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Лекции по философии (Орел, 2003г.)

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Oaia I. OEEINIOEss, AA ?IEUe A AEECIE IAUANOAA

Iiiyoea ie?iaicc?aiey. Aai enoi?e/aneea oeiu.

Oeeinioey nenoaia eoeueoo?u. Ooieoeee Oeeinioee.

Iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee. Iiiyoea iaoa?ee.

Oaia II. OEEINIOEss Ae?AAIAAI AINOIEA

Enoi?e/aneea oeiu Oeeinioee e Oeeinionoaiaaiey.

Oeeinioneay iuneue a ae?aaiae Eiaeee.

Ae?aaiaeeoaeneay oeeinioey.

Oaia III. AIOE*IAss OEEINIOEss

Iaoa?eaeeci ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee.

Eaeaaeeci Ieaoiia e aai iniaaiiinoe.

Oeeinioey A?enoioaey.

Oaia IV. O?ENOEAINEAss OEEINIOEss N?AAeIAAAEIAIE AA?IIU

Iniaaiiinoe e i?eioeeiu ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneiai noeey iuoeaiey.

Ienoeea e noieanoeea – aeaa iaoiaea n?aaeiaaaeiaiai oeeinionoaiaaiey.

Oaiaeaioeee n?aaeiaaaeiaie noieanoeee: ?aaeeci e iiieiaeeci.

Oaia V. OEEINIOEss YIIOE AIC?IAEAeAIEss

Iniiaiua /a?ou ie?iaicc?aiey /aeiaaea yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey.

Oeeinioneia e einiieiae/aneia o/aiey Ieeieay Eocaineiai e Aeaei?aeaii
A?oii.

Iiaay iaoiaeieiaey iao/iiai iiciaiey O?YINENA AYEIIA.

Oaia VI. AA?IIAENEAss OEEINIOEss IIAIAI A?AIAIE (XVII-XVIII aa.)

?aaeecaoeey eaeae aaoiiiiiie oeeinioee a XVII a.

Oeeinioey o?aioeocneiai iaoaienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia.

Oeeinioey o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai eaeaaeecia E. Eaioa.

Oaia VII. AA?IIAENEAss OEEINIOEss XIX AAEA

Eeanneee iaiaoeeiai eaeaaeecia E. Oeooa, O. Oaeeeia, e A. Aaaaeue.

E?eoeea aaaaeueyinoaa “neaaa” (E. Oaea?aao. E. Ia?en e O. Yiaaeuen) e
“ni?aaa” (Oiiaiaaoa?, N. Euea?eaai? e O. Ieoeoa).

Oaia VIII. NIA?AIAIIAss IAIA?ENENONEAss CAIAAeIIAA?IIAENEAss -OEEINIOEss

Iniaaiiinoe nia?aiaiiie iaia?enenoneie caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie oeeinioee.

“Oeeinioey iaoee” eae oa/aiea nia?aiaiiie oeeinioneie iunee.

Yecenoaioeeaeeci – oeeinioey nouanoaiaaiey (aioenieaioeci).

Oaia IX. ?ONNEAss OEEINIOEss

Iniaaiiinoe e ia?eiaeecaoeey ?onneie oeeinioee.

A. N. Nieiaueaa – iniiaiiieiaeiee iiaiai ?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey.

“Oeeinioey iauaai aeaea” I. O. Oaaei?iaa.

Oaia X. OEEINIONEAss I?IAEAIAOEEA AUOEss

AEeciaiiua ei?ie e Oeeinioneee niune i?iaeaiu auoey.

Noaeueaa i?iaeaiu auoey a XX a.

Oaia XI. NICIAIEA, AAI NOUIINOUe E I?IENOIAEAeAIEA

Niune i?iaeaiu niciaiey. Iniaaiiinoe aa ?aoaiey ia ?aciuo yoaiao aa
?acaeoey.

Ia?enenoneay eiioeaioeey niciaiey.

Oaia XII. AEOOAEUeIUA OEEINIONEEA I?IAEAIU *AEIAAEA

I?iaeaia /aeiaaea a enoi?ee oeeinioee. Aai i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Aaeeinoai a
iai aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai.

Nouiinoue e nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea.

Eiaeeaeae e ee/iinoue. Niune e oeaeue aeecie.

Oaia XIII. AeEAEAEOEEA E IAOAOECEEA

Enoi?e/aneea Oi?iu e i?eioeeiu aeeaeaeoeee.

Caeiiu e eaoaai?ee iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeee.

Iaoaoeceea – aioeiiae aeeaeaeoeee.

Oaia XIV. OEEINIOEss IAUANOAA

Iiiyoea iauanoaa.

Iauanoai eae oeaeinoiay naii?acaeaathuayny nenoaia.

I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai eioi?iaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneiai iauanoaa.

Oaia XV. OEEINIONEEA I?IAEAIU YEIIIIE*ANEIE AEECIE IAUANOAA

Yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue iauanoaa e aa iniiaiua i?iyaeaiey.

Iauaeoeaiua yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu. Yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey e
yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea iauaeoeaiie e noauaeoeaiie noi?ii yeiiiie/aneie aeecie
iauanoaa.

Oaia XVI. I?AAIAAss NOA?A AEECIE IAUANOAA

Nioeeaeueiue einoeooo e nouiinoue i?aaa.

I?aaiia?acothuea i?eioeeiu: ?aaainoai, naiaiaea, ni?aaaaeeeainoue.

Eiioeaioeey i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa.

I?aainiciaiea e aai o?iaie.

Oaia XVII. AeOOIAIAss AEECIUe IAUANOAA

Nioeeaeueiay i?e?iaea e niaea?aeaiea aeooiaiie aeecie.

Eneonnoai – aaaeiaeoee aee aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ii?aeue eae ?aaoeyoi? nioeeaeueiiai iiaaeaiey.

Oaia XVIII. ?ACAEOEA ANAIE?IIE ENOI?EE A XX AAEA, AA INIIAIUA
OAIAeAIOeEE

*aeiaa/anoai eae noauaeo enoi?ee.

Yeiiiie/aneea, nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu a XX a.

Aeiaaeecaoeey iauanoaaiiie aeecie a XX a.

Eaieoaeeci e nioeeaeeci – iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee XX a.

Oaia XIX. OAI?Ess IICIAIEss

Aiinaieiaey eae Oeeinioneay aeenoeeieeia. Aa aaca e oeaeue.

Iniiaiua Oi?iu iiciaiey e o/aiea ia enoeia.

Ninoaa, no?oeoo?a e aeeiaieea ciaiey.

Oaia XX. IAO*IIA IICIAIEA

Iao/iia iiciaiea, aai niaoeeoeea e no?iaiea.

Iaoiaeieiaey iao/iiai iiciaiey.

?ieue iaoee a ?acaeoee oaoieee.

Oaia XXI. OEEINIOEss OAOIEEE E IAOEE

Oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Aai iethnu e ieionu.

*aeiaa/aneee ?acoi e iaoea.

Oeeinioey nia?aiaiiiai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

Oaia XXI. NIA?AIAIIAss OeEAEEECAOeEss: AA i?iaeaiu E IA?NIAEOEAU

Niaoeeoeea ie?iaie neooaoeee eiioea XX a.

Iniiaiua aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiinoe. I?aaeiinueee eo
i?aiaeieaiey.

Aiciiaeii ee i?aaeaeaeaoue aoaeouaa?

Oaia I. OEEINIOEss, AA ?IEUe A AEECIE IAUANOAA

1. Iiiyoea ie?iaicc?aiey. Aai enoi?e/aneea oeiu.

2. Oeeinioey a nenoaia eoeueoo?u. Ooieoeee oeeinioee.

3. Iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee. Iiiyoea iaoa?ee.

Iiiyoea ie?iaicc?aiey. Aai enoi?e/aneea oeiu.

Ie?iaicc?aiea eae iiiyoea ianoieueei /anoi eniieuecoaony a onoiie ?a/e,
/oi iu eee ia ia?auaai ia iaai aieiaiey, eee oniao?eaaai a iai nenoaio
acaeyaeia ia ie?. Oae /oi aea ia naiii aeaea icia/aao neiai
“ie?iaicc?aiea”?

IE?IAICC?AIEA – YOI NIAIEOIIINOUe ACAEssAeIA, IOeAIIE. II?I E ONOAIIAIE,
II?AAeAEssEI IOIIOAIEA *AEIAAEA E IE?O E AUNOOIATHUEO A EA*ANOAA
I?EAIOE?IA E ?AAOEssOI?IA AAI IIAAAeAIEss.

Ie?iaicc?aiea – neiaeiia acaeiiaeaenoaea yiioeeiiaeueiuo e
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia: ie?iiuouaiey e ie?iiiieiaiey.

IE?IIUOUAIEA – yoi ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
eioi?ia iaia?oaeeaaaony a aai iano?iaieyo, /oanoaao e aeaenoaeyo. Iii
io?aaeaao yiioeeiiaeueii-ineoe/aneoth noi?iio ie?iaicc?aiey e a iai
neacuaathony ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeecie ethaeae, ?acee/ey eo nioeeaeueiiai
iieiaeaiey, iaoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe, oei eoeueoo?u, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
noaeueau, oaiia?aiaio, aic?ano, ninoiyiea caei?iauey e o.ae.

IE?IIIIEIAIEA – yoi oi eee eiia iiieiaiea ie?a, aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
nenoaia acaeyaeia, eaeae. Iii io?aaeaao
iiciaaaoaeueii-eioaeeaeooaeueioth noi?iio ie?iaicc?aiey e i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie eeoue aai iiiyoeeiue, eioaeeaeooaeueiue aniaeo. Yoi oeaaeiie?iaiay
?aaioa oia, nenoaia iaeo?aeueiuo ciaiee, aanno?anoiuo ioeaiie,
?annoaeeoaeueiuo aeaenoaee.

Iaa yoe “iiethna” a oeaie ie?iaicc?aiey i?aaie/anee acaeiinaycaiu,
acaeiiiaoneiaeaiu. Yiioeee i?enoonoaotho aeaaea a naiuo c?aeuo ii iunee
oi?iao ie?iaicc?aiey. Iaeiaei aa?iainy e ie?iiiieiaieth.

A caaeneiinoe io noaiaie iiciaaaoaeueiie aeoaeiu, eiae/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, eioaeeaeooaeueiie neeu a?aoiaioia ?acee/atho AeAA
O?IAIss IE?IIIIEIAIEss: iianaaeiaaii-i?aeoe/aneee e oai?aoe/aneee.

IIANAAeIAAII-I?AEOE*ANEIA, AEEOAENEIA ie?iiiieiaiea ia?aaeei iacuaatho
“AEECIAIIIE OEEINIOEAE”, iioiio /oi iii INIIAAII IA CAe?AAII NIUNEA,
iaoe?iii e iiiaiia?aciii iianaaeiaaiii iiuoa. A yoii aai “iethnu” e
“ieionu”. “Iethnu” naiaeyony e oiio, /oi aeeoaeneia ie?iiiieiaiea
yaeyaony ianniaui e ?aaeueii “?aaioathuei” niciaieai. Aio ii/aio,
enoaoe, oae iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau ooaa?aeaeaaiua naaiaeiy a iaoae no?aia
i?eioeeiu iiaiai iuoeaiey einioeenue ia aaeeieoe, a aioee a niciaiea
ouny/, ieeeeiiia ethaeae, noaee eiioeuenii eo aeecie, aeaenoaey.

“Ieionu” naiaeyony, ai-ia?auo, e oiio, /oi aeeoaeneia ie?iiiieiaiea a
aai ianniauo, iianaaeiaaiuo oi?iao iineo noeoeeiue oa?aeoa?, ia
ioee/aaony aeoaieie i?iaeoiaiiinoueth, nenoaiaoe/iinoueth,
iainiiaaiiinoueth. Aio ii/aio ia yoii o?iaia iaaethaeaaony iiiaeanoai
i?aae?annoaeeia, neaaay caueuaiiinoue io ioeaie, iiaeaa?aeaiiinoue
aeeyieth iacaei?iauo iano?iaiee (iaoeeiiaeueiuo e ae?.), nia?aiaiiuo
“ieoia” (iai?eia?, aoeueaa?ii o?aeooaiiai ?aaainoaa), ionoonoaea eiaeee,
i?aaaee?iaaiea yiioeee (aeaiaaiaey), aeaoeoeeo cae?aaiai niunea. Ana yoi
ninoaaeyao ieoaoaeueioth ii/ao aeey aeayoaeueiinoe ioaeaeueiuo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, i?aneaaeothueo naie oceiyaienoe/aneea oeaee.

“Ieionu” naiaeyony, ai-aoi?uo, e oiio, /oi aeeoaeneia ie?iiiieiaiea
ianoao ia?aae i?iaeaiaie, o?aaothueie na?ueaciuo ciaiee, eoeueoo?u
iuneae e /oanoa, i?eaioaoeee ia aunieea /aeiaa/aneea oeaiiinoe.

Niioiioaiea aeeciaiii-i?aeoe/aneiai e oai?aoe/aneiai o?iaiae
ie?iaicc?aiey a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a i?ineaaeeaaaony a enoi?e/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. A aeaiiii neo/aa iiaeii neacaoue, /oi “aeeciaiiay
oeeinioey” a iaeaieaa iauai aeaea i?iyaeyaony a ieoieiaee e ?aeeaee. A
yoi cia/eo, /oi ieoieiaey e ?aeeaey i?aaeoanoaotho oeeinioee.

Enoi?e/anee ia?aui oeiii ie?iaicc?aiey yaeyaony IEOIEIAEss. Iia aicieeea
ia naiie ?aiiae noaaeee iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Oiaaea /aeiaa/anoai a
oi?ia ieoia, o.a. neacaiee, i?aaeaiee, iuoaeinue ioaaoeoue ia oaeea
aeiaaeueiua aii?inu, eae i?ienoiaeaeaiea e ono?ienoai ie?icaeaiey a
oeaeii, aicieeiiaaiea iaeaieaa aaaeiuo yaeaiee i?e?iaeu, aeeaioiuo e
ethaeae. Iniaia ianoi a ieoao caieiae i?ia?ann a aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea: aeiauaaiee iaiy, ecia?aoaiee ?aianae, ?acaeoee caieaaeaeey,
i?e?o/aiee aeeeeo aeeaioiuo.

Ie?iaicc?ai/aneea aii?inu a ieoieiaee a iniiaiii ?aoaeenue aaiaoe/anee:
iao/iia iauyniaiea i?ioeanna i?ienoiaeaeaiey ie?a caiaiyee ?anneacu i
oii, eoi eiai ii?iaeee. Oae, a “Oaiaiiee” Aaneiaea, “Eeeaaea” e
“Iaeennaa” Aiia?a – iaeaieaa iieiii nia?aiee ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo ieoia –
aa/iue, aaca?aie/iue, oaiiue Oain aeae aeeciue anaio ie?o e aannia?oiui
Aiaai, a o./. Caiea e aa aiaeia – Aaa. Caiey noaea iaoa?ueth Iaaa, Ai? e
Ii?y e o.ae. Aiaeiae/iay noaia ano?a/aaony a ieoieiaee ae?oaeo ia?iaeia
ie?a.

Ieoieiaey ea?aea ia?iiioth ?ieue a aeecie ethaeae. Iia onoaiaaeeaaea
aa?iiieth iaaeaeo ie?ii e /aeiaaeii, i?e?iaeie e iauanoaii, iauanoaii e
eiaeeaeaeii e, oaeei ia?acii, iaania/eaaea aioo?aiiaa niaeanea
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie, oaeiaeaoai?yea aa aeooiaiua iio?aaiinoe. Iiyoiio
niaea?aeaiea ieoia ia?aiauoiiio /aeiaaeo i?aaenoaaeyeinue a aunoae
noaiaie ?aaeueiui, caneoaeeaathuei aaniethoiiai aeiaa?ey.

Ia ?aiiae noaaeee ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa ieoieiaey ia auea aaeeinoaaiiui
enoi?e/aneei oeiii ie?iaicc?aiey. A yoio aea ia?eiae nouanoaiaaea e
?AEEAEss, eioi?ay n niaea?aeaoaeueiie noi?iiu, o.a. n oi/ee c?aiey
ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo eiino?oeoeee, ninoaaeyea n ieoieiaeae aaeeiia oeaeia.
Iaeuecy auei ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iaeie neacaiey, i?aaeaiey “?aeeaeiciu”,
a ae?oaea – “ieoieiae/iu”. Iaeiaei ?aeeaey ioee/aeanue io ieoieiaee. Aa
niaoeeoeea iaoneiaeeaaeanue EOEUeOIAIE NENOAIIE, aeeth/aaoae a naay
ia?yaeiaua aeaenoaey, iai?aaeaiiua ia onoaiiaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ioiioaiee ni naa?ouanoanoaaiiui. Iiyoiio anyeee ieo noaiiaeeny
?aeeaeiciui a oie ia?a, a eaeie ii aeeth/aeny a eoeueoiaoth nenoaio,
aunooiae a ea/anoaa aa niaea?aeaoaeueiie noi?iiu.

Ie?iaicc?ai/aneea eiino?oeoeee, aeeth/aynue a eoeueoiaoth nenoaio,
i?eia?aoaee oa?aeoa? AA?IO*AIEss, iniiaiay ooieoeey eioi?iai ninoiyea a
oii, /oiau ecaaaeoue /aeiaaea io caiiuo, enoi?e/anee eciai/eauo,
i?aoiaeyueo aniaeoia auoey, aicauneoue aai aei /aai-oi aaniethoiiai,
aa/iiai. A aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiie noa?a yoi i?iyaeyeinue a i?eaeaiee
?aeeaeiciui ii?iai, oeaiiinoyi e eaeaaeai oa?aeoa?a iaeciaiiiai, ia
caaenyuaai io iianaaeiaaiinoe, nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia e o.ae. ?aeeaey,
oaeei ia?acii, i?eaeaaaea niune e cia/aiea, a, cia/eo, e onoie/eainoue
/aeiaa/aneiio auoeth, iiiiaaea ethaeyi i?aiaeieaaaoue aeeoaeneea
o?oaeiinoe.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, niaa?oainoaiaaiey
iiciaaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa iiyaeeanue iio?aaiinoue a iiaie oi?ia ?aoaiey
ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo i?iaeai, iniiaaiiie oaea ia ia ia?acao e neiaieao, a
ia Eiaina – ?acoia, o.a. ia iuoeaiee. A yoi oaea ae?oaie, aieaa aunieee
o?iaaiue ie?iiiieiaiey – oai?aoe/aneee, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iiaue
enoi?e/aneee oei iniuneaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – OEEINIOEss.

A ioee/ea io ?aeeaeiciiai ie?iaicc?aiey n aai i?aeiouanoaaiiui aieiaieai
e i?aainoiaeyuei /aeiaaea neeai i?e?iaeu e nouanoaai, Oeeinioey auianea
ia ia?aue ieai eioaeeaeooaeueiua aniaeou ie?iaicc?aiey, io?aceea
ia?anoaaooth a iauanoaa aeaaeaeo iao/iiai ciaiey ie?a e /aeiaaea. Ia
?aiiae noaaeee ?acaeoey iia aunooieea eae iiene ie?neie ioae?inoe.
Iiyoiio, aeaeeii, oa?iei “oeeinioey” a ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai ycuea
icia/aao ETHAIAUe E IOAe?INOE (oeeai – ethaeth, onioey – ioae?inoue).
Neiai “oeeinio” aia?aua oiio?aaee ae?aaiaa?a/aneee iuneeoaeue Ieoaai?, a
enoieeiaae e cae?aiee a aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?a – Ieaoii.

Ia?aiia/aeueii iiiyoea “oeeinioey”, ii nooe aeaea, icia/aei
niaieoiiinoue oai?aoe/aneeo ciaiee, i?eia?aoaiiuo /aeiaa/anoaii. Ii ii
ia?a oiai, eae iaeaieeaaeny yiie?e/aneee iaoa?eae e niaa?oainoaiaaeenue
iaoiaeu iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey, oi?iu oai?aoe/aneiai inaiaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeeooa?aioee?iaaeenue, oeeinioey ia?aea iiaue iaeee,
eciaieeenue aa iaoiae e ooieoeee. Oae, n iiyaeaieai naiinoiyoaeueiuo
io?aneae iao/iiai ciaiey – iaoaiaoeee, oeceee, aeieiaee, oeiee e ae?. –
oeeinioey oo?aoeea ooieoeeth auoue aaeeinoaaiiie oi?iie oai?aoe/aneiai
ciaiey. Iaeiaei a iiauo oneiaeyo aieaa /aoei iaia?oaeeeanue niaoeeoeea
oeeinioee eae oi?iu oieaa?naeueiiai oai?aoe/aneiai iniuneaiey ie?a e
/aeiaaea. OEEINIOEss – YOI OI?IA IICIAIEss IAEAIEAA IAUEO. A OI*IAA,
ANAIAUEO INIIAAIEE AUOEss.

Oeaeinoiinoue iiieiaiey ie?a aeaao ie?iaicc?ai/aneoth iii?o eiie?aoiui
iao/iui enneaaeiaaieyi, iicaieyao ei aeaeaaoueny aia?aae, i?aaeeueii
noaaeoue e ?aoaoue naie i?iaeaiu. Eoae, OIEAA?NAEECI – ia?aue
oa?aeoa?iue i?eciae oeeinioneiai niiniaa inaiaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee eoeueoo?u oeeinioey i?aoaiaeiaaea ia au?aaioeo
oieaa?naeueiiai ciaiey eee oieaa?naeueiuo i?eioeeiia
aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiie aeecie. E yoi iaoei naia io?aaeaiea a oaeeo
ia?aciuo ii?aaeaeaieyo oeeinioee, eae “iaoue iaoe”, “iaoea iaoe”,
“oea?eoea iaoe”.

Aoi?ie aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth oeeinioneiai niiniaa inaiaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yaeyaony NOANOAIOeEIIAEECI (io eao. noanoaioeey, o.a.
nouiinoue, eaaeauay a iniiaa). Noanoaioeey – yoi i?aaeaeueiia iniiaaiea,
iicaieythuaa naiaeeoue /oanoaaiiia iiiaiia?acea aauae e eciai/eainoue eo
naienoa e /aio-oi iinoiyiiiio, ioiineoaeueii onoie/eaiio e
naiinoiyoaeueii nouanoaothuaio. Noanoaioeeiiaeeci i?iyaeyaony a
no?aieaiee oeeinioia iauynieoue i?ienoiaeyuaa, aioo?aiiaa ono?ienoai e
?acaeoea ie?a ia aaiaoe/anee, a /a?ac aaeeiia onoie/eaia ia/aei.

Oeeinioey ia naiuo ?aiieo yoaiao naiaai ?acaeoey ia eiaea iniauo
n?aaenoa au?aaeaiey nianoaaiiuo eaeae. Aa niaoeeoeea i?iyaeyeanue a
iniaie onoaiiaea, a iniaii noeea iuoeaiey, eioi?ue, iiieii oieaa?naeecia
e noanoaioeeiiaeecia, aeeth/ae a naay niiiaiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, o?aoueae oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie oeeinioneiai ?aciuoeaiey
yaeyaony NIIIAIEA. Eiaiii n niiiaiey e ia/aeanue oeeinioey. Aaeeeea
iuneeoaee ae?aaiinoe Oaean, Aiaeneiaiae?, Aeaiie?eo, Ia?iaieae e ae?oaea
caaeaeenue aii?inii: /oi oaeia auoea? A yoi n?aco aea, iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeiieaaaao ioaao ia aii?in: /oi icia/aao “auoue”? Aeey
aeeciaiii-i?aeoe/aneiai ie?iiiieiaiey oaeay i?iaeaia i?inoi ia
nouanoaoao. Iii aini?eieiaao auoea eae aeieaeiia: “AEeao naaa, e ana
aeeaao, nouanoaoao e ieeaeeo i?iaeai”. Ia/aoue aea ?aciuoeyoue iaae oai,
/oi a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie eaaeaony naii niaie ?acoiathueiny, – cia/eo
oniiieoueny a i?aanoaaiiinoe e aeinoaoi/iinoe “aeeoaeneiai iiaeoiaea” e
yaeaieyi. A yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, icia/aao niiiaiea a iauai?eiyoii e
o?aaeeoeeiiiii oeia ciaiey e iiaaaeaiey. Ia neo/aeii oaea ia?aua
ae?aaiaa?a/aneea oeeiniou a ea/anoaa iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo i?iaeai
?anniao?eaaee i?iaeaio ?acee/aiey oiai, /oi iauai?eiyoi (iiaiea), e
oiai, /oi eiaeinue ia naiii aeaea (ciaiea).

Oeeiniou noaayo ana iiae niiiaiea aeey oiai, /oiau i?iaa?eoue,
ianeieueei i?i/iu /aeiaa/aneea onoaiiaeaiey, e ioa?ineoue oa ec ieo,
eioi?ua ioaeeee naie aae, iinoaaeoue ia aieaa i?i/iue ooiaeaiaio oa
ciaiey, eioi?ua auaea?aeaee i?iaa?eo a?aiaiai. Oeeinioey, oaeei ia?acii,
n naiiai ia/aea naiaai nouanoaiaaiey eiaao aeooiaii-i?aeoe/aneoth
iai?aaeaiiinoue. Iaeiaei a ?aciua yiioe iia ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeanue ?aciuie
ie?iaicc?ai/aneeie i?eioeeiaie. Ioiaoei neaaeothuea ec ieo:

1. EINIIOeAIO?ECI – ioee/eoaeueiay /a?oa iaeaieaa ae?aaiae
(aeinie?aoianeie) oeeinioee. Ca aeaeeiui aaneiia/iui iiiaiia?aceai oae e
yaeaiee i?e?iaeu yeeeineea ioae?aoeu (VII-VI) aa. aei i.y.) no?aieeenue
?aniiciaoue aaeeioth nouiinoue. Aaneiia/iay iiuue, aa?iiiey einiina auea
a aeacao a?aeia iaaeaaeiie iii?ie, iniiaie oiai, /oi aa?iiie/iuie e
?acoiiuie aeieaeiu auoue e eo iauanoaaiiue ie?, e eo i?aanoaaiiinoue.

2. Aeey oeeinioee e eoeueoo?u n?aaeieo aaeia (eae a Aa?iia, oae e ia
Ainoiea) oa?aeoa?ai OAIOeAIO?ECI (io a?a/. oain – Aia). Yoi ioaa/aei
oiio eneeth/eoaeueiiio cia/aieth, eioi?ia a oo yiioo eiaea ?aeeaey. Ana
eiua oi?iu niciaiey auee iiae/eiaiu ae, eae aannaeu $
oaiaeaeueii-nineiaiii iauanoaa auee iiae/eiaiu naiaio ainiiaeeio. 3.
Eiia ie?iiuouaiea i?eianea n niaie yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey (XIV-XVI aa.).
*aeiaae iuooee e iniciae naay oeaio?ii anaeaiiie. AIO?IIIOeAIO?ECI
(aoiaieci) icia/ae ?aaaeeeoaoeeth ia oieueei aeooa, ii e oaea /aeiaaea.

Oeeinioey nenoaia eoeueoo?u. Ooieoeee Oeeinioee.

EOEUeOO?A (io eao. eoeueoo?a – aicaeaeuaaiea, ainieoaiea, ia?aciaaiea,
?acaeoea, ii/eoaiea) – yoi enoi?e/anee ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey
iauanoaa e /aeiaaea, au?aaeaiiue a oeiao e oi?iao i?aaiecaoeee aeecie e
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, a oaeaea a nicaeaaaaiuo eie iaoa?eaeueiuo e
aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoyo.

Oeeinioey eae iaeii ec yaeaiee eoeueoo?u oieeaeueia, iioiio /oi iia
iiiaia?aiiay Aa eioa?anu a i?eioeeia ia?auaiu ei anaio iiiaiia?aceth
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneiai iiuoa, e /ai aiaa/a oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey,
oai iaoe?iaa iiea eoeueoo?u yaeyaony a iae i?aaeiaoii ie?iaicc?ai/aneiai
iniuneaiey.

N enoi?e/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, oeeinioey – ia ia?ae/iay, i?inoaeoay oi?ia
niciaiey. E iiiaioo aa aicieeiiaaiey /aeiaa/anoai i?ioei aieueoie iooue,
iaeiieei ?acee/iua iaauee aeaenoaee, niioonoaothuea ei ciaiey e ae?oaie
iiuo. Iiyaeaiea oeeinioee – yoi ?iaeaeaiea iniaiai, aoi?e/iiai oeia
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, iai?aaeaiiiai ia iniuneaiea oaea neiaeeaoeony
oi?i i?aeoeee, eoeueoo?u. Ia neo/aeii niinia iuoeaiey, aiieiuaiiue a
oeeinioee e ia?auaiiue ei anaio iieth eoeueoo?u, iacuaatho
e?eoe/anee-?aoeaeneaiui.

Eaeiau aea OOIEOeEE OEEINIOEE a neiaeiii eiiieaena
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie aeecie ethaeae?

IE?IAICC?AI*ANEAss OOIEOeEss ninoieo a oii, /oi oeeinioey, aeaaay
ethaeyi oeaeinoiue acaeyae ia ie?, iicaieyao ei ii?aaeaeeoue naia ianoi
e ?ieue a yoii ie?a, aeaeaao eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea niciaoaeueiui o/anoieeii
iauanoaaiiiai i?ia?anna, noaaeo ia?aae iei iaua/aeiaa/aneea oeaee e
caaea/e nioeeaeueiiai ieaia. Iaiaoeeee iuneeoaeue Aaaaeue ni?aaaaeeeai
ienae i oii, /oi oeeinioey – yoi yiioa, noaa/aiiay a iuneyo.

EOEUeOO?IAAIIAss OOIEOeEss oeeinioey ninoieo a oii, /oi iia auyaeyao e
oi?ie?oao o.i. oieaa?naeee eoeueoo?u – iaeaieaa iauea eaeae e
i?aaenoaaeaiey i ie?icaeaiee, ii?aeueiua, ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
iaua/aeiaa/aneea i?eioeeiu e oeaiiinoe, a oaeaea iaeaieaa iauea iiiyoey
(eaoaai?ee), io?aaeathuea iaeaieaa iauea nayce, ioiioaiey aauae, A
iaeanoe eoeueoo?u oeeinioey oaeaea auiieiyao aaaeioth e?eoe/aneoth
ooieoeeth. Iia ane?uaaao ioeaee e caaeoaeaeaiey, ioaa?aaao onoa?aaoea
aeiaiu e noa?aioeiu e neoaeeo aaia?aoi?ii i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo eaeae.

IAOIAeIEIAE*ANEAss OOIEOeEss oeeinioee ninoieo a oii, /oi iia, ?ane?uaay
anaiauea caeiiu, i?eioeeiu e iniiau nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey ie?a, oai
naiui nicaeaao e oi?ie?oao iauee iaoiae iiciaiey yoiai ie?a e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aunooiaao eae no?aoaaey i?ioeanna iiciaiey a eaaeaeie
ioaeaeueiie iaeanoe ciaiey.

EIOAA?AOeEIIIAss OOIEOeEss oeeinioee ninoieo a oie, /oi iia iauaaeeiyao,
eioaa?e?oao ioaeaeueiua iaeanoe ciaiey a oeaeinoioth nenoaio. Yoi
iicaieyao eaaeaeiio oceiio niaoeeaeenoo aeaeaoue naith iaeanoue ciaiey
eee oai?/anoaa a eiioaenoa iaueo ie?iauo naycae, ie?iauo i?ioeannia e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaao aio aiciiaeiinoue aieaa aeoaiei iiciaoue aa.

Inouanoaeaiea ia?a/eneaiiuo ooieoeee e ii?aaeaeyao ?ieue oeeinioee a
aeecie /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa.

Iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee. Iiiyoea iaoa?ee.

Oeeinioneee aiaeec iai?aaeai ai aia /aeiaaea – ia ana ie?icaeaiea e
aioo?ue – ia naiiai /aeiaaea. Oeeinioey enneaaeoao ie? aiaoiee ii
ioiioaieth e /aeiaaeo e ie? aioo?aiiee (aeooiaioth aeeciue /aeiaaea, aai
niciaiea) a eo acaeiinayce ae?oa n ae?oaii. Eiuie neiaaie, a naiii iauai
aeaea iia eco/aao noauaeoii-iauaeoiua ioiioaiey. Ieeaeay ae?oaay iaoea
yoie i?iaeaiie niaoeeaeueii ia caieiaaony. Iiyoiio ana oeeinioneea
i?iaeaiu oae eee eia/a cao?aaeaatho naiue iauee aii?in – i niioiioaiee
iaoa?ee e niciaiey. INIIAIIE AII?IN OEEINIOEE E NINOIEO A IOIIOAIEE
IAOA?EE E NICIAIEss. Ii eiaao aeaa noi?iiu: /oi yaeyaony ia?ae/iui –
iaoa?ey eee niciaiea, a oaeaea aa?ii eee iao niciaiea /aeiaaea iiciaao
iaoa?eaeueiue ie?.

A caaeneiinoe io ?aoaiey iniiaiiai aii?ina oeeinioee iuneeoaee
?acaeaeeeenue ia aeaa iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey – IAOA?EAEECI e EAeAAEECI.
Iaoa?eaeenou, iie?aynue ia aeaiiua iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee, ooaa?aeaeatho,
/oi ia?ae/ia iaoa?ey, a niciaiea /aeiaaea aoi?e/ii, iii aicieeei a
?acoeueoaoa aeeeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey iaoa?ee. Eaeaaeenou n/eoatho, /oi
ia?ae/ii niciaiea: eeai a aeaea iaeiaai aaniethoiiai aeooa eee ?acoia
(iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci), eeai a aeaea niciaiey /aeiaaea (noauaeoeaiue
eaeaaeeci). Eaeaaeenou ia io?eoeatho iaoa?eth, ii ?anniao?eaatho aa eae
iecoee ?iae auoey – ia eae oai?/aneia, a eae aoi?e/iia (nioai?aiiia)
ia/aei.

A ?aoaiee aii?ina I IICIAAAAIINOE IE?A oaeaea nouanoaotho
iiceoeee-aioeiiaeu: oi/ea c?aiey iiciaaaoaeueiiai iioeiecia i?ioeainoiyo
aieaa ianneienoe/aneea nenoaiu acaeyaeia: NEAIOEOeECI (io a?a/.
neaioeein – ?anniao?eaathuee, enneaaeothuee) – eaeaaeenoe/aneia
oeeinioneia iai?aaeaiea, iiaeaa?aathuaa niiiaieth aiciiaeiinoue
aeinoiaa?iiai iiciaiey iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe; AAIINOEOeECI (io
a?a/. a – io?eoeaiea e aiinen – ciaiea; iaaeinooiiue iiciaieth) –
eaeaaeenoe/aneia oeeinioneia oa/aiea, io?eoeathuaa aiciiaeiinoue
iiciaiey iauaeoeaiiai ie?a e aai caeiiiia?iinoae. O/aiea i iiciaiee a
oeeinioee iacuaatho AIINAIEIAEAE.

Oi?iu iaoa?eaeecia, eae e eaeaaeecia, iiiaiia?aciu. Oae, ?acee/atho
iaoaoece/aneee e aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci. ?anniio?ei a ea/anoaa
i?eia?a, eae a ?aieao AeEAEAEOEEI-IAOA?EAEENOE*ANEIAI O*AIEss ?aoaeanue
iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo (iniaaiii aeey iaoa?eaeenoia) oeeinioneeo i?iaeai –
I?IAEAIA IAOA?EE.

Ii?aaeaeaiea iaoa?ee, aeaiiia A. E. Eaieiui, yaeyaony iaeaieaa
iauai?eciaiiui a nia?aiaiiii iaoa?eaeecia:

IAOA?Ess ANOUe OEEINIONEAss EAOAAI?Ess AeEss IAICIA*AIEss IAUAEOEAIIE
?AAEUeIINOE, EIOI?Ass AeAIA *AEIAAEO A IUOUAIEssO AAI, EIOI?Ass
EIIE?OAONss, OIOIA?AOE?OAONss, IOIA?AAEAAONss IAOEIE IUOUAIEssIE,
NOUANOAOAO IACAAENEII IO IEO. I /ai aiai?eo yoi ii?aaeaeaiea?

Ai-ia?auo, i oii, /oi aeaaiui naienoaii iaoa?ee yaeyaony naienoai auoue
IAUAEOEAIIE ?AAEUeIINOUeTH, O.A. NOUANOAIAAOUe AIA IAOAAI NICIAIEss.
Yoei i?eciaaony ia?ae/iinoue iaoa?ee ii ioiioaieth e niciaieth.

Ai-aoi?uo, anee i?eciaeii iaoa?eaeueiinoe yaeyaony naienoai “auoue
iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoueth”, oi ieeaeea oaea, aaue, i?ioeannu eae
i?e?iaeiua, oae e i?iecaaaeaiiua /aeiaaeii, ia iiaoo i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia
naia eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai auoue iaoa?eae. Iaoa?ey nouanoaoao oieueei a
iiiaiia?acee eiie?aoiuo iauaeoia. Ethaee ioe?uaatho ana iiaua e iiaua
naienoaa i?e?iaeiuo oae e i?ioeannia, i?iecaiaeyo aaneiia/iia iiiaeanoai
ia nouanoaothueo a i?e?iaea aauae. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi IAOA?Ess IAEN*A?IAAIA.

A-o?aoueeo, iaoa?ey “eiie?oaony, oioia?aoe?oaony, ioia?aaeaaony iaoeie
iuouaieyie”. YOEI I?ECIAAONss I?EIOeEIEAEUeIAss IICIAAAAIINOUe
IAOA?EAEUeIIAI IE?A, /oi icia/aao niaeaniaaiea, niaiaaeaiea iaaeaeo
niaie niaea?aeaiey caeiiia iuoeaiey e caeiiia iauaeoeaiiai ie?a. Oaeo
oaeiai niaeaniaaiey iauyniyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii: iuoeaiea –
i?iaeoeo /aeiaa/aneiai iicaa; ii e /aeiaae, e aai iica – i?iaeoeou
i?e?iaeu, eioi?ua ?acaeaathony aianoa n iae. A eiia/iii n/aoa,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iuoeaiea – i?iaeoeo i?e?iaeu, a iioiio aai caeiiu
niaiaaeatho n caeiiaie iauaeoeaiiai ie?a.

Iiiyoea “iaoa?ey” auiieiyao oo aea ooieoeeth, /oi e iiiyoea “auoea”
Ia?iaieaea a aioe/iinoe eee Aiaa a n?aaeiaaaeiauea: aunooiaao aa?aioii
nouanoaiaaiey ie?a. Aeaei a oii, /oi iaoa?ee i?eienuaathony oa aea
oa?aeoa?enoeee, /oi e Aiao: aa/iinoue, iaoie/oiaeeiinoue,
ianioai?aiiinoue. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iia iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny a
ea/anoaa naiaia?aciiai iainiiaaiey nouanoaiaaiey ia oieueei
iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, ii e aeooiaiiai. IAOA?EAEUeIUE IE? ?ACAEAAAONss
*A?AC ACAEIIAeAENOAEA AAUAE E I?IOeANNIA. Yoi acaeiiaeaenoaea (a ia Aia)
aunooiaao, niaeanii iaoa?eaeecio, iniiaaieai ie?a.

Iaoa?ey, eae iu onoaiiaeee, iaen/a?iaaia, o.a. iiiaiia?acea eiie?aoiuo
iauaeoia, a eioi?uo iia nouanoaoao, aaneiia/ii. Ii aaneiia/iia aa
niaea?aeaiea ia oaioe/ii; iii oii?yaei/aii. I?aaeaea anaai iiaeii
aiai?eoue i NO?IAIEE IAOA?EE IA O?IAIA IAAEEAIE E AEEAIE I?E?IAeU.

A NO?OEOO?O IAOA?EE IA O?IAIA IAAEEAIE I?E?IAeU, n oi/ee c?aiey
nia?aiaiiie iaoee, aoiaeyo: yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu, oece/aneee aaeooi
(iniaia ninoiyiea iaoa?ee, aaea i?ienoiaeyo neiaeiua i?ioeannu iiyaeaiey
e en/aciiaaiey yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe), aoiiu, caacaeu, iieaeoeu, ieaiaou,
ieaiaoiua nenoaiu, aaeaeoeee (niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo ieaiaoiuo
nenoai e caacae), nenoaiu aaeaeoee, iaoaaaeaeoeee (nenoaiu
acaeiiaeaenoaothueo neiieaiee aaeaeoee). Oaeiua no?iaiey iaoa?ee,
nouanoaothuae ca i?aaeaeaie yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe e iaoaaaeaeoee, ethaee
aua ia iiciaee.

O?IAAIUe AEEAIE I?E?IAeU AEETH*AAO AeAA IIEOO?IAIss: AEIEIAE*ANEOTH E
NIOeEAEUeIOTH (iauanoaaiioth) aeeciue. Ia aeieiae/aneii o?iaia a
no?oeoo?o iaoa?ee aoiaeyo ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou (AeIE e ?IE i?enoonoaotho
a eeaoeao anao aeeauo i?aaieciia e auiieiytho aaaeiaeoea ooieoeee ii
o?aiaieth e ia?aaea/a aaiaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee), aaeee (aeieeaoi/iue
o?iaaiue aeecie), eeaoee e iaeiieeaoi/iua i?aaieciu, iiiaieeaoi/iua
i?aaieciu (?anoaiey e aeeaioiua), iiioeyoeee (niaieoiiinoe iniaae
iaeiiai aeaea, aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy caieiathuea ii?aaeaeaiiia i?ino?ainoai
e aini?iecaiaeyuea naay a iioiinoaa; i?eia? iiioeyoeee – noay aieeia,
noay ?ua, io?aaaeiee), aeioeaiicu (niaieoiiinoue iiioeyoeee, ianaeythueo
aeaiiue o/anoie nooe, aiaeu e iaoiaeyueony a ii?aaeaeaiiie nayce iaaeaeo
niaie e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie. I?eia? aeioeaiica – ean, a eioi?ii
iiioeyoeee aeeaoueo a iai aeeaioiuo, ?anoaiee, a?eaia, iee?ii?aaieciia
acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo niaie, ia?acoy oeaeinoioth ?aaiiaanioth
nenoaio), aeinoa?a (aeiaaeueiay nenoaia aeecie, ia?aciaaiiay a
?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey aeioeaiicia).

Ia nioeeaeueiii o?iaia a no?oeoo?a iaoa?ee iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea
yeaiaiou: naiuey, eeannu, ?anu, iaoeee e o.ae.

Iaoa?ey, eae oeacaii auoa, iaeaaeaao iiiai/eneaiiuie naienoaaie, ii
anoue n?aaee ieo oaeea, aac eioi?uo iia ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue. Oaeea
naienoaa iacuaathony AO?EAOOAIE. E iei ioiinyony aeaeaeaiea,
i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy.

OEEINIONEIA IIIssOEA AeAEAEAIEss IAICIA*AAO ETHAUA ACAEIIAeAENOAEss, A
OAEAEA ECIAIAIEss NINOIssIEE IAUAEOIA, EIOI?UA I?IENOIAessO A I?IOeANNA
YOEO ACAEIIAeAENOAEE. IIYOIIO AeAEAEAIEA ANOUe ECIAIAIEA AIIAUA.

Ana aaue ie?oaeathuaai ian ie?a iaoiaeyony a iinoiyiiii aeaeaeaiee,
eciaiaiee. Anoue oaeea ninoiyiey aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ua ia eciaiytho
ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee i?aaeiaoia. Iai?eia?, ana ciatho, /oi aioo?e
i?aaeiaoia i?ienoiaeeo “aaoaiay ieynea” yeaeo?iiia e ae?oaeo
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, ii i?e yoii aiaoiee aeae, ianoi ?aniieiaeaiey
i?aaeiaoia nio?aiythony iaeciaiiuie. Iu aini?eieiaai eo eae iaoiaeyueany
a iieia. IIEIE – YOI NINOIssIEA AeAEAEAIEss, EIOI?IA IA IA?OOAAO
EA*ANOAAIIIE NIAOeEOEEE I?AAeIAOA, AAI NOAAEEUeIINOE.

Nouanoaotho NINOIssIEss AeAEAEAIEss, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e ECIAIAI IETH
EA*ANOAAIIIAI NINOIssIEss I?AAeIAOIA. Caeanue aiciiaeiu aeaa
?acoeueoaoa: ?aniaae i?aaeiaoa ia aieaa i?inoua yeaiaiou (iai?eia?, a
i?ioeanna aieaiey) e, iaiai?io, ia?aciaaiea iiaiai, aieaa neiaeiiai
iauaeoa.

Eciaiaiea, nii?iaiaeaeathuaany iiyaeaieai iiauo ea/anoaaiiuo ninoiyiee,
eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?acaa?ouaaiea aiciiaeiinoae, ne?uouo a
i?aaeoanoaothueo ea/anoaaiiuo ninoiyieyo, iacuaathony ?ACAEOEAI.
Iai?eia?, a aeaeoaea ne?uoa aiciiaeiinoue noaoue aeoaii, e eiaaea
aeaeoaeue iiiaaeaao a aeaaii?eyoiua aeey iaai oneiaey. yoa aiciiaeiinoue
?aaeecoaony. AEaeoaeue ?acaeaaaony a aeoa.

eaaeaeiio no?oeoo?iiio o?iaith iaoa?ee niioaaonoaoao naiy OI?IA
AeAEAEAIEss: iaoaie/aneay, oece/aneay, oeie/aneay, aeieiae/aneay,
nioeeaeueiay. Yoe oi?iu acaeiinaycaiu.

I?INO?AINOAI – OI?IA AUOEss IAOA?EE, AU?AAEATHUAss I?IOssAEAIIINOUe
NINOAAEssTHUEO AA IAUAEOIA, EO NO?IAIEA EC YEAIAIOIA E *ANOAE.
I?ino?ainoai iaoaai ie?a eiaao o?e ecia?aiey, a iiyoiio aai iacuaatho
O?AOIA?IUI.

A?AIss – OI?IA AUOEss IAOA?EE, AU?AAEATHUAss AeEEOAEUeIINOUe
I?IOAEATHUEO I?IOeANNIA, IINEAAeIAAOAEUeIINOUe NIAIU NINOIssIEE A OIAeA
eciaiaiey e ?ACAEOEss IAOA?EAEUeIUO NENOAI. *aeiaae iao/eeny ecia?youe
a?aiy, n?aaieaay ?acee/iua i?ioeannu n iaeiei, aua?aiiui ca ia?acaoe
(yoaeii). Iai?eia?, iu n?aaieaaai aeeeoaeueiinoue nooie n aeaeaeaieai
/aniaie e ieiooiie no?aeie /ania. I?e yoii iaeei iai?io ii oeeoa?aeaoo
/aniaie no?aeee iu oneiaii iacuaaai “iaeei /an”.

Ii /aeiaaeo naienoaaiii e eiooeoeaiia /oanoai a?aiaie. A ian eae au
ano?iaiu “aeieiae/aneea /anu”. E caeanue iao ie/aai naa?ouanoanoaaiiiai,
anee o/anoue, /oi /aeiaae – caeiiiia?iue eoia ?acaeoey aaeaeoeee, a
iioiio iiaeao “/oanoaiaaoue” aa ?eoiu. Iaaeeee ioe?uee, /oi iaoe
aioo?aiiea i?aaiu ?aaioatho n ?aciie noaiaiueth eioaineaiinoe a ?aciia
a?aiy nooie. Iaaeaeo aeaoiy e /aou?ueiy /anaie ii/e oneeeaaaony
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ia/aie, i/euathuae i?aaieci io yaeia, a a /aou?a /ana
ii/e ana i?aaiu nieaeatho naith aeoeaiinoue. Ia neo/aeii a yoi a?aiy
/aua anaai oie?atho aieueiua ethaee.

A Ia/aea XX a. oeceea auyaeea aeoaieoth naycue iaaeaeo i?ino?ainoaii e
a?aiaiai. Ieacaeinue, /oi A?AIss ANOUe *AOAA?OIA ECIA?AIEA IE?A, a
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie n?ac iaoae Iaoaaaeaeoeee oa?aeoa?ecoaony
oi?ioeie 3+1 (o?e i?ino?ainoaaiiuo ecia?aiey e iaeii a?aiaiiia). Yoa
ooiaeaiaioaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea ii?aaeaeeea iaoa?eaeueiia no?iaiea
iaoaaaeaeoeee.

NAITH NIAOeEOEEO EIAAO I?INO?AINOAI E A?AIss AEECIE IAUANOAA.
*aeiaa/anoai, a ioee/ea io aeeaioiuo, n?aco aea ia/aei oi?ie?iaaoue
iniaoth i?ino?ainoaaiioth noa?o naiae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe: ecaioiaeyoue
i?oaeey o?oaea, no?ieoue aeeeeua e oeaeua iinaeaiey, nicaeaaaoue
ianoaeua, iaeiiaoieaaoue aeeeeo caa?ae e o.ae. ?yaeii n iainaiaiiie
i?e?iaeie iiyaeeanue “aoi?ay”, “i/aeiaa/aiiay” i?e?iaea. Anee a iaaeeaie
e aeieiae/aneie oi?iao iaoa?ee i?ino?ainoai aeeth/aao oieueei nayce
i?aaeiaoia, oi a NIOeEAEUeIIA I?INO?AINOAI AOIAeEO E IOIIOAIEA *AEIAAEA
E I?EIAOAI, E IANOO NAIAAI IAEOAIEss. Iai?eia?, iiiyoea ?iaeeia
oa?aeoa?ecoao ia oieueei ii?aaeaeaiioth oa??eoi?eth, ianoi ?iaeaeaiey e
aeecie /aeiaaea, ii e aai ioiioaiea e yoiio ianoo: ii eniuouaaao /oanoai
ethaae e eaiaeoaooo (yoi iiaeao auoue ean, ai?u, ii?a, iiey e ae?.) e
oineoao, anee ii eaeie-oi i?e/eia auioaeaeai aeeoue a ae?oaii ianoa.

NIOeEAEUeIIA A?AIss – OI?IA AUOEss IAUANOAA, AU?AAEATHUAss
AeEEOAEUeIINOUe ENOI?E*ANEEO I?IOeANNIA, EO NIAIU, AICIEEATHUEO A OIAeA
AeAssOAEUeIINOE ETHAeAE. Nioeeaeueiua i?ioeannu eiatho ?acioth
aeeeoaeueiinoue. ?iaeiieaiaiiua iauanoaa e ia?aua oeeaeeecaoeee
ae?aaiaai ie?a ooieyo ei?iyie a oieuo aaeia, ninoaaeythuoth ianeieueei
aeanyoeia ouny/ eao. N?aaeiaaaeiaia iauanoai i?inouanoaiaaei ieiei 1400
eao, a nia?aiaiiue niinia aeecie aeeeony anaai ieiei 300 eao. Niaia
yoaiia ?acaeoey iauanoaa oa?aeoa?ecoaony oauno?aieai ?eoia nioeeaeueiie
aeecie. Ia/aeny “aaa a?aiaie”, i?aauoathuee o?iaaiue aeieiae/aneiai
?eoia /aeiaa/aneiai oaea e i?ienoiaeyueo a iai oeceieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia. Yoi iaaaoeaii neacuaaaony ia caei?iauea ethaeae.

Nioeeaeueiia a?aiy oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia oieueei ia?aaiiia?iinoueth
i?ioaeaiey, ii e iiiaio?iaiaaie no?oeoo?ie. A iae iiaeii auaeaeeoue
a?aiy, ii?aaeaeythuaa enoi?eth i?ienoiaeaeaiey ?iaea /aeiaa/aneiai,
a?aiy ia?aciaaiey iaoeee e ia?iaeiinoae, a?aiy ?acaeoey e niaiu oeaeuo
yiio e oi?iaoeee, a oaeaea a?aiy eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai auoey /aeiaaea. A
naith i/a?aaeue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia auoea /aeiaaea iiae?acaeaeyaony ia
a?aiy aeaonoaa, io?i/anoaa, thiinoe, c?aeinoe, noa?inoe. E a eaaeaeii ec
yoeo a?aiai naie ?eoi e naie oeaiiinoe. Iai?eia?, a noa?inoe /aeiaae
ia?anoaao niaoeoue, “onie?yao” aaa a?aiaie, a oaeaea /aua, /ai a
iieiaeinoe, ?aciuoeyao i niunea aeecie, nia?oe.

I?aaenoaaeaiiia aai o/aiea i iaoa?ee aace?oaony ia aa eaieineii
ii?aaeaeaiee. Iaeiaei a iaoa a?aiy iaeioi?ua oeeiniou ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi
yoi ii?aaeaeaiea niaea?aeeo aeaa acaeiieneeth/athueo noaeaeaiey:
1. Iaoa?ey iacaaeneia io iaoaai
niciaiey. 2, Iaoa?ey anoue iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue, aeaiiay iai
a iuouaieyo.

Ia?aia noaeaeaiea io?eoeaao aoi?ia e iaiai?io. Oacen i iacaaeneiinoe
iaoa?ee io niciaiey iainiiaaoue ia oae i?inoi, eae eaaeaony ia ia?aue
acaeyae. Ia neo/aeii iiyoiio aua i?aaenoaaeoaee ?onneie ?aeeaeiciie
oeeinioee ia?aia noaeaeaiea ioiineee e ?ac?yaeo ciaiee, eioi?ua
iaaiciiaeii ie aeieacaoue, ie ii?iaa?aiooue. O?oaeiinoe n ii?aaeaeaieai
iaoa?ee iaecaaaeii niinianoaotho ?acaeoeth iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai o/aiey,
aieaa aeoaieiio aiaeeco aai iniiaiuo iiiyoee e i?eioeeiia.

Iaoa?eaeeci e eaeaaeeci – i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oeeinioneea iai?aaeaiey. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee oeeinioee iie aaaeoo neiaeiue, iai?yaeaiiue e
niaea?aeaoaeueiue nii? ae?oa n ae?oaii. Ii?aaeaeaiiui eiii?iiennii
iaaeaeo ieie iiaeii n/eoaoue AeOAEEC – oeeinioneia o/aiea i
nouanoaiaaiee aeaoo iacaaeneiuo ia/ae: iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai.
Iaeiaei iacaaoue aai “o?aoueei iai?aaeaieai” a oeeinioee iaeuecy.
Aeoaeeci – eeoue ?aciiaeaeiinoue eaeaaeecia, iineieueeo ii i?eciaao
iacaaeneiinoue niciaiey io iaoa?ee.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: O/aaiee aeey aocia. A 2 /. *.1. – I., 1939.
N. 20-37, 42-44, 43-60.

2. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Oeeinioey”. – I., 1991. N. 4-10.

3. ?aaeoaei A. A. Oeeinioey: Eo?n eaeoeee. – I., 1995. N. 9-25.

4. Nie?eei A. A. Iniiau oeeinioee: O/aa. iiniaea aeey aocia. – I., 1938.
N. 24-40.

5. Oeeinioey: E?aoeia o/aaiia iiniaea: *anoue 1: Enoi?eei-oeeinioneia
aaaaeaiea. – ?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1995. N. 4-10.

6. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aocia. – ?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1995. N. 6-25.

7. Oeeinioneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. – I., 1983. N. 375.

1. Oaia II. OEEINIOEss Ae?AAIAAI AINOIEA

Enoi?e/aneea oeiu oeeinioee e oeeinionoaiaaiey.

Oeeinioneay iuneue a ae?aaiae Eiaeee.

Ae?aaiaeeoaeneay oeeinioey.

Enoi?e/aneea oeiu Oeeinioee e Oeeinionoaiaaiey.

Ia i?ioeie eaeoeee ?a/ue a iniiaiii oea i niaoeeoeea oeeinioee, aa
ioee/ee io ae?oaeo oi?i ?aoaiey ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo aii?inia. Naaiaeiy
ia?aoiaeei e eco/aieth enoi?eei-oeeinioneiai i?ioeanna. *aeiaaeo,
iuoathuaiony aieeiooue a iaai, a aeaca i?aaeaea anaai a?inaaony
iiiaiia?acea oeeinioneeo o/aiee, oeie, oa/aiee e iai?aaeaiee. E i?aaeaea
/ai inaaeaaoue yoi iiiaiia?acea, ooi/iei ?yae enoiaeiuo iiiyoee,
ii?aaeaeei e?eoa?ee oeiieiaecaoeee e oeiu oeeinionoaiaaiey.

OEEINIONEIA O*AIEA – yoi nenoaia ii?aaeaeaiiuo, eiae/anee naycaiiuo
ae?oa n ae?oaii aicc?aiee oiai eee eiiai iuneeoaey.

OEEINIONEAss OEIEA – yoi niaieoiiinoue oeeinioneeo o/aiee, iauaaeeiaiiuo
eaeeie-eeai aaciauie eaeaeiuie i?eioeeiaie (ieaoiieci, aaa??ieci,
oiieci, ea?oaceainoai e o.ae.).

OEEINIONEIA OA*AIEA – niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo iiaeeoeeaoeee iaeieo e oao
aea eaeaeiuo i?eioeeiia, ?acaeaaaiuo ?acee/iuie, ia?aaeei
eiieo?e?othueie oeieaie (iaieaioeainoai, iiceoeaeci, ia?niiaeeci e
o.ae.).

OEEINIONEIA IAI?AAEAIEA – niaieoiiinoue oeeinioneeo oa/aiee (a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, o/aiee e oeie), eioi?ua i?e anai ?anoiaeaeaiee ae?oa n
ae?oaii, ionoaeaatho iaeioi?ua iauea, eiathuea i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea
iieiaeaiey (iaoa?eaeeci, eaeaaeeci, yiie?eci, nainoaeeci, ?aoeeiiaeeci,
e??aoeeiiaeeci e o.ae.).

Oeeinioey, oaeei ia?acii, ?acaeaaaony eae noieeiiaaiea ?acee/iuo
eaeaeiuo iiaeoiaeia, i?eioeeiia e ee/iinoae. Iiyoiio o?oaeiinoue a
oyniaiee i?aaeiaoa oeeinioee a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a naycaia n oai, /oi aa
eae oaeiaie i?inoi iao. ?aaeueii nouanoaiaaei e nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai
?acee/iuo o/aiee, oeie, oa/aiee e iai?aaeaiee, eioi?ua a eaeie-oi ia?a
nieeaea?iu ae?oa n ae?oaii, a a /ai-oi ii?iaa?aatho ae?oa ae?oaa.
I?e/ai, n ?acaeoeai enoi?eei-oeeinioneiai i?ioeanna i?aaeiao
oeeinioneiai ?aciuoeaiey e niinia ?ac?aoaiey oeeinioneeo i?iaeai
iaiythony.

Eiaiii ?aciiia?acea oeeinioneeo i?iaeai e niiniaia eo ?aoaiey iinoaaeee
ia?aae enoi?eei-oeeinioneie iaoeie caaea/o oeiieiaecaoeee oeeinioneeo
o/aiee. A aa iniiaa eaaeao niaea?aeaoaeueiue e a?aiaiiie i?eioeeiu.

OEIIEIAECAOeEss II NIAeA?AEAOAEUeIIIO I?EIOeEIO:

1. A caaeneiinoe io niiniaa ?aoaiey iniiaiiai aii?ina oeeinioee, eae iu
oaea onoaiiaeee, ia?aciaaeenue e iinoiyiii niia?ie/atho ae?oa n ae?oaii
aeaa iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey – iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia e eaeaaeenoe/aneia,
eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeaii naieie enoi?e/aneeie oeieaie,
eiathueie nianoaaiiua enoiee e o?aaeeoeee.

2. Ae?oaay eeiey oeiieiaecaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony ioiioaieai iuneeoaeae e
iniiaiui oi?iai e aeaeai iiciaiey: /oanoaaiiiai e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
(?acoiiiai, ?annoaei/iiai). Oeeiniou, ianoaeaathuea ia aeaaiie ?iee
/oanoa, iuouaiee a i?ioeanna iiciaiey, iieo/eee a enoi?ee oeeinioee
iacaaiea NAINOAEENOIA (io eao. nainon – iuouaiea, /oanoai).
I?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue nainoaeenoe/aneiio iai?aaeaieth a aiinaieiaee –
?AOeEIIAEECI (io eao. ?aoeei – ?acoi), eiaaea /oanoaaiiua ciaiey ia
ioaa?aathony, ii ?anniao?eaathony iie eae “oaiiua”, ianiaa?oaiiua,
ianiiniaiua iinoe/ue nouiinoue aauae.

3. Aua iaeei aiaei?acaeae a enoi?ee oeeinioee i?ioiaeeo ii eeiee
i?ioeainoiyiey e??aoeeiiaeecia ?aoeeiiaeecio. E??AOeEIIAEENOU
ia?aie/eaatho eee aeaaea iieiinoueth io?eoeatho ?ieue ?acoia a i?ioeanna
iiciaiey, ioaiaeyo aa aia?aoeeiiaeueiui oi?iai ineoeee: ienoe/aneie
eiooeoeee, ioe?iaaieth, naa?o/oanoaaiiiio nica?oeaieth e o.ae. Iie
enoiaeyo ec iinooeaoa aano?aeiinoe, aeiae/iinoe naiiai auoey, ia
iiaeaeathuaainy, ii eo iiaieth, ie ?acoiiiio iainiiaaieth, ie
iauyniaieth.

4. oeeinioneea o/aiey ?acee/athony e ii IAOIAeO. Ii yoiio e?eoa?eth eae
i?ioeia, oae e nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea iunee iiaeao auoue ioianaii (ii
i?aeiouanoao) e iaeiie ec aeaoo eiioeaioeee: IAOAOECE*ANEIE eee
AeEAEAEOE*ANEIE. Iaoaoece/aneie oeeinioeae (ni a?aiai Aaaaey) noaee
iacuaaoue oo, eioi?ay iuoaeanue aeaoue iaeiicia/iia, caaa?oaiiia
ecia?aaeaiea ie?a a aioiauo, neiaeeaoeony iiiyoeyo. Iineieueeo nouiinoue
aauae iaeciaiia e aa/ia, iie iaiiaeaeaeiu. Auaanoe eo ec ninoiyiey
iieiy, i?eaeaoue ei aeaeaeaiea iiaeao eeoue AIAOIssss neea (eae yoi
eiaao ianoi a iau/iie, iuethoiiianeie iaoaieea).

Aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae enoiaeeo ec i?eciaiey iiaeaeaeiinoe, oaeo/anoe
oeeinioneeo iiiyoee. I?e yoii enoi/iee aeaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey iaoiaeeony
ia aia, a AIOO?E, o.a. a naiii yaeaiee. A ie?a, n/eoatho aeeaeaeoeee,
iao aioiauo aauae, a anoue I?IOeANNU.

Iiaeii iacaaoue eiua e?eoa?ee oeiieiaecaoeee oeeinioneeo o/aiee. Iie
iiaoo auoue ?aeeaeicii-eaeaaeenoe/aneeie e aoaenoe/aneeie (ii ioiioaieth
e ?aeeaee), noeeaioe/aneeie (io eao. noeeaioea – iaoea) e
aioenoeeaioe/aneeie (ii ioiioaieth e iaoea) e o.ae.

OEIIEIAECAOeEss II A?AIAIIIIO I?EIOeEIO: Aeey oiai aea, /oiau aunaaoeoue
eciai/eaue oa?aeoa? naiiai i?ioeanna oeeinioneiai oai?/anoaa, aai
iaoneiaeaiiinoue iauaeoeaiuie oaeoi?aie aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aiiaua,
anoue niune i?iaanoe oeiieiaecaoeeth ii a?aiaiiiio i?eioeeio e aaanoe
iiiyoea “enoi?e/aneee oei oeeinionoaiaaiey”. Ii iauaaeeiyao ia
aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia, a nia?aiaiieeia, o.a. oeeinioia ?aciuo acaeyaeia e
oaaaeaeaiee, ii noi?ie?iaaaoeony a aaeeiii i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie
eoeueoo?u. Iiyoiio eaaeaeay e?oiiay yiioa ciaao naie enoi?e/aneee oei
oeeinionoaiaaiey (e naie oa?aeoa?iue oei oeeinioa).

A aioe/iinoe neiaeeeny NICA?OeAOAEUeIUE OEI OEEINIONOAIAAIEss (e
niioaaonoaaiii – nica?oeaoaeueiue nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee oei
ee/iinoe oeeinioa). Yoi aiieia niioaaonoaiaaei oai oneiaeyi, a eioi?uo
i?ioaeae oiaaea i?ioeann aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa; aeanoeiio ioaeaeaieth
e i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieth oinoaaiiiai e oece/aneiai o?oaea, eiaaea
aaeeinoaaiii aeinoieiui caiyoeai aeey a?aaeaeaieia iieena i?eciaaaeny
oieueei o?oae oinoaaiiue (aano?aeoii-aeooiaiue). Aunoeie oeaiiinoyie,
eaeaaeii naiaiaeiiai /aeiaaea n/eoaeenue aaciyoaaeiinoue,
iaaiciooeiinoue aeooa, niieieiia nica?oeaiea aa/iie enoeiu. I?e yoii
nioeeaeueiay ?ieue oeeinioa naiaeeeanue e iauyniaieth oaea i?ioaaeoeo
niauoee.

