aina auee nicaeaiu e iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue aeaiueiaie. I?aaeaea anaai,
iie caieiaeenue nai?ii ?anoaiee e eo/oa ciaee aicaeaenoaea o?aa e
a?eaia. E?iia oiai, ioae/eiu, ainieoaiiua ioioie e oyaeaeui o?oaeii,
iaei oaeaeyee aieiaiey niauoeyi aioo?aiiaai ie?a; ei i?enoua
iaea?aeeiinoue (oaiia?aiaio, neeiiiinoue e aooaeoeaiiio iiaaaeaieth e o.
ae.), /oi iaoaao aiaeeoe/aneiio naiienneaaeiaaieth a ninoiyieyo
?anoe?aiiiai aini?eyoey, i?iaioee?oao aicieeiiaaiea enioaa, iaieee e o.
ae. [12].

AEaiuei naia I?e?iaea o/eo oa?iaeeai iaaethaeaoue naay aeieaeie
ianyoeaie, ?acaeaeyaoeie oeeeeu ?aaiou i?aaiecia, ai a?aiy aa?aiaiiinoe
(ana yoe oeceieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, enoaoe, nii?iaiaeaeathony
eciaiaieyie iaiaia aauanoa, a oii /enea e iae?i?aaoeyoi?ia, e, eae
neaaenoaea, iaiau/iuie ninoiyieyie niciaiey). Iaoa?e eco/aee naay,
ainieouaay aeaoae… A ioee/ea io yecioa?e/iiai ioae/eiu, ioe?uaathuaai
/oaeana a ie?oaeathuai, nooue aeaiueiu a aa ycioa?e/iinoe – aioo?aiiae
oaeia, /a?ac eioi?oth iia iinoeaaao aeeciue.

Oeeaeeecaoeey, aicieeoay ia inoaieao A?oae/iiai e iaeiaeeaoay cai?ao ia
iiaaeaiea ycu/aneeo “iiaaiie” – yoi ioaeneay eoeueoo?a Aeaaeu/anoaa,
?ani?ino?aieaoay ioioie/uee iiaaaeee ia aioo?eaeaeiaua acaeiiioiioaiey e
iaoeaeaiiay ia niia?ie/anoai. Eoeueoo?a, “niaeanii eioi?ie eciaiaiey
niciaiey iooai oiio?aaeaiey oao eee eiuo ?anoaiee eaee aauanoa ii/aio-oi
ioeai/ii, iiaienoe/ii e aioenioeeaeueii” [15].

A ainoaea?noaao ea?a?oe/aneie no?oeoo?u enoi?ey ia?ae?aeaaaony anyeee
?ac, eiaaea iaiythony aeanoe. Iaoaiaeiua ecia?aaeaiey e
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneea iaiyoieee ooaeaathony, a a ia?eiaeu niooiuo
a?aiai aeaaea oie/oiaeathony- I?aaenoaaueoa, /oi iiaei inoaoueny io
ianeaaeey a?oae/iuo ineoiaeaee/aneeo eoeueoo? iinea ianeieueeeo ouny/
eao eo i?ioeainoiyiey eiieo?e?othuei oi?iaoeeyi e, a eiia/iii n/aoa,
iaaeaiey… [26]. Oai ia iaiaa, aiieia ociaaaaiay neiaieeea a?eaiuo
eoeueoia nio?aieeanue a iaeioi?uo aa?aceeneeo iaiyoieeao iaieeoa (io 10
aei 7 ouny/ eao aei i. y.). Iaoe?iia ianeaaeea ineoiaeaee/aneeo
eoeueoo?, eae ecaanoii, auei iaia?oaeaii a no?aiao Oeaio?aeueiie e
THaeiie Aia?eee.

Ieiaeu io Ae?aaa Iiciaiey Aeia?a e Cea, eae ecaanoii, – iaeea i aeaoo
eiioeao: n iaeiie noi?iiu, ineoiaeaee/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey ioe?uaatho
aaeeioth nooue aauae – niune i?ienoiaeyuaai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yoe
i?ic?aiey ia iaeaa/atho /aeiaaeo auai? iooae aeey aeinoeaeaiey
ioe?uaoeony oeaeae: ienoe/aneee yenoac oaiaia ioaeaeaeny a iii?a ia
enoi?e/aneee iiuo e o?aaeeoeeth [32]. Ecia?aoaiea aeoaaeoa eciaieei
iuoeaiea ethaeae. Neiai noaei aa/iui, e I?aanoaaiiue Caeii cae?aieeny a
caiiaaaeyo. N iiyaeaieai ienueiaiiinoe – o?aieoaeueieoeu ciaiee,
iaua/aeiaa/aneie Iaiyoe – ioiaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?eiaee/anee aiaaeaoue
a o?ain aeey iieneia ioaaoa ia aeeciaiii aaaeiua aii?inu.

