.

Марк Тулий Цицерон. Государство и право

Язык:
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 845
Скачать документ

O/aiea Oeeoea?iia i ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa

Ia?e Ooeeee Oeeoea?ii (106—43 aa. aei i. y.)— ciaiaieoue ?eineee i?aoi?,
th?eno, ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue e iuneeoaeue. A aai iaoe?iii
oai?/anoaa cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii i?iaeaiai ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa. Niaoeeaeueii yoe aii?inu inaauaiu a aai ?aaioao «I ainoaea?noaa»
e «I caeiiao». Oeaeue ?yae iieeoeei-i?aaiauo i?iaeai ?anniao?eaaaony e a
ae?oaeo aai i?iecaaaeaieyo (iai?eia?, a ?aaioa «Ia iaycaiiinoyo»), a
oaeaea a aai iiiai/eneaiiuo iieeoe/aneeo e noaeaaiuo ?a/ao.

Oai?aoe/aneea aicc?aiey Oeeoea?iia a iaeanoe ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa
iaoiaeyony iiae caiaoiui aeeyieai ae?aaiaa?a/aneie iunee, e i?aaeaea
anaai o/aiee Ieaoiia, A?enoioaey, Iieeaey e noieeia. Aianoa n oai yoi
«eiicaiiia» aeeyiea Oeeoea?ii eae iao?eio ?eia e i?aeoe/aneee iieeoee
no?aieeny niaaeeieoue e niaeaniaaoue n nianoaaiii ?eineeie o?aaeeoeeyie
a iaeanoe ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie i?aeoeee e iieeoeei-i?aaiaie iunee, n
naiiauoiie enoi?eae ?eineiai ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa, n ?aaeueiie
ianoaiiaeie e aeooaeueiuie caaea/aie nia?aiaiiie aio nioeeaeueiie e
iieeoe/aneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. A oeaeii oai?/aneia eniieueciaaiea
eaeae i?aaeoanoaaiieeia a iieeoeei-i?aaiaii o/aiee Oeeoea?iia ni/aoaaony
n ?acaeoeai ei ?yaea i?eaeiaeueiuo e iiauo iieiaeaiee a iaeanoe oai?ee
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.

Ainoaea?noai (respublica) Oeeoea?ii ii?aaeaeyao eae aeaei, aeinoiyiea
ia?iaea (res populi). I?e yoii ii iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi «ia?iae ia ethaia
niaaeeiaiea ethaeae, nia?aiiuo aianoa eaeei au oi ie auei ia?acii, a
niaaeeiaiea iiiaeo ethaeae, naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaith niaeaneai a
aii?inao i?aaa e iauiinoueth eioa?ania». Oai naiui ainoaea?noai a
o?aeoiaea Oeeoea?iia i?aaenoaao ia oieueei eae au?aaeaiea iauaai
eioa?ana anao aai naiaiaeiuo /eaiia, /oi auei oa?aeoa?ii e aeey
ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo eiioeaioeee, ii iaeiia?aiaiii oaeaea e eae
niaeaniaaiiia i?aaiaia iauaiea yoeo /eaiia, eae ii?aaeaeaiiia i?aaiaia
ia?aciaaiea, «iauee i?aaiii?yaeie». Oaeei ia?acii, Oeeoea?ii noieo o
enoieia oie th?eaeecaoeee iiiyoey ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ay a iineaaeothuai
eiaea iiiai i?eaa?aeaioeaa, aieioue aei nia?aiaiiuo noi?iiieeia eaeae
«i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa». Iniiaioth i?e/eio i?ienoiaeaeaiey ainoaea?noaa
Oeeoea?ii aeaeae ia noieueei a neaainoe ethaeae e eo no?aoa (oi/ea
c?aiey Iieeaey), neieueei a eo a?iaeaeaiiie iio?aaiinoe aeeoue aianoa.

?acaeaeyy a yoii aii?ina iiceoeeth A?enoioaey, Oeeoea?ii ioaa?aae oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiua a aai a?aiy i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeiaiai?iii oa?aeoa?a
aicieeiiaaiey ainoaea?noaa.

Aeeyiea A?enoioaey caiaoii e a o?aeoiaea – Oeeoea?iiii ?iee naiuee eae
ia?aiia/aeueiie y/aeee iauanoaa, ec eioi?ie iinoaiaiii e anoanoaaiiui
iooai aicieeaao ainoaea?noai. Ii ioia/ae ecia/aeueioth naycue
ainoaea?noaa e nianoaaiiinoe e ?acaeaeye iieiaeaiea noieea Iaiaoey i
oii, /oi i?e/eiie ia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony io?aia
nianoaaiiinoe. Ia?ooaiea iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe /anoiie e ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe Oeeoea?ii oa?aeoa?ecoao eae ineaa?iaiea e ia?ooaiea
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e i?aaa.

Aicieeiiaaiea ainoaea?noaa (oaeaea e i?aaa) ia ii iiaieth e i?iecaieo
ethaeae, a niaeanii anaiauei o?aaiaaieyi i?e?iaeu, a oii /enea e
niaeanii aaeaieyi /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu, a o?aeoiaea Oeeoea?iia
icia/aao, /oi ii naiae i?e?iaea e nouiinoe iie (ainoaea?noai e i?aai)
iinyo aiaeanoaaiiue oa?aeoa? e iniiaaiu ia anaiauai ?acoia e
ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Eco/aiea anae i?e?iaeu, ioia/ae Oeeoea?ii, i?eaiaeeo e
iiieiaieth oiai, /oi «anai yoei ie?ii i?aaeo ?acoi». Aeaiiia iieiaeaiea,
noi?ioee?iaaiiia aua ae?aaiaa?a/aneei oeeinioii Aiaenaai?ii,
eniieuecoaony Oeeoea?iiii aeey iainiiaaiey naiaai iiieiaiey «i?e?iaeu»
eae iaoneiaeaiiiai e i?iiecaiiiai aiaeanoaaiiie aieae anaiauaai
enoi/ieea ?acoiiuo e ni?aaaaeeeauo onoaiiaeaiee e aeaenoaee ethaeae.
Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi ethaee naiie i?e?iaeie iaaeaeaiu «naiaiaie»
?acoia e ni?aaaaeeeainoe e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ei aeinooiii iinoeaeaiea
aiaeanoaaiiuo ia/ae, noaei aiciiaeiui naii aicieeiiaaiea oii?yaei/aiiiai
/aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey, aeia?iaeaoaeae, ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.

