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Механицизм в науке и философии

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Iaeaaeaiea

1. Iaoaieoeeci, aai ?acaeoea e iniiaiua iieiaeaiey 2

2. O/aiea i i?e/eiiinoe. 9

3. Eaeae aeaoa?ieiecia a iaoea e oeeinioee XVI-XIX aa. 13

4. ?acaeoea eaaioiaie iaoaieee e aeaoi?iaoeey eaeae aeaoa?ieiecia a
iaoea e oeeinioee XX a.

18

Eeoa?aoo?a 23

?acaa eeoue Anaeaineee aaiee

A iiuoao ouny/ae?aoiuo

Iia aeiaeoueny ?acoeueoaoia…

Iai–oi /oi ca ooaoaiuea?

Y?aei O?aaeeiaa?

1. Iaoaieoeeci, aai ?acaeoea e iniiaiua iieiaeaiey

Aue yoio ie? aeoaieie oueiie ieooai.

“Aea aoaeao naao!”… E aio yaeeny Iuethoii.

N. Ia?oae.

Anoanoaiciaiea n aioe/iuo a?aiai ii?aaeaeyei iaoa ioiioaiea e i?e?iaea,
e aai ?ieue ana aieaa aic?inoaea n oao ii?, eae i?aaeneacaiey aaaeiaeoeo
iao/iuo oai?ee noaee iiiaie?aoii iiaeoaa?aeaeaoueny iiuoii. Iniiaiua
oeeinioneea oa/aiey no?ieeenue ia oece/aneie iaoea e, eacaeinue au,
iaii?iaa?aeeiuo oaeoao, onoaiiaeaiiuo ath.

Iaeiaei aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oeceee e i?aaeaea anaai nicaeaiea oai?ee
yeaeo?iiaaiaoecia, oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe e eaaioiaie iaoaieee aucaaee
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aniio?a oeeinioneeo o/aiee.

Iaeii ec iniiaiuo o/aiee – eiathuaa ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea naii ii naaa
e ia eioi?ia a oie eee eiie ia?a iie?athony ana inoaeueiua o/aiey,
iieo/eei iacaaiea “iaoaieoeeci”. Nooue aai iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue oae:
oece/aneee ie? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaaioneee iaoaieci, /anoe eioi?iai
acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo niaie. Iaoaieci aeaenoaoao aac naiaa e ioeaie,
i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aeaeaeaiea ieaiao, ?aaoey?iinoue /a?aaeiaaiey
i?eeeaia e ioeeaia, i?aaeneacoaiinoue nieia/iuo e eoiiuo caoiaiee. *anoe
aeaaioneiai iaoaiecia – yoi iai?a?uaii aeaeaeouayny iaoa?ey. Aeaeaeaiea
iaoneiaeaii aeaenoaeai nee.

A iniiaa iaoaieoeecia eaaeeo iiiyoea iaoa?ee eae iaeioi?ie oaeaniie
aauanoaaiiie noanoaioeee. Oaaaeaeaiea a oii, /oi iaoa?ey ninoaaeyao
iniiao anaai nouaai, ainoiaeeo e ae?aaiei a?aeai. Auaeathueany a?a/aneea
oeeiniou iaaethaeaee ie?oaeathuee ie? e, ianiio?y ia naie aanueia
ia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe, anaie aeinooiiuie ei n?aaenoaaie enneaaeiaaee
i?e?iaeo. I?e yoii iie n aioiaiinoueth ia?aoiaeeee io iaiiiai/eneaiiuo
iaaethaeaiee e oe?ieei oeeinioneei iaiauaieyi. Oae, Eaaeeii e Aeaiie?eo
auaeaeioee eaeath i oii, /oi ie? ninoieo ec ia?ac?ooeiuo e iaaeaeeiuo
aoiiia, nouanoaothueo a ionoioa. A?enoioaeue no?iee iaoa?eth ec ”/aou?ao
yeaiaioia” – caiee, aiaeu, aicaeooa e iaiy, ii ia ec ianoiyueo caiee,
aiaeu, aicaeooa e iaiy, a ec /aou?ao nouiinoae, iaaeaeaiiuo oaie
ea/anoaaie, eioi?ua iu aini?eieiaai iin?aaenoaii iaoeo i?aaiia /oanoa a
/aou?ao ?aaeueiuo aiaeiaao yoeo “yeaiaioia”.

Oiian Aiaan, ?acaeaay aieaa a?oaue aa?eaio oiai aea o/aiey, ooaa?aeaeae:

Ie?, o.a. any ianna anao aauae, oaeanai; eia/a aiai?y, anoue oaei, e iii
iaeaaeaao ecia?aieyie aaee/eiu, a eiaiii aeeeiie, oe?eiie e aeoaeiie; ii
eaaeaeay /anoue oaea oaeaea anoue oaei e oaeaea iaeaaeaao ecia?aieyie.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaaeaeay /anoue iaoaai ie?a anoue oaei, a oi /oi ia
anoue oaei, ia anoue /anoue ie?a, a iineieueeo ie? anoue ana – oi, /oi
ia anoue /anoue aai anoue ie/oi e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia nouanoaoao
ieaaea. (ii [1], n. 257)

Oaei, i?iaeieaeaao Aiaan, anoue ia/oi oaeia, /oi caieiaao i?ino?ainoai;
iii aeaeeii, iiaeaeaeii, iiaeaa?aeaii aeaenoaeth nee e aaaeao naay
iaoaiaoe/anee.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaoaieoeeci ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ?aaeueiinoue yoi anaai
eeoue neiaeiay iaoeia, oi?aaeythuay iauaeoaie a i?ino?ainoaa e ai
a?aiaie. Oae eae iu naie ninoaaeyai /anoue oece/aneie i?e?iaeu, ana
/aeiaa/aneia aeieaeii auoue iauynieii /a?ac iiiyoea iaoa?ee, aeaeaeaiey
e iaoaiaoeee.

Aeaea?o oae aea ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ana oece/aneea yaeaiey iiaeii
iauynieoue n iiiiuueth iiiyoey iaoa?ee e aeaeaeaiey. Ii Aeaea?oo,
iaoa?ey aeaenoaoao ia iaoa?eth i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii nii?eeiniiaaiee.
Iaoa?ey ninoieo ec iaeue/aeoeo iaaeaeeiuo /anoeoe, ioee/athueony ii
aaee/eia, oi?ia e ae?oaei naienoaai. Oae eae /anoeoeu neeoeii iaeu e eo
iaeuecy aeaeaoue, aeey iauyniaiey e?oiiiianooaaiuo e iioiio aeinooiiuo
iaaethaeaieth yaeaiee, iai?eia? aeaeaeaiea ieaiao aie?oa Nieioea,
o?aaiaaeinue i?eiyoue ii?aaeaeaiiua aeiioacu ioiineoaeueii iiaaaeaiey
oaeeo /anoeoe. Iiiyoea ionoiai i?ino?ainoaa Aeaea?o ioaa?aae.

Anoanoaiciaieth ea?oaceaineay oeeinioey (io eiaie Aeaea?oa Ea?oacee),
eioi?oth ?acaeaeyei aieueoeinoai anoanoaieniuoaoaeae aeiiuethoiiianeie
yiioe, a /anoiinoe Atheaain, ioaiaeeea ii nouanoao oo aea ooieoeeth, a
eiaiii oece/aneia iauyniaiea yaeaiee i?e?iaeu.