*oi icia/ae ioeac io ycioa?e/aneie ioae?inoe oaiaiecia a iieueco aiaoia
?aaeaiaioe?oaiie ii?aee iiiioaenoe/aneeo ?aeeaee? Ioeac io
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai, oeceieiae/anee aa?aioe?iaaiiiai, ienoe/aneiai
ia?aaeeaaiey au?aae a?oae/iiai /aeiaaea ec iieoaeeaioiiai yenoaca –
auaiae ec Yaeaia, aaea ii i?aauaae a ?aeneeo ainoi?aao ia?aiai
i?iaoaeaeaiey io einoeieoia. Oae aicieeea iaoa yecenoaioeeaeueiay
iaiieiioa, io?aaeaiiay a ieoa ia oo?aoa ?ay. *ai ieioa o?aaeeoeeiiiay
iiceoeey ioeaca io eiooeoeaiuo i?ic?aiee, noeioee?iaaiiuo i?e?iaeiuie
ineoiaeaee/aneeie n?aaenoaaie? I?aaeaea anaai, yoio cai?ao i?aa?aoee
ethaeae a iaea?aeeiuo, aeanoieeo iaa?ioeeia, ia iniciathueo naay.
Eneeth/aiea aaeethoeeiiaaiia ec ?aoeeiia /aeiaaea iiaeaeei eciaiaiea
ea/anoaa aai iuneeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia. Nei?inoue iuoeaiey (?a/ue eaeao i
auoea noauaeoa a aai nianoaaiiie, iaiiaoi?eiie ?aaeueiinoe: a?aiy
eciaiyao naie aaa aeey /aeiaaea, anee ii iaiyao ea/anoai aini?eyoey e
aioo?aiiaai iienea), annioeeaoeaiinoue, aeoaeia naiiaiaeeca, a cia/eo –
e oiaiea aeaaeaoue niaie, naieie i?eau/eaie e iano?iaieai, iiieiaiea
iiaeeeiiuo iioeaia nianoaaiiiai e /oaeiai iiaaaeaiey, ana yoi i?aoa?iaei
cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey, eae oieueei /aeiaae eeoeeny oaeeo iiuiuo
eino?oiaioia naiienneaaeiaaiey, eae ?anoeoaeueiua aaeethoeeiiaaiu [15,
39].

Caaaaiea o?aaeeoeee a?oiiiaiai ineoiaeaee/aneiai ?eooaea
(iaaeinooiiinoue iiuoa ee/iinoiie o?ainoeaiaeaioeee) i?eo/eei ethaeae
aeaeaoue ae?oa a ae?oaa a?aaia, auae?aoue e?iaaaua iooe ?acaeoey…
I?ieaeaiiay enoi?ey – yoi aaneiia/iay aieia /aeiaaea n naiei niaie, yoi
a aieueoae noaiaie iooue ai?ueau, /ai oai?/anoaa, iooue no?aaeaiey, a ia
?aaeinoe, no?aoa, ii ia ethaae, iioiio /oi ca iaoae oi?iaeueiie,
aeiaiaoe/iie aa?ie anaaaea ne?uaaeinue iaaeiaa?ea, au?auaiiia
eoeueoo?iui cai?aoii ia ycioa?e/aneoth i?aeoeeo.

Iaae/aneay i?aeoeea ycu/ieeia a naaoa iiauo i?aaenoaaeaiee i?aaenoaaaea
eae naiay na?aeoeaaeia ii?iea. Eae ecaanoii, ae?aoeu ycu/aneeo eoeueoia
aea?aeaee a ?oeao ?aoeaiou i?e?iaeiiai aieoaanoaa, ano?a/a n eioi?ui e
ii nae aeaiue ieeiai ia inoaaeyao ?aaiiaeooiui. Ii iineieueeo yoe ciaiey
e iiiaioo ?ani?ino?aiaiey iiiioaecia auee oieueei o “iinayuaiiuo”,
eiieo?e?othuay ii?aeue, a aeaeueiaeoai ni?yoaea eo ieii/aoaeueii. A
Neiaeneie ionouia Ainiiaeue ianoaaee Iienay no?iai caiyoeoue aa?ayi
caieiaoueny iiaeiaiie i?aeoeeie: “E anee eaeay aeooa ia?aoeony e
aucuaathuei ia?oauo e e aieoaaieeai, /oiau aeoaeii oiaeeoue aneaae eo,
oi ss ia?auo eeoei Iia ia oo aeooo e eno?aaeth aa ec ia?iaea ny {Eieaa
Eaaeo, 20 ae.}.”

Iicaea iiiioaeci iiaeaeaeny aeeyieth aeoaeenoe/aneeo ?aeeaeiciuo
i?aaenoaaeaiee; ia auaea?aeeaay o?aaiaaiee no?iaiai e i?aaeeueiiai Aiaa,
ethaee nicaeaaaee eaaaiaeu i Iaaeoai aiaaea, eioi?ue iaoaao ethaeyi
aeeoue i?aaaaeii. Ia?ac aeooiaiiai a?aaa iiiia noieanoai ooaa?aeeoueny a
i?aaenoaaeaieyo i iaaeiionoeiinoe oeceieiae/aneie noeioeyoeee
ienoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee. ?anoaiey, eciaiythuea niciaiea /aeiaaea, noaee
n/eoaoueny iooai iiciaiee aeueyaiea.

*oi aea oae ioioaeaaei iiaoth ?aeeaeth io ycu/aneeo o?aaeeoeee? Ii/aio
“aieoaaieee” e “aucuaathuea ia?oauo” ieacaeenue aia caeiia? I?aeiouanoaa
/aeiaaea, eioi?ue aeaeeo aieueoa, /ai ie?oaeathuea, i/aaeaeiu – yoi
aeanoue. E aeaei ia a aeeeinoe ycu/aneeo i?aaia eee ?eooaeia, aeaei a
ia?aaainoaa, eioi?ia aeaeeo ethaeae ia “iinayuaiiuo” e neaii ei
iiae/eiaiiuo. *oiau eneeth/eoue oaeoth iani?aaaaeeeainoue, iiaeii auei
iieoe aeaoiy iooyie: eeai ianoe ycioa?e/aneia ciaiea a iannu (aii?aee
eioa?anai “iinayuaiiuo”), iiiiaay eaaeaeiio iao/eoueny aeaeaoue ynii,
eeai cai?aoeoue aeaaea iaiae ia aiciiaeiinoue iiaeiaiie i?aeoeee.
Enoi?ey ioi?aaeea ian ii iooe aicaea?aeaiey.