?acoi — aunoay e eo/oay /anoue aeooe, «oea?neee eiia?ee», iaocaeuaathuee
ana ieciaiiua /oanoaa e no?anoe a /aeiaaea (ae/iinoue, aeaaeaeo aeanoe
e neaau e o. ae.), «iyoaae aeooe». Iiyoiio, ienae Oeeoea?ii, «i?e
ainiiaenoaa ioae?inoe iao ianoa ie aeey no?anoae, ie aeey aiaaa, ie aeey
iaiaaeoiaiiuo iinooieia».

A ?onea o?aaeeoeee ae?aaiaa?a/aneie iunee Oeeoea?ii oaeaeye aieueoia
aieiaiea aiaeeco ?acee/iuo oi?i ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa,
aicieeiiaaieth iaeieo oi?i ec ae?oaeo, «e?oaiai?ioo» yoeo oi?i, iieneai
«iaeeo/oae» oi?iu e o. ae.

E?eoa?ee ?acee/aiey oi?i ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa Oeeoea?ii
oniao?eaae a «oa?aeoa?a e aiea» oao, eoi i?aaeo

ainoaea?noaii. A caaeneiinoe io /enea i?aayueo ii ?acee/ae o?e i?inoua
oi?iu i?aaeaiey: oea?neoth aeanoue, aeanoue iioeiaoia (a?enoie?aoeth) e
ia?iaeioth aeanoue (aeaiie?aoeth). «E aio, eiaaea aa?oiaiay aeanoue
iaoiaeeony a ?oeao o iaeiiai /aeiaaea, iu iacuaaai yoiai iaeiiai oea?ai,
a oaeia ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai — oea?neie aeanoueth. Eiaaea iia
iaoiaeeony a ?oeao o auai?iuo, oi aiai?yo, /oi yoa a?aaeaeaineay iaueia
oi?aaeyaony aieae iioeiaoia. Ia?iaeiie aea (aaaeue aa oae e iacuaatho)
yaeyaony oaeay iaueia, a eioi?ie ana iaoiaeeony a ?oeao ia?iaea».

Ana yoe i?inoua oi?iu (eee aeaeu) ainoaea?noaa ia niaa?oaiiu e ia
iaeeo/oea, ii iie, ii Oeeoea?iio, ana aea oa?ieiu e iiaoo auoue aiieia
i?i/iu, anee oieueei nio?aiythony oa iniiau e nayce (a oii /enea — e
i?aaiaua), eioi?ua aia?aua iae?aiei iauaaeeieee ethaeae a neeo eo iauaai
o/anoey a nicaeaiee ainoaea?noaa. Eaaeaeay ec yoeo oi?i eiaao naie
aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee. A neo/aa, anee au i?aaenoiye auai? n?aaee
ieo, i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony oea?neie aeanoe, a ia iineaaeiaa ianoi
noaaeony aeaiie?aoey. «Aeaaiaieaieai naiei,— ieoao Oeeoea?ii, — ian
i?eaeaeatho e naaa oea?e, ioae?inoueth — iioeiaou, naiaiaeie — ia?iaeu».
Ia?a/eneaiiua aeinoieinoaa ?aciuo oi?i i?aaeaiey, ii iunee Oeeoea?iia,
iiaoo e aeieaeiu auoue a eo niaieoiiinoe, acaeiinayce e aaeeinoaa
i?aaenoaaeaiu a niaoaiiie (a iioiio e iaeeo/oae) oi?ia ainoaea?noaa. A
i?inouo aea oi?iao ainoaea?noaa yoe aeinoieinoaa i?aaenoaaeaiu
iaeiinoi?iiia, /oi e iaoneiaeeaaao iaaeinoaoee i?inouo oi?i, aaaeouea e
ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie neiyie ianaeaiey ca aeanoue, e niaia oi?i
aeanoe, e eo au?iaeaeaieth a «iai?aaeeueiua» oi?iu.

Oae, i?e oea?neie aeanoe, iiyniye Oeeoea?ii, ana i?i/ea ethaee
iono?aiaiu io o/anoey a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee e caeiiia; ia?iae ia
iieuecoaony naiaiaeie e iono?aiai io aeanoe e i?e ainiiaenoaa iioeiaoia.
I?e aeaiie?aoee aea, «eiaaea ana aa?oeony ii aiea ia?iaea, oi, eae au
ni?aaaaeeea e oia?ai ii ie aue, ana-oaee naii ?aaainoai yoi ia
ni?aaaaeeeai, ?ac i?e iai iao nooiaiae a iauanoaaiiii iieiaeaiee».

Iniiaiie ii?ie i?inouo oi?i ainoaea?noaa ninoieo, niaeanii Oeeoea?iio, a
oii, /oi ana iie iaecaaaeii, a neeo i?enouae ei iaeiinoi?iiiinoe e
iaonoie/eainoe, iaoiaeyony ia «ia?uaenoii e neieueceii iooe», aaaeouai e
ian/anoueth. Oea?neay aeanoue, /?aaaoay i?iecaieii aaeeiiaeanoiiai
i?aaeoaey, eaaei au?iaeaeaaony oe?aieth, a aeanoue iioeiaoia ec aeanoe
iaeeo/oeo (ii ioae?inoe e aeiaeanoe) i?aa?auaaony a ainiiaenoai eeeee
aiaaouo e ciaoiuo. Oioy oaeay aeanoue e i?iaeieaeaao ioeai/ii
eiaiiaaoueny i?aaeaieai iioeiaoia, ii ia aeaea, caia/aao Oeeoea?ii, «iao
aieaa o?iaeeeaie oi?iu i?aaeaiey, /ai oa, i?e eioi?ie aiaaoaeoea ethaee
n/eoathony iaeeo/oeie». Niioaaonoaaiii e iieiiaeanoea ia?iaea, ii
ioeaiea Oeeoea?iia, i?eaiaeeo e iaaoaiui iineaaenoaeyi, e «aacoieth e
i?iecaieo oieiu», e aa oe?aie/aneie aeanoe.