Aei ia/aea XX-ai aaea aieueoeinoai oeceeia e oeeinioia i?eaea?aeeaaeenue
oaaaeaeaiey, /oi iaoa?ey – ia?aiiniiaa e nouiinoue oece/aneie
?aaeueiinoe. Ii yoiio iiaiaeo Iuethoii ienae:

I?e ?aciuoeaiee i anao yoeo aauao iia eaaeaony aa?iyoiui, /oi Aia
aia/aea aeae iaoa?ee oi?io oaa?aeuo, ianneaiuo, iai?iieoeaaiuo,
iiaeaeaeiuo /anoeoe oaeeo ?acia?ia e oeao?, e n oaeeie naienoaaie e
i?iii?oeeyie a ioiioaiee e i?ino?ainoao,, eioi?ua aieaa anaai
iiaeoiaeeee au aeey oie oeaee, aeey eioi?ie ii eo nicaeae. Yoe
ia?aiia/aeueiua /anoeoeu, yaeyynue oaa?aeuie, ian?aaieii oaa?aea, /ai
anyeia ii?enoia oaei, ninoaaeaiiia ec ieo, ianoieueei oaa?aea, /oi iie
ieeiaaea ia eciaoeaathony e ia ?acaeaathony ia eonee. Ieeaeay iau/iay
neea ianiiniaia ?acaeaeeoue oi, /oi nicaeae Aia i?e ia?aii
oai?aiee.([2], c. 303).

?acaeoea eaeae iaoaieoeecia a XVII–XVIII aaeao i?aaeaea anaai naycaii n
?acaeoeai ?aaiethoeeiiiuo eaeae a iaoaiaoeea, auaeaeioouo Iuethoiiii
aeey iienaiey aeaeaeaiey iaaaniuo oae – a eiaiii n ?acaeoeai iniia
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai e eioaa?aeueiiai en/eneaiey. Ia ca?a naiaai
?acaeoey iiiyoey “i?aaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee” e oanii naycaiiuo n ieie
“oethenee” (i?iecaiaeiuo) auee iiaeaa?aeaiu ?aceei iaiaaeeai ni noi?iiu
nia?aiaiieeia. Aeae. Aa?eee, ?iaeeaoeeny eae ?ac a oio aiae, eiaaea auea
iioaeeeiaaia ?aaioa Iuethoiia “Iaoaiaoe/aneea ia/aea iaoo?iie
oeeinioee”, aiineaaenoaee ienae: ”Eeoue oio, eoi niiniaai i?aaenoaaeoue
naaa ia/aei ia/ae eee eiiaoe eiioea… a ninoiyiee iinoeaiooue yoe
?annoaeaeaiey. Iaeiaei y oaa?ai, /oi aieueoeinoai ethaeae ni/oao
iaaiciiaeiui eiaaea-ieaoaeue iiiyoue eo niune” (ii [8], n. 90).
I?iecaiaeiua aoi?iai eee aunoaai ii?yaeea ii n/eoae iniaaiii iaeaiui
ecia?aoaieai, n?aaieaay eo n /ai oi a?iaea “ i?ec?aeia io i?ec?aeia”:

*oi oaeia yoe oethenee? Nei?inoe ec/acathua iaeuo i?e?auaiee. A /oi
oaeia yoe ec/acathua iaeua i?e?auaiey? Iie ia anoue ie eiia/iua
aaee/eiu, ie aaneiia/ii iaeua aaee/eiu, ii iie e ia ioee. ?acaa iu ia
eiaai i?aai iacaaoue eo i?ec?aeaie en/acioaoeo aaee/ei? …

Ii y iieaaae au, /oi oiio, eoi a ninoiyiee ia?aaa?eoue aoi?oth eee
o?aoueth oethenee, aoi?ie eee o?aoee aeeooa?aioeeae, ia neaaeiaaei au
i?eaa?aaeie/aoue a ioiioaiee eaeiai-eeai iieiaeaiey a aii?inao
?aeeaeiciuo ([3], c. 401, 425-426).

Iaeiaei, iaaa?iyoiay yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey ?acaeoiai Iuethoiiii
aiia?aoa e iienaieth iaoaie/aneeo nenoai eioa?aniaaea o/aiuo ai?acaei
aieueoa, /ai iaiaaeee e?eoeeia. A oae eae aeaeaeouayny iaoa?ey auea
eeth/ii e iaoaiaoe/aneiio iienaieth aeaeaeaiey ieaiao e naiaiaeii
iaaeathueo oae, o/aiua iiiuoaeenue ?ani?ino?aieoue oaeia
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iauyniaiey ia yaeaiey, i?e?iaeo eioi?uo iie nianai ia
iiieiaee. Oae i?ioeann ia?aaea/e oaiea io iaeiiai oaea e ae?oaiio
iienuaaeny eae ia?aaea/a io oaea e oaeo iniaiai aaca – oaiei?iaea, a
yeaeo?e/anoai i?aaenoaaeyeinue eae aeaa aeeaeeinoe, ianouea
iieiaeeoaeueiue e io?eoeaoaeueiue ca?yaeu. Aeey iauyniaiey iai?a?uaiiai
aeaeaeaiey ieaiao Iuethoii aaae neeo oyaioaiey. Aeey iienaiey aeaenoaey
yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea ia ?annoiyiee Oa?aaeae aaae iiiyoea neeiauo eeiee
iiey, eioi?ua n/eoae ?aaeueii nouanoaothueie.

E eiioeo XVIII aaea iaeaieaa iieiia ?acaeoea iieo/eea iaeia iaeanoue
oeceee – iaoaieea. A ciaiaieoie o?aioeocneie “Yioeeeeiiaaeee” Ae’Aeaiaa?
e Aeeae?i i?iaicaeaneee, /oi iaoaieea – iaoea oieaa?naeueiay. Iia noaea
ia?aaeeaiie aeey aieaa iiauo auno?i?acaeaathueony iaeanoae iaoee.

Eaeaieoe, oioy e ionoaeaae iaoaieoeeci eae naiii/aaeaeioth enoeio, ia
iia oaeiaeaoai?eoueny iaeiei eeoue yoei iai?aaeaieai. Aia, yia?aey e
oeaeue auee iaeeiaeiau aeey iaai. Ii ooaa?aeaeaieth aaeeeiai oeceea,
a?a/a e iaoaiaoeea Aa?iaia Aaeueiaieueoea ienney oece/aneie iaoee
caaa?oeony, eae oieueei oaeanony ieii/aoaeueii naanoe yaeaiey i?e?iaeu e
i?inoui neeai e aeieacaoue, /oi oaeia naaaeaiea – aaeeinoaaiiia,
aeiioneaaiia yoeie yaeaieyie. Aiaeiae/ioth oi/eo c?aiey iaoiaeei o
ei?aea Eaeueaeia: “ss ieeiaaea ia eniuouaath /oanoaa iieiiai
oaeiaeaoai?aiey aei oao ii?, iiea ia iino?ith iaoaie/aneoth iiaeaeue
eco/aaiiai iauaeoa. Anee iia yoi oaeaaony, oi y n?aco ana iiieiath, a
i?ioeaiii neo/aa ia iiieiath”.