Ienoa?ee ae?aaieo a?aeia, a eioi?uo i?eieiaee o/anoea iiiaea eeanneee
Aioe/iiai ie?a, e ia/aeo iaoae y?u oaea auee ie?oaeaiu no?iaeaeoae
oaeiie. Iiyo Ynoee aaeaa ia iiieaoeeny aeeciueth ca oi, /oi ia?aian ia
oaao?aeueioth noeaio iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou ec yoeo eoeueoia. Ecaanoii, /oi
a i?acaeianoaao ae?aaiaa?a/aneie a?enoie?aoee eniieueciaaeenue iaieoee,
i?eaioiaeaiiua ec aaeethoeeiiaaiiuo a?eaia. A 268 aiaeo i. y. auee
i?ana/aiu Yeaaneineea ienoa?ee – iineaaeiee ioaieinie a?oae/iuo
ineoiaeaee/aneeo o?aaeeoeee (a oa/aiee aeaoo ouny/aeaoee eaaeaeue
naioya?ue iaaeaeaei io Aoei ono?aeaaeenue yoe aaeeeea oi?aeanoaa) [25].

A yiioo N?aaeiaaaeiauey, eiaaea ia eino?ao Aa?iiu ai?aee ouny/e ethaeae,
iaaeiaiiuo a eieaeianoaa, auee oie/oiaeaiu iineaaeiea o?aieoaee nae?aoia
anoanoaaiiie iaaee. Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi a eeoea “aaaeuei” e
“eieaeoiia” iiaay eoeueoo?a enei?aiyea ia oieueei iineoaeae ae?aaiaai
?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey, ii e inoaoee nenoaiu ycu/aneiai
“cae?aaiio?aiaiey”, iineieueeo eaea?noaaiiua n?aaenoaa e aanue iiuo a
yoie iaeanoe oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeaee aaaeianeiio nineiaeth. Yoe ethaee
auee iacaaiu neoaaie aeueyaiea, a eo caeuey – i?yiie aei?iaie
ano?aoeoueny n naiei eiycai oueiu. A iyoiaaeoeaoii aaea iaoae y?u Iaia
Eiiieaioee VIII cai?aoee ea/aaiia eniieueciaaiea eiiiiee. Eneaoue
enoeaeaiey i?aeaaaeinue a iieeoaao Anaauoiaio, ii ia i?eieiaoue iiiiuue
io “eoeaaiai”. Oea?eiaue anaaaea auea no?iaeaeoei oeaici?ii ycu/aneie
eoeueoo?u, eneeth/ea aeaaea eaeath i oii, /oi ?anoaiey iiaoo auoue
naycaiu n aeooiaiie i?aeoeeie [15]. (Iaeiaei inoaoee ?onneie ycu/aneie
o?aaeeoeee ?eooaeueiiai oiio?aaeaiey ineeioeeaeiiauo a?eaia nio?aieeenue
a i?aaineaaiie a?oeoaeoo?a – oi?ia iiiaeo eoiieia ?onneeo o?aiia (oae
iacuaaaiua “eoeiae/iua” eoiiea) aaniethoii eaeaioe/ia oi?ia oeyiee
“oaiaineeo” a?eaia (ni. ?en. 1). Ecia?aaeaiea oaeeo a?eaia iiaeii
ano?aoeoue e a ?iniene ?yaea eoeueoiauo caeaiee (iai?eia?, eaiaiiay
?acueaa ia noaiao Ineianeiai E?aiey oaeaea ecia?aaeaao ineeioeeaeiiaua
a?eau). Oaea aue iiioey?ai aeenoeeee?iaaiiue aeeiaieue, iaeaieaa
iiaeoiaeeaoee aeey ae?oaeo oeaeae – eneonnoai aeiiaeaeey noaei
iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaoueny a iaoaieci iaieioeyoeee ianniaui niciaieai.
Iauaecaanoii, /oi aeii e ieai ia niiniaiu aucaaoue aieaciaiiia
i?eno?anoea, ii “iiauoaiiue a?aaeon” ia?aeaao i?eia?ii aeanyooth /anoue
iuethueo ia aeeiaieeci, oi anoue i?ienoiaeeo iieiia iiae/eiaiea -yoie
eaoaai?ee ethaeae ioaeaeai ainoaea?noaa, oi?aothuaai e?aieeie nie?oiuie
iaeeoeaie, e ino?i ioaeaeathuaainy a aeaoaaie, iineooiie e auiineeaie
?aai/ae neea.

A) Iiiaea i?aaineaaiua o?aiu (iniaaiii oa, eioi?ua ?aniieiaeaiu a
naaa?iie e naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe ?innee) eiatho eoiiea oae iacuaaaiie
“eoeiae/iie” oi?iu

A) A oae auaeyaeyo aaeethoeeiiaaiiua a?eau Psilocybe semilanceata,
i?eiaiyaoeany ycu/aneeie oaiaiaie ia oa??eoi?ee iuiaoiaai Naaa?i-Caiaaea
?innee (Ineia, Iiaai?iae)

?en. 1

N iiyaeaieai ineoioa?iaeieiaee neooaoeey ?acei iaiyaony. E ia/aeo XX
aaea neioaoe/aneea ia?eioeee aunieie /enoiou (eieaei, ii?oee)
iieueciaaeenue oaea oe?ieie iiioey?iinoueth, ioaay iauanoaaiiinoue
i?eia?aie oyaeaeiai i?eno?anoey, eioi?ia aicieeaao o iieeiiieeia yoeo
i?aia?aoia. Iao ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai a oii, /oi yoe aauanoaa
ieacaeenue aia caeiia, ii cai?ao aiana ia icia/aao en/aciiaaiey
ia?eioeeia. Ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao noae nio?oaeie/aoue n
ia?eioi?aiaoeaie, eniieuecoy yoo noa?o aeayoaeueiinoe ia oieueei aeey
iaiaauaiey, ii e aeey iiaeaaeaiey ianniauo aieiaiee a niano aaiiuo
eieiieciaaiiuo no?aiao.

