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AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE EIIEOAO ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

II AUNOAIO IA?ACIAAIETH

Iiai/a?eanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao

IAO?IA EAI?Ue AEUeAA?OIAE*,

annenoaio eao. NI, NeII IAOO,

nieneaoaeue eaoaae?u “Nii?ioeaeaiea

iaoa?eaeia, no?ieoaeueiay e

i?eeeaaeiay iaoaieea”.

Iiaeaee?iaaiea eae iaiaoiaeeiue iao/iue iaoiae iiciaiey e aai naycue n
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuie e noioanoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie ECO*AIEss ETHAIAI
yaeaiey eee i?ioeanna

? A O A ? A O

?aoa?ao i?aaenoaaeai aeey naea/e eaiaeeaeaoneiai yecaiaia ii oeeinioee.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

Ca?eoueyi Aeaenaiae? Caoa?iae/,

i?ioanni?, ae-? oaoi. iaoe,

caa. eao. “Nii?ioeaeaiea iaoa?eaeia, no?ieoaeueiay e
i?eeeaaeiay iaoaieea”.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue ii eaoaae?a oeeinioee

Aoeiia Aeaaeeie? Eaaiiae/,

aeioeaio, eaiae. oee. iaoe.

Iiai/a?eanne — 1996 a.

N I Ae A ? AE A I E A

AAAAeAIEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1. IIAeAEE?IAAIEA EAE IAIAOIAeEIUE YOAI IICIAIEss NOUIINOE ECO*AAIIAI
ssAEAIEss EEE I?I-OeANNA I?E ?AC?AAIOEA AAI OAI?EE . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .

4

2. AEIIOACU EAE IAIAOIAeEIUA I?ECIAEE, II?AAeA-EssTHUEA NAIENOAA
?AC?AAAOUAAAIIE IIAeAEE EEE I?IOeANNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

3. I?AAeNEACAIEss — AAAEIAEOEE E?EOA?EE ENOEI-IINOE ?AC?AAAOUAAAIIE
OAI?EE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

4. I?EIAIAIEA ?AC?AAIOAIIIE OAI?EE E I?AEOE-*ANEEI CAAeA*AI . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

5. NAssCUe IIAeAEE?IAAIEss N AeAOA?IEIE?IAAIIUIE E NOIOANOE*ANEEIE
IAOIAeAIE ECO*AIEss ssAEA-IEss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

CAEETH*AIEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

A A A Ae A I E A

Ao?iue ?ino i?iiuoeaiiinoe e iaoee ai anao noa?ao /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?eaaee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy e oaeiio iieiaeaieth aauae, /oi
nicaeaiea e ?ac?aaioea eaeeo-eeai iiauo oaoiieiaee, oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa
(iaoei, i?eai?ia, iai?oaeiaaiey e o. i.), a oaeaea iaoiaeee eo
i?eiaiaiey aeey ioaeae /aeiaaea noaiiaeony cao?oaeieoaeueiui, a a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iaaiciiaeiui, aac eioaineaiiai i?eiaiaiey iao/iuo
iaoiaeia iiciaiey e iienea [2].

Iaeiie ec oaeeo iaycaoaeueiuo noi?ii iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony
iaoiae iiaeaee?iaaiey, aac eioi?iai ia iaoiaeeony ie iaeia
eiino?oeoi?neay e ie iaeia enneaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa. Ii yoie i?e/eia,
a ?aoa?aoa naeaeai cia/eoaeueiue aeoeaio ia iaoiae iiaeaee?iaaiey eae
iaiaoiaeeiue iao/iue iaoiae iiciaiey yaeaiee i?e?iaeu e eniieueciaaiea
yoiai iiciaiey aeey i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeae [4].

1. IIAeAEE?IAAIEA EAE IAIAOIAeEIUE YOAI

IICIAIEss NOUIINOE ECO*AAIIAI ssAEAIEss

EEE I?IOeANNA I?E ?AC?AAIOEA AAI OAI?EE

Anyeia aiiaue eco/aaiia yaeaiea eee i?ioeann aaneiia/ii neiaeii e
iiiaiia?acii e iioiio aei eiioea i?eioeeieaeueii ia iiciaaaaii e ia
eco/aaii. Iiyoiio, i?enooiay e eco/aieth yaeaiey eee i?ioeanna,
enneaaeiaaoaeue caiaiyao aai noaiaoe/aneie iiaeaeueth, eioi?ay
auae?aaony oai aieaa neiaeiie, /ai iiae?iaiaa e oi/iaa ioaeii eco/eoue
oiiiyiooia yaeaiey. A iiaeaea nio?aiyaony oieueei naiua nouanoaaiiua
noi?iiu eco/aaiiai yaeaiey, a ana iaei nouanoaaiiua naienoaa e
caeiiiia?iinoe ioa?anuaathony [6].