Aieioue aei eiioea XIV aaea oeceee i?aauaaee a oaa?aiiinoe, /oi ana
yaeaiey i?e?iaeu aeiioneatho iaoaie/aneia iauyniaiea. A anee eaeea-oi
yaeaiey iiea ia oaeaeinue iauynieoue a ?aieao iaoaieoeecia, oi,
n/eoaeinue, ni a?aiaiai yoi aoaeao naeaeaii. N?aaee yaeaiee, eioi?ua ia
iaoiaeeee iaoaie/aneiai iauyniaiey, iniaaiii aaaeiuie auee aeaenoaea
oyaioaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei, aeey eioi?uo aaeeeee
Iuethoii oae e ia niia iino?ieoue oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie iiaeaee a ?aieao
iaoaieoeecia, ianiio?y ia any naie oneeey; ii iiaiaeo /aai ec?ae naia
ciaiaieoia: “ss ia eciuoeyth aeiioac”.

Oai ia iaiaa, iiiaea oeeiniou XVIII–XIX-ai noieaoee oii?ii
i?eaea?aeeaaeenue iaoaieoeecia. Oeceee auee ianoieueei ineaieaiu
oniaoaie iuethoiiianeiai iai?aaeaiey a iaoea, /oi oionoeee ec aeaeo
i?iaeaio iauyniaiey oece/aneie i?e?iaeu aeaeueiiaeaenoaey. E oioy ana
oio aea Aeae. Aa?eee iiaeaa?aae e?eoeea iiiyoea oece/aneie neeu
oyaioaiey n iaueo iiceoeee naiae oeeinioee (a ni/eiaiee “Aeneo?ii, eee
iaeeee oeeinio” (1732) ii ienae:“Iineieueeo ie ou , ie y ia iiaeai
ii?aaeaeeoue eaeath neeu, e iineieueeo… ?acoi e niiniaiinoe ethaeae ai
iiiaii noiaee, iu iiaeai i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi … o ethaeae iao yniiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia eaeaa neeu” ([6] n.70), ainiieueciaaaoenue oieueei
eueoue iaoaiaoe/aneei au?aaeaieai Caeiia anaie?iiai oyaioaiey iie ( a
iniaaiiinoe Eaa?aiae e Eaiean) ianoieueei i?aoniaee a i?eiaiaiee yoiai
caeiia aeey iauyniaiey ?yaea iaaethaeaaiuo aiiiaeee a aeaeaeaieyo
iaaaniuo oae e a iaia?oaeaiee iiauo yaeaiee, /oi i?iaeaia oece/aneie
i?e?iaeu oyaioaiey ieacaeanue iia?aaaiiie iiae a?oaeie iaoaiaoe/aneeo
o?oaeia oiai a?aiaie.

Iiaeaiaey eoia, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ia oieueei caia/aoaeueiua
aeinoeaeaiey naiiai Iuethoiia, ii e nioie ?acoeueoaoia, iieo/aiiuo aai
iiiai/eneaiiuie iineaaeiaaoaeyie, noaee aiciiaeiuie, aeaaiaea?y oiio,
/oi eo aaoi?u iieaaaeenue ia iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea aeaaea a neo/ayo,
eiaaea oece/aneia iiieiaiea yaeaiey iieiinoueth ionoonoaiaaei. Ii
nouanoao ana yoe anoanoaieniuoaoaee i?eianee oece/aneia iiieiaiea a
aea?oao iaoaiaoe/aneiio iienaieth e iaoaiaoe/aneiio i?aaeneacaieth.

2. O/aiea i i?e/eiiinoe.

Io/aai iia oae naaoei?

Iooiai, /oi ou eaeaoue ii ia?aoeeo.

E. Iaoonianeee

Aua iaeii oeeinioneia o/aiea, iaiaeiie?aoii i?eaeaeathuaany aeey
iauyniaiey iiaaaeaiey i?e?iaeu, iniiaaii i iiiyoee i?e/eiu e neaaenoaey.
Iu euai i?e/eiu, iieaaay, /oi ciaiea i?e/ei iicaieeo iai iieo/eoue
aeaeaaiua neaaenoaey. O/aiea i i?e/eiiinoe a /ai-oi aieaa niooiay
aeieo?eia /ai iaoaieoeeci. I?e/eiiinoue eeoue eiinoaoe?oao nouanoaiaaiea
i?e/eiu e neaaenoaey, ii ie/aai ia aiai?eo i iaoaiecia nayce iaaeaeo
ieie. Ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo noieaoee (aieioue aei ia/aea XX a)
i?e/eiiinoue aeaenoaeoaeueii iiae?acoiaaaea nouanoaiaaiea iaeiai
iaoaiecia. Iiiaea yaeaiey i?ienoiaeyo iioiio, /oi i?e/eia e neaaenoaea
naycaiu oece/aneei iaoaieciii, eioi?ue ii?iaeaeaao neaaenoaea. A
ia?aiia/aeueiii aa?eaioa o/aiea i i?e/eiiinoe i?aaeiieaaaei
iaiin?aaenoaaiiue “eiioaeo” iaaeaeo i?e/eiie e neaaenoaeai o.a. eo
i?ino?ainoaaiioth niaaeiinoue. Ii anei?a iiiyoea i?e/eiiinoe noaee
eniieueciaaoue e i?e ?anniio?aiee aeaeueiiaeaenoaey, iai?eia? a neo/aa
oyaioaiey.

Eae aieueoeinoai oeeinioneeo o/aiee, o/aiea i i?e/eiiinoe ca?iaeeeinue a
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee. A?enoioaeue ?acee/ae /aou?a oeia i?e/ei, aeaenoaothueo
a ie?a: oi?io, oeaeue (o.a. “oi ?aaee /aai”), iaoa?eth (“oi ec /aai”), e
enoi/iee aeaeaeaiey eee “oai?yuaa ia/aei”. Aaeeeee A?oeiaae, oiaaoee
i?eiaiyoue naie ciaiey ia i?aeoeea, iiae/a?eeaae cia/aiea i?eioeeia
i?e/eiiinoe, eioa?i?aoe?oy iineaaeiee a aeooa “oai?yuaai ia/aea”
A?enoioaey. Niaeanii A?oeiaaeo, i?e/eiiinoue i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi
iaoa?ey anthaeo e anaaaea aaaeao naay oii?yaei/aii e i?aaeneacoaii.

Auyaeaiea i?e/eiiinoe a iaoea iiaiai a?aiaie aa?ao ia/aei n Aaeeeay. Ii
aiai?ee i caiiii oyaioaiee, eae i i?e/eia aeaeaeaiey caiiuo oae, oioy
aio i?eoeinue ioeacaoueny io i?e/eiiinoe, ia?aie/eaoenue iaoaiaoe/aneei
iienaieai aeaeaeaiey.