Yoe o?iaeeeaua aeaeu aeanoaiaaiey (oe?aiey aaeeiiee/iiai aeaaeuee eee
oieiu, ainiiaenoai eeeee) oaea ia yaeythony, niaeanii Oeeoea?iio,
oi?iaie ainoaea?noaa, iineieueeo a oaeeo neo/ayo aiana ionoonoaoao naii
ainoaea?noai, iiieiaaiia eae iauaa aeaei e aeinoiyiea ia?iaea,
ionoonoaotho iauea eioa?anu e iauaiaycaoaeueiia aeey anao i?aai.

I?aaeioa?aoeoue iiaeiaiia au?iaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, ii iiaieth
Oeeoea?iia, iiaeii eeoue a oneiaeyo iaeeo/oaai (o. a. niaoaiiiai) aeaea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, ia?acoaiiai iooai ?aaiiia?iiai niaoaiey
iieiaeeoaeueiuo naienoa o?ao i?inouo oi?i i?aaeaiey. «Eai, —
iiae/a?eeaae ii, — aeaeaoaeueii, /oiau a ainoaea?noaa auei ia/oi
auaeathuaany e oea?noaaiiia, /oiau iaeia /anoue aeanoe auea oaeaeaia e
a?o/aia aaoi?eoaoo ia?aainoaothueo ethaeae, a iaeioi?ua aeaea auee
i?aaeinoaaeaiu noaeaeaieth e aiea ia?iaea». A ea/anoaa aaaeiaeoeo
aeinoieinoa oaeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy Oeeoea?ii ioia/ae i?i/iinoue
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaiaia ?aaainoai aai a?aaeaeai.

Eae iooue e niaoaiiie oi?ia i?aaeaiey Oeeoea?ii (aneaae ca Iieeaeai)
o?aeoiaae yaiethoeeth ?eineie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe io ia?aiia/aeueiie
oea?neie aeanoe e naiaoneie ?anioaeeea. I?e yoii aiaeiaeth oea?neie
aeanoe ii aeaeae a iieiiii/eyo iaaeno?aoia (e, i?aaeaea anaai,
eiinoeia), aeanoe iioeiaoia — a iieiiii/eyo naiaoa, ia?iaeiie aeanoe — a
iieiiii/eyo ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee e ia?iaeiuo o?eaoiia. A yoie nayce
Oeeoea?ii ainoeuaeny aeaeueiiaeaeiinoueth e ioae?inoueth «i?aaeeia»,
nicaeaaoeo oaeoth ?acoiioth oi?io ainoaea?noaa, e i?ecuaae oaa?aei
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny eo iieeoe/aneeo caaaoia. Iiae/a?eeaay iianiinoue e?aia
a noi?iio oiai eee eiiai ia/aea niaoaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe e aunooiay
ca eo acaeiiia ?aaiiaanea, ii iiae/a?eeaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue «?aaiiia?iiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey i?aa, iaycaiiinoae e iieiiii/ee — n oai, /oiau
aeinoaoi/ii aeanoe auei o iaaeno?aoia, aeinoaoi/ii aeeyiey o niaaoa
ia?aainoaothueo ethaeae e aeinoaoi/ii naiaiaeu o ia?iaea».

Aeinoieinoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa ?eia — yoi ii ioeaiea
Oeeoea?iia, ieiae iiiaiaaeiaiai iiuoa anaai ?eineiai ia?iaea, a ia
nicaeaiea ioaeaeueiiai iaea?aiiiai eeoea, io eioi?iai iaycaoaeueii
/oi-oi oneieuecaao. A ioee/ea io ?eia a ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaao oi?iu
i?aaeaiey nicaeaaaee ia iniiaa naieo caeiiia e onoaiiaeaiee ioaeaeueiua
eeoea (iai?eia?, Ieiin — ia E?eoa; Eeeo?a — a Nia?oa; Oanae, Ae?aeiio,
Nieii, Eeenoai, Aeaiao?ee Oaea?neee — a Aoeiao e o. ae.).

Cia/eoaeueiia i?aeiouanoai ?eia, iieaaae Oeeoea?ii, iaoneiaeaii
aaia?aoe/aneei ?aniieiaeaieai ai?iaea ia nooa, eaaei niaaeeiythuaeny
(aeaaiaea?y Oea?o) n ii?ai, ii ia o naiiai ii?y. Yoi, ii iunee
Oeeoea?iia, aa?aioe?oao io aiacaiiiai iaiaaeaiey a?aaia, /aio iau/ii
iiaeaa?aeaiu i?eii?neea ai?iaea-ainoaea?noaa. E?iia oiai, ioia/aiiue
aaia?aoe/aneee oaeoi? aeaaii?eyoai e a i?aanoaaiii-yoe/aneii ieaia.
«I?eii?neei ai?iaeai, — ienae Oeeoea?ii, — naienoaaiiu, oae neacaoue,
ii?/a e eciaiaiea i?aaia; eai iie i?eoiaeyo a nii?eeiniiaaiea n /oaeei
ycueii e /oaeeie ii?yaeeaie, e a ieo ia oieueei aaicyony /oaeacaiiua
oiaa?u, ii e aiinyony /oaeaeua i?aau, oae /oi a eo ioa/anoaaiiuo
onoaiiaeaieyo ie/oi ia iiaeao inoaaaoueny iaeciaiiui a oa/aiea aeieaiai
a?aiaie». Iieeoe/aneei neaaenoaeai aeecinoe ai?iaea-ainoaea?noaa e ii?th
yaeythony ianoaaeeueiinoue aai no?iy, /anoua niaiu aeanoe. Oae, i?e/eio
aaaenoaee e ia?aai?ioia, i?ienoaaeoeo a A?aoeee, Oeeoea?ii oniao?eaaao a
aaia?aoe/aneeo iaaeinoaoeao, naycaiiuo n i?eii?neei ?aniieiaeaieai
yeeeineeo iieenia.