Aeeceei e nica?oeaoaeueiiio yaeyaony OIIC?EOAEUeIUE OEI
OEEINIONOAIAAIEss, i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia e??aoeeiiaeueiua e
naa?o?aoeeiiaeueiua enoi/ieee iiciaiey (eiooeoeeth, ioe?iaaiea). Ii
iniaaiii oa?aeoa?ai aeey ?aeeaeiciie e ?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneie oeeinioee
Iicaeiyy aioe/iinoue, n?aaeiaaaeiauea, ?onneee ?aeeaeiciue ?aiannain
eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX aa.). Oeaeue aai – auoiae ca i?aaeaeu
/oanoaaiii-aini?eieiaaiiai ie?a, iaoiaeaeaiea eioeiiie nayce iaaeaeo
aa?ie e ciaieai, ?aeeaeae e iaoeie.

Ia?enenoneay oeeinioey ciaiaioao niaie noaiiaeaiea e ooaa?aeaeaiea
nioeeaeueii-i?aia?aciaaoaeueiiai, AeAssOAEUeIIAI OEIA OEEINIONOAIAAIEss,
oeaeue e niune eioi?iai – eciaiaiea ie?a. I?aaaea, e aei Ia?ena auee
oeeiniou, ia/oaaoea i ?aaeeeaeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo ia?aiaiao. Iaeiaei
oieueei ia?eneci iaoae eiie?aoiue noauaeo nioeeaeueiiai aeaenoaey –
ia?iaeiua iannu, ?aai/ee eeann.

Iiaaeoee, NIOeEAEUeII-YEIEIAE*ANEEE OEI OEEINIONOAIAAIEss (o/aiea I. O.
Oaaei?iaa i ?aaoeyoeee i?e?iaeu, eaeae A. E. Aa?iaaeneiai i iiinoa?a,
oai?aoe/aneea caeeth/aiey ?eineiai eeoaa) i?aaeiieaaaao oaea ia
eciaiaiea, a NIO?AIAIEA ie?a.

Eoae, eco/aiea enoi?ee oeeinioee ia/iai n nica?oeaoaeueiiai oeia
oeeinionoaiaaiey, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey ae?aaieo oeeaeeecaoeee.

A VI a. aei i.y. a o?ao i/aaao ae?aaiae oeeaeeecaoeee – a Eeoaa, Eiaeee
e A?aoeee – i?aeoe/anee iaeiia?aiaiii aicieeaao oeeinioey. Aa
?iaeaeaieth i?aaeoanoaiaae aeeeoaeueiue i?ioeann ia?aoiaea io
ieoieiae/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey e ie?iaicc?aieth, iie?aaoaiony ia ciaiea,
ia?aoaiiia a eioaeeaeooaeueiii iienea. Noaiiaeaieth oeeinioee
niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee (caiaia a?iicu aeaeacii),
iiyaeaiea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee, ineaaeaiea ?iaeiieaiaiiuo
no?oeoo?, aicieeiiaaiea ia?auo ainoaea?noa, ?ino iao/iuo ciaiee e
oneeaiea e?eoe/aneiai aeooa. Iauiinoue aaiacena (io a?a/.
aaianeni?ienoiaeaeaiea, aicieeiiaaiea) iaeiaei ia eneeth/aao
naiaia?acey oeeinioneiai iuoeaiey a eaaeaeii ec iacaaiiuo i/aaia
oeeaeeecaoeee.

A Eiaeee, ianiio?y ia eiioaeou n ae?oaeie ae?aaiaeoeie eoeueoo?aie,
iuneue n naiiai ia/aea ?acaeaaeanue aieaa eee iaiaa naiinoiyoaeueii.
I?aaeiinueee e ia/aeueiua oi?iu oeeinioneiai iuoeaiey caeanue iinoaiaiii
e?enoaeeeciaaeenue a oeaeueiua oeeinioneea nenoaiu, ?acaeoea eioi?uo
iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue ia aeeeoaeueiuo a?aiaiiuo io?aceao. Eiaeeeneay
oeeinioneay o?aaeeoeey ieeiaaea iieiinoueth ia i?a?uaaeanue. Iia
nouanoaiaaea a iauanoaa eae onoie/eaue yeaiaio aa/ii aeeaiai
eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey.

Ae?aaiaeeoaeneoth oeeinioeth oaeaea iaeuecy ioaeaeyoue io ?acaeoey
aeooiaiie aeecie eeoaeneiai iauanoaa a oeaeii. Iia ?acaeaaeanue
naiinoiyoaeueii. Iiaeii oieueei aiai?eoue i nouanoaaiiii aeeyiee
aoaeaeecia (nouiinoue o/aiey ni. ieaea), ii neaaeoao eiaoue aaeaeo, /oi
ii a oa/aiea ?yaea aaeia aue i?eniiniaeai e ianoiie o?aaeeoeee. Oae /oi
eeoaeneoth oeeinioeth iiaeii oa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae aaeeiia oeaeia,
niiniaiia eioaa?e?iaaoue a naaa iiaua aiaoiea aeeyiey.

Oeeinioneay iuneue a ae?aaiae Eiaeee.

Aaaeiaeoae niaoeeoe/aneie /a?oie ae?aaiaeiaeeeneie oeeinioee yaeyaony aa
ia?ac?uaiay naycue n ?aeeaeae. Caeanue oeeinioneea nenoaiu aunooiaee oi
eae i?aaie/aneee yeaiaio ?aeeaeiciuo o/aiee, oi eae o/aiea, ?acei
e?eoeeothuaa oo eee eioth ?aeeaeth. Ia neo/aeii iaeiei ec ia?auo
enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee i aeecie ae?aaiaeiaeeeneiai iauanoaa, i noaiaie
iiciaiey ie?oaeathuaai ie?a yaeyaony o.i. AAAeE*ANEAss (io naine?,
aaaea, aoea. – ciaiea, aaaeaiea io aeae – ciaoue) EEOA?AOO?A. ?a/ue
eaeao ia iaoe?iii iaai?a oaenoia eiaeonneie eoeueoo?u, eioi?ua
ninoaaeyeenue a oa/aiea i?eaeeceoaeueii aeaayoe noieaoee (1500-600 eao
aei i.y.).

Aaaeu – oeaiiue enoi/iee ae?aaiaeiaeeeneiai oiic?aiey. O?aaeeoeeiiii eo
aeaeyo ia ii?aaeaeaiiua a?oiiu oaenoia:

I. Ae?aaiaeoay /anoue Aaae – /aou?a Aaaeu: “?eaaaaea” (aeiiu),
“ssaeaeo?aaaea” (aea?oaaiiua oi?ioeu), “Naiiaaaea” (iaiaau),
“Aooa?aiaaaea” (caeeeiaiey).

II. A?aoiaiu – ?oeiaiaenoaa aaaee/aneiai ?eooaea, oieeiaaiea eo
nie?iaaiiiai niunea, i?aaeaea anaai – aea?oaii?eiioaiee.

III. A?aiueyee – oaenou niaeoeyoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
iooaeueieeia.

IV. Caeeth/eoaeueiue yoai aaaeeeneiai ia?eiaea (aaaeaioa, o.a. eiiaoe
Aaae) ninoaaeytho Oiaieoaaeu (io naine?, oiaieoaae, aoea. – neaeaiea
ieiei, o.a. aie?oa o/eoaey n oeaeueth iiciaiey enoeiu, ionthaea iicaea –
nie?iaaiiia ciaiea, oaeiia o/aiea) – o?aeoaou ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneiai
oa?aeoa?a, iauyniythuea oaeiue, aioo?aiiee niune Aaae. Ei?ion Oiaieoaae
ninoaaeyao 108 oaenoia, ae?aaiaeoea ec ieo ainoiaeyo, aeaeeii, e VI-III
aa. aei i.y., a iicaeiaeoea – e XIV-XV aa. i.y. Oeaio? oyaeanoe, a
ioee/ea io Aaae, caeanue ia?aiineony n aiaoiae, ?eooaeueiie ia
aioo?aiithth noi?iio yaeaiee.

Ioiioaiea e aaoi?eoaoo Aaae ii?aaeaeeei e eeanneoeeaoeeth nenoai
ae?aaiaeiaeeeneiai oiic?aiey. Oeieu ae?aaiaeiaeeeneie oeeinioee i?eiyoi
aeaeeoue ia I?OIAeIENAEUeIUA (a?aoiaineea), eioi?ua noi?ie?iaaeenue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia oaenoao Aaae (ieiaina, aaaeaioa) e ia?aciaaiiua ia
iacaaeneiii iiuoa e ?aciuoeaiee (naieouey, eiaa, iueyy, aaeoaoeea).
Ae?oaie aeae oeie – IAI?OIAeIENAEUeIUA (o?aiaineea), ioaa?aaaoea
aaoi?eoao Aaae: eieayoa, /a?aaea, aeaeaeieci, aoaeaeeci. Yoe oeieu ia
niaiyee ae?oa ae?oaa, a nouanoaiaaee ia?aeeaeueii, i?e/ai eaaeaeay ec
ieo ouaoaeueii ?anniao?eaaea a?aoiaiou anao ae?oaeo e no?aieeanue e
yioeeeeiiaaee/iinoe eceiaeaiey naieo iuneae.

I?e anai iiiaiia?acee oeeinioneeo aicc?aiee e eiioeaioeee ie?iono?ienoaa
a ae?aaiaeiaeeeneie iunee auaeaeyaony ?yae iaueo iiiaioia a iiaeoiaeao e
?aoaieth i?iaeai.

I?aaeaea anaai aeey ae?aaiaeiaeeeneie Oeeinioee oa?aeoa?ai e?aeiee
i?e?iaeioeaio?eci e oaioeaio?eci (io a?a/ oai – Aia).

Niaeanii aa aicc?aieyi, nouanoaoao ia?iiiay Anaeaiiay, aaneiia/iay a.
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Iia oi ieeeeiiu eao iaoiaeeony a ia?aicaeaiiii
oaina (a ae?aaiaa?, ieoieiaee – noeoey, yeiau nouanoaiaaaoay aei
aicieeiiaaiey ie?a, caiee n aa aeeciueth – Ii/ue A?aoiu) oi i?eia?aoaea
oii?yaei/aiiinoue, aa?iiieth e aeeciue (Aeaiue A?aoiu). Yoe niaiu
aan/eneaiiu e aaneiia/iu. Caiey – eeoue iaeay ian/eiea ai anaeaineii
e?oaiai?ioa, a aeoo *aeiaaea – eeoue enei?ea ie?iaie eaeaaeueiie
noanoaioeee, /anoe/ea aaniethoa, caeeth/aiiay a /aeiaa/aneii oaea e
aeaaeaeouay inaiaiaeaeaiey io iaai. Inaiaiaeeaoenue io iaai, iia eeai
aac inoaoea ?anoai?yaony a yoii aaniethoa, eeai iieiinoueth
i?aia?acoaony, iaiyy naia niaea?aeaiea e no?oeoo?o, noaiiaeony
niaa?oaiii eiie (naina?a – naine?., aoeaaeueii – i?ioiaeaeaiea /a?ac
/oi-eeai, ia?a?iaeaeaiea, aani?a?uaiia ia?a?iaeaeaiea ee/iinoe eee
aeooe). Yeaiaiou o/aiey naina?u iiaeii iaeoe oaea a a?aoiaiao, ii a
Oiaieoaaeao yoa iuneue aaniethoece?oaony e aicaiaeeony a iaeei ec
aeaaiuo oacenia.

CAEII AICAeAssIEss (ea?ia – io naine?. – aeaenoaea, aeaei, ae?aaee; a
oe?ieii niunea – iauay noiia niaa?oaiiuo anyeei aeeaui nouanoaii
iinooieia, a oceii – aeeyiea yoeo iinooieia ia oa?aeoa? ianoiyuaai e
iineaaeothuaai nouanoaiaaiey) aeeeooao iinoiyiiia aeeth/aiea a yoio
e?oaiai?io ia?a?iaeaeaiee e aeaoa?ieie?oao (io eao. aeaoa?ieii –
ii?aaeaeyth) aoaeouaa ?iaeaeaiea, eioi?ia yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii anao
aeayiee i?aaeoanoaothueo aeeciae. Oieueei oio, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
oaenou, eoi niaa?oae aeaaea aeaenoaey, aeee a niaeanee n aeaenoaothuae
ii?aeueth, ?iaeeony a aoaeouae aeecie eae a?aoiai (io naine?. –
nayuaiiee e iiiao), eoao?ey (io naine?. – aieiu e i?aaenoaaeoaee
i?aaeiae ieaiaiiie ciaoe) eee aaeouey (io naine?. – caieaaeaeueoeu,
?aianeaiieee e oi?aiaoeu). Oio, /uee aeaenoaey ia auee i?aaeeueiu, a
aoaeouae aeecie iiaeao ?iaeeoueny eae /eai iecoae aa?iu (io naine?. –
nineiaea), eeai aea aoiai (io naine?. – aeuoaiea, aeooa, y nai) iiiaaeao
a oaeaniia o?aieeeua aeeaioiiai. Ia oieueei aa?iu, ii e ana, n /ai
/aeiaae ano?a/aaony a aeecie, ii?aaeaeaii ea?iie.

E?oaiai?io aeecie aa/ai, e ana a ie?a aio iiae/eiyaony. Aiae eae
ee/iinoe ia nouanoaotho, ai?i/ai eae ia nouanoaoao e /aeiaae,
ia?aie/aiiue i?ino?ainoaii e a?aiaiai. Aoiai,

eiaaea iieeaeaao aeaei, niaeaeaiiia ia iia?aaaeueiii eino?a, iiae
aeeyieai ea?iu i?eioaeaeai iinoiyiii aica?auaoueny a yoio e?oaiai?io,
iaoiaeeoue neaaeothuea aiieiuaiey, eee, eae aiai?yo oaenou, eaeoe iooai
iooeia (naine?. – ieo?uyia). Iiciaiea (iaeia ec oeaio?aeueiuo oai
Oiaieoaae) ninoieo a iieiii iniciaiee oiaeaeanoaa aoiaia e a?aoiu (io
naine?. – aacee/iia nouaa). E eeoue oio, eoi yoi aaeeinoai iniciaao,
inaiaiaeaeaaony io aaneiia/iie oeaie ia?a?iaeaeaiee (naina?u) e
aiciineony iaae ?aaeinoueth e nei?aueth, aeeciueth e nia?oueth. Aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay aeooa aica?auaaony e a?aoia, aaea e inoaaony aa/ii,
aueaey ec-iiae aeeyiey ea?iu. Yoi e anoue, eae o/ao Oiaieoaaeu, iooue
aiaia (naine?. – aeaaayia).

Iiiuoea caiaieoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i aiaeanoaaiiie i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoe
i?aanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea eaeaae anoanoaaiiiai einie/aneiai i?aanoaaiiiai
ie?iii?yaeea ii?aaeaeyao ae?oaea iauaniaea?aeaoaeueiua iiiaiou
ae?aaiaeiaeeeneie oeeinioneie iunee:

· aaniethoiue caeii ea?iu ii ioiioaieth ei anaio aeeaiio aunooiaao eae
aa/iue ie?iii?yaeie Anaeaiiie, aaea eaaeaeiio aicaeaaony ii niaa?oaiiiio
ei;

· ie? aunooiaao eae a?aia aeey aeayiee, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho aoaeouaa
/aeiaaea;

· iaaaaeaiea ea?ie/aneeo caeiiia, ono?ienoaa ie?oaeathuae /aeiaaea
?aaeueiinoe i?eaiaeeo e io?eoeaoaeueiui iineaaenoaeyi, iaoaao
inaiaiaeaeaieth, iaoneiaeeaaao ian/anouey e no?aaeaiey eae a aeaiiie,
oae e a iineaaeothueo aeeciyo /aeiaaea;

· iiyoiio ciaiey ia iiaoo auoue eneeth/eoaeueii oai?aoe/aneeie, a
aeieaeiu aunooiaoue a naiae i?aanoaaiii-i?aeoe/aneie eiinoane (io a?a/.
eiinoanen – nouiinoue), au?aaaouaaoue ii?iu i?aaeeueiiai iiaaaeaiey e
?oeiaiaenoaa a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie;

· aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeiu niaoeeoe/aneea iiciaaaoaeueiua i?ioeaaeo?u e
aeaenoaey (iai?a?uaiay nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue iaae i?aaeiaoii e iniaue
naiieiio?ieue, ono?aiythuee no?anoe, e o.i.).

Iacaaiiua auoa ae?aaiaeiaeeeneea oeeinioneea oeieu e eiioeaio?e?otho
naia aieiaiea ia iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo ec yoeo i?iaeai.

AAAeAIOA oaaaeaeaia a aunoai aaoi?eoaoa Aaae, niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo
?anniao?eaaao eae ioe?iaaiea, enoi/iee enoeiiiai ciaiey. Aaaeu
nouanoaiaaee aei ia/aea ie?a e aicieeee ec aeuoaiey a?aoiaia (nouiinoue
iiiyoey ni. ieaea).

Aaaeaioa i?eciaao Aiaa eae oai?oea ie?a e ?acaeaaao o/aiea i A?aoiaia e
aoiaia, ?eoa, aeoa?ia, ea?ia, naina?a, iieoa:

· A?aoiai – aaceeeia, aaniethoiia aeooiaiia ia/aei ie?a, aunoay
iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue, aia eioi?ie ie/aai iao. Ei nicaeaiu aia ie?u,
nai aea ii – aia a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa, aia i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee;

· aoiai – einie/aneia aeooiaiia ia/aei, “y”, aeooa. Aoiai eae aunoay
noauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue i?ioeaiiieiaeia A?aoiaio e iaeiia?aiaiii
niaiaaeaao n iei. Aoiai – iniciathuee naay A?aoiai. A eoiaa iie
ioiaeaeanoaeythony. Aoiai (A?aoiai) yoi e ia/aei-ie?a, e aai oai?aoe, e
aai caaa?oaiea. Nia?oue – neeyiea n aoiaiii;

· ?eoa (naine?.) – oieaa?naeueiue einie/aneee caeii, ii?aaeaeythuee
aeaeaeaiea naaoee, aeiaeaeue, ?ino ?anoaiee, aeeciue aeeaioiuo e
ethaeae, aeayiey aiaia. ?eoa ia aeaao Anaeaiiie aianoue a oain. Iia
iaania/eaaao ii?yaeie aa e?oaia?auaiey. Iiiaeanoaaiiinoue ie?oaeathuaai
ie?a aaeeie/iua aauae eeethci?ia e ii?iaeaeaia aaeaeueae (naine?.) –
/aeiaa/aneei iaciaiueai,

· naina?a,- eae aai oaea ecaanoii, – o/aiea i ia?anaeaiee aeoo, eioi?ua
iinea aeaaee oaea anaeythony a i/a?aaeiia iiaia oaei. Aeooa aannia?oia,
aa no?ainoaey ia eiatho eiioea;

· aeoa?ia (naine?.) – i?aanoaaiiue aeiea eee caeii, eioi?ue eiaea
eaaeaeay ae?aaiaeiaeeeneay aa?ia. A caaeneiinoe io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
ea?iu – iauae noiiu niaa?oaiiuo a aeecie iinooieia – ii?aaeaeyeanue
aeaeueiaeoay noaeueaa aeooe;

· iieoa (naine?.) – inaiaiaeaeaiea aeooe ec-iiae aeaenoaey caeiia
naina?u a neo/aa oi/iiai eniieiaiey aeoa?iu i?aaenoaaeoaeai aunoae aa?iu
– a?aoiaiii. Aeooa noaiiaeony iacaaeneiie io ie?a e neeaaaony ni naiei
oai?oeii aoiaiii, ia?aoay enoeiiia, aaneiia/iia “y”. Iieoa aiciiaeia i?e
aeecie, aeey /aai iaiaoiaeeii i?aiaeieaoue iaciaiea – aaeaeueth,
iiaeaaeoue no?anoe e aeaeaiey, inaiaiaeeoueny io aiaaonoaa, eaee,
ia?anoe io?aoaiiia niieienoaea.

Ieiaina. Yoa oeiea ?acaeaaeanue n aeaaieo ii? e ia?aiia/aeueii auea
nenoaiie i?aaee, iiiiaathueo iiieiaieth Aaae. Ia?aui aa nio?aieaoeiny
oaenoai yaeyaony o?aeoao Aeaeaeieie (aeee, aeaeeii, iaaeaeo II a aei
i.y. e II a. i.y.). Iia caieiaeanue aeieacaoaeuenoaii iaiia?aoeiinoe e
aa/iinoe Aaae. Ieiaina aini?eieiaea aaaee/aneea oaenou ia oieueei eae
aunoee aaoi?eoao, ii e aeaeaea a ieo naa?o/oanoaaiioth oieaa?naeueioth
noanoaioeeth, eioi?ay nouanoaoao aa/ii e yaeyaony aaniethoiie. Niaeanii
yoiio o/aieth, iineaaeiaaoaeueiia auiieiaiea oiai, /aio o/ao Aaaeu,
yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui iooai inaiaiaeaeaiey ec ioo naina?u e ea?iu.

Ieiaina, a ioee/ea io aaaeaiou, aa?eea a enoeiiinoue anao ?iaeia
iiciaiey e aunooiaea i?ioea oacena ia eeethci?iinoe aini?eieiaaiuo
aaeeie/iuo i?aaeiaoia e eo naienoa. Iia i?eciaaaea ?aaeueiinoue
iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a e ae?oaeo iauaeoia (aeooe, aiae e o.i.). Ie?, ii
o/aieth ieiainu, i?aaiecoaony ec aoiiia ii ii?aeueiiio caeiio ea?iu.
Aeooa iiieiaaony eae aa/iay e aaneiia/iay noanoaioeey, naycaiiay n
oaeii, ii ia oie?athuay n iei. Iia iaeaaeaao niciaieai eae iaeei
ea/anoaii, aicieeathuei eeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo (eiaaea aeooa
niaaeeiyaony n oaeii e ia?aae i?aaiaie aini?eyoey iaoiaeeony iauaeo).
Oai?ey i?e/eiiinoe ieiaina enoiaeeo ec i?eciaiey iniaie iaaeaeeiie neeu,
i?iecaiaeyuae neaaenoaea. Caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey e o/aiea ieiainu ia
iniaie iioaioeeaeueiie yia?aee, aicieeathuae a aeooa i?e auiieiaiee
?eooaea e aeaeouae a aoaeouai ianeaaeaeaiea aai ieiaeaie.

Naieouey. Iacaaiea naieouey (naine?., aoea. – /enei, ia?a/eneaiea,
?an/ao) iauyniyaony, aeaeeii, oai, /oi oeiea no?ieony eae aiaeeoe/aneia
ia?a/eneaiea yeaiaioia einiina a eo noaiiaeaiee io enoiaeiuo i?eioeeiia
aei anaai iiiaiia?acey ie?a iauaeoia. Iniiaaoaeai n/eoaaony Eaieea)(VII
a. aei i.y.). Eeanne/aneay naieouey i?eciaao aaoi?eoao Aaae, ii n/eoaao
auoea Aiaa iaaeieacoaiui e no?ieo ciaiea ia iniiaa iacaaeneiiai iiuoa e
?aciuoeaiey.

Naieouey o/eo, /oi a ie?a iaee/anoaotho aeaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo
ia?aiia/aea: i?ae?eoe (naine?.) – i?e?iaea, iaoa?ey e io?ooa (naine?.,
aoea. – /aeiaae, ioae/eia) – aeoo, niciaiea. I?ae?eoe aeoeaia e
eciai/eaa. Io?ooa ianneaai; yoi niciaiea, canouaoaa a Naiinica?oeaiee.
I?ae?eoe ninoieo ec o?ao noanoaioeee-nee (aoi – naine?., aoea. –
ea/anoai, ieoue): naooau (naine?.) – iniiau oaeiaieuenoaey e enoi/ieea
?aaeinoe, naaoa, caoai ?aaeaeana (naine?.) – enoi/ieea aeaeaeaiey,
i?e/eiu no?aaeaiey e, iaeiiaoe, oaiana (naine?.) – ianneaiiai
io?eoeaoaeueiiai ia/aea, enoi/ieea oueiu, einiinoe, aac?acee/ey. I?e
nii?eeiniiaaiee io?ooe n i?ae?eoe ia?ooaaony eneiiiia ?aaiiaanea aoi. A
?acoeueoaoa eo niauaiey e eiiaeiaoeee aicieeatho i?aaeiaou,
iaiieiythuea Anaeaiioth. ?acaa?ouaaiea i?ae?eoe eaeao a oece/aneii e
ineoe/aneii iai?aaeaieyo. Ia ia?aie nooiaie ia?acoaony iaoao (naine?.) –
iniiaa anaai iaoa?eaeueiiai e aoaeaeoe (naine?.) – ie?iaie aeoo e ?acoi.
Ia aoi?ie nooiaie aicieeaao aoaiea?a (naine?.) – eiaeeaeaeoaeece?othuaa
ia/aei (iia, “ss”). Ec aoaiea?u n i?aiaeaaeaieai aoiu oaiana aicieeaao
iyoue oaiiao? (naine?.) – oiieeo yeaiaioa, iaaini?eieiaaiuo /oanoaaie
iioaioeee caoea, inycaiey, oeaaoa, aeona, caiaoa, ec eioi?uo aeaeaa
ia?acothony iyoue aoooaauanoaaiiuo yeaiaioia – caiey, aiaea, aicaeoo,
iaiiue e yoe?. Ec aoaiea?u n i?aiaeaaeaieai naooau aicieeatho iyoue
i?aaiia aini?eyoey e iyoue i?aaiia aeaenoaey, a oaeaea oi (iaian –
naine?.). Anaai, oaeei ia?acii, a naieouey ian/eouaaaony 25 ia/ae. Ec
ieo ana, e?iia io?ooe, ia?acotho ie? “ia -ss”. No?aaeaiea oo?a/eaaao
naie i?e/eiu, anee /aeiaae iieiao, /oi aai iiaeeeiiia “ss” iaoiaeeony
aia i?e?iaeu, oaea e aeaaea, oia. Iiyoiio, o/eo naieouey, iieoa
aiciiaeia i?e aeecie.

EIAA (naine?., aoea. – niaaeeiaiea, o/anoea, ii?yaeie, a oaeaea aeoaieia
?aciuoeaiea, nica?oeaiea). I?aeoeea eiae oiiieiaaony aua a Aaaeao.
Iniiaaoaeue eeanne/aneie eiae – Iaoai-aeaeaee (II a. aei i.y.). Eiaa
?acaeaeyao iioieiaeth naieouey, ii o?aaoao iieeiiaiey a?aoiaio (aiao),
iiieiaaiiio eae aaniethoiue aeoo, aa/iue, anai?iieeathuee, aacaeanouee,
anaiiaouee, anaciathuee, ia iiaeaa?aeaiiue no?aaeaieyi e ian/anoueyi e
i?aayuee ie?ii. Aa aeaaiia niaea?aeaiea – ?ac?aaioea i?aeoe/aneiai iooe
e inaiaiaeaeaieth /a?ac o?aie?iaeo oaea e aeooa. Eiaa icia/aao
i?ae?auaiea caaeneiinoe /enoiai aeooa eee “ss” io aeayoaeueiinoe oaea,
/oanoa, a oaeaea oia, eioi?ue ioeai/ii ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n “ss”. Nenoaia
i/euaiey aeooa io ?aaeaeana e auyaeaiey naooau i?aaeiieaaaao ainaiue
nooiaiae: yia (iaocaeaiea), ieyia (au?aaioea i?aanoaaiiuo onoaiiaie),
anaia (onoie/eaia ?aaiiaaniia iieiaeaiea oaea), i?aiayia (i?aaeeueiia
aeuoaiea), i?aoueyoa?a (ecieyoeey /oanoa), aeoa?aia (aieiaiea), aeouyia
(?aciuoeaiea) e naiaaeoe (nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue).

A eoiaa i?inaaoeaiey oi oae aeoaiei iiaeiuaaony nica?oeaieai, /oi
caauaaao i naiii naaa e iieiinoueth neeaaaony n iauaeoii ?aciuoeaiey. Ca
yoei neaaeoao i?ae?auaiea anao iiaeeoeeaoeee oia e ineoe/aneeo
i?ioeannia, eiaaea ie/aai ia iiciaaony e ia iuneeony, o.i. ioeaaie
yenoac.

EIEAssOA (io naine?, eiea – ie?, eaeouaa ec yoiai ie?a).
Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea a ae?aaiaeiaeeeneie oeeinioee. Aicieeei
i?eaeeceoaeueii a na?. 1-ai oun. aei i.y. Iniiaaoaeai n/eoaaony
iieoeaaaiaea?iue ioae?aoe A?eoaniaoe.

A iniiaa eieayou eaaeeo neaioe/aneia ioiioaiea e aeiaiaoeea a?aoiaiecia,
e aeiaiaoe/aneie ?aeeaee aiiaua. Niaeanii eieayoa, nouanoaothuei iiaeii
n/eoaoue oieueei aini?eieiaaiia i?aaiaie /oanoa. Ionthaea io?eoeaiea
eieayoie aiaa e aeooe (a /anoiinoe, a?aoiaia e aoiaia), ?ay e aaea,
aiiaua ethaiai ae?oaiai ie?a. Niaeanii eieayoeeai, /aeiaae ninoieo ec
/aou?ao iaoa?eaeueiuo yeaiaioia – caiee, aiaeu, iaiy e aicaeooa.
Niaaeeiyynue, iie ia?acotho oaei, i?aaiu /oanoa, e ia eo iniiaa
aicieeaao aeooiaiia ia/aei. Iineieueeo a /aeiaaea iao ie/aai, /oi
ia?aaeeei au aai nia?oue, eieayoeee aiai?yo i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iieueciaaoueny ?aaeueiie aeeciueth, i?eieiaoue ana, /oi iia i?eiineo, n
niciaieai oiai, /oi i?eyoiua noi?iiu aeecie iiaoo o?aaiiaaneoue cei e
no?aaeaiea. “Iiea aeeaaoue, – aiai?eony a iaeiii oaenoa, – aeeae
?aaeinoii, eai nia?oe ia iiaeao ecaaaeaoue ieeoi. Eiaaea oaei aoaeao
niaeaeaii, i?aa?aoeony a iaiae, ia?aoiia i?aa?auaiea ieeiaaea ia
niaa?oeony”.

Iniaaiiinoueth eieayou yaeyaony ooaa?aeaeaiea i?eioeeia naaaoaau
(naine?.) – iaee/ey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie i?e?iaeu eaaeaeie aiue,
ii?aaeaeythuae aa no?iaiea e noaeueao; ana aicaeaenoaey, i?eoiaeyuea e
aaue ecaia e /oaeaeua aa i?e?iaea, aanneeueiu eciaieoue iai?aeiaeiue
oiae aa nouanoaiaaiey. Oeaeueth auoey, niaeanii eieayoa, yaeyaony caaioa
i aeaaiiieo/ee ianoiyuaai nouanoaiaaiey. Aiineaaenoaee yoi i?eaaei e
?acaeoiio aaaeiiecio (io a?a/. aaaeiia – ianeaaeaeaiea) /a?aaee.

*A?AAEA (naine?.) – yoi aieaa iicaeiyy ?aciiaeaeiinoue eieayou. Yoa
oeiea ioaa?aaao eae nouanoaiaaiea aiaa-aaniethoa e aeooe (a?aoiaia e
aoiaia), oae e caeii ea?iu. *a?aaea enoeiiui n/eoaao eeoue iinoeaaaiia n
iiiiuueth iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aini?eyoey. Iia ooaa?aeaeaao nouanoaiaaiea
oieueei yoiai ie?a e n/eoaao aaeeinoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoueth iaoa?eth.
I?eciaaony iaee/ea /aou?ao yeaiaioia: caiee, aiaeu, iaiy, aicaeooa, ec
niiioaiiiai (io eao. niiioaiaon – i?iecaieueiue, aeia?iaieueiue)
ni/aoaiey eioi?uo ia?acoaony ana, /oi anoue. AEeciue e niciaiea –
ooieoeee yoeo yeaiaioia. Iaeiia?aiaiii /a?aaea iiae/a?eeaaao auaeaeiooue
aua eieayoie i?eioeei naaaoaau, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie i?e?iaeu eaaeaeie
aaue. Iniaaiiinoueth /a?aaee yaeyaony nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue ia ?ac?aaioea
yoe/aneie eiioeaioeee. *a?aaea aeaeeo a iiiyoeyo aeia?a e cea eeethceth,
nicaeaiioth /aeiaa/aneei aiia?aaeaieai. Niaeanii aa o/aieth, ?aaeueiu
oieueei no?aaeaiey e ianeaaeaeaiea /oanoaaiiiai auoey. Io?eoeay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue eaeeo-eeai aneaoe/aneeo ia?aie/aiee, iaeaaaaiuo
?aeeaeiciuie i?aaeeaie, /a?aaea ooaa?aeaeaao a ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiie
oeaee /aeiaa/aneiai auoey iieo/aiea ianeaaeaeaiey. I?e/ai oi, /oi iii
iiaeao auoue nii?yaeaii ni no?aaeaieai, ia aeieaeii inoaiaaeeaaoue
no?aieaiea e aai aeinoeaeaieth.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiue aaaeiieci aeaeaao yoo oeieo oieeaeueiui yaeaieai a
enoi?ee eiaeeeneie iunee.

AAEOAOEEA (io naine?, aeoaoa – iniaaiiue, ioee/iue). Ii o?aaeeoeee,
iniiaiiieiaeieeii oeieu n/eoaaony Eaiaaea, eioi?iio i?eienuaaaony
nicaeaiea iniiaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey yoie nenoaiu “Aaeoaoeee-noo?u”.
(ieii/aoaeueiay ?aaeaeoeey aai ioiineony e 1-e iieiaeia 1-ai
ouny/aeaoey).

Ii o/aieth aaeoaoeee, ana nouanoaothuaa aeeth/aaony a oanoue eaoaai?ee –
noanoaioeeth, ea/anoai, aeaenoaea, iauaa, iniaaiiia e i?enouaa.
Noanoaioeey au?aaeaao nouiinoue aaue e yaeyaony aeaaiie. Aeaayoue
noanoaioeee (caiey, aiaea, naao, aicaeoo, yoe?, a?aiy, i?ino?ainoai,
aeooa, oi), iaaeaeaiiua ea/anoaaie (iinoiyiiuie naienoaaie) e
“aeaenoaeyie” (i?aoiaeyueie naienoaaie) ninoaaeytho aanue nouanoaothuee
ie?.

Aaeoaoeea i?eaea?aeeaaaony aoiienoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, niaeanii eioi?ie
ia?aua /aou?a noanoaioeee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie niaaeeiaiey aoiiia (aio –
naine?.) – iaeciaiiuo i?ioyaeaiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo /anoeoe noa?e/aneie
oi?iu. Oioy aoiiu ieeai ia nicaeaiu e nouanoaotho aa/ii, iaeiaei naie
iie ianneaiu. Ia?aia aeaeaeaiea aoiiu iieo/atho io iaaeaeeiie neeu –
aae?eoou e iioii anooiatho a niaaeeiaiey iiae oi?aaeaieai ie?iaie aeooe
A?aoiu, iiaeaa?aathuae iaoa?eaeueiue ie? aa/iiio oeeeee/aneiio i?ioeanno
niceaeaiey e ?ac?ooaiey. *oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiue ie? nouanoaoao ai
a?aiaie, i?ino?ainoaa e yoe?a e oi?aaeyaony anaiauei ii?aeueiui caeiiii
(aeoa?ia).

IUessss (naine?., aoea. – i?aaeei, ?annoaeaeaiey, aoiaeaeaiea a
i?aaeiao, aiaeeoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea, eiaeea). Yoa oeiea ia?aaeei
n/eoaaony i?iaeieaeaieai aaeoaoeee. Iniiaaoaeue – Aioaia (Aaooaia –
a?aiy aeecie iaecaanoii). A oeaio?a o/aiey – iaoiaeu i?aaeeueiiai
iiciaiey. Iueyy i?eciaao /aou?a enoi/ieea Oaeiai iiciaiey : /oanoaaiiia
e naa?o/oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea, auaiae, n?aaiaiea, aeieacaoaeuenoai
(aaoi?eoaoiia naeaeaoaeuenoai. Iiciaiea, iniiaaiiia ia yoeo enoi/ieeao,
yaeyaony aeinoiaa?iui. Ia?yaeo n iei nouanoaoao iaaeinoiaa?iia iiciaiea,
iie?athuaany ia iaiyoue, niiiaiea, ioeaeo e aeiioaoe/aneee a?aoiaio.
O/aieai i iiciaiee iueyy caeiaeeea iniiau ae?aaiaeiaeeeneie eiaeee.

Iueyy ?ac?aaioaea oaeaea i?eaeiaeueioth oai?eth oece/aneiai ie?a,
iniiaaiioth ia auaeaeaiee iauaeoia iiciaiey. N?aaee ieo “ss” (aoiai),
ioee/iia io oia (iaian) e oaea. Naycue “ss” n iauaeoaie ii?iaeaeaao
i?eaycaiiinoe, aeaeaiey, aioeiaoee, iaiaaenoue e o.i., o.a. oi, /oi
canoaaeyao “ss” aeaenoaiaaoue, aiaeaeaoueny a e?oaiai?io ?iaeaeaiee e
nia?oae, no?aaeaiee e a?aca I?aaeeueiia iiciaiea inaiaiaeaeaao /aeiaaea
io yoie aiaea/aiiinoe. Naii inaiaiaeaeaiea iiieiaaony eae i?ae?auaiea
io?eoeaoaeueiuo oaeoi?ia (no?aaeaiey), a ia eae ninoiyiea n/anouey.
Inaiaiaeeaoaany “ss” aunooiaao eae /enoay noanoaioeey, oaea ia naycaiiay
n niciaieai.

Iueyy nicaeaea o/aiea i aiaa eae aaneiia/iii “ss”, nicaeathuai,
nio?aiythuai e ?ac?ooathuai ie? (niaeanii iueyy, ie? nicaeaaony ec
aa/iuo aoiiia, i?ino?ainoaa, a?aiaie, oiia, aeoo e aeaoe-yoe?a).
Ioae?inoue e anaaeaainoue aiaa iiiiaatho /aeiaaeo, iaeaaeathuaio
naiaiaeie aiee e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiciiaeiinoueth auai?a iaaeaeo
aeia?ii e ceii, /a?ac enoeiiia iiciaiea naiiai naay e ie?a aeinoe/ue
inaiaiaeaeaiey.

AeAEAEIECI. Iniiaaoaeai aai n/eoaaony no?ainoaothuee i?iiiaaaeiee ec
Aeoa?a Aa?aeoaiaia (aeee a VI a. aei i.y., aieaa oi/iie aeaou iao),
eioi?ue i?ienoiaeee ec aiaaoiai eoao?eeneiai ?iaea e aiineaaenoaee
iieo/ee eiaia Iaoaae?u (“Aaeeeee aa?ie”) e Aeaeeiu (“Iiaaaeeoaeue”).
?iaeiie aeii ii iieeioe 28 eao e iinea 12-eaoiae aneacu e oeeinioneeo
?annoaeaeaiee i?eoae e i?eioeeiai iiaiai o/aiey, a oeaio?a eioi?iai
iinoaaee i?iaeaio auoey ee/iinoe.

Niaeanii aeaeaeiecia, nouiinoue ee/iinoe /aeiaaea aeaiyea-iaoa?eaeueiay
(aaeaeeaa – naine?., i?ioeaiiieiaeiia aeaeeaa – ni. aeaeaa) e aeooiaiay
(aeaeeaa – naine?., aoea. – aeeaouee, aeeaie). Naycothuei caaiii
iaaeaeo ieie yaeyaony ea?ia, iiieiaaiay eae oiieay iaoa?ey, ia?acothuay
oaei ea?iu e aeathuay aiciiaeiinoue aeooa niaaeeieoueny n a?oaie
iaoa?eae. A eoiaa oaeiai niaaeeiaiey aicieeaao eiaeeaeae, aeooo eioi?iai
ea?ia nii?iaiaeaeaao a aaneiia/iie oeaie ia?a?iaeaeaiee.

Ea?iu (o aeaeaeienoia eo ian/eouaaaony ainaiue aeaeia) a iniiaa eiatho
aeaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo ea/anoaa. Ceua ea?iu iaaaoeaii aeeytho ia aeaaiua
naienoaa aeooe, i?eia?aoaiiua ath, niaeanii aeaeaeiecio, aoaeo/e
niaa?oaiiie a naiae anoanoaaiiie oi?ia. Aeia?ua ea?iu oaea?aeeaatho
aeooo a e?oaiai?ioa ia?a?iaeaeaiee. Inaiaiaeaeaiea /aeiaaea io ioo
naina?u i?iecieaeao eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea ii iinoaiaiii ecaaaeony io ceuo
e aeia?uo ea?i.

Aeaeaeienou aa?yo, /oi aeooiaiay nooue /aeiaaea iiaeao oi?aaeyoue
iaoa?eaeueiie nooueth e eiio?iee?iaaoue aa. Eeoue ii nai ?aoaao, /oi
anoue aeia?i e cei e e /aio ioianoe ana oi, /oi ano?a/aaony aio a
aeecie. A aeaeaeiecia aia ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae aia-oai?aoe eee aia,
eioi?ue aiaoeaaaony a /aeiaa/aneea aeaea. Aia – anaai eeoue aeooa,
eioi?ay aeeea a iaoa?eaeueiii oaea e inaiaiaeeeanue io ioo ea?iu e oeaie
ia?a?iaeaeaiee.

Inaiaiaeaeaiea aeooe ec-iiae aeeyiey ea?iu e naina?u aiciiaeii eeoue i?e
iiiiue aneacu e niaa?oaiey aeaaeo aeayiee. Iiyoiio aeaeaeieci oaeaeyao
aieueoia aieiaiea ?ac?aaioea yoeee (a?a/, yoeea, io yoeein – eanathueeny
i?aanoaaiiinoe, au?aaeathuee i?aanoaaiiua oaaaeaeaiey), o?aaeeoeeiiii
iacuaaaiie o?e ae?aaioeaiiinoe (o?e?aoia). A iae aiai?eony i i?aaeeueiii
iiieiaiee, iaoneiaeaiiii i?aaeeueiie aa?ie, i i?aaeeueiii iiciaiee e
auoaeathuai ionthaea i?aaeeueiii ciaiee e, iaeiiaoe, i i?aaeeueiie
aeecie. Ia?aua aeaa i?eioeeia eanathony i?aaeaea anaai aa?u a
aeaeaeienoneia o/aiea e aai ciaiey. I?aaeeueiay aeeciue icia/aao ii nooe
aieueooth eee iaiueooth noaiaiue aneacu. Yoe i?eioeeiu eaaeao a iniiaa
?acee/iuo eeyoa, aeaaaaiuo iiiaoaie e iiiaoeiyie aeaeaeienoneeo iauei. A
ieo, a /anoiinoe, aaniethoece?iaaiu o?aaiaaiey iai?e/eiaiey cea aeeaui
nouanoaai, iieiaiai aicaea?aeaiey, iono?aiaiey io ie?neiai aiaaonoaa e
ae?. Iooue inaiaiaeaeaiey aeooe io naina?u – neiaeiue e iiiaioaciue.
Oeaeueth yaeyaony ee/iia nianaiea, eai /aeiaae iiaeao inaiaiaeeoueny
eeoue nai, e ieeoi aio ia iiaeao iiii/ue.

Ninoaaiie /anoueth aeaeaeienoneiai eaiiia yaeythony oaeaea ?acee/iua
oiic?eoaeueiua iino?iaiey, iai?eia?, ia oii?yaei/aiee ie?a. Einiin,
niaeanii aeaeaeiecio, aa/ai. Ii ia aue ieeiaaea nicaeai e ia iiaeao
auoue oie/oiaeai. I?aaenoaaeaiey ia oii?yaei/aiiinoe ie?a enoiaeyo ec
iaoee i aeooa, eioi?ay iinoiyiii ia?aie/eaaaony iaoa?eae ea?iu. Aeooe,
ia?aiaiaiiua ath a aieueoae noaiaie, iiiauathony iaeaieaa iecei e, ii
ia?a oiai eae iie ecaaaeythony io ea?iu, iinoaiaiii iiaeieiathony auoa e
auoa, iiea ia aeinoeaioo i?aaeaeueiie a?aieoeu. E?iia oiai, eaiii
niaea?aeeo e ?annoaeaeaiey ia iaaeo iniiaiuo nouiinoyo
(aeaeeaa-aaeaeeaa), ia ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaioao, ec eioi?uo ninoieo
einiin, i oae iacuaaaiie n?aaea iieiy e aeaeaeaiey, i i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie.

N oa/aieai a?aiaie a aeaeaeiecia noi?ie?iaaeenue aeaa iai?aaeaiey,
eioi?ua ioee/aeenue, a /anoiinoe, iiieiaieai aneacu. I?oiaeienaeueiua
acaeyaeu ionoaeaaee aeeaaiaa?u (naine?., aoea. – iaeaoua aicaeooii, o.a.
ioaa?aathuea iaeaaeaeo), aieaa oia?aiiue iiaeoiae i?iaicaeaoaee
oaaoaiaa?u (naine?., aoea. – iaeaoua a aaeia). Aeeyiea aeaeaeiecia
iinoaiaiii iaaeaei, oioy ii nio?aieeny a Eiaeee e iiiuia.

AOAeAeECI. A VI a. aei i.y. a Naaa?iie Eiaeee aicieeaao aoaeaeeci –
o/aiea, iniiaaoaeai eioi?iai aue Neaeaeoa?ooa Aaooaia (i?eia?ii 583-483
aa. aei i.y.), nui i?aaeoaey ?iaea Oaeueaa ec Eaieeaaanoa (iaeanoue
THaeiiai Iaiaea). A aic?anoa 29 eao (anei?a iinea oiai, eae o iaai
?iaeeeny nui), iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiue aeeciueth, ii iieeaeaao naiueth e
ooiaeeo a “aacaeiiiinoue”. Iinea iiiaeo eao aaniieaciie aneacu ii
aeinoeaaao i?iaoaeaeaiey (aiaeoe), o.a. iinoeaaao i?aaeeueiue aeeciaiiue
iooue, eioi?ue ioaa?aaao e?aeiinoe. Niaeanii o?aaeeoeee, aiineaaenoaee
ii aue iacaai Aoaeaea (aoea. – I?iaoaeaeaiiue).

Oeaio?ii o/aiey yaeyaony i?aeoe/aneay aeieo?eia “nianaiey”, eee
“inaiaiaeaeaiey”. A iniiaa aa eaaeao *AOU?A AEAAI?IAeIUA ENOEIU:

1. Nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea ia?ac?uaii naycaii ni no?aaeaieai. ?iaeaeaiea,
aieaciue, noa?inoue, nia?oue, ano?a/a n iai?eyoiui e ?annoaaaiea n
i?eyoiui, iaaiciiaeiinoue aeinoe/ue aeaeaaiiai – ana yoi aaaeao e
no?aaeaieth.

2. I?e/eiie no?aaeaiey yaeyaony aeaaeaea (o?oia), aaaeouay /a?ac
?aaeinoe e no?anoe e ia?a?iaeaeaieth, ?iaeaeaieth aiiaue.

3. Ono?aiaiea i?e/ei no?aaeaiey caeeth/aaony a ecaaaeaiee io yoie
aeaaeaeu.

4. Iooue, aaaeouee e ono?aiaieth no?aaeaiee, – aeaaie ainueia?e/iue
iooue – caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: i?aaeeueiia noaeaeaiea, i?aaeeueiia
?aoaiea, i?aaeeueiay ?a/ue, i?aaeeueiay aeeciue, i?aaeeueiia no?aieaiea,
i?aaeeueiia aieiaiea e i?aaeeueiia nin?aaeioi/aiea.

No?aaeaiea aoaeaeeci ii?aaeaeyao ia eae ia?aaeeaaiea eaeiai-oi
eiie?aoiiai ninoiyiey, a eae aai iaeeaeaiea, iaeeaeaiea ?aaeueiiai
no?aaeaiey, aieaa oiai – iaeeaeaiea yooaeoia naiiai yoiai iaeeaeaiey:
iuouaiee no?aoa, o?aaiae e ae?. A aoaeaeecia no?aaeaiea, oaeei ia?acii,
aunooiaao eae ninoiyiea aaneiia/iiai aaniieienoaa, iauae iaeaaeinoe,
iai?yaeaiiinoe, iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe. A yoii niunea no?aaeaiea
ieacuaaaony yeaeaaeaioii aeaeaiey, eioi?ia a aoaeaeecia n/eoaaony
ineoieiae/aneie i?e/eiie no?aaeaiey.

I?aaenoaaeaiea i auoee eae no?aaeaiee onoaoaeyaony oai, /oi aoaeaeeci
i?eieiaao eiioeaioeeth ia?a?iaeaeaiee (naina?a). Nia?oue a aoaeaeecia,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia ea?a, ia o?aaaaeey e ia inaiaiaeaeaiea, a ia?aoiae e
iiaie aeecie e iiyoiio – e iiaui no?aaeaieyi. Nia?oue – yoi
iaiaeiie?aoiue ia?aoiae e iiaie aeecie.

A aoaeaeeeneeo eaiiiao iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aeaeueiaeoaio
ooi/iaieth iiiyoey “aeaaeaea” (o?oia). Aiaeece?oaony aai aicieeiiaaiea e
aeeyiea, auaeaeythony o?e aa aeaaiuo oeia: aeaaeaea /oanoaaiiuo
ianeaaeaeaiee (eaia), aeaaeaea aiieiuaiey (aoaaa) e aeaaeaea
naiioie/oiaeaiey (aeaoaaa). Iinoaiaiii iiiyoea “aeaaeaea” caiauaaony
iiiyoeai ?aaa (aeaeaiea, no?aieaiea), e any yoa noi?iia o/aiey
i?eia?aoaao ianeieueei eiia niaea?aeaiea. E?iia oiai, aicieeaao aua
iaeia eiioeaioeey, eioi?ay oeacuaaao a ea/anoaa i?e/eiu no?aaeaiee
iaciaiea (aaeaeuey) – caeanue iaciaiea enoeiiiai iooe, aaaeouaai e
inaiaiaeaeaieth io no?aaeaiee, e enoiaey ec yoiai, eiino?oe?oaony
neiaeiay, aeaaiaaeoeaoe/eaiiay oeaiue i?e/ei aicieeiiaaiey no?aaeaiey.

Ia yoie iniiaa ?ac?aaaouaaaony niaea?aeaiea eaaeaeiai ec ?acaeaeia
ainueia?e/iiai iooe. I?aaeeueiia noaeaeaiea ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n
i?aaeeueiui iiieiaieai aeecie eae thaeiee (oea?e.-neaa., aoea. –
aeieeia; ianoi, aaea no?aaeatho e io/athony) nei?ae e no?aaeaiee,
i?aaeeueiia ?aoaiea iiieiaaony eae ?aoeiinoue i?iyaeyoue ni/oanoaea ei
anai aeeaui nouanoaai. I?aaeeueiay ?a/ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae
aanoeo?inoiay, i?aaaeeaay, ae?oaeanoaaiiay e oi/iay. I?aaeeueiay aeeciue
caeeth/aaony a niaethaeaiee i?aaeienaiee i?aanoaaiiinoe – ciaiaieouo
aoaeaeeeneeo iyoe caiiaaaeae (iai/aoeea), eioi?uo aeieaeiu
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny eae iiiaoe, oae e naaoneea aoaeaeenou. Yoi neaaeothuea
i?eioeeiu: ia a?aaeeoue aeeaui nouanoaai, ia a?aoue /oaeiai,
aicaea?aeeaaoueny io cai?auaiiuo iieiauo eiioaeoia, ia aanoe i?acaeiuo e
eaeeauo ?a/ae e ia iieueciaaoueny iiueyiythueie iaieoeaie.
Aiaeece?othony e inoaeueiua nooiaie, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaathony eae
iiaeaioiaea e iineaaeiae nooiaie – aa?oeia ainueia?e/iiai iooe:
i?aaeeueiiio nin?aaeioi/aieth. Iineaaeiaa, oa?aeoa?ecoaiia /aou?ueiy
noaiaiyie iia?oaeaiey, (aeaeoaia), ioiineony e iaaeeoaoeee (eao.
iaaeeoaoeei, io iaaeeoi? – ?aciuoeyth, iaaeoiuaath) e iaaeeoaoeeiiiie
i?aeoeea.

Aio ii/aio a iniiaa aoaeaeeeneie eiioeaioeee iiaaaeaiey eaaeeo niciaiea
aioo?aiiae ioaeaeaiiinoe noauaeoa anaio, /oi aai ie?oaeaao. Oae
iacuaaaiue n?aaeiee iooue, iai?eia?, iaeeiaeiai ioaa?aaao iia?oaeaiea a
/oanoaaiiua oaeiaieuenoaey e oia?uaeaiea ieioe. Ninoiyiea niaa?oaiiie
ianaycaiiinoe n aiaoiei auoeai, aaniethoiie io iaai io?aoaiiinoe e
naiioaeoaeaiiinoe anoue inaiaiaeaeaiea, eee ie?aaia (naine?., aoea. –
inouaaiea, oaanaiea, caoooaiea).

Ie?aaia icia/aao aunoaa ninoiyiea aiiaua, eiia/ioth oeaeue /aeiaa/aneeo
no?aieaiee. Iia i?aaeiieaaaao ionoonoaea eiioeeeoa n ie?oaeathuei,
onoaiiaeaiea ooiuee (naine., aoea. – ionoioa), eioi?ia icia/aao
ineoieiae/aneia ninoiyiea iuouaiey ionoiou, ?aaiia niyoeth i?iaeaiu
“auoea-iaauoea” (“?aaeueiinoue-ia?aaeueiinoue”), “noauaeo-iauaeo” e
o.i., /oi neoaeeo aeaaiui i?eciaeii ninoiyiey “inaiaiaeaeaiey” eee
ie?aaiu.

Ec iaaaniethoiie cia/eiinoe aeey aoaeaeecia anaai nouanoaothuaai
aacioiineoaeueii e noauaeoo neaaeoao auaiae i iaaaniethoiinoe aiaeanoaa.
A aoaeaeecia iao iaaeiaiinoe a aiaa eae oai?oea, nianeoaea e i?i/., o.a.
aiiaua eae a aaconeiaii aa?oiaiii nouanoaa. Aia eae aunoaa nouanoai
aioo?aiia i?enou aeinoeaoaio inaiaiaeaeaiey /aeiaaeo, /oi ii nouanoao
icia/aao oiaeaeanoaaiiinoue /aeiaaea aiao.

Eoae, ae?aaiaeiaeeeneoth oeeinioeth a oeaeii ioee/aao oiic?eoaeueiinoue,
neaaay naycue n iaoeie, nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue ia niaoeeoe/anee iiieiaaiie
i?iaeaia nianaiey.

Ae?aaiaeeoaeneay oeeinioey.

Noaiiaeaiea ae?aaiaeeoaeneie oeeinioee, eae e ae?aaiaeiaeeeneie, naycaii
n eiieie o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iaueiiuo ioiioaiee, aucaaiiie yeiiiie/aneei
i?ia?annii, iiyaeaieai aeaiaa e /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, ?inoii iao/iuo
ciaiee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a iaeanoe ano?iiiiee, iaoaiaoeee e
iaaeeoeeiu, eioi?ua nicaeaee aeaaii?eyoioth ii/ao aeey aeooiaiuo

ia?aiai. I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi e a Eeoaa ia?auie “iiiiceoeeiia?aie”
aunooiaee aneaoe?iaaaoea a?iaey/ea ioae?aoeu, iiaeaioiaeaoea a yiioo
“*aeaiue ai” (“ai?thueony oea?noa”) ianooieaiea “cieioiai aaea”
eeoaeneie oeeinioee. Oioy ioaeaeueiua oeeinioneea eaeae iiaeii
iaia?oaeeoue a aua aieaa ae?aaieo iaiyoieeao eoeueoo?u, eaeiauie a
Eiaeee auee Oiaieoaaeu e io/anoe ?eaaaaea, a a Eeoaa – “Oe oecei”
(“Eaiii noeoia”) e “E oecei” (“Eieaa ia?aiai”), oeeinioneea oeieu
caeanue neeaaeuaathony iaeiia?aiaiii – i?eaeeceoaeueii a VI a. aei i.y.
I?e/ai a iaieo ?aaeiiao oeeinioey, aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy
?acaeaaaoayny aiiieiii, ioiuia noaiiaeony aaoi?neie, naycaiiie n
eiaiaie Aaooaiu-Aoaeaeu, iniiaaoaey aeaeaeiecia .Iaoaae?u, ia?aiai
eeoaeneiai oeeinioa – Eiioooeey, aeainneiai ioae?aoea – Eai-oecu e ae?.

Anee a Eiaeee iiiai/eneaiiua oeeinioneea oeieu oae eee eia/a
niioiineeenue n aaaeeciii, oi a Eeoaa – n eiioooeeaineie i?oiaeieneae.
I?aaaea, a Eiaeee, eae ioia/aeinue auoa, ?aciaaeaaaiea ia ioaeaeueiua
oeieu ia i?eaaei e ioeoeeaeueiiio i?eciaieth i?ei?eoaoa eaeiai-eeai
iaeiiai ec oeeinioneeo iai?aaeaiee, a oi a?aiy eae a Eeoaa
eiioooeeainoai ai II a. aei i.y. aeiaeeinue ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaoona
eaeaieiaee, noiaa nio?aieoue aai aei iiaiai a?aiaie. Ia?yaeo n
eiioooeeainoaii iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiuie a niia?ie/anoaa “noa oeie” auee
aeaineci, iieci e eaaeci.

Anoue o ae?aaiaeeoaeneie oeeinioee e ae?oaea ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou:

1. Niaoeeoe/aneie /a?oie eeoaeneie oeeinioee aue i?eioeei ?anniio?aiey
ie?a (i?e?iaea, /aeiaae e aai iauanoai) eae aaeeiiai oieaa?noia, ana
yeaiaiou eioi?iai acaeiinaycaiu e iaoiaeyony a aeeiaie/iii ?aaiiaanee.

2. I?aeoe/iinoue, i?eaioe?iaaiiinoue ia ia iiene e au?aaioeo eaeaaea, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui neaaeiaaei au eciaieoue ?aaeueiinoue, a ia
iiaeaea?aeaiea ?aaeueiinoe oaeie, eaeay iia anoue. Ionthaea ionoonoaea
neieueei-ieaoaeue na?ueaciuo aiaeeyoeee (io eao aiaeeyoeei – ia?auaiea)
e naa?ouanoanoaaiiiio, aace?iaaiea ia aiieia aeinoeaeeiii eaeaaea
nioeeaeueiie, yoe/aneie e iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu. Yoio eaeaae, eiia/ii,
inaauai aeaaineiaaieai Iaaa, ii aeey aai aiieiuaiey a aeeciue ia
o?aaiaaeinue ie/aai iaaiciiaeiiai. Ana oai?ee aeieaeiu i?inoi
i?eaioe?iaaoue ia?iae ia iiaeaea?aeaiea ii?yaeea. Iiyoiio a eeoaeneeo
ienueiaiiuo iaiyoieeao i/aiue iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaathony niiniau
oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii e niiniau naiioniaa?oainoaiaaiey /aeiaaea.

3. Niaoeeoe/iinoue ae?aaiaeeoaeneie oeeinioneie iunee iaoneiaeaia oaeaea
oiio?aaeaieai a ienueiaiiie ?a/e ia?acii-neiaiee/aneeo ciaeia –
ea?iaeeoia. Ieeoia?aoe/aneia (io eao. ieeoon – ia?eniaaiiue e a?a/.
a?aoi – ieoo; ?enoii/iia) ienueii au?aaaouaaei ynoaoeei-oeeieiae/aneia
ioiioaiea e oaenoo. Yoi iaecaaaeii neacaeinue ia niaea?aeaoaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoyo i?aaenoaaeaiee i ie?a e /aeiaaea, ia eoeueoo?a iuoeaiey
ae?aaiaeeoaeneeo oeeinioia aiiaua.

4. Ionoonoaea iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa, aano?aeoiuo niaeoeyoeee
iaoo?aeenoe/aneiai e ie?iaicc?ai/aneiai ii?yaeea. Ionthaea neaaay naycue
n iaoeie, ia?acaeoinoue eiaeee.

5. Aioo?aiia eeoaeneay oeeinioey iaiau/aeii noaaeeueia. Iniiaie oaeie
noaaeeueiinoe auei iinoiyiiia iiae/a?eeaaiea eneeth/eoaeueiinoe
eeoaeneiai niiniaa iuoeaiey. Neaaenoaeai aai yaeeinue iinoaiaiiia
iiyaeaiea e cae?aieaiea /oanoaa i?aainoiaenoaa eeoaeneiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai oiic?aiey, aai iaoa?ieiinoe ei anai ae?oaei oeeinioneei
acaeyaeai.

I?ae?aniie eeethno?aoeeae e neacaiiiio iiaoo iineoaeeoue oeeinioneea
aicc?aiey iacaaiiuo auoa ae?aaiaeeoaeneeo oeie.

EIIOOOeEAINOAI. Iniiaaoaeue oeaeu Eiioooeee (eeo. – Eoi Oeth,
eaoeiece?iaaiiay aa?ney eiaie Eoi Oo-oecu-o/eoaeue Eoi; 551-479 aa. aei
i.y.). Ii n/eoaaony ia?aui eeoaeneei oeeinioii, e aai aeeciaiienaiea ca
iiiaiaaeiaoth enoi?eth, anoanoaaiii, iaiaaoeeinue iicaeiaeoeie
eaaaiaeaie. Ecaanoii, /oi nia/aea ii aue iecoei /eiiaieeii a
ainoaea?noaa Eo, iioii ?yae eao. no?ainoaiaae ii Ainoi/iiio Eeoath, a
eiiaoe aeecie iinayoee eneeth/eoaeueii naiei o/aieeai. Iniiaiui
aeinoiaa?iui enoi/ieeii aeey enneaaeiaaiey aai aicc?aiee yaeythony
nio?aieaoeany caiene ec?a/aiee Eiioooeey e aai o/aieeia a eieaa “Aanaaeu
e noaeaeaiey” (Eoiue the).

Enoiaeiie aeey Eiioooeey iiaeii n/eoaoue eiioeaioeeth “iaaa” e
“iaaaniiai aaeaiey” (i?eeaca, o.a. noaeueau). “Iaai” – yoi e /anoue
i?e?iaeu, e aunoay aeooiaiay neea, ii?aaeaeythuay i?e?iaeo e /aeiaaea
(“AEeciue e nia?oue ii?aaeaeythony noaeueaie, aiaaonoai e ciaoiinoue
caaenyo io iaaa”). *aeiaae, iaaeaeaiiue iaaii ii?aaeaeaiiuie yoe/aneeie
ea/anoaaie, aeieaeai iinooiaoue a niaeanee n ieie, n ii?aeueiui caeiiii
(aeai) e niaa?oainoaiaaoue eo i?e iiiiue iao/aiey. Oeaeue
niaa?oainoaiaaiey – aeinoeaeaiea o?iaiy “aeaai?iaeiiai ioaea”
(oecthiue-oecu), niaethaeathuaai ee-yoeeao, aeia?iai e ni?aaaaeeeaiai ii
ioiioaieth e ia?iaeo, ii/oeoaeueiiai e noa?oei e aunoei.

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a o/aiee Eiioooeey caieiaao eiioeaioeey aeyiue
(/aeiaa/iinoe) – caeii eaeaaeueiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie a naiuea,
iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa. Iia aeeth/aao a naay aeaa iniiaiuo i?eioeeia,
?aaoee?othueo /aeiaa/aneia nouanoaiaaiea: a) iiiiaae ae?oaei aeinoe/ue
oiai, /aai au ou nai oioae aeinoe/ue; a) /aai ia aeaeaaoue naaa, oiai ia
aeaeae ae?oaei.

Aeey niaethaeaiey noai?aeeiaoeee e ii?yaeea Eiioooeee au?aaioae i?eioeei
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e eni?aaiinoe (e). *aeiaae aeieaeai iinooiaoue oae, eae
aaeeo aai iieiaeaiea e ii?yaeie. Eni?aaiia iiaaaeaiea – yoi iiaaaeaiea n
niaethaeaieai ii?yaeea e /aeiaa/iinoue, eai “aeaai?iaeiue ioae
?acae?aaony a oii, /oi anoue eni?aaiia, ?aaii eae iaeua ethaee
?acae?athony a oii, /oi auaiaeii”. Oaeia iooue (aeai) anao ia?aciaaiiuo,
eioi?ua iaeaaeatho i?aanoaaiiie neeie (aey) e eioi?ui aeieaeii auoue
aaa?aii oi?aaeaiea iauanoaii.

Yoe yoe/aneea i?eioeeiu eaaeao a iniiaa iieeoe/aneeo acaeyaeia
Eiioooeey. Ii aunooiae ca no?iaia, /aoeia, ea?a?oe/aneia ?acaeaeaiea
iaycaiiinoae iaaeaeo /eaiaie iauanoaa, ia?acoeii aeey eioi?iai aeieaeia
neoaeeoue naiuey (“I?aaeoaeue aeieaeai auoue i?aaeoaeai, a iiaeaeaiiue –
iiaeaeaiiui, ioaoe – iooeii, a nui – nuiii”).