Iuethoii e aai nia?aiaiieee ?ac?aaioaee eiioeaioeeth, nio?aieaoothny ii
nouanoao iaeciaiiie a neaaeothueo aeaoo noieaoeyo. Niaeanii yoie
eiioeaioeee, i?e/eiiinoue i?enoua naiie i?e?iaea oece/aneiai ie?a.
Neaaeoy oaeie eiioeaioeee, Iuethoii aaae oieaa?naeueioth neeo oyaioaiey,
eae i?e/eio yeeeioe/iinoe ieaiaoiuo i?aeo. Eaeaieoe aiai?ee, /oi ana,
/oi neo/aaony eiaao naith i?e/eio.

Niaa?oaiii eiia oieeiaaiea i?e/eiu e neaaenoaey i?aaeeiaeee Eiiaioee
Eaio. Iaoiaeynue iiae neeueiui aeeyieai Iuethoiiianeie iaoee oie yiioe,
Eaio anooiee a caueoo nenoaiu iaaaniie iaoaieee e aeaaea nouanoaaiii
aeiiieiee aa a ?aaioa “Anaiauay anoanoaaiiay enoi?ey e oai?ey iaaa”
(1755 a.). A naiai iniiaiii oeeinioneii ni/eiaiee “E?eoeea /enoiai
?acoia” (1781) Eaio ooaa?aeaeae, /oi i?e/eiiinoue yaeyaony eiae/aneie
i?aaeiinueeie anaai ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iuoeaiey. Ii Eaioo, ?acoi ia
ioaeaeaaony a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee yiie?e/aneeie aeaiiuie. Ai aoi?ii
ecaeaiee “E?eoeee /enoiai ?acoia” (1787) Eaio oae ii?aaeaeee
i?e/eiiinoue: ”Ana eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo ii caeiio nayce i?e/eiu e
aeaenoaey” ([4], o.3, n. 258).

Oioeaiaeneee oeeinio Aeyaeae THi iuoaeny i/enoeoue i?e/eiiinoue io eaeae
au oi ie auei iaoaoece/aneie iiaeiieaee. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ii
iinoaaee iiae niiiaiea naii iiiyoea i?e/eiiinoe. A ?aaioa “Enneaaeiaaiea
i /aeiaa/aneii iiciaiee” (1793) THi ooaa?aeaeae:

Aaeeinoaaiiia iaiin?aaenoaaiiay iieueca anao iaoe ninoieo a oii, /oi iie
iao/atho ian oi?aaeyoue aoaeoueie yaeaieyie e ?aaoee?iaaoue eo n
iiiiuueth i?e/ei. Iaeaaeathuea noiaenoaii iauaeou anaaaea niaaeeiythony
ni noiaeiuie aea – yoi iu ciaai ec iiuoa; niia?acoynue n iineaaeiei iu
iiaeai iiyoiio ii?aaeaeeoue i?e/eio eae iauaeo, ca eioi?ui neaaeoao
ae?oaie iauaeo, i?e /ai ana iauaeou, iioiaeea ia ia?aue,
nii?iaiaeaeathony iauaeoaie iioiaeeie ia aoi?ie. ([5] c. 78).

Ii oaaaeaeaieth THia, nai ii naaa oio oaeo, /oi iu ciaai i neaaeiaaiee
niauoey A ca niauoeai A, aeaaea anee yoi neaaeiaaiea iiiaie?aoii
iiaoi?yeinue, ioithaeue ia aeieacuaaao, /oi e a aoaeouai niauoea A
iaeciaiii aoaeao neaaeiaaoue ca niauoeai A. THi i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi
iaoa aa?a a i?e/eiiinoue ia aieaa, /ai i?eau/ea, e n iieiui iniiaaieai
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi i?eau/ea ia iiaeao neoaeeoue iiaeoiaeyuae iniiaie aeey
aa?u.

Aeaeii Notha?o Ieeeue, iaeaieaa ecaanoiue aiaeeeneee oeeinio XIX a
iiaeaea?aeaa io?eoeaiea i?e/eiiinoe THia, aeiaaaee ianeieueei
nianoaaiiuo eaeae. A ni/eiaiee “Nenoaia eiaeee” (1843) Ieeeue oae
eceiaeee naith eiioeaioeeth i?e/eiiinoe: ”Caeii i?e/eiiinoe, aeaaiue
noiei, ia eioi?ue iie?aaony iaoea, anoue ie/oi eiia, eae ciaeiiay enoeia
ia iaia?oaeeaaaiie iooai iaaethaeaiey iaeciaiiinoe neaaeiaaiey iaaeaeo
eaaeaeui i?e?iaeiui oaeoii e eaeei-oi ae?oaei oaeoii, aio
i?aaeoanoaothuei”.

Ii ianiio?y ia e?eoeeo THia, Ieeey e ae?. e eiioeo XIX a. i?e/eiiinoue a
aeacao anoanoaieniuoaoaeae iiaeiyeanue aei noaoona naiii/aaeaeiie
enoeiu, eioi?ue noieaoeai ?aiueoa Eaio i?aaeae ae, enoiaey ec
iaoaoece/aneeo iniiaaiee. Ioiioaiea e i?e/eiiinoe, neiaeeaoaany a eiioea
XIX a. Aeinoaoi/ii /aoei au?acee Aa?iai Aaeueiaieueoe a naiae
“Oeceieiae/aneie iioeea”:

I?eioeei i?e/eiiinoe iineo oa?aeoa? /enoi eiae/aneiai caeiia aeaaea a
oii, /oi auaiaeeiua ec iaai neaaenoaey ioiinyony a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia
e naiiio iiuoo, a e iiieiaieth iiuoa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iiaoo auoue
ii?iaa?aioou ieeaeei aiciiaeiui iiuoii. ([1], 265)

3. Eaeae aeaoa?ieiecia a iaoea e oeeinioee XVI-XIX aa.

A?yaeouea aiaeu oayony ai iaea,

Ii ae?aaee oaie aeaeo ia naaoeii /aea.

A.N. Iooeei

Iineieueeo i?e/eiu oiai eee eiiai yaeaiey ia anaaaea oaeaaony
onoaiiaeoue, a iaoaieoeeci oae aea ia anaaaea iiaeao iauynieoue
?aciiia?aciua yaeaiey, a XIX aaea ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea i?eia?aei
oeeinioneia o/aiea iiae iacaaieai “aeaoa?ieieci”. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
o/aieai i i?e/eiiinoe e aeaoa?ieieciii ioia/ae aua Aeaea?o: ”Neaaenoaea
ionoaao ai a?aiaie io i?e/eiu ec-ca ia?aie/aiiinoe /oanoaaiiuo
aini?eyoee /aeiaaea”. Nooue aeaoa?ieiecia i?iua anaai iauynieoue n
iiiiuueth aiaeiaee. Anee aeneiiu Aaeeeaeiaie aaiiao?ee caaeaiu, oi
naienoaa oeao? a ?aieao yoie aaiiao?ee iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeaiu eae
iaiaoiaeeiua eiae/aneea neaaenoaey. Aiai?yo, /oi Iuethoii eae-oi
ni?inee, ca/ai ioaeii auienuaaoue oai?aiu Aaeeeaeiaie aaiiao?ee, anee
iie i/aaeaeiui ia?acii neaaeotho ec aeneii. Ana aea aieueoeinoao ethaeae
o?aaoaony iaiaei a?aiaie, /oiau aeieacaoue eaaeaeoth ec oai?ai. Ii
o?iiieiae/aneee ii?yaeie ioe?uoey iiauo aaiiao?e/aneeo naienoa, eioi?ue
naycuaaao aeneiiu e oai?aiu, oaeie aea a?aiaiiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth, eae i?e/eio e neaaenoaea, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
eeethci?ai.