Naith eiioeaioeeth iaeeo/oae (niaoaiiie) oi?iu ainoaea?noaa, a ioee/ea
io ieaoiiianeeo i?iaeoia eaeaaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa, Oeeoea?ii n/eoae
?aaeueii inouanoeiie, iiae?acoiaaay i?e yoii i?aeoeeo ?eineie
?anioaeeeaineie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a eo/ooth ii?o aa nouanoaiaaiey («i?e
i?aaeeao»). Ieaoiiianeia aea ainoaea?noai — yoi, nei?aa, ia
?aaeueiinoue, a eeoue aeaeaiea, iii «ia oaeia, eaeia iiaei au
nouanoaiaaoue, a oaeia, a eaeii auei au aiciiaeii oniio?aoue ?acoiiua
iniiau a?aaeaeainoaaiiinoe».

I?aaaea, Oeeoea?ii ioaeaaae naaa io/ao a oii, /oi ?aaeueiinoue
ainoaaeyaiiai ei ?eineiai niaoaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy — nei?aa a
i?ioeii, /ai a ianoiyuai. Ionthaea e aai iiiai/eneaiiua aiaeeyoeee e
yoiio i?ioeiio. Ai a?aiaia Oeeoea?iia ?eineay ?anioaeeea ia?aaeeaaea
oyaeaeue e?ecen e aeiaeeaaea naie iineaaeiea aeie. Iieeoe/aneee no?ie
?eia aeaeaaeny e onoaiiaeaieth aaeeiiee/iie aeanoe, e i?eioeeiaoo e
iiia?oee. Eiioeaioeey aea Oeeoea?iia i niaoaiiii i?aaeaiee e aiiaua aai
noaeaeaiey i ainoaea?noaa eae aeaea ia?iaea yaii ?anoiaeeeenue n
nia?aiaiiuie aio nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeie ?aaeeyie e aeaenoaeoaeueiuie
oaiaeaioeeyie ?acaeoey ?eineie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Eae oai?aoee e
i?aeoe/aneee iieeoee, iaoiaeeaoeeny a aoua oiaaeaoiae ai?ueau ca
aeanoue, Oeeoea?ii ia iia ia aeaeaoue oaiaeaioeeth e ia?aa?oiie?iaea nee
e aeanoe, e ioeeao ?aaeueiuo iieiiii/ee io i?aaeieo ?anioaeeeaineeo
einoeoooia e eo eiioeaio?aoeee a ?oeao ioaeaeueiuo eeoe, e i?aaeaea
anaai oao, eoi iie?aeny ia a?ieth. Ia yoii e?anii?a/eai aiai?eee i?eia?u
aicauoaiey Noeeu, Iiiiay, Oeaca?y, Aioiiey, Ieoaaeaia e ae?.

A naiai oai?/anoaa e a naiae i?aeoe/aneie iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe (a
ea/anoaa eaanoi?a, naiaoi?a, yaeeea, i?aoi?a e eiinoea) Oeeoea?ii
iineaaeiaaoaeueii aunooiae ca no?ie naiaoneie ?anioaeeee, i?ioea
iieiiaeanoey ioaeaeueiuo eeoe, a oii

/enea e i?ioea ?aaeeia ee/iie aiaiiie aeeeoaoo?u.

Niune «n?aaeeiiiai» oa?aeoa?a iieeoe/aneie iiceoeee Oeeoea?iia ninoiye a
oii, /oi ii, ionoaeaay ?anioaeeeaineea o?aaeeoeee e nenoaio
?anioaeeeaineeo o/?aaeaeaiee, aunooiae iiae eicoiaii «anaiauaai
niaeaney» anao nioeeaeueiuo neiaa ?eineeo a?aaeaeai a ?aieao «iauaai
i?aaiii?yaeea». Yoa «n?aaeeiiay» iiceoeey io/aoeeai i?iyaeeanue e a
iieeoe/aneii eaae?iaaiee Oeeoea?iia iaaeaeo «iioeiaoaie» e «iiioey?aie»
— i?eaa?aeaioeaie, oneiaii aiai?y, aeaoo eeiee iieeoe/aneie i?eaioaoeee
niioaaonoaaiii ia aa?oe e iecu iauanoaa. Niciaaay ?acee/ea oeaeae
iioeiaoia e iiioey?ia, Oeeoea?ii aianoa n oai ?acaeaae i?aaenoaaeaiea i
oii, /oi iiaeeeiiua eioa?anu oao e ae?oaeo

aiieia iiaoo auoue niaaeeiaiu e o/oaiu a ?aieao «iauaai niaeaney». Naay
Oeeoea?ii, iinea eca?aiey aai ia ia?iaeiii nia?aiee eiinoeii, aooanoiaae
(ia aac aeaiaaiaee) eae enoeiiiai caueoieea ia?iaea, eae
eiinoea-iiioey?a.

N yoie iiceoeee «enoeiiiai iiioey?a» e ai?oea ca «anaiauaa niaeanea» e
aeaai ainoaea?noaa ii aoaeiaae naieo iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeaieeia, a
/anoiinoe oaeeo eaeaiiioey?ia, ii aai ioeaiea, eae ?oee, Eaoeeeia,
Eeiaeee. Ca aai aaaeouoth ?ieue ii iiaeaaeaieth «caaiai?a Eaoeeeiu»
Oeeoea?ii iieo/ee io ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey aeaaiaea?iinoue e ii/aoiue
oeooe «ioaoe ioa/anoaa». Yoi auei a 63 a. aei i.y., a a 58 a. aei i.y.
i?e o?eaoiaoa Eeiaeey Oeeoea?ii aue auioaeaeai iieeiooue ?ei, eoaea ii
niiaa aica?aoeeny eeoue /a?ac 17 ianyoeaa, eiaaea Eeiaeee iioa?ye naia
aeeyiea. A eiioea 50-o aa. Oeeoea?ii aunooiae i?ioea anaaeanoey
o?eoiae?ia (Iiiiay, Oeaca?y e E?anna) e aiciiaeiie aiaiiie aeeeoaoo?u. A
40-o aa. onoaiiaeaiea ?aaeeia ee/iie aeanoe Oeaca?y ii ?anoeaiee eae
«ii/ue ?anioaeeee», «oo?aoo naiaiaeu a ainoaea?noaa» e oe?aieth.
Oaeenoai Oeaca?y (44 a. aei i. y.) ii ano?aoee n ?aaeinoueth. Oioy
Oeeoea?ii e ia aue a /enea caaiai?ueeia, iaeiaei iineaaeiea n/eoaee aai
naiei /aeiaaeii e iinea oaeenoaa Oeaca?y a naiaoa aue?eeeaaee
«Oeeoea?ii!» a ciae ainnoaiiaeaiey naiaiaeu.