Iu iiei?ii niaeaoaainy n aeaaii oei?aieaoeiny i?aaenoaaeaieai i
ineoiaeoeaiuo aauanoaao, eae i /ai-oi iaaeinoieiii e iaaoaiii aeey
/aeiaaea- Iaoa eoeueoo?a ciaao i?eia?u oieueei eo ?ac?ooeoaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey. Eiaaea aea a na?aaeeia XX aaea a nayce n i?i?uaii a
ineoieiaee e ioe?uoeai iaiau/iuo naienoa aaeethoeeiiaaiia, iaiaoeeinue
nicaeaiea ineoiaeaee/aneie eoeueoo?iie o?aaeeoeee, ainoaea?noaaiiay
iaoeia naeaeaea ana, /oiau yoe aauanoaa auee iinoaaeaiu a iaeei ?yae n
ia?eioeeaie e cai?auaiu.

Iiiaie?aoii iienai ienoe/aneee iiuo, eioi?ue ia?aaeeaaee iaoe
nia?aiaiieee iiae aicaeaenoaeai ineeioeeaeiiauo a?eaia, ianeaeeia e
ENAe. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi iiiuoee eniieueciaaoue aaeethoeeiiaaiu
[ea/anoaa ia?eioeeia (aeey “?anneaaooe”) aeey iiiaeo caeai/eaaeenue
ia?aiui ?anno?ienoaii [29]. A ?aieao iaoa?eaeenoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i
?aaeueiinoe iu i?aeoeeoai eeoue “?acaeaeaoaeueiia” e, niioaaonoaaiii,
?ac?ooeoaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ineoiaeoeaiuo aauanoa, /oi eneeth/aii a
neooaoeee n aaeethoeeiiaaiaie – yoe niaaeiauey aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe
neoaeeee eino?oiaioaie oeaeeoaeuenoaa, i?i?eoeaiey, n?aaenoaaie iauaiey
n /oaeioai?iie I?e?iaeie. Iauanoai ieacaeinue ia aioiaui e oaeiio
iiai?ioo. Ia?aiooaiiua aoaenou eneeth/eee aiciiaeiinoue aeaaea
iaaeeoeeineiai eniieueciaaiey aaeethoeeiiaaiia, aaea iie
ca?aeiiaiaeiaaee naay eae iiuiua eino?oiaiou a ea/aiee ?aciiia?aciuo
?anno?ienoa ee/iinoe [4, 29]. Iinea cai?auaiey ENAe (a ieoya?a 1966
aiaea) ana ioe?uoua i?ia?aiiu auee naa?ioou. A NOA inoaeinue eeoue
ianeieueei no?iai naieoeeiie?iaaiiuo ?aaio, aioiauo iiaeoaa?aeeoue oi,
/oi oaiaeii oneuoaoue oicyaaai.

Ineoioa?aiey n i?eiaiaieai “iieaeoe ienoeee” – iaeei ec nia?aiaiiuo
niiniaia ia?aoaiey oeaeinoiinoe auoey.

Eciaiaiey a niciaiee, i?ienoiaeyuea iinea ciaeiinoaa n ineoiaeaee/aneeie
ia?aaeeaaieyie, aaaeoo e oi?ie?iaaieth aieaa onoie/eaiai oeia iuoeaiey,
i?eaioe?othuaai ethaeae ia ?aoaiea i?iaeai ee/iinoiiai ?inoa e
aoiaienoe/aneea oeaiiinoe a oeaeii. Aa?iyoii, yoi i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao
?ac?yaeee iaaaoeaiuo ineoe/aneeo eiiieaenia, iaeaieeaathueony o /aeiaaea
n iiiaioa ?iaeiaie o?aaiu (aei?iaeiaie ia?eiae ?acaeoey yia?eiia oaeaea
aeeyao ia iniaaiiinoe aai aoaeouae ineoeee) [3].

Ia?aua niiauaiey ia enneaaeiaaieyo a iaeanoe aaeethoeeiiaaiia i?eaeaeee
na?ueaciia aieiaiea e iiaoaeeee ineoeao?ia e ineoieiaia ?acee/iuo no?ai
ie?a i?iaanoe nianoaaiiua oa?aiaaoe/aneea yenia?eiaiou n ENAe e ae?oaeie
ineoiaeaeeeaie. Iiiaea niiauaiey, iioaeeeiaaiiua a oa/aiea iineaaeothueo
aeaaaeoeaoe eao, iiaeoaa?aeeee ia?aiia/aeueiua i?aaeiieiaeaiey, /oi
ineoiaeaeeee niiniaiu onei?youe ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneee i?ioeann e
nie?auaoue a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey ea/aiey ?acee/iuo yiioeeiiaeueiuo e
ineoiniiaoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa [5, 29, 34, 35, 40].

E?iia oiai, iiyaeeenue iiiai/eneaiiua enneaaeiaaiey, oeacuaathuea ia oi,
/oi iniiaaiiay ia i?eiaiaiee ineoiaeaeeeia ineoioa?aiey iiaeao ieacaoue
iiiiuue ?acee/iui eaoaai?eyi ineoeao?e/aneeo iaoeeaioia, eioi?ua
n/eoaeenue iai?eaiaeiuie aeey ineoiaiaeeca e ae?oaeo oi?i ineoioa?aiee.
Iiiaea niiauaiey oeacuaaee ia oa?aiaaoe/aneee oniao n o?iie/aneeie
aeeiaieeeaie, ia?eiiaiaie, nioeeiiaoaie, e?eieiaeueiuie ineoiiaoaie,
ethaeueie n eca?auaiiie naenoaeueiinoueth e na?ueaciuie ?anno?ienoaaie
ee/iinoe [5, 38].