Oae aea ianoieo aeaei e n oece/aneeie yaeaieyie, n/eoae Aeaea?o. Aeey
“aiaeanoaaiiiai ?acoia” ana yaeaiey “nouanoaotho” a iaeiie
iaoaiaoe/aneie no?oeoo?a. Ii iaoe /oanoaa a neeo ia?aie/aiiinoe eo
aiciiaeiinoae ?aniiciatho yaeaiey ia iaeiia?aiaiii, a iaeii ca ae?oaei,
e iiyoiio iu iaeie yaeaiey i?eieiaai ca i?e/eiu ae?oaeo. Ionthaea
iiiyoii, n/eoae Aeaea?o, ii/aio iaoaiaoeea iicaieyao i?aaeneacuaaoue
aoaeouaa. Yoi noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui aeaaiaea?y ?aiaa iieo/aiiui
niioiioaieyi. Eiaiii iaoaiaoe/aneia niioiioaiea aeaao naiia yniia
oece/aneia iauyniaiea ?aaeueiinoe. E?aoei iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ?aaeueiue
ie? – yoi niaieoiiinoue iaoaiaoe/anee i?aaenoaaeiuo aeaeaeaiee iauaeoia
a i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, a Anaeaiiay a oeaeii – ia?iiiay aa?iiie/iay
iaoeia, iino?iaiiay ia iniiaa iaoaiaoe/aneeo caeiiia. E?iia oiai, iiiaea
oeeiniou, aeeth/ay naiiai Aeaea?oa, ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi iaoaiaoe/aneea
caeiiu caaeaiu ?ac e iaanaaaea, iineieueeo oae nioai?ee ie? Nai Aia, a
Aiaeuey Aiey iaeciaiia. iacaaeneii io oiai, oaeaeinue ee /aeiaaeo
i?iieeiooue a nie?iaaiiua “caiuneu Aiaa”, ie? ooieoeeiie?iaae ii caeiio,
e caeiiiia?iinoue i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a i?e?iaea, ia noaaeeanue
ieeai iiae niiiaiea, ii e?aeiae ia?a aei ia/aea XIX a.

Iuethoiiianeay eiioeaioeey Anaeaiiie, ninoiyuae ec oaa?aeuo ia?ac?ooeiuo
/anoeoe, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo aeaenoaoao ia ae?oaea n aiieia
ii?aaeaeaiiie, au/eneyaiie neeie, auea iieiaeaia a iniiao
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai aeaoa?ieiecia o?aioeocneei ano?iiiiii e iaoaiaoeeii
Eaieanii. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo noaaoaa eeanne/aneei iienaiea nouiinoe
aeaoa?ieiecia:

Ninoiyiea Anaeaiiie a aeaiiue iiiaio iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae
?acoeueoao aa i?ioeiai e i?e/eio aa aoaeouaai. ?acoiiia nouanoai,
eioi?ia a ethaie iiiaio ciaei au ana aeaeaeouea neeu i?e?iaeu e acaeiiia
?aniieiaeaiea ia?acothueo aa nouanoa, iiaei au – anee au aai ?acoi aue
aeinoaoi/ii iaoe?ai aeey oiai, /oiau i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ana yoe aeaiiua –
au?aceoue iaeiei o?aaiaieai aeaeaeaiea e naiuo aieueoeo oae ai
Anaeaiiie, e iaeue/aeoeo aoiiia. Ie/oi ia inoaeinue au nie?uoui io iaai
– iii iiaei au ioaaoeoue aaeeiui acaeyaeii eae aoaeouaa, oae e i?ioeia.
([6] c.81)

Aeaoa?ieieci caaiaaae noieue i?i/iua iiceoeee, /oi oeeiniou noaee
iiaeoiaeeoue n aeaoa?ieienoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey e ioeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea eae /anoe i?e?iaeu. Eaeae, aieaaua aeou e aeaenoaey /aeiaaea
?anniao?eaaeenue eae iaecaaaeiia i?iyaeaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoa?ee n
iaoa?eae. Ii iiaieth aeaoa?ieienoia /aeiaa/aneay aiey ii?aaeaeyaony
aiaoieie oece/aneeie e oeceieiae/aneeie i?e/eiaie. Aiaan, iai?eia?,
iauyniye eaaeouothny naiaiaeo aiee neaaeothuei ia?acii. Niauoey ec aia
aicaeaenoaotho ia iaoe i?aaiu /oanoa, a oa a naith i/a?aaeue ia iica.
Aeaeaeaiea aioo?e iicaa ii?iaeaeaao oi, /oi iu iacuaaai aiiaoeoii,
ainoi?aii eee no?aoii, ii ana yoe /oanoaa – ia aieaa /ai iaee/ea
aeaeaeaiey aioo?e iicaa. Eiaaea aiiaoeo e ioa?auaiea noaeeeaathony a
i?ioeaiai?noaa, ianooiaao iniaia oece/aneia ninoiyiea, eiaioaiia
iniio?eoaeueiinoueth. Iaeii aeaeaeaiea iaea?aeeaaao aa?o iaae ae?oaei, a
iu aiai?ei i i?iyaeaiee naiaiaeu aiee. Ii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe auai?
i?aiaeaaeathuaai aeaeaeaiey i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia ee/iinoe. Iu aeaeei
?acoeueoao, ii ia a ninoiyiee iniciaoue ii?aaeaeythuee aai i?ioeann.
Naiaiaeu aiee ia nouanoaoao. Yoi aanniuneaiiue iaai? neia. Aiey aeanoiei
ia?aie/aia aeaenoaeyie iaoa?ee.

Aieueoa? a ni/eiaiee “Iaaaaeanoaaiiue oeeinio” ooaa?aeaeae: “Auei au
i/aiue no?aiii, anee au any i?e?iaea, ana ieaiaou aeieaeiu auee au
iiae/eiyoueny aa/iui caeiiai, a iaeii iaaieueoia nouanoai, ?inoii a
iyoue eieoae, i?ace?ay yoe caeiiu, iiaei au aeaenoaiaaoue, eae aio
caaeaai?annoaeeony”. Neo/ae – ie /oi eiia, eae neiai, i?eaeoiaiiia aeey
iaicia/aiey ecaanoiiai aeaenoaey iaecaanoiie i?e/eiu.

Yoio auaiae aue ianoieueei eaoaai?e/ai, /oi aeaaea iaoa?eaeenou
iiiuoaeenue oia?eoue aai ino?ioo. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiu oieueei aeaenoaey /aeiaaea, ii ia aai iunee. Ae?oaea
iuoaeenue iaeoe iiaoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth naiaiaeu, iuoaynue nio?aieoue
oioy au eaeia-oi iiaeiaea aa. Aieueoa? na?eanoe/anee caiaoee a yoie
nayce: “Auoue naiaiaeiui icia/aao eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue aeaeaoue /oi
oaiaeii, a ia oioaoue /oi oaiaeii”.