Eiiaoe aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe Oeeoea?iia (44—43 aa. aei i. y.) i?ioae a
ai?ueaa i?ioea iiaie iianiinoe aiaiiie aeeeoaoo?u e iiauo o?eoiae?ia
(Aioiiey, Ieoaaeaia e Eaieaea). A yoie ai?ueaa Oeeoea?ii, aunooiaaoee
i?ioea aeeeoaoo?u io eiaie «anae Eoaeee» e anao noi?iiieeia ?anioaeeee,
ea?ae, ii neiaai Aiieaia, ?ieue «aaeeiiaeanoiiai aeaiaaiaa». Iinea
iiaaaeu o?eoiae?ia eiy Oeeoea?iia auei aeeth/aii a i?ine?eioeeiiiua
nienee eeoe, iiaeeaaeaueo nia?oe aac noaea. 7 aeaeaa?y 43 a. aei i. y.
Oeeoea?ii aue iaacaeaaeai noi?iiieeaie o?eoiae?ia.

N o/aoii niaoeeoeee i?aeoe/aneie iieeoeee e aa iniaie eiaeee neaaeoao
ana. aea i?eciaoue, /oi a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe Oeeoea?ii a oeaeii
inoaaaeny aa?ai iniiaiui eaeayi e i?eioeeiai oie oai?eoe/aneie
eiioeaioeee ainoaea?noaa, eioi?oth ii ?acaeaae a naiai iieeoe/aneii
o/aiee. Eeth/aaay ?ieue e oai e ooo ioaiaeeeanue i?aaenoaaeaieyi ia
«iauai aeaaa», «niaeaniaaiee eioa?ania», «iauai i?aaiii?yaeea» e o. ae.

I?e yoii, ?acoiaaony, eiaeenue a aeaeo eioa?anu naiaiaeiuo nineiaee e
a?aaeaeai ?eineie ?anioaeeee, ii aiana ia ?aaia.

?aanoai, ii Oeeoea?iio, «ni?aaaaeeeai iioiio, /oi oaeei ethaeyi ?aaneia
ninoiyiea iieacii e yoi aeaeaaony ei ia iieueco, eiaaea aeaeaaony
?acoiii; oi anoue, eiaaea o aan/anoiuo ethaeae ioieioo aiciiaeiinoue
niaa?oaoue aaccaeiiey, oi oaiaoaiiua ieaaeoony a eo/oai iieiaeaiee,
iaaeaeo oai eae iie, ia aoaeo/e oaiaoaiu, auee a ooaeoai». ?aanoai
iaoneiaeaii naiie i?e?iaeie, eioi?ay aea?oao eo/oei ethaeyi aeaaeu/anoai
iaae neaauie aeey eo aea iieuecu. Oaeiaa eiaeea ?annoaeaeaiee
Oeeoea?iia, eioi?ua ii no?aieony iiaee?aieoue niia?aaeaieyie i
niioiioaiee ?acee/iuo /anoae aeooe: ainiiaeei oae aea i?aaeo ?aaii, eae
eo/oay /anoue aeooe (?acoi, ioae?inoue) i?aaeo neaauie e ii?i/iuie
/anoyie aeooe (no?anoyie, aiaaii e o. i.). E ?aaai, n/eoae Oeeoea?ii,
neaaeoao ioiineoueny, eae e iaaiieeai: o?aaiaaoue io ieo
niioaaonoaothuae ?aaiou e i?aaeinoaaeyoue ei oi, /oi iieaaaaony.

Oioy oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aaa eae «iaaiieea» auaiaeii ioee/aaony io
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a oi a?aiy i?aaenoaaeaiee i ?aaa eae «aiai?yuai
i?oaeee», iaeiaei a oeaeii noaeaeaiey Oeeoea?iia ii yoie i?iaeaia
caiaoii ?anoiaeyony n aai iaueie iieiaeaieyie i oii, /oi ii i?e?iaea
«ana iu iiaeiaiu e ?aaiu ae?oa ae?oao», /oi iaaeaeo ethaeueie ieeaeiai
?acee/ey iao, /oi /aeiaae — «a?aaeaeaiei anaai ie?a, eae au aaeeiiai
a?aaea» e o. ae. Iiiai aieiaiey a oai?/anoaa Oeeoea?iia oaeaeaii
ainoaaeaieth aeia?iaeaoaeae enoeiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey e
eaeaaeueiiai a?aaeaeaieia. A yoie nayce ii e?eoeeiaae i?aaenoaaeaiey
yieeo?aeoeaa e ?yaea noieeia i oii, /oi ioae?iio /aeiaaeo ia neaaeoao
i?eieiaoue ia naay a?acaeu i?aaeaiey e aiiaua aeoeaii o/anoaiaaoue a
iauanoaaiiie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie. N/eoay oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaii
ni/aoaieai iaoee e eneonnoaa, o?aaothuei ia oieueei ciaiee e
aeia?iaeaoaeae, ii e oiaiey i?aeoe/anee eo i?eiaiyoue a eioa?anao iauaai
aeaaa, Oeeoea?ii ioia/ae, /oi «naia i?e?iaea» aea/ao eo/oeo ethaeae e
oiio, /oiau «naeaeaoue aeeciue ethaeae aieaa aaciianiie e aieaa
aiaaoie». Ii niaaoiaae eco/aoue iaoee i ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa eae «oaeea
iaoee, eioi?ua iiaoo naeaeaoue ian iieaciuie ainoaea?noao», oniao?eaay a
yoii neoaeaiee ainoaea?noao «naioth neaaioth caaea/o ioae?inoe e
aaee/aeoaa i?iyaeaiea aeiaeanoe e aa iaycaiiinoue».