Eaeea noi?iiu eco/aaiiai yaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii nio?aieoue a iiaeaee e
eaeea ioa?ineoue, caaeneo io iinoaiiaee caaea/e enneaaeiaaiee. Oeaeue e
caaea/e enneaaeiaaiee oi?ioee?othony ia?aae ia/aeii ?ac?aaioee oai?ee
aua iaeco/aiiiai yaeaiey eee ooi/iaiey oaea nouanoaothuae oai?ee n
oeaeueth aieaa aaeaeaaoiiai iienaiey eco/aaiiai i?ioeanna eee yaeaiey
[7]. Iino?iaiea oai?ee ia/eiaaony n auai?a iaeioi?iai aeinoaoi/iiai
iiiaeanoaa iiiyoee e ii?aaeaeaiey oao iauaeoia, n eioi?uie aoaeao
iia?e?iaaoue oi?ie?oaiay oai?ey. Eiiaaea nienie enoiaeii ii?aaeaeyaiuo
iiiyoee e iauaeoia iacuaatho oa?ieiaie oai?ee. Iie aeieaeiu auoue
ii?aaeaeaiu oae, /oiau aini?eieiaeenue ethaui enneaaeiaaoaeai
iaeiicia/ii.

Aeaeaa iaiaoiaeeii aaanoe, i?e iino?iaiee iiaeaee yaeaiey, naiua
iaiaoiaeeiua naienoaa ii?aaeaeyaiuo iauaeoia (“ee?ie/ae” oai?ee) e
i?aaeea eo acaeiiaeaenoaey e i?aia?aciaaiey. Nienie aaaaeaiiuo naienoa e
i?aaee aeieaeai auoue iieiui, o. a. oaeei, iia?e?oy n eioi?ui iiaeii
inouanoaeoue ethaia aeaenoaea ii ?aoaieth iinoaaeaiiuo a enneaaeiaaiee
caaea/ e aeiaaaeaiey ?aoaiey eiae/aneiai e iaeiicia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa.
Oeacaiiue nienie aeieaeai auoue eiae/anee iai?ioeai?a/eaui, eia/a
nicaeaaaaiay oai?ey i?eaaaeao e ioeai/iui caeeth/aieyi. Aaiaeeiua
i?aaeea aeieaeiu auoue auiieieiu, a ?acoeueoaou eo eniieueciaaiey
iaeiicia/iuie e ii?aaeaeaiiuie.

Auaeaeaiiia iiiaeanoai iauaeoia-oa?ieiia oai?ee e i?aaee eo
i?aia?aciaaiey aeieaeii aeiioneaoue i?iaa?eo i?aeoeeie eee eiuie
iaaeaaeiuie iaoiaeaie. I?e yoii aua?aiiay iiaeaeue aeieaeia
iaania/eaaoue iaiaoiaeeioth oi/iinoue ?acoeueoaoia [6].

A oeeinioneii niunea aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiea iaeioi?iio iiiyoeth-oa?ieio —
yoi cia/eo iiaeaanoe aieaa oceia ii?aaeaeyaiia iiiyoea eee iiaeiiiyoea
iiae aieaa oe?ieiai e oeacaoue ioee/eoaeueioth iniaaiiinoue. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi, aeaaay ii?aaeaeaiey aaiaeeiui a oai?eth oa?ieiai, iu
ii?aaeaeyai eo a eiioea eiioeia /a?ac ?yae iaii?aaeaeeiuo enoiaeiuo
iiiyoee. Oai naiui noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui iaiaeiicia/iia oieeiaaiea,
eioi?ia iicaieyao i?eeaaaoue noi?ioee?iaaiioth oai?eth e ethaui
yaeaieyi, eiathuei a naiae iniiaa aiaeiae/iua no?oeoo?u enoiaeiuo
iiiyoee.

Oae, iai?eia?, a eo?na aaiiao?ee a ?acaeaea ieaieiao?ey iiiyoea oi/ee
ia aaiaeeony, a iiiyoea io?acie i?yiie o-b aaiaeeony eae eiioeioaeueiia
iiiaeanoai oi/ae — iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oi/ae c, aaaeoueo ec ia/aeueiie
oi/ee io?acea o e eiia/iie oi/ea b, eiathuaa iaeiaiueooth aeeeio

?en. 1

Iooai i?iaeieaeaiey io?acea a iai?aaeaiee io oi/ee d e n iieo/aai
iieoi?yioth, a i?iaeieaeay io?acie e a i?ioeaiiieiaeioth noi?iio io
oi/ee d, aoaeai eiaoue aaneiia/ioth i?yioth(?en. 1).