N iao/iie oi/ee c?aiey ooaa?aeaeaiea “niauoea A ii?aaeaeyao niauoea A”
icia/aao, /oi anee caaeaii niauoea A, oi iiaeii au/eneeoue niauoea A.
Oaeei ia?acii i?eiaiaiea aeaoa?ieiecia a oi/iuo iaoeao iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii: anee ninoiyiea iaeioi?iai
iiiaeanoaa iauaeoia a i?iecaieueiue iiiaio a?aiaie caaeaii, oi ninoiyiea
iauaeoia oiai aea iiiaeanoaa a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie a aoaeouai iiaeao
auoue ii?aaeaeaii iooai au/eneaiee.

Anoanoaaiii iao/iay eiioeaioeey aeaoa?ieiecia iaeaieaa /aoei au?aaeaia
ooieoeeiiaeueiuie niioiioaieyie iaaeaeo ia?aiaiiuie, ii ec
ooieoeeiiaeueiiai niioiioaiey ia neaaeoao nouanoaiaaiey i?e/eiii
neaaenoaaiiie nayce.

Iiiaia ec oiai, /ai caieiathony oi/iua iaoee naiaeeony e onoaiiaeaieth
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo niioiioaiee iaaeaeo ia?aiaiiuie. Anee oaeiai ?iaea
niioiioaiea ieacuaaaony aa?iui a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao e au?aaeaao ia/oi
aaaeiia ioiineoaeueii oece/aneiai ie?a, oi iii ia?aoaao noaoon caeiia
i?e?iaeu.

Iaeiaei aua Aeae. Iaenaaee oeacuaae ia nouanoaiaaiea neooaoeee (eioi?ua
ii iacuaae iniauie oi/eaie), a eioi?uo iiaaaeaiea iaoaie/aneie nenoaiu
noaiiaeony ianoaaeeueiui, eae, iai?eia?, eaiaiue ia aa?oeia ai?u iiaeao
aae?oa ni?aaoueny, aucuaay eaaeio. Iaenaaee i?aaeinoa?aaae naieo o/aiuo
eieeaa io iaaeiioeaiee ?iee oaeeo neooaoeee e n/eoae, /oi anee eco/aiea
iniauo oi/ae niaieo iai?a?uaiinoue e noaaeeueiinoue aauae, oi oniaoe
anoanoaiciaiey, aiciiaeii, iicaieyo ono?aieoue i?aae?aniieiaeaiea e
aeaoa?ieiecio.

Eeaea? oece/aneie iaoee naiaai a?aiaie, Iaenaaee noae i?i?ieii aeey
neaaeothuaai iieieaiey o/aiuo. Iaeioi?ua ec aai ?aaio ii eeiaoe/aneie
oai?ee aacia niinianoaiaaee caeaoo aeaoa?ieiecia. O?aueiu e i?iaaeu,
eioi?ua Iaenaaee oaeaeae a aeaoa?ieienoe/aneie noaia anei?a
?anoe?eeenue. Ia niaio aeaoa?ieiecia i?eoee noaoenoe/aneea caeiiu.

I?eiaiaiea caeiiia noaoenoeee a oeceea ia/aeinue ni noaoenoe/aneie
iaoaieee, aaea aua iiaeii auei i?aaeiieaaaoue , /oi, aeaoaeueii iienaa
ieeeeiiu noieeiiaaiee iieaeoe, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo iiae/eiyaony caeiiai
eeanne/aneie iaoaieee, (aeiaaaeaiiie e eiioeo XIX a Aaieeueoiiii aei
o?iaiy caaa?oaiiie iaoee) e, oaeei ia?acii, iiaaaeaiea eioi?ie
iieiinoueth aeaoa?ieie?iaaii, iu iiaee au i?aaeneacaoue iiaaaeaiea aaca
a oeaeii. Ii /enei noieeiiaaiee noieue aaeeei, /oi ?anniao?eaaoue
iiaeiaiua eieeaeoeaiua yooaeou iiaeii oieueei noaoenoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie.
Ia?aui noae eniieueciaaoue noaoenoe/aneea caeiiu eeiaoe/aneie oai?ee
aacia Ethaeaea Aieueoeiai, /ae iiaeoiae aue ?aaeeeaeai a yiioo
ainiiaenoaa iaoaieoeecia e aeaoa?ieiecia e aucaae iaeanoi/aiiua nii?u.
Iaeiaei, nie?ooeoaeueiue oaea? ii aeaoa?ieienoe/aneiio ie?iaicc?aieth
aue iaianai ianeieueei iicaea.

4. ?acaeoea eaaioiaie iaoaieee e aeaoi?iaoeey eaeae aeaoa?ieiecia iaoea
e oeeinioee XX a.

… Aaaeue aeaaea Yeiooaei – oece/aneee aaiee

Aanueia ioiineoaeueii ana iiieiae…

A. Aunioeeee.

Na?aaeeia aeaaaeoeaouo aiaeia iaoaai noieaoey – ia?eiae, noaaoee
“cieioui aaeii” oeceee. Ia/eiay n 1926 aiaea Y?aei O?aaeeiaa?
iioaeeeiaae na?eth ?aaio iiae iauei iacaaieai “Eaaioiaaiea eae caaea/a i
nianoaaiiuo cia/aieyo”, eioi?ua noaee eeanneeie iaoee e iinoaaeee ia
nieeaeioth iniiao eacaaoothny aei oao ii? oaeinoaaiiie aieiiaoth
iaoaieeo. Yoe ?aaiou, a oaeaea nicaeaiiay e oiio aea a?aiaie iao?e/iay
iaoaieea Aaecaiaa?aa iieiaeeee eiiaoe ia?eiaea aia?oee a ?acaeoee
eaaioiaie oai?ee, eioi?ia ia/aeinue ni niaeie aeiioacu Ieaiea i eaaioao.

A eaaioiaie oeceea oiai a?aiaie nouanoaiaaei iiiaeanoai i?ioeai?a/ee.
Iai?eia?, a aoiiiie iiaeaee Ai?a aeey ?an/aoa yeaeo?iiiuo i?aeo
eniieueciaaeenue caeiiu eeanne/aneie iaoaieee e yeaeo?iaeeiaieee, a aeey
iauyniaiey onoie/eainoe yeaeo?iiiuo i?aeo i?eaeaeaeenue oneiaey
eaaioiaaiey. A ?aieao iaeiie e oie aea iiaeaee i?eiaiyeenue iieiaeaiey,
eioi?ua eiiaaea i?yii i?ioeai?a/eee ae?oa ae?oao.