Aeaaiue iaoiae oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeii – neea i?eia?a e oaaaeaeaiey.
“Aeaai?iaeiue ioae”, /eai i?aayuae yeeou, ia aeieaeai auoue aiaaeeaui,
ae/iui, ai?aeui e aeanoieei. I?aneaaeiaaiey e oaeenoaa eiaeiiuneyueo e
iaiiei?iuo Eiioooeee inoaeaeae. Anee aa?oe aoaeoo neaaeiaaoue
i?aaeeueiiio iooe” (aeai), o/ee ii, oi “ni anao noi?ii e iei aoaeoo
eaeoe ethaee n aeaoueie ca nieiie”.

Iinea nia?oe Eiioooeey aai o/aiea ?aniaeinue ia ainaiue oeie, aaaeiia
cia/aiea ec ieo eiatho eeoue aeaa: eaeaaeenoe/aneay oeiea Iyi-oecu
(372-289 aa. aei i.y.) e iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay – Nthiue-oecu 298-238 aa.
aei i.y.). Niaeanii o/aieth Iyi-oecu, aeeciue ethaeae iiae/eiaia caeiio
iaaa, eioi?ue eniieiyao ioae?ue i?aaeoaeue – nui iaaa. Ii aeieaeai
ethaeoue ia?iae eae aeaoae, a ia?iae /oeoue aai eae iooea. *aeiaae io
i?e?iaeu aeia?, aio i?enoue /aou?a ea/anoaa: nino?aaeaiea, nouae,
ne?iiiinoue, oiaiea ioee/aoue enoeio io eaee. Iaaeia?ioa /aeiaaea
i?ioeaianoanoaaiia, iia – neaaenoaea ioaeaeu e ia?acaeoinoe.

*aeiaaeiethaea (aeyiue), ni?aaaaeeeainoue (e), aeaaii?aaea (ee) e ciaiea
(/aee), niaeanii Iyi-oecu, oaeaea a?iaeaeaiiu /aeiaaeo. AEyiue e e
yaeythony iniiaie ?acaeoie Iyi-oecu eiioeaioeee “aoiaiiiai oi?aaeaiey”
(aeyiue /aeyi) ainoaea?noaii, a eioi?ie aeaaiay ?ieue ioaiaeeeanue
ia?iaeo (“Ia?iae yaeyaony aeaaiui a ainoaea?noaa, ca iei neaaeotho aeooe
caiee e ca?ia, a ainoaea?ue caieiaao iineaaeiaa ianoi”). Anee aea
ainoaea?ue eaii?e?oao i?eioeei /aeiaa/iinoe, a ee/ioth neeo, enoiaeyuoth
io ciaiey, caiaiyao oe?aieae (aa), ia?iae eiaao i?aai aai naa?aiooue.

A o/aiee Iyi-oecu aia?aua iaiaoeeanue iinoaiiaea aii?ina i niioiioaiee
eaeaaeueiiai (neiue – na?aeoea, aeooa, ?acoi eee /aee – aiey) e
iaoa?eaeueiiai (oee) ia/ae a i?e?iaea /aeiaaea, i?e/ai ia?aainoaothuoth
?ieue ii ioaiaeee aiea (/aee).

Nthiue-oecu enoiaeee ec eiioeaioeee oee – ia?aiiaoa?ee, eee
iaoa?eaeueiie neeu, iaeaaeathuae aeaoiy oi?iaie: eiue e yi. Ie?
nouanoaoao e ?acaeaaaony a niaeanee n anoanoaaiiuie iiciaaaaiuie
caeiiiia?iinoyie. Iaai – aeoeaiue anoanoaaiiue yeaiaio ie?a, iii ia
oi?aaeyao /aeiaaeii, a, iaiai?io, iiaeao auoue iiae/eiaii ei e
eniieueciaaii a eioa?anao ethaeae. Io /aeiaaea eae /anoe i?e?iaeu
caaenyo n/anouea e ian/anouea, aiaaonoai e ieuaoa, caei?iauea e
aieaciue, ii?yaeie e niooa. *aeiaae aea ii i?e?iaea cie (e?eoeea a
aae?an Iyi-oecu). Ii ?iaeaeaaony caaenoeeaui e ceiaiui, n einoeieoeaiui
/oanoaii iaaeeau. Iaiaoiaeeii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia iaai n iiiiuueth
ainieoaiey (ee-yoeeao) e caeiia (Eiioooeee ioaa?aae caeii), canoaaeoue
niaethaeaoue ?eooae, auiieiyoue aeiea, e oiaaea o iaai iiyayony
aeia?iaeaoaeue e eoeueoo?a. Niaa?oainoai aea aeinoeaaaony /a?ac o/aiea,
aeeyuaany anth aeeciue.

Aeaaiuie caaiueyie oi?aaeaiey no?aiie Nthiue-oecu n/eoae ni?aaaaeeeaua
i?eeacu e ethaiaue e ia?iaeo, ii/eoaiea ?eooaea 1 e oaaaeaiea e o/aiui,
ii/eoaiea ioae?uo e i?eaea/aiea e ainoaea?noaaiiui aeaeai niiniaiuo
ethaeae, a ia?eeii i?aaeaiey – ni?aaaaeeeainoue e ie?.

AeAINECI. Ia?yaeo n eiioooeeainoaii, iaeii ec aeaoo iniiaiuo oa/aiee
eeoaeneie oeeinioee. Eaaaiaea?iue iniiaaoaeue – Eai-oecu (aeo., aoea. –
noa?ue o/eoaeue; nianoa. eiy – Ee Y?; VI a. aei i.y.). Aio i?eienuaaaony
ninoaaeaiea eieae “Aeai aey aecei” (“Eieaa i aeai e aey”). A aeainecia,
a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo oeie, ia ia?aii ieaia iaoiaeyony iioieiae/aneea
i?iaeaiu. Aeai – anoanoaaiiue iooue aicieeiiaaiey, ?acaeoey e
en/aciiaaiey anao aauae e iaeiia?aiaiii eo iaoa?eaeueiia ia/aei. Aeai
aaneiia/ii, aai iaeuecy ioaaoeoue ie oiii, ie /oanoaii. Aeai
i?aaeoanoaoao aiao e aeeeooao caeiiu iaao, iaai – caiea, caiey –
/aeiaaeo. Aey – iaii?aaeaeaiiue, aoi?e/iue i?eioeei, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio
aeai i?iyaeyaony a ie?a aauae e iaiieiyao eo yia?aeae.

Yoe/aneee eaeaae aeainecia au?aaeai a eiioeaioeee o-aae (aoea. –
iaaeayiea, aacaeaenoaea) e iai?aaeai i?ioea caeiiieeia e eiioooeeaioeaa.
O-aae icia/aei iiae/eiaiea anoanoaaiiiio i?ioeanno, aa?iiieth n aeai,
ionoonoaea anyeiai aeaenoaey, eaeouaai a?ac?ac n iei e i?eaiaeyuaai e
naiaiaea e n/anoueth. Oeaeue iiaaaeaiey – oiiaeiaeoueny aeai, eioi?ia ia
ai?aony, ii oiaao iiaaaeaeaoue; iiaaaeiiiniia aacaeaenoaea, inoaeueiia –
noaoa.

Anaeaiioth iaeuecy i?eaanoe a ii?yaeie eneonnoaaiiui ia?acii, aeey
aioea?aiey aai ioaeii aeaoue naiaiaeo aa i?e?iaeaeaiiui ea/anoaai.
Iiyoiio eo/oee i?aaeoaeue oio, eoi ie ai /oi ia aiaoeaaaony e neaaeoao
aeai, oi?aaeyy no?aiie, e oiaaea iia i?ioeaaoaao, i?aauaay a niieienoaee
e aa?iiiee; ia?iaeo ecaanoai eeoue oaeo aai nouanoaiaaiey. Iauanoaaiiue
eaeaae aeainia – iao?ea?oaeueiay, iai?inaauaiiay aeeciue, oae eae
iiiaiciathuei ia?iaeii o?oaeii oi?aaeyoue; ionoonoaea aiaoieo eiioaeoia,
ie? n ninaaeyie.

IIECI. Oeiea iieo/eea iacaaiea ii eiaie iniiaaoaey Ii Aee (Ii oecu; V a.
aei i.y.) e auea /aoei iino?iaiiie aiaiece?iaaiiie i?aaiecaoeeae,
iaoeinieoaeueii auiieiyaoae i?eeacu aa aeaau. Iniiaiay eaeay oeeinioee
iiecia – “anaiauay ethaiaue”, o.a. ioaea/aiiay ethaiaue anao ei anai, a
ioee/ea io eiioooeeaineie acaeiiinoe, o?aeooaiie eae ethaiaue e
?iaenoaaiieeai. Ionoonoaea anaiauae ethaae – i?e/eia aanii?yaeeia, a
“ioaeaeueiay” ethaiaue – “acaeiiie iaiaaenoe”. Iienou io?eoeaee oaeaea
eiioooeeaineia o/aiea i noaeueaa. AEeciue /aeiaaea, ooaa?aeaeaee iie,
ii?aaeaeyaony aai naiaiaeiuie aeaenoaeyie, a ia i?eeacaie iaaa, eioi?ia
eeoue aeaeaao, /oiau ethaee iiiiaaee ae?oa ae?oao, /oiau neeueiue ia
i?eoaniye neaaiai, a ciaoiue ia ee/eeny ia?aae iaciaoiui. Ii-oecu
?aoeoaeueii inoaeaeae “aa?anneaiua aieiu”, iauyaea eo aaee/aeoei e
aeanoi/aeoei i?anooieaieai. Aunoay oeaiiinoue, ii o/aieth iiecia, –
ia?iae, eioi?ue i?aaeoaee aeieaeiu ethaeoue. I?eciaieai nouanoaiaaiey
“aeooia e i?eaeaeaiee” (iaeacuaatho cei e aiciaa?aaeaeatho aeia?i),
“aiee iaaa” (i?eaioe? iiaaaeaiey ethaeae) Ii-oecu aaae a naia o/aiea
?aeeaeicioth no?oth.

EAAECI (io eao. eaaen – caeii). OEIEA CAEIIIEEIA (2-a iacaaiea eaaecia)
aicieeea e ioi?ieeanue a VI-III aa. aei i.y. Aeoeaii o/anoaiaaee a
?ac?aaioea o/aiey Aoaiue *aeoi, Oai ssi, Oaiue Oye e ae?. oeeiniou.

?acaeaaeny eaaeci a iai?yaeaiiie ai?ueaa n ?aiiei eiioooeeainoaii,
aianoa n eioi?ui no?aieeny e nicaeaieth iiuiiai, oi?ioi oi?aaeyaiiai
ainoaea?noaa, ?anoiaeynue, iaeiaei, a oeeinioneii iainiiaaiee e iaoiaeao
aai iino?iaiey. Anee eiioooeeainoai ia ia?aue ieai auaeaeaaei
i?aanoaaiiua ea/anoaa ethaeae, oi eaaeci enoiaeee ec caeiiia e
aeieacuaae, /oi iieeoeea ianiaianoeia n ii?aeueth. I?aaeoaeth
iaiaoiaeeii oi?ioi ?acae?aoueny a ineoieiaee ethaeae, aeaau oniaoii
oi?aaeyoue eie. Iniiaiie iaoiae aicaeaenoaey – iaa?aaeu e iaeacaiey,
i?e/ai aoi?ua aeieaeiu i?aaaee?iaaoue iaae ia?auie. Oe?aieyoue
ainoaea?noai neaaeoao ca n/ao ?acaeoey caieaaeaeey, nicaeaiey neeueiie
a?iee, niiniaiie ?anoe?youe a?aieoeu no?aiu, e iaeoieaiey ia?iaea.

Eaaenou nicaeaee eiioeaioeeth aeaniioe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa, a eioi?ii
ana ?aaiu ia?aae caeiiii, ca eneeth/aieai naiiai i?aaeoaey –
aaeeinoaaiiiai oai?oea yoeo caeiiia. Yoi o/aiea nua?aei ?aoathuoth ?ieue
a oi?ie?iaaiee eiia?aoi?nei-ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey.
Iniiaiua aai eaeae: ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneeo
i?ioeannia a no?aia; nenoaiaoe/aneia iaiiaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiia?aoa iooai iacia/aiey /eiiaieeia (aianoi o?aaeeoeeiiiiai i?eioeeia
ianeaaeiaaiey aeieaeiinoae); aaaaeaiea aaeeiiai i?eioeeia i?enaiaiey
?aiaia ciaoiinoe, aeieaeiinoae, i?eaeeaaee e aeaeiaaiee ca neoaeao a
a?iee e aiaiiua caneoae; ?aaiua aiciiaeiinoe i?e auaeaeaeaiee ia
aaeieieno?aoeaiua iinou; /aoeay a?aaeaoeey aioo?e i?aayuaai nineiaey;
oieoeeaoeey (io eao. oion – iaeei e oaoeei – aeaeath; i?eaaaeaiea e
aaeeiiia?aceth) iuoeaiey /eiiaie/anoaa; ee/iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue
/eiiaieea; oeaici?neee iaaeci? iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth ?aaioieeia
ainaiia?aoa.

A yiioo Oaiue (206 a. aei i.y.- 220 a. i.y.) eiioooeeainoai
anneieee?iaaei (io eao. anneieeyoeei – oiiaeiaeaiea, neeyiea, onaiaiea)
eaeae eaaecia, noaei ioeoeeaeueiie eaeaieiaeae, e eaaeci i?ae?aoee naia
nouanoaiaaiea eae naiinoiyoaeueiia o/aiea.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: O/aaiee aeey aocia. A 2 /. *.1… N. 80-93.

2. Enoi?ey oeeinioee a e?aoeii eceiaeaiee / Ia?. n /ao. E. E. Aiaooa. –
I.: Iuneue, 1994. N. 17-59.

3. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Oeeinioey”…

4. N. 11-20. Oeeinioneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue… N. 9, 41, 61,
63-64, 73, 76-77, 135, 149, 152, 180, 234-236, 242, 248-249, 277, 301,
304, 324-325, 371-372, 334, 443-444, 483, 522, 553, 585, 591-592, 704,
768, 774.

Oaia III. AIOE*IAss OEEINIOEss

Iaoa?eaeeci ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee.

Eaeaaeeci Ieaoiia e aai iniaaiiinoe.

Oeeinioey A?enoioaey.

Aioe/iay (io .eao. aioeeaeoan – ae?aaiinoue, noa?eia) oeeinioey ae?aaieo
a?aeia e ?eieyi ca?iaeeeanue a eiioea VII a. aei i.y. e i?inouanoaiaaea
aei ia/aea VI a. i.y., eiaaea eiia?aoi? THnoeai a 529 a. cae?ue
iineaaeithth a?a/aneoth oeeinioneoth oeieo – Ieaoiiianeoth Aeaaeaieth.
Aioe/iay oeeinioey, oaeei ia?acii, aeeea ieiei 1200 eao e a naiai
?acaeoee ian/eouaaao /aou?a iniiaiuo ia?eiaea:

I. VII-V aa. aei i.y. – aeinie?aoianeee ia?eiae (Aa?aeeeo, Aeaiie?eo e
ae?.),

II. 2-y iie. V – eiiaoe IV aa. aei i.y. – eeanne/aneee ia?eiae (Nie?ao,
Ieaoii, A?enoioaeue e ae?.);

III. Eiiaoe IV-II aa. aei i.y. – yeeeienoe/aneee ia?eiae (Yieeo? e
ae?.),

IV. I a. aei i.y. – VI a. i.y. – ?eineay oeeinioey.

Aioe/iay oeeinioey aicieeea e ?acaeaaeanue ai a?aiy ca?iaeaeaiey e
noaiiaeaiey ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai iauanoaa, eiaaea iii aeaeeeinue ia
eeannu e iainiaeyeanue nioeeaeueiay a?oiia ethaeae, caieiaaoayny oieueei
oinoaaiiui o?oaeii. Naiei iiyaeaieai yoa oeeinioey iaycaia e ?acaeoeth
anoanoaiciaiey, i?aaeaea anaai iaoaiaoeee, ano?iiiiee. I?aaaea, a oi
aeaeaeia a?aiy anoanoaiciaiea aua ia auaeaeeeinue a naiinoiyoaeueioth
iaeanoue /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey. Ana ciaiea i ie?a e /aeiaaea
iauaaeeiyeinue a oeeinioee. Ii nooe yoi aue neiiiei ca?iaeaeathuaeny
iaoee e oai?aoe/aneie iunee aiiaua, niaieoiiiai, ia ?acaeaeaiiiai aei
ii?u, aei a?aiaie ia niaoeeaeueiua ?acaeaeu ciaiey eae eiie?aoiiai, oae
e iaiauaiiiai. Ia neo/aeii Ae?aaiaeooth oeeinioee aua iacuaatho iaoeie
iaoe.

A eaeoeee aieiaiea noieone?oai ia iaeioi?uo iniiaiuo i?iaeaiao
ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee. A iae, eae e a ethaie ae?oaie, a oii /enea e
nia?aiaiiie, auei aeaa i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iai?aaeaiey: iaoa?eaeeci
(eeiey Aeaiie?eoa) e eaeaaeeci (eeiey Ieaoiia).

Iaoa?eaeeci ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee.

Aai auaeathueiny i?aaenoaaeoaeai aue i?aaeaea anaai Aa?aeeeo (ieiei
544-483 aa. aei i.y.), aioaaeoee a enoi?eth eae Yoanneee, ii iacaaieth
ai?iaea, a eioi?ii ii ?iaeeeny. I?aaa ii aue no?iioeaiai, caieiooiai e
?acae?aaeeoaeueiiai. I?eieiaoue o/anoey a iauanoaaiiie aeecie ia aeaeae:
“I?inueaa nia?aaeaeai aeaoue ai?iaeo caeiiu ii ioeacae, – aeaneo iaeei
aioe/iue enoi/iee, – o.e. ai?iae, ii aai iiaieth, oaea aiae a i?iecaie
aeo?iiai ono?ienoaa”. Ii iaienae eieao “I i?e?iaea”. A iae iiiaeanoai
aoi?eciia a ooiaiiii noeea, iaiiieiathueo naioaioeee i?aeoeia, eioi?ua
iau/ii iauaeenue oieueei n oaie, n eai aeaeaee, e aea?aeaeenue
iiaeaeueoa io oieiu. Oaeei niiniaii ii no?aieeny ecaaaeaoue i?ac?aiey e
ianiaoae oao, eoi, n/eoay aaue aiaoia i?inouie, iieaaae, /oi iiieiaao
eo, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ie/aai ia iiieiay. Ca yoi ii e aue i?icaai
Aa?aeeeoii Oaiiui.

Iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee – ioiioaiea iuoeaiey e auoeth – Aa?aeeeo ?aoae
iaoa?eaeenoe/anee, i?eciaaay ca iaoa?eae aa ia?ae/iinoue ii ioiioaieth e
aeooiaiiio. A iniiaa anaai nouanoaothuaai, n/eoae ii, eaaeeo
iaoa?eaeueiia ia?aiia/aei – iaiiue, eioi?ue, ia?aoiaey ec iaeiiai
ninoiyiey a ae?oaia, iaoiaeeony a aa/iii aeaeaeaiee e eciaiaiee.
Aeaaiaea?y ai?ueaa ia?acothueo aai i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae iaiiue neoaeeo
iniiaie ?acaeoey anaai ie?a. Iaiiue Aa?aeeeoa – naycothuaa caaii iaaeaeo
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyie (noeoeyie). Eae ia?ac aaeeinoaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae
ii i?eaiaeeo, a /anoiinoe, oaoeao eoea, iauaaeeiythuoth aai
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua eiioeu.

Iaoa?eaeenou ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee aeieacuaaee, /oi aicieeiiaaiea e
?acaeoea ie?oaeathuaai ian ie?a – yoi anoanoaaiiue, a ia
naa?ouanoanoaaiiue i?ioeann. Iie a oi aeaeaeia a?aiy ioaa?aaee ?aciiai
?iaea ienoe/aneea iiaeoiaeu e i?iaeaia i?ienoiaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai
ie?a. A yoii ninoieo eo enoi?e/aneay caneoaa.

Aa?aeeeo auneacae aienoeio aaieaeueiua eaeae eciai/eainoe iaoa?eaeueiiai
ie?a. Eciai/eainoue einiina, ?acaeaiaiea aai, i?ioeai?a/eainoue ie?a –
ana yoi ninoaaeyao ia/aei aeeaeaeoeee. Ana, niaeanii acaeyaeai
Aa?aeeeoa, i?e/eieei iaoneiaeaii, iiae/eiaii eiaino, o.a. caeiiiia?ii.

Eneeth/eoaeueia cia/eiinoue o/aiey Aa?aeeeoa i ?acaeoee. Ooaa?aeaeaiea i
anaiauae oaeo/anoe aauae, eciaiyaiinoe yaeaiee – aai aaeeeay aeiaaaeea a
aeeaeaeoe/aneii iuoeaiee. “Ana aeaeaeaony”, “ana oa/ao”, ie/oi ia
inoaaony iaiiaeaeaeiui e iinoiyiiui, ana aac eneeth/aiey eciaiyaony e
i?aa?auaaony. A aeaoo aai ecaanoiuo o?aaiaioao /eoaai: “Iaeuecy aieoe a
iaeio e oo aea ?aeo aeaaaeaeu e iaeuecy o?iiooue aeaaaeaeu ia/oi
nia?oiia a oii aea ninoiyiee, ii, ii i?e/eia iaoaea?aeeiinoe e auno?iou
eciaiaiey, ana ?annaeaaaony e niae?aaony, i?eoiaeeo e ooiaeeo”; “Iu
aoiaeei e ia aoiaeei a iaeio e oo aea ?aeo, iu oa aea naiua e ia oa aea
naiua”.

Niune yoeo o?aaiaioia ynai: ?aea aeaeeiui ia?acii oa aea, iaaeaeo oai a
?aaeueiinoe iia anyeee ?ac ninoieo ec iiaie aiaeu, eioi?ay i?eauaaao e
en/acaao. Iiyoiio, aoiaey a ?aeo aoi?ie ?ac, iu iiuaaainy oaea ae?oaie
aiaeie. Ii e iu naie iaiyainy: a iiiaio iieiiai iia?oaeaiey a ?aeo iu
oaea ae?oaea, ia oa, /oi auee. Iiyoiio Aa?aeeeo e aiai?eo, /oi iu
aoiaeei e ia aoiaeei a oo aea ?aeo. Oi/ii oae aea iu anoue e ia anoue,
oae eae /oiau auoue oai, /oi iu anoue a ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio, iu
aeieaeiu ia auoue oai, /ai auee a i?aaeoanoaothuee iiiaio. *oiau
i?iaeieaeaoue auoue, iu aeieaeiu iai?a?uaii ia auoue aieueoa oai, /ai iu
auee oieueei /oi, a ethaie ec iiiaioia. E yoi, ii Aa?aeeeoo, eiaao neeo
aeey anyeie ?aaeueiinoe aac eneeth/aiey.

Eioa?aniua eaeae Aa?aeeeo auneacae e a iaeanoe oai?ee iiciaiey. Iii, –
ii aai o/aieth, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaeaea anaai iiciaiea iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoe, einiin a aai aa/iii eciaiaiee. I?e yoii iaaei ioiaoeoue,
/oi Aa?aeeeo i?eaeaaae aieueoia cia/aiea eae /oanoaaiiiio, oae e
?aoeeiiaeueiiio iiciaieth. *aeiaae aeieaeai i?eneooeaaoueny e i?e?iaea,
ii a oi aea a?aiy a i?ioeanna iiciaiey ia?auaoueny e naiaio ?acoio.

Ae?oaei auaeathueiny iuneeoaeai-iaoa?eaeenoii ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee
aue Aeaiie?eo (ie. 460-370 aa. aei i.y.), o/aiee iaeiiai ec nicaeaoaeae
aioe/iie aoiienoeee Eaaeeiia (V a. aei i.y.). Aeaiie?eo i?ienoiaeee ec
ciaoiiai naiaenoaa a Aaaea?ao. Oianeaaeiaae cia/eoaeueiia eiaiea. Yoi
iicaieeei aio oeaeeeii iinayoeoue naay iaoea. Ia neo/aeii aai o?oaeu
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia/oi a?iaea yioeeeeiiaaeee iiciaiey oiai a?aiaie.
Iie aeeth/atho aieaa 70 iacaaiee aai ?aaio ec iaeanoe oeceee, yoeee,
iaoaiaoeee, ?eoi?eee, ano?iiiiee e ae?. Naieie o?oaeaie ii nieneae
aeoaieia oaaaeaiea A?enoioaey, Oeeoea?iia, Ieooa?oa e ae?. auaeathueony
iuneeoaeae ae?aaiinoe.

Aaee/aeoae caneoaie Aeaiie?eoa yaeyaony aai o/aiea ia aoiienoeea. A
iniiaa ie?icaeaiey, niaeanii aai aicc?aieyi, eaaeeo aoii eae ia?aiiniiaa
?acaeoey ie?a. Aoiiu, o.a. iaeiaiueoea, aeaeaa iaaeaeeiua oece/aneea
/anoeoeu, iaeciaiiu. Iie aa/iu, iaoiaeyony a iinoiyiiii aeaeaeaiee e
ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa eeoue oi?iie, aaee/eiie, iieiaeaieai e
ii?yaeeii. Ia?yaeo n aoiiaie, ii ooaa?aeaeaieth Aeaiie?eoa, nouanoaoao e
ionoioa (ionoioa – yoi iaauoea e, eae oaeiaay, iaiiciaaaaia, oieueei
auoea iiciaaaaii), a eioi?ie e aeaeaeoony aoiiu.

I?eioeei aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee ninoaaeyao iniiao anae aoiienoe/aneie
nenoaiu. Aoiiu iaoiaeyony a aa/iii aeaeaeaiee, aoii – aeaeaeouayny
iaoa?ey. Oieueei aeaaiaea?y aeaeaeaieth e i?ienoiaeeo aicieeiiaaiea e
?acaeoea ie?a. Ia auei au ie aicieeiiaaiey, ie eciaiaiey aauae, anee au
ia nouanoaiaaei aa/iiai e iai?a?uaiiai aeaeaeaiey.

Aeaaiaea?y aeaeaeaieth aoiiia a ionoioa, eioi?ay yaeyaony ia i?e/eiie, a
oneiaeai aeaeaeaiey, neaaathony aoiiiua iannu, aicieeatho e ae?oaea
ie?u. Aeaiie?eo, neaaeiaaoaeueii, a naieo acaeyaeao ia ia?aie/eaaeny
caiiui ie?ii. Oae eae /enei aoiiia, a oaeaea i?ioyaeaiiinoue ionoiai
i?ino?ainoaa aaneiia/iu, oi nouanoaoao e iiiaeanoai ie?ia, eioi?ua
iinoiyiii aicieeatho e iiaeaatho. Aaneiia/iua ie?u nouanoaotho, ii
Aeaiie?eoo, ia oieueei a iineaaeiaaoaeueiie niaia iaeieo ae?oaeie, ii e
iaeiia?aiaiii, iaoiaeynue aianoa n oai ia ?acee/iuo noaaeeyo naiaai
?acaeoey.

Eioa?aniu acaeyaeu Aeaiie?eoa e a oai?ee iiciaiey. Anee aai
i?aaeoanoaaiieee ioaa?aaee /oanoaaiioth nooiaiue, aeoeaioe?oy aieiaiea
ia ?aoeeiiaeueiii iiciaiee, oi Aeaiie?eo eaeao aeaeueoa naieo
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. A iiciaiee anoue aeaa aeaea, ooaa?aeaeae ii:
eiae/aneia ?annoaeaeaiea, eioi?ia aeaao aeinoiaa?iia ciaiea, a oaeaea
/oanoaaiiia iiciaiea: c?aiea, neoo, caiao, aeon, inycaiea. A oi aea
a?aiy neaaeoao ioiaoeoue: Aeaiie?eo neeiiyaony e auaiaeo, /oi enoeiiia
ciaiea aeaao ?acoi /aeiaaea.

Iaoa?eaeeci ae?aaiae A?aoeee – aaaeiaeoee yoai aai ?acaeoey. Aianoa n
oai iaaei eiaoue aaeaeo, /oi aio i?enoue e oaeea oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou, eae
nica?oeaoaeueiinoue (iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aini?eyoea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe),
iaoaoece/iinoue (naa?o/oanoaaiiua i?eioeeiu e ia/aea auoey),
iaoaieoeeci (i?eciaiea iaoaie/aneie oi?iu aeaeaeaiey aaeeinoaaiii
iauaeoeaiie) e noeoeeiinoue (aanniciaoaeueiay oaaaeaeaiiinoue
iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa anoanoaieniuoaoaeae a iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoe aiaoiaai ie?a).

Eaeaaeeci Ieaoiia e aai iniaaiiinoe.

Iaoa?eaeeci a ae?iaiae A?aoeee, eae ioia/aeinue auoa, ia aue
aaeeinoaaiiui e ainiiaenoaothuei iai?aaeaieai a oeeinioee. Ia?aeeaeueii
neiei nouanoaiaaei i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiia oeeinioneia
iai?aaeaiea-eaeaaeeci , “eeiey Ieaoiia”.

Ieaoii (428-347 aa. aei i.y.), o/aiee iniiaiiieiaeieea iauaeoeaiiai
eaeaaeecia Nie?aoa, ?iaeeeny a Aoeiao. Aai ianoiyuaa eiy – A?enoiee,
Ieaoii – inaaaeiiei, eioi?iio ii iaycai naiei iiuiui oaeii; ii ae?oaei
naaaeaieyi, ii iieo/ee aai aeaaiaea?y ?aciaoenoiio noeeth ienueia e
oe?ieiio eao (“ieaoin” ii-a?a/anee icia/aao iieiioo, oe?ioo,
i?inoi?iinoue). Ieaoiio i?eiaaeeaaeao 36 oeeinioneeo ni/eiaiee
(aeeaeiaia).

Aeaaiui a ianeaaeee Ieaoiia yaeyaony o/aiea ia eaeayo. Ieaoiiianeea
eaeae ia anoue i?inoi iiiyoey, o.a. /enoi oinoaaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey (yoi
iicaea oa?iei i?eiye oaeie niune), yoi, nei?aa, oeaeinoiinoue,
nouiinoue. Eaeae – ia iunee, a oi, ii iiaiaeo /aai iuneue aeoiaao,
eiaaea iia naiaiaeia io /oanoaaiiiai, yoi iiaeeeiiia auoea, auoea a
i?aainoiaeiie noaiaie. Eaeae – nouiinoue aauae, o.a. oi, /oi eaaeaeoth
ec ieo aeaeaao oai, /oi iia anoue. Ieaoii oiio?aaeyao oa?iei
“ia?aaeeaia” (io a?a/. ia?aaeeaia – i?eia?, ia?acaoe), oeacuaay, /oi
eaeae

ia?acotho ia?iaiaioioth (io eao. ia?iaiai – inoathnue, i?iaeieaeathnue;
caeanue – iinoiyiioth) iiaeaeue eaaeaeie aaue (/ai iia aeieaeia auoue).
Ie? eaeae, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?acoao a naiae niaieoiiinoe “enoeiiia
auoea”, a /oanoaaiiue, iaoa?eaeueiue ie? Ieaoii n/eoae aoi?e/iui ii
ioiioaieth e iaio.

Nouanoaoao ia aauue ?aaeueii aeaeeiay e inycaaiay, a eaeay aaue – aio
aeaaiia a eaeaaeecia Ieaoiia. Iaoa?eth ii i?eciaao iaauoeai, ?aaeueii
nouanoaoao oieueei eaeay. Iaeiaei iieiinoueth ie? aauae Ieaoii ia
ioaa?aae. Aeaeaeaiea, ?acaeoea, eciaiaiea /oanoaaiiuo aauae iauyniyeinue
acaeiiaeaenoaeai auoey (eaeae) e iaauoey (iaoa?ee).

?aaeueii nouanoaothuee ie? Ieaoii, oaeei ia?acii, iiaeiaiye ie?ii eaeae,
ia aa?oeia eioi?iai iaoiaeeony eaeay aiaa eae aunoaai aeia?a. A yoii
ioiioaiee iieacaoaeueii einiieiae/aneia o/aiea Ieaoiia, eioi?ia iineo
ienoe/aneee, oaieiae/aneee oa?aeoa?. I?eciaaay oai?aiea ie?a aiaii,
Ieaoii iainiiauaaao acaeyae, niaeanii eioi?iio nouanoaoao eeoue iaeei
ie?, eioi?ue oi?aaeyaony aeaieo?aii (io a?a/. aeaieo?ain – ianoa?,
?aianeaiiee, oai?aoe) – oai?oeii.

Oai?ey iiciaiey Ieaoiia a naiae nooe i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeia acaeyaeai
ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo iaoa?eaeenoia. A aa iniiaa eaaeeo o/aiea i aannia?oee
aeooe. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey enoeiu, aiai?ee Ieaoii, iao ieeaeie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?auaoueny e /oanoaai, e iuouaieyi, iaiai?io, iaaei
iieiinoueth io?aoeoueny io ieo e, iia?oceaoenue a aeoaeiu naiae aeooe,
iinoa?aoueny, /oiau iia aniiiieea oi, /oi aeaeaea a ie?a eaeae. Enoi/iee
ciaiee – a ainiiieiaieyo aeooe.

Aeeaeaeoeeo Ieaoii naiaeee e eneonnoao, oiaieth caaeaaaoue aii?inu e
ioaa/aoue ia ieo. Niaeanii aai o/aieth, aeaeaeaiea e eciaiaiea yaeyaony
i?aaeiaoii, i eioi?ii iaeuecy ninoaaeoue no?iaiai ciaiey, a iiaeii
eiaoue oieueei “iiaiea”. A oi aea a?aiy ii iiiaia naeaeae aeey
enneaaeiaaiey i?e?iaeu iiiyoey. Aaaeue /oiau iauynieoue oi eee eiia
yaeaiea, iaaei, ii Ieaoiio, iaeoe aai eaeath, eia/a aiai?y, aai iiiyoea:
oi iinoiyiiia e onoie/eaia, eiaa?eaioiia (iaeciaiiia) a iai, /oi ia
aeaii /oanoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth. Aiiaua e Ieaoiio aiieia iiaeii ioianoe
oa?aeoa?enoeeo eaeaaeecia, aeaiioth A. E. Eaieiui? “Oeeinioneee
eaeaaeeci anoue OIEUeEI /aiooa n oi/ee c?aiey iaoa?eaeecia a?oaiai,
i?inoiai, iaoaoece/aneiai. Iaiai?io, n oi/ee c?aiey AeEAEAEOE*ANEIAI
iaoa?eaeecia oeeinioneee eaeaaeeci anoue IAeIINOI?IIIAA, i?aoaaee/aiiia
?acaeoea (?acaeoaaiea ?aniooaiea) iaeiie ec /a?oi/ae, noi?ii, a?aiae
iiciaiey a aanietho, IOI?AAIIUE io iaoa?ee, io i?e?iaeu,
iaiaeanoaeaiiue”.

A nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo aicc?aieyo Ieaoii au?aaeae acaeyaeu
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa, a?enoie?aoee. Ieaoiiianeee
Ai?iae-Ainoaea?noai aeieaeai ninoiyoue ec 3-o eeannia:

1) e?anoueyi, ?aianeaiieeia e eoioeia;

2) no?aaeae;

3) i?aaeoaeae.

A ia?aii nioeeaeueiii neia aeieaeia i?aiaeaaeaoue oia?aiiinoue, ai
aoi?ii – ioaeanoai e neea, a o?aoueai – ioae?inoue. I?aeoe/aneia
aeinoeaeaiea iacaaiiuo aeinoieinoa i?aaeiieaaaei, ii Ieaoiio, iinoaiiaeo
a eaeaaeueiii Ai?iaea-Ainoaea?noaa niaa?oaiiiai ia?aciaaiey e
ainieoaiey. Iecoee eeann ia ioaeaeaaony a iniaaiiii ia?aciaaiee, eai
eneonnoaai e ?aianeai o/eo i?aeoeea. Caaea/a yoiai nineiaey – oiiiaeaoue
aiaaonoai, caaioeoueny i iaoa?eaeueiuo ioaeaeao iauanoaa. Nineiaea
io?aiieeia aeieaeii auoue ia?aciaaiiui a aeiianoeea e iocuea n oeaeueth
oe?aieaiey a aai aeooa oiai yeaiaioa, eioi?ue ieoaao auiineeainoue e
ioaeanoai. Ioae/eiu e aeaiueiu yoiai nineiaey iiaeeaaeaee iaeeiaeiaiio
ia?aciaaieth, ei i?aaeiacia/aeenue iaeeiaeiaua aeeeeua. Aeey no?aaeae
i?aaeoniao?eaaeanue oaeaea iauiinoue ioaeae e aeai, a cia/eo e aeaoae.
Iineaaeiea aeieaeiu auee ainieouaaoueny a iiaeoiaeyueo aeey yoiai ianoao
e caaaaeaieyo.

Oaeay aea?ceay eiioeaioeey ainieoaiey eiaea aaeeinoaaiiie oeaeueth
iino?ieoue ai?iae-naiueth, aaea ana ethaeee au ae?oa ae?oaa, eae iaoa?e,
iooeu, aeaoe, a?aouey, nano?u, ?iaenoaaiieee. Oae Ieaoii iuneee
ecaaaeoue iauanoai io yaiecia e iaanaaaea iiaaaeeoue “iia” e “oaia”. Ana
iaycaiu auee aiai?eoue “iaoa”. *anoiay nianoaaiiinoue aeieaeia auea
onooieoue ianoi iauanoaaiiie.

Ainieoaiea, aeinoieiia i?aaeoaeae, aeieaeii auei niaaeeiyoue
i?aeoe/aneea caiyoey n inaiaieai oeeinioee. Ia?eiae ianoiaaiey
“enoeiiiai iieeoeea-enoeiiiai oeeinioa” iacuaaeny “aeeeiiie aei?iaie”,
eai i?iaeieaeaeny ii aei 50 eao. Iaaeaeo 30 e 35 aiaeaie i?aeoe/aneea
caaeaiey oneiaeiyeenue, 35-50, aiaae?yynue a ?acee/iuo ianoiinoyo,
aoaeouea i?aaeoaee ia/eiaee oanii eiioaeoe?iaaoue n ?aaeueiie aeeciueth.
Oeaeue ia?aciaaiey – iaeneiaeueiia iiciaiea Aeaaa, caoai – eaiea naay
naiiai ii ia?acoeo Aeaaa, /oiau iioii aiaae?youe e i?eaeaaoue Aeaai
enoi?e/aneie ?aaeueiinoe. Ieaoiiianeia eaeaaeueiia Ai?iae-Ainoaea?noai
iniiauaaeinue ia aunoae oeaiiinoe I?aaaeu e Aeaaa, a ainoaea?noaaiiay
aeanoue aeieaeia i?eiaaeeaaeaoue a?enoie?aoee.

Oeeinioey A?enoioaey.

A?enoioaeue (384-322 aa. aei i.y.) ?iaeeeny a Noaae?a (Iaeaaeiiey). Aai
ioaoe Ieeiiao aue i?eaeai?iui eaea?ai iaeaaeiineiai oea?y Aieioa II. A
naiuea A?enoioaeue i?eia?ae ii?aaeaeaiiua ciaiey e aeoaieee eioa?an e
anoanoaiciaieth. A 17 eao iiae aeeyieai iieau ia Aeaaeaiee Ieaoiia ii
iieeaeaao Noaae?o, ia?aae?aaony a Aoeiu e noaiiaeony o/aieeii Ieaoiia. A
Aeaaeaiee A?enoioaeue a oa/aiea ii/oe 20 eao ?acaeaaao naie oai?/aneea
niiniaiinoe. Nia/aea ia iaai caiaoii aeeyea oeeinioey Ieaoiia, a
/anoiinoe, o/aiea ia eaeayo. Iaeiaei iaiaa /ai ca aeanyoue eao
i?aauaaiey a Aeaaeaiee ii “naiiii?aaeaeeeny” e caiye e?eoe/aneoth
iiceoeeth ii ioiioaieth e oeeinioee aeaaeaieeia. Ianiaeanea n
aeaaeaie/aneie oeeinioeae a iniiaiuo aii?inao canoaaeei aai a eiioea
eiioeia oeoe ec Aeaaeaiee, inoaaeoue Aoeiu. Ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy ii
iinaeeeny a iaeaaeiineie Iaeea, eniieiye iaycaiiinoe o/eoaey
Aeaenaiae?a, nuia iaeaaeiineiai oea?y Oeeeiia II. Caoai iiiai
no?ainoaiaae e oieueei /a?ac o?eaeoeaoue eao aica?aoeeny a Aoeiu,
iniiaae caeanue nianoaaiioth oeieo a aoeineii Eeeaa (Eeoeaa). I?e oeiea
aue naae n e?uouie aaea?ayie aeey i?iaoeie. A?enoioaeue eiae iaueiiaaiea
ai a?aiy /oaiey eaeoeee i?iaoeeaaoueny ii yoei aaea?ayi ni naieie
neooaoaeyie. Iiyoiio oeieo noaee iacuaaoue ia?eiaoaoe/aneie (io a?a/.
ia?eiaoai -i?ioaaeeaathnue), a aa o/aieeia – ia?eiaoaoeeaie.

A?enoioaeue aue, aeaeeii, ia?aui, eoi aeoaiei e nenoaiaoe/anee
enneaaeiaae ana aeinooiiua aio ?aaiou i?aaeoanoaothueo iuneeoaeae. Ii
iaienae aieaa 150 iao/iuo o?oaeia e o?aeoaoia. Aai ni/eiaiey aeaeyony ia
aeaa a?oiiu: “yecioa?e/aneea” (io a?a/. yeci – aia, nia?oaee),
ninoaaeaiiua a oi?ia aeeaeiaa e i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey oe?ieie ioaeeee
aia oeieu, e “ycioa?e/aneea” (io a?a/. yci – aioo?e), – i?iaeoeo
oai?/aneie aeoeaiinoe A?enoioaey a ia?eiae i?aiiaeaaaiey,
i?aaeiacia/aiiue ia aeey ioaeeee, a oieueei aeey o/aieeia aioo?e oeieu.
Ni/eiaiey ia?aie a?oiiu ii/oe iieiinoueth oo?a/aiu, inoaeenue eeoue
ioaeaeueiua o?aaiaiou eee oieueei iacaaiey ?aaio. Caoi oi?ioi
nio?aieeenue ni/eiaiey aoi?ie a?oiiu: aei ian aeioei iiiaeanoai ?aaio
oeaeu ii oeeinioneie i?iaeaiaoeea e iaeioi?ui ?acaeaeai anoanoaiciaiey.
Eiae/aneea o?oaeu A?enoioaey iauaaeeiaiu iiae iacaaieai “I?aaiii”,
oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu enneaaeothony a “Iaoaoeceea”, yoe/aneea – a
“Ieeiiaoiaie yoeea”, ineoieiae/aneea – a ni/eiaiee “0 aeooa”,
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea -a “Iieeoeea” e o.ae.

A naiae “ia?aie oeeinioee” (“Iaoaoeceea”) A?enoioaeue iiaeaa?a e?eoeea
o/aiea Ieaoiia ia eaeayo e aeae ?aoaiea aii?ina ia ioiioaiee a auoee
iauaai e aaeeie/iiai. Aaeeie/iia – oi, /oi nouanoaoao oieueei
“aaea-eeai” e “oaia?ue”, iii /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaii. Iauaa – oi, /oi
nouanoaoao a ethaii ianoa e a ethaia a?aiy (“iianthaeo” e “anaaaea”),
i?iyaeyynue i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo a aaeeie/iii, /a?ac eioi?ia iii
iiciaaony. Iauaa ninoaaeyao i?aaeiao iaoee e iinoeaaaony oiii.

Aeey iauyniaiey oiai, /oi nouanoaoao, A?enoioaeue i?eciaaae /aou?a
i?e/eiu; nouiinoue e nooue auoey, a neeo eioi?ie anyeay aauue oaeiaa,
eaeiaa iia anoue (OI?IAEUeIAss I?E*EIA); iaoa?ey e iiaeeaaeauaa
(noano?ao – io iicaeiaeao. noano?aooi, aoea. – iiaenoeeea) – oi, ec /aai
/oi-eeai aicieeaao (IAOA?EAEUeIAss I?E*EIA); AeAEAEOUAss I?E*EIA,
ia/aei aeaeaeaiey; OeAEAAAss I?E*EIA – oi, ?aaee /aai /oi-eeai
inouanoaeyaony.

Oioy A?enoioaeue i?eciaaae iaoa?eth iaeiie ec ia?auo i?e/ei e n/eoae aa
iaeioi?ie nouiinoueth, ii aeaeae a iae oieueei ianneaiia ia/aei
(aiciiaeiinoue noaoue /ai-eeai). Anth aea aeoeaiinoue ii i?eienuaae
inoaeueiui o?ai i?e/eiai, i?e/ai nooe auoey – oi?ia – i?eienae aa/iinoue
e iaeciaiiinoue, a enoi/ieeii anyeiai aeaeaeaiey n/eoae iaiiaeaeaeiia,
ii aeaeaeouaa ia/aei – aiaa. Aia A?enoioaey – “ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue” ie?a,
aunoay oeaeue anao ?acaeaathueony ii nianoaaiiui caeiiai oi?i e
ia?aciaaiee. O/aiea A?enoioaey i oi?ia anoue o/aiea iauaeoeaiiai
eaeaaeecia.

Aeaeaeaiea ii A?enoioaeth, anoue ia?aoiae /aai-eeai ec aiciiaeiinoe a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Ii ?acee/ae 4 ?iaea aeaeaeaiey: ea/anoaaiiia, eee
eciaiaiea; eiee/anoaaiiia – oaaee/aiea eee oiaiueoaiea; ia?aiauaiea –
i?ino?ainoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea; aicieeiiaaiea e oie/oiaeaiea, naiaeeiua e
ia?aui aeaoi aeaeai.

Ii A?enoioaeth, anyeay ?aaeueii nouanoaothuay aaeeie/iay aauue anoue
aaeeinoai “iaoa?ee” e “oi?iu”, i?e/ai “oi?ia” -i?enouee naiiio aauanoao
“aeae”, i?eieiaaiue ei. Iaeei e oio aea i?aaeiao /oanoaaiiiai ie?a
iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny e eae. “iaoa?ey”, e eae “oi?ia”. Iaaeue anoue
“iaoa?ey” ii ioiioaieth e oa?o (“oi?ia”), eioi?ue ec iaaee ioeeaaaony.
Ii oa aea iaaeue anoue “oi?ia” ii ioiioaieth e oece/aneei yeaiaioai,
niaaeeiaieai eioi?uo, niaeanii A?enoioaeth, yaeyaony aauanoai iaaee. Any
?aaeueiinoue ieacuaaeanue, oaeei ia?acii, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth
ia?aoiaeia io “iaoa?ee” e “oi?ia” e io “oi?iu” e “iaoa?ee”.

A o/aiee i iiciaiee e aai aeaeao A?enoioaeue ?acee/ae “aeeaeaeoe/aneia”
e “aiiaeeeoe/aneia” (io a?a/. aiiaeeeoeein-aeieacaoaeueiue,
oaaaeeoaeueiue) iiciaiea. Iaeanoue ia?aiai -“iiaiea”, iieo/aaiia ec
iiuoa, aoi?iai – aeinoiaa?iia ciaiea. Oioy iiaiea e iiaeao iieo/eoue
aanueia aunieoth noaiaiue aa?iyoiinoe ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth, iiuo ia
yaeyaony, ii A?enoioaeth, iineaaeiae einoaioeeae aeinoiaa?iinoe ciaiey,
eai aunoea i?eioeeiu ciaiey nica?oeathony oiii iaiin?aaenoaaiii. Oeaeue
iaoee A?enoioaeue aeaeae a iieiii ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaeiaoa, aeinoeaaaiii
oieueei iooai niaaeeiaiey aeaaeoeoeee (io eao. aeaaeoeoeei – auaaaeaiea;
ia?aoiae io iauaai e /anoiiio) e eiaeoeoeee (io eao. eiaeoeoeei –
iaaaaeaiea; niinia ?annoaeaeaiey io /anoiuo oaeoia, iieiaeaiee e iauei
auaiaeai): 1) ciaiea i eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii naienoaa aeieaeii auoue
i?eia?aoaii ec iiuoa; 2) oaaaeaeaiea a oii, /oi yoi naienoai –
nouanoaaiiia, aeieaeii auoue aeieacaii oiicaeeth/aieai iniaie eiae/aneie
oi?iu – eaoaai?e/aneei neeeiaeciii (a?a/, neeeiaeiin; eiae/aneia
oiicaeeth/aiea, a eioi?ii ec aeaoo aeaiiuo noaeaeaiee, iinueie,
iieo/aaony o?aouea – auaiae).

Iiiai aieiaiey A?enoioaeue oaeaeye o/aieth i i?e?iaea /aeiaaea e
ainoaea?noaa. *aeiaaea ii iiieiae eae “iieeoe/aneia aeeaioiia”, o.a.
aaieaeueii i?aaeoaaaeuaae nioeeaeueiia a /aeiaaea. Ioee/ea /aeiaaea io
aeeaioiiai A?enoioaeue aeaeae a aai niiniaiinoe e eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Nioeeaeueiinoue /aeiaaea ii naycuaae i?aaeaea anaai n
naiueae, iioiio /oi ionoaeaae “i?e?iaeiia” i?ienoiaeaeaiea e ono?ienoai
ainoaea?noaa: enoi?e/anee ?acaeoea iauanoaa, niaeanii aai o/aieth, eaeao
io naiuee e iaueia (naeaieth), a io iaai – e ainoaea?noao (ai?iaeo,
iieeno).

A “Iieeoeea” ainoaea?noai ii?aaeaeyaony eae iauaiea iiaeiaiuo ae?oa
ae?oao ethaeae a oeaeyo aiciiaeii eo/oaai nouanoaiaaiey. Iieiaeaiea
ethaeae ii?aaeaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth, iuneue i eioi?ie aeinoaaeyao
/aeiaaeo enoeiiia ianeaaeaeaiea. A?aaeaeaiaie iauanoaa iiaoo auoue
oieueei naiaiaeiua (aieiu, noaeuee, i?aaeoaee), a ?aianeaiieee,
oi?aiaoeu e o.ae. – iaiieiii?aaiua a?aaeaeaia, eai eo aeeciue ia
niinianoaoao aeia?iaeaoaee. Enneaaeoy oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa, A?enoioaeue i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi eo/oae ec i?aaeeueiuo oi?i
(iiia?oey, a?enoie?aoey e “iieeoey” – aeanoue n?aaeiaai eeanna) yaeyaony
“iieeoey”, eai iia aeieaeia iauaaeeiyoue aeia?iaeaaeaeue, aiaaonoai,
naiaiaeo, au?aaeaoue eioa?anu aiaaouo e aaaeiuo. Ieioeie oi?iaie
ainoaea?noaa A?enoioaeue n/eoae oe?aieth (aicieeathuoth eae aeaoi?iaoeey
iiia?oee), ieeaa?oeth (aeaoi?iaoeey a?enoie?aoee) e aeaiie?aoeth
(aeaoi?iaoeey iieeoee).

A?enoioaeue ioaa?aaao niaeoeyoeaiia “eaeaaeueiia ainoaea?noai” Ieaoiia.
Iniiaiuie caaea/aie ainoaea?noaa ii n/eoaao i?aaeioa?auaiea /?acia?iiai
iaeiieaiey eiouanoaa a?aaeaeai, /?acia?iiai ?inoa iieeoe/aneie aeanoe
ee/iinoe e oaea?aeaiea ?aaia a iiaeiiaaiee. Niaeanii o/aieth A?enoioaey,
?aanoai nouanoaoao “ii i?e?iaea”, eai iaeie ethaee i?aaeiacia/aiu
iiaaeaaaoue, a ae?oaea – iiae/eiyoueny e neaaeiaaoue oeacaieyi ia?auo.

Caeanue ii eniieuecoao iuneue i i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe aeooe e oaea. “Oa
ethaee, eioi?ua noieue aea ioee/athony io ae?oaeo ethaeae, eae aeooa io
oaea, a /aeiaae io aeeaioiiai… ii naiae i?e?iaea – ?aau; aeey ieo…
eo/oee oaeae auoue a iiae/eiaiee o aeaniioe/aneie aeanoe” – oaeie, eaeie
iiae/eiythony oaea e aeeaioiua. ?aau – yoi i?aaeaea anaai aa?aa?u,
ioee/iua io ainiiae eae oaeii, i?eniiniaeaiiui e a?oaiio oece/aneiio
o?oaeo, oae e “?aaneie” aeooith. ?aa – “iaeooaaeaiiue eino?oiaio”,
/anoue eiouanoaa ainiiaeeia, ioee/athuayny io ae?oaiai eiouanoaa eeoue
oai, /oi eiaao /aeiaa/aneea aeooo e oaei. ?aa ia eiaao ieeaeeo i?aa, e
ii ioiioaieth e iaio ia iiaeao auoue niaa?oaii iani?aaaaeeeainoe;
iaeuecy ae?oaeeoue n ?aaii, iineieueeo ii ?aa, aeaeaao iaiai?eo
A?enoioaeue, – ii ae?oaeeoue n iei iiaeii, iineieueeo ii /aeiaae.

Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa A?enoioaey iie?aeanue ia ia?iiiue eco/aiiue ei e
nia?aiiue a aai oeiea oaeoe/aneee iaoa?eae i a?a/aneeo
ai?iaeao-ainoaea?noaao (iieenao).

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aiaiiieia A. N. Aioe/iay oeeinioey. – I.: Ecae-ai Iine. oi-oa, 1985.
N. 137-224.

2. Aieueoay Niaaoneay Yioeeeeiiaaeey. (A 30 oiiao). Ae. ?aae.: A. I.
I?ioi?ia. Ecae. 3-a. – I.: “Niaaoneay Yioeeeeiiaaeey”. O. 2. 1970. N.
195-196.

3. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth. O/aaiee aeey aocia. A 2 /. *.1… N. 93-115.

4. Aeae. ?aaea, Ae. Aioena?e. Caiaaeiay oeeinioey io enoieia aei iaoeo
aeiae. Ei. 1 Aioe/iinoue. OII OE “Iao?iiieen”, 1994. N. 24-26, 46-49,
95-131, 136-168.

5. Enoi?ey oeeinioee a e?aoeii eceiaeaiee… N. 79-84, 110-119,
133-143, 148-163. Eaiei A. E. E aii?ino i aeeaeaeoeea. – Iiei, nia?.
ni/., O. 2, N. 322.

6. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Oeeinioey”… N. 11-17. Nie?eei A. A.
Iniiau oeeinioee: O/aaiia iiniaea aeey aocia… N. 42-48.

7. Oeeinioneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue… N. 35-38, 109-110,
147-148, 496-498.

8. Oeeinioey. E?aoeia o/aaiia iiniaea… N. 26-30.

1. Oaia IV. O?ENOEAINEAss OEEINIOEss N?AAeIAAAEIAIE AA?IIU

Iniaaiiinoe e i?eioeeiu ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneiai noeey iuoeaiey.

Ienoeea e noieanoeea – aeaa iaoiaea n?aaeiaaaeiaiai oeeinionoaiaaiey.

Oaiaeaioeee n?aaeiaaaeiaie noieanoeee: ?aaeeci e iiieiaeeci.

Iniaaiiinoe e i?eioeeiu ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneiai noeey iuoeaiey.

N?aaeiaaaeiaay aa?iiaeneay oeeinioey – /?acau/aeii niaea?aeaoaeueiue e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue yoai a enoi?ee oeeinioee, naycaiiue i?aaeaea anaai n
o?enoeainoaii e oiic?eoaeueiui oeiii oeeinionoaiaaiey. O?iiieiae/anee
yoio ia?eiae ioaaouaaao I-XV aa. A n?aaiaiee n ae?aaiae oeeinioeae, iia
eiaea naith niaoeeoeeo:

1. Aeaaiia ioee/ea n?aaeiaaaeiaiai iuoeaiey ninoieo a oii, /oi
aeaeaeaiea oeeinioneie iunee auei i?iiecaii i?iaeaiaie ?aeeaee.
Oeeinioey niciaoaeueii neoaeeea ae. A ia?aciaaiiuo e?oaao oiai a?aiaie
aa iacuaaee neoaeaieie aiaineiaey. Iauyniyeinue yoi oai, /oi oea?eiaue a
n?aaeiea aaea iiiiiieece?iaaea ia?aciaaiea e iaoeo. Aieueoeinoai o/aiuo
i?aaenoaaeyee aeooiaainoai, a iiianou?e i?aa?aoeeenue a i/aae eoeueoo?u
e iaoee.

2. Oeeinioeth n?aaeiaaaeiauey oa?aeoa?eciaae aeaeaeneee O?AAeEOeEIIAEECI
e ?AO?INIAEOEAIINOUe. Aeaeey a aeacao o/aiuo e a ianniaii niciaiee auea
naiui ae?aaiei, naiui enoeiiui, cia/eiui e iiaeeeiiui i?iecaaaeaieai a
ie?a. E?iia oiai, yoi auea ia i?inoi “Eieaa eiea” (a ia?aaiaea a
a?a/aneiai aeaeeii icia/aao eieaa), ii aiaiaaeioiiaaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea,
neiai Aiaa, Caaao e oai naiui iauaeo aa?u. Iia, a ioee/ea io ycu/aneiai
ie?iaicc?aiey, eneeth/aea iiiaiaiaeea a ethaii aa?eaioa e ooaa?aeaeaea
eaeath i aaeeiie nouiinoe ie?a.

3. Iineieueeo Aeaeey iiieaeaeanue eae iieiue naiae caeiiia auoey e
iiaaeaiee Aiaa, iniaia cia/aiea i?eia?aea YECAAAOEEA – eneonnoai
i?aaeeueiiai oieeiaaiey e ?acuyniaiey iieiaeaiee Caaaoa. Niioaaonoaaiii,
e any oeeinioey auea “yecaaaoe/ia”. A naieo oi?iao. Yoi icia/aei, /oi
i/aiue iiiai aieiaiey oaeaeyeinue oaenoo i?iecaaaeaiee, niiniaai aai
oieeiaaiey. E?eoa?eai enoeiiinoe oai?ee noaei niioaaonoaea aeooo e aoeaa
Aeaeee.

4. Oeeinioee n?aaeiaaaeiauey auea i?enoua OAIAeAIOeEss E
IACEAeAOAEUeIINOE, O*EOAEUeNOAO. Yoi niinianoaiaaei iauae onoaiiaea ia
oeaiiinoue iao/aiey e ainieoaiey n oi/ee c?aiey i?iaeaeaeaiey e
nianaieth, e Aiao. Iau/iay oi?ia oeeinioneeo o?aeoaoia – aeeaeia
aaoi?eoaoiiai o/eoaey e ne?iiiiai, iiaeaeaeeaathuaai, ae/ouaai ciaiee
o/aieea.

A oeaeii oeeinioey n?aiaaaeiauey iainiiauaaea aiciiaeiinoue ee/iiai
nianaiey, aine?anaiey ec ia?oauo, eiia/iiai oi?aeanoaa enoei
o?enoeainoaa a einie/aneii ianooaaa, auea ii aeooo iioeienoe/ia.

Aaciaua iieiaeaiey o?enoeaineiai aa?io/aiey ni a?aiaiai i?eiyee oi?io
iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneiai noeey iuoeaiey. Ia neo/aeii
n?aaeiaaaeiaia ie?iaicc?aiea -OAIOeAIO?E*II (io a?a/. oain – Aia).
Aeaaainoaothuay eaeay aai – eaeay Aiaa. Ionthaea e iniiaiie i?eioeei
?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneiai oai?aoece?iaaiey – NOI?AIAOO?AEECI (io eao.
noia?-naa?o e iaoo?a – i?e?iaea; iaaei?e?iaeiue, naa?ouanoanoaaiiue). Ia
i?e?iaea e einiin ii?aaeaeytho ana nouaa a ie?a, a NAA?OUANOANOAAIIIA
IA*AEI – AIA. Io iaai oeaeeeii caaenyo e i?e?iaea, e /aeiaae, e
iauanoai.

Aa?othuea ethaee ii-iniaiio niio?yo ia niune ie?icaeaiey e /aeiaa/aneiai
nouanoaiaaiey. Iie eae au aicauoathony iaae eiia/iuie aeeoaeneeie e
enoi?e/aneeie neooaoeeyie, iinoiyiii iiiiyo i /ai-oi iai?aoiaeyuai,
aaniethoiii, aa/iii, iaoiaeyuainy ca i?aaeaeaie anaai caiiiai,
ioiineoaeueiiai, a?aiaiiiai, i?aoiaeyuaai.

Noi?aiaoo?aeeci eae naiay oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa o?enoeaineiai noeey iuoeaiey
i?iiecuaaea ana /anoe n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioneie oai?ee: iioieiaeth (io
a?a/. iioin – nouaa) – o/aiea i auoee, aio?iiieiaeth (io a?a/. aio?iiin
– /aeiaae) – o/aiea i /aeiaaea, aiinaieiaeth – o/aiea i iiciaiee,
i?iaeaeaioeeaeeci (io eao. i?iaeaeaioeey – i?iaeaeaiea) e ynoaoieiaeth
(io a?a/. ynoaoin – iineaaeiee, eiia/iue) – o/aiea ia enoi?e/aneii
?acaeoee.

A iaeanoe iioieiaee oaioeaio?eci ?ane?uaaaony /a?ac i?eioeei
e?aaoeeiiecia (io eao. e?aaoeei – nioai?aiea), a aio?iiieiaee – /a?ac
i?eioeei aio?iiieiaecia, a aiinaieiaee – /a?ac i?eioeei
aiaioiiaeiaeaiey, a oeeinioee enoi?ee – /a?ac i?eioeei
i?iaeaeaioeeaeecia e ynoaoieiaecia. Inoaiiaeiny e?aoei ia yoeo iniiaiuo
iiiaioao o?enoeaineiai ie?iaicc?aiey.

E?AAOeEIIECI. Niaeanii o?enoeaineiio aa?io/aieth, Aia nicaeae ie? ec
“ie/aai”, nioai?ee aai aeoii naiae aiee, aeaaiaea?y naiaio iiaouanoao.
O?enoeaia o?aeootho Aiaa eae aaniethoiia oai?/aneia ia/aei. Aio
i?eienuaaee ana ao?eaoou, eioi?uie ae?aaiaa?a/aneea oeeiniou iaaeaeyee
auoea: Ii aa/ai, iaeciaiai, naiioiaeaeanoaai, ie io /aai ae?oaiai ia
caaeneo e yaeyaony enoi/ieeii anaai nouaai.

AIO?IIIOeAIO?ECI. A eiioaenoa ?aeeaeiciiai ie?iaicc?aiey – yoi
niaieoiiinoue acaeyaeia, ooaa?aeaeathueo eneeth/eoaeueioth ?ieue
/aeiaaea n?aaee oai?aiee Aiaa. Ii o?enoeaineiio aa?io/aieth, Aia
nioai?ee /aeiaaea ia aianoa ni anaie nouanoaaie, a a niaoeeaeueii aeey
iaai auaeaeaiiue, oanoie, aeaiue. O?enoeaineea oeeiniou, a niioaaonoaee
n Aeaeeae, iiae/a?eeaatho iniaia iieiaeaiea /aeiaaea a ie?a. Anee ana
ae?oaea iaoa?eaeueiua nenoaiu e aeeaua i?aaieciu – eeoue i?inoi
oai?aiey, oi /aeiaae -aaiaoe oai?aiey. Aieaa oiai, ii – nouanoai,
ainiiaenoaothuaa ia caiea.

Aunieee noaoon /aeiaa/aneiai auoey ii?aaeaeyaony aeaeaeneie oi?ioeie:
“*aeiaae – ia?ac e iiaeiaea Aiaa”. Ii “iiaeiaea” ia icia/aao eiieth.
ssnii aea, /oi /aeiaaeo iaeuecy i?eienuaaoue ie anaiiaouanoai, ie
aaneiia/iinoue, ie aacia/aeueiinoue. Aiaeanoaaiiua ea/anoaa /aeiaaea,
iiaeneacuaatho o?enoeaineea aiaineiau, – yoi ?acoi e aiey.

Naiaiaea aiee iicaieyao /aeiaaeo auae?aoue aeia?i e cei. Ia?aua ethaee –
Aaeai e Aaa – naeaeaee yoio auai? iaoaea/ii. Iie aua?aee cei e oai naiui
niaa?oeee a?aoiiaaeaiea. Ioiuia i?e?iaea /aeiaaea ieacaeanue
enii?/aiiie, ia iaa iinoiyiii aicaeaenoaoao a?aoiiaaeaiea. I?e/ai,
naieie neeaie /aeiaae ia niiniaai i?aiaeieaoue naieo a?aoiaiuo
iaeeiiiinoae. Aio iinoiyiii iaiaoiaeeia aiaeanoaaiiay iiiiuue, aeaenoaea
aiaeanoaaiiie aeaaiaeaoe (neiu). Niioiioaiea /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu e
aeaaiaeaoe yaeyaony oeaio?aeueiie oaiie o?enoeaineie aio?iiieiaee.