A ia/aea 60-o aiaeia auea iaia?oaeaia iiaay noa?a i?eiaiaiey
ineoiaeaee/aneie oa?aiee: ?aaioa n aaciaaeaaeiuie ?aeiauie aieueiuie e
ae?oaeie iaecea/eiuie iaoeeaioaie. Yoio iiaeoiae niia ia oieueei
iaeaa/eoue yiioeeiiaeueiua no?aaeaiey e neeueiua oece/aneea aiee, ii
cia/eoaeueii eciaieoue i?aaenoaaeaiey i nia?oe e ioiioaiey e iae [13,
36].

Iiuo eniieueciaaiey ENAe e ae?oaeo ineoiaeaeeeia a ea/aiee
yiioeeiiaeueiuo ?anno?ienoa ian/eouaaao oaia?ue oaea aieaa o?ao
aeanyoeeaoee. Iiiai a?aiaie e oneeee auei iinayuaii enneaaeiaaieth eo
oa?aiaaoe/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae, iioaeeeiaaiu nioie i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
noaoae. Eae e neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, a yoie neiaeiie e ?aaiethoeeiiiie
iaeanoe ia iaioeinue aac ioeaie e aeinoeaeaiee.

A oa/aiea yoeo o?eaeoeaoe eao auee i?aaeeiaeaiu iiiaea oaoieee
oa?aiaaoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey ENAe e ae?oaeo ineoiaeaeeeia. Iaeioi?ua
ec oaoiee ia auaea?aeaee eniuoaiey a?aiaiai e auee inoaaeaiu. Ae?oaea
iiaeaa?aeenue iiaeeoeeaoeeyi eee auee anneieee?iaaiu a aieaa neiaeiua
oa?aiaaoe/aneea i?ioeaaeo?u.

N?aaee iiaeoiaeia, i?aaeaiiuo caaaaieth ec-ca eo i?eieoeaiinoe e
ianiioaaonoaey neiaeiiio aicaeaenoaeth ineoiaeaeeeia, iiaeii ioiaoeoue
iiiuoeo ?anniao?eaaoue ineoiaeaeeee eae aua iaeio a?oiio
oa?iaeieiae/aneeo aauanoa e eniieueciaaoue eo oeie/aneea naienoaa. Yoi
iiiuoee eniieueciaaoue ENAe e aai aiaeiae a ea/anoaa aioeaeai?annaioa,
aaaioa oiea, io?aaae?iaaiey eee aauanoaa, aeoeaece?othuaai o?iie/aneea e
noaoeeiia?ii-eeeie/aneea ninoiyiey, /oiau naeaeaoue eo aua aieaa
iiaeaeathueieny o?aaeeoeeiiiiio ineoeao?e/aneiio ea/aieth [29].

Enneaaeiaaoaee, nio?aieaoea aeiaa?ea e ineoiaeaee/aneie oa?aiee a
oneiaeyo i?ioeai?a/eauo niiauaiee ia/aeueiiai yoaia, i?eoee e
caeeth/aieth, /oi ineoiaeaee/aneea aauanoaa yaeythony a aieueoae eee
iaiueoae noaiaie ianiaoeeoe/aneeie oneeeoaeyie, a oa?aiaaoe/aneee oniao
?aoathuei ia?acii caaeneo io oaeoi?ia iaoa?iaeieiae/aneie i?e?iaeu
(yeno?a- oa?iaeieiae/aneeo ia?aiaiiuo). Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie n?aaee ieo
yaeythony no?oeoo?a ee/iinoe iaoeeaioa, ee/iinoue aeaea, eee neaeyuaai,
oa?aiaaoe/aneea ioiioaiey, i?e?iaea e ia?a niaoeeoe/aneie
oa?aiaaoe/aneie iiiiue, oece/aneee e iaaeee/iinoiue eiioaeno naaina [4,
27, 38].

Naie ii naaa ineoiaeaee/aneea aauanoaa iiaoo eeoue aeoeaece?iaaoue
ineoeeo e niinianoaiaaoue auyaeaieth aanniciaoaeueiuo e
naa?oniciaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia a niciaiee. Aoaeao ee yoio i?ioeann
oa?aiaaoe/aneei eee aeano?oeoeaiui e aeaci?aaiecothuei, caaeneo io
oeaeiai ?yaea eiuo ia?aiaiiuo, ia eiathueo ie/aai iauaai n
oa?iaeieiae/aneei aicaeaenoaeai oeie/aneeo aauanoa. Iineieueeo oaeoi?u
i?aaiecaoeee e ono?ienoaa naaina ieacuaathony e?aeia aaaeiuie, iaeuecy
iaeeaeaoue aieoaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia i?inoi io i?eiyoey ineoiaeaeeeia; eo
neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue a eiioaenoa neiaeiie ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie
i?ia?aiiu [5].