Ioae?ue ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue, niaeanii Oeeoea?iio, aeieaeai
aeaeaoue e i?aaeoaaaeuaaoue iooe e iiai?iou a aeaeao ainoaea?noaa, /oiau
aini?aiyonoaiaaoue iaaeaaii?eyoiiio oiaeo niauoee (niaia oi?i i?aaeaiey
a iaaoaioth noi?iio, ioeeiiaieth io iauaai aeaaa e ni?aaaaeeeainoe) e
any/anee niaeaenoaiaaoue i?i/iinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ainoaea?noaa eae
«iauaai i?aaiii?yaeea».

Eeoei, aaaeathuaa aeaeaie ainoaea?noaa, aeieaeii auoue ioae?ui,
ni?aaaaeeeaui, aicaea?aeaiiui e e?anii?a/eaui. Iii aeieaeii, e?iia oiai,
auoue naaaeouei a o/aieyo i ainoaea?noaa e «aeaaeaoue iniiaaie i?aaa,
aac ciaiey eioi?uo ieeoi ia iiaeao auoue ni?aaaaeeea».

A oii e?aeiai neo/aa, eiaaea iiae aii?in iinoaaeaii naii aeaaiiieo/ea
ainoaea?noaa eae iauaai aeaea ia?iaea, n niaeaney iineaaeiaai enoeiiue
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue, ii Oeeoea?iio, aeieaeai «eae aeeeoaoi?
onoaiiaeoue a ainoaea?noaa ii?yaeie». Caeanue iieeoee aunooiaao ia a
naieo ei?unoiuo oeaeyo, a a iaueo eioa?anao eae nianeoaeue ?anioaeeee.
Neaaeoy Ieaoiio, Oeeoea?ii iieaaae, /oi enoeiiui i?aaeoaeyi a iaa?aaeo
ca eo aeaea «iacia/aii ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi ia iaaa, /oiau iie aeeee oai
aa/ii, eniuouaay aeaaeainoai».

Iaycaiiinoe eaeaaeueiiai a?aaeaeaieia, niaeanii Oeeoea?iio, iaoneiaeaiu
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth neaaeiaaiey oaeei aeia?iaeaoaeyi, eae iiciaiea enoeiu,
ni?aaaaeeeainoue, aaee/ea aeooa e aeaaii?enoieiinoue. A?aaeaeaiei ia
oieueei ia aeieaeai nai a?aaeeoue ae?oaei, ia?ooaoue /oaeoth
nianoaaiiinoue eee niaa?oaoue eiua iani?aaaaeeeainoe, ii, e?iia oiai,
iaycai ieacuaaoue iiiiuue iioa?iaaoei iani?aaaaeeeainoue e o?oaeeoueny
aeey iauaai aeaaa.

Anaia?ii ainoaaeyy iieeoe/aneoth aeoeaiinoue a?aaeaeai, Oeeoea?ii
iiae/a?eeaae, /oi «i?e caueoa naiaiaeu a?aaeaeai iao /anoiuo eeoe». Ii
ioia/ae oaeaea aeiea a?aaeaeaieia caueuaoue ioa/anoai a ea/anoaa aieia.

Aiaeeyoeee e i?e?iaea, e aa ?acoio e caeiiai oa?aeoa?iu e aeey i?aaiaie
oai?ee Oeeoea?iia. A iniiaa i?aaa eaaeeo i?enouay i?e?iaea
ni?aaaaeeeainoue. I?e/ai ni?aaaaeeeainoue yoa iiieiaaony Oeeoea?iiii eae
aa/iia, iaeciaiiia e iaiouaieaiia naienoai e i?e?iaeu a oeaeii, e
/aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiae «i?e?iaeie» eae enoi/ieeii
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e i?aaa (i?aaa ii i?e?iaea, anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa) a aai
o/aiee eiathony a aeaeo aanue einiin, aanue ie?oaeathuee /aeiaaea
oece/aneee e nioeeaeueiue ie?, oi?iu /aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey e iauaaeeoey,
a oaeaea naii /aeiaa/aneia auoea, ioaaouaathuaa aai oaei e aeooo,
aiaoithth e aioo?aiithth aeeciue. Anae yoie «i?e?iaea» (a neeo aa
aiaeanoaaiiiai ia/aea) i?enoue ?acoi e caeiiiia?aciinoue, ii?aaeaeaiiue
ii?yaeie. Eiaiii aeaiiia aeooiaiia naienoai i?e?iaeu (aa
?acoiii-aeooiaiue aniaeo), a aiana ia aa i?aaeiaoiue e
oaeanii-iaoa?eaeueiue ninoaa, caieiathuee iiae/eiaiiia e aoi?inoaiaiiia
ianoi (eae oaei ii ioiioaieth e aeooa, /oanoaaiiua /anoe aeooe ii
ioiioaieth e ?acoiiie aa /anoe) e yaeyaony, ii Oeeoea?iio, iiaeeeiiui
enoi/ieeii e iineoaeai anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa.

Oeeoea?ii aeaao neaaeothuaa ?acaa?iooia ii?aaeaeaiea anoanoaaiiiai
i?aaa: «Enoeiiue caeii — yoi ?acoiiia iieiaeaiea, niioaaonoaothuaa
i?e?iaea, ?ani?ino?aiythuaany ia anao ethaeae, iinoiyiiia, aa/iia,
eioi?ia i?ecuaaao e eniieiaieth aeieaa, i?eeacuaay; cai?auay, io
i?anooieaiey ioioaeaaao; iii, iaeiaei, ie/aai, eiaaea yoi ia ioaeii, ia
i?eeacuaaao /anoiui ethaeyi e ia cai?auaao ei e ia aicaeaenoaoao ia
aan/anoiuo, i?eeacuaay ei /oi-eeai eee cai?auay. I?aaeeaaaoue iieioth
eee /anoe/ioth ioiaio oaeiai caeiia — eiuoinoai; neieueei-ieaoaeue
ia?aie/eaaoue 1aai aeaenoaea ia aeicaieaii; ioiaieoue aai iieiinoueth
iaaiciiaeii, e iu ie iinoaiiaeaieai naiaoa, ie iinoaiiaeaieai ia?iaea
inaiaiaeeoueny io yoiai caeiia ia iiaeai».