I?IAEAeAIOeEAEECI – ?aeeaeiciay eioa?i?aoaoeey enoi?ee eae inouanoaeaiey
aiaeanoaaiiiai ieaia, i?iiunea aiaeey. Yoio aiaeee i?iiunae nianeoaeueii
iai?aaeyao enoi?eth ia aeinoeaeaiea oea?noaa aiaeey e iaaeinooiai
/aeiaa/aneiio iiieiaieth. Enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann i?e oaeii iiaeoiaea
i?aaenoaao eae ?ane?uoea aiai/aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee. Ii
oa?aeoa?ecoaony, n iaeiie noi?iiu, oiaaeeii, ?aa?annii, aucaaiiui
a?aoiiaaeaieai e io/oaeaeaieai /aeiaaea io Aiaa, a, n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
ainoiaeaeaieai /aeiaaea e Aiao. Iniiaiay ienney enoi?ee iiieiaaony eae
nianeoaeueiay, eneoieoaeueiay, eni?aaeoaeueiay, eniuoaoaeueiay e
iaceaeaoaeueiay. I?iaeaeaioeeaeeci ia?ac?uaii naycai n YNOAOIEIAEAE –
?aeeaeiciui o/aieai i eiioea naaoa, niunea e caaa?oaiee caiiie enoi?ee,
eiia/iuo noaeueaao /aeiaaea (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ynoaoieiaey) e
/aeiaa/anoaa (oieaa?naeueiay ynoaoieiaey). Enoi?ey ecia?aaeaaony eae
i?ioeann, iai?aaeyaiue Aiaii e ca?aiaa i?aaeii?aaeaeyaiie oeaee –
oea?noao Ynoaoiia (“oea?noao aiaeeth”). O o?enoeaineeo iuneeoaeae
“oea?noai aiaeea” i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ie? enoeiiiai, i?ae?aniiai e
niaa?oaiiiai, a eioi?ii /aeiaae iieiinoueth niaaeeieony n Aiaii.
Aeinoeaeaiea “oea?noaa aiaeey” – yoi eiia/iay oeaeue e niune
/aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey.

Aiieaeeine/aneea (a aeaiiii neo/aa – i?i?i/aneea) neiioiiu nei?iai
eiioea yaeythony enoi/ieeii no?aoa ia?aae caiiuie no?aaeaieyie e
iinia?oiui iaeacaieai. Ii i?eioaeaeaao o?enoeai ie?eoueny n ian/anoueyie
e iani?aaaaeeeainoueth, oieeaao e iieayieth e ieoaao ?aeeaeiciia ?aaiea.

E, iaeiiaoe, i?ioeann iiciaiey eae AIAIOIIAeIAEAIEA. Iineieueeo a
o?enoeaineii ie?iaicc?aiee oeaeue e niune iiciaiey caaeathony
iio?aaiinoueth “nianaiey aeooe”, iinoieueeo eiia/iie oeaeueth
iiciaaaoaeueiuo oneeee /aeiaaea i?eciaaony ia ciaiea iauaeoeaiiai ie?a,
a ia?aoaiea /aeiaaeii naiaai ia?aiia/aeueiiai “aeia?aoiaiiai” iaeeea:
“ia?aca e iiaeiaey Aiaa”.

A “aeia?aoiaiii” ninoiyiee, ii iienaieyi o?enoeaineeo oeeinioia, /aeiaae
aeee ia nai ii naaa, a ii-aiaeanee, iaoiaeeeny a aaeeinoaa n Aiaii, aue
nii?e/anoai naa?ouanoanoaaiiiio. Nouiinoue aea a?aoiiaaeaiey, ii eo
iiaieth, eae ?ac e ninoieo a oii, /oi /aeiaae ioaeaeeeny io Aiaa,
caoioae aeeoue ii naiei i?eioeeiai e ii?iai, iiaeaeae noaoue ?aaiui
Aiao.

Ia?aoaiea /aeiaaeii aiiaue aiaeanoaaiiiai ia?aca e iiaeiaey
i?aaeiieaaaao ioeac /aeiaaea io naieo i?aoaicee, io naiae
noauaeoeaiinoe, io naiaai “ss”. Aiaioiiaeiaeaiea anoue ie/oi eiia eae
naiiio?a/aiea /aeiaaea, iieiue ia?aoiae aai a iiae/eiaiea Aiao.

Oi?iie aea oaeiai ia?aoiaea yaeyaony aa?a. O?enoeaineea oeeiniou
?anniao?eaatho aa eae iniaoth, naa?ouanoanoaaiioth,
iiciaaaoaeueii-ie?iaicc?ai/aneoth iiceoeeth noauaeoa. Niaeanii eo
o/aieth, aa?a yaeyaony oi?iie aaeeiaiey /aeiaaea n Aiaii, eaiaeii, /a?ac
eioi?ue Aia a ea/anoaa ienoe/aneie neeu-aeaaiaeaoe aicaeaenoaoao ia aai
iiciaaaoaeueiua niiniaiinoe, icaei?iaeyao, iieiaeioai?yao e
niaa?oainoaoao eo. Aiaeanoaaiiay aeaaiaeaoue a o?enoeaineie aiinaieiaee
aunooiaao aeaaiui aeaeaeouei ia/aeii e ?aaoeyoi?ii iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ienoeea e noieanoeea – aeaa iaoiaea n?aaeiaaaeiaiai oeeinionoaiaaiey.

A n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee iaaethaeaeenue aeaa iaoiaea oeeinionoaiaaiey:
ienoe/aneee e noieanoe/aneee. Ienoe/aneee iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?ai aeey
iao?enoeee (io eao. iao?an – iooeu, iiae?acoiaaaaony – iooeu oea?eae) –
?aiiae o?enoeaineie oeeinioee (I-VII) aa.), noieanoe/aneee (io eao.
noiea – oeiea) oa?aeoa?eciaae aoi?ie ia?eiae o?enoeaineie oeeinioee
(VIII-XV aa.).

A iniiaa IENOEOeECIA (io a?a/. ienoeein – oaeinoaaiiue) eaaeaei o/aiea i
aiaeanoaaiiii i?iieeiiaaiee a /aeiaa/aneia iiciaiea. Yoi o/aiea aa?ao
naia ia/aei a oeeinioneie nenoaia e?oiiaeoaai i?aaenoaaeoaey
n?aaeiaaaeiaie iao?enoeee AA?AEEss AAAONOEIA (354-430). Ii aai iiaieth,
ie /aeiaa/aneay aeooa, ie aaoe naie ii naaa ia niaea?aeao naaoa. Iie
naaoyony io?aaeaiiui naaoii. Ana aeaeeii, ana ?aaeueii oieueei /a?ac
Aiaa. Aia – yoi nieioea, eioi?ia naii iaaeaeeii, ii aeaeaao ana
inoaeueiia aeaeeiui.

Ia o/aieai /aeiaa/aneei, ooaa?aeaeae Aaaonoei, a aioo?aiiei naaoii, a
oaeaea neeie auni/aeoae ethaae iia O?enoin ia?aoeoue ethaeae e
nianeoaeueiie aa?a. ?aeeaeiciay aa?a, niaeanii aai aicc?aieyi, ia
i?aaeiieaaaao iaycaoaeueiiai iiieiaiey oao eee eiuo iieiaeaiee ?aeeaee.
Iia ia o?aaoao ieeaeeo aeieacaoaeueiuo a?aoiaioia. Iaaei i?inoi aa?eoue.

Aianoa n oai Aaaonoei io/aoeeai iniciaaae oo aaaeioth ?ieue, eioi?oth
ea?aei ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiciaiea. Iiyoiio ii ia io?eoeae iaiaoiaeeiinoue
oneeaiey aa?u aeieacaoaeuenoaaie ?acoia, ?aoiaae ca aioo?aiithth naycue
aa?u e ?acoia. Iineooiue ?aeeaee ?acoi e iiaee?aieaiiay ?acoiiuie
aeiaiaeaie aa?a – oaeia eaeaae aaaonoeiianeie aiieiaaoeee (io a?a/.
aiieiaaiiae – caueuath, iiae?acoiaaaaony caueoa o?enoeaineiai
aa?io/aiey). Iaeiaei i?aaenoaaeaiiay Aaaonoeiii oai?ey i Aa?iiiee aa?u e
?acoia eneeth/aea eaeoth-eeai aiciiaeiinoue iinoaaeoue aa?o a
caaeneiinoue io ?acoia. ?aoathuoth ?ieue a aai nenoaia, aac anyeiai
niiiaiey, ea?aei ioe?iaaiea (a i?aaenoaaeaiee aa?othueo ioe?uoea
aiaeanoaii naa?ouanoanoaaiiui niiniaii – ciaiaiea, aeaeaiea e ae?. –
naiae aiee eee eaeeo-eeai aiaeanoaaiiuo enoei).

Ia?yaeo n ienoeoeeciii, ia?iiiui aeeyieai a n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee
iieueciaaeanue NOIEANOEEA – oeeinioey, i?eniiniaeaiiay aeey iao/aiey
ia?iaeiuo iann iniiaai o?enoeaineiai ie?iaicc?aiey. Iia noi?ie?iaaeanue
a ia?eiae aaniethoiiai ainiiaenoaa o?enoeaineie eaeaieiaee ai anao
noa?ao iauanoaaiiie aeecie Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. e yaeyeanue ianeaaeieoeae
o?aaeeoeee o?enoeaineie aiieiaaoeee, i?aaeaea anaai oeeinioee Aaaonoeia.
Aa i?aaenoaaeoaee no?aieeenue nicaeaoue no?ieioth nenoaio o?enoeaineiai
ie?iaicc?aiey. A iae iaee/anoaiaaea ea?a?oey noa? auoey, ia aa?oeia
eioi?ie ?aniieaaaeanue oea?eiaue. Iaeiei ec naiuo oa?aeoa?iuo i?eciaeia
noieanoe/aneiai iaoiaea oeeinionoaiaaiey yaeyeny aaoi?eoi?eci.
Noieanoia, a /anoiinoe, ia aieiiaaei i?ienoiaeaeaiea oao eee eiuo
iieiaeaiee, eioi?uie iie iia?e?iaaee. Aeey ieo aeaaiui auei iaeia?aiea
yoeo iieiaeaiee aaoi?eoaoii oea?eae.

A ia?eiae ?anoeaaoa noieanoeee (XI-XII aa.) ia aaainoeaio eaeaeiie
ai?ueau auoea naaoneay eoeueoo?a. Oea?eiaue ni a?aiaiai ia?anoaea auoue
aaniethoiui iineoaeai ia?aciaaiey e ia?aciaaiiinoe. A yoeo oneiaeyo
ca?iaeeeinue naiaiaeiiuneea. Iii neeaaeuaaeinue eae aeaeaeaiea ca
aeanae?aeecaoeeth (io eao. nae?oi – nayuaiiue) ii?aaeaeaiiuo noa?
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ca i?eciaiea eo aaoiiiiee ii ioiioaieth e
?aeeaee e oea?eae.

Naia iaeaunoaa au?aaeaiea eaeaieiaey n?aaeiaaaeiaiai naiaiaeiiuneey
iaoea a OAI?EE AeAOO ENOEI eee “AeAIENOAAIIIE ENOEIU”. Yoa oai?ey
ia?aiineea i?iaeaio niioiioaiey aa?u e ?acoia a iaeanoue acaeiiioiioaiee
oaieiaee e oeeinioee. Nooue aa naiaeeeanue e o/aieth i ?acaeaeaiee
oeeinioneeo e aiaineianeeo enoei, niaeanii eioi?iio enoeiiia a oeeinioee
iiaeao auoue eiaeiui a oaieiaee e iaiai?io. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, yoi auea
iiiuoea ooaa?aeeoue iacaaeneiinoue iaoee e oeeinioee io oaieiaee,
i?eciaoue eo ?aaiii?aaiia nouanoaiaaiea.

?oeiaiaenoai oea?eae aniieioeeinue e iaycaei eaoiee/aneeo oaieiaia iaeoe
n?aaenoaa i?ioeaiaeaenoaey aeeyieth naiaiaeiiuneey, o/eouaay i?e yoii
aic?inoee aaoi?eoao iaoee e oeeinioee. Iaeeo/oei ia?acii, n oi/ee c?aiey
oea?eae, iinoaaeaiioth caaea/o ?aoee OIIA AEAEINEEE (1225-1274). Ia
neo/aeii anei?a iinea nia?oe oeeinioa aai o/aiea eaoieeoeeci i?eciae a
ea/anoaa ioeoeeaeueiiai.

E?aaoaieueiui eaiiai anae a?iiaaeiie oeeinionei-oaieiae/aneie nenoaiu
Oiiu yaeyeanue IIAAss, a n?aaiaiee n Aaaonoeiii, AA?NEss OAI?EE I
AA?IIIEE AA?U E ?ACOIA. Ii i?iaicaeanee, /oi aa?a ia aeieaeia
i?ioeai?a/eoue ?acoio. ?acoi e aa?a iai?aaeaiu e iiciaieth iaeiie e oie
aea enoeiu – Aiaa, ii aeaeatho yoi ii-naiaio. ?acoi iie?aaony ia iaoeo e
oeeinioeth, aa?a – ia oaieiaeth. Aiciiaeiinoue aa?iiiee aa?u e ?acoia
aace?oaony ia oii oaeoa, /oi Aia ioe?uaaaony /aeiaaeo aeaoiy iooyie:
anoanoaaiiui – /a?ac nioai?aiiue ie? – e naa?ouanoanoaaiiui – /a?ac
ioe?iaaiea.

I?iaaaey a?aieoeo iaaeaeo ?acoiii e aa?ie, Oiia ioaeaeee iaoeo e
oeeinioeth io oaieiaee e oai naiui iainiiaae eo ioiineoaeueioth
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. Ii oaeay iainiaeaiiinoue, ii aai iiaieth, ioithaeue
ia icia/aea iieiiai ioaeaeaiey aa?u io ciaiey e ciaiey io aa?u. Oiia ia
i?eciaaae oai?eth “aeaoo enoei”. Niaeanii aai o/aieth, a iaoea e
oeeinioee ia iiaeao auoue i?eciaii enoeiiui oi, /oi n oi/ee c?aiey
oaieiaee yaeyaony eiaeiui. A neo/aa eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo ieie i?ei?eoao
ioaeaaaeny enoeiai ioe?iaaiey, i?aainoiaeyuei ethaua ?aoeeiiaeueiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Oiia, oaeei ia?acii, i?eciaaae oeaiiinoue iao/iiai caaiey,
?aoeeiiaeueiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa, ii a oi aea a?aiy nio?aiye eiio?ieue
oaieiaee iaae iaoeie e oeeinioeae. Oaieiaey, ii aai ooaa?aeaeaieth,
enoiaeeo ec Aiaa e ienoiaeeo e aai oai?aieyi. Oeeinioey aea ainoiaeeo e
Aiao io aai oai?aiee, o.a., eae e oaieiaey naiei iniaui iooai aaaeao e
ciaieth Aiaa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeiiieiyao oaieiaeth. Ciaiey Aiaa,
aeaaaaiua oeeinioeae, einaaiiu e ioiineoaeueiu, ciaiey aea Aiaa,
aeaaaaiua oaieiaeae, aaniethoiu.

Oaiaeaioeee n?aaeiaaaeiaie noieanoeee: ?aaeeci e iiieiaeeci.

Iiiaea oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee i?iyaeeenue a
iaaethaeaaoaeny a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo aaeia ai?ueaa ?aaeecia e
iiieiaeecia.

“?aaeeci” a aai n?aaeiaaaeiaii iiieiaiee ia eiaao ie/aai iauaai n
nia?aiaiiui cia/aieai yoiai oa?ieia. IIAe ?AAEECIII IIAe?ACOIAAAEINUe
O*AIEA, NIAEANII EIOI?IIO IIAeEEIIIE ?AAEUeIINOUeTH IAEAAeATHO OIEUeEI
IAUEA IIIssOEss EEE OIEAA?NAEEE, a ia aaeeie/iua i?aaeiaou,
nouanoaothuea a yiie?e/aneii ie?a. Oieaa?naeee, ii iiaieth ?aaeenoia,
nouanoaotho aei aauae, i?aaenoaaeyy niaie iunee, eaeae a aiaeanoaaiiii
?acoia. E oieueei aeaaiaea?y yoiio /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi a ninoiyiee
iiciaaaoue nouiinoue aauae, eai yoa nouiinoue e anoue ia /oi eiia, eae
anaiauaa iiiyoea. Iiyoiio ynii, /oi aeey ?aaeenoia, iai?eia?, aeey
Ainaeueia Eaioa?aa?eeneiai (1033-1109), iiciaiea aiciiaeii eeoue n
iiiiuueth ?acoia, oae eae eeoue ?acoi niiniaai iinoeaaoue iauaa.

I?ioeaiiieiaeiia iai?aaeaiea iineei iacaaiea IIIEIAEECIA. Oa?iei
“iiieiaeeci” i?ienoiaeeo io eaoeineiai neiaa “iiiai”, /oi cia/eo “eiy”.
Niaeanii iiieiaeenoai, iauea iiiyoey – oieueei eiaia. Iie ia iaeaaeatho
ieeaeei naiinoiyoaeueiui nouanoaiaaieai aia e iiieii aaeeie/iuo aauae e
ia?acothony iaoei oiii iooai aano?aae?iaaiey i?eciaeia, iaueo aeey
oeaeiai ?yaea yiie?e/aneeo aauae e yaeaiee. Oae, iai?eia?, iu iieo/aai
iiiyoea “/aeiaae”, eiaaea ioaeaeaainy io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae
ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae e inoaaeyai oieueei oi, /oi yaeyaony iauei aeey ieo
anao. A iineieueeo ana ethaee nooue aeeaua nouanoaa, iaeaaeathuea
?acoiii, oi, noaei auoue, a iiiyoea /aeiaaea aoiaeyo eiaiii yoe
i?eciaee: /aeiaae anoue aeeaia nouanoai, iaaeaeaiiia ?acoiii. Oaeei
ia?acii, niaeanii o/aieth iiieiaeenoia, oieaa?naeee nouanoaotho ia aei,
a iinea aauae.

E?aeiea iiieiaeenou, e eioi?ui i?eiaaeeaaeae, iai?eia?, Eiaii ?inoeaeei
(ie.1050 – ie.1120), aeaaea aeieacuaaee, /oi iauea iiiyoey nooue ia
aieaa /ai caoee /aeiaa/aneiai aieina; ?aaeueii eeoue aaeeie/iia, a iauaa
– oieueei eeethcey, ia nouanoaothuay aeaaea a /aeiaa/aneii oia.

A nii?a n?aaeiaaaeiaiai iiieiaeecia e ?aaeecia iaia/athony oaiaeaioeee
ai?ueau iaoa?eaeecia e eaeaaeecia. Iaeiaei a yoio ia?eiae ia auei
“/enoiai” iaoa?eaeecia e “/enoiai” eaeaaeecia. Iiieiaeeci aue
eaeaaeeciii, ii niaea?aeae iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth oaiaeaioeeth, eai
enoiaeee ec ?aaeueiinoe /oanoaaiiiai ie?a. Ii iiae?uaae noieanoeeo
ecioo?e, ?ac?ooae “aaeeinoai” iaoee e aa?u, aioiaee ii/ao aeey
ioaeaeaiey oeeinioee io oaieiaee, a oaeaea aeey iiaiai “anoanoaiciaiey.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth. O/aaiee aeey aocia… *.1. N. 115-135.

2. Aeae. ?aaea, Ae. Aioena?e. Caiaaeiay oeeinioey io enoieia aei iaoeo
aeiae. N?aaeiaaaeiauea. – I., 1994. N. 3-207.

3. Enoi?ey oeeinioee a e?aoeii eceiaeaiee… N. 197-288.

4. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Oeeinioey”… N. 27-35.

5. ?aaeoaei A. A. Oeeinioey: eo?n eaeoeee. – I., 1995. N. 77-106

6. Nie?eei A. A. Iniiau oeeinioee… N. 48-51.

7. Oeeinioneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue… N. 575, 726, 758-760

8. Oeeinioey. E?aoeia o/aaiia iiniaea… N. 31-37. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee
aeey aocia… N. 47-49.

1. Oaia V. OEEINIOEss YIIOE AIC?IAEAeAIEss

Iniiaiua /a?ou ie?iaicc?aiey /aeiaaea yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey,

Oeeinioneia e einiieiae/aneia o/aiey Ieeieay Eocaineiai e Aeaei?aeaii
A?oii.

Iiaay iaoiaeieiaey iao/iiai iiciaiey O?yinena Ayeiia.

Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey (a Eoaeee – XIV-XVI aa., a ae?. aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao
– eiiaoe XV-XVI aa.) – ia?eiae ?aiiae noaaeee e?ecena oaiaeaeecia e
ca?iaeaeaiey ao?aeoaciuo ioiioaiee. Oa?iei “Aic?iaeaeaiea” a aeaiiii
neo/aa oiio?aaeyaony ia noieueei aeey oiai, /oiau iaicia/eoue no?aieaiea
aaaeoueo aeayoaeae yoiai a?aiaie aic?iaeeoue oeaiiinoe e eaeaaeu
aioe/iinoe, ?anoaa?e?iaaoue noa?ia, neieueei eo iianaaeiaaiue,
ianoie/eaue iiene iiaiai. Enoi?eth iaaiciiaeii iiaa?iooue iacaae,
aica?aoeoueny a eaeoth-eeai i?ioeoth yiioo. Ia?aaeeoia, iaeiieaiiue
eoeueoo?iue eaieoae ia aua?ineoue e ia i?aiaeieaaoue.

Oaeei eaieoaeii, iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ianeaaeeai aeey iuneeoaeae e
aeayoaeae Aic?iaeaeaiey auei n?aaeiaaaeiauea. Oioy Aic?iaeaeaiea e
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao naay o?enoeainoao, iii aicieeei eae eoia ?acaeoey
n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u e ianao ia naaa iiiaea aa /a?ou. Iauaeoeaii
yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey neaaeiaaei au oa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae yiioo ia?aoiaea
io oaiaeaeecia e nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee e eoeueoo?a Iiaiai
a?aiaie. Eiaiii a yoo yiioo caeeaaeuaaeenue iniiau ao?aeoaciiai no?iy,
i?aaeaea anaai a noa?a yeiiiieee, eiaiii a yoio ia?eiae ?acaeeenue
iaoee, iaiyeenue acaeiiioiioaiey oea?eae e ainoaea?noaa, oi?ie?iaaeanue
eaeaieiaey naeoey?ecia (io iicaeiaeao, naeoey?en – ie?neie, naaoneee) e
aoiaiecia (io eao. aoiaion – /aeiaa/aneee, /aeiaa/iue).

Iniiaiua /a?ou ie?iaicc?aiey /aeiaaea yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey.

Aeey yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey i?aaeaea anaai oa?aeoa?ia I?EAIOAOeEss IA
*AEIAAEA. Oeeinioneia iuoeaiea yoiai ia?eiaea AIO?IIIOeAIO?E*II.
Oeaio?aeueiay oeao?a aai – ia Aia, a /aeiaae. Aia – ia/aei anao aauae, a
/aeiaae – oeaio? anaai ie?a. Iauanoai – ia i?iaeoeo aiaeueae aiee, a
?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. *aeiaae ie/ai ia ia?aie/ai a naieo
caiuneao e aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii iiaeao ana. Aeey iaai oa?aeoa?ai iiaue
o?iaaiue naiiniciaiey: ai?aeinoue e naiiooaa?aeaeaiea, aa?a a
nianoaaiiua neeu e oaeaio, aeecia?aaeinoiinoue e naiaiaeiiuneea. Iiyoiio
eiaiii Aic?iaeaeaiea iiaea?eei ie?o ?yae auaeathueony
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoae. Iie iaeaaeaee y?eei oaiia?aiaioii, ananoi?iiiae
ia?aciaaiiinoueth, ianaeaaaiie aieae, oeaeaono?aieaiiinoueth e
eieinnaeueiie yia?aeae. Oei?aioeeneee ooaeiaeiee e aoiaieno Eaii
Aaooenoa Aeueaa?oe (1404-1472), iai?eia?, iaeiia?aiaiii caieiaeny
oai?eae a?oeoaeoo?u, aeeaiiene e aayiey, iaoaiaoeeie, iaoaieeie,
ea?oia?aoeae, oeeinioeae, yoeeie, ynoaoeeie, iaaeaaiaeeie.

Ae?oaay oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa ie?iaicc?aiey ethaeae yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey – aa
y?ei au?aaeaiiue AOIAIENOE*ANEEE oa?aeoa?. *aeiaae i?aaenoaao ia?aae
iaie eae naiaiaeiia nouanoai, oai?aoe naiiai naay e ie?oaeathuaai ie?a.
Iuneeoaee yoie yiioe, anoanoaaiii, ia iiaee auoue aoaenoaie eee
iaoa?eaeenoaie. Iie aa?eee a Aiaa, i?eciaaaee aai ia?aioai?oeii ie?a e
/aeiaaea. Niaeanii eo acaeyaeai, Aia, nioai?ea ie? e /aeiaaea, aeae
ethaeyi naiaiaeo. Oaia?ue iie aeieaeiu auee naie ii?aaeaeyoue naith
noaeueao. Ionthaea a oeeinioee cia/eoaeueii ineaaee iioeau a?aoiaiie
nouiinoe /aeiaaea, “enii?/aiiinoe aai i?e?iaeu” e oneeeeanue
i?eaioe?iaea ia ia iiiiuue aiaeeth – aeaaiaeaoue, a ia nianoaaiiua neeu.
Iioeieci, aa?a a aaca?aie/iua aiciiaeiinoe /aeiaaea i?enoue oeeinioee
yoie yiioe.

Aaaeiui yeaiaioii aic?iaeaeai/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey yaeyeny oaeaea EOEUeO
OAI?*ANEIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE. O ae?aaieo a?aeia oece/aneee o?oae e aeaaea
eneonnoai oeaieeenue iaauniei. A aioe/iinoe ainiiaenoaiaae yeeoa?iue
iiaeoiae e /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. aunoae oi?iie aa iauyaeyeenue
oai?aoe/aneea ecuneaiey – ?aciuoeaiea e nica?oeaiea. O?enoeainoai a
ia?eiae n?aaeiaaaeiauey aunoae oi?iie aeayoaeueiinoe iauyaeyei
“nianaiea” aeooe – iieeoao, auiieiaiea aiaineoaeaaiuo ?eooaeia, /oaiea
Nayuaiiiai Ienaiey. A oeaeii oaeay aeayoaeueiinoue iineea ianneaiue,
nica?oeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

A yiioo aea Aic?iaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueii-/oanoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue, a
oii /enea e oai?/aneay, i?eia?aea naiaai ?iaea nae?aeueiue oa?aeoa?u A
oiaea aa /aeiaae ia i?inoi oaeiaeaoai?ye naie caiiua ioaeaeu, ii
nicaeaaae iiaue ie?, oai?ee naiia aunieia, /oi anoue a ie?a – naiiai
naay. Eiaiii oiaaea a oeeinioee iiyaeeanue eaeay i?iiaoaecia (io
I?iiaoay – aa?iy ae?aaiaa?a/aneie ieoieiaee, caueoieea ethaeae io
i?iecaiea aiaia) – /aeiaaea eae nio?oaeieea Aiaa, nioai?oea ie?a.

A yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey INIAIA CIA*AIEA I?EIA?AEA IA OIEUeEI AeOOIAIAss
AEECIUe *AEIAAEA, II E AAI OAEANIIA NOUANOAI. Oaei oaea i?aaenoaei ia a
ea/anoaa “ieia aeooe”, eioi?ua oyioee aa aiec, e a?aoiaiui iiiuneai e
iiaoaeaeaieyi. Oaeaniay aeeciue naia ii naaa yaeyeanue naiioeaiiie. Yoei
iauyniyeny oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiue a ia?eiae Aic?iaeaeaiey eoeueo
E?aniou. AEeaiienoeu ecia?aaeaee i?aaeaea anaai eeoei e oaei /aeiaaea.
Naia iaeaunoaa au?aaeaiea aic?iaeaeai/aneia ie?iaini?eyoea iieo/eei a
iieioiao aaeeeeo ooaeiaeieeia Naiae?i Aiooe/aeee (1445-1519), Eaiia?aei
aea Aei/e (1452-1519) e ?aoayey (1483-1520). Oae, naiia niaa?oaiiia
i?iecaaaeaiea ?aoayey – “Neenoeineay iaaeiiia” – aa?iiie/anee ni/aoaao a
naaa iano?iaiey o?aaiae e aeoai/aeoae iaaeiinoe.

Oaeiaa ae?aooea iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea ie?iaicc?aiey /aeiaaea yiioe
Aic?iaeaeaiey. Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei nianoaaiii oeeinioneea o/aiey.

Oeeinioneia e einiieiae/aneia o/aiey Ieeieay Eocaineiai e Aeaei?aeaii
A?oii.

A yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey oeeinioey aiiaue, eae e a aioe/iinoe, eco/aea
i?e?iaeo. Iauyniyeinue yoi ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaa e iaoee. Iaiiieiath,
/oi eiaiii a yoio ia?eiae iiyaeeenue eieaiia/aoaiea, eiiian, naiii?yeea,
ii?io, aeiiaiii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneee i?ioeann, aiciaiiaeeny eioa?an e
ano?iiiiee, oeceea, aiaoiiee, oeceieiaee, ?acaeeinue yenia?eiaioaeueiia
anoanoaiciaiea. Eioa?an /aeiaaea e caiiui i?iaeaiai ?anoe?ye aai
e?oaici?, oe?aieye aeanoue iaae i?e?iaeie.

Oeeinioey a yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey aini?eieiaeanue, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?aaeaea anaai eae iaoo?oeeinioey, oeeinioey i?e?iaeu. A?iaea au
i?ienoiaeee aica?ao e aioe/iiio einiioeaio?ecio. Ia aeaea ana auaeyaeaei
eia/a. Aic?iaeaeai/aneay oeeinioey i?e?iaeu auea aieueoa naycaia ia n
aioe/iinoueth, a ni n?aaeiaaaeiaueai. A oeaio?a aa eioa?ana inoaaaeny
aii?in i acaeiiioiioaieyo Aiaa e ie?a. Ii aai o?aeoiaea eiaea
niaoeeoeeo. Aeey iaa oa?aeoa?ia aioenoieanoe/aneay iai?aaeaiiinoue.
Acaeiiioiioaiey Aiaa e ie?a oo?aoeee ioe?iaaiii oaenoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.
Ia niaio oaecio i?eoae iaioaeci (io a?a/. iai – ana e Oain – Aia,
iiae?acoiaaaaony “Aia ai anai”). O?enoeaineee Aia iioa?ye naith
o?ainoeaiaeaioiinoue, iaaei?e?iaeiinoue. Ii eae au neeeny n i?e?iaeie, a
iineaaeiyy oai naiui iaiaeanoaeeanue.

Iaeiei ec oa?aeoa?iuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aic?iaeaeai/aneie oeeinioee aue
IEEIEAE EOCAINEEE (Ieeieae E?aan – 1401-1464). ?iaeeeny ii a caaeeoi/iie
e?anoueyineie naiuea, naeaeae aeanoyuoth iieeoe/aneoth e oea?eiaioth
ea?uea?o. A 1448 a. Eocaineee noae ea?aeeiaeii. Aeayoaeueiinoue ia yoii
iinoo oniaoii ni/aoae n caiyoeyie oeeinioeae e eeoa?aoo?ie. Iniiaiie
o?aeoao Eocaineiai – “Ia o/aiii iaciaiee” (1440).

A oeeinioneeo aicc?aieyo Eocaineiai iniai eioa?ania iioieiae/aneay
i?iaeaiaoeea: iinoaiiaea aii?ina i niioiioaiee Aiaa e ie?a. Aia o iaai
aunooiaao eae aaneiia/iia e aaeeinoaaiiia ia/aei. Yoi ne?uoay nouiinoue
anaai, auoea-aiciiaeiinoue. Iiyoiio ie? niaea?aeeony a Aiaa, a Aia
ioaaouaaao aanue ie? (iaioaeci).

?anniao?eaay i?ioeann ia?aoiaea io Aiaa e ie?o, Eocaineee ioaa?aae
e?aaoeeiieci (oai?aiea Aiaii ie?a “ec ie/aai”). Ii ooaa?aeaeae: iiaeiaii
oiio, eae eeiey anoue ?acaa?ouaaiea oi/ee, a?aiy – yoi ?acaa?ouaaiea
iaiiaaiey (“oaia?ue”), aeaeaeaiea – ?acaa?ouaaiea iieiy, oae e ie? anoue
?acaa?ouaaiea nianoaaiiie nouiinoe, naa?iooie a Aiaa, o.a. yoi ia?aoiae
ie?a ec iioaioeeaeueiiai ninoiyiey a aeooaeueiia. Aia – o?aieoaeue
aiciiaeiinoe auoey ie?a.

Ii iiaieth oeeinioa, iiaeiaii oiio, eae ie? a “naa?iooii” aeaea
niaea?aeeony a Aiaa, oae e /aeiaa/aneay i?e?iaea a “naa?iooii” aeaea
niaea?aeeony a O?enoa. *aeiaae, neaaeiaaoaeueii, anoue Aia, ii ia a
aaniethoiii niunea, a a ia?aie/aiiii. Ii aunooiaao eae Aia caiiie. Oae
o?enoeaineia o/aiea i O?ieoea (Ioaoe, Nui e Aeoo nayoie) o Eocaineiai
o?ainoi?ie?iaaeinue a o/aiea i aeeaeaeoe/aneii aaeeinoaa Aiaa, ie?a e
/aeiaaea.

A aiinaieiaee Eocaineee ?acaeaae eaeae aeeaeaeoeee iiciaiey nouiinoe e
yaeaiey. I?aaeiaoii iiciaiey yaeyeny iaioaenoe/aneee Aia. Iiciaiea
“?acaa?iooiai” ie?a, o.a. Aiaa, auei o iaai aeaeii ?acoia, a ia aa?u,
eioi?ay oi/ao iinoe/ue Aiaa a iai naiii, o.a. a aai “naa?iooie” oi?ia.

A naiae einiieiaee Eocaineee i?aaeoaaaeae aaeeioeaio?e/aneia (io a?a/.
aaeein – Nieioea) iiieiaiea ie?a. Ie? aeey iaai – aaneiia/iue oa?,
eioi?ue ia eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeaio?a. Ii eiaao oeaio? aacaea e
ieaaea.

Einiieiaey Eocaineiai, eae aeaeeoa, i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aeanue io
aaioeaio?e/aneie (io a?a/. aa – Caiey) oi/ee c?aiey. Ia neo/aeii iia
iineoaeeea oai?aoe/aneie aacie aaeeioeaio?e/aneie ano?iiiiee IEEIEAss
EIIA?IEEA (1473-1543). Niaeanii aai o/aieth, Caiey iaoiaeeony a
aeaeaeaiee e ia yaeyaony oeaio?ii ie?a. Iia a?auaaony aie?oa naiae ine e
aianoa n ae?oaeie ieaiaoaie – aie?oa iaiiaeaeaeiiai Nieioea.

Eaeae Eocaineiai e Eiia?ieea ?acaee e oaeoaee iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo
oeeinioia yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey AeAEI?AeAII A?OII (1548-1600). A?oii
ioe?uoi ii?aae n oaioeaio?e/aneie eiioeaioeeae ono?ienoaa ie?icaeaiey.
Aeaeaeouayny aie?oa naiae ine e aie?oa Nieioea Caiey, ii aai iiaiee, –
eeoue ie/oiaeiay iueeiea a aani?aaeaeueiii ie?icaeaiee. Caiey ia iiaeao
auoue oeaio?ii Einiina, iioiio /oi a ie?a aiiaua iao ie oeaio?a, ie
a?aieoeu. “Nouanoaotho aan/eneaiiua nieioea, aan/eneaiiua caiee, – ienae
ii, – eioi?ua e?oaeaony aie?oa naieo nieioe, iiaeiaii oiio, eae iaoe
naiue ieaiao e?oaeaony aie?oa iaoaai Nieioea”.

A iaeanoe aiinaieiaee A?oii, aneaae ca Eocaineei, noiye ia iiceoeee
aaeeinoaa /oanoaaiiiai e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiciaiey. I?aaeiinueeie
iiciaiey ii n/eoae niiiaiea, enoiaeyuaa aua io ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai
oeeinioa Nie?aoa e aai aeaaeca: “Iiaeaa?aae ana niiiaieth!”. Ia neaaeoao
iieaaaoueny ie ia iiaiea aieueoeinoaa, oeacuaae A?oii, ie ia
o?aaeeoeeiiioth oeieueioth ioae?inoue, ie ia aaoi?eoaou ae?aaiinoe, ie
ia aeiaiu aa?u. “Oeeinioee ia/aai aeaeaoue n aiaineianeeie aii?inaie, –
ienae ii, – Oeeinioey e aa oeaeue – iiciaoue i?e?iaeo a aa aaeeinoaa”.
Aio ii/aio aaeeinoaaiiui aaoi?eoaoii A?oii i?eciaaae ?acoi e naiaiaeiia
enneaaeiaaiea e n/eoae, /oi iao/iia ciaiea aaneiia/ii, oae eae
aaneiia/ai iauaeo iiciaiey – i?e?iaea.

Oea?eiaue a?aaeaeaaii ano?aoeea oeeinioneea e einiieiae/aneea aicc?aiey
Aeaei?aeaii A?oii. Eieaeceoeey iaaeieea aai a a?ane e naiaiaeiiuneee,
a?anoiaaea, caoi/eea ia 8 eao a oth?ueio e 17 oaa?aey 1600 a. a ?eia
niaeaea ia eino?a. I?eaiai? A?oii ano?aoee eneeth/eoaeueii ioaeanoaaiii,
niieieii ioaaoee ia iaai anaai ianeieueeeie neiaaie: “Au, aa?iyoii, n
aieueoei no?aoii auiineoa yoio i?eaiai?, /ai y aai neooath”.

Iiaay iaoiaeieiaey iao/iiai iiciaiey O?YINENA AYEIIA.

A eiioea XVI – ia/aea XVII aa. a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia eioaineaii ?acaeaaeny
eaieoaeeci. Iio?aaiinoe aai i?iecaiaenoaa ea?aeeiaeueii iaiyee ioiioaiea
ethaeae e iaoea, e oeaeyi /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey. Iaoeo e aa
eino?oiaio-?acoi iie ?anniao?eaaee oaea eae i?oaeea niceaeaiey e
i?aia?aciaaiey ie?a. Ia neo/aeii iiyaeeny iiaue oei iaoee –
yenia?eiaioaeueii-iaoaiaoe/aneia anoanoaiciaiea, a a oeeinioee ia ia?aue
ieai auaeaeioeenue i?iaeaiu oai?ee iiciaiey – aiinaieiaee.

Aia?aua a oeaeueiie oai?aoe/aneie oi?ia eioa?anu e aicc?aiey
ia?iaeaeaaoaeny ao?aeoacee au?acee auaeathueeny aiaeeeneee oeeinio
O?YINEN AYEII (1561-1626). Aai iiaeii iacaaoue iineaaeiei iuneeoaeai
yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey e iaeiei ec ca/eiaoaeae oeeinioee Iiaiai a?aiaie,
yiioe eaieoaeenoe/aneie eiaeono?ee. I?ienoiaeee ii ec aeai?yineie
naiuee, caieiaaoae aeaeiia ianoi a aiaeeeneie iieeoe/aneie aeecie,
iieo/ee niioaaonoaothuaa aai i?ienoiaeaeaieth e nineiaeth ia?aciaaiea.
Ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy iieeoe/aneay ea?uea?a Ayeiia aeinoeaea aa?oeiu. A
1618-1621 aa. ii caieiae iino ei?ae-eaioeea?a Aiaeee, ii caoai ioioae io
iieeoeee e aieioue aei naiie nia?oe caieiaeny iao/iie ?aaioie.

Aeaaiue o?oae Ayeiia – “Iiaue i?aaiii” (1620). Iacaaiea yoi ia neo/aeii.
A iai niciaoaeueii i?ioeaiiinoaaeaii iiaia iiieiaiea iaoee oiio, ia
eioi?ue iie?aeny “I?aaiii” (naiae eiae/aneeo ?aaio) A?enoioaey.

Ayeiia eioa?aniaaei aiiaua i?aaeiacia/aiea iaoee, aa ianoi a “oea?noaa
/aeiaaea”, oneiaey aeey oniaoiiai auiieiaiey naiaai i?aaeiacia/aiey. A
oeaeii aaeeeia aeinoieinoai iaoee Ayeii n/eoae ii/oe naiii/aaeaeiui e
au?acee yoi a naiai ciaiaieoii aoi?ecia “Ciaiea – neea”.

Iaeiaei ia iaoeo aeaeaeinue iiiai iaiaaeie. I?iaiaeece?iaaa eo, Ayeii
i?eoae e auaiaeo i oii, /oi Aia ia cai?auae iiciaiea i?e?iaeu, eae,
iai?eia?, ooaa?aeaeatho oaieiae. Iaiai?io, Ii aeae /aeiaaeo oi, eioi?ue
aeaaeaeao iiciaiey Anaeaiiie, eae aeac aeaaeaeao naaoa. Aia nai iao/ee
/aeiaaea iiciaaaoue nouiinoue aauae e aeaaaoue ei niioaaonoaothuea
eiaia. Ethaee oieueei aeieaeiu iiiyoue, /oi nouanoaotho aeaa ?iaea
iiciaiey: 1) iiciaiea aeia?a e cea, 2) iiciaiea nioai?aiiuo Aiaii aauae.

Iiciaiea aeia?a e cea ethaeyi cai?auaii. Aai ei aeaao Aia /a?ac Aeaeeth.
A iiciaaaoue nioai?aiiua aaue /aeiaae, iaiai?io, aeieaeai n iiiiuueth
naiaai oia. Naia enoi?ey iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi, iiciaaay oaeiu i?e?iaeu,
ethaee ecia?aee eoe, iaiiue, ieoa e ae?. e yoei niinianoaiaaee
oeo/oaieth naiae aeecie. Cia/eo, iaoea aeieaeia caieiaoue aeinoieiia
ianoi a “oea?noaa /aeiaaea”. Aa i?aaeiacia/aiea a oii, /oiau oiiiaeaoue
neeo e iiaouanoai ethaeae, iaania/eaaoue ei aiaaooth e aeinoieioth
aeeciue.

Iaeiaei ni a?aiai aioe/iinoe iaoee i/aiue iaei niioaaonoaiaaee naiaio
i?aaeiacia/aieth. Ii neiaai Ayeiia, iie auee ieiaeiaeou a nii?ao, ii
aanieiaeiu a aeaeao. Aianoi oiai, /oiau enneaaeiaaoue i?e?iaeo, o/aiua
aaneiia/ii aeeneooe?iaaee. Eiaeea, eioi?oth iie yenieoaoe?iaaee,
aiaeeeanue aeey iieaieee, ii ia aeey iiauo ecia?aoaiee e ioe?uoee. Ayeii
oeacae ia iniiaiua i?e/eiu iea/aaiiai ninoiyiey iaoe:

1) ethaee ieioi ciaee, eae aeaenoaotho eo iiciaaaoaeueiua niiniaiinoe,

2) iiyoiio iie ia iiaee niaaaeeoue naay iaaeeaaeaueie i?oaeeyie iiciaiey
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,

3) iinoaaeoue i?ioeann iiciaiey iiae eiio?ieue.

Nai i?ioeann iiciaiey, n/eoae Ayeii, eiaao aeaa yoaia:

1) /oanoaa inaaaeiieytho i aauao e

2) ?acoi noaeeo ia eo i?e/eiao.

Iaeiaei e /oanoaa, e oi iinoiyiii i?eaiinyo a iiciaiea ioeaee e
caaeoaeaeaiey. Ayeii iacuaae eo “eaeieaie” (eiaeiuie ia?acaie) eee
“i?ec?aeaie”. Ii ?acee/ae /aou?a aeaea “eaeieia”, i?aiyonoaee ia iooe
iiciaiey, n eioi?uie /aeiaa/anoao neaaeoao ai?ioueny: 1) “eaeieu” ?iaea,
2) “eaeieu” iaua?u, 3) “eaeieu” ?uiea eee ieiuaaee e 4) “eaeieu” oaao?a.

“EAeIEU” ?IAeA iaoneiaeaiu i?e?iaeie ethaeae. Yoi eiaeiua i?aaenoaaeaiey
i ie?a, naycaiiua n ia?aie/aiiinoueth oia e i?aaiia /oanoa. Iaeaieaa
y?ei yoi i?iyaeyaony a iaaeaeaiee i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee /aeiaa/aneeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie (aio?iiiii?oeci – io a?a/. aio?iiin – /aeiaae e ii?oa –
oi?ia, aeae, iiae?acoiaaaaony oiiaeiaeaiea /aeiaaeo).

“EAeIEAIE” IAUA?U Ayeii iacuaae eneaaeaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aucaaiiua noauaeoeaiui aini?eyoeai ie?oaeathuaai
ie?a. O eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, n/eoae ii, anoue naiy iaua?a, naie
noauaeoeaiue aioo?aiiee ie?, /oi iaeeaaeuaaao ioia/aoie ia ana aai
noaeaeaiey i aauao e i?ioeannao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ianiiniaiinoue
/aeiaaea aueoe ca a?aieoeu nianoaaiiie iaua?u e anoue i?e/eia aeaiiiai
aeaea caaeoaeaeaiee.

E “EAeIEAI” ?UIEA EEE IEIUAAeE Ayeii ioiinee eiaeiua i?aaenoaaeaiey
ethaeae, ii?iaeaeaiiua iai?aaeeueiui oiio?aaeaieai neia. Ethaee a iaeie
e oa aea neiaa /anoi aeeaaeuaatho ?acee/iue niune. Yoi aaaeao e ionoui,
aanieiaeiui nii?ai ec-ca neia, oaea/aieth neiaii?aieyie, /oi, a eiia/iii
n/aoa, ioaeaeaao eo io eco/aiey yaeaiee i?e?iaeu e i?aaeeueiiai eo
iiieiaiey. “Eaeieaie” ?uiea eee ieiuaaee ii iacuaae eo iioiio, /oi a
n?aaeiaaaeiauo ai?iaeao e ai a?aiaia Ayeiia noieanoe/aneea neiaii?aiey
ii iiaiaeo oaeeo iauaeoia, eae, iai?eia?, neieueei /a?oae iiaeao
?acianoeoueny ia eiioea eaeu, i?ienoiaeeee a ianoao neiieaiey ethaeae –
?uieao eee ieiuaaeyo.

A eaoaai?eth “EAeIEIA” OAAO?A Ayeii aeeth/ae eiaeiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i
ie?a, iae?eoe/anee caeinoaiaaiiua ethaeueie ec ?acee/iuo oeeinioneeo
nenoai (iiae/eiaiea oia ioeai/iui aicc?aieyi, aaoi?eoaoai).

*oi aea i?aaeeaaae Ayeii aeey eni?aaeaiey iieacaiee /oanoa e noaeaeaiee
?acoia?

1. AeEss ENI?AAEAIEss IIEACAIEE *OANOA ii niaaoiaae eniieueciaaoue aeaa
n?aaenoaa: ai-ia?auo, yoi ?acee/iua i?eai?u, eioi?ua oaaee/eaatho,
i?eaeeaeatho, ecia?ytho. Iaeiaei iie iieiinoueth ia ono?aiytho “aaeeeee
iaiai /oanoa”. Aeey aai i?aiaeieaiey Ayeii i?aaeeaaae, ai-aoi?uo,
eniieueciaaoue niaoeeaeueii iiaeia?aiiua e oi?ioi i?eniiniaeaiiua iiuou,
o.a. i?iaiaeeoue yenia?eiaio.

2. AeEss ENI?AAEAIEss IIEACAIEE OIA Ayeii i?aaeeaaae, ai-ia?auo,
i?aaeinoa?aaaoue aai io iiniaoiinoe a noaeaeaieyo, a, ai-aoi?uo,
i?eeiauaaoue oi e aauai. Aeey yoiai neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue iiaoth
eiaeeo, eioi?oth Ayeii iacaae iiaie eiaeoeoeeae. Ii o/ee, /oi
EIAeOEOeEss – yoi iaiaoiaeeiay aeey iaoe, iie?athuayny ia iieacaiey
i?aaiia /oanoa, aaeeinoaaiii enoeiiay oi?ia aeieacaoaeuenoaa e iaoiae
iiciaiey i?e?iaeu.

O/aiue, neaaeothuee aeiaiaoe/aneiio (aeaaeoeoeaiiio – io eao.
aeaaeoeoeei – auaaaeaiea, iiae?acoiaaaaony ia?aoiae io iauaai e
/anoiiio) iaoiaeo, niaeanii Ayeiio, ia/eiaao naith ?aaioo n iaueo
oiic?eoaeueiuo iieiaeaiee e no?aieony auaanoe ec ieo ana /anoiua neo/ae.
Aeiaiaoee iioiae ia iaoea, eioi?ue ec naiiai naay oeao naith iaooeio.
O/aiue, neaaeothuee yiie?e/aneiio (eiaeoeoeaiiio – io eao. eiaeoeoeei –
iaaaaeaiea, iiae?acoiaaaaony ia?aoiae io /anoiiai e iauaio) iaoiaeo,
no?aieony oieueei e iaeneiaeueiiio iaeiieaieth oaeoia. Ii iioiae ia
io?aauey, eioi?ue aanii?yaei/ii oaueo a io?aaaeiee ana, /oi iiiaaeaaony
aio ia oooe.

Enoeiiue (eiaeoeoeaiue) iaoiae ninoieo a ia?a?aaioea iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ua
aeinoaaeyao iiuo. O/aiue, neaaeothuee oaeiio iaoiaeo, iioiae ia i/aeo,
eioi?ay niae?aao ec oeaaoia neaaeeea niee, ii ia inoaaeyao eo a oii
aeaea, a eaeii aunanuaaao, a ia?a?aaaouaaao eo a iaae nianoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Aei neo ii?, aiai?ee Ayeii, ioe?uoey aeaeaeenue neo/aeii, ia
iaoiaee/anee. Eo auei au ai?acaei aieueoa, anee au enneaaeiaaoaee auee
aii?oaeaiu i?aaeeueiui iaoiaeii. Iaoiae – yoi iooue, aeaaiia n?aaenoai
enneaaeiaaiey. Aeaaea o?iiie, eaeouee ii aei?iaa, iaaiieo ii?iaeueiiai
/aeiaaea, aaaouaai ii aacaei?iaeueth. Eiaeoeoeey iiaeao auoue iieiie
(niaa?oaiiie) e iaiieiie. IIEIAss EIAeOEOeEss icia/aao ?aaoey?ioth
iiaoi?yaiinoue e en/a?iaaiinoue eaeiai-eeai naienoaa i?aaeiaoa a
?anniao?eaaaiii iiuoa. Eiaeoeoeaiua iaiauaiey enoiaeyo ec
i?aaeiieiaeaiey, /oi eiaiii oae aoaeao ianoiyoue aeaei ai anao noiaeiuo
neo/ayo. A yoii naaeo any ne?aiue aaeay – auaiae ec aaeaaiaeiuo
iaaethaeaiee a ia?eiae aa oeaaoaiey.

IAIIEIAss EIAeOEOeEss aeeth/aao iaiauaiey, naeaeaiiua ia iniiaa
enneaaeiaaiey ia anao neo/aaa, a oieueei iaeioi?uo (caeeth/aiea ii
aiaeiaee), iioiio /oi, eae i?aaeei, /enei anao neo/aaa i?aeoe/anee
iaiaic?eii, a oai?aoe/anee aeieacaoue eo aaneiia/iia /enei iaaiciiaeii:
ana eaaaaee aaeu aeey ian aeinoiaa?ii, iiea ia oaeaeei /a?ioth iniaue.
Yoi caeeth/aiea anaaaea iineo aa?iyoiue oa?aeoa?.

Iuoaynue nicaeaoue “enoeiioth eiaeoeoeeth”, Ayeii eneae ia oieueei
oaeou, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea ii?aaeaeaiiue auaiae, ii e oaeou,
ii?iaa?aathuea aai. Ii, oaeei ia?acii, aii?oaeee anoanoaiciaiea aeaoiy
n?aaenoaaie enneaaeiaaiey: ia?a/eneaieai e eneeth/aieai. I?e/ai aeaaiia
cia/aiea eiatho eiaiii eneeth/aiey. N iiiiuueth naiaai iaoiaea ii,
iai?eia?, onoaiiaee, /oi “oi?iie” oaieiou yaeyaony aeaeaeaiea
iaeue/aeoeo /anoeoe oaea.

Eoae, a naiae oai?ee iiciaiey Ayeii iaoeinieoaeueii i?iaiuee iuneue i
oii, /oi enoeiiia ciaiea auoaeaao ec iiuoa. Oaeay oeeinioneay iiceoeey
iacuaaaony yiie?eciii. Ayeii e aue ia oieueei iniiaiiieiaeieeii, ii e
naiui iineaaeiaaoaeueiui yiie?eeii.

Oaeiau iaeioi?ua eiioeaioeee, auaeaeaaaoeany oeeinioaie yiioe
Aic?iaeaeaiey. ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia iineaaeothuoth iuneue eiaee ia
oieueei naie yoe eiioeaioeee, ii e iinoaiaiii i?iaeaaaoay naaa aei?iao
EAeAss AAOIIIIIIE OEEINIOEE. Oeeinioee, naiaiaeiie, io
?aeeaeicii-ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo i?aaeiinueie, iie?athuaeny ia iiuo e
anoanoaaiiue ?acoi, oeeinioee, iainiiauaathuae ciaiey i i?e?iaea,
anoanoaaiiia i?aai e ii?aeue, anoanoaaiioth ?aeeaeth. Oaeoth eaeath
i?eiyee i?ioanoaiou e iiiaea eaoieeee. Eeoue ainoi/iay oea?eiaue aieioue
aei iaoeo aeiae i?iaeieaeaao caueuaoue eaeath o?enoeaineie oeeinioee,
eaeath oeeinionoaiaaiey a aa?a.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth. O/aaiee aeey aocia… *.1… N. 135-157

2. Enoi?ey oeeinioee a e?aoeii eceiaeaiee… N. 289-374.

3. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Oeeinioey”… N. 36-49.

4. ?aaeoaei A. A. Oeeinioey: eo?n eaeoeee… N. 107-126

5. Nie?eei A. A. Iniiau oeeinioee: O/aaiia iiniaea aeey aocia… N.
51-56.

6. Oeeinioneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue… N. 71, 279, 435, 625.

7. Oeeinioey. E?aoeia o/aaiia iiniaea… N. 37-45.

8. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aocia. – ?inoia-ia-Aeiio… N. 62.

1. Oaia VI. AA?IIAENEAss OEEINIOEss IIAIAI A?AIAIE (XVII-XVIII aa.)

?aaeecaoeey eaeae aaoiiiiiie oeeinioee a XVII a.

Oeeinioey o?aioeocneiai iaoaienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia XVIII a.

Oeeinioey o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai eaeaaeecia Eiiaioeea Eaioa.

?aaeecaoeey eaeae aaoiiiiiie oeeinioee a XVII a.

Eaeay aaoiiiiiie oeeinioee aia?aua auea ?aaeeciaaia o?aioeocneei
iuneeoaeai ?AIA AeAEA?OII (1596-1650). Ii, a ioee/ea io Ayeiia, aue oaea
oeeinioii Iiaiai a?aiaie.

A enoi?ee iiaie oeeinioee Aeaea?o caieiaao iniaia ianoi eae nicaeaoaeue
aeoaeenoe/aneiai oeeinioneiai o/aiey. Ii naeaeae iiiuoeo iino?ieoue
oeeinioneoth nenoaio ia iniiaaiee i?eciaiey iaeiia?aiaiiiai
naiinoiyoaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey niciaiey e iaoa?ee, aeooe e oaea.
Aeaea?o, oaeei ia?acii, ?an/eaiee aaeeiue iaoa?eaeueiue ie? ia aeaa
iacaaeneiua ae?oa io ae?oaa /anoe, eiaioy eaaeaeoth ec ieo noanoaioeeae.

Iniiaiia naienoai aeooiaiie noanoaioeee – iuoeaiea, iaoa?eaeueiie –
i?ioyaeaiea. Inoaeueiua ao?eaoou noanoaioeee i?iecaiaeiu io yoeo ia?auo:
aiia?aaeaiea, /oanoai, aeaeaiea – iiaeonu iuoeaiey; oeao?a, iieiaeaiea,
aeaeaeaiea – iiaeonu i?ioyaeaiey. Aeaaiia ii?aaeaeaiea aeooiaiie
noanoaioeee – aa iaaeaeeiinoue, aaaeiaeoee i?eciae iaoa?eaeueiie –
aeaeeiinoue aei aaneiia/iinoe.

Iaoa?eaeueioth noanoaioeeth Aeaea?o ioiaeaeanoaeyao n i?e?iaeie, a
iioiio ana a i?e?iaea, a oii /enea oaea aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaea,
iiaeiothony /enoi iaoaie/aneei caeiiai e ?anniao?eaathony eae neiaeiua
iaoeiu.

Aeoaeeci noanoaioeee iicaieyao Aeaea?oo nicaeaoue iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth
oeceeo e eaeaaeenoe/aneoth aiinaieiaeth eae o/aiea i noanoaioeee
iuneyuae.

A oai?ee iiciaiey Aeaea?o – eaeaaeeno. Ii, eae e Ayeii, n/eoae, /oi
iiciaiea neaaeoao ia/eiaoue ni anaiauaai ?aaeeeaeueiiai niiiaiey.
Iaeiaei Aeaea?o – ia neaioee e ia aaiinoee. Ii i?eciaaay, /oi a iiciaiee
anoue ia/oi, ieeaeiio niiiaieth ia iiaeeaaeauaa. Aeinoiaa?iui ai anyeii
neo/aa inoaaony oi, /oi niiiaiea nouanoaoao. ss iiao niiiaaaoueny a
nouanoaiaaiee anaai, a o./. e nianoaaiiiai oaea, e?iia nouanoaiaaiey
naiiai niiiaiey. Ii niiiaiea – aeo iuoeaiey. A ea/anoaa niiiaaathuaainy,
iuneyuaai y ia i?ec?ae, a nouanoaoth. Ionthaea ciaiaieoay aeaea?oianeay
oi?ioea: “ss iuneth, neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouanoaoth”. Eae aeaeeoa,
aeaea?oianeia iuoeaiea ia ii?iaeaeaao auoea oaea (oaeie iunee o iaai
iao). Eaeaaeeci aai a oii, /oi nouanoaiaaiea iuoeaiey aieaa ianiiiaiii
aeey ian, /ai nouanoaiaaiea oaea eee iaoa?ee.

I?e iiiiue iuoeaiey iu iieo/eee noaeaeaiea: “ss iuneth, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
nouanoaoth”. Ii “ss” /aeiaaea ia anoue aai oaei. Aaaeue a nouanoaiaaiee
oaea iu oaea oniiieeenue. Oaei ia aoiaeeo a ninoaa “ss”. “ss” anoue
aeooa – nouiinoue aanoaeaniay, o.a. aeooiaiay. Aeooa, niaeanii Aeaea?oo,
iaeaaeaao aeaoiy niiniaiinoyie: iuoeaieai e aieae. Iuoeaiea aea, a naith
i/a?aaeue, yaeyaony eoiaii ?aaeecaoeee aeaoo ae?oaeo niiniaiinoae:
eiooeoeee e aeaaeoeoeee. EIOOEOeEss – aeaenoaea aeooe, n iiiiuueth
eioi?iai iia iaoiaeeo a naaa i?inoua e yniua iiiyoey. ssniinoue e
io/aoeeainoue iiiyoee anoue e?eoa?ee enoeiu.

Iaeiaei /aeiaae eiaao ia oieueei i?inoua, ii e neiaeiua ciaiey. Ii
iieo/aao eo n iiiiuueth aoi?ie iiciaaaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe –
aeaaeoeoeee. AeAAeOEOeEss anoue aeaenoaea aeooe, niaaeeiythuaa i?inoua,
eiooeoeaiua iiiyoey a aeeeiiua oeaie ?annoaeaeaiee.

Aeaea?o ooaa?aeaeae, /oi, e?iia eiooeoeee e aeaaeoeoeee, oi ia aeieaeai
aeiioneaoue ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia ciaiey. Iiiyoey aeathony /aeiaaeo aianoa
n aeooie, o.a. io ?iaeaeaiey (a?iaeaeaiiua eaeae, aeneiiu). Aeaaeoeoeey
oaeaea ie/aai ia i?eaiineo ecaia, a oieueei naycuaaao iiiyoey, ioe?uoua
eiooeoeeae. Oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, enoeiiua ciaiey iieo/aao ec naiiai
naay.

Oeeinioneay iiceoeey, niaeanii eioi?ie oi iaoiaeeo ia/aei iiciaiey a
naiii naaa e ?acaeaaao neiaeioth nenoaio ciaiee, iacuaaaony
?aoeeiiaeeciii (io eao. ?aoeei – oi). Aeaea?o e noae aai
iniiaiiieiaeieeii a oeeinioee Iiaiai a?aiaie. Aai eaeae ieacaee
cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia iineaaeothuaa ?acaeoea oeeinioee.

Aieueoie aeeaae a ?acaeoea iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee, oai?ee iiciaiey
aian aaeeeee aiaeeeneee iuneeoaeue OIIAN AIAAN (1588-1679). Aai iniiaiua
i?iecaaaeaiey – “Oeeinioneea yeaiaiou o/aiey i a?aaeaeaieia” (1642) e
“Eaaeaoai” (1651).

Aiaan aue nenoaiaoecaoi?ii ayeiiianeiai iaoa?eaeecia. Ie?, ii aai
iiaieth, anoue niaieoiiinoue oae. Ie/aai aanoaeaniiai ia nouanoaoao.
Iaeuecy ioaeaeeoue iuoeaiea io iaoa?ee, eioi?ay iuneeo. Ana i?aaeiaou
(oaea) E eciaiaiey a ieo i?ienoiaeyo aeaaiaea?y iaoaie/aneiio
aeaeaeaieth iaoa?eaeueiuo yeaiaioia.

Aeaaea aeooiaiay aeeciue, eioi?ay neaaaaony ec iuouaiee, naiaeeony e
aeaeaeaieyi. Iiyoiio ethaee e aeeaioiua o iaai – neiaeiua iaoaieciu,
aeaenoaey eioi?uo ii?aaeaeythony aiaoieie neeaie. Iaeooaaeaiiua aaoiiaou
ioee/athony io iaiaeooaaeaiiuo oai, /oi o ia?auo eiathony i?aaiu,
nio?aiythuea i?aaeiea aia/aoeaiey. E?iia oiai, iie niiniaiu n?aaieaaoue
iiaua aia/aoeaiey n i?aaeieie. N?aaiaiea nicaeaao oneiaey aeey
?acee/aiey, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue anoue oneiaea niciaiey.

Yoe enoiaeiua iieiaeaiey Aiaan iieiaeee a iniiao aeaeaei eaeoueo
auaiaeia: 1) io?eoeaiea nouanoaiaaiey aeoo eae iniauo noanoaioeee 2)
oaea – aaeeinoaaiiua noanoaioeee e 3) aa?a a Aiaa anoue oieueei i?iaeoeo
/aeiaa/aneiai aiia?aaeaiey.

Iiciaiea, ii Aiaano, inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii eaeae. Enoi/ieeii eaeae
iiaoo auoue oieueei /oanoaaiiua aini?eyoey aiaoiaai ie?a. Ii ioaa?aae
oi/eo c?aiey Aeaea?oa, niaeanii eioi?ie enoiaeiui ioieoii aeinoiaa?iiai
ciaiey yaeyaony iuoeaiea, a oaeaea aunooiae i?ioea aai o/aiey i
a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeayo. Ieeaeay eaeay ia iiaeao auoue i?e?iaeaeaiiie: oi,
/oi a?iaeaeaiii, aeieaeii auoue anaaaea iaeeoei. A niioaaonoaee n yoei
Aiaan iieaaae, /oi aiaoiea /oanoaa – enoi/iee ia oieueei eaeae, ii e
anaai iaoaai iiciaiey.

Aanueia oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eei o/aiea Aiaana i ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa. A iai ii iiiuoaeny oaeia neiaeiia oeaeia, eae ainoaea?noai,
?aceiaeeoue ia ninoaaiua yeaiaiou, a iineaaeiea iauynieoue i?inouie
caeiiaie i?e?iaeu. Ii i?eoae e iunee i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?acee/aoue aeaa
ninoiyiey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa: anoanoaaiiia e a?aaeaeaineia.

A oneiaeyo XVII a. aicc?aiey Aiaana auee i?ia?anneaiu. Ii oie/oiaeee
oaenoe/aneea i?aae?annoaeee ayeiiianeiai iaoa?eaeecia. A aai oai?ee
iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa niaea?aeaeenue ca?iaeuoe iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai
iiieiaiey nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee.

Eaeay aaoiiiiiinoe oeeinioee iaoea io?aaeaiea e a enneaaeiaaieyo
AAIAAeEEOA NIEIICU (1632-1677) – ieaea?eaiaeneiai oeeinioa-iaoa?eaeenoa,
iaioaenoa e aoaenoa. Ecaanoiu aeaa aai e?oiiuo o?oaea –
“Aiaineianei-iieeoe/aneee o?aeoao” (1670) e “Yoeea” (1675). Oeaeue
oeeinioee ii aeaeae a ainiiaenoaa iaae aiaoiae i?e?iaeie e
niaa?oainoaiaaiee /aeiaaea.

A iniiaa iaoa?eaeecia e aoaecia Nieiicu eaaeaea eaeay i oii, /oi
nouanoaoao eeoue iaeia noanoaioeey – i?e?iaea, eioi?ay anoue i?e/eia
naiie naay e ia ioaeaeaaony aeey naiaai nouanoaiaaiey ie a /ai ae?oaii.