Aeaaea anee ia?aie/eoueny oa?aiaaoe/aneei eniieueciaaieai ineoiaeaeeeia
a eiioaenoa ineoioa?aiee, iao?oaeii aeaeaoue, /oi yoe aeaa ninoaaeythuea
– ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneea i?ioeaaeo?u e aicaeaenoaea ineoiaeaeeeia – iiaoo
auoue niaaeeiaiu ?acee/iui ia?acii, n ?acee/iie noaiaiueth
yooaeoeaiinoe. Iaiaa eioa?aniay aiciiaeiinoue – eniieueciaaiea
iaaieueoeo aeic ineoiaeaeeeia aeey eioaineoeeaoeee ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneiai
i?ioeanna, neo/aeiua ineoiaeaee/aneea naainu a ?aieao
iaoa?iaeieiae/aneie oa?aiee aeey i?aiaeieaiey caueo e nii?ioeaeaiee,
eniieueciaaiea iaeuo aeic a a?oiiiaie ineoioa?aiee e ni/aoaiea aeiiica e
ineoiaeaeeeia, eee aeiiiaeaee/aneay oa?aiey. N?aaee oaoiee oa?aiee n
eniieueciaaieai ineoiaeaeeeia iaeaieaa eioa?aniuie e iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuie yaeythony aeaa: ineoieeoe/aneay e ineoiaeaee/aneay
oa?aiey [5].

Ineoieeoe/aneay oa?aiey. Oa?iei aue aaaaeai aiaeeeneei enneaaeiaaoaeai,
ieiia?ii a iaeanoe ENAe-oa?aiee, ?iiaeueaeii A. Nyiaeeniiii. Ei?aiue
“litic” (io a?a/.: elisis” – ?anoai?aiea) oeacuaaao ia i?ioeann
inaiaiaeaeaiey io caaeeiia, ?ac?aoaiey eiioeeeoia a ineoeea. Eae a
oai?ee, oae e a i?aeoeea, iaoiae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaeeoeeaoeeth e
?anoe?aiea o?aeaeianeiai aiaeeca. Ii i?aaeiieaaaao i?eai ?yaea (15 –
100) n?aaeieo aeic ineoiaeaeeeia n iaaeaeueiuie eee aeaooiaaeaeueiuie
eioa?aaeaie.

Ineoieeoe/aneay oa?aiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iinoaiaiiia enneaaeiaaiea
ana aieaa aeoaieeo o?iaiae aanniciaoaeueiiai. Oa?aiaao, eae i?aaeei,
i?enoonoaoao a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo /ania eoeueieiaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea
naaina, iaania/eaay iiaeaea?aeeo e a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeaaay
eioa?i?aoaoeee. Ana oaiiiaiu, i?ienoiaeyuea ai a?aiy naainia eee iaaeaeo
ieie, o?aeoothony n eniieueciaaieai iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia o?aeaeianeie
oa?aiee.

Ineoiaeaee/aneay oa?aiey. Nai oa?iei aue i?aaeeiaeai ineoeao?ii e
enneaaeiaaoaeai ENAe Oyio?e Iniiiaeii e iaeia?ai a aai ia?aienea n
Ieaeinii Oaenee [27]. Ineoiaeaee/aneay oa?aiey a ianeieueeeo aaaeiuo
aniaeoao ioee/aaony io ineoieeoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea. Aa aeaaiay oeaeue
ninoieo a oii, /oiau nicaeaoue /aeiaaeo iioeiaeueiua oneiaey aeey
aeoaieiai o?ainoi?ie?othuaai ia?aaeeaaiey o?ainia?niiaeueiie i?e?iaeu.
Aeey aieueoeinoaa ethaeae yoi i?eieiaao oi?io nia?oe e ?iaeaeaiey Yai, n
iineaaeothuei ia?aaeeaaieai einie/aneiai aaeeinoaa e ae?oaeo
o?ainia?niiaeueiuo oaiiiaiia [3].

N?aaee oaeoi?ia, niinianoaothueo oaeei ia?aaeeaaieyi, niaoeeaeueiay
iiaeaioiaea, eniieueciaaiea aieueoeo aeic ineoiaeaeeeia, i?eiaiaiea
n?aaenoa, niinianoaothueo oaeoaeaieth /aeiaaea a naay /a?ac
eniieueciaaiea iiaycie aeey aeac, aunieiea/anoaaiiie noa?aioiie/aneie
iocuee a oa/aiea anaai naaina, eniieueciaaiea aeooiaiuo nthaeaoia,
eneonnoaa e e?aniou i?e?iaeu a i?aaiecaoeee naaina e ianoaiiaee.
?acaiai?u aeiioneathony oieueei ia?aae naainii e iinea iaai. Ai a?aiy
?aaeueiiai ineoiaeaee/aneiai ia?aaeeaaiey ?acaiai?u ia iiiu?ythony,
iineieueeo yoi iaoaao iia?oaeaieth a aeoaeio yiioeeiiaeueiiai e
ineoiniiaoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey naay. Ineoiaeaee/aneee oa?aiaao ia
aa?eo a aeanoyuea e naiaa?aiaiiua neiaaniua eioa?i?aoaoeee eee eiua
aiaoaoaeuenoaa, niioaaonoaothuea i?aaenoaaeaieyi oie eee eiie
ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie oeieu. Ii i?aaeeaaaao iaoeeaioo ioionoeoue naay,
ioeacaoueny io iau/iuo caueo e ioaeaoueny niiioaiiiio oa?aiaaoe/aneiio
iioaioeeaeo aeoaeiiie aeeiaieee aeooe.