A aeaeueiaeoai, oi/ee ?anniao?eaathony eae ianoa ia?ana/aiey eeiee.

?anniio?ei i?iaeoeaiua iiaeaee ?eiaia: i?iaaaeai /a?ac oi/eo o i?yiie
ia?iaiaeeeoey? (?en. 2), ia eioi?ii ioiaoei oi/eo o p, ia io?acea o-o p,
eae ia aeeaiao?a, iino?iei ie?oaeiinoue, eanathuothny i?yiie a oi/ea o.
Oi/eo o iaciaai iiethnii.

?en. 2

Niaaeeiei iiethn n oi/eaie d, c e b, eaaeaeay ec i?eaaaeaiiuo
i?iaeoe?othueo i?yiuo ia?anaeaao ie?oaeiinoue a oi/eao d (, c ( e b (.
I/aaeaeii, iaaeaeo oi/eaie d e d (, c e c (, b e b (, eiaaony
acaeiiiaeiicia/iia niioaaonoaea. Iiethn o p acaeiiiaeiicia/ii
niioaaonoaoao aaneiia/ii oaeaeaiiie oi/ea i?yiie. Eae aeaeii a
i?iaeoeaiie iiaeaee ?eiaia eiaaony ia?ac iaeiie aaneiia/ii oaeaeaiiie
oi/ee i?yiie — yoi oi/ea, niaiaaeathuay n iiethnii o p, a oi a?aiy eae
ia ?en. 1 iiaei iieacaoueny, /oi i?yiay iaeaaeaao aeaoiy aaneiia/ii
oaeaeaiiuie oi/eaie. A ?acaeoea yoie iiaeaee i?eaaaeai i?iaeoeaioth
iiaeaeue ?eiaia aeey noa?u e ieineinoe N.

Aicueiai ieineinoue N, a oi/ea o eioi?ie iiianoei noa?o aeeaiao?ii o-o
p. ?anniao?eaay oi/eo o p eae iiethn i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ni?iaeoe?oai

?en. 3

i?yiuie, i?ioiaeyueie /a?ac iiethn o p, ?aniieiaeaiiua a ieineinoe N, oi
oi/ee d, c, b ia iiaa?oiinoue noa?u a aeaea oi/ae-ia?acia d (, c (, b (.
Eae e a eeiaeiii neo/aa (?en. 2) iaaeaeo oi/eaie d, c, b e eo
i?iaeoeaiuie ia?acaie d (, c (, b ( eiaaony acaeiii iaeiicia/iia
niioaaonoaea. Aeieacuaaaony, /oi i?e oaeii i?iaeoeaiii i?aia?aciaaiee
nio?aiythony oaeu iaaeaeo eeieyie d, c, b ia ieineinoe e eeieyie d (, c
(, b ( ia iiaa?oiinoe noa?u. ?anniio?aiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiiia
i?aia?aciaaiea neoaeeo oai?aoe/aneei iniiaaieai aeey ecia?aaeaiey ea?ou
caiiie iiaa?oiinoe ia ieineinoe N e oe?iei eniieuecoaony a iaaeaaoeee, a
ii?neii e aaeaoeeiiiii ooo?iaineii aeaea. Iiethn i?iaeoe?iaaiey o p ii
?eiaio, oaeaea eae e a eeiaeiii neo/aa (?en. 2), yaeyaony i?iaeoeaiui
ia?acii aaneiia/ii oaeaeaiiie oi/ee ieineinoe. ?eiaiiaa iiaeaeue aeaao
iniiaaiea n/eoaoue, /oi ieineinoue niaea?aeeo ia iiiaeanoai aaneiia/ii
oaeaeaiiuo oi/ae, a oieueei iaeio. Oaeie iiaeoiae aeaao aieueoea
oaeianoaa aeey iaoaiaoe/aneeo iino?iaiee a oai?ee ooieoeee eiiieaeniiai
ia?aiaiiiai e a i?eeeaaeiuo caaea/ao.