Io noanoaioeee neaaeoao ioee/aoue ie? ioaeaeueiuo eiia/iuo aauae, eee
niaieoiiinoue iiaeonia (oi, /oi nouanoaoao ia naii ii naaa, a a
ae?oaii). Noanoaioeey aaeeia. Iiaeonu e noanoaioeey niioiinyony eae
oi/ee ia i?yiie eeiee e naia i?yiay. I?e?iaea (noanoaioeey) ni anaie
naieie naienoaaie nouanoaoao naia ii naaa, iacaaeneii io oia e aia oia.
Iia aaneiia/ia Ao?eaoou noanoaioeee – i?ioyaeaiea e iuoeaiea. A yoii
ooaa?aeaeaiee i?iniao?eaaaony yaiia io?eoeaiea iuneeoaeai aeoaeecia
Aeaea?oa.

A oai?ee iiciaiey Nieiica – ?aoeeiiaeeno. Ii i?eieaeae ?ieue
/oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey e iiuoa. I?ioeann iiciaiey o iaai aeeth/aao o?e
nooiaie: ia?aay iecoay – /oanoaaiiua aini?eyoey, aoi?ay -ciaiey,
iniiauaathueany ia oia, o?aouey, aunoay – eiooeoeey, o.a.
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia nica?oeaiea.

A naieo iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo aicc?aieyo Nieiica, a ioee/ea io
Aiaana, aunoae oi?iie ainoaea?noaa n/eoae aeaiie?aoe/aneia i?aaeaiea. Ii
ia?aie/eaae ananeeea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe o?aaiaaieyie naiaiaeu e
?acoia. Nieiica iieaaae, /oi aeanoue, oi?aaeythuay ethaeueie
iin?aaenoaii no?aoa, ia iiaeao auoue i?eciaia aeia?iaeaoaeueiie. Ethaeae
iaaei aanoe oae, /oiau ei eacaeinue, aoaeoi eo ia aaaeoo, a iie aeeaoo
ii naiaio nianoaaiiiio ?acoiaieth e ii naiaio naiaiaeiiio ecaieaieth.

A Aiaeee iineaaeiaaoaeai Ayeiia e Aiaana aue AeAEII EIEE (1632-1704).
Aeaaiia aai i?iecaaaeaiea – “Iiuo i /aeiaa/aneii ?acoia” (1690). A iai
ii e?eoeeoao o/aiea Aeaea?oa i a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeayo e iainiiauaaao
i?eioeei iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai nainoaeecia, o.a. i?ienoiaeaeaiey anao
ciaiee ec /oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey aiaoiaai ie?a. Aaeeinoaaiiui
enoi/ieeii eaeae Eiee iauyaee iiuo (Tabula rasa – /enoue eeno, aeaaeeay
aeiua/ea, ia/oi /enoia, iao?iiooia).

Eiee ?acee/ae iiuo aiaoiee (iuouaiey) e aioo?aiiee (?aoeaeney – io eao.
?aoeaenei – ia?auaiea iacaae). A iniiaa ciaiey eaaeao i?inoua eaeae,
iai?eia?, aicaoaeaeaaiua a oia ?acee/iuie ea/anoaaie oae – IA?AE*IUIE, n
eioi?uie yoe eaeae noiaeiu (i?ioyaeaiiinoue, oeao?a, ieioiinoue,
aeaeaeaiea), eee AOI?E*IUIE, n eioi?uie eaeae ia noiaeiu (oeaao, caoe,
caiao, aeon).

Iin?aaenoaii niaaeeiaiey, niiinoaaeaiey e aano?aae?iaaiey ?acoi ec
i?inouo eaeae ia?acoao neiaeiua e iauea eaeae (iiaeonu, noanoaioeee e
ioiioaiey). Eiee ?acee/ae eaeae yniua e niooiua, ?aaeueiua e
oaioanoe/aneea, aaeaeaaoiua naiei i?iia?acai e iaaaeaeaaoiua. Iiciaiea
enoeiii eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo eaeae niia?aciu n
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth.

Oaeiau auee a XVII a. iaeioi?ua iniiaiua iiiuoee ?aaeeciaaoue eaeath
aaoiiiiiie oeeinioee, iino?ieoue oeaeueiia ie?iaicc?aiea ia ?acoiiuo e
iiuoiuo iniiaaieyo.

Oeeinioey o?aioeocneiai iaoaienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia.

XVIII aae, a ioee/ea io XVII-ai, aioae a enoi?eth eae AAE I?INAAUAIEss,
aae o?aioeocneiai iaoaienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia. Aeoo I?inaauaiey
iniaaiii y?ei i?iyaee naay ai O?aioeee, aaea iuneeoaee-i?inaaoeoaee
iiaeaioiaeee ?aaiethoeeth.

Oeeinioey o?aioeocneiai iaoaienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia neaaaaony ec
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai o/aiey i i?e?iaea e o/aiey i /aeiaaea e iauanoaa.

Ia?aui ai O?aioeee iineaaeiaaoaeueiia eceiaeaiea nenoaiu
iaoaienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia aeae AETHEUeAI IO?A AeA EAIAO?E
(1709-1751). Iniiaiua aai o?oaeu: “O?aeoao i aeooa” (1745),
“*aeiaae-iaoeia” (1747), “*aeiaae-?anoaiea” (1748) e ae?. A naieo
i?iecaaaeaieyo ii, a /anoiinoe, aeieacuaae, /oi nouanoaoao eeoue aaeeiay
iaoa?eaeueiay noanoaioeey; i?enouea ae niiniaiinoe iuouaoue e iuneeoue
iaia?oaeeaathony a “i?aaieciaaiiuo oaeao”; yoe niiniaiinoe i?iyaeythony
i?e aicaeaenoaee aiaoieo oae ia iica. Ana iaoe iuouaiey, n/eoae ii,
iaoneiaeaiu naycueth /oanoaa – n iiiiuueth ia?aia – n iaoa?eaeueiui
aauanoaii iicaa.

*aeiaae, ii iiaieth Eaiao?e, ioee/aaony io aeeaioiiai eeoue aieueoei
eiee/anoaii iio?aaiinoae e, neaaeiaaoaeueii aieueoei eiee/anoaii oia.
Iio?aaiinoe oaea ii i?eciaaae “ia?eeii oia”. A nai /aeiaa/aneee i?aaieci
Eaiao?e oiiaeiaeye /aniaiio iaoaiecio: ?anniao?eaae aai eae
naiicaaiaeyuothny iaoeio.

A oai?ee iiciaiey Eaiao?e – nainoaeeno: aiaoiee ie? io?aaeaaony ia
“iicaiaii ye?aia”.

?acaeoea iauanoaa, ii Eaiao?e, ii?aaeaeyaony aeayoaeueiinoueth
auaeathueony ethaeae e oniaoaie i?inaauaiey. Ii aue noi?iiieeii
i?inaauaiiiai aaniethoecia.

Oeeinioneea eaeae Eaiao?e ieacaee cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia Aieueaaoa,
Aeeae?i, Aaeueaaoeey e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeenoia.

Iaeaieaa nenoaiaoe/aneei i?iiaaaiaeenoii oeeinioneeo eaeae o?aioeocneiai
iaoaienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia noae IIEUe AI?E AIEUeAAO (1723-1789).

A iniiaiii oeeinioneii ni/eiaiee “Nenoaia i?e?iaeu, eee I caeiiao ie?a
oece/aneiai e ie?a aeooiaiiai” (1770) Aieueaao ooaa?aeaeae aa/iinoue e
ianioai?aiiinoue iaoa?ee, eioi?ay a i?ioeanna iinoaiaiiiai ?acaeoey e
eciaiaiey ii?iaeaeaao ana iiiaiia?acea ?aaeueiiai ie?a.

Anaeaiiay, ii Aieueaaoo, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaeaeouothny iaoa?eth,
aeaeaeaiea iaiaoiaeeii auoaeaao ec aa nouiinoe e yaeyaony niiniaii
nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee. Iaeiaei, aiai?y i aaeeinoaa iaoa?ee e aeaeaeaiey,
ii aeaeaeaiea iiieiae iaoaienoe/anee.

A oai?ee iiciaiey Aieueaao ioaa?aae aaiinoeoeeci, ea?oaceaineoth (io
eaoeiece?, eiaie Aeaea?oa – Ea?oaceon) eiioeaioeeth a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeae,
iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?acaeaae iniiaiua iieiaeaiey iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai
nainoaeecia, ionoaeaae niiniaiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia iiciaaaoue ie?
e aai caeiiu. Oi, /oi aeey iaoeo aeaaeia auei oaeeaeoaeueiui, ienae ii,
/oaeaniui e naa?ouanoanoaaiiui yaeaieai, noaiiaeony aeey ian i?inoui e
anoanoaaiiui oaeoii, iaoaieci e i?e/eiu eioi?iai iu ciaai.

*aeiaae eae ?acoiiia nouanoai, ii iiaieth Aieueaaoa, i?ecaai noaoue
aeanoeoaeai ie?a, ia?ano?ieoue iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey ia ?acoiiuo
iniiaaieyo. Yoei iaoneiaeeaaeenue i?aaa /aeiaaea: auoue ?aaiui ae?oaiio,
auoue naiaiaeiui a naieo ?aoaieyo e aeaenoaeyo. A?aaeaeaineea e
iieeoe/aneea naiaiaeu Aieueaao ?anniao?eaae “eae iaiouaieaiia i?aai
anyeie iaoeee e anyeiai iauanoaa, a aeaeo oiai, /oi iie nouanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiu aeey nio?aiaiey e i?ioeaaoaiey iauanoaaiiuo nithcia”.

O/aiea Aieueaaoa i i?e?iaea naia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iieo/eei a
?aaioao naiiai auaeathuaainy i?aaenoaaeoaey o?aioeocneiai iaoa?eaeecia
AeAIE AeEAe?I (1713-1784). A naieo iiiai/eneaiiuo ni/eiaieyo ii
ionoaeaae eaeae i iaoa?eaeueiinoe ie?a. Aeeae?i ioaa?aae aeoaeeci,
n/eoae iaoa?eth aaeeinoaaiiie noanoaioeeae, a i?e/eio aa nouanoaiaaiey
aeaeae a iae naiie. Iia aaeeia, aa/ia, ianioai?aia e iacaaeneia io
/aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey. Ana yaeaiey i?e?iaeu – yoi eiie?aoiua oi?iu aa
nouanoaiaaiey.

Aeeae?i iainiiauaae aaeeinoai iaoa?ee e aeaeaeaiey. Any i?e?iaea,
niaeanii aai o/aieth, iaoiaeeony a aa/iii aeaeaeaiee e ?acaeoee, nouaa
iiaeaaao a iaeiie oi?ia e aicieeaao a ae?oaie. Ii ioaa?aae nouanoaiaaiea
aaniethoiiai iieiy, no?aieeny i?aiaeieaoue iaoaieoeeci: aic?aaeae i?ioea
naaaeaiey aeaeaeaiey e i?ino?ainoaaiiiio ia?aiauaieth oae e ooaa?aeaeae,
/oi e iaiiaeaeaeiia oaei iaoiaeeony a aeaeaeaiee, o.a. ?acaeaaaony,
eciaiyaony. I?e yoii Aeeae?i auneacae ?yae aeoaieeo aeeaeaeoe/aneeo
aeiaaaeie: a /anoiinoe, aeoeaiinoue iaoa?ee, aa naiiaeaeaeaiea ii
iuoaeny iauynieoue aioo?aiiae i?ioeai?a/eainoueth e ?acii?iaeiinoueth
iaoa?ee.

?ani?ino?aiaiea i?eioeeia iai?a?uaiinoe ?acaeoey e eciaiaiey ia i?e?iaeo
iicaieeei Aeeae?i i?aaeainoeoeoue iaeioi?ua iieiaeaiey yaiethoeeiiiiai
o/aiey: ii ienae, /oi /aeiaae eae aeieiae/aneee aeae iiaeiaii anai
ae?oaei aeeaui nouanoaai eiaao naith enoi?eth noaiiaeaiey.

Aeeae?i aunooiee i?ioea ooaa?aeaeaiey i aiaeanoaaiiii i?ienoiaeaeaiee
niciaiey. Ii auneacae iuneue, /oi iioaioeeaeueii iuouaiea naienoaaiii
anae iaoa?ee, niciaiea aea anoue naienoai aa aunieii?aaieciaaiiie
i?aaie/aneie /anoe.

A aiinaieiaee Aeeae?i neaaeiaae ca Eieeii e enoiaeee ec nainoaeecia,
e?eoeeiaae aaiinoeoeeci e ooaa?aeaeae iiciaaaaiinoue ie?a. I?e/eiie
iuouaiee ii n/eoae iaoa?eth.

Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea acaeyaeu Aeeae?i aace?iaaeenue ia oai?ee
“iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a”. Aicieeiiaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe iia
iauyniyea niaeaoaieai iaaeaeo ethaeueie, auioaeaeaiiuie ia?aeoe io
iaiaania/aiiiai caueoie anoanoaaiiiai ninoiyiey e ninoiyieth
a?aaeaeaineiio. Iie?aynue ia iaa, Aeeae?i ?aciaea/ae auiuneu i
aiaeanoaaiiii i?ienoiaeaeaiee ei?ieaaneie aeanoe e oaiaeaeueiiai
nineiaiiai ia?aaainoaa. Ii ?aoeoaeueii aunooiae i?ioea aeaniioe/aneeo
oi?i i?aaeaiey, ?aoiaae ca eiinoeoooeeiiioth iiia?oeth e, eae ana
i?inaaoeoaee, iaaeayeny ia iiyaeaiea “i?inaauaiiiai ainoaea?y”.

Aiaeeeneee oeeinio AeYEAEAe THI (1711-1776), a ioee/ea io o?aioeocneeo
iaoa?eaeenoia, caaea/o ciaiey aeaeae ia a iinoeaeaiee auoey, a a aai
niiniaiinoe aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia i?aeoe/aneoth aeeciue. Aii?in i
nouanoaiaaiee iauaeoeaiiai ie?a ii n/eoae ia?ac?aoeiui.
Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, ii aai iiaieth, – eeoue iioie “aia/aoeaiee”,
i?e/eiu eioi?uo iaecaanoiu e iaiinoeaeeiu. THi – aaiinoee.

Oeeinioey o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai eaeaaeecia E. Eaioa.

Aaiinoeoeeci THia ?acaoaeee io “aeiaiaoe/aneie niy/ee” ?iaeiia/aeueieea
iaiaoeeie eeanne/aneie oeeinioee EIIAIOEEA EAIOA (1724-1804). A aai
eioaeeaeooaeueiii ?acaeoee auaeaeytho aeaa ia?eiaea: aeie?eoe/aneee e
e?eoe/aneee.

A AeIE?EOE*ANEEE IA?EIAe (aei 1770 a.) ii aunooiae eae aeoaieee,
i?iieoeaoaeueiue o/aiue, noeoeeiue iaoa?eaeeno e aeeaeaeoee,
iainiiauaaaoee eaeath naii?acaeoey i?e?iaeu.

A E?EOE*ANEEE IA?EIAe Eaio noi?ioee?iaae oeeinioeth, eae ii nai aa
iacuaae, o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai eaeaaeecia a o?ao iniiaiuo o?oaeao:
“E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia” (1781), “E?eoeea i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia” (1788) e
“E?eoeea niiniaiinoe noaeaeaiey” (1790).

A oeaio?a oeeinioneie nenoaiu Eaioa – i?iaeaia iauaeoeaiinoe, enoeiiinoe
iiciaiey. Iinoaiiaea oaeie i?iaeaiu, eae aai

oaea ecaanoii ii i?ioeui eaeoeeyi, ia iiaa. I?eioeeieaeueii iiaui aue
iiaeoiae iaiaoeeiai iuneeoaey e aa ?aoaieth. Anee aai i?aaeoanoaaiieee
aeaaiui ia?acii ?anniao?eaaee oa?aeoa? e no?oeoo?o iiciaaaaiiai iauaeoa,
oi Eaio i?ei?eoao ioaeaaae iiciathuei no?oeoo?ai naiiai /aeiaaea.
*aeiaae, ii Eaioo, ?aniieaaaao aeaoiy oaeeie no?oeoo?aie:

· yiie?e/aneie (iiuoiie);

· o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie (aeiiiuoiie, i?enouae /aeiaaeo io ?iaeaeaiey e
ninoiyuae ec anaiaueo ii?aaeaeaiee, eaoaai?ee).

Iniiao iao/iiai ciaiey ninoaaeyao eiaiii o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiia iiciaiea,
eioi?ia aeayoaeueii eiino?oe?oao a aieiaa iiciathuaai noauaeoa
eaeaaeece?iaaiiua iauaeou.

A eaioianeie oeeinioneie nenoaia auaeaeythony o?e nooiaie iiciaiey:

· /oanoaaiiia eee iiuoiia;

· iuoeaiea eaoaai?eyie, o.a. iaueie iiiyoeyie;

· nooiaiue /enoi ?acoia.

A eieaa “E?eoeea i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia” Eaio ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iauaeoii
iiciaiey yaeyaony iaoa?eaeueiay aauue aia /aeiaaea, aia aai niciaiey.
Iuneue, n iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, aa?iay. Iaeiaei i?aaiu /oanoa
/aeiaaea, ieoao aeaeaa Eaio, aeatho ciaiea eeoue aiaoiae noi?iiu
i?aaeiaoia, aioo?aiiyy eo nouiinoue iaaeinooiia. Iia ia ioe?uaaaony
/aeiaaeo. Iiyoiio aicieeaao eaioianeay “aauue a naaa”, eioi?ay ne?uaaao
nouiinoue, ia aeaeaao aa “aauueth aeey ian”. “Aauue a naaa” aeey ian
oieueei iioiai (io a?a/. iioiaiii – oiiiinoeaaaiia, iiae?acoiaaaaony
ia/oi oiiiinoeaaaiia a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oaiiiaio, aeaiiiio a iiuoa e
iinoeaaaiiio /oanoaaie), o.a. oiiiinoeaaaiay, ii ia aeaiiay a iiuoa
nouiinoue.

Oae oaea ia ia?aie nooiaie iiciaiey Eaio iaoaoece/anee i?ioeaiiinoaaeye
yaeaiea e nouiinoue, a oi a?aiy eae nouiinoue yaeyaony aioo?aiiei
niaea?aeaieai i?aaeiaoa, a yaeaiea – aiaoiae oi?iie aai nouanoaiaaiey.
Iiyoiio aiaeece?othuee ?annoaeie /a?ac yaeaiea eaeao e aioo?aiiae
nouiinoe i?aaeiaoia.

A ?aaioa “E?eoeea niiniaiinoe noaeaeaiey” Eaio aiaeece?oao aoi?oth
nooiaiue iiciaiey. Ia yoie nooiaie, ii aai iiaieth, aano?aeoiia
iuoeaiea eaoaai?eyie (iaueie iiiyoeyie) oieueei i?eeaaaaony e aaeeie/iui
aauai, e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie nouiinoe i?aaeiaoia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoa
nouiinoue, eae e ia ia?aie nooiaie, ieacuaaaony iaiiciaaaaiie. Caeanue
ia?aie/aiea iiciaiey ie?ii yaeaiee Eaio iauyniye oai, /oi iauea iiiyoey
aicieeee a niciaiee noauaeoa ai?ei?e (io eao. ai?ei?e – ec
i?aaeoanoaothuaai, iiae?acoiaaaaony ciaiea, i?aaeoanoaothuaa iiuoo e
iacaaeneiia io iaai) e ia eiatho nayce n iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoueth.

Eae aeaeeoa, Eaio ioeai/ii ioeaiee e aoi?oth nooiaiue iiciaiey. Iauea
iiiyoey io?aaeatho iauea naienoaa i?aaeiaoia. Cia/eo, nouiinoue aeeaea e
iauaio, a ia e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio. Iiyoiio iauea iiiyoey ?ane?uaatho e
iaicia/atho nouiinoue aauae. Iie iiciaaaaiu.

O?aoueth nooiaiue iiciaiey Eaio ?anniao?eaaao a eieaa “E?eoeea /enoiai
?acoia”, aaea niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea e oeeinioneiio, a ia iauaeaiiiio
iuoeaieth i?eciaaony oieueei ca ethaeueie n aunoeie, oeeinioneeie
iaeeiiiinoyie. E caeanue, niaeanii aai o/aieth, /enoue ?acoi, ?aoay
iauea i?iaeaiu ie?icaeaiey (eiia/ai eee aaneiia/ai ie? a i?ino?ainoaa e
ai a?aiaie e ae?.), caioouaaaony a ia?ac?aoeiuo i?ioeai?a/eyo, e Eaio
noaaeo ciae ?aaainoaa iaaeaeo ia?ac?aoeiinoueth e iaiiciaaaaiinoueth.
Ioeai/iui ieacuaaaony e yoio auaiae iuneeoaey. Iaia?oaeaiea ?acoiii
i?ioeai?a/eainoe ie?a naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia i aai aanneeee, iaiai?io, i
aai oi?aeanoaa.

“I?iaoeea” ii eaioianeei nooiaiyi iieacuaaao, /oi eo nicaeaoaeth auea
iaaaaeiia aeeaeaeoeea i?ioeanna iiciaiey. Iaiiciaaaaioth “aauue a naaa”,
iineaaeiaaoaeueiue aaiinoeoeeci Eaioa aiineaaenoaee ni?aaaaeeeaa
e?eoeeiaaee iiiaea oeeiniou. Nii?u aie?oa iaai ia ooeoatho aei neo ii?.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: O/aaiee aeey aocia… N. 151-180.

2. Enoi?ey oeeinioee a e?aoeii eceiaeaiee… N. 364-495.

3. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Oeeinioey”… N. 44-55.

4. Ia?neee E. I. Caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneay oeeinioey XVIII a.: O/aaiia
iiniaea. I., 1973. N. 194-278.

5. ?aaeoaei A. A. Oeeinioey: eo?n eaeoeee… N. 120-143. Nie?eei A. A.

6. Iniiau oeeinioee: O/aaiia iiniaea aeey aocia… N. 53-62.

7. Oeeinioey: E?aoeia o/aaiia iiniaea… N. 43-58.

1. Oaia VII. AA?IIAENEAss OEEINIOEss XIX AAEA

1. Eeanneee iaiaoeeiai eaeaaeecia E. Oeooa, O. Oaeeeia e A. Aaaaeue.

2. E?eoeea aaaaeueyinoaa “neaaa” (E. Oaea?aao, E. Ia?en e O. Yiaaeuen) e
“ni?aaa” (A. Oiiaiaaoy?, N. Euea?eaai? e O. Ieoeoa).

Eeanneee iaiaoeeiai eaeaaeecia E. Oeooa, O. Oaeeeia, e A. Aaaaeue.

Aeey Aa?iiu, aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u e aa?iiaeneiai niciaiey XIX aae –
eeanne/aneee. Oaeiaui ii noae e aeey enoi?ee aa?iiaeneie oeeinioee.
Ia?aay iieiaeia aaea i?ioea iiae ciaiaiai oai?/anoaa eeanneeia
iaiaoeeiai eaeaaeecia, iineaaeiaaoaeae, ii e e?eoeeia Eaioa: E. Oeooa,
O. Oaeeeiaa e A. Aaaaey.

EIAAII AIOEEA OEOOA (1762-1814) – noauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeno. Ii noaaee
ia?aae niaie caaea/o i?aiaeieaoue eaioianeee aeoaeeci “aauae a naaa” e
yaeaiee. Enoiaeiui ioieoii aai oeeinioee yaeyaony oacen ia aaoiiiiiinoe
“ss”. “ss” ooaa?aeaeaao naay a ea/anoaa oaeiaiai a aeoa naiiniciaiey.
“ss” anoue – yoi naiii/aaeaeiia noaeaeaiea. Ii, a ioee/ea io Aeaea?oa,
naiii/aaeaeiinoue “ss” o Oeooa iniiauaaaony ia ia aeoa iuoeaiey, a ia
aieaaii oneeee, aeaenoaee. “ss” anoue aieaaia, aeaenoaothuaa nouanoai.

No?aiynue i?aiaeieaoue aeoaeeci Eaioa, Oeooa ioeacaeny io eaioianeie
“aaue a naaa”, ioiaeaeanoaee iuoeaiea e auoea. Eaioianeee
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiue noauaeo o iaai i?aa?aoeeny a aaniethoiia ia/aei
anaai nouanoaothuaai, a aaniethoiia “ss”, ec aeayoaeueiinoe eioi?iai,
ii Oeooa, iauyniyeny aanue ie?oaeathuee /aeiaaea ie? -“ia – ss”. Oai
naiui i?aaeiaoiay noa?a /aeiaaea ieacuaaeanue i?iaeoeoii aai
aeayoaeueiinoe. A eiia/iii n/aoa “ss” inaaeaae “ia – ss”, aeinoeaae
oiaeaeanoaa n naiei niaie. Niaiaaeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e aaniethoiiai
“ss” – eaeaae anaai aeaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey iauanoaa. Iaeiaei iieiia
aeinoeaeaiea yoiai eaeaaea iaaiciiaeii. Iii i?eaaei au e i?ae?auaieth
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay, ii Oeooa, aaniethoia. Iiyoiio any /aeiaa/aneay
enoi?ey – eeoue aaneiia/iia i?eaeeaeaiea e eaeaaeo.

Eaeae Oeooa ?acaeaae aai ieaaeoee nia?aiaiiee O?EAe?EO AEEUeAAEUeI
EICAO OAEEEIA (1775-1854). Ii ?ac?aaioae o/aiea i oiaeaeanoaa noauaeoa e
iauaeoa. Aaniethoiue noauaeo, naycaiiue o Oeooa n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui
“ss”, a nenoaia Oaeeeiaa i?aa?aoeeny a aiaeanoaaiiia ia/aei ie?a,
aaniethoiia oiaeaeanoai noauaeoa e iauaeoa, oi/eo “aac?acee/ey” eo
iaieo. Ii, oaeei ia?acii, a naieo aicc?aieyo caiye iiceoeeth
iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia. Inoaaaeinue ?aoeoue aii?in, eae ec yoiai
ia?aiia/aeueiiai oiaeaeanoaa auaanoe ana iiiaiia?acea ii?aaeaeaiee
nouanoaothuaai ie?a. Ioaa/ay ia iaai, Oaeeeia eo aicieeiiaaiea
?anniao?eaae eae “oai?/aneee aeo”, eioi?ue iaaeinooiai aeey ?acoia ae
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eioaeeaeooaeueioth eiooeoeeth – neioac niciaoaeueiie
e aanniciaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeie eiooeoeeae, ii Oaeeeiao,
iaeaaeatho oieueei iniai iaea?aiiua ethaee, aaiee. A o/aiee Oaeeeiaa
eioaeeaeooaeueiay eiooeoeey, neaaeiaaoaeueii, yaeyeanue aunoae oi?iie
oeeinioneiai oai?/anoaa, oai eino?oiaioii, ia iniiaa eioi?iai
naii?acaa?ouaaeinue oiaeaeanoai.

AAI?A AEEUeAAEUeI O?EAe?EO AAAAEUe (1770-1831) eaioianeie “aaue a naaa”
i?ioeaiiinoaaee aeeaeaeoe/aneee i?eioeei – nouiinoue i?iyaeyaony,
yaeaiea nouanoaaiii, io?eoeae o/aiea Oaeeeiaa ia eioaeeaeooaeueiie
eiooeoeee. Ii ooaa?aeaeae aaniethoiia aeaaainoai ?aoeeiiaeueiiai, a ia
aanniciaoaeueiiai yeaiaioa iiciaiey. Aai iniiaiua o?oaeu: “Oaiiiaiieiaey
aeooa” (1807), “Iaoea eiaeee” (1812), “Yioeeeeiiaaeey oeeinioneeo iaoe”
(1817), “Oeeinioey i?aaa” (1821) e ae?.

Aaaaeue iacuaae naith oeeinioneoth nenoaio “aaniethoiui eaeaaeeciii”. Ii
ooaa?aeaeae, /oi eaoaai?ee – nooue iauaeoeaiua oi?iu aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
a iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeeo “ie?iaie ?acoi”, “aaniethoiay eaeay” eee
“ie?iaie aeoo”. “Aaniethoiay eaeay”, oaeei ia?acii, – yoi aeayoaeueiia
ia/aei, aeaaoaa eiioeuen e aicieeiiaaieth e ?acaeoeth i?e?iaeiiai e
aeooiaiiai ie?a. Aeayoaeueiinoue aa caeeth/aaony a iuoeaiee, oeaeue – a
naiiiiciaiee.

I?ioeann naiiiiciaiey “aaniethoiie eaeae”, “ie?iaiai ?acoia” aeeth/aao
o?e yoaia:

1. I?aauaaiea naiiiiciathuae “aaniethoiie eaeae” a aa nianoaaiiie eiia,
a noeoee /enoiai iuoeaiey (eiaeea, a eioi?ie “aaniethoiay eaeay” /a?ac
naiiaeaeaeaiea caeiiia e eaoaai?ee aeeaeaeoeee ?ane?uaaao naia
niaea?aeaiea; eiaeea eae iaoea i naaa e aeey naay).

2. ?acaeoea i?e?iaeu eae eiiauoey “aaniethoiie eaeae”, “ieaiaiaaoee
aeoo” (i?e?iaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aiaoithth ?aaeueiinoue “aaniethoiie
eaeae”, aa i?iyaeaiea; oeeinioey i?e?iaeu eae iaoea ia eaeaa eiiauoey).

3. ?acaeoea iauanoaa e /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey – aeooa (aeoo – niyoea
i?e?iaeiiai i?iyaeaiey, aica?auaiea eaeae e naiie naaa, iiciaiea
“ie?iaui aeooii” naiiai naay /a?ac aeinoeaeaiea aaniethoiie enoeiu,
iinea /aai ?acaeoea caeai/eaaaony; oeeinioey aeooa eae iaoea ia eaeaa,
aica?auathuaeny a naiia naay ec naiaai eiiauoey).

Aeaeaeaiea “aaniethoiie eaeae”, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e anaai i?aaeiaoiiai
ie?a eiaao naia ia/aei e eiiaoe, caieiooi a ii?aaeaeaiiue e?oa. O Aaaaey
iieo/aeinue, /oi aunoae oi?iie e eiioeii ?acaeoey “aaniethoiie eaeae”,
aaea iia iniciaao naiia naay e aanue i?ieaeaiiue ath iooue e noaiiaeony
“aaniethoiui aeooii”, yaeyaony oeeinioneay nenoaia naiiai Aaaaey. Ioiuia
ainoiaeyuaa aeaeaeaiea “aaniethoiie eaeae” i?ae?auaaony e aeaeueiaeoee
i?ioeann aeaeaeaiey iuneeony oieueei eae caieiooue e?oa, i?inoia
iiaoi?aiea ath i?ieaeaiiiai iooe.

Io nenoaiu Aaaaey neaaeoao no?iai ioa?aie/eaaoue aai aeeaeaeoe/aneee
iaoiae: naia aaaaeaaneay nenoaia, eae iu auynieee, noaaeo i?aaeae
?acaeoeth iuoeaiey, a iaoiae o?aaoao ioeaca io a?aieoe a ?acaeoee.
Iaiaoeeee iuneeoaeue n/eoae, /oi iaaiciiaeii iiiyoue yaeaiea, ia oyniea
anaai iooe, eioi?ue iii niaa?oeei a naiai ?acaeoee, /oi ?acaeoea
i?ienoiaeeo ia ii caieiooiio e?oao, a iinooiaoaeueii, io iecoeo oi?i e
aunoei, /oi a yoii i?ioeanna aeaenoaotho o?e caeiia:

· CAEII I?AA?AUAIEss EIEE*ANOAAIIUO ECIAIAIEE A EA*ANOAAIIUA e
EA*ANOAAIIUO ECIAIAIEE A EIEE*ANOAAIIUA. Yoe acaeiiia?aoiaeu ii
?anniao?eaae eae aaneiia/iue i?ioeann;

· CAEII ACAEIII?IIEEIIAAIEss I?IOEAIIIEIAEIINOAE, eioi?ue ane?uaaao
i?ioeai?a/ey eae aioo?aiiee enoi/iee, eiioeuen, iiaoaeeoaeueioth neeo
anyeiai naiiaeaeaeaiey;

· CAEII IO?EOeAIEss IO?EOeAIEss, eioi?ue icia/aao ia i?inoi
oie/oiaeaiea noa?iai ea/anoaa iiaui, a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoai
o?ao iniiaiuo iiiaioia: 1) i?aiaeieaiea noa?iai, 2) i?aainoaaiiinoue a
?acaeoee e C) ooaa?aeaeaiea iiaiai.

Iauee auaiae (e aaee/aeoee iaoin) aaaaeaaneie oeeinioee ninoiyo a
i?eciaiee ?acoiiinoe ie?a: “Ana aeaenoaeoaeueiia – ?acoiii, ana ?acoiiia
– aeaenoaeoaeueii”. Ia?acoiiia aeieaeii auoue i?aiaeieaii ?acoiii.
Ia?aae iaie ia oieueei ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay, ii aeaaiaea?y naiaio
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiio ?aoeeiiaeecio – iioeienoe/aneay oeeinioey. A oi aea
a?aiy yoi aaniethoiue eaeaaeeci, iineieueeo oai?/aneie neeie ii i?eciaao
eeoue iuneue, aeoo, eaeaaeueiia.

Ia?yaeo n eaeaaeenoe/aneie nenoaiie, a oeeinioee Aaaaey eiaeinue
?aoeeiiaeueiia ca?ii – aeeaeaeoeea. Iia aioea a nie?iaeuieoeo ie?iaie
iunee, iineoaeeea enoiaeiui ioieoii ?ac?aaioee oeeinioee ia?enecia.

E?eoeea aaaaeueyinoaa “neaaa” (E. Oaea?aao. E. Ia?en e O. Yiaaeuen) e
“ni?aaa” (Oiiaiaaoa?, N. Euea?eaai? e O. Ieoeoa).

Oeeinioey Aaaaey ieacaea ia?iiiia, /a?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia aa?iiaeneia
(a caoai ia oieueei ia aa?iiaeneia) niciaiea. Iia ioaa/aea iauaio
oiiiano?iaieth yiioe. Iaeiaei aunoay oi/ea ?acaeoey ia?aaeei icia/aao e
ia/aei aai oiaaeea, ianooieaiea e?ecena. Oae i?iecioei e n
aaaaeueyinoaii.

Oaea e na?aaeeia aaea iii iiaeaa?aeinue e?eoeea n aeaoo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo
noi?ii: “neaaa” – ni noi?iiu iaoa?eaeecia (E. Oaea?aao, E. Ia?en e O.
Yiaaeuen) e “ni?aaa” – ni noi?iiu eaeaaeenoe/aneiai e??aoeeiiaeecia (A.
Oiiaiaaoy?, N. Euea?eaai? e O. Ieoeua).

Ia?aui iaiaoeeei oeeinioii, iiaeaa?aoei ?acaa?iooie e?eoeea nenoaio e
iaoiae Aaaaey n iaoa?eaeenoe/aneeo iiceoeee, aue ETHAeAEA AIAe?AAN
OAEA?AAO (1804-1872). Iniiaiua aai ni/eiaiey: “E e?eoeea oeeinioee
Aaaaey” (1839), “Nouiinoue o?enoeainoaa” (1841), “I?aaeaa?eoaeueiua
oacenu e ?aoi?ia oeeinioee” (1842), “Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oeeinioee
aoaeouaai” (1843).

E?eoeeoy iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci Aaaaey, Oaea?aao ionoaeaae
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee acaeyae ia i?e?iaeo. Iaeiaei aai iaoa?eaeeci ia
neo/aeii iacuaatho aio?iiieiae/aneei. Ii i?e?iaeo, a ioee/ea io
iaoa?eaeenoia XVIII a., ?anniao?eaae ia eae iaoaieci, a nei?aa eae
i?aaieci. A oeaio?a aai aieiaiey – ia ioaea/aiiia iiiyoea iaoa?ee, a
*AEIAAE eae INEOIOECE*ANEIA AAeEINOAI, aaeeinoai aeooe e oaea, eae
“…aaeeinoaaiiue, oieaa?naeueiue e aunoee i?aaeiao oeeinioee”. *aeiaae,
ii Oaea?aaoo, anoue iaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo e iaeiia?aiaiii iuneyuee
noauaeo.

Oaei a aai oeaeinoiinoe, ooaa?aeaeae Oaea?aao, eae ?ac e ninoaaeyao
nouiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai “ss”. Aeooiaiia ia/aei a /aeiaaea ia ioaeaeyaony
io oaeaniiai, aeoo e oaei – aeaa noi?iiu oie ?aaeueiinoe, eioi?ay
iacuaaaony i?aaieciii. *aeiaa/aneay i?e?iaea, oaeei ia?acii, oieeoaony
Oaea?aaoii i?aeiouanoaaiii aeieiae/anee. N ae?oaeie eiaeeaeaeaie /aeiaae
naycai ia nioeeaeueiuie, a oieueei i?e?iaeiuie ocaie.

A oai?ee iiciaiey Oaea?aao aunooiae eae nainoaeeno, iieaaay, /oi
iuouaiea ninoaaeyao aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee iaoaai iiciaiey. E?eoa?eai
enoeiu oao eee eiuo iao/iuo noaeaeaiee ii n/eoae niaeanea n ieie
aieueoeinoaa ethaeae. “Enoeiii oi, /oi niioaaonoaoao nouiinoe ?iaea, –
ienae Oaea?aao”. – Eiaeii oi, /oi aio i?ioeai?a/eo”.

A niioaaonoaee n aio?iiieiae/aneei i?eioeeiii Oaea?aao ii-iiaiio
eioa?i?aoe?iaae naii iiiyoea “iauaeo iiciaiey”. Iiiyoea iauaeoa, ii aai
o/aieth, ia?aiia/aeueii oi?ie?oaony a iiuoa /aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey.
Iiyoiio ia?aue iauaeo aeey anyeiai /aeiaaea – yoi ae?oaie /aeiaae, “Ou”.
Eiaiii ethaiaue e ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo anoue iooue e i?eciaieth aai
iauaeoeaiiai nouanoaiaaiey, a oai naiui e i?eciaieth nouanoaiaaiey
aiiaua aiaoieo aauae.

Aio?iiieiae/aneee iaoa?eaeeci Oaea?aaoa aiciee eae ?aaeoeey ia
eaeaaeeci, i?aaeaea anaai ia o/aiea Aaaaey, a eioi?ii ainiiaenoai
anaiauaai iaae aaeeie/iui auei aeiaaaeaii aei oaeie noaiaie, /oi
ioaeaeueiay /aeiaa/aneay ee/iinoue ieacaeanue en/acathua-ie/oiaeiui
iiiaioii. Oaea?aao anoae ia caueoo eiaiii i?e?iaeii-aeieiae/aneiai
ia/aea a /aeiaaea, io eioi?iai a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aano?aae?iaaeny
iaiaoeeee eaeaaeeci iinea Eaioa, ii eioi?ia io ethaiai eiaeeaeaea
iaiouaieaii.

Iaeiaei noa?o iauanoaaiiie aeecie Oaea?aao inoaaee aia
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai iiieiaiey. A oeaeii aai aio?iiieiaeci ia auoae ca
?aiee iaoaoece/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia. Ioaa?aay aaaaeaaneee eaeaaeeci,
Oaea?aao ia aini?eiye e aai aeeaeaeoeeo. Ii ia iiiye, /oi aeeaeaeoeeo
iiaeii ?acaeaaoue e ia iaeaeaaeenoe/aneie iniiaa.

Oai ia iaiaa cia/aiea Oaea?aaoianeie e?eoeee eaeaaeecia ia?iiii. O/aiea
Oaea?aaoa, ianiio?y ia aai iaeiinoi?iiiinoue, nua?aei aaaeioth ?ieue a
oi?ie?iaaiee oeeinioneeo acaeyaeia EA?EA AAI?EOA IA?ENA (1818-1883) e
O?EAe?EOA YIAAEUeNA (1820-1895). Iniiaiua o?oaeu: E. Ia?ena –
“Yeiiiie/anei-oeeinioneea ?oeiiene” (1844), “Niyoia naiaenoai” (1845),
“Oacenu i Oaea?aaoa” (1845), “Iaiaoeeay eaeaieiaey” (1846), “Eaieoae”
(1857-1867) e ae?.; O. Yiaaeuena – “Aioe-Aeth?eia” (1876-1877),
“Aeeaeaeoeea i?e?iaeu” (1873-1882), “I?ienoiaeaeaiea naiuee, /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe e ainoaea?noaa” (1884), “Ethaeaea Oaea?aao e eiiaoe
eeanne/aneie iaiaoeeie oeeinioee” (1886) e ae?.; E. Ia?ena e O.
Yiaaeuena – “Iaieoano Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee” (1848) e ae?.

A /ai aea ninoiyea i?eioeeieaeueiay iiaecia iniiaiuo eaeae ia?enecia eae
iaeiiai ec iiiaeo oa/aiee ie?iaie oeeinioneie iunee?

1. Ia?eneci n eaeaaeenoe/aneie ia iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth ii/ao iinoaaee
aaaaeaaneoth aeeaeaeoeeo e i?aa?aoee aa a iaoeo i iaeaieaa iaueo oi?iao
naycae e iaeaieaa iaueo caeiiao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey
iauaeoeaiiai ie?a e ioia?aaeathuaai aai /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey.

2. I?aaenoaaeoaee aeiia?enianeiai iaoa?eaeecia ia?aie/eaaeenue
onoaiiaeaieai caaeneiinoe /aeiaaea io i?e?iaeu, /oi i?eaiaeeei eo ia
iooue eaeaaeecia. Ia?eneci iieacae, /oi /aeiaae “iaoiaeeony” ia oieueei
a i?e?iaea, ii e a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eciaiyao aa
oaeaea, eae e iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey. Eiaiii I?AEOEEA eae i?aaeiaoiay
aeayoaeueiinoue ninoaaeyao nooue auoey /aeiaaea. A niioaaonoaee n yoei
ana aeaeu niciaiey ethaeae io?aaeatho eeoue oi. /oi aeeth/aaony a i?aeoo
auoey. Oieueei n iiiiuueth i?aeoeee iiaeii aeieacaoue enoeiiinoue oao
eee eiuo acaeyaeia, aicc?aiee ethaeae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaaiay eaeay
oeeinioee ia?enecia ninoiyea a oii, /oi I?AEOEEA, AUOEA IA?AE*II ei anai
aeaeai niciaiey /aeiaaea e ii?aaeaeytho eo. Yoa eaeay iineoaeeea
ioi?aaiui ioieoii e iniiaie iaeiiai ec aeaaiuo ioe?uoee Ia?ena e
Yiaaeuena – IAOA?EAEENOE*ANEIAI IIIEIAIEss ENOI?EE.

3. Ia?eneci auaeaeee ec nenoaiu iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
a ea/anoaa ii?aaeaeythueo e aeaaiaea?y yoiio iaia?oaeee iiaoi?yaiinoue a
?acaeoee no?ai e ia?iaeia, neioace?iaae noiaeiua iauanoaaiiua ii?yaeee a
iiiyoee IAUANOAAIII-YEIIIIE*ANEIE OI?IAOeEE. Yoi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue
?anniao?eaaoue aeeciue /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa ia oieueei eae
caeiiiia?iue i?ioeann, ii e ?acaeaeyoue aai enoi?eth ia ii?aaeaeaiiua
oeiu.

4. Ia?eneci ii-iiaiio iauyniee AeAEAEOUEA NEEU IAUANOAAIIIAI ?ACAEOEss.
Oaeiauie yaeythony naie ETHAeE, n eo aeaenoaeyie e iinooieaie,
iaoeaeaiiuie ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea naieo iio?aaiinoae e cai?inia.
Iauaaeeiyynue iaaeaeo niaie a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, iie ia oieueei
nicaeatho iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa, ii e iaiaieaathony ?acoeueoaoaie naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. anooiatho a ii?aaeaeaiiua iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey.
Anee yoe ioiioaiey oi?iicyo ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa, ethaee aiinyo a ieo
eiino?oeoeaiua eciaiaiey, /ai a eiia/iii n/aoa eciaiytho e naieo naay,
niinianoaotho naiaio naii?acaeoeth. A ia?enecia EAeAss NAII?ACAEOEss
noaea iniiaie ?aoaiey i?iaeai /aeiaaea e aai naiaiaeu.

5. A oneiaeyo eaieoaeecia ao?iia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa aaaeao e
iaeiieaieth aiaaonoaa a ?oeao nianoaaiieeia iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iie e i?enaaeaatho i?eaeeaaee naiaiaeiiai naii?acaeoey,
i?ieaoa?eao aea i?aeoe/anee eeoai oaeie aiciiaeiinoe. I?i/aio aai
INAIAIAEAeAIEss io oaiaoaiey yenieoaoaoi?ia iiaeii ?aoeoue oieueei eeoue
a oiaea IINO?IAIEss EIIIOIECIA, eioi?ue ia oieueei .eeeaeaee?oao iaaiiue
o?oae e io/oaeaeaiea /aeiaaea io aai ?acoeueoaoia, ii e nicaeano oneiaey
aeey ananoi?iiiaai ?acaeoey ee/iinoe.

6. Aeiia?enianeea iuneeoaee iieaaaee, /oi CAAeA*A OEEINIOEE naiaeeony e
iauyniaieth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aa iiciaieth. Aeeaeaeoe/aneee
iaoa?eaeeci oaeaeae naia i?aaeiacia/aiea ia oieueei a ea/anoaa iaoiaea
iiciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ii e aa ?AAIETHOeEIIIIAI ECIAIAIEss,
I?AIA?ACIAAIEss.

Eoae, aaaaeaiea i?eioeeia i?aeoeee a iiciaaaoaeueiue i?ioeann iicaieeei
Ia?eno e Yiaaeueno ?aoeoue aii?in i oiaeaeanoaa iuoeaiey e auoey,
niaaeeieoue oai?aoe/aneee e i?aeoe/aneee ?acoi, iino?ieoue “Iino”,
iaaeaeo yaeaieyie e “aauueth a naaa” e, oaeei ia?acii, ?ac?aoeoue n
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneeo iiceoeee iniiaiua i?iaeaiu iaiaoeeie eeanne/aneie
oeeinioee.

Aaaaeue-Oaea?aao-Ia?en – oaeiaa eeanne/aneay (?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay)
eeiey ?acaeoey aa?iiaeneie oeeinioee XIX a. Ae i?ioeainoiye
E??AOeEIIAEECI. Oaceno ?aoeeiiaeenoia i ?acoiiinoe ie?a e??aoeeiiaeenou
(A. Oiiaiaaoy?, N. Euea?eaai? e O. Ieoeoa) i?ioeaiiinoaaeee – e ia aac
iniiaaiee – i?ioeaiiieiaeiue: ie? ia?acoiai; /aeiaaeii oi?aaeyao ia
?acoi, a neaiay aiey, einoeieo, no?ao e io/ayiea.

Ia?aui i?ioea Aaaaey aunooiee A?OO? OIIAIAAOY? (1788-1860), iaeaieaa
nenoaiaoe/anee eceiaeeaoee naie acaeyaeu a aieueoii oeeinioneii
ni/eiaiee “Ie? eae aiey e i?aaenoaaeaiea” (1819-1844). Iniiaiiieaaathuei
ia/aeii ie?icaeaiey, ii aai iiaieth, yaeyaony neaiay, aanniciaoaeueiay
neea – AIEss E AEECIE. Iia aanniuneaiia iioiio, /oi eaaeaeue ec ian
ia?a/ai ia nia?oue, a iiiaea – ia noa?inoue, aieaciue e no?aaeaiea.

Iaeiaei eiaiii aiey e aeecie caa?ineea ian a /oaeaeue, a?aaeaeaaiue iai
ie?, niaeaciea iaiai/eauie, i?ec?a/iuie i?eiaieaie (ia?aay ec ieo –
naenoaeueiia ianeaaeaeaiea, einoeieo i?iaeieaeaiey ?iaea). Ca niaeaciu
iaaei ieaoeoue, e /aeiaae anth aeeciue ieaoeo “ii aaenaeth”,
iiaeienaiiiio aai iooeii a ii?uaa neaaeino?anoey. Ooo oae ia aei
iioeiecia. “Iioeieci, – caeeth/aao Oiiaiaaoy?, – naiay aacaeaeinoiay
ecaeaaea iaae /aeiaa/anoaii”.

Ec yoie neooaoeee Oiiaiaaoy? i?aaeeaaaao /aeiaaeo oieueei iaeei auoiae –
iiaaneoue a naaa aieth e aeecie.

“Aioe-Aaaaeai” iacuaaee nia?aiaiieee e ae?oaiai e?oiiaeoaai
iuneeoaey-e??aoeeiiaeenoa ia?aie iieiaeiu XIX a. – aeaoneiai oeeinioa e
oaieiaa NA?AIA EUeA?EAAI?A (1813-1855), i?aaeoanoaaiieea nia?aiaiiiai
YECENOAIOeEAEECIA (io o?aioe. yecenoaioeey – nouanoaiaaiea).

Oaia nia?oe e no?aaeaiey, aeaaiie a yecenoaioeeaeecia, aeaoneee oeeinio
i?eaeae iniaoth au?aceoaeueiinoue e oiiaeueiinoue. Ii enneaaeiaae
aioo?aiiee, aeoaeiiue ie? /aeiaaea, ieacaaoaainy ia?aae eeoeii nia?oe a
ninoiyiee iaaeeaiiiai, io/eoaeueiiai oie?aiey (eo/oa anyeeo neia ia yoii
aiai?eo aanueia e?anii?a/eaia iacaaiea aai eieae – “No?ao e o?aiao” –
1843).

Aeaeeii, nianai ia neo/aeii Euea?eaai? ia aini?eieiae aaaaeaaneee
niieieiue e ?annoaeeoaeueiue “iauaeoeaeci”. Ianinoiyoaeueiinoue
?aoeeiiaeecia ii aeaeae a oii, /oi aeey iaai enoeiii oieueei iauaa,
au?aaeaiiia a iiiyoeyo e neeeiaeciao (io a?a/. neeeiaeniin – eiae/aneia
oiicaeeth/aiea, a eioi?ii ec aeaoo aeaiiuo noaeaeaiee – iinueie –
iieo/aaony o?aouea – auaiae), aaea aaeeie/iiio ii/oe ia iaoiaeeeinue
ianoa. Ii eiaiii a aaeeie/iii, neo/aeiii ii aeaeae aaneiia/ioth
oeaiiinoue, n iei naycuaae aunooth, o.a. aeeciaiioth enoeio. A
iiaeaaeaiee aaeeie/iiai iauei Euea?eaai? oniao?eaae aeaa?aaeaoeeth e
o?enoeaineie ?aeeaee, e anae eoeueoo?u.

A ?aoeeiiaeecia, a iiiuoea onoaiiaeoue ainiiaenoai eioaeeaeoa iaae
aeeciueth aeaeae ?aa?ann iauanoaa e O?EAe?EO IEOeOA (1844-1900). Eae e
Oiiaiaaoy?, ii aiai?ee i ie?iaie aiea – iniiaa anaai nouaai. Ii yoi oaea
ia aiey e aeecie, a AIEss E AEANOE.

Neaiay, aacio/aoiay aiaey e aeanoe ooaa?aeaeaao a ie?a aeanoue neeueiuo
iaae neaauie. Yoi e anoue anoanoaaiiue ii?yaeie aauae. I?ioeaeoueny
oaeie aeanoe – e ouaoii, e i?ioeaianoanoaaiii.

Naith oeeinioeth Ieoeoa ?anniao?eaae eae ia?aioeaieo oeaiiinoae.
Iiaeiaiay ia?aioeaiea i?aaeaea anaai eanaeanue eaeaieiaee e ii?aee
o?enoeainoaa, eioi?ua oeeinio ioaa?aae eae eaeaieiaeth e ii?aeue
“?aaia”. Nai Ieoeoa, aaconeiaii, n/eoae naay a?enoie?aoii, ethaee e
oeaiee ana a?enoie?aoe/aneia.

A naieo iiiai/eneaiiuo eieaao (“Aanaeay iaoea” – 1882, “Oae aiai?ee
3a?aoono?a” – 1883-84 e ae?.) Ieoeoa aa?uee?iaae iaeio iuneue:
i?aaiciinee aei iaaan aeeciaiiue einoeieo, a?enoie?aoe/aneoth eoeueoo?o
e “aeeiienaeneia” (au?aaeathuaa aoenoai aeecie) eneonnoai e oaeaea
?aoeoaeueii ioaa?aae iaoeo, ii?aeue, ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiciaiea. Neiaii,
ana, /oi, ii aai iiaieth, iia?oaeyao e ineaaeyao aeeciaiiue ii?ua,
eneaaeaao aai ia?aicaeaiioth nouiinoue.

Naiei aioeiiaeii Ieoeoa n/eoae Nie?aoa, iacuaay aai “oai?aoe/aneei
/aeiaaeii”, nithcieeaie – ae?aaieo e iiauo ieoioai?oeaa, eioi?ua iieneo
ioaea/aiiie enoeiu i?aaeii/ee ionoue e iaiai/eaoth, ii iueyiyuoth,
aeaeaiioth eeethceth. Eai ana, /oi no?aieony e aeecie, ia iiaeao
iaieoenue aac eeethcee. Ni?aaaaeeeainoue i?e yoii nianai ia ioaeia, oae
eae aeeciue iani?aaaaeeeaa ii naiaio nouanoao.

Naia ioiioaiea e aeaiie?aoee Ieoeoa auneacae oae: “E aeueyaieo iannu, a
caiaeii e noaoenoeeo!”

Eoeueo Ieoeoa – yoi eoeueo “eo/oeo” e “eca?aiiuo” (eoeueo
“naa?o/aeiaaea”).

E eiioeo noieaoey, iinea ?aaiethoeee 1848-49 e 1871 aa., Aa?iia
iaiaaeieai noaaeeeciaaeanue. A oeeinioee yoi i?iyaeeinue a nieaeaiee
iauaai o?iaiy oai?/anoaa, a ionoonoaee iiauo eaeae, a ?ani?ino?aiaiee
yieaiinoaa (iaieaioeainoai, iaiaaaaeueyinoai e o.ae.). Oi auei
eaaeouaany caoeouea. I?eaeeaeaeny XX aae – aae aaee/aeoeo iio?ynaiee,
ie?iauo aiei e ?aaiethoeee.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: O/aaiee aeey aocia… *.1… N. 169-191.

2. Aoeuaa A. A. Iaiaoeeay eeanne/aneay oeeinioey. – I., 1986. N. 5-105,
121-146, 166-304.

3. Enoi?ey oeeinioee a e?aoeii eceiaeaiee… N. 456-563.

4. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Oeeinioey”… N. 52-60, 78-79.

5. ?aaeoaei A. A. Oeeinioey: Eo?n eaeoeee… N. 136-175.

6. Nie?eei A. A. Iniiau oeeinioee: O/aaiia iiniaea aeey aocia… N.
60-65.

7. Oeeinioneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue… N. 103-104, 242-243,
257, 342-344, 716-717, 740-741, 779-780, 797-780.

8. Oeeinioey. E?aoeia o/aaiia iiniaea… N. 57-63.

9. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. –
?inoia-ia-Aeiio… N. 85-86.

10. Yiaaeuen O. Ethaeaea Oaea?aao e eiiaoe eeanne/aneie iaiaoeeie
oeeinioee. – A ei.: Ia?en E., Yiaaeuen O. Eca?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey. A 3
o. O. 3. – I., 1981. N. 373-415.

1. Oaia VIII. NIA?AIAIIAss IAIA?ENENONEAss CAIAAeIIAA?IIAENEAss
-OEEINIOEss

1. Iniaaiiinoe nia?aiaiiie iaia?enenoneie caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie oeeinioee.

2. “Oeeinioey iaoee” eae oa/aiea nia?aiaiiie oeeinioneie iunee
(noeeaioeci).

3. Yecenoaioeeaeeci-oeeinioey nouanoaiaaiey (aioenoeeaioeci).

Iniaaiiinoe nia?aiaiiie iaia?enenoneie caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie oeeinioee.

Nia?aiaiiay caiaaeiay oeeinioey, a ioee/ea io “eeanne/aneiai” yoaia,
eiaao ?yae naieo iniaaiiinoae:

1. Aeey iaa i?aaeaea anaai oa?aeoa?ai NOeEAIOECI (io eao. noeeaioea –
iaoea) – i?aaenoaaeaiea i iao/iii, iniaaiii anoanoaaiiiiao/iii ciaiee
eae i iaeaunoae eoeueoo?iie oeaiiinoe e aeinoaoi/iii oneiaee i?eaioaoeee
/aeiaaea a ie?a, i?iaaaeaiea aeaoo iaia?anaeathueony eeiee /aeiaa/aneiai
ciaiey – iao/iie e oeeinioneie. Iao/iay eeiey naiei eiia/iui i?iaeoeoii
eiaao “iao/ioth enoeio”, oeeinioneay – “oeeinioneoth i?aaaeo”. Ia yoie
ii/aa a eiioea XIX-XX a. aicieeee o.i. “oeeinioey iaoee”. (noeeaioeci)
e aa aioeiiae – i?aaeaea anaai yecenoaioeeaeeci – oeeinioey
nouanoaiaaiey (aioenoeeaioeci).

2. Aoi?ay iniaaiiinoue nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie oeeinioee -AIO?IIIEIAECI,
o.i. “IIAUE AOIAIECI”, eioi?ue iniciae ionoaaaiea eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey
/aeiaaea io yia?aaoe/aneeo e oaoie/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae iauanoaa e auoiae
oaeaeae a oi?ie?iaaiee iiauo /aeiaa/aneeo ea/anoa: aeiaaeueiinoue
iuoeaiey, ethaiaue e ni?aaaaeeeainoe, ioa?auaiea e ianeeeth. Ia neo/aeii
nia?aiaiiua iuneeoaee a oeaio? enoi?ee iinoaaeee /aeiaaea, a ia
aacee/iua neeu. I?e/ai n na?aaeeiu 50-o aiaeia i?iaeaiu aio?iiieiaee iie
?ac?aaaouaatho a ie?iaii ianooaaa (?eineee eeoa). Yoi iicaieeei ei
auaeaeiooue ?yae iiauo niaeuo eaeae:

· eaeay aeaaainoaa eco/aiey aeecie eiaeeaeaea iaae enneaaeiaaieai
/aeiaa/aneeo iauiinoae (eeannia, ia?iaeia, iaoeee, yoiinia e ae?.);

· aeaeaeaiea io eaeae ?acoiiiai e naiaiaeiiai /aeiaaea e eaeaa
/aeiaaea, eiathuaai ia oieueei ?acoi e niciaiea, ii e iiaeniciaiea,
eioi?ia aianoa n eiooeoeeae noaiiaeony oeaio?ii nia?aiaiiie
aio?iiieiaee;

· ?acoi e niciaiea ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea e (/oi aaaeiaa) iauanoaaiiia
niciaiea ia iiieiathony oaia?ue eae iacaaeneiua no?oeoo?u. Iai?ioea,
iauyaeyaony, /oi eie iaieioee?otho ?ac- ee/iua neeu ainoaea?noaa,
ia?oee, aaoi?eoaou e aeaaea e??aoeeiiaeueiua neeu – ianiiu, iaae, oaeiua
i?aeaia e ae?.

3. E, iaeiiaoe, o?aouey iniaaiiinoue nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie oeeinioee –
OE?IEIA ?ANI?INO?AIAIEA IIAeA?IECE?IAAIIUO E??AOeEIIAEUeII-IENOE*ANEEO
I?AAeNOAAEAIEE I IE?A, aica?ao e iniiaai ienoeei-?aeeaeiciie oeeinioee.
Yoi naycaii n aic?iaeaeaieai iaaee, ano?ieiaee, eco/aieai
“ia?aii?iaeueiuo” yaeaiee a ineoeea /aeiaaea e a i?e?iaea (yniiaeaeaiea,
aeooiaeaeaiea, oaeaiaoey, oaeaeeiac, iieoa?aaeno e i?iaeaiu IEI).

Iiaia aeaeaiea ie?a iniiaaii ia ienoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaieyo, iniauo
ninoiyieyo niciaiey (aia iauaeaiiinoe e ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe), iniaii ycuea,
iienuaathuai ?aaeueioth “caa?iaioth” aeeciue a niaoeeaeueiuo iiiyoeyo.
Ae?oaie aaaeiue iiiaio iiaiai acaeyaea iaia?oaeeaaaony a
i?eioeeieaeueiie “i?ea?aie/iinoe” aai n iaoeie e i?aeoeeie. Oai, aaea
i?aeoeea ia aeinoeaea oaa?aiiie ?aaoey?iinoe, iiaoi?yaiinoe, a iaoea ia
i?aaenoaaeyao aeinoiaa?iiai iauyniaiey, anaaaea iaoiaeeony ianoi aeey
iaaee, “ia?aii?iaeueiuo”) yaeaiee e o.i. Iineieueeo i?e?iaea
iaen/a?iaaia, oi iaoea e i?aeoeea anaaaea ia?aie/aiu. E,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iu anaaaea aoaeai noaeeeaaoueny n
e??aoeeiiaeueii-ienoe/aneei, iaae/aneei i?aaenoaaeaieai i ie?a.

Ecaanoiue aeeaae a e??aoeeiiaeueii-ienoe/aneoth ea?oeio ie?a aianei
INEOIAIAEEOE*ANEIA IAI?AAEAIEA a oeeinioee. Iii aicieeei eae aiieia
?aoeeiiaeueiia o/aiea ia iniaaiiinoyo ineoeee /aeiaaea, iauyniythuaa
aeoaeiu aai iiaeniciaiey, aeeyiea yiioeee, /oanoa, aia/aoeaiee ia
iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea e aai eoeueoo?o. Iaeiaei o/aiea iniiaaoaeae
ineoiaiaeeca C. O?aeaea, E. THiaa, A. A?ia?a eo iineaaeiaaoaee (A.
?aeo, Ea?ai Oi?ie e ae?.) enoieeiaaee a e??aoeeiiaeueii-ienoe/aneie
ieineinoe. Acya ca oi/eo ion/aoa eaeae ineoiaiaeeoeeia i a?iaeaeaiiinoe
e ianeaaenoaaiiinoe “ia?ae/iuo aea/aiee” /aeiaaea, naenoaeueiuo
eiiieaenia, iie caaiai?eee i i?eioeeieaeueiie iaiauynieiinoe
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ienoe/aneie nouiinoe naenoaeueiie naiaiaeu
e iaaaoeaiii ?acoia /aeiaa/anoaa, eneeth/athuai ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue.

Io iauae oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aoiaeei e iniiaiui oeeinioneei oa/aieyi e
oeieai nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie oeeinioee.

“Oeeinioey iaoee” eae oa/aiea nia?aiaiiie oeeinioneie iunee.

I?iaeaia iiciaiey yaeyaony neaiciie a enoi?ee oeeinioee. Iaeiaei a
?acee/iua yiioe iia eiaea naith niaoeeoeeo, ?anniao?eaaeanue oeeinioaie
ii-?aciiio. A nia?aiaiioth yiioo yoa i?iaeaia i?aaie/anee naycaia n
i?ioeannii ?acaeoey iao/ii-oaoie/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee.

Naii iacaaiea oeeaeeecaoeee aiai?eo i aaaeouae ?iee iaoee a aa
aicieeiiaaiee e noaiiaeaiee. Aannii?iua oniaoe anoanoaaiiuo e
iauanoaaiiuo iaoe i?eaaee e iaii?aaaeaiii caauoaiiui ioeaieai eo
aiciiaeiinoae, e eoeueoo iao/iiai iiciaiey. Iiiaei ethaeyi iaoaai
a?aiaie aa?a a iaoeo a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caiaieea aa?o a Aiaa. A iae, a
ia a ?aeeaee, eneaee e euoo iie ieii/aoaeueiua ioaaou ia ana ei?aiiua
aii?inu ono?ienoaa ie?a e /aeiaa/aneiai auoey.

Ia aieia i?aeeiiaiey ia?aae iiaui aiaeanoaii a oeeinioee noi?ie?iaaeinue
oa/aiea iiae iacaaieai “oeeinioey iaoee”, a ?aieao eioi?iai iiaeii
auaeaeeoue ?yae e?oiiuo oeie: iaieaioeainoai, iiceoeaeci, iaiiiceoeaeci
e ae?.

IAIEAIOEANOAI ca?iaeeeinue a 60-o aa. XIX a. a Aa?iaiee. Iee aai
iiioey?iinoe i?eoiaeeony ia eiiaoe XIX – ia/aei XX aa. Iaeiaei e ii nae
aeaiue iii aeiaieueii neeueii aeeyao ia anth aa?iiaeneoth oeeinioeth.

A iaieaioeainoaa io/aoeeai auaeaeeeenue aeaa oeeinioneea oeieu:
Ia?ao?aneay e Aaaeaineay (O?aeao?aneay). Oae iacuaaeenue oieaa?neoaoneea
oeaio?u, aaea ?aaioaee eo i?aaenoaaeoaee.