Iaeiaei, iiaeoiae ?acaeoue a 1926 aiaeo O?aaeeiaa?ii ecia/aeueii aue
iiiuoeie ia?aoiaea io ei?ioneoey?iiai iienaiey yeaeo?iia e /enoi
aieiiaiio, e ii?iaeaeae naie o?oaeiinoe. Neiaeiinoe aicieeaee eae n
eioa?i?aoaoeeae aieiiaie ooieoeee ( a /anoiinoe, i?e ia?aoiaea e caaea/a
n ianeieueeeie yeaeo?iiaie aieiiaoth ooieoeeth iaeuecy auei
ioiaeaeanoaeyoue n eeanne/aneei ?ani?aaeaeaieai ca?yaea), oae e i?aaeaea
anaai n iiiuoeie iino?ieoue oece/aneoth oai?eth eneeth/eoaeueii ia aaca
aieiiaiai i?aaenoaaeaiey, ioeacaaoenue io eaeae ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaiai
aeoaeecia. Auoiae ec cao?oaeiaiey iiaeneacuaaee enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeannia
aoiiiuo noieeiiaaiee, i?iaaaeaiiua Iaenii Ai?iii a eiioea eaoa 1926
aiaea. Aiaeec ?annayiey yeaeo?iiia e aeueoa-/anoeoe ia yae?ao aeiaieueii
iaiaeeaeaiii aeae eeth/ e iiieiaieth niunea aieiiaie ooieoeee
O?aaeeiaa?a: eaaae?ao aa aiieeooaeu niioaaonoaiaae aa?iyoiinoe
iaia?oaeaiey /anoeoeu a aeaiiie oi/ea i?ino?ainoaa. A oi a?aiy eae aeey
O?aaeeiaa?a aieiiaay ooieoeey auea iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaaethaeaaiie
aaee/eiie, Ai?i ioaiaeee ae ?ieue “iai?aaeythuaai iiey” aeey yeaeo?iiia.
Oaeay eioa?i?aoaoeey (iieo/eaoay iacaaiea eiiaiaaaaineie) iinoaaeea
aieiiaoth iaoaieeo ia i?i/ioth oece/aneoth iniiao e auaeea ii/ao ec-iiae
iiiaeo niaeoeyoeee, a oii /enea ec-iiae iaeaiuo ?aaeenoe/aneeo
?annoaeaeaiee O?aaeeiaea?aa.

Aeieaia a?aiy iaeie auaeathueany oeceee (Ai?, Ai?i, Iaoee)
i?eaea?aeeaaeenue eiioeaioeee, /oi ana yaeaiey i?e?iaeu iiaeeaaeao eeoue
aa?iyoiinoiie eioa?i?aoaoeee, a oi a?aiy eae aeey iiiaeo ia iaiaa
auaeathueony oeceeia iaoaai noieaoey, a oii /enea iiiaeo nicaeaoaeae
eaaioiaie iaoaieee (O?aaeeiaa?, Yeiooaei, Eoe aea A?ieeue, Iaen Ieaie)
iiaeiaiia noaoenoe/aneia enoieeiaaiea eaaioiaie oai?ee ieacaeinue e?aeia
iai?eaieaiui. Iie i?eaea?aeeaaeenue eiioeaioeee i?e/eiiinoe e
aeaoa?ieiecia ainoiaeyueo naieie ei?iyie e eeanne/aneie iaoaieea. Nooue
nii?a naiaeeeanue e neaaeothuaio: yaeyaony ee noaoenoe/aneee oa?aeoa?
caeiiia eaaioiaie oeceee ?acoeueoaoii iaiieiiai ciaiey, e ia onooiyo ee
yoe caeiiu naia ianoi iiaui, ia iaiaa aeaoa?ieienoneei, eae caeiiu
Iuethoiia, eee aa?iyoiinoue eaaeeo a iniiaa caeiiia naiie i?e?iaeu. Oae
ai a?aiy i?aauaaiey a Eiiaiaaaaia O?aaeeiaa? cayaee Ai?o:

Anee iu niae?aainy nio?aieoue yoe i?ieeyoua eaaioiaua nea/ee, oi
i?eoiaeeoueny iiaeaeaoue, /oi y aiiaua caiyeny eaaioiaie oai?eae ([7]
c.48).

Aeey iaai auei no?aoii i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi yeaeo?ii “iia i?uaaoue, eae
aeioa” ([7], no?. 51). Oe?iei ecaanoii au?aaeaiea Yeiooaeia, /oi “Aia ia
ea?aao a einoe”. Yoa aea iuneue i?ineaaeeaaaony a ienueia Aeae. O?aieo:

ss iiao aua, anee ia oi iioei, iiiyoue, /oi Ainiiaeue Aia iia nioai?eoue
ie?, a eioi?ii iao caeiiia i?e?iaeu. Ei?i/a aiai?y, oain. Ii oi, /oi
aeieaeiu auoue noaoenoe/aneea caeiiu n aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiuie ?aoaieyie,
iai?eia? caeiiu, auioaeaeathuea Ainiiaea Aiaa a?inaoue einoe a eaaeaeii
ioaeaeueiii neo/aa, y n/eoath a aunoae noaiaie iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui
([1] c.271).

A noaouea ”Iiaeii ee n/eoaoue eaaioiaiiaoaie/aneia iienaiea oece/aneie
?aaeueiinoe iieiui?” Yeiooaei ooaa?aeaeae, /oi aieiiaay iaoaieea ia
iieia, e ni a?aiaiai aeieaeia iiyaeoueny noaoenoe/aneay eaaioiaay
oai?ey, eioi?ay yaeoueny aiaeiaii noaoenoe/aneie iaoaieee: aeaeaeaiea
ioaeaeueiuo /anoeoe aeieaeiu auoue aeaoa?ieie?iaaiu, ii a neaaenoaee
aieueoiai /enea /anoeoe eo ainaiaee aeieaeiu iienuaaoueny ia iniiaa
noaoenoeee e oai?ee aa?iyoiinoe ([10], o.3, n. 604-611). Oi aea iiaiea
au?acee Iieue Aee?ae (1978), n/eoaaoee. /oi aiciiaeii a aoaeouai
iiyaeony oniaa?oainoaiaaiiay eaaioiaay iaoaieea, a eioi?ie i?iecieaeao
aica?ao e aeaoa?ieiecio e oai naiui iiaeoaa?aeeoueny oi/ea c?aiey
Yeiooaeia. Ii aica?ao e aeaoa?ieiecio, ii iiaieth Aee?aea, aiciiaeai
oieueei oeaiie ioeaca io eaeeo-oi iniiaiuo eaeae, eioi?ua iu nae/an
i?eieiaai aac iaeaeoaai niiiaiey. Anee iu aa?iainy e aeaoa?ieiecio, oi
iai i?eaeaony eaeei-oi ia?acii caieaoeoue ca yoi, oioy nae/an o?oaeii
i?aaeoaaaeaoue, /ai eiaiii.

Ie Aee?ae, ie Yeiooaei ia i?aaeeiaeeee aeueoa?iaoeaiie iiaeaee aoiiiie
oai?ee. E e ianoiyuaio iiiaioo eaaioiaay oai?ey aeinoeaea oaeiai o?iaiy
a naiai ?acaeoee, /oi ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu a?yae ee caaeneo oieueei io
iieo/aiey iiauo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo. Oioy, aeey iienaiey yaeaiee,
a eioi?uo o/anoaotho aeaeeiua eee inycaaiua iauaeou, oeceee ii i?aaeiaio
eniieuecotho aeaoa?ieienoe/aneea caeiiu eeanne/aneie iaoaieee, eo
ioiioaiea e aeaoa?ieiecio i?e iienaiee yaeaiee oaeiai ?iaea nouanoaaiii
eciaieeinue, aeaaiaea?y ?acaeoeth eaeae eaaioiaie iaoaieee. Ana
i?ienoiaeeo oae, eae i?ienoiaeeo, iineieueeo aa?iyoiinoue yoiai aanueia
auniea, a aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi iiaeao auoue eia/a, aanueia
iacia/eoaeueia.