Aieueoeinoai ineoeao?ia e ineoieiaia, i?iaiaeeaoeo eeeie/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey n ineoiaeaeeeaie, yaii neeiiythony eeai e ineoieeoe/aneie,
eeai e ineoiaeaee/aneie iiaeaeueiinoe. N iiae oi/ee c?aiey, eaaeaeue ec
yoeo iiaeoiaeia a naiae /enoie oi?ia eiaao nouanoaaiiua iaaeinoaoee. A
ineoieeoe/aneie oa?aiee yoi oai?aoe/aneia ia?aie/aiea aeia?aoe/aneeie
?aieaie, niioaaonoaothuaa o?aeaeianeiio ineoiaiaeeco, iai?eciaiea
ia?eiaoaeueiuo e o?ainia?niiaeueiuo aniaeoia ineoeee, a oaeaea
yenoa?iaeecaoeey i?ioeanna iin?aaenoaii /?acia?iiai eniieueciaaiey
neiaaniuo eioa?i?aoaoeee.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio a ineoiaeaee/aneie oa?aiee iaaeinoaoi/ii
aieiaiey oaeaeyaony aeia?aoe/aneiio iaoa?eaeo, eiaaea ii iiyaeyaony a
naaina, e neeoeii iiiai iaeeaeaaony io aicaeaenoaey aaeeie/iiai
o?ainoi?ie?othuaai ia?aaeeaaiey. Eniieueciaaiea “aaeeie/iie aieueoie
aeicu”, oa?aeoa?iia aeey ineoiaeaee/aneie oa?aiee, yooaeoeaii aeey
aeeiaieeeia, ia?eiiaiia, aeai?anneaiuo iaoeeaioia e ethaeae, oie?athueo
io ?aea: aieueoeinoai oa?aiaaoe/aneeo eciaiaiee o iaoeeaioia n ?ac-.
ee/iuie ineoiiaa?icaie, ineoiniiaoe/aneeie caaieaaaieyie e aeaoaeoaie
ee/iinoe o?aaoao iau/ii i?i?aaioee a oa/aiea ?yaea ineoiaeaee/aneeo
naainia [5].

Ii-aeaeeiiio, ineoiaeaeeee ia?yaeo n niaea?aeauaeny a ieo iianiinoueth
iaeaaeatho oaeaea oa?aiaaoe/aneeie, oai?/aneeie e ?aeeaeiciuie
aiciiaeiinoyie. Oioy aeaiiua oi?ioi eiio?iee?oaiuo yenia?eiaioia
iaiiiai/eneaiiu, nouanoaoao ?yae enoi?ee aieacie, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo
cia/eoaeueiue oa?aiaaoe/aneee oniao ineoiaeaeeeia, i?eieiaaiuo iiae
i?ioanneiiaeueiui eiio?ieai e iaaethaeaieai. Iiiaea io/aou iienuaatho
ae?aiaoe/aneea e onoie/eaua naeaeae e eo/oaio o iaoeeaioia, no?aaeathueo
oyaeaeuie e aaciaaeaaeiuie n oi/ee c?aiey ae?oaeo iaoiaeia oa?aiee
caaieaaaieyie; ethaee, noiyuea ia?aae eeoeii nia?oe, iaoiaeeee aieueoia
ooaoaiea a ia?aaeeaaieyo, aucaaiiuo aicaeaenoaeai ineoiaeaeeeia [24, 36,
38].

Iaiauynieiay o?aaiaa, eiiaaea ioaaouaathuay /aeiaaea iiae aeaenoaeai
ineoiaeaee/aneiai aauanoaa, i?iaioee?oao aiaeeoe/aneee iiene aa i?e/eiu.
?annoaeaeay, iu naycuaaai oa eee eiua ia?aaeeaaiey n iiaeoiaeyueie
niuneiauie eiiieaenaie, oi anoue, i?iaoee?oai yiioeee ia aiaoithth
neooaoeeth eee aioo?aiiea ineoieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu, anee ia aiieia
oaa?aiu a naaa. A oaeea iiiaiou, iniaaiii o iieoaeueiuo ethaeae iianaiey
ca nianoaaiiia aeooaaiia caei?iauea iiaoo aucaaoue aeoaieea
aeaci?aaiecothuea ia?aaeeaaiey – iaieeo, niiniaioth caaea?aeaoue
anoanoaaiiia ia?a?iaeaeaiea o?aaiaeiuo yiioeee a iuouaiea iaiiaeaiiiai
nouanoaiaaiey (eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo a i?ioanneiiaeueiii ineoiaeaee/aneii
naaina). Oaeie iiuo aeiaieueii /anoi neo/aaony ai a?aiy naiiaeayoaeueiuo
yenia?eiaioia [5]. A ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneie i?aeoeea ii iacuaaaony
iacaaa?oaiiui naainii, a a i?inoi?a/ee – “ieioay iiacaeea” (“bad trip”)
[36].

A eiioea 60-o iinea cai?auaiey ioe?uouo enneaaeiaaiee, eiaaea
aia?eeaineay eiio?eoeueoo?a aeoeaii i?iiaaaiaee?iaaea ineoiaeaee/aneee
ia?ac aeecie, yenia?eiaiou ia naaa iineee ianniaue oa?aeoa?. Auea oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaia i?aeoeea i?eaia aunieeo aeic ENAe – 500-600 iea. (a
ineoioa?aiee n?aaeiyy aeica – 200 iea.). Eiia/ii, n?aaee nioai ouny/
ethaeae, aacioaaonoaaiii oiio?aaeyaoeo yoio i?aia?ao, neo/aeenue
o?aae/aneea eioeeaeaiou (a iniiaiii, ian/anoiua neo/ae, ii eiiaaea eiaee
ianoi e aiaoiea i?iyaeaiey aa?annee [34].