Ia?ao?aneay oeiea – Aa?iai Eiaai (1842-1918), Y?ino Eanne?a?
(1974-1945), Iaoeue Iaoi?i (1854-1924) – a iniiaiii ?ac?aaaouaaea
O?AINOeAIAeAIOAEUeIUE IAOIAe iiciaiey. Aa i?aaenoaaeoaee
“o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueii-eiae/anee” enoieeiauaaee o/aiea Eaioa.
Anaiauiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue iao/iiai ciaiey, ii eo iiaieth,
iauyniythony naii?acaa?ouaaieai ?acoia e ia caaenyo io iuouaiee e “aaue
a naaa”.

Ioeac io “aaue a naaa” eae enoi/ieea /oanoaaiiiai ciaiey icia/ae
/?acia?iia i?aoaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe iuoeaiey, aae e noauaeoeaecio. *oiau
i?aiaeieaoue aai, Ia?ao?aneay oeiea i?eaaaea e
iauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneei aeiiouaieyi: a ea/anoaa iauaeoeaiie iniiau
auoey, iuoeaiey e i?aanoaaiiinoe iauyaeyea Aiaa (Eiaai) eee Eiaina
(Iaoi?i).

AAAeAINEAss OEIEA – Aeeueaaeuei Aeiaeaeueaaiae (1848-1915), Aai?eo
?eeea?o (1863-1936) – ?anniao?eaaea iiciaiea eae ineoe/aneee i?ioeann,
o/aiea Eaioa enoieeiauaaea O?AINOeAIAeAIOAEUeII-INEOIEIAE*ANEE.
Iuneeoaee yoie oeieu a iniiaiii ?ac?aaaouaaee iaoiaeieiaeth iao/iiai
iiciaiey e niioaaonoaaiii yoiio ia?ainiuneeaaee ?ieue oeeinioee. Iie
ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi ANOANOAICIAIEA (iaoea i i?e?iaea) e IAUANOAICIAIEA
(iaoea i eoeueoo?a eee i “aeooa”) i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/athony. Ia?aua –
nooue iaoee i caeiiao, aoi?ua – iaoee i niauoeyo, ia?aua o/ao oiio, /oi
eiaao ianoi anaaaea, iineaaeiea oiio, /oi iaeiaaeaeu auei. Iao/iia
iuoeaiea a ia?aii neo/aa anoue caeiiiiieaaathuaa, ai aoi?ii –
iienuaathuaa, iniaaiiia. Enoiaeiui iiiaioii aeey iiaeiaiiai aeaeaiey
iaoe neoaeeo oaaaeaeaiea, /oi ie iaeia iaoea ia iiaeao aaeaeaaoii
ioia?aceoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Iaoee oieueei ii-?aciiio i?aia?acotho
aa.

Aiciiaeiinoue iaoee ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ?eeea?o aeaeae a aai
niioianaiee n oeaiiinoyie, eioi?ua o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiu, ai?ei?iu,
iauacia/eiu, o.a. i?aaenoaaeytho iacaaeneioth io noauaeoa ?aaeueiinoue.

Enoiaey ec eaioianeiai ?acee/aiey oai?aoe/aneiai e i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia,
aaaeaioeu ioaeaeeee iaoee io oeeinioee. Iaoee, ii eo iiaieth, iie?athony
ia oai?aoe/aneea noaeaeaiey e yiie?e/aneea aeaiiua i nouai. Oeeinioey
aea eco/aao ioiioaiea noauaeoa e oeaiiinoyi, ia?acothuei, eae oeacaii
auoa, naiinoiyoaeueiia oea?noai, o.i. “ie? o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai
niunea”. Oae, Aaaeaineay oeiea iieiaeeea ia/aei ?ac?aaioea iiaie
io?anee oeeinioneiai ciaiey – AENEIEIAEE.

Aaaeiia ianoi a ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeieiaee iao/iiai iiciaiey i?eiaaeeaaeeo
IICEOEAECIO. Iiiyoea “iiceoeaeci” – io eao. iiceoeaon – iieiaeeoaeueiue
– icia/aao i?ecua e oeeinioai ioeacaoueny io iaoaoece/aneeo aano?aeoeee
e ia?aoeoueny e enneaaeiaaieth iiceoeaiiai ciaiey.

Iiceoeaeci i?eciaao nouanoaiaaiea iaeie ?aaeueiinoe, eioi?ay
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaia /aeiaaeo. Iiiyoey “iiceoeaiia” e “aeaiiia”
oiaeaeanoaaiiu. Aeaiiia – yoi oi, /oi iiaeaeaaony i?iaa?ea yiie?e/aneeie
eee eiaeei-iaoaiaoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie. Iiaeiaiay i?iaa?ea aeieaeia
iineoue iauacia/eiue oa?aeoa?.

Iiceoeaeci aiciee a 30-40-o aa. XIX a. ai O?aioeee. Aai
?iaeiia/aeueieeii aue Iathno Eiio (1798-1857), eaeae eioi?iai a Aiaeee
caeinoaiaaee e ?acaeaaee Aa?aa?o Niaina? (1820-1903) e Aeaeii Notha?o
Ieeeue (1806-1873).

Iiceoeaeci aeaeeo naia i?aaeiacia/aiea a e?eoeea iaiao/iiai ciaiey,
iniiaiia ino?ea eioi?ie iai?aaeaii i?ioea oeeinioee. Enoi?ey “oyaeau”
oeeinioee n iaoeie, n/eoae Eiio, iieacaea, /oi anyeea iiiuoee
i?eniiniaeoue oeeinioneoth i?iaeaiaoeeo e aeooo iao/iinoe caaaaeiii
ia?a/aiu ia i?iaae. Iiyoiio neaaeoao ioeacaoueny io iaoaoeceee. Iaoea
aieueoa ia ioaeaeaaony a noiyuae iaae iae oeeinioeae. Iia aeieaeia
iie?aoueny naia ia naay.

Io?eoeay i?aaeithth “iaoaoece/aneoth” oeeinioeth, Eiio ia ioeacuaaeny io
oeeinioee eae oaeiaie. Ii iieaaae, /oi aeey aaeaeaaoiiai iiciaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ioaeaeueiuo /anoiuo iaoe iaaeinoaoi/ii. nouanoaoao
iauaeoeaiay iio?aaiinoue ?ac?aaioee iauaiao/iuo iaoiaeia iiciaiey, a
oaeaea ?ane?uoey nayce iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie iaoeaie, nicaeaiey nenoaiu
iao/iiai ciaiey. ?aoaiea yoeo caaea/ e yaeyaony i?a?iaaoeaie “iiaie”
oeeinioee. A aeey yoiai “noa?ay” oeeinioey aeieaeia auoue ei?aiiui
ia?acii ia?ainiuneaia, “i/euaia io anao iaoaoece/aneeo ia?aaeeoeia”.
Oaeei ia?acii, iiceoeaeci i?aoaiaeoao ia ?ieue “oeeinioee iaoee”.

Iao/iay ea?oeia ie?a, nicaeaiiay Eiioii, Niaina?ii, Ieeeai, iie?aeanue
ia i?eioeei iaoaienoe/aneiai enoieeiaaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. I?ia?ann
anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai ciaiey ia ?oaaaea XIX-XX aa., naycaiiue n ?acaeoeai
eaaioiaie oeceee, ?ac?ooee yoo ea?oeio. A oiaea enneaaeiaaiee auyaeeanue
caaeneiinoue ?acoeueoaoia iao/iuo iiuoia io i?eai?ia e i?aaiia /oanoa
/aeiaaea. Iiae aii?inii ieacaeanue yiie?e/aneay iaoiaeieiaey iao/iiai
iiciaiey. Yoi niinianoaiaaei iiyaeaieth aoi?ie noaaeee a ?acaeoee
iiceoeaecia – YIIE?EIE?EOEOeECIA (e?eoeea iiuoa) Y?inoa Iaoa (1838-1916)
e ?eoa?aea Aaaia?eona (1843-1896).

Aai i?aaenoaaeoaee, a ioee/ea io naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, ioeacaeenue io
iino?iaiey anaiauaiethuae nenoaiu iao/iiai ciaiey. Iie i?aaeeaaaee
ecuyoue ec iaoee oaeea “iaoaoece/aneea” iiiyoey, eae “noanoaioeey”,
“i?e/eiiinoue”, “iaoa?eaeueiia”, “eaeaaeueiia” e ae?. Iniiaioth caaea/o
oeeinioee yiie?eie?eoeee aeaeaee a nicaeaiee oai?ee iao/iiai ciaiey. Ia
i?aeoeea ?ac?aaioea oaeie oai?ee icia/aea aica?ao oeeinioee e
o?aaeeoeeiiiie aiinaieiae/aneie i?iaeaiaoeea a aeooa noauaeoeaiiai
eaeaaeecia Aeaei?aeaea Aa?eee e Aeyeaeaea THia.

O?aoee yoai a ?acaeoee iiceoeaecia – IAIIICEOEAECI – ia/aeny a 20-o aa.
XX a. Aai ?iaeiia/aeueieeaie auee aano?eeoeu oecee-oai?aoee Ii?eoe Oeee
(1882-1930), oeeinio, eiaee e iaoaiaoee Ethaeaea Aeaeaaiooaei
(1889-1970), a oaeaea iaiaoeeee oeeinio e eiaee ?oaeieueo Ea?iai
(1891-1970), aiaeeeneee oeeinio, eiaee e iaoaiaoee Aa?o?ai ?annae
(1872-1970) e ae?.

Iaiiiceoeaenou, eae e eo i?aaeoanoaaiieee, ai?ueao ca “iiaeeeiioth
oeeinioeth” ia/aee n e?eoeee iaoaoeceee. Iie oi?aeaee o?aaeeoeeiiioth
oeeinioeth a iayniinoe noaeaeaiee, a eceeoiae oneiaeiaiiinoe ycuea, a
iia?e?iaaiee iieoienoe/aneeie iiiyoeyie oeia “/enoue ?acoi”,
“aaniethoiay eaeay” e o.ae. E oeeinioee, ii eo iiaieth, iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeuyaeoue oa aea no?iaea o?aaiaaiey, /oi e e nia?aiaiiui
anoanoaiciaieth e iaoaiaoeea. Iia aeieaeia auoue ei?aiiui ia?acii
ia?ainiuneaia.

Iaiiiceoeaeci iaiaeii?iaeai: eae oeeinioneia oa/aiea ii ninoieo ec ?yaea
oeie. Enoi?e/anee ia?aie e iniiaiie aai aa?eaio – EIAE*ANEEE IICEOEAECI.
Aai i?aaenoaaeoaee enoiaeyo ec i?aaeiinueee, /oi oeeinioey aiiaua ia
eiaao i?aaeiaoa enneaaeiaaiey, iioiio /oi iia ia yaeyaony iaoeie i
eaeie-oi ?aaeueiinoe, a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?iae aeayoaeueiinoe, iniaue
niinia oai?aoece?iaaiey. Aeaaiay aa caaea/a – caieiaoueny ia iaoeie, a
eiae/aneei aiaeecii iao/iuo auneacuaaiee e iaiauaiee, i?iaa?eie yoeo
auneacuaaiee ia niioaaonoaea eo iiuoo /aeiaaea, iiceoeaiiio aeaiiiio,
o.a. enoeia.

A ea/anoaa e?eoa?ey iao/iinoe eiae/aneee iiceoeaeci auaeaeioe
“aa?eoeeaoeeiiioth eiioeaioeeth ciaiey” eee I?EIOeEI AA?EOEEAOeEE (io
eao. aa?eoan – enoeia) auneacuaaiee. Niaeanii yoiio i?eioeeio, ethaia
auneacuaaiea a iaoea iiaeeaaeeo iiuoiie i?iaa?ea ia enoeiiinoue. Iao/iue
niune eiatho oieueei oa auneacuaaiey, eioi?ua, a eiia/iii n/aoa, iiaeii
caoeene?iaaoue a iaiin?aaenoaaiiii, /oanoaaiiii iiuoa eiaeeaeaea.

Iaeiaei enneaaeiaaoaee aeiaieueii nei?i iaia?oaeeee, /oi iiiaea
auneacuaaiey, iniaaiii eiathuea oe?ieee, iaiauathuee oa?aeoa?,
iaaiciiaeii naanoe e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio iiuoo. Eiae/aneee iiceoeaeci
anoae ia?aae aeeeaiiie: eeai eneeth/eoue yoe auneacuaaiey ec iaoee, eeai
ii-iiaiio enoieeiaaoue i?eioeei aa?eoeeaoeee. Aai i?aaenoaaeoaee iioee
ii aoi?iio iooe. Iie cayaeee, /oi yiie?e/aneie i?iaa?ea iiaeeaaeao
oieueei /anoiua auneacuaaiey. A inoaeueiuo aea neo/ayo iia aeieaeia
iiae?acoiaaaoueny oieueei i?eioeeieaeueii, o.a. o/aiui neaaeoao ciaoue i
oii, /oi aa?eoeeaoeee anaaaea eiae/anee aiciiaeia, iuneeia ii ioiioaieth
ei anai auneacuaaieyi.

Niiiaiey a o/aiee iaiiiceoeaecia aucuaaee ia oieueei aioo?aiiea
o?oaeiinoe i?ioeanna aa?eoeeaoeee. Aai e?eoeee anei?a aanueia
a?aoiaioe?iaaiii iieacaee, /oi auaeaeiooue eiae/aneeie iiceoeaenoaie
i?eioeei nai iaaa?eoeoee?oai e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, yaeyaony auneacuaaieai,
ia eiathuei niunea, o.a. ioiinyueiny e e ?ac?yaeo iaoaoece/aneeo. Oae
iaia?oaeeeanue aeoaieay aioo?aiiyy i?ioeai?a/eainoue enoiaeiuo onoaiiaie
iaiiiceoeaecia, naiie iao/iie oai?ee. Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi iaoea ia
iiaeao ?acaeaaoueny oieueei ia iniiaa iiuoa. Ia iaiueoaa cia/aiea aeey
iaa eiaao oai?/aneia, eiino?oeoeaiia iuoeaiea. Yoi iuoeaiea iiaeieiaaony
iaae iiuoii e nicaeaao iiaue ?acoeueoao, eioi?ue iai?yioth ia
niaea?aeeony a yiie?e/aneeo aeaiiuo.

Eiino?oeoeaiay, ni?aaaaeeeaay e?eoeea iiaei?aaea aeeyiea iaiiiceoeaecia
a “oeeinioee iaoee”. Iaeiaei oneeey aai ia auee aanieiaeiu aeey iaoee e
oeeinioee. Ioiaeaeanoaeaiea oi?i ycuea e Oi?i eiaeee ioe?uaaei iiaua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey eiiieaeniiai, a /anoiinoe, aeey
eiaeei-eeiaaenoe/aneiai aiaeeca ciaiey, nicaeaaaei i?aaeiinueee
oi?iaeecaoeee ia?iiiie iaeanoe aoiaieoa?iiai ciaiey, i?iieeiiaaiey a iaa
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia e aiia?aoa.

Yecenoaioeeaeeci – oeeinioey nouanoaiaaiey (aioenieaioeci).

Iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo e aeeyoaeueiuo oa/aiee nia?aiaiiie oeeinioee
yaeyaony yecenoaioeeaeeci (oeeinioey nouanoaiaaiey). Ii i?aaenoaaeai
iiiai/eneaiiuie o/aieyie e oeieaie. Aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie
?iaeiia/aeueieeaie yaeythony iaiaoeeea oeeiniou Ia?oei Oaeaeaaaa?, Ea?e
ssnia?n (1883-1969), o?aioeocneea oeeiniou e ienaoaee AEai Iieue Na?o?
(1905-1980), Aaa?eyeue Ia?naeue (1889-1973), Aeueaa? Eaith (1913-1960).

Yecenoaioeeaeeci noi?ie?iaaeny a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia a ia?eiae iaaeaeo
aeaoiy aieiaie e oa?aeoa?ecoaony a ioa/anoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a eae
oeeinioneia au?aaeaiea aeoaieeo iio?ynaiee, iinoeaoeo
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneoth oeeaeeecaoeeth a nia?aiaiioth yiioo. Aai
i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aoeoaeueii ioaa?aatho ethaua iiiuoee i?aa?aoeoue
/aeiaaea a iineooiue eino?oiaio iiciaiey eee i?iecaiaenoaa, iauyaeytho,
/oi iaoea /oaeaea e a?aaeaeaaia aio (aioenoeeaioeci). *aeiaae, ii eo
iiaieth, ia iauaeo, a noauaeo, naiaiaeiia, naiiaeayoaeueiia,
ioaaonoaaiiia auoea. Iniiaiie aeaaec yoie oeeinioee: “*aeiaae,
i?iaoaeenue!”, o.a. caeie aeoeaioth aeeciaiioth iiceoeeth.

Yecenoaioeeaeenou ooaa?aeaeatho: /aeiaae ia ii?aaeaeyaony ie i?e?iaeie,
ie iauanoaii, ie nianoaaiiie nouiinoueth, eai oaeiaie ia nouanoaoao.
Cia/aiea eiaao oieueei aai nouanoaiaaiea (ia o?aioeocneii ycuea yoi
neiai cao/eo eae yecenoaioeey, ionthaea e iacaaiea oeeinioneiai
oa/aiey). Iniiaiay onoaiiaea yecenoaioeeaeecia, ii neiaai Na?o?a, –
NOUANOAIAAIEA I?AAeOANOAOAO NOUIINOE. Yoi icia/aao, /oi /aeiaae nia/aea
iiyaeyaony a ie?a, aeaenoaoao, nouanoaoao, a iioii oae ii?aaeaeyaony eae
ee/iinoue.

Niaeanii yecenoaioeeaeecio, /aeiaae – yoi a?aiaiiia, eiia/iia nouanoai,
i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiia e nia?oe. A iioiio ii ia aeieaeai oaaaaoue io
niciaiey naiae nia?oiinoe, auniei oeaieoue ana oi, /oi iaiiieiaao aio i
noaoiinoe aai i?aeoe/aneeo ia/eiaiee. Yoio iioea y?ei au?aaeai a
yecenoaioeeaeenoneii o/aiee i “IIA?AIE*IUO NEOOAOeEssO” – i?aaeaeueiuo
aeeciaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, a eioi?ua iinoiyiii iiiaaeaao /aeiaae. A
aeaaiay “iia?aie/iay neooaoeey” – yoi neooaoeey ia?aae eeoeii nia?oe.

“Iia?aie/iua neooaoeee” noaayo /aeiaaea ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth AUAI?A.
Ii iinoiyiii aeieaeai auae?aoue oo aeee eioth oi?io naiaai iiaaaeaiey,
i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia oa eee eiua oeaiiinoe e eaeaaeu.

Niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea auae?aoue, oai?eoue naiiai naay e ii naiaio
iiaeiaeth ae?oaeo ethaeae yaeyaony, ii iiaieth yecenoaioeeaeenoia,
neaaenoaeai ooiaeaiaioaeueiie ioee/eoaeueiie /a?ou /aeiaa/aneiai
nouanoaiaaiey – aai NAIAIAeU. Iie iiae/a?eeaatho, /oi /aeiaae niaa?oaiii
naiaiaeai.

I?iaeaia naiaiaeu o yecenoaioeeaeenoia eiaao neeueioth iiceoeaioth
noi?iio, eioi?ay caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae
iai?aaeytho aeaaiui ia?acii ia aiaoiea ianoiyoaeuenoaa, a aioo?aiiea
iiaoaeaeaiey. Iie iaeaaeatho iaia?aie/aiiie naiaiaeie a ii?aaeaeaiee
oeaeae naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, A AUAI?A N?AAeNOA aeey eo aeinoeaeaiey. Ooo
oae io eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea i/aiue iiiaia caaeneo, e, aeaeeii, ia
neaaeoao, i?e iaaaoeaiii ?acaeoee niauoee, nnueaoueny ia eaeea-oi iniaua
“ianoiyoaeuenoaa”.

Neaainoue aea, oycaeiinoue yecenoaioeeaeenoneiai iiaeoiaea e i?iaeaia
naiaiaeu iaia?oaeeaaaony a iaoiaiee eee iaaeaeaiee oaycaoue noauaeoeaiua
oeaee ethaeae n aiaoieie enoi?e/aneeie aeaoa?ieiaioaie, o.a. n oai
oaeoii, /oi eaaeaeue /aeiaae, ?iaeaeaynue ia naao, canoaao oaea
onoaiiaeaoeeny ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie
eoeueoo?u, neiaeeaoothny nenoaio nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia e o.ae. Ii
iauaeoeaii aeeth/ai a yoi “aioiaaiueeia”, e aio i?eoiaeeony
aeaenoaiaaoue a oao ?aieao, eioi?ua iii aeeeooao.

Ni naiaiaeie i?aaie/anee naycaia e IOAAONOAAIIINOUe /aeiaaea. Aac
naiaiaeu iao e ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Anee /aeiaae ia naiaiaeai, ia?aie/ai
eaeeie-eeai iaoa?eaeueiuie eee aeooiaiuie oaeoi?aie, oi ii ia ioaa/aao
ca naie aeaenoaey. Ii anee /aeiaae iinooiaao naiaiaeii, ii a ioaaoa e ca
iineaaenoaey naieo aeaenoaee.

O/aiea yecenoaioeeaeenoia iineo y?ei au?aaeaiiue i?aanoaaiii-yoe/aneee
oa?aeoa?, iiaeeecoao ethaeae ia oi?ie?iaaiea eo aeoeaiie aeeciaiiie
iiceoeee. Oae, a o?oaeiua a?aiaia aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu iii iiaeieiaei
ia?iaeu Aa?iiu ia iai?eie?eioth ai?ueao n oaoeciii, ia i?ioeainoiyiea
oioaeeoa?enoneie eaeaieiaee.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aioieiaey ie?iaie oeeinioee. A 4 o…

2. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth… *.1… AE. IV, ?acae. 1-6.

3. ?aaeoaei A. A. Oeeinioey: Eo?n eaeoeee…

4. Nia?aiaiiay caiaaeiay oeeinioey.

5. Neiaa?ue. I., 1991. Oeeinioneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue…

6. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aocia. ?inoia-i/Ae…

1. Oaia IX. ?ONNEAss OEEINIOEss

1. Iniaaiiinoe e ia?eiaeecaoeey ?onneie oeeinioee.

2. N. Nieiaueaa – iniiaiiieiaeiee iiaiai ?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey.

3. “Oeeinioey iauaai aeaea” I. O. Oaaei?iaa.

Iniaaiiinoe e ia?eiaeecaoeey ?onneie oeeinioee.

?acaeoea ie?iaie oeeinioee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeiue i?ioeann,
caeiiiia?iinoe eioi?iai ii?aaeaeythony oiaeii enoi?ee e naycaiu n
auyaeaieai ana iiauo e iiauo i?iaeai, o?aaothueo oeeinioneiai
iniuneaiey. Enoi?ey oeeinioee a yoii niunea oaeaea iaeaaeaao
nouanoaaiiie iaiaeii?iaeiinoueth. Ionthaea – iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiey niaoeeoe/aneeo /a?o oie eee eiie iaoeeiiaeueiie oeeinioneie
oeieu. Iniaia cia/aiea yoa i?iaeaia eiaao aeey ?innee, iioiio /oi aa
enoi?e/aneia e eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea anaaaea ioee/aeinue nouanoaaiiie
iai?aaeneacoaiinoueth, ia oeeaaeuaaeinue a o?aaeeoeeiiiua noaiu e
ia?acoeu: i/aiue /anoi aeieaea ia?eiaeu oiaaeea e canoiy a aa enoi?ee
niaiyeenue ia?eiaeaie yeiiiie/aneiai, iieeoe/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai
?anoeaaoa. Yoi, aaconeiaii, io?aaeaeinue e ia ?acaeoee oeeinioee.

Iaeiaei n /aai ia/aoue ii?aaeaeaiea yoeo iniaaiiinoae? Ia/aoue,
i/aaeaeii, neaaeoao n ioaaoa ia aii?in i oii, eae ?onneay oeeinioey
niioiineony n caiaaeiie e ainoi/iie o?aaeeoeeyie aioo?e ie?iaie
oeeinioee. Iauee ioaao a aeaiiii neo/aa i/aaeaeai: ?onneay oeeinioey,
aaconeiaii, aienuaaaony a caiaaeioth oeeinioneoth o?aaeeoeeth, e ana aa
?acaeoea naycaii n aeoeaiui onaiaieai e ia?a?aaioeie caiaaeiie oeeinioee
(/oi, eiia/ii ia eneeth/aao acaeiiaeeyiey, acaeiiiaiaauaiey). Ainoi/iay
oeeinioey ai?acaei iaiueoa, /ai caiaaeiay, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
aicaeaenoaiaaea ia ?onneoth iuneue. Aa aeeyiea a iniiaiii naiaeeeinue e
yieciaee/aneiio caeinoaiaaieth ioaeaeueiuo eaeae. Iaeaieaa ioioii
?onneea oeeiniou aini?eieiaee i?aaeaeueiue ienoeoeeci iaeioi?uo
ainoi/iuo nenoai, ii aeey ieo niaa?oaiii iai?eaieaiui auei io?eoeaiea
cia/eiinoe ee/iiai ia/aea a /aeiaaea, aai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe. Oieueei a
ia/aea XX a. oaea/aiea ainoi/iie eoeueoo?ie nii?iaiaeaeaeinue
oi?ie?iaaieai oeeinioneeo eiioeaioeee, anaoeaei i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia
ainoi/iua ienoe/aneea nenoaiu (A. Aeaaaoneay, I. ?a?eo).

Yoio iauee ioaao ian ia iiaeao oaeiaeaoai?eoue. *oiau iiiyoue naiia
aeaaiia, iu aeieaeiu naeaeaoue aoi?ie oaa: onoaiiaeoue na?ueaciua,
aeoaieea ?acee/ey iaaeaeo o?aaeeoeeyie caiaaeiiai e ?onneiai
oeeinionoaiaaiey. Ii-oi e iicaieeo iai a iauai aeaea noi?ioee?iaaoue
iniiaiua oa?aeoa?iua i?eciaee iaoae iaoeeiiaeueiie oeeinioee:

1. Ia?aie e aeaaiie iniaaiiinoueth ?onneie oeeinioee yaeyaony
I?AEIOUANOAAIII ?AEEAEICIUE, A IIAe*AN ?AEEAEICII-IENOE*ANEEE,
?AEEAEICII-NEIAIEE*ANEEE AA OA?AEOA?, o.a. AeEEOAEUeIIA AINIIAeNOAI A
IAE ?AEEAEICIUO OI?I NICIAIEss, IINOIssIIUE IIENE NIUNEA E CIA*AIEss
O?ENOEAINEEO EAeAE AeEss IOAeAEUeIIAI *AEIAAEA, IAUANOAA E EOEUeOO?U.
Yoiio niinianoaiaae ?yae i?e/ei:

Ai-ia?auo, i?eaioaoeey ia caiaaeioth eoeueoo?o ?aoeoaeueii
ii?aaeaeeeanue oieueei n i?eiyoeai ?onueth o?enoeainoaa. Iiyoiio ?onneay
oeeinioey, a ioee/ea io caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie, ia eiaea aeio?enoeaineiai
ia?eiaea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iiaea iia?aoueny ia eoeueoo?iia
ianeaaeea aioe/iinoe. Ia oniaa neiaeeoueny a ycu/aneeo oi?iao, iia n?aco
aea ieacaeanue a ieaio aiaineiaey.

Ai-aoi?uo, o?enoeainoai ia ?onue i?eoei ec Aecaioee a aai ainoi/iii
aa?eaioa, a oi?ia i?aaineaaey. A yoii aeoa i?iyaeeinue no?aieaiea
nio?aieoue ii?aaeaeaiioth aeenoaioeeth a ioiioaiee eoeueoo?iie e
?aeeaeiciie o?aaeeoeee, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Ia neaaeoao
caauaaoue e i oii, /oi a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo noieaoee ?inneth io
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai ioai?aaeeaaea ?aeeaeiciay iaoa?ieiinoue
iaaeaeo caiaaeiie e ainoi/iie oea?eaaie. Oaeoaeaieth ?aciinoi?iiieo
naycae n Caiaaeii iaoaee oaeaea ii/oe 300-eaoiaa oaoa?i-iiiaieueneia
eai, aai iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?onneay iuneue aieioue aei XVII a. ?acaeaaeanue caieiooi,
anee ia n/eoaoue a?oae/aneiai aeeyiey aoiineeo ( io Aoiia – “Nayoie
ai?u” ia n.-a. A?aoeee, oeaio?a i?aaineaaiiai iiiaoanoaa) iiiaoia.
Aeaaea aiaineianeay noieanoeea a ?inneeneea aeooiaiua o/aaiua caaaaeaiey
i?iieeea oieueei a XVII a., eiaaea Caiaae oaea ?aniieaaae iieiie?iaiuie
oeeinioneeie nenoaiaie. A ?innee, a ioee/ea io ia?aaeiauo aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai, aicieeiiaaiea naaoneie eoeueoo?u, anoanoaiciaiey e oeeinioee,
naiaiaeiie io ?aeeaee, caiicaeaei ia 200-300 eao. Iaeiaei ?aeeaeiciua
oi?iu niciaiey aeaaaee i naaa ciaoue e a iineaaeothuaa ca XI-XVII aa.
a?aiy, ai anyeii neo/aa ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai XVIII a.

A-o?aoueeo, aeinoaoi/ii iicaeiaa aiaae?aiea i?aaineaaey ia ?one e
iaiau/iue niinia aai i?eiyoey (“naa?oo”) i?aiyonoaiaaee iaeiicia/iiio
ainiiaenoao o?enoeaineeo eaeae. A i?ioeanna onaiaiey iie i?e/oaeeeai
niaaeeieeenue n aeoaiei oei?aieaoeieny e naiiauoiuie ycu/aneeie
aa?iaaieyie ae?aaieo neaayi, oa anoue nouanoaaiii iiaeeoeoee?iaaeenue
(yoi iniaaiii oa?aeoa?ii auei aeey iaiiaeeiio?ieueiuo oea?eae noa?
eoeueoo?u, i?aaineaaea eneeth/aei nouanoaiaaiea ae?oaeo aicc?aiee).

2. Aoi?ay oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa ?onneie oeeinioee: I?AAeAEUeIUE AeOAEECI,
AIOEIIIECI (aioeiiiey – i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo aeaoiy acaeiieneeth/athueie
iieiaeaieyie, iaeeiaeiai oaaaeeoaeueii aeieacoaiuie eiae/aneei iooai) A
IIIEIAIEE IE?A, *AEIAAEA E ENOI?EE eae neaaenoaea iai?aiaeieaiiiai aei
eiioea i?ioeainoiyiey ycu/aneeo e o?enoeaineeo enoieia ?onneie
eoeueoo?u. Ae?aaiaa ycu/aneia ainoeuaiea i?e?iaeie, i?eaycaiiinoue e
oaeo/aio iaoa?eaeueiiio auoeth niaaeeieeenue n o?enoeaineei iuouaieai
?aaeueiinoe eiiai, aunoaai ie?a, n aeaeaieai iaiaaeeaiiiai e
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aaeeiaiey n iei. Aeaeeii, yoei iauyniythony
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua ono?aieaiey a ?onneii aeooiaiii oa?aeoa?a: ethaiaaiea
i?e?iaeiui ie?ii, i?aaeaeueii /ooeia ioiioaiea e iaio e iaeiia?aiaiii
“i?ic?aiea” aunoae, aiaeanoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoe, ii?aaeaeythuae iiaeeeiiia
a /aeiaaea e aai aeecie.

Ia/oi iiaeiaiia iaaethaeaeinue e a iiieiaiee /aeiaaea. ?onneee /aeiaae,
n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?eiaaeeaaeeo a?aiaiiiio,
iaoa?eaeueiiio auoeth, n ae?oaie, noieue aea iaiin?aaenoaaiii, eioeiii
naycai n Aiaii, o.a. oei?aiai a aa/iii, aeooiaiii auoee.

Yoa aea /a?oa oa?aeoa?ecoao e aini?eyoea enoi?ee a ?onneie oeeinioee.
Enoi?ey a iae iniciaaony ia oieueei a aa yiie?e/aneii, c?eiii aiieiuaiee
eae i?ioeann ananoi?iiiaai iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, ii e a aa
ienoe/aneii, aiaeanoaaiiii ecia?aiee eae ?aaeecaoeey iaeiaai
aiaeanoaaiiiai caiunea.

I?e/ai, iniciaiea i?ioeai?a/ee, oei?aiaiiuo a ie?a, /aeiaaea e enoi?ee,
ia i?eaiaeeo e eo ?ac?aoaieth eee oioy au e naeaaeeaaieth, a oieueei
aieaa ino?i auyaeyao o?aaeci /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey. I?ioeai?a/ea a
?onneie oeeinioee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aini?eieiaaony eae aaniethoiia, ia
niiniaiia e aa?iiie/aneiio ?ac?aoaieth, “niyoeth”. Oaeiaa iniaaiiinoue
aa aeeaeaeoeee.

3. A ea/anoaa o?aoueae ioee/eoaeueiie /a?ou ?onneie oeeinioee
iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue NIAOeEOEEO NAIIAI NOEEss OEEINIONOAIAAIEss. a
caiaaeiie oeeinioee n XVII a. ainiiaenoaothuei noae /enoi
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneee, “iao/iue” iaoiae eceiaeaiey, aeinoeaoee aiioaica o
i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaiaoeeie eeanne/aneie oeeinioee. A ?onneie oeeinioee
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneee iaoiae ieeiaaea ia aue iniiaiui, aieaa oiai, aeey
iiiaeo iuneeoaeae ii i?aaenoaaeyeny eiaeiui, ia aeathuei aiciiaeiinoe
aeieoe aei nooe aeaaiuo oeeinioneeo i?iaeai. A iae, a niioaaonoaee n
?onneei aeooiaiui oa?aeoa?ii, aaaeouei ieacaeny yiioeeiiaeueii-ia?aciue,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiue noeeue oeeinionoaiaaiey, ioaeathuee i?aaeii/oaiea y?eei
ooaeiaeanoaaiiui ia?acai e aiaeiaeyi, eiooeoeaiui i?ic?aieyi, a ia
no?iaei eiae/aneei ?annoaeaeaieyi. Aeaaea o oao e?oiiuo ?onneeo
oeeinioia, eioi?ua aiieia oeeaaeuaaeenue a eeanne/aneoth
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneoth o?aaeeoeeth, eiae/iinoue e ?aoeeiiaeueiay
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue anaaaea anoanoaaiii ni/aoaeanue n ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
ia?aciinoueth e aiaeeyoeeae e eiooeoeee, auoiaeyuae ca i?aaeaeu
aiciiaeiiai aeey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iuoeaiey. Yoi iniaaiii oa?aeoa?ii aeey
A. N. Nieiaueaaa e aai oeeinioneeo ianeaaeieeia – I.Aa?aeyaaa, N.O?aiea,
E. Eeueeia, I. Oei?aineiai e ae?.

4. Ec o?aoueae auoaeaao aua iaeia, /aoaa?oay, iniaaiiinoue ?onneie
oeeinioee: iia yaeyeanue OEEINIOEAE AEECIE a iieiii niunea yoiai neiaa.
Oeeinioey, io?aoaiiay io aeecie e caieiooay a oiic?eoaeueiuo
eiino?oeoeeyo, a ?innee ia iiaea ?ann/eouaaoue ia oniao. Iiyoiio eiaiii
a ?innee – ?aiueoa, /ai aaea au oi ie auei, – iia niciaoaeueii
iiae/eiyeanue ?aoaieth anoaaaaoeo ia?aae iauanoaii ianouiuo caaea/.
Eiia/ii, iaeeiiiinoe e oiic?eoaeueiui niaeoeyoeeyi, iauaoeeinioneei
i?iaeaiai eiaee ianoi, ii aeaeaei ia a oaeii aeaea e ia a oaeii
ianooaaa, eae yoi auei, iai?eia?, a Aa?iaiee. Ae aieueoa i?enoua iaeay
nioeeaeueiinoue: iaueiiia niciaiea, niai?iinoue, nioeeiinoue
(“neiai-ioae?inoue-aeaei”, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao iinoaiiaeo aiieia caiiuo,
/aeiaa/aneeo aii?inia).

5. A XVIII-XIX aa. ?inney ec-ca aa ionoaeinoe nio?aiyea oaiaeaeueiua
ioiioaiey e naiiaea?aeaaiue aeaniioeci, oiaaea eae iiiaea no?aiu Aa?iiu
onoaiiaeee ao?aeoaciua ii?yaeee, a iaeioi?ua ec ieo – ?anioaeeeaineee
no?ie. Caoyioaoaany ainiiaenoai e?aiinoie/anoaa e naiiaea?aeaaey aucaaei
e aeecie INIAUA OI?IU EAeAIEIAEE, eeai iaciaeiiua ae?oaei ainoaea?noaai,
eeai ia iieo/eaoea a ieo iiaeiaiiai ?acaeoey: eaeaieiaey aeai?yineeo
?aaiethoeeiia?ia, ?aaiethoeeiiiue e?anoueyineee aeaiie?aoeci, aeeth/ay
ia?iaeie/anoai, neaayiioeeuenoai e caiaaeie/anoai, oienoianoai.

6. Niiinoaaeaiea oneiaee ?onneie aeecie n aeeciueth ia?aaeiauo
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai iaecaaaeii ii?iaeeei a iaoae oeeinioee iaeio ec naiuo
ino?uo i?iaeai iauanoaaiiie iunee – I?IAEAIO ?INNEE E CAIAAeA. Iia,
ia/eiay n eiioea XVIII a., ia noiaeeea ni no?aieoe ?onneie ia/aoe e
aieiiaaea oiu ethaeae, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo e naiui ?acee/iui iai?aaeaieyi.
Iaeaieaa iieii, oeeinionee e enoi?eei-oaeoieiae/anee, yoo oaio iainiiaae
I. A. Aa?aeyaa a naiai ciaiaieoii o?oaea “?onneay eaeay. Iniiaiua
i?iaeaiu ?onneie iunee XIX e ia/aea XX aaea”.

?onneay oeeinioey naiiauoia, aeinoaoi/ii i?eaeiaeueia, ieth?aeenoe/ia e
aeooaeueia. N XI ii XX aa. a iae iiaeii auaeaeeoue ?yae ia?eiaeia, a
?aieao eioi?uo iia oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue ii?aaeaeaiiie onoie/eainoueth,
ecaanoiui aaeeiiia?aceai:

1. Noaiiaeaiea ?onneie oeeinioee, iinoaiaiiia iaeiieaiea iaoa?eaea aeey
i?aa?auaiey aa a naiinoiyoaeueioth iaoeo. (XI-XVII aa.). Ia?aua iiuou aa
ainoiaeyo e ae?aaiaeoae yiioa e naycaiu i o?enoeaiecaoeeae ?one, n
iainiiaaieai iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeeth/aiey “?onneie caiee” a iauaie?iaie
i?ioeann oi?aeanoaa aiaeanoaaiiiai “naaoa” (o.a. O?enoa, iacuaaaiiai
“aeaaiaeaoueth” e “enoeiie”) iaae “oueiie” ycu/anoaa. Aeaeueoa ?onneay
oeeinioneay iuneue ?acaeaaeanue a ?onea i?aanoaaiii-i?aeoe/aneeo
ianoaaeaiee e iainiiaaiey iniaie ?iee i?aaineaaiie ?one a noaiiaeaiee
ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee (o/aiea iiiaoa ineianeiai Aeeca?iaa iiianou?y
Oeeioay i “Iineaa-o?aoueai ?eia”).

2. Iainiaeaiea oeeinioee io ?aeeaee e ooaa?aeaeaiea aa eae oai?aoe/aneie
iaoee (XVIII a.), aeaaiaea?y iao/iui aeinoeaeaieyi I. A. Eiiiiiniaa
(1711-1765), iniiaaoaey iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie o?aaeeoeee a ?onneie
oeeinioee, e naiaia?aciiio oeeinioneiio aea?iaaieth A. A. Neiai?iaeu
(1722-1794). Ia neo/aeii a 1755 aiaeo ioe?ueny Iineianeee oieaa?neoao,
aaea ia/aeinue naaoneia i?aiiaeaaaiea oeeinioee, iia ioaeaeeeanue io
?aeeaee.

3. ooiaeaiaioaeueiay ?ac?aaioea i?iaeai iaoiaeieiaee iao/iiai e
nioeeaeueiiai i?aia?aciaaiey ?innee (n XIX a.). Eiaiii a yoio ia?eiae ni
anae ino?ioie aue iinoaaeai aii?in i “ianoiyuae nooe ia?iaeiie” (O. I.
Aeinoiaaneee), i ?onneii iaoeeiiaeueiii eaeaaea. Naiaai ieea iiiuoea aai
?aoaiey aeinoeaea a neaayiioeeuenoaa, eioi?ia “i?aaieciaaeinue” iiae
aeeyieai enoi?einioee I. ss. *aaaeaaaa (1794-1856) e ii?iaeeei nia?aa
?aeeaeiciia ?aoi?iaoi?noai, a iineaaeiaa, a naith i/a?aaeue, – ?onneia
aiaieneaoaeuenoai, eee “aeooiaiue ?aiannain”, eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX aa.

A eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX” aa. e?eoeea enoi?e/aneiai o?enoeainoaa, e aac
oiai iaaaooaaoaai a neoaeaiee aeaniioe/aneie aeanoe, oaea iaei eiai
oaeiaeaoai?yea. O?aaiaaeinue iiaia ioe?iaaiea i /aeiaaea, iiaia
?aeeaeiciia niciaiea.

A. N. Nieiaueaa – iniiaiiieiaeiee iiaiai ?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey.

Iniiaiiieiaeieeii iiaiai ?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey noae e?oiiaeoee ?onneee
oeeinio Aeaaeeie? Na?aaaae/ NIEIAUeAA. Aai noaaeee a iaeei ?yae n
Aa?aeeai Aaaonoeiii, O. Oaeeeiaii, niiinoaaeyee n A. Oiiaiaaoy?ii, O.
Ieoeoa. Ii e a naiii aeaea ia aienuaaeny a eaeia-oi iaeii oa/aiea eee
iai?aaeaiea, neioace?oy naiua ?acii?iaeiua oaiaeaioeee ie?iaie
oeeinioee.

Nieiaueaa iiiuoaeny nicaeaoue oeaeinoioth ie?iaicc?ai/aneoth nenoaio,
eioi?ay ia iniiaa o?enoeainoaa aiaaeeii naycaea au cai?inu ?aeeaeiciie e
nioeeaeueiie aeecie /aeiaaea. I?e/ai, a ioee/ea io iaeioi?uo naieo
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia e iineaaeiaaoaeae, iiae o?enoeainoaii ii iiae?acoiaaae
ia eaeoth-oi iaeio ec aai eiioannee, a eo iauaaeeiaiea, e aai o/aiea
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaaeeiioanneiiaeueiinoueth.

Oeaio?aeueiay eaeay oeeinioee Nieiaueaaa – EAeAss ANAAAeEINOAA.
Iioieiae/aneie iniiaie aai aunooiaao aiaeanoaaiiay O?ieoea (Ioaoe, Nui e
Aeoo Nayoie) a aa nayce ni anaie aiaeanoaaiiuie oai?aieyie e aeaaiia – n
/aeiaaeii. Iniiaiie i?eioeei anaaaeeinoaa – “Ana aaeeii a Aiaa”.
Anaaaeeinoai – yoi i?aaeaea anaai aaeeinoai oai?oea e oai?aiey. Aia o
Nieiaueaaa ia oiiaeiaeyaony /aeiaaeo, a i?aaenoaao eae “einie/aneee
?acoi”, eae “naa?oee/iia nouanoai”, eae “iniaay i?aaiecothuay neea”.

“Einie/aneee ?acoi”, ii iiaieth oeeinioa, ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa
yeaiaioa?iuo nouiinoae, eioi?ua eaaeao a iniiaa anyeiai yaeaiey eee
i?aaeiaoa e iacuaathony aoiiaie. Aoiiu naieie aeaeaeaieyie e eieaaaieyie
ia?acotho ?aaeueiue ie?. Naie aoiiu Nieiaueaa o?aeooao eae iniaua
enoa/aiey Aiaeanoaa, “aeeaua yeaiaioa?iua nouanoaa” eee EAeAE, eaaeaeay
ec eioi?uo iaeaaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiie neeie.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aea noauaeoii anao eciaiaiee o ?onneiai iuneeoaey
aunooiaao IE?IAAss AeOOA, eioi?ay iaeaaeaao iniaie yia?aeae,
iaeooioai?ythuae ana nouanoaothuaa. Iaeiaei aeaenoaoao iia ia
naiinoiyoaeueii, ae ioaeai aiaeanoaaiiue eiioeuen. Oaeei eiioeuenii,
aeaiiui ie?iaie aeooa io Aiaa, yaeyaony EAeAss ANAAAeEINOAA eae
ii?aaeaeythuay oi?ia anae aa aeayoaeueiinoe.

Yoa aa/iay aiaeanoaaiiay eaeay a nenoaia Nieiaueaaa iieo/eea iacaaiea
NIOEE (a?a/, nioey – ianoa?noai, ciaiea, ioae?inoue) – IOAe?INOE. A iae
Nioey – eeth/aaia iiiyoea. Iiyoiio o/aiea ?onneiai iuneeoaey iineo
oaeaea iacaaiea NIOEIEIAEE. A iai ie?iaoth aeooo-Nioeth ii ?anniao?eaae
eae naycothuaa caaii iaaeaeo oai?oeii e oai?aieai, eioi?ia i?eaeaao
iauiinoue Aiao, ie?o e /aeiaa/anoao.

Iaoaieci naeeaeaiey Aiaa, ie?a e /aeiaa/anoaa Nieiaueaa ?ane?uaaao /a?ac
eiioeaioeeth AIAI*AEIAA*ANOAA, ?aaeueiui e niaa?oaiiui aiieiuaieai
eioi?iai aunooiaao Eenon O?enoin, niaaeeiythuee a naaa aeaa ia/aea –
aiaeanoaaiiia e /aeiaa/aneia. Aai ia?ac neoaeeo ia oieueei eaeaaeii aeey
eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaea, ii e aunoae oeaeueth ?acaeoey anaai /aeiaa/anoaa.

Ia?ae/iui oneiaeai ia iooe e aiai/aeiaa/anoao yaeyaony o?enoeaineia
ia?auaiea, o.a. i?eiyoea o?enoeaineiai aa?io/a

iey. I?e?iaeiue /aeiaae, ia i?inaaoeaiiue aiaeanoaaiiie enoeiie,
i?ioeainoieo ethaeyi eae /oaeaeay e a?aaeaeaaiay neea. O?enoin ioe?ue
/aeiaaeo anaiauea ii?aeueiua oeaiiinoe, nicaeae oneiaey aeey aai
i?aanoaaiiiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey. I?eiauaynue e o/aieth O?enoa, /aeiaae
eaeao ii iooe naiaai iaeooioai?aiey. Yoi i?eiauaiea ninoaaeyao
niaea?aeaiea nieiaueaaneie enoi?einioee.

A aiinaieiae/aneii aniaeoa i?eioeei anaaaeeinoaa ?aaeecoaony /a?ac
eiioeaioeeth OeAEUeIIAI CIAIEss. Iii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?ac?uaioth
acaeiinaycue o?ao ?aciiaeaeiinoae yoiai ciaiey: yiie?e/aneiai
(iao/iiai), ?aoeeiiaeueiiai (oeeinioneiai) e ienoe/aneiai
(nica?oeaoaeueii-?aeeaeiciiai). A ea/anoaa i?aaeiinueee,
iniiaiiieaaathuaai i?eioeeia oeaeueiia ciaiea i?aaeoniao?eaaao AA?O A
NOUANOAIAAIEA AANIETHOIIAI IA*AEA – AIAA. Oeaeueiia ciaiea, ii
Nieiaueaao, iaaiciiaeii iieo/eoue oieueei yiie?e/aneeie e
?aoeeiiaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie. Yiie?e/aneia ciaiea ?ane?uaaao eeoue
aiaoithth noi?iio yaeaiee, a ?aoeeiiaeueiia – iniaaiiinoe naiiai
iuoeaiey. Iaeiaei enoeia eee nouaa ia aeaiu /aeiaaeo ie a iiuoa, ie a
iuoeaiee. Enoeia iinoeaaaony /a?ac iaiin?aaenoaaiiia nica?oeaiea,
eiooeoeeth. Oae Nieiaueaa a naiae eiioeaioeee iiiuoaeny niaianoeoue
i?eioeei aaoiiiiee ?acoia, ia eioi?ii iniiaai ?aoeeiiaeeci, n i?eioeeiii
aiaiioe?iaaiiinoe o?enoeaineiai aa?io/aiey, yaeythueiny aacie
aiaineiaey. Ae?oaeie neiaaie: ?onneee iuneeoaeue i?eoae e auaiaeo i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aaeeinoaa iaoee, oeeinioee e ?aeeaee. Iiaeiaiia
aaeeinoai, eioi?ia ii iacuaae “naiaiaeiie oainioeae”, iicaieyei
?anniao?eaaoue ie? eae caaa?oaiioth nenoaio, iaoneiaeaiioth
anaaaeeinoaii eee Aiaii.

“Oeeinioey iauaai aeaea” I. O. Oaaei?iaa.

A ioee/ea io Nieiaueaaa e aai iineaaeiaaoaeae, ?anniao?eaaaoeo ie? n
oi/ee c?aiey i?aeiouanoaaiii iauaieaiaoa?iiai aaeeinoaa /aeiaa/anoaa, a
iaae?ao ?onneie oeeinioee oaea a eiioea XIX a. ia/ae oi?ie?iaaoueny eiie
acaeyae ia iooe ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee. Ii auoiaeee ca ?aiee
ieaiaoa?iiai iuoeaiey e i?ecuaae acaeyiooue ia noaeueau /aeiaa/anoaa n
IICEOeEE EINIE*ANEIAI ECIA?AIEss AAI AUOEss. Iaeaieaa y?ei yoo
oaiaeaioeeth i?aaenoaaeyao ?onneee EINIECI (I. O. Oaaei?ia, E. Y.
Oeeieeianeee, A. A. Aa?iaaeneee). OeAIO?AEUeIAss EAeAss
EINIIOeAIO?E*ANEIAI IIAeOIAeA – AAeEINOAI *AEIAAEA N EINIINII,
EINIE*ANEAss I?E?IAeA *AEIAAEA E EINIE*ANEEE IANNOOAA AAI
AeAssOAEUeIINOE.

Iniaaiii ?aeueaoii yoa eaeay i?aaenoaaeaia a “Oeeinioee iauaai aeaea”
Ieeieay Oaaei?iae/a Oaaei?iaa (1828-1903), eioi?ue iuoaeny
neioace?iaaoue aeaa iaoiaeieiae/aneeo iiaeoiaea e /aeiaaeo:
aio?iiieiaeci e einieci, iauaaeeieoue noaeueau /aeiaaea e noaeueau
anaeaineiai auoey. *aeiaae a aai einie/aneii i?iaeoa iieo/ee iaaeaeaiii
oe?ieia iiea aeey naiae naii?aaeecaoeee, noae aa?aioii nio?aiaiey e
oaaeiaa/eaaiey aeecie. I?e yoii i?aanoaaiiue e?eoa?ee /aeiaa/aneeo
aeayiee ii ?ani?ino?aiee ia oieueei ia ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e /aeiaaeo, ii
e ia anth iaeanoue ioiioaiee /aeiaaea e i?e?iaea. “Oeeinioey iauaai
aeaea” i?eaioe?iaaia e ia iiaaaeo /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa ia Caiea, e ia
iianaianoiia, a ?onea aioe/iie o?aaeeoeee, i?aa?auaiea Oaina a Einiin.

Yoo eaeath Oaaei?ia iainiiaae n iiceoeee ?aeeaeiciiai ie?iaicc?aiey.
Iaeiaei ii ia aue a ieaio eaeie-oi ocei eiioanneaeueiie o?aaeeoeee.
Oaaei?ia ioaa?aae aeiaiaoece?iaaiioth ?aeeaeth, i?iiiaaaeothuoth
aacaeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, iiei?iinoue noaeueaa, nie?aiea. O iaai
aeiaieueii neeueii au?aaeaiu aeaenoe/aneay e iaoaenoe/aneay
oaiaeaioeee. Aiaa ii iiieiae ia eae iioonoi?iiithth anaie?ioth neeo,
oai?yuoth ana “ec ie/aai”, a eae aioo?aiia i?enouee auoeth aa?oiaiue
?acoi, anaiauoth ie?iiauaaeeiythuoth Ethaiaue. Ianaiaeeiue e i?e?iaea,
ii e iaioaeaeeiue io iaa, Aia aeaenoaoao /a?ac aieth e ?acoi ethaeae.
Aiaiaiieiuaiea iiieiaaony ei eae i/aeiaa/eaaiea, o.a. aianaiea a
i?e?iaeo /aeiaa/aneeo ia/ae e /oanoa. “Neiai Aiaeea”, ii Oaaei?iao, –
anoue nai ie?, naia acaeiinaycue anaai a yoii ie?a.

Eeth/aaoth ?ieue a o/aiee Oaaei?iaa ea?aea EAeAss I?AIAeIEAIEss NIA?OE.
Aeaenoaeoaeueiui aioeiiaeii nia?oe ii n/eoae aeeciaainnicaeaiea,
aine?aoaiea oia?oeo. A ioee/ea io i?oiaeienaeueiuo o?enoeaineeo
aa?iaaiee, AINE?AOAIEA *AEIAAEA, ii aai iiaieth, NIAA?AONss IA A
IIOONOI?IIIAI IE?A, A A IINTHNOI?IIIAI, E IA AeOOIAII, A OECE*ANEE, A
AAUANOAAIIII AINE?AOAIEE AeOOE E OAIA, A EO AAeEINOAA. Aine?aoaiea, ii
Oaaei?iao, yoi ia aaeeie/iue aeo, ia oaeae eca?aiiuo, a i?ecaaiea e
aeinoiyiea ia oieueei anao ethaeae, iacaaeneii io eo caaiey e nineiaiie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, ii e anao ia?iaeia, o.a. iauaia?iaeiia, anaie?iia
aeaei. Aine?aoaiea ia icia/aao iaeeaeaiey /oaea, a i?aaeiieaaaao
aeoeaioth /aeiaa/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue a yoii iai?aaeaiee.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, *aeiaae yaeyaony ia oieueei iauaeoii, ii e noauaeoii
aine?aoaiey: iaeie ethaee aine?aoatho ae?oaeo, aine?anoea naie iiaoo
noaoue aine?aneoaeyie. Oaaei?ianeay eiioeaioeey aine?aoaiey ioaaouaaao
aeaa aniaeoa. Ia?aue i?aaeiieaaaao iaeeaeaiea a i?yiii niunea yoiai
neiaa, i?iaoaeaeaiea e iiaeeeiiie aeecie, eioi?ay aeeth/aao a naay
niiniaiinoue i?e?iaeu e naiiainnicaeaieth; aoi?ie – eaeath “iaeeaeaiey”
aeeauo, o.a. ?ane?uoey e eniieueciaaiey eo oai?/aneiai iioaioeeaea,
aiiaeooaaeaiea ia “iauaa aeaei” aeeciaooaa?aeaeaiey e aeeciaoai?/anoaa.
A eiiieaen eaeae, ioaa/aiiuo i?iaeaiie aine?aoaiey, aoiaeeo e
“naieoa?iue aii?in”: yeieiae/aneea ia?ii?eyoey, iai?aaeaiiua ia
icaei?iaeaiea Caiee, nio?aiaiea nouanoaothuae ia iae aeecie (ono?aiaiea
caaieaaaiee, yieaeaiee, aieiaea, noa?/aneiai iae?yoeaiey).

Iaeaieaa oaioanoe/aneay e ooiie/aneay /anoue aai oeeinioneie nenoaiu:
?ac?aaioea i?iaeoa aine?aoaiey i?aaeeia, eioi?ui i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue
auyaeaiea e niae?aiea anao aoiiia e iieaeoe, iaeiaaea aoiaeeaoeo a
ninoaa oia?oeo i?aaieciia. Oaaei?ia n/eoae, /oi aieiu, aicieeathuea a
?acoeueoaoa aea?aoeee iieaeoe e ianouea a naaa eo/aaia ecia?aaeaiea
i?aaeeia, nicao/ii ioeeeeioony a aeeauo nouanoaao, ?iaenoaaiii naycaiiue
n oia?oeie. A eoiaa i?iecieaeao niaaeeiaiea a i?aoa n?iaeiiai e
ioaeaeaiea /oaeiai. Oaaei?ia iacuaae yoio i?ioeann oaeeo?i-niey?iui eee
oaeeo?i-einie/aneei. Aeey inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa ii i?aaeeaaae nicaeaoue
niaoeeaeueiua iao/iua oeaio?u, a ninoaa eioi?uo, ia?yaeo n oeceeaie,
oeieeaie, ano?ieiaaie, oeceieiaaie, a?oaieiaaie, aieaeoo i?aaenoaaeoaee
iaoee i aaneiia/ii iaeuo iieaeoey?iuo aeaeaeaieyo.

Yoa eiioeaioeey, ii nooe aeaea, io?eoeaea a?aiue iaaeaeo aeeaui e
iaaeeaui, iaaeaeo aeooie e oaeii. I?aaieci ii ?anniao?eaae eae iaoeio, a
iuneue eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue aauanoaa. “Niaa?eoa iaoeio, – aiai?ee ii, –
e niciaiea aica?aoeony e iae”. Iiyoiio caaea/a iieiiai oaeaniiai
aine?aoaiey, a eiia/iii n/aoa, naiaeeeanue e niae?aieth anao ninoaaiuo
/anoae i?aaiecia /aeiaaea.

Oioy Oaaei?ia iniai ianoaeaae ia aoeaaeueiii, iaoo?aeenoe/aneii
iiieiaiee aine?aoaiey, yoa eaeay ia caiueaaony o iaai a /enoi
oaoie/aneea ?aiee. Iia eiaea einie/aneea ia?aiao?u. Naycue iaaeaeo
i?iaeoaie aine?aoaiey e auoiaea a einiin Oaaei?ia oniao?eaae a
ia?aianaeaiiinoe Caiee: aine?aoaiiua iieieaiey iaecaaaeii noieeioony n
ino?ie iaoaaoeie aeeeuey e i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey. *oiau auaeeoue, iie.
aeieaeiu aoaeoo iicaaioeoueny i canaeaiee einiina e oaeei ia?acii
iaania/eoue aa?iiiecaoeeth Anaeaiiie.

Eiioeaioeeth “iauaai aeaea” Oaaei?ia ia naiaeee e aine?aoaieth i?aaeeia.
IAUAA AeAEI – YOI AEAAIUI IA?ACII ANAIAUAss ?AAOEssOeEss I?E?IAeU,
OI?AAEAIEA AA NEEAIE. Iia, ii iiaieth oeeinioa, eiaao aioo?aiiee e
aiaoiee aniaeou. Aioo?aiiee aniaeo iiae?acoiaaae ineoioeceieiae/aneoth
?aaoeyoeeth, o.a. oi?aaeaiea neaiuie neeaie a /aeiaaea. Aiaoiyy
?aaoeyoeey i?inoe?aaony io Caiee ei anaio oeaeinoiiio ie?o – Einiino.
Iia eiaao o?e nooiaie:

· iaoai?e/aneoth, iauaeoii eioi?ie yaeyaony Caiey,

· ieaiaoa?ioth (nieia/iay nenoaia),

· anaiauoth einie/aneoth (aaneiia/iay Anaeaiiay).

Ia iineaaeiae nooiaie Oaaei?ia n/eoae aiieia aiciiaeiui naeaeiooue
Caieth n iinoiyiiie i?aeou e ioi?aaeoue aa a einie/aneea i?inoi?u ii
niciaoaeueii i?ieeaaeuaaaiiio eo?no, o.a. i?aa?aoeoue iaoo ieaiaoo a
einie/aneee ei?aaeue – “Caiiioiae”.

N ?acaeoeai ?aaoeyoeee any i?e?iaea, ii iiaieth Oaaei?iaa, noaiao noa?ie
/aeiaa/aneiai iaeoaiey, iauaeoii ?acoia e o?oaea, aaeeiie
einiioicyenoaaiiie nenoaiie. *aeiaae, aueaey ca caiiua i?aaeaeu,
iauaaeeieo ana ie?u Anaeaiiie e i?aa?aoeo “Caiiioiae” a “Ieaiaoioiae”.

Eiia/ii, nia?aiaiiiio /aeiaaeo i?aaeeiaeaiiue ?onneei iuneeoaeai iooue
auoiaea ec aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai eaaeaony aanueia oaioanoe/aneei,
ooiie/iui. Iaeiaei iauee iaoin oaaei?ianeie oeeinioee “iauaai aeaea”,
aai no?anoiia aeaeaiea ainnoaiiaeoue ia?ooaiiia aaeeinoai ie?icaeaiey,
?aniaaoothny naycue a?aiai, oeaiiinoue /aeiaa/aneie aeooe, i?aiaeieaoue
?ac?ua iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e i?e?iaeie, iiaeiyoue aa noeoeeiia ?acaeoea ia
o?iaaiue oi?aaeyaiie yaiethoeee, iaeeaeoue oia?oeo e i?iaoaeeoue eioa?an
e iiaeeeiiie aeecie iia?oceaoeony a aeooiaioth niy/eo aeeauo
i?aaenoaaeyaony aanueia ieiaeioai?iui e o?aaoao aeoaieiai, ananoi?iiiaai
iniuneaiey oaea n o/aoii ?aaeee nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth… *. 1… N. 194-208.

2. Aaeaeoeiiia A. A., Ieeaiae?ia I. O. ?onneay oeeinioey XI-XIX aa.
Eaieia?aae, 1970. N. 7-21.

3. Caiaeaaa A. O. Eaeoeee ii enoi?ee ?onneie oeeinioee: A 2 /. *. 1: XI
– ia/aei XX a. O/aaiia iiniaea. – NIa, 1994. N. 6-169.

4. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Oeeinioey”… N. 67-75.

5. Einneee I. I. Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee. I., 1991. N. 3-520.

6. ?aaeoaei A. A. Oeeinioey: eo?n eaeoeee… N. 176-195. Oeeinioneee
yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue… N. 9, 57, 355.Oaia X. OEEINIONEAss
I?IAEAIAOEEA AUOEss

1. AEeciaiiua ei?ie e oeeinioneee niune i?iaeaiu auoey.

2. Noaeueaa i?iaeaiu auoey a XX a.

AEeciaiiua ei?ie e Oeeinioneee niune i?iaeaiu auoey.

Iauaeaiiia iuoeaiea aini?eieiaao oa?ieiu “auoue”, “nouanoaiaaoue,
“iaoiaeeoueny a iaee/iinoe” eae neiiieiu, o.a. aeeceea ii cia/aieth,
Oeeinioey eniieueciaaea iiiyoey “auoue”, “auoea” aeey iaicia/aiey ia
i?inoi nouanoaiaaiey, a oiai, /oi aai aa?aioe?oao. Iiyoiio neiai “auoea”
eiaao a oeeinioee iniaue niune, iiiyoue eioi?ue iiaeii oieueei
ia?aoeaoenue e aiaeeco oeeinioneie i?iaeaiaoeee auoey,

Aia?aua yoio oa?iei a oeeinioeth aaae aioe/iue oeeinio Ia?iaieae (ie.
515 aei i.y. – ie. 544, aiae nia?oe iaeca.) aeey iaicia/aiey e
iaeiia?aiaiii ?aoaiey iaeiie ?aaeueiie i?iaeaiu. Ai a?aiaia Ia?iaieaea
ethaee ia/aee oa?youe aa?o a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aiaia Ieeiia. Ie?, Anaeaiiay
oaea ia eacaeenue ei i?i/iuie, iaaeaaeiuie: ana noaei oaoei e
aanoi?iaiii, ianoaaeeueii; /aeiaae iioa?ye aeeciaiioth iii?o.

Iaiaoiaeeii auei iaeoe auoiae e /aio-oi i?i/iiio e iaaeaaeiiio, Ethaeyi
ioaeia auea aa?a a iiaoth neeo. Oeeinioey a eeoea Ia?iaieaea iniciaea
neiaeeaoothny neooaoeeth. Ii eae au iiiaanoee ethaeae ia ioe?uoee ei
iiaie neeu, neeu Aaniethoiie iunee, eioi?ay iaania/eea ie?o
noaaeeueiinoue e iaaeaaeiinoue, a” neaaeiaaoaeueii, /aeiaae niiaa ia?ae
oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi ana n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aoaeao iiae/eiaii
eaeiio-oi ii?yaeeo.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue Ia?iaieae iacuaae Aiaeanoaii, I?aaaeie, i?iaeaeaieai,
noaeueaie, aa/iui e iaoie/oiaeeiui. “ANA II IAIAOIAeEIINOE” icia/aei,
/oi caaaaeaiiue a ie?icaeaiee oiae aauae ia iiaeao aiacaiii, ii aiea
neo/ay, eciaieoueny: aeaiue anaaaea i?eaeao ia niaio ii/e, nieioea
aiacaiii ia iioooiao, ethaee ia aui?oo ana a iaeei i?ae?aniue aeaiue e
o.ae. Eia/a aiai?y, IA?IAIEAe CAssAEE I IAEE*EE CA AAUAIE
I?AAeIAOII-*OANOAAIIIAI IE?A *AAI-OI, *OI AUeIIEIssEI AU ?IEUe AA?AIOA
AAI NOUANOAIAAIEss. A yoi icia/aei, /oi o ethaeae en/acea i?e/eia aeey
io/ayiey.