2. AEIIOACU EAE IAIAOIAeEIUA I?ECIAEE,

II?AAeAEssTHUEA NAIENOAA ?AC?AAAOUAAAIIE

IIAeAEE EEE I?IOeANNA

Eco/aiea anyeiai iaiiciaiiiai yaeaiey ia/eiaaony n iaaethaeaiey aai
i?iyaeaiey a i?e?iaea eee a eaai?aoi?ee. Naeaeaiiua iaaethaeaiey
iicaieytho auneacaoue ?yae enoiaeiuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee (aeiioac),
iicaieythueo iauynieoue ia iiaeaee eco/aaiia yaeaiea e aai naienoaa.
Ni?aaaaeeeainoue auneacaiiuo aeiioac i?iaa?yaony yenia?eiaioii.
Iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiua yenia?eiaioii aeiioacu iooai eiae/aneeo ?annoaeaeaiee
aeaeaoaeueii ioi?ieaiiuo a aeaea iaoaiaoe/aneiai iienaiey e iino?iaiey
i?aa?auathony a oai?eth enneaaeoaiiai yaeaiey. I?e yoii aunaa/eaathony
aeaa noi?iiu yaeaiey — ea/anoaaiiia e eiee/anoaaiiia [1].

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeaeue eco/aaiiai yaeaiey n iiiiuueth aaiaeeiuo
aeiioac i?eia?aoaao ?yae naienoa, iie?aynue ia eioi?ua iiaeii iooai
iaoaiaoe/aneeo e eiae/aneeo aeaenoaee i?ineaaeeoue, eae i?eiyoay
iiaeaeue acaeiiaeaenoaoao n ie?oaeathueie iauaeoaie e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
eae iia ?aaae?oao ia aiaoiaa aicaeaenoaea. I?e yoii aa?eaioa aiciiaeii,
/oi e ia?aiia/aeueiia naienoai iiaeaee eciaieony [5].

I?ieeethno?e?oai ?ieue aaiaeeiuo aeiioac ia i?eia?ao.

Aeey o?aiaiey naeaoiai aaca i?e aunieeo aeaaeaieyo iau/ii i?eiaiythony
oiieinoaiiua oeeeeiae?e/aneea ?aca?aoa?u-aaeeiiu, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie
oeeeeiae?e/aneoth iaiei/eo a?auaiey. Iaiei/ea n/eoaaony oiieinoaiiie,
anee oieueia noaiee a 20-30 ?ac iaiueoa aeeaiao?a aaeeiia. Oaeay
iaiei/ea iiaeao ?ann/eouaaoueny ii aaciiiaioiie oai?ee, neaaeiaaoaeueii
yeaiaio noaiee aaeeiia ?aaioaao oieueei ia ?anoyaeaiea-naeaoea, oaeei
ia?acii aeiioaca i iaeie oieueia noaiee naiaeeony e oiio, /oi
ecaeaathueie iiiaioaie, aicieeathueie a noaiea aaeeiia iiaeii
i?aiaa?a/ue; a yoii neo/aa aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aeaenoaothueo a iaiei/ea
ii?iaeueiuo iai?yaeaiee iiaeii iieueciaaoueny ecaanoiui o?aaiaieai
Eaieana (ni. ?en. 4)

— ?aaeeonu ia?eaeeaia eieueoeaaiai na/aiey;

— aeaaeaiea aaca;

— oieueia noaiee.

Ec yoiai o?aaiaiey auoiaeeo, /oi ia?eaeeiiaeueiua ii?iaeueiua
iai?yaeaiey (i a noaiea aaeeiia a 2 ?aca iaiueoa oaiaaioeeaeueiuo
(eieueoeaauo) (( iai?yaeaiee, neaaeiaaoaeueii ?ac?ooaiea aaeeiia
i?ienoiaeeo a aeaea o?aueiu, ni?eaioe?iaaiiie aaeieue ia?acothuae
iaiei/ee.

Aeey ?an/aoa oienoinoaiiie oeeeeiae?e/aneie iaiei/ee i?eoiaeeony
i?eiaiyoue iiiaioioth oai?eth, iniiaaiioth ia aeiioaca, /oi e a noaiea
iaiei/ee aeaenoaotho ia?yaeo n ii?iaeueiuie iai?yaeaieyie aua e
iiia?a/iua neeu e ecaeaathuea iiiaiou (?en. 5). Yoi ooi/iaiiay iiaeaeue
i?eaiaeeo e niaa?oaiii eiui o?aaiaieyi (aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiio o?aaiaieth
/aoaa?oiai ii?yaeea)

aaea W — ia?aiauaiea yeaiaioa noaiee ?aca?aoa?a a ?aaeeaeueiii
iai?aaeaiee;

?en. 4.

?en. 5.

— oi?oaay iinoiyiiay noaiee;

— iiaeoeue oi?oainoe iaoa?eaea;

— oieueia noaiee ?aca?aoa?a;

— oaeaeueiue aan aeeaeeinoe a ?aca?aoa?a;

— aeoaeia aeeaeeinoe a ?aca?aoa?a;

— eiyooeoeeaio Ioanniia.