Ai?i/ai, o/aiui ee ?annoaeaeaoue i i?e?iaea aa?iyoiinoe a iienaiee
eaaioiauo yaeaiee? Aea e eoi niaeaneony auoue aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiui, eiaaea
aeaaea iioeue yeaeo?ii i?eoaiaeoao ia oi, /oi aai iiaaaeaiea oaeiaui ia
yaeyaony (aniiiiei “Auoue iiaeao yoe yeaeo?iiu ie?u, aaea iyoue
iaoa?eeia…”)? Aa?iyoiinoue iia i?enoua e aeaaea auaaao ?acee/iie ii
naiae nooe. A i?ioeanna yaiethoeee, a i?ioeannao aaiaoe/aneie
ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e ?acaeoey iiaeii auaeaeeoue aa?iyoiinoiua niauoey n
onoie/eaui ?ani?aaeaeaieai /anoio, e i?ioeannu ia iiaeaeathueany
aeaoa?ieiecaoeee, e a oaeeo neo/ayo “i?aaenoieo auynieoue, eaeia
iiieiaiea neo/aeiinoe a eaeii ?acaeaea yaiethoeee yaeyaony aeaaiui”
([16] c. 80)

A naiae noaouea “I aeaoa?ieiecia” ss. Eoeanaae/, ?ane?eoeeiaaa caeii
aeaaeoeoeee e i?eioeei i?e/eiiinoe, eae ooiaeaiaio aeaoa?ieienoneiai
ie?iaicc?aiey, i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi “a?aoiaiou, ecaa/ii i?eaiaeeiua a
iieueco aeaoa?ieiecia, ia aunoiyee iiae iaiai e?eoeee”. Aeaeaa ii ieoao:
“Ianiiiaiii ec yoiai ia neaaeoao ii iaiueoae ia?a, /oi aeaoa?ieieci
yaeyaony ioeai/iie oi/eie c?aiey, ioeai/iinoue a?aoiaioia ia neoaeeo
aeieacaoaeuenoaii ioeai/iinoe oacena. Oieueei iaeii y oioae au neacaoue,
iniiauaaynue ia i?eaaaeaiiie e?eoeea, /oi aeaoa?ieieci ia yaeyaony eo/oa
iainiiaaiiie oi/eie c?aiey iaaeaee eiaeaoa?ieieci.” ([11], n.72).

Aiaeece?oy aai noaoueth ae?oaie oeeinio i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo: “*aeiaae
aeaenoaeoaeueii naiaiaeai, anee ii eiaao aeanoue iaae i?ioeui” ([12],
n.77). E, oaeei ia?acii, anoaao aii?in: “*oi anoue i?ioeia?” e iiaeii ee
ia iaai iiaeeyoue? A iineaaeiai aii?ina, n/eoaao aaoi?,
iaiaaeaaeeaathuea ?acoeueoaou iieo/ae n 1953 a. o?aioeocneee oecee Einoa
aea Aa?aa, i?iaiaeyuee eaeath i aioo?aiiae neiiao?ee iaaeaeo i?ioeui e
aoaeouei, e aiciiaeiinoueth aicaeaenoaey eaaioiaiai yaeaiey ia oieueei
ia i?ioeia, ii e ia aoaeouaa. (ni. [13-14]).

Ai?i/ai e aac i?eaea/aiey eaaioiaiiaoaie/aneeo yaeaiee ?annoaeaeay “I
“iaoaiecia“ oa/aiey a?aiaie” iiaeii i?eeoe e auaiaeo, /oi “aoaeouaa –
yoi aiciiaeiinoue, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie oaiaeaioeee aeaeueiaeoaai
?acaeoey eiie?aoiiai iaoa?eaeueiiai iauaeoa”. A yoie nayce “iaeuecy ia
niaeaneoueny n oai, /oi iu aiai?ei i aoaeouai, eiay aaeaeo ia aiiaua
/oi-eeai ianouanoaothuaa, a oi, /oi iu iaaeaainy aeaeaoue eiaaea-eeai
ianoiyuei” ([15] n. 54).

Oaeei ia?acii i?ineaaeaiiay iiiaiaaeiaay enoi?ey ?acaeoey eaeae
aeaoa?ieiecia a oeeinioee ieacuaaaony oanii nii?yaeaiiie n ?acaeoeai
aiaeiae/iuo eaeae a iaoea. A?yae ee nia?aiaiiia iieiaeaiea a aii?ina i
i?e?iaea aa?iyoiinoe a iienaiee ?aaeueiuo i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia, a oii
/enea a aeecie /aeiaaea, iiaeii n/eoaoue cae?uoui, ii iaeuecy ia
ioiaoeoue, /oi e iaoaieoeeci, e o/aiea i i?e/eiiinoe, e aeaoa?ieieci
eniuoaee ia naaa aeoaieia aicaeaenoaea iineaaeieo iao/iuo ioe?uoee.

EEOA?AOO?A.

I. Eeaei. Iaoaiaoeea. Iiene enoeiu. – I.: Ie?, 1988.

Iuethoii E. Iioeea, eee o?aeoao ia io?aaeaieyo, i?aeiieaieyo, ecaeaaieyo
e oeaaoao naaoa. I.: Ainoaooai?aoecaeao, 1954.

Aa?eee Aeae. Ni/eiaiey. – I.: Iuneue, 1978.

Eaio E. Ni/eiaiey a 6-oe oiiao. – I.: Iuneue, 1966, o.3.

THi Ae. Ni/eiaiey a 2-o oiiao. O.2. – I.: Iuneue, 1965.

Eeaei I. Iaoaiaoeea. Oo?aoa ii?aaeaeaiiinoe. – I.: Ie?, 1984.

Ae. Oiooiai. Y?aei O?aaeeiaa?. – I.: Ie?, 1987.

Ae. Eaeca?. Nicaeaaay ea?oeio Anaeaiiie. – I.: Ie?, 1988.

Ae. Oiooiai. Ei?ie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe. – I.: Ie?, 1988.

Yeiooaei. A. Nia?aiea iao/iuo o?oaeia. I.: Iaoea. 1966, o.3.

ss. Eoeanaae/. I aeaoa?ieiecia // Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1995, ? 5,
n. 60-72.

A.N. Ea?iaiei. Eiaeea, aeaoa?ieieci e oaiiiai i?ioeiai // Aii?inu
oeeinioee, 1995, ? 5, n. 72-79.

Costa de Beauregard. Time, the physical magnitude. Dordrecht, 1987.

Costa de Beauregard. Time symmetry and the Einstein paradox. // II
Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica, 1977, Vol. 42B, P.
41-64.

O.I. Eieaaa. I “iaoaiecia” oa/aiey a?aiaie // Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1996,
? 1, n. 51-56.

TH.A. *aee?aneee. Noaiaie neo/aeiinoe e yaiethoeey // Aii?inu
oeeinioee, 1996, ? 9, n. 69-80

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