Aeey iaicia/aiey iienaiiie aeeciaiiie neooaoeee e niiniaia aa
i?aiaeieaiey Ia?iaieae e aaae a oeeinioeth iiiyoea e i?iaeaio “AUOEss”.

AUOEA, ii Ia?iaieaeo, – YOI OI, *OI EIAAONss CA IE?II *OANOAAIIUO
AAUAE, E YOI ANOUe IUNEUe, EIAIN – EINIE*ANEEE ?ACOI, /a?ac eioi?ue
?ane?uaaaony niaea?aeaiea ie?a aeey /aeiaaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii. Ae?oaeie
neiaaie, ia /aeiaae ioe?uaaao enoeio auoey, a, iaiai?io, Enoeia auoey
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ioe?uaaaony /aeiaaeo. Iiyoiio i?ioeann eiae/aneiai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa ia eiaao ?aoathuaai cia/aiey ie aeey iaai naiiai, ie
aeey ioeaiee enoeiiinoe ciaiee ethaeae.

Auaeathueeny oeeinio XX a. Ia?oei Oaeaeaaaa? ooaa?aeaeae, /oi AII?IN I
AUOEE E AAI ?ACUssNIAIEA IA?IAIEAeII I?AAe?AOEEE NOAeUeAO CAIAAeIIAI
IE?A. A /ai ii aeaeae niune oaeie i?aae?aoaiiinoe?

N IAeIIE NOI?IIU, a eoeueoo?o e ie?iaicc?aiea aaiaeeeinue i?aaenoaaeaiea
i nouanoaiaaiee ca i?aaeaeaie aeaeeiuo aauae iaaeaeeiiai ie?a,
niaa?oaiiaeoaai e i?ae?aniaeoaai, aa?iiie/ii ono?iaiiiai, aaea ana anoue
Aeaai, Naao, Aeia?i. Caiaaeiue ie? aini?eiye yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea e ia
i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo noieaoee o?aie?iaae niiniaiinoue iunee ?aaioaoue a
i?ino?ainoaa, aaea iao /oanoaaiiuo ia?acia e i?aaenoaaeaiee. Aa?iiaeneay
eoeueoo?a, eae ieeaeay eiay, aeiaaea aeaiioth niiniaiinoue iunee aei
iaaiia?aceiuo aunio.

N Ae?OAIE NOI?IIU, anee nouanoaoao iiaeeeiiia auoea, oi caiiia ia anoue
iiaeeeiiia. Iii ioaeaeaaony a ia?aaeaeea, i?eaeeaeathuae aai e ie?o
iiaeeeiiiio. ?aciiai ?iaea nioeeaeueiua ooiiee, eioi?uie iieia enoi?ey
Caiaaea, yaeeanue naiaia?aciui neaaenoaeai ie?iaicc?ai/aneiai
ono?aieaiey e iiaeeeiiiio auoeth.

Oaeay ia?aaeaeea caiiiai auoey enoi?e/anee ?aaeeciauaaeanue AeAOIss
IOOssIE:

IA?AUE AUE I?EAIOE?IAAI IA I?AEOE*ANEIA, I?AAeIAOII-AeAssOAEUeIINOIIA
AICAeAENOAEA IA CAIIIE IE?, ia aiaoia-aauiia: ia?yaeu a ?aeeaee,
ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai, niinia yeiiiie/aneie aeecie e o.ae. Yoi –
iooue aoioia e ?aaiethoeee, i?aaeiieaaaaoee neii iaiiaeeeiiiai auoey e
no?ieoaeuenoai ia aai “iaeiieao” iiaeeeiiiai ie?a – ie?a anaiauaai
?aaainoaa, naiaiaeu e a?aonoaa.

AOI?IE IOOUe – IOOUe I?AIA?ACIAAIEss AA AIAOIAAI, A NAIAAI
AeOOIAII-I?AANOAAIIIAI AIOO?AIIAAI IE?A. Ethaee, noaaoea ia yoio iooue,
no?aiyony ia?aaeaeaoue ia ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai, ia yeiiiie/aneoth
aeeciue iauanoaa, a naieo naay. Yoio iooue io?aaioai a o?enoeainoaa
nayouie, iiiaoaie, iienai a AEeoeyo nayouo, i?aaenoaaeai a aeayieyo
Na?aey ?aaeiiaaeneiai, Iioeineeo noa?oeaa e ae?. Enoaoe, iiiaea ?onneea
iuneeoaee a eaioi ?aaiethoeee 1917 a. i?ecuaaee eioaeeeaaioeeth e ia?iae
iieoe ii aoi?iio iooe ai?ueau n iaiiaeeeiiinoueth auoey.

A IIAIA A?AIss i?iaeaia auoey i?aoa?iaea aeoaieea eciaiaiey. A /ai e eae
yoi i?iyaeeinue?

I?aaeaea anaai yoi i?iyaeeinue a IOEACA IO IAOAOECEEE. Oa?iei
“iaoaoeceea” (aeineiaii: “oi, /oi eaeao iinea oeceee”) aaaaeai a
oeeinioeth iaeiei ec eiiiaioaoi?ia A?enoioaey – Aiae?iieeii ?iaeinneei –
aeey iacaaiey oie /anoe aai o/aiey, niaea?aeaiea eioi?ie ia ioiineeinue
e iiciaieth i?e?iaeu, auoiaeeei ca ?aiee anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo ecuneaiee. A
aeaeueiaeoai yoei iiiyoeai iaicia/aee e a aioe/iinoe, e a
n?aaeiaaaeiauea oa ?acaeaeu oeeinioee, eioi?ua enneaaeiaaee i?aaeaeueiua
iniiaaiey auoey ie?a aauae e yaeaiee, a oii /enea e /aeiaaea. Iaoiaeu
iaoaoece/aneiai iiciaiey ia aeeth/aee a naay /oanoaaiiue iiuo e
i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneea aeaenoaey e i?iaa?ee. Iie ia?aie/eaaeenue
?annoaeaeaieyie a i?ino?ainoaa /enoie iunee.

Ioeacaaoenue io iaoaoeceee, oeeiniou Iiaiai a?aiaie ioaa?aee e eaeath
auoey eae aaniethoiiai e i?aaeaeueiiai iniiaaiey ie?icaeaiey. Ia Caiaaea
iinoaiaiii ooaa?aeaeaaony oi/ea c?aiey, niaeanii eioi?ie iai
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaii oieueei niaea?aeaiea iaoaai niciaiey, iuoeaiey.
Aicieeaao, anee iiaeii oae neacaoue, niaa?oaiii iiaue aeae iaoaoeceee,
aaea auoeai ieacaeinue niciaiea. Auoea oo?aoeei i?aaeiaa iiieiaiea: iii
noaei noauaeoeaiui. *aeiaae a noaoona noauaeoa iiciaiey i?aa?aoeeny a
oeaio?aeueioth oeao?o ea?oei ie?icaeaiey e ie?iaicc?aiey. I?iecioae
?ac?ua n Aaniethoii, eioi?ue iiiaea oeeiniou XX a. iacuaaee “?ieiaui”.

Ioeac io i?iaeaiu auoey, io iaoaoeceee – ia i?inoi acaeyae, eioi?iai
ia/aee i?eaea?aeeaaoueny oa eee eiua iuneeoaee, a oie eee eiie no?aia.
Yoi enoi?e/aneia naa?oaiea, au?aceaoaany i?aaeaea anaai a eciaiaiee
ie?iaicc?aiey.

Auaeaeytho ?yae iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia IE?IAICC?AIEss IIAIAI A?AIAIE:

1. OA?ssAONss IUOUAIEA OIAI, *OI ANOUe IIAeEEIIIA NOUANOAIAAIEA *AAI-OI,
ssAEssTHUAAINss INIIAAIEAI AEECIE E AeAssOAEUeIINOE ETHAeAE. Ionthaea
caieiooinoue a noauaeoeaiii, oiiaaiea oieueei ia naay. Aeayoaeueiinoue,
ia i?eaioe?iaaiiay aieaa ia aunoaa Aeaai, Enoeio e E?anioo, i?aa?auaaony
eeai ai aiaoia-iieacioth (aeinoeaeaiea aeeaeaeoeo ei?unoiuo eioa?ania,
naycaiiuo n iaoa?eaeueiui auoeai), eeai ai aiaoia-?acaeaeaoaeueioth
(eneonnoaaiiia caiieiaiea naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie ionouie caaaaaie,
i?aa?auaiea eneonnoaa a niinia ?acaea/aiey, a ia aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey).

2. *AEIAAE, AAI NICIAIEA, AAI NIINIAIINOE. AAI AEECIUe NOAEE
AINI?EIEIAOUeNss EAE AAeEINOAAIIIA IANIIIAIIIA E IIAeEEIIIA AUOEA.
Oaeoth ie?iaicc?ai/aneoth onoaiiaeo aini?iecaiaeee a naiae oeeinioee
iniiaaoaeue ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie eoeueoo?u Caiaaea Aeaea?o. Eaio aiai?ee
i auoee, caaeneiii io iiciaiey. Yecenoaioeeaeeci i?yii cayaeyao, /oi
/aeiaae e oieueei ii iaeei anoue iiaeeeiiia e i?aaeaeueiia auoea.
Ia?eneci ioiaeaeanoaeyao auoea n i?e?iaeie, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi auoea
“aiiaua anoue ioe?uoue aii?in, ia/eiay n oie a?aieoeu, aaea i?ae?auaaony
iaoa iiea c?aiey” (Yiaaeuen). Auoea anoue oieueei oi, /oi iiaeao auoue
ia?aie/aii iao/iui, ?aoeeiiaeueiui ciaieai e i?aeoeeie. Iii anoue
iauaeoeaiue ie? (i?e?iaea e iauanoai), aeaiiue /aeiaaeo a aai
i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

3. Ineaaeaiea eaeae nouanoaiaaiey aaee/anoaaiiiai iauaeoeaiiai auoey
Aaniethoa, Aiaa e o.ae. NII?IAIAEAeAAONss IA?AIOeAIEIE A?AIAIE: IEEOI
OAEA IA AeOIAAO I AA*IINOE. A?aiy /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey auiaaeaao
ec aa/iinoe, ni?anniauaaaony a ianoiyuai “caeanue” e “nae/an”. Naycue n
o?aaeeoeeae i?aeoe/anee i?a?uaaaony e oi?ie?oaony oeeaeeecaoeey,
eioi?oth ?onneee ?aeeaeiciue oeeinio I. O. Oaaei?ia iacuaae
“oeeaeeecaoeeae iieiaeuo”. Iia oa?aeoa?ecoaony caaaaieai aeieaa ia?aae
iooeaie, i?aaeeaie, aicaaee/eaaieai iieieaiey iieiaeuo, nuiia, eioi?ua a
naiae ai?aeuia i?aiaa?aaatho iiuoii i?ioeiai, iaaeaynue oieueei ia naie
neeu e oi?ie?oy naie oeaiiinoe. Aicieeaao i?eioeeieaeueiia iaiiieiaiea
iaaeaeo noa?ui e iiaui iieieaieyie: ?aaony naycue a?aiai. *aeiaae aeeaao
oieueei noaoiie aeaaeaeie ono?ieoue aeeciue “caeanue” e “nae/an”,
ianuoeoueny ath ia?aae nia?oueth, ca eioi?ie – ionoioa e oeai.

4. Oaa?iaaa a neeo naiaai ?acoia, ETHAeE OAA?IAAEE A NAIE NIINIAIINOE
ECIAIssOUe IE?, iie?aynue i?e yoii ia caeiiu ie?icaeaiey, ioe?uoua
?acoiii. Oi?ie?oaony oaaaeaeaiea a oii, /oi i?aaeiacia/aiea /aeiaaea
ninoieo a ia?aaeaeuaaiee iaiiaeeeiiiai ie?a. Oae, a ecaanoiii 11-ii
oacena i Oaea?aaoa Ia?en ienae, /oi oeeiniou ?aiueoa eeoue ?acee/iui
ia?acii iauyniyee ie?, oiaaea eae aeaii caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau
eciaieoue aai. Ii /oi aea iiaeii eciaiyoue? Oi, /oi aea nicaeaii Aiaii,
o.a. ia aa/ii, ?oeioai?ii. Ia ie? ia?anoaee niio?aoue eae ia
Aiaeanoaaiiue ii?yaeie: ana i?aa?aoeeinue a iiea eiino?oeoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Ia?oeioai?iia aea, nioai?aiiia ia /aeiaaeii, a
/ai-oi eee eai-oi, /oi i?aauoaao aai neeu, eciaieoue iaaiciiaeii: aai
iiaeii oieueei iauynieoue.

Aicc?aiea ia ie? eae ia ?oeioai?iue (iniaaiii yoi eanaaony iauanoai)
niinianoaiaaei aicieeiiaaieth ?aciiai ?iaea i?iaeoia ii ia?aono?ienoao
nioeeaeueiie aeecie ethaeae, a caoai e i?e?iaeu. Nioeeaeueiua ooiiee,
o/aiey aia?oenoia, oai?ee iao/iiai nioeeaeecia – ana iie enoiaeeee ec
i?aaeiieiaeaiey i aiciiaeiinoe ia?aeiino?oe?iaaiey iauanoaa e i?e?iaeu n
iiiiuueth ?acoia e i?aaeiaoii-aeayoaeueiinoiuo nee /aeiaaea.

5. IIOIEIAE*ANEEE IEAEEECI, CAAeAA NAIAIA?ACIIA IAI?AAEAIEA AeAEAEAIETH
AA?IIAENEIE ENOI?EE. I?EAAE E AINIIAeNOAO IAOA?EAEECIA, II IA I?INOI A
OAI?EE, A I?AAEAeA ANAAI A AEECIE. Iaoa?eaeueiua iio?aaiinoe noaee
aaaeoueie, aeiieie?othueie a aeecie ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae e oeaeuo
niiauanoa. Ia/aeanue ioe?uoay e iniciaiiay ai?ueaa eeannia, a iniiaa
eioi?ie eaaeae iaoa?eaeueiue eioa?an. Aeoeaece?iaaeanue /aeiaa/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia iieueco e yeiiiie/aneee oniao.
Noeioeii aeecie /aeiaaea e aai naiioniaa?oainoaiaaiey noaee
iaoa?eaeueiua iio?aaiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, IE?IAICC?AIEA IIAIAI A?AIAIE NO?IEEINUe IA OAA?AIIINOE
*AEIAAEA A NAIAE AAOIIIIEE, ia oaaaeaeaiee, /oi ii nai, naiinoiyoaeueii
oi?ie?oao naith aeooiaiinoue e aa aunooth oi?io – niciaiea. A oneiaeyo
ioeaca io o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iiieiaiey auoey eae aunoae e cai?aaeaeueiie
?aaeueiinoe /aeiaaeo ieacaeenue iaioaeiuie o?ainoeaiaeaioiua aeou, o.a.
oiaiea auoiaeeoue ca i?aaeaeu /oanoaaiiiai iiuoa.

O?ainoeaiaeaioiinoue – yoi aa/iue aie n einoeieoaie, iiiuoea
aicauneoueny iaae niaie, ia?ano?ieoue naia nouanoaiaaiea ii oeio
aeieaeiiai. Iaeioi?ua oeeiniou n/eoatho, /oi a iaoa a?aiy ia ieaiaoa
eiathony oeaeua ia?iaeu n oaanoae o?ainoeaiaeaioiinoueth, n?aaee eioi?uo
iacuaatho e aia?eeaineee eiioeiaio. Aeaaiay oaia iieeoe/aneeo aeeneonnee
a Aia?eea – aii?inu, naycaiiua n yeiiiieeie: i?eaueue, ?ani?aaeaeaiea
athaeaeaoa, iaeiae e o.ae. Niaa?oaiii ia ianoaeaeathony i?iaeaiu,
auoiaeyuea ca i?aaeaeu iaoa?eaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee e ono?ienoaa
nioeeaeueiiai eiioi?oa.

Noaeueaa i?iaeaiu auoey a XX a.

NIO?AIEE EE XX AAE AA?IINOUe AIOE*IIE O?AAeEOeEE?

IIAIA A?AIss, i /ai ?a/ue oea auoa, IA*AEI O?AINOI?IE?IAAOUe AIOE*IOTH
EAeATH IAUAEOEAIIAI AUOEss: AUOEA NOAEI NOAUAEOEAIUI. A XX a. YOIO
I?IOeANN OAEOAEENss E OAIA?Ue AeAAEA AANIETHO – AIA NOAE CAAENAOUe IO
AI?EI?IIE AIOO?AIIAE ONOAIIAEE *AEIAAEA IA IIENEE AACONEIAIIAI. E ana
aea Iiaia a?aiy ia ioeacaeinue io aioe/iie o?aaeeoeee iienea iii?u aeey
/aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey. Ianoi Aiaa caiye /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi.
Oi?aeanoaiaaee ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneea i?iaeou Aic?iaeaeaiey e I?inaauaiey –
aaeeeeo yiio, au?aceaoeo aeiaa?ea ?acoio e i?eciaaoeo aai i?aai ia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ai anao noa?ao aeecie.

XX AAE ICIAIAIIAAENss E?ANOIAUI IIOIAeII I?IOEA ?ACOIA, A YOI ICIA*AEI
?AC?UA N AIOE*IIE O?AAeEOeEAE. “Iaoa o/aie/anoai o a?aeia eii/eeinue:
a?aee ia eeanneee, – cayaee a ia/aea aaea eniaineee oeeinio-eaeaaeeno
I?oaaa-e-Aannao (1883-1955), – iie i?inoi a?oae/iu – a?oae/iu e eiia/ii
aea… anaaaea i?ae?aniu. Yoei iie iniaaiii eioa?aniu aeey ian. Iie
ia?anoatho auoue iaoeie iaaeaaiaaie e noaiiayony iaoeie ae?ocueyie.
Aeaaaeoa noaiai aanaaeiaaoue n ieie, noaiai ?anoiaeeoueny n ieie a naiii
iniiaiii”.

*oi aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie yoi “naiia iniiaiia”? Ai-ia?auo, a?a/aneia
iiieiaiea auoey eae /aai-oi nouiinoiiai, iaeciaiiiai, iaiiaeaeaeiiai,
noanoaioeeiiaeueiiai. Ioeac io anyeiai ?iaea noanoaioeeiiaeueiinoe noae
ii?iie oeeinionoaiaaiey a XX a. Ai-aoi?uo, ioeac io i?eciaiey ?acoia a
ea/anoaa iii?u /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey; ?acoio auei ioeacaii a
e?aaeeoa aeiaa?ey ni noi?iiu /aeiaaea e iauanoaa XX a.

IOEAC IO AIOE*IIE O?AAeEOeEE A IIIEIAIEE AUOEss EIAAO NA?UeACIUA
EOEUeOO?IUA IINEAAeNOAEss. Ioeacaaoenue io Aiaa (“Aia oia?” – Ieoeua),
ia iaaeaynue aieaa ia ?acoi, /aeiaae XX a. inoaeny iaeei-ia-iaeei ni
naiei oaeii. Ia/aeny eoeueo oaia, niaieaoee eoeueo aeooa e ?acoia, a yoi
– aeaaiue i?eciae ycu/anoaa. sscu/anoai, eee, aa?iaa, iaiycu/anoai
eiioea XX a. auno?i ?ani?ino?aieeinue ii ieaiaoa aeaaiaea?y
oaeaaeaeaieth e ae?oaei n?aaenoaai ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Ii/iua
y?ioe/aneea e ii?iia?aoe/aneea oaeai?ia?aiiu acyee ia naay naiaia?acioth
ooieoeeth i?aaiecaoi?ia ianniauo i?aee ia iaia? aeeiienaeneeo, ii n
ian?aaiaiii aieueoei eiee/anoaii o/anoieeia.

Ia niaio “iioieiae/aneiio ieaeeecio” (I. Oaeaeaaaa?) i?eoei io?eoeaiea
?acoia e ?acoiiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey, /oi yaii i?iyaeeinue
oaeaea a iaoae no?aia iinea ?acaaea NNN?, caeii/eaoaainy “ia?aaeii
noaa?aieoaoia” e aanniuneaiiuie, aeanoieeie iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuie e
iaae?aeeaeiciuie aieiaie e e?iaaauie ?ani?yie. Ia?anoathuee oaean
iniciaiey aanniuneaiiinoe, aaciii?iinoe, aeiae/iinoe, ia?acoiiinoe
aeecie noae oaeoii iuiaoiae enoi?ee no?aiu. Eiaiii a oaeii niunea iu
“aienaeenue” a caiaaeioth oeeaeeecaoeeth.

Ineoieiae/aneee ii?o?ao nia?aiaiiiai aa?iiaeoea, ie?iaicc?aiea eioi?iai
ia niaea?aeeo ie iii?u ia Aiaa, ie iii?u ia ?acoi, i/aiue ia?acii ?enoao
I?oaaa-e-Aannao: /aeiaae iaiiieiaao ecaaeiaaiiiai ?aaaiea n i?enouei aio
aani?aiyonoaaiiui ?inoii aeeciaiiuo cai?inia e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
aacoaea?aeiie yeniaineae nianoaaiiie iaoo?u, a oaeaea a?iaeaeaiiie
iaaeaaiaea?iinoueth ei anaio. /oi aeaei aio aeeciue e iaeaa/eei aa.
Oeeinio n?aaieaaao nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea ni “acaaneaoeiny aeeea?ai”,
eiaiii “acaaneaoeiny”, eai “ii?iaeueiue” aeeea?ue /oeo o?aaeeoeee,
neaaeoao aa?a, oaao, caaaoai e iau/ayi.

A XX a. ethaee iuoathony oeoe io ia?aaeeaaiey no?aoa, nii?iaiaeaeathuaai
?aci/a?iaaiea a aiciiaeiinoyo ?acoia auoue iii?ie, i?aaeea eioi?ie
nicaeathony ethaeueie e eie aea i?iecaieueii eciaiythony. Iao aae
?aeiiaiaeoao ethaeyi ia auoue i/aiue na?ueaciuie, eai ieeoi ia ciaao,
eae i?aaeeueii aeeoue, ieeoi ia ai?aaa aeeeoiaaoue, eaeie aeieaeia auoue
aeeciue. Ana ii?aaaeaii oai, /oi ie/aai a yoii ie?a iao iaaaee. Iaaei
aeeoue, ii ciaoue, /oi ie a /ai iao iii?u, e iao oaeeo oeaiiinoae,
eioi?ua aunooiaee au a ea/anoaa yoaeiiia enoeiiinoe e ia?u auoey.

ECIAIAIEA IE?IAICC?AIEss A XX a. IIAEAEEI CA NIAIE IA OIEUeEI IIAOTH
IINOAIIAEO AII?INA I AUOEE, II IA?ANIIO? NOEEss E I?A-AEE
EIOAEEAEOOAEUeIIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE. Iiyaeeanue OEEINIOEss IINOIIAeA?IA.
Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie IOEAC IO A?A*ANEIE O?AAeEOeEE, EIOI?UE NAeAEAE
ssAIUI OIO OAEO, *OI A IE?IAICC?AIEE ETHAeAE. A EO IAIOAEEOAOA I?IECIOEE
AEOAEIIUA IIAeAEAEEE-ECIAIAIEss. Iinoiiaea?i a oeeinioee – yoi
o?ainoi?iaoeey eeanne/aneiai ia?aca oeeinioee. Iiyoiio iaeuecy n/eoaoue,
/oi iinoiiaea?i i?eoae ia niaio iiaea?ia e /oi a o?iiieiae/aneii
ii?yaeea ii anoue ia/oi, aicieeoaa iinea iiaea?ia. Iinoiiaea?i a
oeeinioee aeeaao ?yaeii n eeanneeie, eae Euea?eaai? aeee ?yaeii n
Aaaaeai, i?eiye aai aeeaeaeoeeo, /oiau iioii ?ac?ooeoue aa.

Noaaeony ee i?iaeaia auoey a oeeinioee iinoiiaea?ia, a anee – aea, oi
eae iia ?aoaaony?

*oiau ioaaoeoue ia aeaiiue aii?in, aa?iainy a ae?aaithth A?aoeeth.
Ia?iaieae aaae a oeeinioeth i?iaeaio auoey eae /aai-oi onoie/eaiai,
iaiiaeaeaeiiai, aa/iiai, iaoiaeyuaainy ca ie?ii eiia/iuo yaeaiee. Ii a
yoi aea naiia a?aiy ae?oaie oeeinio – Aa?aeeeo – i?aaeeiaeee a?aeai eiia
oieeiaaiea auoey. Ii cayaee, /oi auoea ii naiae nooe anoue aa/iia
eciaiaiea, i?ioeann, ?acaeoea, aeaeaeaiea. A?aeai i?aaenoiye auai?: iie,
eae iai ecaanoii, i?aaeii/ee ia?iaieaeianeoth o?aeoiaeo auoey.

Ianeieueei ia?oaeyy i?iaeaio, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi IINOIIAeA?I
AINO?AAIAAE AA?AEEEOIANEOTH AA?NETH AUOEss. *OI N?ACO AEA IIAEEssEI IA
NEIAEEAOEANss O?AAeEOeEIIIUA AeEss AA?IIU OI?IU OEEINIONEIAI IUOEAIEss,
A OAEAEA IA AAI NEIAANIIA AU?AAEAIEA A OAENOA: oeeinioneea oaenou
iioa?yee a?aieoeu, ioee/athuea eo io eiuo oaenoia, iai?eia?,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo.

Oeeinio iinoiiaea?ia ioeacuaaao ?acoio a i?aaao, anyeoth i?aoaiceth ia
iiene enoeiu iauyaeyao eiaeiie, ioeacuaaaony io iino?iaiey oeeinioneie
nenoaiu, ia i?eciaao iiae/eiaiea iuoeaiey caaeaiiui oi?iai e caeiiai,
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi neiaanii-ycueiaia au?aaeaiea iunee anaaaea neo/aeii,
n/eoaao, /oi iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoiie oi?iie aa ia?aaea/e neoaeeo
aia?aoeeiiaeueiay neiaaniay oaeo/anoue.

Yoe iniaaiiinoe oeeinioneiai oaenoa i?yii naycaiu n eciaiaieai ioiioaiey
e auoeth. A iinoiiaea?ienoneii oeeinioneii i?iecaaaeaiee ionoonoaoao ana
iauyniythuee eiioeaio: ca iienuaaaiuie yaeaieyie iaeuecy iaia?oaeeoue
ieeaeie aeoaeiiie nouiinoe, aoaeue oi Aia, Aanietho, niune aeecie,
Enoeia, ?acoi e o.ae. Nouiinoe, eioi?ay, ai-ia?auo, neoaeeea au oneiaeai
aiciiaeiinoe nouanoaiaaiey yoeo yaeaiee, ai-aoi?uo, aa?aioe?iaaea au
aiciiaeiinoue eo iinoeaeaiey, a-o?aoueeo, yaeyeanue au niuneiaui
oeaio?ii eae aeey aaoi?a, oae e aeey /eoaoaey, ia aeiioneay aiciiaeiinoe
aaneiia/iiai iiiaeanoaa eioa?i?aoaoeee eee enoieeiaaiee niaea?aeaiey
oaenoa.

Oeeinioneee oaeno noaiiaeony iiiainiuneaiiui, aaoi?u aai ia i?aoaiaeotho
ia enoeiiinoue naieo enneaaeiaaiee-?annoaeaeaiee. Iie /anoi
?anniao?eaatho naay a ea/anoaa o/anoieeia aaneiia/iie eiiioieeaoeee,
a?iaeyo ii aa eaiaeai, iaiyy aae?anao. Enoi/iee ia?aiia/aeueiiai
niiauaiey oa?yaony a iaii?aaeaeaiiii i?ioeii, iinoe/ue eioi?ia iaeuecy
i?eioeeieaeueii. Oeeiniou, eeoa?aoi?u, iiyou iieo/atho
eioi?iaoeeth-iineaiea iaecaanoii ioeoaea, ia?aaeatho aa aeaeueoa
iaoaaae, aac ii?aaeaeaiiiai aae?ana, eneaaeay aa.

Oeeinioey oa?yao naie a?aieoeu, i/a?oaiey oeeinioneiai oaenoa
?aciuaathony e ia/eiatho nouanoaiaaoue a eaeii-oi “?annayiiii” aeaea –
aioo?e noeoia, oeeueiia, iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee e o.ae. Aicieeaao
neooaoeey, eiaaea aeo oeeinionoaiaaiey i?aeoe/anee oaea ia caaeneo io
i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e aieaa oiai iineaaeiyy ?anniao?eaaaony
eae iiiaoa. Oeeinioey noaiiaeony oaea ia i?ioanneiiaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, e /eneo oeeinioia iinoiiaea?ia XX a. ioiinyo
ienaoaeae A. Aaeiai, A.Oeaaieeiaa, I.I?onoa, A.Oaa?oea, eeii?aaeenna?ia
N. Yecaiooaeia, Oaeeeie e ae?.

“Ana aeicaieaii”, “ie/aai ia aa?aioe?iaaii” – aeaaiue iaoin niciaiey
iinoiiaea?ia. Ana “nayuaiiia” e “aunieia” aini?eieiaaony eae ?acoeueoao
naiiiaiaia ethaeae, ea?a?oey “oaei – aeooa -aeoo” aeaaii ?ac?ooaia, a
aeooiaiinoue e aeooaaiinoue aini?eieiathony eae i?eciaee neaaioiey e
oecio?aiee. *aeiaae aieueoa ie ai /oi ia aa?eo, aio oaea “ia/ai”
aa?eoue.

A oeeinioee iinoiiaea?ia /aeiaaeo ?aeiiaiaeiaaii ia no?ieoue eeethcee ii
iiaiaeo ia?aoaiey iiauo oeaiiinoae (aaaeue i?aaeiea, eae iu ioiaoeee,
oaea ?ac?ooaiu), a i?inoi aini?eieiaoue aeeciue eae iia anoue, aac
iiiuoie aeeeoiaaoue, eaeie ae auoue. Ie? iianaaeiaaiinoe e iauaeaiiinoe
i?aa?auaaony a aeaaioth oeaiiinoue e aeaaioth oaio oeeinioneeo
?aciuoeaiee. A yoii ie?a ainiiaenoaotho nethieiooiua eioa?anu eiia/iuo
yiie?e/aneeo eiaeeaeaeia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo n/eoaao naay
caeiiiaeaoaeai naieo yoe/aneeo, ynoaoe/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo e eiuo
ono?aieaiee. Aeia?i, Enoeia, E?anioa – yoe Aaniethoiua oeaiiinoe –
iooaniaiu ia ia?eoa?eth iauanoaaiiie e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aeecie e
niciaiey.

Oeeinioey aieueoa ia ?aaioaao n eaoaai?eyie nouiinoue, caeii, i?e/eia e
ae?., n iiiiuueth eioi?uo aini?iecaiaeeeny onoie/eaue ii?yaeie auoey,
aai ii?aaeaeaiiinoue. Aeaaiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie iauanoaa e i?e?iaeu
iauyaeyaony iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue. Aicieeei oeaeia iao/iia iai?aaeaiea –
neia?aaoeea, eioi?ia enoiaeeo ec i?eciaiey a ea/anoaa i?eioeeia
naiiaeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee aicieeiiaaiea ii?yaeea ec aanii?yaeea, oaina,

Eoae, IINOIIAeA?IENONEAss OEEINIOEss A NAIAI IIIEIAIEE AUOEss IA
IA*EIAAO, A CAAA?OAAO NOA?OTH EEIETH ?ACAEOEss OIE EOEUeOO?U, A EIOI?IE
“AIA OIA?”. Iiaeeeiii aea iiaia oieeiaaiea auoey a oeeinioee aoaeao
aiciiaeii a oii neo/aa, anee noi?ie?oaony ie?iaicc?aiea, a ei?ia
ioee/iia io nia?aiaiiiai. Ii yoi aii?in aoaeouaai.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: O/aaiee aeey aocia… *. 2… N. 14-48.

2. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Oeeinioey”… N. 92-93. Iinoiiaea?ieci e
eoeueoo?a. Iaoa?eaeu “e?oaeiai noiea” // Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1993, ?3. N.
9-16.

3. Nie?eei A. A. Iniiau oeeinioee: O/aaiia iiniaea… N. 93-95.

4. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aocia. ?inoia-i/Ae… N. 125-160.

1. Oaia XI. NICIAIEA, AAI NOUIINOUe E I?IENOIAEAeAIEA

1. Niune i?iaeaiu niciaiey. Iniaaiiinoe aa ?aoaiey ia ?aciuo yoaiao
?acaeoey oeeinioee.

2. Ia?enenoneay eiioeaioeey niciaiey.

Niune i?iaeaiu niciaiey. Iniaaiiinoe aa ?aoaiey ia ?aciuo yoaiao aa
?acaeoey.

I?iaeaia niciaiey – iaeia ec naiuo o?oaeiuo e caaaaei/iuo. Caaaaei/iuo
iioiio, /oi NICIAIEA – YOI INIAIA NINOIssIEA, NAIENOAAIIIA OIEUeEI
*AEIAAEO. III IAIIAAIII NAssCUAAAO, NIIOIINEO OI, *OI *AEIAAE OAEAeAE,
ONEUOAE, E OI, *OI II II*OANOAIAAE, IIAeOIAE, IA?AAEEE. A niciaiee
/aeiaaeo iaeiia?aiaiii aeinooiai e ie?, e ii nai. Iiyoiio iiiaea
oeeiniou ii?aaeaeytho niciaiea eae /oaei ec /oaean ie?icaeaiey.

Niciaiea ia oieueei /oaei ie?icaeaiey, ii e e?ano. A NICIAIEE AeAII IA
OIEUeEI ANA CIAIEA I IE?A, II E ANss AIEUe IE?A. Ia neo/aeii, /oiau
oiyoue aieue (aeooaaioth eee oece/aneoth), ia eaeia-oi a?aiy ioeeth/atho
niciaiea n iiiiuueth ia?eioeeia, aeeiaiey e o.ae. Eiaiii niciaieai
iauyniyaony niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea e aeooaaiiio no?aaeaieth. Oae,
aeeaioiua, ia iaeaaeay niciaieai, ia ciatho e naiioaeenoaa. Noeoeeae –
/enoi /aeiaa/aneee aeo.

A enoi?ee oeeinioee I?IAEAIA NICIAIEss EIAAO AeAA O?IAIss NAIAAI
?AOAIEss:

Ia?aue – iienaiea oao niiniaia, eioi?uie aaue aeaiu a niciaiee (c?aiea,
neoo, inycaiea e o.ae.); ia oeeinioneii ycuea – yoi iienaiea oaiiiaia
(io a?a/. oaeiiiaiii – yaeythuaany) niciaiey;

Aoi?ie – iauyniaiea aiciiaeiinoe naiiai niciaiey, o.a. iauyniaiea naiiai
oaiiiaia.

I?aaenoaaeaiey i niciaiee oanii naycaiu n ainiiaenoaothueie
ie?iaicc?ai/aneeie onoaiiaeaie, a iioiio aioe/iue einiioeaio?eci,
n?aaeiaaaeiaue oaioeaio?eci e aio?iiioeaio?eci Iiaiai a?aiaie
oi?ie?iaaee ?aciia iiieiaiea niciaiey. Iiyoiio oi, /oi iacuaaeinue
niciaieai a iaeiie yiioa, iiaei ia i?eciaaaoueny a ea/anoaa oaeiaiai a
ae?oaie. Neiaii, eaaeaeay yiioa eiaea naia i?aaenoaaeaiea i niciaiee.

AIOE*IAss OEEINIOEss IOE?UEA OIEUeEI IAeIO NOI?IIO NICIAIEss
-IAI?AAEAIIINOUe IA IAUAEO, iioiio e auea eniieueciaaia iaoaoi?a (io
a?a/. iaoaoi?a —ia?aiin) ia/aoe ia ainea aeey iienaiey niciaiey: eae
aoeau ioia/aouaathony ia aeiua/ea ainea, oae iauaeo ioia/aouaaaony ia
“aeiua/ea ?acoia”. Oae auei neiaanii ioi?ieaii i?aaenoaaeaiea i
niciaiee.

Ae?oaay iniaaiiinoue niciaiey – oiaiea /aeiaaea nin?aaeioi/eaaoueny
aioo?e naay, iai?aaeyoue aieiaiea ia naie aioo?aiiee ie? – ia
aiaeece?iaaeanue oeeinioeae. I?e/eia iaeiinoi?iiiaai aeaeaiey i?iaeaiu
niciaiey iauyniyaony niaoeeoeeie ie?iaicc?aiey aioe/iiai a?aea. Ae?aaiee
a?ae i?aaenoaao ia?aae iaie i?e?iaeaeaiiui ?aaeenoii. Ii aue oaa?ai, /oi
i?aaeiao ciaiey nouanoaiaae aei oiai, eae aue oaeaeai, e i?iaeieaeaao
nouanoaiaaoue a oaeii aea aeaea e iinea aeoa aai aini?eyoey; /oi ?acoi
nouanoaoao eae aauue, a iioiio ii inoaaony ?acoiii, aeaaea anee a yoio
iiiaio /aeiaae e ia iuneeo.

?acoi e iauaeo nouanoaotho iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa, a a iiiaio eo
ano?a/e iauaeo inoaaeyao neaae ia “iiea” ?acoia. Neaae aea io?aaeaao
oieueei aiaoiinoue aauae, eaeath. Oiaaea oa?iei “eaeay” icia/ae
“aiaoithth oeao?o”, “aiaoiee aeae”. A einiioeaio?e/iii ie?iaicc?aiee
a?aea i/aiue iaei ianoa caieiaea ee/iinoue.

Aioe/iue a?ae ciae i aeooa, oeeiniou oiaaea ?annoaeaeaee i iae. Ii aeooo
iie aua ia aini?eieiaee eae ia/aei eioeiiinoe. Oaia aeooe aeey ieo auea
oaiie iaia?oaeaiey ne?uoiai aeaeaeaiey aauae e /aeiaaea a oii /enea.
Aeooa eae aeaeaeeoaeue i?eienuaaeanue ia oieueei /aeiaaeo, ii e
aeeaioiui, ieia?aeai e o.i.

Oaeei ia?acii, aioe/iue einiioeaio?eci ii?iaeee e aiieia
niioaaonoaothuea aio i?aaenoaaeaiey i niciaiee.

A N?AAeIAAAEIAOTH YIIOO O *AEIAAEA IIssAEEANUe IIO?AAIINOUe AIEUeOA
IA?AUAOUe AIEIAIEss IA NIANOAAIIUA IA?AAEEAAIEss. Iia auea aucaaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iauaiey n o?ainoeaiaeaioiui Aiaii. Aicieeea e oi?ia
oaeiai iauaiey – iieeoaa. Iieyueeny /aeiaae aeieaeai iia?oceoueny
aioo?ue naay, ioeeth/eoueny io iioiea aeecie, io /oanoaaiiuo aini?eyoee,
inaiaiaeeoueny io aeeeoaoa oaea.

Iieeony, oaeei ia?acii, ia nai /aeiaae eae oaeiaie, a aai aeooa.
Iiyaeyaony e ioee/iia io aioe/iinoe aa iiieiaiea. Aeooa oaia?ue – yoi
oi, /oi enoeiii nouanoaoao, eiaaea inoaaony aac ie?a, inaiaiaeaeaaony io
iaai. Iiyoiio iieeoao anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeatho aeooaaiua ia?aaeeaaiey.
Aio iie-oi e noaiiayony i?aaeiaoii aieiaiey n?aaeiaaaeiauo oeeinioia.

A iiauo oneiaeyo aioe/iay iaoaoi?a ioia/aoea ia ainea oaea ia
aiaeeeanue. O?aaiaaeenue eiua niiniau iienaiey niciaiey, ae?oaea
iaoaoi?u. Oaia?ue niciaiea iiaei eco/aoue naay oieueei n iiiiuueth
aiaeeca nianoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey. I?iaeaio niciaiey eae naiiniciaiey
/aoei noi?ioee?iaae Aa?aeee Aaaonoei (ia/aei O a. i.y.), ia eioi?iai
aieueoia aeeyiea ieacae a?a/aneee oeeinio, iaeei ec iniiaaoaeae
iaiieaoiiecia – Ieioei (III a. i.y.).

Ieioei caeiaeee iniiau na?ueaciie i?i?aaioee oaiu aeooiaiie nouiinoe e
naycaiiie n iae oaiu niciaiey. Iaia?oaeea iaee/ea o /aeiaaea aeooiaiiai
iiuoa, ii caeioa?aniaaeny aai niaea?aeaieai. Ieioei auaeaeye a iai o?e
o?iaiy:

Ia?aue – aunoee, aaea i?ienoiaeeo ioaeioiiaaiea a Aiaeanoaaiiii. *oiau
aueoe ia yoio o?iaaiue, iaaei, o/ee Ieioei, i?iaoaeeoueny io naiaai
oaea, i?eeoe e naiiio naaa, noaoue iaaeinyaaaiui aeey aiaoiaai ie?a. Ii
aeieai, a oai aieaa aa/ii, iaoiaeeoueny a yoii ninoiyiee /aeiaae ia
iiaeao: ii n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iioneaaony ia

aoi?ie o?iaaiue – ?aoeaenee (ia?auaiea iacaae) e ?annoaeaeaiey. Yoi
o?iaaiue, ia eioi?ii /aeiaaea iaeieaaaao iiiaiia?acea /oanoa, iuneae,
iiiuneia, naycaiiuo n aeeciueth “ii noeoeyi ie?a naai”.

O?aoee o?iaaiue – iecoee. Caeanue ainiiaenoaotho einoeieou e no?anoe.

NICIAIEA A NO?OEOO?A AeOOIAIIAI IIUOA, ii iiaieth Ieioeia, – yoi
eaeie-oi oeaio? iaaeaeo aeaoiy oaiaauie ciiaie: aaciieaiie, ia
niciathuae naay aeeciueth iaoaai “ss” a Aiaa, e iie/aeeaie,
aanniciaoaeueiie aeeciueth iaoaai oaea.

Oae, ia/eiay n Ieioeia e Aaaonoeia, NICIAIEA ?anniao?eaaeinue eae IA*OI
AOI?E*IIA, A IIOIIO IA NAIIA IIAeEEIIIA, IA NAIIA EO*OAA E AUNIEIA, *OI
ANOUe A *AEIAA*ANEII AeOOIAIII IIUOA. Ii/aio?

Ai-ia?auo, aeaaiaea?y niciaieth /aeiaae iiieiaao e?aoeia?aiaiiinoue
naiaai i?aauaaiey a ninoiyiee Aiaeanoaaiiie i?inoiou eae iaeacaiea,
io/aai iinoiyiii no?aaeaao e io/aaony, AEEAAO ?ACAeAIAIIIE AEECIUeTH:
aio aani?a?uaii i?eoiaeeony niioiineoue aeeciue “ii noeoeyi ie?a naai” e
aeeciue a Aiaa.

Ai-aoi?uo, NICIAIEA EEOAAO *AEIAAEA AA*IINOE. Iii ii a?aiaie ionoaao io
?aoathueo niauoee a aeooiaiie aeecie ethaeae. Aai iao a ninoiyiee
aaeeinoaa “ss” n Aiaii: iii iiyaeyaony iicaea. Eaeea-oi aeaaiua,
?aoathuea niauoey i?ienoiaeyo a ie?a aeooiaiiai iiuoa /aeiaaea aei oiai,
eae “aeeth/aaony” niciaiea. E anee au ethaee ia auee a?aoiaiu, iie iiaee
au iaieoenue aac niciaiey, iinoiyiii i?aauaaoue a Aiaa, a aa/iinoe.
NINOIssIEA NICIAIEss -NEAAeNOAEA A?AOA *AEIAAEA, neaaenoaea a?aiiinoe,
iaiiaeeeiiinoe a?aiaie.

A-o?aoueeo, NICIAIEA NO?IAI I?IOEAIIINOAAEssAO IANOIssUAA, I?IOEIA E
AOAeOUAA. Niiinoaaeyy a?aiaiiie ?yae, iii iiieiaao o?oieinoue e
yoaia?iinoue iiiaioa ianoiyuaai, eioi?ia iaoeiaeii iaiiaaiii noaiiaeony
i?ioeui. NIA?OUe I?ENOONOAOAO A EAAEAeII IAIIAAIEE AEECIE. E NICIAIEA IA
AeAAO *AEIAAEO CAAUOUe IA YOII. *ai noa?oa noaiiaeony /aeiaae, oai
aeoaaea e y?/a ii iniciaao o?aaeci a?aiaiiinoe.

A-/aoaa?ouo, NICIAIEA ia oieueei ioe?uaaao /aeiaaeo o?aaeci aai
nouanoaiaaiey ai a?aiaie, ii *ANOI I?INOI IAOAAO *AEIAAEO A AAI
AeAssOAEUeIINOE. Eae caiaoeee aua Ieioei e Aaaonoei, niciaoaeueiinoue e
eioaineaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe /anoi iaoiaeyony a ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoe. Iai?eia?, iuneue iiyaeyaony ?aiueoa
niciaiey e ia anaaaea ioaeaeaaony a iai. Aeaaea /aeiaa/aneee ieaaeaiaoe
iuneeo, eiaaea niciaiey (o.a. io?aaeaiea aai iunee) o iaai aua iao.
Niciaiea – ioaeane oia, ioia?aaeaiea i?ioeannia iuoeaiey, e, eae anyeia
ioia?aaeaiea, iii oiaiueoaao yia?aeth oia, iaoaao naiei ioaeaneii aio.

A-iyouo, NICIAIEA IAIIIEIAAO *AEIAAEO, *OI II ANOUe IA OIEUeEI
I?E?IAeIIA, OECE*ANEIA E OECEIEIAE*ANEIA NOUANOAI, II E IA*OI EIIA –
AeOOIAIIA. N?aaieaay a niciaiee ninoiyiey Aiaeanoaaiiiai yenoaca n
ninoiyieai oaeaniuo iio?aaiinoae e ioi?aaeaiee, /aeiaae ia/eiaao
nouaeeoueny naieo i?e?iaeii-oaeaniuo naienoa e aea/aiee.

I?eo/a ia Aaeaia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia yoii: iiea Aaeai aeee a Aeooa, ii
ia ciae nouaea. Oieueei ni?aaa cai?aoiue ieiae, ii ociae, /oi iaa, e
onouaeeeny. E eiaaea Aia iicaae aai, Aaeai ioaaoee, /oi ia iiaeao
iiaeieoe, eai iaa. Eae ecaanoii, Aia ni?inee: eoi neacae oaaa, /oi ou
iaa? Nouae – iiiaauaiea ia ioiaaeaiee /aeiaaea io aa/iinoe e Aiaa,
iiiaauaiea i niciaiee.

Niciaiea – yoi ia?a/aiiinoue /aeiaaea ia auai?: aeooiaiinoue eee
oaeaniinoue? Aeaiiue auai? eaaeaeia iiaia iieieaiea e eaaeaeue
?iaeaeaiiue /aeiaae aeaeatho aiiaue e aiiaue. A oaeii auai?a – oyaeanoue
iaeiiai ec i?ioeai?a/ee /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, e nin?aaeioi/aia yoa
oyaeanoue a niciaiee.

NAssCUe NICIAIEss E NO?AAeAIEss I?ECIAAAEE A AeAEUeIAEOAI IIIAEA
OEEINIOU. Oae, Aaaaeue i?eienuaae niciaieth niiniaiinoue auiineoue
iai?yaeaiea i?ioeai?a/ee aeecie, a Y. A. Eeueaieia a iaoa a?aiy ienae,
/oi “any aieue ie?a nouanoaoao, iniaaiii, oieueei a niciaiee”.

IIAIA A?AIss aioei a enoi?eth iiae ciaeii oiai niauoey, eioi?ia Ieoeoa
au?acee a aoi?ecia “Aia oia?”. IOEAC IO AIAA NAEAeAOAEUeNOAIAAE I
OI?IE?IAAIEE IIAIAI AeOOIAIIAI IIUOA ETHAeAE, A EIOI?II IA IEACAEINUe
IANOA AeEss OIAI AUNOAAI AAI O?IAIss, EIOI?UE IEIOEI IACUAAE
AIAEANOAAIIIE I?INOIOIE, ioaeioiiaaieai a Aiaeanoaaiiii. A yoi cia/eo,
/oi i?aaeiee IAOAIECI OI?IE?IAAIEss NICIAIEss, AAI IIIEIAIEss E
IAUssNIAIEss AUE NEIIAI, ?AC?OOAI. Aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aioe?uoue
niciaiea, ii-iiaiio aai enoieeiaaoue.

A Iiaia a?aiy auaeaeyeenue ia o?e o?iaiy aeooiaiiai iiuoa ethaeae, eae
yoi aeaeae Ieioei, a anaai aeaa: o?iaaiue ?aoeaenee e ?annoaeaeaiey e
o?iaaiue /oanoa, yiioeee e einoeieoia. A ieioeiianeie oa?ieiieiaee –
yoi n?aaeiee e iecoee o?iaie aeooiaiiai iiuoa.

“Nia?oue Aiaa” e o?ainoi?iaoeey no?oeoo?u aeooiaiiai iiuoa -yaeaiey
iaeiiai e oiai aea ii?yaeea. “Nia?oue Aiaa” nii?iaiaeaeaeanue iiyaeaieai
“iiaie” iiioeyoeee ethaeae, eioi?ua iioa?yee niiniaiinoue ienoe/aneiai
aaeeiaiey n Aiaii. Iie iauyaeee n?aaeiei aaeai eoeueoo?iue e?anoiaue
iioiae. Ia/aeanue e?eoeea aioe/iiai ia?aca niciaiey.

Ieeoi ia inia?eaae oio oaeo, /oi a ian iaoiaeyony ia?acu i?aaeiaoia.
Iaeiaei nouanoaiaaiea aia ian niioaaonoaothueo ?aaeueiuo aiaeiaia auei
iauyaeaii i?iaeaiaoe/iui. Niiiaiea a nouanoaiaaiee no?iaie aaeaeaaoiinoe
iaaeaeo ia?acii i?aaeiaoa a niciaiee e i?aaeiaoii aia niciaiey noaei
enoiaeiui ioieoii oaea ciaeiiie iai aeaea?oianeie iiaeaee niciaiey. Ii,
a ioee/ea io aioe/iuo oeeinioia, aaeeinoaaiiui iiaeeeiiui nouanoaiaaieai
aauae i?eciae eo nouanoaiaaiea a iunee.

A oneiaeyo ioeaca io nayce n Aiaeanoaaiiui iuneue eioa?i?aoe?iaaeanue
oieueei eae ninoiyiea ee/iinoe, noauaeoa. Ionthaea e iiaay iaoaoi?a
niciaiey: iii ia aineiaay aeiua/ea, ia eioi?ie ioia/aouaathony ia?acu
?aaeueiuo aauae, a iaeee ninoae, a eioi?ii niaea?aeaony eaeae e ia?acu
aei oiai, eae niciaiea “aeeth/aaony” a iauaiea n ie?ii. I?oaaa-e-Aannao
oae ioa?aeoa?eciaae yoo iaoaoi?o: “Aaue ia aoiaeyo a niciaiea ecaia, iie
niaea?aeaony a iai eae eaeae”. A enoi?ee oeeinioee oaeia o/aiea auei
iacaaii eaeaaeeciii, a ioee/ea io aioe/iiai ?aaeecia.

Ii eae au ie ioeacuaaeenue iuneeoaee Iiaiai a?aiaie io n?aaeiaaaeiaiai
ie?iaicc?aiey, iie nio?aieee n iei naycue, oae eae aini?iecaiaeeee
iaauee ?aaiou n aioo?aiiei ie?ii. IA?AAIOAIIIA A N?AAeIEA AAEA OIAIEA
*AEIAAEA IA?AUAOUe AIEIAIEA IA NAIE AIOO?AIIEE AeOOIAIUE IE? NOAEI
INIIAIE IIAIAA?IIAENEIE EOEUeOO?U. Iiyoiio i?e iauyniaiee oaiiiaia
niciaiey ieeoi ia niiiaaaeny a oii, /oi iii ioe?uoi oieueei naaa naiiio.
NICIAIEss IAO AAC NAIINICIAIEss – OAEIA AUE AUAIAe OEEINIOIA IIAIAI
A?AIAIE. A AEOA NAIINICIAIEss NICIAIEA NAII NAAss CIAAO, I?IssNIssAO
NAIA NIAeA?AEAIEA E NO?OEOO?O.

Yoei auei aucaaii e ?aaeueiia eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u aeooiaiinoe.
Aioo?aiiaa aeooiaiia i?ino?ainoai naeeiaeinue, eae oaa?aiaaay eiaea, aei
i?aaeiaoii-eiae/aneiai niaea?aeaiey e ia?aaeeaaiee, naycaiiuo n
/oanoaaiiinoueth. Iiyoiio Aeaea?o ana naia aieiaiea ia?auae ia oio
o?iaaiue aeooiaiie aeecie, eioi?ue Ieioei iacuaae o?iaiai ?aoeaenee e
?aciuoeaiey.

Ieioei, i?eciaa niciaiea aoi?e/iui, ia iia aeaaea iiiuneeoue, /oiau
ia/aoue oeeinionoaiaaiea n i?eciaiey “ss” e niciaiey /ai-oi
iniiaiiieaaathuei. Aeaea?o, iai?ioea, eiaiii oae ?aaeeciaae aeo
oeeinionoaiaaiey. A yoii e i?iyaeyaony aeoo iiaie eoeueoo?u “aac Aiaa”:
enoiaeiie oi/eie ion/aoa aeey iiieiaiey ie?a, enoi?ee noaiiaeony /aeiaae
e aai niciaiea. Ana, /oi niaa?oaaony e iaaethaeaaony a ie?a e enoi?ee,
naycuaaaony oieueei n aai oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Ie/oi, acyoia
iiieii /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia aeiioneaaony a ea/anoaa
ooaa?aeaeaiey i ie?a. NICIAIEA NOAEI N?AAeNOAII IAIA?OAEAIEss
IAUAEOEAII-I?E?IAeIIAI IE?A, N?AAeNOAII AeIEACAOAEUeNOAA AAI
NOUANOAIAAIEss.

Oaeei ia?acii, a iiaiaa?iiaeneii niciaiee niaaeeieeenue aioe/iay
onoaiiaea ia oeaiiinoue i?aaeiaoiiai ie?a, iai?aaeaiiinoue aieiaiey ia
iaai e n?aaeiaaaeiaue iaaue ?aaiou niciaiey n naiei niaie.

AeAEA?O CAEIAEEE INIIAU IOIAEAeANOAEAIEss NICIAIEss E AeOOE N
I?AAeIAOII-EIAE*ANEEI NIAeA?AEAIEAI. ?AEEAEICIUA E IENOE*ANEEA
EIIIIIAIOU IIUOA NICIAIEss AUEE OOA?ssIU, A IAI AINOI?AEANOAIAAEE
I?AAEEA EIAEEE. Ionthaea e ?iaeeeanue iai?aaeaiiinoue niciaiey:
ia?aaeaeaoue ana, iiaei?aaeoue, oeo/oeoue a niioaaonoaee n yoie eiaeeie.
NICIAIEA IA?ANOAEE IOEE*AOUe IO IICIAIEss. Ethaee nicaeaee ia?ac ie?a,
niioaaonoaothuee no?oeoo?a eo aeooiaiiai iiuoa.

Ia?enenoneay eiioeaioeey niciaiey.

Ai a?aiaia, niaiaaoea n aeeciueth e aeayoaeueiinoueth E.Ia?ena e O.
Yiaaeuena, i?ioeai?a/ey ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa i?iyaeeenue noieue yaii, a
aeaaeaiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia ana noa?u
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae iaia?oaeeeenue noieue io/aoeeai, /oi ieeoi
oaea ia niiiaaaeny a ia?ae/iinoe, aaceniinoe iaoa?eaeueiiai,
yeiiiie/aneiai eioa?ana. Ethaee e ie?oaeathuay i?e?iaea noaee a /enoii
aeaea iauaeoii oicyenoaaiiie e oieueei oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaoa?eaeueiua iio?aaiinoe noaee aaaeoueie, a iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai
– iniiaiiieaaathuei, aeiieie?othuei niiniaii i?iecaiaenoaa. Ethaee
i?eciaee yoio niinia aeecie, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei ia eciaiaiee e
no?oeoo?u eo aeooiaiiai iiuoa. A iai i?iecioea ia?anoaiiaea oeaiiinoiuo
i?eaioaoeee: iaoa?eaeueiue eioa?an e iaoa?eaeueiua iio?aaiinoe auee
i?eciaiu aeaaiuie oeaiiinoyie. Ia/aeanue ioe?uoay e iniciaiiay ai?ueaa
eeannia ca iaoa?eaeueiue oniao.

Ia?en eco/ae eiaiii oaeie niinia aeecie ethaeae, a oaeaea iaoaieci
oi?ie?iaaiey niioaaonoaothuaai aio niciaiey e i?eoae e auaiaeo i oii,
/oi IA NICIAIEA II?AAeAEssAO AUOEA, IA NICIAIEA EIINO?OE?OAO IE?
ssAEAIEE, A, IAIAI?IO, AUOEA II?AAeAEssAO NICIAIEA. NICIAIEA ANOUe
INICIAIIIA AUOEA. Enoaoe, iiae auoeai ii iiieiae ?aaeueiua oneiaey
aeecie ethaeae a ao?aeoaciii iauanoaa, aaea ana auei iinoaaeaii ia
neoaeao iaoa?eaeueiiio oniaoo.

Iiaeai ee iu naaiaeiy aeieoue Ia?ena ca oi, /oi ii oae “cacaieee”,
i?eiecee /aeiaa/aneia niciaiea, aeooiaiue iiuo? Eiia/ii aea, iao.
Iai?ioea, ii iieacae ethaeyi, /oi aaaeiiua oieueei iaoa?eaeueiui
eioa?anii, iie “eciaeue/aee”, eo niciaiea noaei ooeeeoa?ii-i?aaiaoe/iui,
iie ie i /ai ia iiaoo aieaa aeoiaoue, e?iia iaoa?eaeueiie auaiaeu, iie
ai?thony ia ca aunoea eaeaaeu e no?aaeatho ia ii iiaiaeo naiaai
ianiioaaonoaey ia?aco Aiaeeth, iie ecia?aee niinia aeecie, aaea ana
caiueaaony ia iaoa?eaeueiue oniao, auaiaeo, aeaiueae. Eaieoae noay
oeaeueth /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey –
aeaaiaeoeie.

Niciaiea ethaeae iinoiyiii aea?aeeony iiae eiio?ieai eaieoaea,
oi?ie?oaony ei a ianniaii ianooaaa. Oae eae oeeiiaiea io n?aaeiaai
niaea?aeaiey niciaiey noaiiaeony aeey eaaeaeiai ?aai/aai ie/oiaeii
iaeui, oi noaei aiciiaeiui aiai?eoue ia IAUANOAAIIII NICIAIEE.
Neiaini/aoaiea “iauanoaaiiia niciaiea” ia iiiye au ia oieueei Ieioei,
aeey eioi?iai niciaiea auei ainiiieiaieai i ano?a/a /aeiaaea n Aiaii, ii
e Aeaea?o, iauyaeaoee ia/aeii /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey aeo iuoeaiey.

Aeey Ia?ena a ii?aaeaeaiee niciaiey eae “iauanoaaiiiai”, o.a. caaenyuaai
a naiai niaea?aeaiee io iauanoaa, iao ie/aai no?aiiiai, eai ii ioe?ue
?aaeueiue oaeo: nioeeaeueiay nenoaia iiaeao noaaeeueii ooieoeeiie?iaaoue
eeoue i?e iinoiyiiii aini?iecaaaeaiee a ianniaii ianooaaa oaeiai
niaea?aeaiey niciaiey, eioi?ia aaeaeaaoii ae.

Enoi?e/aneee iiuo nouanoaiaaiey nioeeaeecia a iaoae no?aia oaeaea
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi aeecianiiniaiinoue nenoaiu nioeeaeecia
iaania/eaaeanue i?aaeaea anaai aaeaeaaoiui niciaieai ethaeae: ionthaea e
o?oaeiaie aa?ieci, e iiaaaea a Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia. Ia neo/aeii
i?iaeaia ainieoaiey iiae?anoathuaai iieieaiey oaeaeyeinue oae iiiai
aieiaiey.

Ia?en aiaeece?iaae i?iaeaio iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey i?eiaieoaeueii e
?acaeoiio eaieoaeecio, aaea iaia?oaeeeenue eeanniaua i?ioeai?a/ey.
Iiyoiio ii naycuaae niaea?aeaiea niciaiey oiai eee eiiai eiaeeaeaea n
aai eeanniaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth. N?aaeiee i?aaenoaaeoaeue eeanna
aeoiaao eae ana, /oanoaoao eae ana, eioa?i?aoe?oao niauoey eae ana.
“Eeann ii?aaeaeyao eo aeeciaiiia iieiaeaiea, – ienae Ia?en, – a aianoa n
oai e eo ee/ioth noaeueao, iiae/eiyao eo naaa”. Ei?i/a. NICIAIEA
EIAeEAEAeA NOAIIAEONss OOIEOeEAE IAAeEIAeEAEAeOAEUeIIAI NICIAIEss.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia niciaiea iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyaony niaea?aeaieai
eieeaeoeaiuo oi?i iuoeaiey e /oanoaiaaiee. EAEIAI AUOEA ETHAeAE, OAEIAI
E EO NICIAIEA, E IAIAI?IO.

Niaea?aeaiea niciaiey iiaeii, ii Ia?eno, auynieoue, anee ciaoue, “/oi” e
“eae” ethaee i?iecaiaeyo. A yoii e ninoiye IAOA?EAEENOE*ANEEE IAOIAe
AIAEECA NICIAIEss, i?aaeeiaeaiiue e oniaoii i?eiaiaiiue Ia?enii.

NIA?AIAIAI EE IA?ENIA IAOIAe AIAEECA NICIAIEss? Ioe?uoue Ia?enii iaoiae
aiaeeca niciaiey, aaconeiaii, ia yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui. Ii/aio?

Ai-ia?auo, a iai neeoeii neeueii ooaa?aeaeaaony caaeneiinoue
niaea?aeaiey niciaiey io i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e
iaoa?eaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo iiaoaeaeaiee. Ii aaaeue enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa
aeaiiino?e?oao aeooiaiua ono?aieaiey eiaeeaeaeia e aeaaea oeaeuo
ia?iaeia, eioi?ua ieeae ia naycaiu n caaioaie i caiiii aeaaiiieo/ee e
ei?unoiie ai?ueaie ca iaoa?eaeueiua eioa?anu.

ai-aoi?uo, Ia?enia iiaeoiae e aiaeeco niciaiey aacee/iinoai. Ii aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue iauaa niaea?aeaiea eaeiai-oi
on?aaeiaiiiai iaaeuiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai niciaiey, eioi?ia aunooiaao a
ea/anoaa i?eioaeeoaeueiie neeu ii ioiioaieth e niciaieth eiaeeaeaea.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia niciaiea, a neo/aa i?eciaiey aai iieiie
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiinoe iauanoaii, auaiaeeony ca i?aaeaeu anyeie
i?aanoaaiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Oiaaea ana i?anooiieee iiaoo auoue
ii?aaaeaiu, eai iauynieoue eo eca?auaiiia niciaiea iiaeii nnueeaie ia
ianiaa?oainoai iauanoaa. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia niciaiea euao oiaaea naiaai
ii?aaaeaiey a /ai-oi iaaeee/iinoiii eee naa?oee/iinoiii, /oi ii?iaeaeaao
iaeei ec naiuo no?aoiuo ii?ieia /aeiaa/aneie iaoo?u – oinoaaiioth e
i?aanoaaiioth eaiue.

A-o?aoueeo, aicieeaao aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaaeaiey oaeiai nioeeaeueiiai
yaeaiey, eae i?oiaeieney. Oa?iei “i?oiaeieney” (io a?a/. i?oin – i?yiie,
i?aaeeueiue, aeieney – iiaiea) eiaao ?aeeaeiciia i?ienoiaeaeaiea e
icia/aao “i?aaeeueioth” aeieo?eio, oeene?iaaiioa aaoi?eoaoiuie
einoaioeeyie ?aeeaeiciie iaueiu e iaycaoaeueioth aeey anao aa /eaiia. A
nioeeaeueiii niunea i?oiaeieney – yoi ainiiaenoai eieeaeoeaa iaae
ee/iinoueth, aa?iaa, ainiiaenoai eieeaeoeaiie oinoaaiiie e i?aanoaaiiie
onoaiiaee.

A oneiaeyo ainiiaenoaa i?oiaeienee eiaeeaeaeooi noaiiaeony aea?oaie
eieeaeoeaiuo ineoicia. Aai iiiaea nouanoaaiiua /a?ou neiaeiie
yiioeeiiaeueiie e eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeecie iiaeaaeythony eee
auoaniythony. Aeooiaiay aeeciue eiaeeaeaea eae aaoiiiiiue oai?/aneee aeo
i?ae?auaaony.