Yoio «enoeiiue caeii» — iaeei e oio aea aacaea e anaaaea, e «ia ana
ia?iaeu a ethaia a?aiy aoaeao ?ani?ino?aiyoueny iaeei aa/iue e
iaeciaiiue caeii, i?e/ai aoaeao iaeei iauee eae au ianoaaiee e
iiaaeeoaeue anao ethaeae — aia, nicaeaoaeue, noaeuey, aaoi? caeiia».

Anyeiai, eoi, i?ac?aa /aeiaa/aneoth i?e?iaeo, naiaaieueii ia iiei?yaony
aeaiiiio caeiio, Oeeoea?ii oa?aeoa?ecoao eae aaaeaoea io naiiai naay,
eioi?ue iaieioaii iiianao aaee/aeooth (aiaeueth) ea?o, anee aeaaea aio
oaeanony ecaaaeaoue iau/iiai ethaeneiai iaeacaiey.

A naiai o/aiee i anoanoaaiiii i?aaa Oeeoea?ii iaoiaeeeny iiae aieueoei
aeeyieai niioaaonoaothueo eaeae Ieaoiia, A?enoioaey e ?yaea noieeia. Yoi
aeeyiea caiaoii e oai, aaea ii aeaeeo nouanoai e niune ni?aaaaeeeainoe
(e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iniiaiie i?eioeei anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa) a oii, /oi
«iia aicaeaao eaaeaeiio naia e nio?aiyao ?aaainoai iaaeaeo ieie».

Ni?aaaaeeeainoue, niaeanii Oeeoea?iio, o?aaoao ia a?aaeeoue ae?oaei e ia
ia?ooaoue /oaeoth nianoaaiiinoue. «Ia?aia o?aaiaaiea ni?aaaaeeeainoe, —
ioia/ae ii, — ninoieo a oii, /oiau ieeoi ieeiio ia a?aaeee, anee oieueei
ia aoaeao ni?iaioee?iaai ia yoi iani?aaaaeeeainoueth, a caoai, /oiau ana
iieueciaaeenue iauae nianoaaiiinoueth eae iauae, a /anoiie — eae naiae».
N yoeo iiceoeee ii ioaa?aae oaeea aeoeee ?eineeo iiioey?ia, eae
eannaoeey aeieaia, ouaieaiea e?oiiuo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e ?acaea/a naiei
i?eaa?aeaioeai e ieaano aeaiaa e eiouanoaa, ioiyouo o caeiiiuo
aeaaeaeueoeaa.

Anoanoaaiiia i?aai (aunoee, enoeiiue caeii), niaeanii Oeeoea?iio,
aicieeei «?aiueoa, /ai eaeie au oi ie auei ienaiue caeii, aa?iaa,
?aiueoa, /ai eaeia-eeai ainoaea?noai aiiaua auei iniiaaii». Naii
ainoaea?noai (eae «iauee i?aaiii?yaeie») n aai onoaiiaeaieyie e caeiiaie
yaeyaony ii naiae nouiinoe aiieiuaieai oiai, /oi ii i?e?iaea anoue
ni?aaaaeeeainoue e i?aai.

Ionthaea auoaeaao o?aaiaaiea, /oiau /aeiaa/aneea onoaiiaeaiey
(iieeoe/aneea o/?aaeaeaiey, ienaiua caeiiu e o.ae.) niioaaonoaiaaee
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e i?aao, eai iineaaeiea ia caaenyo io iiaiey e
oniio?aiey ethaeae.

I?aai onoaiaaeeaaaony i?e?iaeie, a ia /aeiaa/aneeie ?aoaieyie e
iinoaiiaeaieyie. «Anee au i?aaa onoaiaaeeaaeenue iiaaeaieyie ia?iaeia,
?aoaieyie ia?aainoaothueo ethaeae, i?eaiai?aie noaeae, — ienae
Oeeoea?ii, — oi nouanoaiaaei au i?aai ?acaieie/aoue, i?aai
i?aethaiaeaenoaiaaoue, i?aai i?aaeuyaeyoue iiaeeiaeiua caaauaiey, anee
au i?aaa yoe iiaee iieo/aoue iaeia?aiea aieiniaaieai eee ?aoaieai
oieiu». Caeii, onoaiaaeeaaaiue ethaeueie, ia iiaeao ia?ooeoue ii?yaeie a
i?e?iaea e nicaeaaaoue i?aai ec aani?aaey eee aeaai ec cea, /anoiia ec
iici?iiai.

Niioaaonoaea eee ianiioaaonoaea /aeiaa/aneeo caeiiia i?e?iaea (e
anoanoaaiiiio i?aao) aunooiaao eae e?eoa?ee e ia?eei eo ni?aaaaeeeainoe
eee iani?aaaaeeeainoe. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a caeiiia, i?ioeai?a/aueo
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e i?aao, Oeeoea?ii oeacuaae, a /anoiinoe, ia caeiiu
o?eaeoeaoe oe?aiia, i?aaeaoeo a Aoeiao a 404—403 aa. aei i. y., a oaeaea
ia ?eineee caeii 82 a. aei i. y., niaeanii eioi?iio iaeia?yeenue ana
aeaenoaey Noeeu eae eiinoea e i?ieiinoea e aio i?aaeinoaaeyeenue
iaia?aie/aiiua iieiiii/ey, aeeth/ay i?aai aeecie e nia?oe ii ioiioaieth
e ?eineei a?aaeaeaiai. Iiaeiaiua iani?aaaaeeeaua caeiiu, eae e iiiaea
ae?oaea «iaaoaiua iinoaiiaeaiey ia?iaeia», ii neiaai

Oeeoea?iia, «caneoaeeaatho iacaaiey caeiia ia aieueoa, /ai ?aoaiey, n
iauaai niaeaney i?eiyoua ?acaieieeaie».