Aeaenoaea ineoiaeaeeeia naycaii n aiaeecii nianoaaiiuo yiioeee “ss”, e,
/oi i?eioeeieaeueii, n iaoae niiniaiinoueth ei i?ioeainoiyoue. Iiyoiio
oyaeaeaa anaai yoe ia?aaeeaaiey aeathony ethaeyi, aeeaouei a
iaonoie/eaii aioo?aiiai ie?a e ieioi eiio?iee?othuei au?aaeaiea naieo
/oanoa. I?aiaeieaiea aicieeathuaai e?ecena o?aaoao io /aeiaaea eiie ?ac
i?aaeaeueiie auaea?aeee e naiiiaeaaeaiey, ii i?eiineo naiia ianoiyuaa
inaiaiaeaeaiea – ia/aei iiaie aeecie a eiii ea/anoaa. A.Ianeio ieoao ia
yoii oae: “E aio ia?aaeien – oi, /oi auei aieaciaiiui, iaoieiae/aneei e
“ieciaiiui”, noaiiaeony /anoueth naiiai caei?iaiai e “aicauoaiiiai”
aniaeoa /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu. Iia?oaeaiea a “aacoiea” ioaaao oieueei
oiai, eoi ia aei eiioea oaa?ai a naiae ii?iaeueiinoe. Ia?aciaaiea
aeieaeii iiii/ue iao/eoueny aeeoue a iaieo ie?ao” [18].

Ineoieiae/aneea e?ecenu a i?ioeanna oiio?aaeaiey aaeethoeeiiaaiia iiaoo
au?aaeaoueny a iuouaiee iaiieiioeaiiinoe nianoaaiiiai auoey, iai?eia?,
eiaaea i?eau/iue aioo?aiiee ie? /aeiaaea iaia?oaeee naith
eeethci?iinoue, ii aeueoa?iaoeaa i?aaeiei niuneiaui naycyi ia iaeaeaia.
Eiaiii ia?aciaaiea – aaeeinoaaiiue ?aoeaio io iiiyoeeiie iooaieoeu,
aicieeathuae a yoii i?ioeanna. Iii aeaao aeaaiia – oaa?aiiinoue a
auai?a, iaiaoiaeeiinoue eioi?iai /anoi noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiie a
eciaiaiiii ninoiyiee niciaiey. Anee yoie oaa?aiiinoe iao, ee/iinoiay
iiceoeey /aeiaaea aeaiiino?e?oao iaonoie/eainoue, a aeey aeeceeo ethaeae
aai iiaaaeaiea eaaeaony no?aiiui. Yoi naycaii n i?ioeannii
ainnoaiiaeaiey a?aieoe iaaeaeo aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae ?aaeueiinoyie [18,
37].

Ineoieiae/aneea e?ecenu, aicieeathuea o iaeioi?uo ethaeae iinea
yenoaoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee (iai?eia?, naycaiiuo n oiio?aaeaieai
aaeethoeeiiaaiia), neaaeoao iiieiaoue eae aaaeiua yoaiu ee/iinoiiai
?inoa, naycaiiua n iineaaeiaaoaeueiui io?aaae?iaaieai aeiaeia?aoe/aneeo
e aeia?aoe/aneeo iiiaioia o?aaie?iaaaoeo ia?aaeeaaiee, n ?ai?aaiecaoeeae
?aiaa iainiciaaaaiuo ineoe/aneeo no?oeoo? [5]. Ii ia?a inaiaiaeaeaiey eo
io yiioeeiiaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe /aeiaae ana io/aoeeaaa iuouaao
o?ainoeaiaeaioiia, iaaeee/iinoiia ecia?aiea nianoaaiiiai iiuoa,
inaaeaaao aeooiaiia ioiioaiea e ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
E?ecenu, aucuaaaiua ineoiaeaeeeaie, auaatho naiuie ?aciiia?aciuie — io
ino?uo aei o?iie/aneeo. Ni a?aiaiai aiciiaeia aeoeaecaoeey
ineoiiaoieiaee, a oii /enea ineoicia, o i?aae?aniieiaeaiiuo e yoiio
eiaeeaeaeia. I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi iaaaoeaii ?aaae?otho ia
ineoiaeaeeee, eae i?aaeei, ethaee, ieioi iiaeaioiaeaiiua, eniieuecothuea
eo a iaiiaeoiaeyuae ianoaiiaea, oiio?aaeythuea nianue i?aia?aoia eee
oaea no?aaeathuea ineoiiaoieiaeae. O eeoe, i?ioaaeoeo ioai?, a
eeeie/aneeo oneiaeyo oaeea ineiaeiaiey ?aaeee, a aucuaaaiua
ineoiaeaeeeaie e?ecenu iau/ii i?aiaeieaaathony n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueii
iiaeaioiaeaiiiai oa?aiaaoa. E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie iao ieeaeeo
aeieacaoaeuenoa oiai, /oi ineoiaeaeeee iaiinyo iaia?aoeiue oua?a iicao,
aeaaea a neo/ayo aeeeoaeueiiai eo oiio?aaeaiey [29].

?aaiou a iaeanoe ineoioa?aiee n ineoiaeaeeeaie aeatho yenia?eiaioaeueiia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea nioeeaeueiie aeaoa?ieiaoeee /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee,
iieacuaatho, /oi eaey aaeoaue naiaai aanniciaoaeueiiai, /aeiaae auoiaeeo
ca a?aieoeu naiaai “YAI”, iaoiaeeo aaeeioth naycue n ie?oaeathuei aai
ie?ii e ethaeueie [17, 27, 40]. Aeoaeia naiiniciaiey – yoi eo/oee
?aoeaio io aeooaaiie aiee, eioi?ue eiaaea-eeai auienuaaea I?e?iaea
ethaeyi [37]. Ii iaeiieaiiiio iiuoo; iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
?anoeoaeueiua aaeethoeeiiaaiu – oio naiue ?aoeaio…

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“Iieaeoeu ienoeee” e o?ainoeaiaeaioaoeey YAI: oo?aoa e
ia?aoaiea oeaeinoiinoe auoey.

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