Eciaiaiea aeiioacu i?eaaei e ?aceiio oneiaeiaieth iiaeaee e e aieaa
neiaeiiio aeai?eoio ?an/aoa iaiei/ee ia i?i/iinoue.

?anniio?ei aua iaeei i?eia? ec oeceee.

A eeanne/aneie iaoaieea Aaeeeay-Iuethoiia i?e ?anniio?aiee aeaeaeaiey
iaoa?eaeueiiai oaea a i?ino?ainoaa aaiaeyony, ia ia?aue acaeyae,
niaa?oaiii anoanoaaiiua aeiioacu i oii, /oi ianna aeaeaeouaainy oaea io
nei?inoe aai aeaeaeaiey ia caaeneo, a a?aiy, ion/eouaaaiia eae a
iieiyuaeny, oae e a aeaeaeouaeny eia?oeeiiiie nenoaia ion/aoa,
iaeeiaeiai. I?e nei?inoyo aeaeaeaiey, aeeceeo e nei?inoe naaoa, oaeea
aeiioacu ieacuaathony ia aa?iu e eo i?eoiaeeony caiaiyoue aeiioacaie
niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe, i?aaeeiaeaiiie Aeueaa?oii
Yeiooaeiii. Niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
nia?aiaiioth oece/aneoth oai?eth i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie.

A niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe, eae e a eeanne/aneie
Iuethoiiianeie iaoaieea, i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi a?aiy iaeii?iaeii, a
i?ino?ainoai iaeii?iaeii e ecio?iiii. A iniiaa niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe eaaeao aeaa iniiaiua aeiioacu, ioee/iua io aeiioac
Aaeeeay-Iuethoiia. Ia?aay ec ieo ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi a ethauo
eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoaiao ion/aoa ana oece/aneea yaeaiey i?e iaeieo e oao
aea oneiaeyo i?ioaeatho iaeeiaeiai. Aoi?ay aeiioaca ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
nei?inoue naaoa a aaeooia ia caaeneo io aeaeaeaiey enoi/ieea naaoa. Iia
iaeeiaeiaa ai anao iai?aaeaieyo e ai anao eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoaiao
ion/aoa. Iiuou iieacuaatho, /oi nei?inoue naaoa a aaeooia — i?aaeaeueiay
nei?inoue a i?e?iaea. Nei?inoue ethauo /anoeoe, a oaeaea nei?inoue
ethauo acaeiiaeaenoaee neaiaeia ia iiaeao i?aainoiaeeoue nei?inoue naaoa
c.

Iauaaeeiaiea niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe e eeanne/aneeo
i?aaenoaaeaiee ia aaniethoiii a?aiaie, eaeouai iaeeiaeiai ai anao
nenoaiao ion/aoa, i?eaiaeyo e aano?aeo, /oi naaoiaie neaiae aeieaeai
iaeiia?aiaiii aeinoeaaoue oi/ae i?ino?ainoaa, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aeaoi
?acee/iui noa?ai.

A niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe oiae a?aiaie a ?aciuo
eia?oeeiiiuo nenoaiao ion/aoa ?acee/ai. Niioaaonoaaiii, i?iiaaeooie
a?aiaie iaaeaeo eaeeie-eeai aeaoiy niauoeyie ioiineoaeai. Ii ecia?yaony
i?e ia?aoiaea io iaeiie eia?oeeiiiie nenoaiu e ae?oaie. A /anoiinoe,
ioiineoaeueia iaeiia?aiaiiinoue aeaoo niauoee, i?ienoiaeyueo a ?aciuo
oi/eao i?ino?ainoaa.

Niauoey, naycaiiua i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiie naycueth, ia iiaoo
niaa?oaoueny iaeiia?aiaiii ie a iaeiie nenoaia ion/aoa, oae eae anyeia
neaaenoaea iaoneiaeaii eaeei-oi i?ioeannii, aucuaaaiui i?e/eiie. Iaaeaeo
oai ethaie i?ioeann (oece/aneee, oeie/aneee, aeieiae/aneee) ia iiaeao
i?ioaeaoue iaiiaaiii. Iiyoiio ioiineoaeueiinoue ie a eiae ia?a ia
i?ioeai?a/eo i?e/eiiinoe. A ethaie eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaia ion/aoa
niauoey-neaaenoaey anaaaea niaa?oathony iicaea, /ai aai i?e/eia.

Ec aeiioac niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea ec
iaeii?iaeiinoe e ecio?iiiinoe i?ino?ainoaa e iaeii?iaeiinoe a?aiaie
neaaeoao, /oi niioiioaiea iaaeaeo eii?aeeiaoaie e a?aiaiai iaeiiai e
oiai aea niauoey a aeaoo eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoaiao ion/aoa au?aaeathony
i?aia?aciaaieyie Ei?aioea, a ia i?aia?aciaaieyie Aaeeeay, eae yoi
n/eoaaony a eeanne/aneie Iuethoiiianeie iaoaieea.