Caeiiu, i?eieiaaiua a oii eee eiii ainoaea?noaa, aeieaeiu, e?iia oiai,
niioaaonoaiaaoue onoaiiaeaiiiio a iai no?ith, o?aaeeoeeyi e iau/ayi
i?aaeeia. Aaaeiia cia/aiea Oeeoea?ii (iiae aeeyieai Ieaoiia) i?eaeaaae
aaaaeaieth (i?aaiaoea) e caeiio, iineieueeo «caeiio naienoaaiii oaeaea e
no?aieaiea eia a /ai oaaaeaeaoue, a ia ei anaio i?eioaeaeaoue neeie e
oa?icaie». Oeaeue oaeie i?aaioaeu — oe?aieoue aiaeanoaaiiue aaoi?eoao
caeiia e eniieueciaaoue no?ao aiaeueae ea?u a eioa?anao eniieiaiey
ethaeueie naiaai aeieaa e i?aaeioa?auaiey i?aaiia?ooaiee.

Naie iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey i ni?aaaaeeeauocaeiiao Oeeoea?ii
eiie?aoece?iaae a i?aaeeaaaaiuo ei i?iaeoao caeiiia i ?aeeaee e i
iaaeno?aoao. Eiay a aeaeo oieaa?naeueiue oa?aeoa? yoeo caeiiia, ii
ienae: «Aaaeue iu ecaeaai caeiiu ia aeey iaeiiai oieueei ?eineiai
ia?iaea, ii e aeey anao ia?iaeia, /anoiuo e noieeeo aeooii».

?yae aaaeiuo iieiaeaiee i i?aaiaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe auneacai Oeeoea?iiii a i?iaeoa caeiia i iaaeno?aoao. Oae,
ii ioia/ae, /oi eiia?ee (iieiiii/ey aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe) aeieaeai auoue
caeiiiui. Neaaeoao, n/eoae ii, onoaiiaeoue «ia oieueei aeey iaaeno?aoia
ia?o eo aeanoe, ii e aeey a?aaeaeai ia?o eo iiaeiiaaiey. Aaaeue oio, eoi
?acoiii iiaaeaaaao, ?aii eee iicaeii aeieaeai aoaeao iiae/eiyoueny, a
oio, eoi iiei?ii iiae/eiyaony, aeinoiei oiai, /oiau ?aii eee iicaeii
ia/aoue iiaaeaaaoue». A iauai aeaea ei oi?ioee?oaony e neaaeothuee
i?aaiaie i?eioeei: «Iiae aeaenoaea caeiia aeieaeiu iiaeiaaeaoue ana».

A o/aiee Oeeoea?iia i i?aaa ia?yaeo n ioee/eai anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa io
ienaiiai niaea?aeeony aeaeaiea naiiai ienaiiai i?aaa ia /anoiia e
ioaee/iia i?aai. Oae iacuaaaiia i?aai ia?iaeia o?aeooaony ei eae
/anoueth iieiaeeoaeueiia i?aai ?aciuo ia?iaeia e /anoueth eae
anoanoaaiiia i?aai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iauaiey (o. a. eae iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
anoanoaaiiia i?aai). Ii oi?ioee?oao nouanoaaiiue i?eioeei
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa i iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaethaeaiey iaycaoaeuenoa,
iaeaaaaiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aeiaiai?aie. I?iaiaey ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
ni?aaaaeeeauie e iani?aaaaeeeauie aieiaie, ii n/eoae iani?aaaaeeeaie e
ia/anoeaie anyeoth aieio, eioi?ay «ia auea aicaauaia e iauyaeaia». Aieia
oa?aeoa?ecoaony ei eae auioaeaeaiiue aeo, aeiionoeiue eeoue a neo/aa
aaconiaoiinoe ie?iuo ia?aaiai?ia. A ea/anoaa i?e/eiu ni?aaaaeeeaie aieiu
ei oeacuaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue caueou ainoaea?noaa, a ea/anoaa oeaee —
onoaiiaeaiea ie?a. Oeeoea?ii aunooiae ca aoiaiiia ia?auaiea n ieaiiuie e
iiaaaeaeaiiuie.

Ioaeaaay aeieaeiia yoei enoi?e/anee i?ia?anneaiui eaeayi Oeeoea?iia a
iaeanoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa, neaaeoao aianoa n oai ioiaoeoue aai a
oeaeii iaeia?eoaeueiia ioiioaiea e caaiaaaoaeueiui aieiai ?eineie
aea?aeaau e aa i?aoaiceyi ia ie?iaoth aaaaiiieth.

Oai?/aneia ianeaaeea Oeeoea?iia, a oii /enea e aai o/aiea i ainoaea?noaa
e i?aaa, ieacaei aieueoia aeeyiea ia anth iineaaeothuoth /aeiaa/aneoth
eoeueoo?o. Aai o?oaeu iaoiaeeeenue a oeaio?a aieiaiey ?eineeo (noieee,
th?enou, enoi?eee) e o?enoeaineeo (Eaeoaioeee, Aaaonoei e ae?.) aaoi?ia.
I?enoaeueiue eioa?an e aai eaeayi i?iyaeyee iuneeoaee yiioe
Aic?iaeaeaiey, a caoai e o?aioeocneea i?inaaoeoaee, aeaeaaoea a
Oeeoea?iia naiaai aaeeeiai i?aaeoa/o e aoiaienoa. Aieueoei aaoi?eoaoii
eiy e eaeae Oeeoea?iia eae aaeeeiai ?anioaeeeaioea, ai?oea ca naiaiaeo e

ni?aaaaeeeainoue iieueciaaeenue o aeayoaeae O?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee (I.
Ie?aai, I. ?iaaniuea?a e ae?.).

A enoi?ee iieeoe/aneie e i?aaiaie iunee iaeaieueoaa aieiaiea
iiiai/eneaiiuo aaoi?ia i?eaeaeaee, a /anoiinoe, iieiaeaiey Oeeoea?iia i
oi?iao ainoaea?noaa, i niaoaiiii i?aaeaiee, i ainoaea?noaa eae aeaea
ia?iaea e i?aaiaii niiauanoaa, i anoanoaaiiii i?aaa, i a?aaeaeaieia eae
noauaeoa i?aaa e ainoaea?noaa (O. Aeaeineee, A. A?aoeee, O. E.
Iiioaneuea e ae?.). Noaeaeaiey Oeeoea?iia ii yoiio e?oao i?iaeai
iaoiaeyony a iiea aieiaiey iiiai/eneaiiuo nia?aiaiiuo eioa?i?aoaoi?ia.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020