I?aia?aciaaiey Ei?aioea eiatho i?inoaeoee aeae a neo/aa, eiaaea
noiaenoaaiiua ine aeaea?oiauo eii?aeeiao iaiiaeaeaeiie e aeaeaeouaeny
eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoai iiia?ii ia?aeeaeueiu. I?e/ai aeaeaeouayny nenoaia
ia?aiauaaony ioiineoaeueii iaiiaeaeaeiie ni nei?inoueth aaeieue ine OX.
I?e yoii i?aia?aciaaiey Ei?aioea eiatho aeae

aaea c — nei?inoue naaoa a aaeooia.

I?aia?aciaaiey Ei?aioea iieacuaatho, /oi i?e ia?aoiaea io iaeiie
eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu ion/aoa eciaiythony ia oieueei i?ino?ainoaaiiua
eii?aeeiaou ?anniao?eaaaiuo niauoee, ii e niioaaonoaothuea ei iiiaiou
a?aiai. Ec i?aia?aciaaiey Ei?aioea neaaeoao, /oi nei?inoue
ioiineoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey ethauo eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoai ion/aoa ia
iiaeao i?aainoiaeeoue nei?inoue naaoa a aaeooia.

Ec i?aia?aciaaiey Ei?aioea neaaeoao, /oi eeiaeiue ?acia? oaea,
aeaeaeouaainy ioiineoaeueii eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu ion/aoa, oiaiueoaaony
a iai?aaeaiee aeaeaeaiey. Yoi eciaiaiea i?iaeieueiiai ?acia?a i?e
aeaeaeaiee iacuaaaony Ei?aioeiaui nie?auaieai

.

Iiia?a/iua ?acia?u oaea ia caaenyo io nei?inoe aai aeaeaeaiey e
iaeeiaeiau ai anao eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoaiao ion/aoa

Eoae, eeiaeiua ?acia?u oaea ioiineoaeueiu. Iie iaeneiaeueiu a oie
nenoaia ion/aoa, ioiineoaeueii eioi?ie oaei iieieony — yoe ?acia?u oaea
iacuaathony aai nianoaaiiuie ?acia?aie

A ?aeyoeaenoneie aeeiaieea, a ioee/ea io eeanne/aneie, ianna
iaoa?eaeueiie oi/ee ia iinoiyiia, a caaeneo io nei?inoe yoie oi/ee.
Caaeneiinoue iannu io nei?inoe au?aaeaaony oi?ioeie

aaea m0 — ianna iieiy /anoeoe.

A ?aeyoeaenoneie iaoaieea aeaeaaony aaaeiue auaiae, /oi ianna e yia?aey
iaoiaeyony a caaeneiinoe

I?eaaaeaiiua i?eia?u iieacuaatho, /oi i?inoay caiaia enoiaeiuo aeiioac
iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e na?ueaciaeoei eciaiaieyi naienoa iiaeaee yaeaiey.

3. I?AAeNEACAIEss — AAAEIAEOEE E?EOA?EE

ENOEIIINOE ?AC?AAAOUAAAIIE OAI?EE

Iinea iino?iaiey oai?ee enneaaeoaiiai yaeaiey aeaeathony e
aiaeece?othony aaaeiaeoea auaiaeu, auoaeathuea ec noi?ioee?iaaiiie
oai?ee, ni?aaaaeeeainoue eioi?uo i?iaa?yaony ii niaoeeaeueii
?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeeea n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo yenia?eiaioia [3].
Anee eiae/aneea i?aaeneacaiey, auoaeathuea ec iino?iaiiie oai?ee eiatho
ianoi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e ai anao neo/ayo, oi ?ac?aaioaiiay oai?ey
i?eciaaony aa?iie. Ae?oaeo niiniaia i?iaa?ee enoeiiinoe oai?ee ia
nouanoaoao. Iaeiia?aiaiii n i?iaa?eie enoeiiinoe auyaeythony a?aieoeu
i?eiaieiinoe nicaeaiiie oai?ee. A neo/ayo, eiaaea oai?ey ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony yenia?eiaioaeueiie i?iaa?eie, oi onoaiaaeeaathony
a?aieoeu aa i?eiaieiinoe, ca i?aaeaeaie eioi?uo oai?ey aeieaeia auoue
ooi/iaia iooai aeiaaaeaiey iiauo eee caiaiu aaaaeaiiuo ?aiaa aeiioac.

4. I?EIAIAIEA ?AC?AAIOAIIIE OAI?EE

E I?AEOE*ANEEI CAAeA*AI

Iinea oiai, eae ?ac?aaioaiiay oai?ey auaea?aeaea yenia?eiaioaeueioth
i?iaa?eo e iiuou iieacaee, /oi iia ni?aaaaeeeaa e i?eiaieia e
iinoaaeaiiui i?aeoe/aneei caaea/ai, ?ac?aaaouaathony iaoiaeeee e
aiia?aoo?a aeey ?aaeecaoeee iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia.

5. NAssCUe IIAeAEE?IAAIEss N AeAOA?IEIE?IAAIIUIE E

NOIOANOE*ANEEIE IAOIAeAIE ECO*AIEss ssAEAIEss

Auoa auee i?eaaaeaiu ?yae i?eia?ia, eanathueony i?eiaiyaiuo a iaoea
iiaeaeae ec iaeanoe aaiiao?ee, ea?oia?aoee, iaoaiaoeee, no?ieoaeueiie
iaoaieee, oai?ee oi?oainoe, eeanne/aneie aeeiaieee e oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe. Yoe iiaeaee e iienuaaaiua n eo iiiiuueth yaeaiey
iiaeii iacaaoue aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuie iiaeaeyie e i?ioeannaie, o. a.
oaeeie, nooue eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony aeanoeeie ?aieaie caeiiia i?e?iaeu,
a neo/aeiay eiiiiiaioa i?aiaa?aaeeii iaea. Aaeaeaaoiinoue iiaeaee,
iienuaaaiiai n aa iiiiuueth i?ioeanna onoaiaaeeaaaony a caaeneiinoe io
iienuaaaiiai yaeaiey oaie eee eiuie niiniaaie. Oae, oai?ey oiieinoaiiuo
iaiei/ae e oienoinoaiiuo oeeeeiae?e/aneeo iaiei/ae ioee/athony iooai
caaeaiey aeiaa?eoaeueiiai eioa?aaea oieuei, ii?aaeaeythuaai i?aaeaeu
i?eiaieiinoe eaaeaeie oai?ee. I?aaeaeu i?eiaieiinoe eaaeaeie oai?ee
eeanne/aneie aeeiaieee io oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe n?aaee i?i/eo
i?eciaeia ioaeaeythony aua oai, /oi naeaeaiiua ia iniiaa oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe i?aaeneacaiey i?iaa?ythony iooai yenia?eiaioa,
i?aaieciaaiiiai a eaai?aoi?ee eee iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?e?iaea.

Iaeiaei oaeia iieiaeaiea eiaao ianoi aeaeaei ia anaaaea. Ecaanoiu
yaeaiey, nouiinoue eioi?uo a naiae iniiaa niaea?aeeo nouanoaaiioth
neo/aeioth eiiiiiaioo. Oaeea yaeaiey e iiaeaee iacuaathony
noioanoe/aneeie. Oeeinioey i?eciaao ia?yaeo n aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiinoueth
aua e neo/aeiinoue, eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaaony ia eae oea?noai i?iecaiea, a
eae oeeinioneoth eaoaai?eth, iaicia/athuoth neo/aeiinoue eae
niaoeeoe/aneoth oi?io i?iyaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe a i?e?iaea, neo/ae,
eiaaea ia?aeeaeueii iniiaiiio eco/aaiiio i?ioeanno i?ioaeatho
iacaaeneiua e iaoi?aaeyaiua niioonoaothuea i?ioeannu, iooe ?acaeoey
eioi?uo, ia?anaeaynue, noiie?othony, aeaaay anieanee e aua?inu neo/aeiuo
eiiiiiaioia.

A iniiaa noioanoe/aneie oai?ee neo/aeiuo i?ioeannia iiaoo auoue
iieiaeaiu aeaa ?acee/iuo iiaeoiaea. Ia?aue ec ieo iniiaai ia
eniieueciaaiee oai?ee iiiaiia?iuo ooieoeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey neo/aeiuo
aaee/ei e aoi?ie — ia iniiaa ei??aeyoeeiiiie oai?ee neo/aeiuo
i?ioeannia.

C A E E TH * A I E A

Iinoiyiiia ?anoe?aiea ianooaaia enneaaeiaaiee a iaoea iicaieeo
iaania/eoue aeoaieea ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey a aeaoo acaeiiaeaenoaothueo
noa?ao iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa, eiathuea
oiaeaeanoaaiiua e ?acee/iua /a?ou. I?e?iaea — iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue,
nouanoaothuay a aeaea iai?aaie/aneiai ie?a. Iauanoai — yoi aunoay oi?ia
?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, caeiiiia?ii auaeaeeaoayny ec i?e?iaeu.
?acaeoea iaoee aiciiaeii eeoue i?e oneiaee, /oi iia iinoiyiii aoaeao
o/eouaaoue cai?inu i?iecaiaenoaa a aeaoo acaeiiaeaenoaothueo noa?ao
iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a [2] .

Iao/iay e i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue enneaaeiaaoaey, oanii naycaiiay
n iao/ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeoeaiinoueth n i?eiaiaieai oai?aoe/aneeo
ciaiee e eiae/aneeo n?aaenoa: aiaeec e neioac, iaiauaiea e
aano?aae?iaaiea, eiaeoeoeey e aeaaeoeoeey, aiaeiaey, iiaeaee?iaaiea,
i?iaiice?iaaiea e ae?oaea iao/iua iiaeoiaeu. Ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao
enneaaeiaaiee oai?aoe/aneea ciaiey ii?aaeaeytho oeaeue, i?iaeaio e
aeiioaco. Yenia?eiaiou eiae/anee iainiiauaatho iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey. Ia
yoaia i?iaaaeaiey yenia?eiaioa e iieo/aiey enoiaeiuo yiie?e/aneeo
aeaiiuo oai?aoe/aneea ciaiey auiieiytho ?ieue i?eaioe?ia a aini?eyoee,
iniciaiee, oeenaoeee e enoieeiaaiee iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Ia yoaia
eiaeei-oai?aoe/aneie ia?aaioee yiie?e/aneeo caaeneiinoae oai?aoe/aneea
ciaiey ninoaaeytho iniiao aiaeeca e neioaca, iaiauaiey e eioa?i?aoaoeee
?acoeueoaoia. Ia oeacaiiuo yoaiao eiae/aneea n?aaenoaa aeoeaii
eniieuecothony, aeeyy ia i?ioeann yenia?eiaioaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey e
iaeiia?aiaiii aini?eieiay aai ia?aoiia aeaenoaea [4].

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIUO ENOI*IEEIA

1. Aaa?ueyiia A.I. Nenoaiiia iiciaiea ie?a: iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu.
I., 1991. 263 n.

2. Aeoooia A.E., Oaiioieeia A.O. I ia?ano?ieea iuoeaiey:
oeeinionei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea aniaeou. I., 1988.

3. Ia?en E., Yiaaeuen O. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee. O. 16.

4. Iiciaaaoaeueiua aeaenoaey a nia?aiaiiie iaoea / Iiae ?aae. TH.A.
Oa?eia. — Ieine: Iaoea e oaoieea, 1989. 200 n.

5. Ne/eaeoea I.I. Iaoiaeu e oi?iu iao/iiai iiciaiey. I.: Auno. oe.,
1993. 95 n.

6. Oeeinioneee neiaa?ue / Iiae ?aae. I.O. O?ieiaa. — I: Iieeoe/aneay
eeoa?aoo?a, 1986. 560 n.

7. Yiaaeuen O. Aeeaeaeoeea i?e?iaeu // Ia?en E., Yiaaeuen O. Ni/. O. 20.

? A Oe A I C E ss

ia ?aoa?ao ii oeeinioee “Iiaeaee?iaaiea eae iaiaoiaeeiue iao/-

iue iaoiae iiciaiey e aai naycue n aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuie e noioanoe-

/aneeie iaoiaeaie eco/aiey ethaiai yaeaiey” nieneaoaey

IAO?IAA E.A.

?aoa?ao iinayuai iaiaoiaeeiiio iao/iiio yoaio iiciaiey nouiinoe ethaiai
yaeaiey eee i?ioeanna. ?anniao?eaathony aii?inu i auai?a aeiioac,
iienuaathueo naienoaa aua?aiiie iiaeaee, aeathony ioeaiee iino?iaiey
ea/anoaaiiie e eiee/anoaaiiie oai?ee eco/aaiiai i?ioeanna e ?iee
i?aaeneacaiey eae aaaeiaeoaai e?eoa?ey enoeiiinoe ?ac?aaaouaaaiie oai?ee
i?ioeanna. Onoaiaaeeaaaony naycue iaaeaeo iinoaiiaeie caaea/
enneaaeiaaiee e auai?ii aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiie eee noioanoe/aneie iiaeaee
i?ioeanna.

A oeaeii ?aoa?ao ioaa/aao o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeuyaeyaiui e ?aaioai i?e
naea/a eaiaeeaeaoneiai yecaiaia ii ?acaeaeo “Oeeinioneea iaoiaeu
iao/iiai iiciaiey”.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

i?ioanni?, ae-? oaoi. iaoe CA?EOUessI A.C.

PAGE

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