Iiiaea iuneeoaee, o/eouaay ia?a/eneaiiua auoa na?ueaciua aic?aaeaiey,
i?aaeeaaatho ioeacaoueny io Ia?eniaa aiaeeca niciaiey e ?anniao?eaaoue
aai eae oieeaeueii-ee/iinoiue i?ioeann. Niciaiea, n/eoatho iie, neaaeoao
?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?ioaeathuae a
oieeaeueiii aioo?aiiai ie?a /aeiaaea.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, e?eoeee Ia?eniaa aiaeeca niciaiey i?aau, eiaaea
aiai?yo i aai “iaaieiaiee” e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio niciaieth a ?aieao yoiai
aiaeeca. N ae?oaie, iu i?eciaai, /oi nouanoaotho eaeea-oi anaiauea
(a?oiiiaua, eeanniaua, iaoeeiiaeueiua e o.ae.) oi?iu aini?eyoey ie?a,
oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee e ia?aaeeaaiey, eioi?ua aini?iecaiaeyony a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii niciaiee.

Anoanoaaiii aicieeaao aii?in: *OI ANOUe NICIAIEA? EIAeEAEAeOAEUeIUE
OAI?*ANEEE oieeaeueiue AEO EEE NIAeA?AEAIEA AeOOIAIIAI IIUOA,
AeAOA?IEIE?IAAIIIA IIEIAEAIEA *AEIAAEA A NO?OEOO?A IAUANOAAIIUO
IOIIOAIEE?

Ioaa/ay ia yoio aii?in, neaaeoao eiaoue aaeaeo: Ia?en ieeiaaea ia
io?eoeae, /oi niciaiea anoue anaaaea “iia niciaiea”, /oi eaaeaeue
/aeiaae ia?aaeeaaao naith iaoeeiiaeueioth nii?e/anoiinoue ia “naie
eaae”, aa?oao a Aiaa ia “naie eaae”, iiieiaao e ia?aaeeaaao
eeanniai-a?oiiiaua eioa?anu ia “naie eaae” e o.ae. Eae iao aeaoo
iaeeiaeiauo eenoueaa ia iaeiii e oii aea aea?aaa, oae iao e aeaoo
iaeeiaeiauo ethaeae e niioaaonoaaiii – aeaoo iaeeiaeiauo oi?i aeooiaiiai
iiuoa. Ii eae eenouey naycaiu n aeeciueth aea?aaa, oae e ethaee
“iiaeieouaatho” naie aeooiaii-aioo?aiiee ie? “nieaie”, eaeoueie io
nioeeaeueiuo neiaa, e eioi?ui iie i?eiaaeeaaeao, io iauanoaa, a eioi?ii
iie aeeaoo, e a eoiaa – io anaai ?iaea /aeiaa/aneiai.

?acoiaaony, /aeiaaeo aeai aea? naiaiaeu auae?aoue “ae?aai” naiae aeecie,
e ii iiaeao iaiyoue enoi/ieee naiae aeooiaiie “iiaeieoee”, ii
inaiaiaeeoueny iieiinoueth io ieo aio ia aeaii. Iiyoiio iiea NOUANOAOTHO
AINOAeA?NOAA, ?ACAeAEAIEA O?OAeA, IAOeEE E O.Ae., IA?ENIA IAOIAe AIAEECA
NICIAIEss IAEUeCss NIENUAAOUe A A?OEA ENOI?EE. Iu ?anniio?aee
naiaia?acioth enoi?eth niciaiey, eioi?ay io?aaeaao ?aaeueioth enoi?eth
auoey ethaeae. I?aa ieacaeny Ia?en, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi niciaiea anoue
“iniciaiiia auoea”. Iaiyeenue ethaee, eo auoea, e aianoa n ieie
eciaiyeenue iaoaieciu oi?ie?iaaiey eo niciaiey, aai niaea?aeaiea. Yoi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iiuoii oeeinionoaiaaiey e a iaoe aeie.

NIA?AIAIIUA IINOIIAeA?IENONEEA OEEINIOU, IENAOAEE, YNOAOU OIEEOTHO
NICIAIEA EAE IIOIE ?A*AI?IECAIAeNOAA, IACIA*AIEA EIOI?IAI NINOIEO A OII,
*OIAU NEO*AEIUA NEAIAEU E IINEAIEss IEIOEOAeA AU?ACEOUe A ssCUEA e
IA?AAeAOUe IAECAANOII EOAeA E EIIO. Niciaiea ioioneaaony a naiaiaeiue
iieao ii eioi?iaoeeiiiiio i?ino?ainoao, a aai niaea?aeaiea ia/eiaao
iaiiieiaoue oecio?aie/aneee a?aae. Aeaaiui ninoiyieai niciaiey
noaiiaeony “i?acaeiinoue aeooe”.

Eiia/ii, ioaeii o/eouaaoue, /oi oaeia iiieiaiea niciaiey, nicaeaiiia a
XX a. oeeinionoaothuae e ynoaonoaothuae yeeoie, io?aaeaao oieueei
oaiaeaioeeth a aeooiaiie eoeueoo?a iauanoaa. Eaaeaeue eiie?aoiue
eiaeeaeae i?eiauaaony e yoie oaiaeaioeee ii-naiaio, a ?aciie noaiaie.
Ethaee iioaioeeaeueii (o.a. a aiciiaeiinoe) yaeythony naiaiaeiuie
o/anoieeaie naiaai aeooiaiiai noaiiaeaiey e nic?aaaiey, /oi
i?aaeiieaaaao naiinoiyoaeueioth ?aaioo oia e aeooe eaaeaeiai.

Ii ?aaioa yoa i/aiue o?oaeiay, a iioiio ia ana aa auaea?aeeaatho e ia
iaa niaeaoathony. Oiaaea niciaiea ia/eiaao “?aaioaoue” ii iaeaa/aiiiio
aa?eaioo: iii eee iiae/eiyaony aeanoe neaiuo aanniciaoaeueiuo nee, ia
iuoaynue eo i?iynieoue, eee iai?aaeyao naia aieiaiea aiaia, ia
caaea?aeeaaynue aioo?e ee/iiai aeooiaiiai iiuoa n aai niiiaieyie,
i?ioeai?a/eyie e eiuie o?oaeiinoyie.

E a ia?aii, e aoi?ii neo/aa oi?ie?iaaiea e ?ino ee/iinoe i?ae?auaaony,
oae eae inoaaony iaaino?aaiaaiiie aeaaiay niiniaiinoue niciaiey – eiaoue
ioaeanoai auianoe oyaeanoue ie?iaie nei?ae e aiee, auoue “e?anoii”.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: O/aaiee aeey aocia… *. 2… N. 288-317.

2. Iaia?aeaoaeee I. E. Niciaiea eae oeeinioneay i?iaeaia // Aii?inu
oeeinioee. 1990. ?10.

3. Ie? oeeinioee. Eieaa aeey /oaiey. A 2 /. *. 1. I., 1991. ?acaeae 4.

4. I?iaeaia niciaiey a nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie oeeinioee. I., 1989.

5. Oeeinioey. O/aaiee aeey aocia. ?inoia-i/Ae… N. 162-211.

1. Oaia XII. AEOOAEUeIUA OEEINIONEEA I?IAEAIU *AEIAAEA

1. I?iaeaia /aeiaaea a enoi?ee oeeinioee. Aai i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Aaeeinoai
a iai aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai.

2. Nouiinoue e nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea.

3. Eiaeeaeae e ee/iinoue. Niune e oeaeue aeecie.

I?iaeaia /aeiaaea a enoi?ee oeeinioee. Aai i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Aaeeinoai a
iai aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai.

I?IAEAIA *AEIAAEA – iaeia ec naiuo aaaeiuo a oeeinioee. Iniaaiii
aeooaeueia iia a ia?aeiiiua ia?eiaeu ?acaeoey iauanoaa, eiaaea iaeaieaa
ino?i anoaao aii?in i niunea e oeaee nouanoaiaaiey eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea.
Eiaiii oaeie ia?aoiae ia?aaeeaaao naaiaeiy ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?ey.
Iaeiaei /oiau iieiaa iniciaoue nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea oeeinioneie
aio?iiieiaee, iaiaoiaeeii iciaeiieoueny, oioy au ae?aooea, n aa
enoi?e/aneei ?acaeoeai.

Ia/aei caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie oeeinioneie o?aaeeoeee aiiaua e oeeinioneie
aio?iiieiaee, a /anoiinoe, iieiaeeea aioe/iay A?aoeey. Ia?aiia/aeueii
/aeiaae a ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee nouanoaiaae ia nai ii naaa, a eeoue
a nenoaia ii?aaeaeaiiuo ioiioaiee, aini?eieiaaoeony eae AANIETHOIUE
II?ssAeIE E EINIIN. Ii aeee a aaeeiii, ia?acaeaeueiii ie?a ni anae naiae
i?e?iaeiie e nioeeaeueiie n?aaeie, iaiaeooaaeaiiuie i?aaeiaoaie,
aeeaioiuie e aiaaie. Aeaaea aiae iaoiaeeeenue aioo?e einiina e yaeyeenue
aeey ethaeae ?aaeueiuie aeaenoaothueie eeoeaie. *aeiaae iuneeeny eae
iee?ieini, yaeyaoeeny io?aaeaieai iae?ieiniina, eioi?ue iiieiaeny eae
aeeaie i?aaieci. Eiaiii oae niio?aee ia /aeiaaea i?aaenoaaeoaee
ieeaoneie oeieu, noiyaoea ia iiceoeeyo AEEICIECIA. Iie io?eoeaee
a?aieoeo iaaeaeo aeeaui e iaaeeaui e iieaaaee anaiauoth iaeooaaeaiiinoue
oieaa?noia.

A n?aaeiaaaeiauea /aeiaae ?anniao?eaaeny i?aaeaea anaai eae /anoue
ie?iaiai ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiiai Aiaii. A i?aaenoaaeaiea i iai
naiaeeeinue e oiio, /oi /aeiaae anoue “ia?ac e iiaeiaea Aiaa”. ?aaeueii,
cia/eo, /aeiaae ec-ca naiaai a?aoiiaaeaiey aioo?aiia aue ?acaeaiai.
Iiyoiio ii ?anniao?eaaeny eae aaeeinoai aiaeanoaaiiie e /aeiaa/aneie
i?e?iaeu, aiieiuaiiia a ee/iinoe O?enoa.

A nioeeaeueiii ieaia n?aaeiaaaeiaue /aeiaae i?iaicaeaoaeny ianneaiui
o/anoieeii aiaeanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea e yaeyeny nouanoaii oaa?iui e
ie/oiaeiui ii ioiioaieth e Aiao. Aeaaiay aai caaea/a ninoiyea a oii,
/oiau i?eiaueoueny e Aiao e nianoenue a aeaiue No?aoiiai noaea. Iiyoiio
any ae?aia /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee au?aaeaeanue a oi?ioea:
a?aoiiaaeaiea-eneoieaiea. Ioaa/aoue ca naie iinooiee ia?aae Aiaii
eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeieaeai aue nai.

Oeeinioneay aio?iiieiaey Iiaiai a?aiaie oi?ie?iaaeanue iiae aeeyieai
ca?iaeaeathueony eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee, iao/iiai ciaiey e iiaie
eoeueoo?u, iieo/eaoae iacaaiea AOIAIECIA. Anee iuneeoaee n?aaeiaaaeiauey
?aoaee i?iaeaio /aeiaaea a ienoe/aneii ieaia, oi oeeinioey yiioe
Aic?iaeaeaiey e Iiaiai a?aiaie noaaeea aai ia caiioth iniiao e ia yoie
ii/aa iuoaeanue ?aoeoue aio?iiieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu. Iia ioeacaeanue io
o/aiey ia ecia/aeueiie a?aoiaiie nouiinoe /aeiaaea e ooaa?aeaeaea aai
anoanoaaiiia no?aieaiea e aeia?o, n/anoueth e aa?iiiee. Oeeiniou yoiai
a?aiaie ia io?eoeaee Aiaa iieiinoueth, ii aeaeaee naiei ciaiaieai ia
aai, a /aeiaaea. E?eoeeoy o?enoeaineoth aeiaiaoeeo ia ecia/aeueiie
a?aoiaiinoe /aeiaaea, iie ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi /aeiaae io i?e?iaeu, io aeiy
naiaai ?iaeaeaiey aeia? e iaa?aoiaai.

Iaeiaei iiae aeeyieai /anoiiai eioa?ana i?aaenoaaeaiey i /aeiaaea,
iioeaao aai iiaaaeaiey e aeeciaiiuo onoaiiaeao iaiyeenue. A ni/eiaieyo
iuneeoaeae ana io/aoeeaaa cacao/aee iioeau eiaeeaeaeoaeecia, yaiecia e
ooaeeoa?ecia. Ia neo/aeii ?aiiee IA?ENECI caiyeny aiaeeci i?ioeanna
aeaaoiaiecaoeee, iaaethaeaaoaainy a eaieoaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa. Iieiaeie
Ia?en enneaaeiaae i?e/eiu io/oaeaeaiey /aeiaaea io iauanoaa, eneae iooe
aai i?aiaeieaiey, ainnoaiiaeaiey /aeiaa/aneiai aeinoieinoaa, iieiie
?aaeecaoeee aai eioa?ania. I?ei?eoaoiui noaiiaeeny ia /aeiaae, a
iauanoai.

Yoa iiceoeey niaea?aeaea a naaa aeinoaoi/ii ni?aaaaeeeaiai e
ioiineoaeueii enoeiiiai. Eai ynii, /oi /aeiaae eae oaeiaie oieueei
oiaaea noaiiaeony /aeiaaeii, eiaaea ii anooiaao a iiiai/eneaiiua e
iinoaiaiii oiiiaeaaoeany nayce: nia/aea ni naiae naiueae, caoai – ni
naa?noieeaie, noaiiaeony /eaiii eaeeo-oi nioeeoiia: iaoeee, ainoaea?noa
e ae?. Iaeiaei iiaeiaiay oi/ea c?aiey ia aannii?ia, a iae caiaoia
iaeiinoi?iiiinoue e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iianiinoue.

Nioeeaeecaoeey /aeiaaea, aieioue aei aai “iaiauanoaeaiey”,
aeeth/aiiinoue aac inoaoea a iauanoaaiiua nayce e ioiioaiey a?iceo
oo?aoie aai ee/iinoe e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe. Iieo/aaony, /oi /aeiaae ia
ia?ae/ai, a i?iecaiaeai e aoi?e/ai ii ioiioaieth e iauanoao.
Iaiiaoi?eiinoue, oieeaeueiinoue e naiiniciaiea aai oa?ythony. *aeiaaea
ia/eiatho ?anniao?eaaoue oaea ia eae oeaeue, a eae n?aaenoai aa
aeinoeaeaiey. Oeaeue aea ana aieueoa nioeeaeece?oaony, iai?aaeyaony ia
iauanoai, ainoaea?noai. Ionthaea i?yiay aei?iaa e eiioeaioeee “aeioeea”,
eiaaea /aeiaae i?aaenoaao ia?aae iaie eae iaeia ec iiiai/eneaiiuo
aeaoaeae naa?o/aeiaa/aneiai, ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia. I?e yoii
iieo/aaony, /oi ia ainoaea?noai nouanoaoao aeey /aeiaaea, a /aeiaae –
aeey ainoaea?noaa e iauanoaa.

Ia iauyniaiea I?IAEAIU I?IENOIAEAeAIEss *AEIAAEA cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea
ieacaea yaiethoeeiiiay oai?ey *. Aea?aeia. A iae iu iaoiaeei auaiae i
oii, /oi /aeiaae eae aeieiae/aneee aeae naieie ?iaeineiaiuie ei?iyie
ooiaeeo e iaacueyiiiiaeiaiui i?aaeeai. Iinea nia?oe o/aiiai iaoiaeee
eneiiaaiuo iaacueyiiethaeae iiaeoaa?aeeee ni?aaaaeeeainoue oaeiai
iauyniaiey.

Iaeiaei Aea?aei ia ioaaoee ia aii?in, /oi eiaiii iineoaeeei i?e/eiie
auaeaeaiey /aeiaaea ec aeeaioiiai ie?a. Ioaao iiiuoaeny aeaoue Yiaaeuen:
iaeioi?ua aeaeu /aeiaaeiia?aciuo iaacueyi iiae aeeyieai
i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee aeinoaoi/ii ?acei eciaieee naie ia?ac
aeecie. Iie ia?aa?aeenue n aea?aaueaa ia caieth. A ?acoeueoaoa
o?ainoi?ie?iaaeenue ooieoeee eo ia?aaeieo eiia/iinoae. Iinoaiaiii iie
i?aa?aoeeenue a i?aaiu aeey eniieueciaaiey i?oaeee o?oaea e
i?iecaiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeiuo ecaeaeee e i?iaeoeoia. O?oae niinianoaiaae
?acaeoeth iicaa, iiyaeaieth niciaiey e ?a/e.

Oae aea?aeiianeay eiioeaioeey AIO?IIIAAIACA aeiiieieeanue ia?enenoneie
oai?eae NIOeEIAAIACA e a oeeinioee iiyaeeinue iiiyoea
AIO?IIINIOeEIAAIACA.

I?iaeieaeay oaio aio?iiinioeeiaaiaca, o.a. i?ienoiaeaeaiey /aeiaaea, iai
ia ieiiaaoue i?iaeaiu NIIOIIOAIEss A IAI AEIEIAE*ANEIAI E NIOeEAEUeIIAI
IA*AE. Iiaeaeoe, ieeoi ia inia?eaaao oiai oaeoa, /oi /aeiaae
aeaienoaaiai: ii e aeeaioiia e ia aeeaioiia. Ia i?eau/iii iai ycuea
/aeiaae – yoi nouanoai I?E?IAeIIA E NIOeEAEUeIIA. Ii eae niioiinyony yoe
aeaa ia/aea a /aeiaaea, aeaa aai i?e?iaeu?

I?e ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in nouanoaotho aeaa e?aeiinoe. Iaeia ec ieo
naiaeeo /aeiaaea e aeeaioiiio, ieioneiio ia/aeo. Oae, C. O?aeae iieaaae,
/oi ai anao noa?ao aeecie, aeeth/ay aunoea, /aeiaae aeaeaeei aeaaiui
ia?acii aeeaioiuie einoeieoaie.

I?ioeaiiieiaeiue iiaeoiae iaaeiioeaieaaao, a oi e aiana eaii?e?oao
aeieiae/aneea iniiau nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaaea e aai aeayoaeueiinoe. Iie
iauyaeythony /ai-oi ianouanoaaiiui, niioonoaothuei. A oi aea a?aiy iniai
iiae/a?eeaaaony cia/aiea iauanoaaiiiai, nioeeaeueiiai a /aeiaaea. A yoii
ooaa?aeaeaiee anoue naie ?aciiu. Nioeeaeueiuie i?e/eiaie iiaeii, a
/anoiinoe, iauynieoue iaeioi?ua aeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe /aeiaaea. Oae,
a ?acaeouo no?aiao iaaethaeaaony aenaea?aoeey, o.a. onei?aiiia
nic?aaaiea ethaeae. E, iaiai?io, a ia?acaeouo ?aaeiiao i?ienoiaeeo eo
oece/aneia au?iaeaeaiea. Ei?ie iiaeiaiuo yaeaiee ooiaeyo a nioeeaeueioth
noa?o.

A ?aoaiee i?iaeaiu niioiioaiey aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai a /aeiaaea
iu aeieaeiu ecaaaaoue e?aeiinoae e ?anniao?eaaoue aai eae aaeeinoai yoeo
aeaoo ia/ae.

Nouiinoue e nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea.

I?iaeaia NOUIINOE *AEIAAEA iaoiaeeony a oeaio?a oeeinioneiai o/aiey i
iai. Yoi iauyniyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ii?aaeaeaiey nouiinoe ethaiai
i?aaeiaoa. Aac oaeiai ii?aaeaeaiey aiiaua iaaiciiaeii aanoe eaeea-eeai
?acaiai?u i aai nouanoaiaaiee, ooieoeeyo, cia/aiee e o.i.

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey iaoee ciaao iaiaei neo/aaa, eiaaea o/aiua iauyniyee
nouiinoue /aeiaaea aai ioee/eai io aeeaioiiai. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
niaoeeoe/aneeo i?eciaeia /aeiaaea iaiaei: ieineea iiaoe, oeuaea, oi e
ae?. Iaeiaei iaeuecy ia caiaoeoue, /oi ai anao yoeo neo/ayo nouiinoue
/aeiaaea ii?aaeaeyaony ia ec aai naiiai, a eae au ni noi?iiu. N
iaoiaeieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey oaeie iiaeoiae ia nianai i?aaiia?ai. Eai
nouiinoue ethaiai i?aaeiaoa ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai aioo?aiieie
caeiiaie aai nianoaaiiiai nouanoaiaaiey, noanoaioeeae, au?aaeathuae aai
ea/anoai.

Oaeie noanoaioeeae, ninoaaeythuae nouiinoue /aeiaaea, eae
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao nia?aiaiiay iaoea, yaeyaony aai O?OAeIAAss
AeAssOAEUeIINOUe. *aeiaae caieiaaony o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth,
anooiay i?yii eee iiin?aaeiaaiii a IAUANOAAIIUA IOIIOAIEss,
niaieoiiinoue eioi?uo e ia?acoao iauanoai. A i?ioeanna iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ?acaeaathony e iauanoaaiiua
ioiioaiey ethaeae. A oie noaiaie, a eaeie eiaeeaeae ?aaeecoao
niaieoiiinoue iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, i?ienoiaeeo e aai nianoaaiiia
?acaeoea.

Iaeiaei /aeiaae – ia oieueei ieiae ?acaeoey iauanoaa e iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, ii e oai?aoe eo. Oae /aeiaae iaeiia?aiaiii ieacuaaaony e
iauaeoii, e noauaeoii yoeo ioiioaiee. A iai ?aaeecoaony aaeeinoai,
oiaeaeanoai noauaeoa e iauaeoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii aiai?eoue I NIOeEAEUeII-AeAssOAEUeIINOIIE NOUIINOE
*AEIAAEA. Aia aeayoaeueiinoe, nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee e iauaiey (eae
oi?iu eo ?aaeecaoeee) /aeiaae i?inoi ia iiaeao noaoue /aeiaaeii. E
niaa?oaiii i?aa aue A?enoioaeue, ioia/ay, /oi nouanoai, ia niiniaiia
anooiaoue a iauaiea, – eee aeeaioiia, eee Aia.

Ia yoie iniiaa aicieeaao e oaeay nouiinoiay oa?aeoa?enoeea /aeiaaea eae
?acoi (ii A?enoioaeth, OI), yaeythueeny a aunoae noaiaie /aeiaa/aneei
naienoaii, eioi?ia a ia iaiueoae ia?a, /ai o?oaeiaay aeayoaeueiinoue e
nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey, ioee/aao /aeiaaea io aeeaioiiai.

Ii /aeiaae ia naiaeeony oieueei e naiae nouiinoe. A ?aaeueiinoe iia
i?iyaeyaony a aai NOUANOAIAAIEE. E anee nouiinoue /aeiaaea – yoi iauay
oa?aeoa?enoeea /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea, oi nouanoaiaaiea anaaaea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii e ia en/a?iuaaaony nouiinoueth. Iii anoue auoea
eiaeeaeaea ai anai iiiaiia?acee oi?i, aeaeia e naienoa aai i?iyaeaiey.
Yoa oeaeinoiinoue nouanoaiaaiey au?aaeaaony i?aaeaea anaai a oii, /oi
*AEIAAE ANOUe AAeEINOAI AEIEIAE*ANEIAI, NIOeEAEUeIIAI E INEOE*ANEIAI.
*aeiaae, neaaeiaaoaeueii, – aeiineoinioeeaeueiue oaiiiai. Oie/oiaeea
iaeei ec eiiiiiaioia aaeeinoaa, iu oie/oiaeei /aeiaaea. Iiyoiio ?acaeoea
/aeiaaea, aai oeaeinoiia oi?ie?iaaiea anaaaea naycaii n i?e?iaeiuie
caaeaoeaie, nioeeaeueiie n?aaeie e aai aioo?aiiei “ss” (aieae,
no?aieaieyie, eioa?anaie e o.ae.).

Eiaeeaeae e ee/iinoue. Niune e oeaeue aeecie.

*aeiaae ?anniao?eaaaony eae EIAeEAEAe a ea/anoaa aaeeie/iiai
i?aaenoaaeoaey /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea. Ii?aaeaeaiea yoiai iiiyoey ia
ioaeaeaaony a eaeeo-eeai iniauo eiiiaioa?eyo. EIAeEAEAe – yoi anaaaea
“iaeei ec iiiaeo”, e ii anaaaea aacee/ai. A iiiyoee “eiaeeaeae” ia
oeene?othony ie eaeea-eeai aaeeie/iua naienoaa /aeiaaea, ie
aeieiae/aneea e nioeeaeueiua aai ea/anoaa, oioy iie, eiia/ii,
iiae?acoiaaathony.

Iiae EE*IINOUeTH iiae?acoiaaaaony i?aaeaea anaai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue
/aeiaaea, i?e/ai ia aeieiae/aneay, a NIOeEAEUeIAss. Iu iiaee au
neacaoue, /oi ee/iinoue – yoi e anoue nioeeaeueiay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue.
Caeanue /aeiaae ?anniao?eaaaony ia oieueei ni noi?iiu aai iaueo e
niaoeeoe/aneeo nioeeaeueiuo ea/anoa, ii e ni noi?iiu aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo naienoa. A eiioea eiioeia, oi, /oi
aeaeaao /aeiaaea ee/iinoueth, – yoi, eiia/ii, aai nioeeaeueiay
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, o.a. niaieoiiinoue oa?aeoa?iuo aeey /aeiaaea
nioeeaeueiuo ea/anoa, aai nioeeaeueiay naiiauoiinoue.

?acaeaaaony ee/iinoue e auiieiyao ?acee/iua nioeeaeueiua ?iee a iauanoaa
aeaaiaea?y naiae aeayoaeueiinoe. Oieueei a aeayoaeueiinoe eiaeeaeae
aunooiaao e naiiooaa?aeaeaaony eae ee/iinoue. Nai /aeiaae iiaeao
aeoiaoue i naaa /oi oaiaeii, no?ieoue ethaua eeethcee ia naie n/ao, ii
oi, /ai ii yaeyaony a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iaia?oaeeaaaony oieueei a
aeaea. Ia neo/aeii, eiia/ii, Eiioooeee ia oieueei “neooae neiaa
ethaeae”, ii e “niio?ae ia eo aeaenoaey”, a A?enoioaeue ienae, /oi
iiaaaeiua aaiee iieo/atho eeoue oa, “eoi o/anoaoao a ninoycaieyo”.

Eeoaiea eiaeeaeaea iauaiey e aiciiaeiinoe auai?a aeayoaeueiinoe,
ecaanoiie naiaiaeu aeaenoaee io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia ?acaeoee
ee/iinoe e aa naii/oanoaee. Ia neo/aeii ecieyoeey /aeiaaea io iauanoaa e
iauaiey anaaaea n/eoaeanue iaeiei ec naiuo no?iauo iaeacaiee. Yoi aiieia
iauynieii, eai iinoiyiiay ecieyoeey e iaeeii/anoai i?ioeai?a/ao naiie
nouiinoe ee/iinoe.

Ii aua aieaa io?eoeaoaeueiia e no?aoiia aeeyiea ia ee/iinoue,
i?eaiaeyuaa e aa ?ac?ooaieth, eiaao iaaycuaaiea ae /oaeie aiee e iuneae.
*aeiaae, iieiinoueth iiae/eiaiiue /oaeie aiea e eeoaiiue (iin?aaenoaii
aiooaiey, eaeaieiae/aneiai iaieaaieaaiey /a?ac aaeoaoeeth e i?iiaaaiaeo
e o.ae.) nianoaaiiiai ie?iaicc?aiey, nianoaaiiuo iuneae e acaeyaeia, –
yoi oaea ia ee/iinoue.

Oaeaea o?oaeii iacaaoue ee/iinoueth eiaeeaeaea, eeoaiiiai ?acoia e
?annoaeea ii eaeei-oi ae?oaei i?e/eiai. Ethaee, o eioi?uo ionoonoaotho
?acoi, aiey e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, NAIAIAeA AeAENOAEE, ia iiaoo auoue
IOAAONOAAIIUIE (aac naiaiaeu iao ioaaonoaaiiinoe) e ia aeieaeiu
ioaa/aoue ca niaeayiiia, eai yoi ia eie iaoneiaeaiiua e iioiio ii
nouanoao ia eo iinooiee. Aio ii/aio eo iaeuecy noaeeoue eee inoaeaeaoue.

Naiaiaea – yoi ao?eaoo ee/iinoe. Ii naiaiaea aac ioaaonoaaiiinoe – yoi
i?iecaie. Iiyoiio ioaaonoaaiiinoue yaeyaony ia a iaiueoae, a a aieueoae
noaiaie ao?eaooii ee/iinoe, eai auoue ioaaonoaaiiui o?oaeiaa, /ai
naiaiaeiui.

Auoue ee/iinoueth, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeaaei. Ii aua o?oaeiaa auoue
n/anoeeaie ee/iinoueth. Naiaiaea e ioaaonoaaiiinoue iiaeeeiiie ee/iinoe,
o?aaothuea iinoiyiiiai oai?/anoaa e iinoiyiiuo ioe niaanoe, no?aaeaiee e
ia?aaeeaaiee, i/aiue ?aaeei ni/aoathony ni n/anoueai. E /ai ee/iinoue
auoa e cia/eoaeueiaa, oai auoa e ioaaonoaaiiinoue aa ia?aae niaie e
ethaeueie.

Aaconeiaii, nioeeaeueiay n?aaea, eae iu auynieee, ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia
aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea e iiaaaeaiea ee/iinoe. Ii ia a iaiueoae noaiaie
ee/iinoiua i?eaioaoeee e iiaaaeaiea iaoneiaeaiu aioo?aiiei, aeooiaiui
ie?ii /aeiaaea. Ia c?y aiai?yo, /oi eaaeaeue nai eociaoe naiae noaeueau
e n/anouey. *ai y?/a o /aeiaaea au?aaeaiu eioaeeaeooaeueii-i?aanoaaiiua
e aieaaua ea/anoaa, /ai aieueoa aai aeeciaiiua i?eaioaoeee niaiaaeatho n
iaua/aeiaa/aneeie oeaiiinoyie, /ai a aieueoae noaiaie ii iieiaeeoaeueii
aeeyao ia ?acaeoea e ooaa?aeaeaiea yoeo oeaiiinoae, oai y?/a e
cia/eoaeueiae naia ee/iinoue. Iia eae au aicauoaaony iaae naiae
i?e?iaeiie iniiaie e a ecaanoiii niunea aeaaea i?aiaeieaaaao aa,
inoaaeyy naie neaae e ieiaeu naiae aeayoaeueiinoe e iinea naiae
aeieiae/aneie nia?oe.

Ai anyeii neo/aa ee/iinoue, canouaoay a naiai oi?ie?iaaiee, a naieo
ono?aieaieyo, – yoi oaea aeaa?aaee?othuay ee/iinoue.

Oeeinioneay aio?iiieiaey ia iiaeao iaieoe noi?iiie AII?IN I NIUNEA E
OeAEE AEECIE. Aeaoue eiae/anee iainiiaaiiue ioaao ia aaniethoiii e
aunoai niunea aeecie /aeiaaea iaaiciiaeii. Aeaoue aaniethoiue ioaao –
cia/eo en/a?iaoue naio aeeciue, eioi?ay aani?aaeaeueia a naiai
nouanoaiaaiee e ia en/a?iuaaaony ?aoeeiiaeueiui iauyniaieai.

Aeoiaaony iaeiaei, /oi e ?aoaieth aii?ina i niunea e oeaee aeecie ia
neaaeoao iiaeoiaeeoue aaniethoii io?eoeaoaeueii. I?eiaieoaeueii e aeecie
ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe ii eiaao ?aaeueiue niune e cia/aiea. Aieaa oiai,
anee au eaaeaeue ia ioaa/ae aeey naay eae-oi ia yoio aii?in, oi naii
nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea auei au aeaenoaeoaeueii aanniuneaiiui ni anaie
auoaeathueie ionthaea io?eoeaoaeueiuie iineaaenoaeyie. Aeinoiaaneee ii
yoiio iiaiaeo i/aiue oi?ioi neacae, /oi aac oaa?aeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey
naaa, aeey /aai aio aeeoue, /aeiaae “ia niaeaneony aeeoue e nei?ae
eno?aaeo naay, /ai inoaiaony ia caiea, oioy au e?oaii aai ana auee
oeaau”. Iiiai aeoaieiai niunea e ioae?inoe niaea?aeao oaeaea neiaa
Ieoeoa: “oio, eoi eiaao CA*AI aeeoue, iiaeao auianoe ethaia EAE”.

Eiay aaeaeo yoio ?aaeueiue, a ia aaniethoiue niune aeecie, iu iieaaaai,
/oi a iauai ieaia iiaeii neacaoue: NIUNE AEECIE NINOIEO A ?ACAEOEE
*AEIAAEA EAE NAIIOeAEE, AAI ANANOI?IIIAI NIAA?OAINOAIAAIEE. Eae ienae
Eaio, nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea “eiaao a naaa naiii aunooth oeaeue,
eioi?ie, ianeieueei yoi a aai neeao, ii iiaeao iiae/eieoue anth
i?e?iaeo”.

Ii?aaeaeeoue ee/iinoiue niune aeecie – yoi cia/eo iniuneeoue aeeciue ai
anae aa nooe e a aieueoii ieaia; yoi cia/eo iauynieoue, /oi a iae
iiaeeeiiia, a /oi – iieiia; yoi, iaeiiaoe, ii?aaeaeeoue ia oieueei
iniiaiua caaea/e e oeaee aeecie, ii e ?aaeueiua n?aaenoaa eo
inouanoaeaiey. Ii iiaieth N. E. ?oaeiooaeia, ana yoi aaneiia/ii
i?aainoiaeeo anyeoth o/aiinoue e naycaii n ae?aaioeaiiui e ?aaeeei
naienoaii – ioae?inoueth.

“THiioa, iaaeoiuaathuaio aeeciue” e iiaeaeaaoaio ociaoue niune aa n
naiiai ia/aea, ie/aai ia inoaaony, eae oieueei ia?aoeoueny e oai, eoi aa
oaea i?iaeee, i?e/ai i?iaeee, eiia/ii, ioae?i; a aua eo/oa – e eaoiiene
/aeiaa/aneie ioae?inoe, i?iaa?aiiie ia iiuoa ia oieueei iaeiiai
/aeiaaea, ii e anaai /aeiaa/anoaa. Iaeii ec ae?aaieo e a ?acee/iuo
iiaeeoeeaoeeyo ano?a/athuaany o anao ia?iaeia auneacuaaiee ia yoio n/ao
oaeiai, /oi iii, oau, ia inoaaeyao iaaeaaeaeu aeey niaoaueo iieo/eoue
aioiaue ioaao ia yoio aii?in a ia/aea aeecie e ionueaao eo e naiie
aeecie: “nia/aea aeeoue, iioii oeeinionoaiaaoue”

Aeecea e iae, ii aieaa /aeiaa/ia, a o?aaeeoeeyo ?onneie oeeinioee,
iuneue O. I. Aeinoiaaneiai: iaaei ia i?inoi “nia/aea aeeoue”, a i?aaeaea
anaai iaaei “aeeciue iiethaeoue”, i?e/ai “iiethaeoue aieueoa, /ai niune
aa”; eae aiai?eo Aeaoa Ea?aiacia, iiethaeoue aeeciue “i?aaeaea eiaeee, e
oieueei oiaaea y e niune iieio”. Aeiaaaei, /oi na?aeoeaaeiie yoie ethaae
e aeecie yaeyaony ethaiaue e ethaeyi, iieiaeaiiay a iniiao anao aeae,
iuneae, /oanoa e iinooieia ee/iinoe.

Ei anaio neacaiiiio neaaeoao aeiaaaeoue, /oi iineieueeo /aeiaae a naiae
nooe nouanoai iauanoaaiiia, iiyoiio e niune aai aeecie iiaeao auoue
iaeaeai oieueei ia iooe nii?yaeaiey eioa?ania e oeaeae iauanoaa e
ee/iinoe. Iauiinoue eiaeeaeaea e ?iaea, ee/iinoe e nioeeoia aeaao
iniiaaiea iioeienoe/anee niio?aoue ia auoea /aeiaaea a ie?a e niune aai
aeecie. O?aaeci eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie nia?oe i?aiaeieaaaaony oai, /oi
/aeiaae e iinea nia?oe inoaaony a ?acoeueoaoao naiae aeayoaeueiinoe,
naiaai oai?/anoaa a aeaai?iaeiie iaiyoe iioiieia.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaoeoee Y. *aeiaae eae i?aaeiao oeeinioee // Aii?inu oeeinioee. –
1989, ?2.

2. Aea? A. Aeae. *aeiaae eae i?aaeiao iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey //
Oeeinioneea iaoee. – 1991, ?1.

3. Aa?aeyaa I. A. Y?in e ee/iinoue. – I., 1989.

4. Aa?aeyaa I. A. Noaeueaa ?innee. – I., 1990.

5. Ao?aeoaciay oeeinioneay aio?iiieiaey XX a. – I., 1986.

6. Aaeueaaoeee A. E. I /aeiaaea. – I., 1974.

7. Aeoaeiei I. I. *oi oaeia /aeiaae. – I., 1984.

8. Eaith A. Aoioothuee /aeiaae. – I., 1990.

9. Eoeueoo?a, /aeiaae, ea?oeia ie?a. – I., 1987.

10. Ea?eineee A. I. Nioeeaeueiue aeieiaeci. – I., 1981.

11. Ea?ieineay ?. N., Ieeieueneee N. A. Nioeeiaeieiaey. – I., 1988.

12. Einneee I. I. Oneiaey aaniethoiiai aeia?a. – I., 1991.

13. Ia?en E. Oacenu i Oaea?aaoa // Ia?en E., Yiaaeuen O. Ni/. -O. 42.

14. Iienaaa I. I. *aeiaae ai Anaeaiiie e ia Caiea // Aii?inu
oeeinioee. – 1990, ?6.

15. Iioaee ?. AEeciue iinea nia?oe. – I., 1990.

16. Iiaai?iaeoeaa I. E. Ia iauanoaaiiii eaeaaea. – I., 1991.

17. I /aeiaa/aneii a /aeiaaea. – I., 1987.

18. I?iaeaia /aeiaaea a caiaaeiie oeeinioee. – I., 1988.

19. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey: O/aa. iiniaea aeey aocia. Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae
i?io. A. I. Eaa?eiaiei. – I., 1995.

20. Oaey? aea Oa?aeai I. Oaiiiai /aeiaaea. – I., 1987.

21. O?aie N. E. Niune aeecie // Aii?inu oeeinioee. – 1990, ?6.

22. O?aeae 3. Aaaaeaiea a ineoiaiaeec. – I., 1989.

23. O?iii Y. Aeooiaiay nouiinoue /aeiaaea // Oeeinioneea iaoee, 1990,
?1.

24. Oaaa?ian TH. Iiiyoea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe // Aii?inu oeeinioee. –
1989, ?2.

1. Oaia XIII. AeEAEAEOEEA E IAOAOECEEA

1. Enoi?e/aneea oi?iu e i?eioeeiu aeeaeaeoeee.

2. Caeiiu e eaoaai?ee iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeee.

3. Iaoaoeceea – aioeiiae aeeaeaeoeee.

Enoi?e/aneea Oi?iu e i?eioeeiu aeeaeaeoeee.

Aeeaeaeoeea (io a?a/. aeeaeaeoeea) icia/aao eneonnoai aanoe aanaaeo,
?annoaeaeaoue. A nia?aiaiiii iiieiaiee aeeaeaeoeea – yoi OAI?Ess E
IAOIAe IICIAIEss AeAENOAEOAEUeIINOE, O*AIEA I AAeEINOAA IE?A E ANAIAUEO
CAEIIAO ?ACAEOEss I?E?IAeU, IAUANOAA E IUOEAIEss.

Iao/iue aeeaeaeoe/aneee acaeyae ia ie? neeaaeuaaeny a oa/aiea
aeeeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey oeeinioee. Yeaiaiou aeeaeaeoeee niaea?aeaeenue a
o/aieyo oeeinioia ae?aaiaai Ainoiea, Eiaeee, Eeoay, A?aoeee, ?eia.
Naaiaeiy iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e aa enoi?e/aneea oi?iu – noeoeeioth
aeeaeaeoeeo ae?aaieo, eaeaaeenoe/aneoth aeeaeaeoeeo iaiaoeeie
eeanne/aneie oeeinioee e iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth aeeaeaeoeeo nia?aiaiiinoe.

NOEOEEIAss AeEAEAEOEEA Ae?AAIEO a iaeaieaa yniie oi?ia auea au?aaeaia a
oeeinioee ae?aaiae A?aoeee, a ?annoaeaeaieyo Aa?aeeeoa ec Yoana.

Niaeanii Aa?aeeeoo, ana oa/ao e eciaiyaony, ana nouanoaoao e a oi aea
a?aiy ia nouanoaoao, iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey e
en/aciiaaiey. Aa?aeeeo no?aieeny iauynieoue i?aa?auaiea aauae a eo
nianoaaiioth i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue. Aio iaeei ec o?aaiaioia aai
?annoaeaeaiee: “Iaeii e oi aea a ian – aeeaia e ia?oaia, aiae?noaothuaa
e niyuaa, iieiaeia e noa?ia. Aaaeue yoi, eciaieaoenue, anoue oi, e
ia?aoii oi, eciaieaoenue, anoue yoi”.

?yae aeeaeaeoe/aneeo i?iaeai iinoaaee a naia a?aiy Caiii ec Yeae.
A?enoioaeue aeaaea iacuaae Caiiia “ecia?aoaoaeai aeeaeaeoeee”

Ia eaeaaeenoe/aneie iniiaa noeoeeiay aeeaeaeoeea ?acaeaaeanue a oeieao
Nie?aoa e Ieaoiia. Nie?ao ?anniao?eaae aeeaeaeoeeo eae eneonnoai
iaia?oaeeaaoue enoeio iooai noieeiiaaiey i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iiaiee a
nii?a. Ii aea ia?aui e aaae oa?iei “aeeaeaeoeea”. Ieaoii iacuaae
aeeaeaeoeeie eiae/aneee iaoiae, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai eaeao iiciaiea
nouaai – eaeae, aeaeaeaiey iunee io iecoeo iiiyoee e aunoei.

Yeaiaiou aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iuoeaiey iiaeii iaeoe a oeeinioneeo o/aieyo
iiiaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aioe/iiai iaoa?eaeecia e eaeaaeecia,
iineaaeothueo ca ieie oeeinioneeo o/aiee e oeie, ii ana yoi auea
noeoeeiay aeeaeaeoeea.

A ooaa?aeaeaiee aeeaeaeoe/aneiai acaeyaea ia ie? aieueooth ?ieue nua?aea
EAeAAEENOE*ANEAss AeEAEAEOEEA IAIAOeEIE EEANNE*ANEIE OEEINIOEE (Eaio,
Oaeeeia, Aaaaeue). Aunoae nooiaie ?acaeoey eaeaaeenoe/aneay aeeaeaeoeea
aeinoeaea a oeeinioneie nenoaia Aaaaey.

Iiae aeeaeaeoeeie Aaaaeue iiieiae ia oieueei eneonnoai iieaieee, nii?a,
aanaaeu, ii e ii?aaeaeaiiue acaeyae ia ie?. Aeeaeaeoeea o iaai – yoi
iaoiae iiciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue o/eouaaao i?ioeai?a/eainoue
ie?a, aai eciaiaiea, acaeiinayce yaeaiee, aauae e i?ioeannia,
ea/anoaaiiua i?aa?auaiey, ia?aoiaeu io iecoaai e aunoaio /a?ac
io?eoeaiea ioaeeaoaai e ooaa?aeaeaiea iiaiai, ?anoouaai.

Iaeiaei aeeaeaeoeea Aaaaey ?ac?aaaouaaeanue ia eaeaaeenoe/aneii ?aoaiee
iniiaiiai aii?ina oeeinioee e ia iiaea auoue aei eiioea
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie. A aeeaeaeoeea eaeae Aaaaeue eeoue oaaaeae
aeeaeaeoeeo aauae. Ii Aaaaeth, ?acaeoea ie?oaeathuaai ie?a ii?aaeaeyaony
naii?acaeoeai “aaniethoiie eaeae”, ienoe/aneiai “ie?iaiai ?acoia” a
i?ioeanna ?annoaeaeaiey i naiii naaa.

Aunoae enoi?e/aneie oi?iie aeeaeaeoeee yaeeanue aa ia?enenoneay iiaeaeue
– IAOA?EAEENOE*ANEAss AeEAEAEOEEA NIA?AIAIIINOE. Enneaaeoy e
iaoa?eaeenoe/anee ia?a?aaaouaay eaeaaeenoe/aneoth aeeaeaeoeeo Aaaaey,
Ia?en inaiaiaeee aa io eaeaaeecia e yeaiaioia ienoeee. Ii nicaeae
aeeaeaeoeeo ia oieueei ioee/ioth io aaaaeaaneie, ii e i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeioth ae. Nai Ia?en ienae ii yoiio iiaiaeo oae: “O Aaaaey
aeeaeaeoeea noieo ia aieiaa. Iaaei aa iinoaaeoue ia iiae, /oiau ane?uoue
iiae ienoe/aneie iaiei/eie ?aoeeiiaeueiia ca?ii”.

Aeey ia?enenoneie aeeaeaeoeee oa?aeoa?iui yaeyaony iauaeoeaiinoue
?anniio?aiey yaeaiee, no?aieaiea iinoe/ue aauue naio ii naaa, eae iia
anoue, a niaieoiiinoe aa iiiaiia?aciuo ioiioaiee e ae?oaei aauai.
Iaeaieaa y?ei yoi i?iyaeyaony a O*AIEE IA IAUAEOEAIIE E NOAUAEOEAIIE
AeEAEAEOEEA.

IAUAEOEAIAss AeEAEAEOEEA – yoi aeaeaeaiea e ?acaeoea a naiii
iaoa?eaeueiii ie?a eae aaeeiii acaeiinaycaiiii oeaeii. Iia ia caaeneo
ie io niciaiey /aeiaaea, ie io niciaiey /aeiaa/anoaa.

NOAUAEOEAIAss aea AeEAEAEOEEA, eee AeEAEAEOE*ANEIA IUOEAIEA -yoi
aeaeaeaiea e ?acaeoea iuneae, iiiyoee, eioi?ua io?aaeatho a niciaiee
iauaeoeaioth aeeaeaeoeeo.

Noauaeoeaiay aeeaeaeoeea, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aoi?e/ia, iauaeoeaiay –
ia?ae/ia. Ia?aay caaeneo io aoi?ie, aoi?ay ia caaeneo io ia?aie.
Iineieueeo noauaeoeaiay aeeaeaeoeea anoue io?aaeaiea iauaeoeaiie,
iinoieueeo iia niaiaaeaao n iae ii niaea?aeaieth. E oa, e ae?oaay
iiae/eiaiu iaeiei e oai aea anaiauei caeiiai.

Enoiaeiuie i?eioeeiaie aeeaeaeoeee yaeythony: I?EIOeEI ?ACAEOEss e
I?EIOeEI ANAIAUAE NAssCE.

Aeeaeaeoeea ?anniao?eaaao ie? a iinoiyiiii eciaiaiee e ?acaeoee, a
aeaeaeaiee. A yoii ian oaaaeaeatho e iianaaeiaaiue iiuo, e aeinoeaeaiey
iaoee, e iauanoaaiiay i?aeoeea. Oae, iiiai/eneaiiua oaea Anaeaiiie –
?acoeueoao aeeeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey ?acee/iuo aeaeia iaoa?ee. A i?ioeanna
yaiethoeee iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a aiciee /aeiaae.

Eae aea a iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeea iiieiaaony nai i?ioeann
?acaeoey? Iii ?anniao?eaaaony eae aeaeaeaiea io iecoaai e aunoaio, io
i?inoiai e neiaeiiio, eae ea/anoaaiiia eciaiaiea, nea/eiia?aciue
i?ioeann, i?aaeiieaaathuee ei?aiiua ea/anoaaiiua ia?aai?iou –
?aaiethoeee. I?e/ai, yoi aeaeaeaiea niaa?oaaony ia ii caieiooiio e?oao e
ia ii i?yiie eeiee, a ii nie?aee, naiaiaeii au/a?/aiiie io ?oee.
Eaaeaeue aeoie yoie nie?aee aeoaaea, aiaa/a, ?aciinoi?iiiaa
i?aaeuaeouaai, iia ?anoe?yaony eaa?oo. Enoi/iee ?acaeoey aeeaeaeoeea
aeaeeo ai aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/eyo, i?enoueo i?aaeiaoai e yaeaieyi.

Aaaeiaeoei i?eioeeiii aeeaeaeoeee yaeyaony i?eioeei anaiauae nayce.
Ie?oaeathuee ian ie? ninoieo ia oieueei ec ?acaeaathueony iaoa?eaeueiuo
ia?aciaaiee, ii e ec acaeiinaycaiiuo i?aaeiaoia, yaeaiee, i?ioeannia.
Nia?aiaiiay iaoea ?aniieaaaao iiiai/eneaiiuie aeaiiuie,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathueie acaeiioth naycue e iaoneiaeaiiinoue yaeaiee e
i?aaeiaoia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Oae, yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu,
acaeiiaeaenoaoy iaaeaeo niaie, ia?acotho aoiiu. Acaeiinaycue aoiiia,
aeaao iieaeoeu, iieaeoeu ia?acoth iae?ioaea e oae aei aaeaeoee e
iaoaaaeaeoee.

Oaeei ia?acii, anaiauay naycue e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue i?aaeiaoia e
yaeaiee ninoaaeyao nouanoaaiioth iniaaiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a.
Iiyoiio /oiau ciaoue i?aaeiao, iaiaoiaeeii eco/eoue ana aai noi?iiu e
nayce. A iineieueeo i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a
iiiaiia?aciu, oi iiiaiia?aciu e eo acaeiinayce e acaeiiaeaenoaey.

Aeeaeaeoeea eco/aao ia ana, a oieueei iaeaieaa iauea, nouanoaaiiua
nayce, oa, eioi?ua eiatho ianoi ai anao iaeanoyo iaoa?eaeueiiai e
aeooiaiiai ie?a. Io?aaeay yoe nayce a naiai niciaiee, /aeiaae ioe?uaaao
caeiiu iauaeoeaiiai ie?a, au?aaaouaaao eaoaai?ee iiciaiey. Ciaiea aea
iaueo caeiiia ninoaaeyao iai?aiaiiia oneiaea i?aeoe/aneie i?aia?acothuae
aeayoaeueiinoe, oai?/anoaa.

E i?eioeeiai aeeaeaeoeee ioiinyony aua e i?eioeei aeaoa?ieiecia, o.a.
anaiauae i?e/eiiie iaoneiaeaiiinoe yaeaiee, i?eioeei iauaeoeaiinoe
?anniio?aiey, eiie?aoiinoe enoeiu e ae?.

I?eioeeiu aeeaeaeoeee iiaoo auoue au?aaeaiu e eiie?aoece?iaaiu oieueei
/a?ac aa iniiaiua iiiyoey – eaoaai?ee e caeiiu.

Caeiiu e eaoaai?ee iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeee.

Oa?iei “eaoaai?ey” (io a?a/. eaoaai?ey – auneacuaaiea, naeaeaoaeuenoai,
oeacaiea) icia/aao oaeea iiiyoey (oi?iu iuoeaiey), eioi?ua io?aaeatho
iaeaieaa iauea e nouanoaaiiua naienoaa, noi?iiu, nayce e ioiioaiey
?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e iiciaiey.

CAEII anoue aioo?aiiyy iiaoi?ythuaany, nouanoaaiiay naycue yaeaiee,
iaoneiaeeaathuay eo iaiaoiaeeiia ?acaeoea. Ii au?aaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiue
ii?yaeie i?e/eiiie e onoie/eaie nayce iaaeaeo yaeaieyie, iiaoi?ythueany
nouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey.

Caeiiu iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii noaiaie eo iauiinoe. ?acee/atho
anaiauea, iauea e /anoiua caeiiu.

ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie caeiiaie iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeee yaeythony:
caeii aaeeinoaa e ai?ueau i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae; caeii acaeiiiai ia?aoiaea
eiee/anoaaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee; caeii io?eoeaiey io?eoeaiey.

CAEII AAeEINOAA E AI?UeAU I?IOEAIIIEIAEIINOAE. Yoio caeii – yae?i
aeeaeaeoeee. E yoi ia neo/aeii, eai ii oeacuaaao i?e/eio, enoi/iee
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai eciaiaiey, ?acaeoey. Niaeanii yoiio caeiio, eaaeaeiio
i?aaeiaoo e yaeaieth naienoaaiiu aioo?aiiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe. Iie
iaoiaeyony ai acaeiiaeaenoaee: i?aaeiieaaatho ae?oa ae?oaa e aaaeoo
iaaeaeo niaie ai?ueao. Eiaiii ai?ueaa aioo?aiieo i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae
neoaeeo enoi/ieeii naiiaeaeaeaiey, naii?acaeoey yaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiiai
ie?a, aeaeaeouae neeie eo eciaiaiee.

*oiau iiiyoue niaea?aeaiea caeiia aaeeinoaa e ai?ueau
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae e aai anaiauee oa?aeoa?, iaiaoiaeeii oynieoue
i?aaeaea anaai oaeea enoiaeiua iiiyoey, eae oiaeaeanoai, ?acee/ea,
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue.

Aeeaeaeoe/aneia iuoeaiea enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi anai iauaeoai aioo?aiia
i?enoue oiaeaeanoai e ?acee/ea.

OIAEAeANOAI – yoi oaeie niaoeeoe/aneee aeae ioiioaiee aaue e naaa naiie
e e ae?oaei aauai, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony aa onoie/eainoueth. Eia/a
aiai?y, ethaie i?aaeiao, yaeaiea i?e anao eciaiaieyo eaeia-oi a?aiy
inoaaony naiei niaie. Oae, i?e anao eciaiaieyo ia iaoae ieaiaoa. Caiey
inoaaony Caieae, caieiaao ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi a nieia/iie nenoaia, eiaao
eiie?aoiua ia?aiao?u, niaa?oaao caeiiiia?iia aeaeaeaiea.

?ACEE*EA oa?aeoa?ecoaony ianiaiaaeaieai, ia?aaainoaii aaue naiie naaa e
ae?oaei aauai a neeo aa eciai/eainoe.

Eoae, aauue oiaeaeanoaaiia naiie naaa e ia oiaeaeanoaaiia iaeiia?aiaiii.
Oiaeaeanoai e ?acee/ea nouanoaotho iinoiyiii a eo i?ioeai?a/eaii
aaeeinoaa.

Ioaeaeueiua noi?iiu, naienoaa, /a?ou yaeaiee e i?aaeiaoia iaoiaeyony e a
oaeeo ioiioaieyo, eioi?ua eneeth/atho ae?oa ae?oaa. Oaeia ioiioaiea
ninoaaeyao niaea?aeaiea I?IOEAIIIEIAEIINOE: ?acee/ey a yaeaieyo,
i?ioeannao, i?aaeiaoao, noi?iiao eee yeaiaioao yaeaiee, i?ioeannia,
i?aaeiaoia, eioi?ua a ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaeinoiinoe acaeiii eneeth/atho
ae?oa ae?oaa. Iai?eia?, a aoiia nouanoaotho iieiaeeoaeueii e
io?eoeaoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua /anoeoeu, a aeeaie i?e?iaea – i?ioeannu
anneieeyoeee e aeenneieeyoeee, ianeaaenoaaiiinoue e eciai/eainoue,
aicaoaeaeaiea e oi?iiaeaiea e o.ae.

Ioiioaiea iaaeaeo i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyie anoue I?IOEAI?A*EA. Ia?ac?aoeiuo
aeeaeaeoe/aneeo i?ioeai?a/ee iao. I?aiaeieaiea i?ioeai?a/ee yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.

Ia anao yoaiao ?acaeoey i?ioeai?a/ey aunooiatho aai aeaeaeouae neeie, a
ia oi?iicii. I?e yoii ?acee/atho neaaeothuea oacu (nooiaie) ?acaeoey e
?ac?aoaiey i?ioeai?a/ee: 1) oiaeaeanoai, 2) ianouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea
(oiaeaeanoai ia?acaeouo i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae), C) nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea,
4) i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue (eiioeeeo) e 5) iaecaaaeiia ?ac?aoaiea e
aicieeiiaaiea iiauo i?ioeai?a/ee.

Nouanoaoao aaneiia/iia iiiaiia?acea eiie?aoiuo i?ioeai?a/ee. N?aaee
yoiai iiiaiia?acey iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay aeeaeaeoeea auaeaeyao
i?ioeai?a/ey, eiathuea ia/oi iauaa iaaeaeo niaie, iiyoiio
i?eiaaeeaaeauea oiio eee eiiio aeaeo. Auaeaeytho aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea
i?ioeai?a/ey, iniiaiua e iainiiaiua e ae?.

AIOO?AIIEA I?IOEAI?A*Ess – yoi i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo acaeiii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie yeaiaioaie, ia?acothueie aeaiioth eiie?aoioth nenoaio.
Iineieueeo eaaeaeue iauaeo naycai n ie?oaeathueie iauaeoaie, aicieeoea
nayce iiaoo i?eiyoue oa?aeoa? i?ioeai?a/ey. AIAOIEA I?IOEAI?A*Ess – yoi
i?ioeai?a/ey aeaiiie nenoaiu n ie?oaeathueie aa nenoaiaie.

A ?acaeoee e eciaiaiee iauaeoia ii?aaeaeythuay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
aioo?aiiei i?ioeai?a/eyi. Iie neoaeao enoi/ieeii naiiaeaeaeaiey aauae.

Ioiineoaeueiue oa?aeoa? aaeeinoaa e aaniethoiue oa?aeoa? ai?ueau
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae i?iyaeyaony a neaaeothuai:

1) anee ?a/ue eaeao i aaeeinoaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae e ai?ueaa iaaeaeo
ieie, oi eiathony a aeaeo oieueei oaeea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, eioi?ua
aioo?aiia i?enoue aeaiiie eiie?aoiie nenoaia;

2) i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe ia iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue ae?oa aac ae?oaa, iaeiaei
eo aaeeinoai oneiaii, a?aiaiii, i?aoiaeyua, ioiineoaeueii;

3) ai?ueaa acaeiieneeth/athueo i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae aaniethoia, eae
aaniethoii ?acaeoea, aeaeaeaiea. Iiaia aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa ai?ueau,
a ia aeaaiaea?y aaeeinoao i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae – yoi caeii;

4) a i?ioeanna ai?ueau i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe iiaoo i?aa?auaoueny ae?oa a
ae?oaa. Iao ie iaeiiai yaeaiey, eioi?ia au ia iiaei i?e ecaanoiuo
oneiaeyo i?aa?aoeoueny a naith i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue;

5) ai?ueaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae e eo aaeeinoai iaoneiaeeaatho a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo aiciiaeiinoue a?aiaiiiai ?aaiiaeaenoaey
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, onoie/eainoe i?aaeiaoia, ?aaiiaaney nee.

CAEII ACAEIIIAI IA?AOIAeA EIEE*ANOAAIIUO E EA*ANOAAIIUO ECIAIAIEE. Caeii
iieacuaaao, eae, eaeei iooai aicieeaao iiaia. Ia/iai n eaoaai?ee
“ea/anoai”, “eiee/anoai” e “ia?a”.

EA*ANOAI – yoi ii?aaeaeaiiinoue iauaeoa, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie
oeaeinoioth e ioiineoaeueii onoie/eaoth niaieoiiinoue aai niaoeeoe/aneeo
i?eciaeia, oa?aeoa?enoee, /a?o noiaenoaa n ae?oaeie iauaeoaie. Aicueiai,
e i?eia?o, ianie, neiee oeaao, eaaeiiuneea. Eciaiaiey, eioi?ua
inoaaeytho ianie ianeii, neiaa neiei, eaaeiiuneea eaaeiiuneeai, nooue
eciaiaiey eiee/anoaaiiua. Ii anee ianie i?aa?auaaony a eaiaiue, neiaa a
caeaiia, a eaaeiiuneea a i?anooieaiea, oi oaeea eciaiaiey aoaeoo iineoue
ea/anoaaiiue oa?aeoa?.

EIEE*ANOAI – yoi oa?aeoa?enoeea ?acee/ey aioo?e aeaiiiai ea/anoaa eee
iaeeiaeiauo ea/anoa. Oae, iai?eia?, ana ieaiaou Nieia/iie nenoaiu eiatho
iaeii?iaeiua naienoaa: ianno, iauai, ieioiinoue, a?aiy a?auaiey aie?oa
naiae ine e Nieioea e o.ae. Iaeiaei iie eiatho eiee/anoaaiiua ?acee/ey.
Ecaanoii, /oi Caiey eiaao iaeei niooiee – Eoio, THieoa? – 12 niooieeia.
Eee: anee Ia?-eo?ee aeaeaao iai?io aie?oa Nieioea ca 88 caiiuo nooie, oi
naiay aeaeueiyy ieaiaoa Ieooii – ca 90700 nooie.

A ie?a iao ie iaeiiai i?aaeiaoa, eioi?ue iaeaaeae au oieueei
ea/anoaaiiie eee eiee/anoaaiiie noi?iiie. Aeey iieiie oa?aeoa?enoeee
ethaiai i?aaeiaoa iaaeinoaoi/ii ciaiey iaeieo oieueei eiee/anoaaiiuo eee
ea/anoaaiiuo noi?ii.

IA?A – yoi eioa?aae, a eioi?ii aeaiiia ea/anoai inoaaony naiei niaie.
Ia?a au?aaeaao aioo?aiithth naycue ea/anoaa e eiee/anoaa, ninoiyuoth a
oii, /oi eiee/anoaaiiua ?acee/ey aioo?e aeaiiiai ea/anoaa ia iiaoo
i?aauneoue ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?aieoe. A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo yoio eioa?aae ia
eiaao no?iaeo, oi/iuo a?aieoe. Yoi caiaoeee aua ae?aaiea. A nioecia
“Eunue” aiai?eony, /oi iioa?ya iaeei aiein, /aeiaae eunui ia noaiiaeony,
iioa?yaoaai aeaa aieina, – eunui ia iaciaaoue, oa?yy ii iaeiiio aieino,
/aeiaae noaiiaeony eunui. Ea/anoaaiiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iuoiie i?e/aneie
e euneiie ianiiiaiii.

I?e auoiaea eiee/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia eciaiaiee ca a?aieoeu
ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?u i?aoa?iaaaao eciaiaiea e ea/anoaaiiay noi?iia aaue,
yaeaiey, i?ioeanna. Aicieeaao iiaia ea/anoai. Iiaeao ee aicieeiooue
iiaia ea/anoai eaeei-eeai eiui iooai? Iao. A yoii nooue caeiia.

I?ioeann ia?aoiaea eiee/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a ea/anoaaiiua neoaeeo
iaeiei ec i?iyaeaiee aeeaeaeoe/aneiai aaeeinoaa iai?a?uaiinoe e
i?a?uaiinoe a ?acaeoee, eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeo nea/eiia?acii.

NEA*IE – yoi iiiaio, oi?ia, niinia ia?aoiaea iaeiiai ea/anoaa a ae?oaia,
yoi ia?ooaiea, i?a?uaaiea iinoaiaiiinoe, iai?a?uaiinoe eiee/anoaaiiuo
eciaiaiee.

Ethaie nea/ie oa?aeoa?ecoao ia?aoiaeiue iiiaio a ?acaeoee. Ii naiae
i?e?iaea ii anaaaea i?ioeai?a/ea, eai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao e i ca?iaeaeaiee
iiaiai, e i nii?ioeaeaiee noa?iai.

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai eiie?aoiuo nea/eia, oa?aeoa? eioi?uo caaeneo io
oneiaey ?acaeoey i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee. I?e anai iiiaiia?acee nea/eia eo
iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue, iai?eia?, ii a?aiaie e eioaineaiinoe
i?ioaeaiey. Anoue nea/ee, eioi?ua niaa?oathony auno?i e ?acei. A?aiy eo
i?ioaeaiey cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa a?aiaie iiaeaioiaee. Ea/anoai eciaiyaony
auno?i. Oaeea nea/ee iacuaatho ac?uaii, ?aaiethoeeae, eaoano?ioie,
e?ooie eiieie e o.ae.

Iaeioi?ua nea/ee i?ioaeatho a oeaeii iaaeeaiii, iinoaiaiii,
ioiineoaeueii niieieii e caieiatho aieueoie i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie
(aicieeiiaaiea aeecie ia Caiea; noaiiaeaiea /aeiaaea; iieo/aiea aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey e oae.). Yoi iinoaiaiiua nea/ee. A oiaea iinoaiaiiiai nea/ea
ioaeaeueiua yoaiu ?acaeoey iiaoo i?ioaeaoue aeiaieueii eioaineaii,
ao?ii.

I?e eco/aiee nea/eiia?aciiai oa?aeoa?a ?acaeoey, acaeiiiai ia?aoiaea
eiee/anoaaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee aaaeii iiieiaiea oaeeo oa?ieiia,
eae yaiethoeey, ?aaiethoeey, ?aoi?ia.

Iiiyoea “yaiethoeey” a aeeaeaeoe/aneii iaoa?eaeecia oiio?aaeyaony a
oe?ieii e oceii niunea neiaa.

A OE?IEII NIUNEA YAIETHOeEss – yoi aanue i?ioeann ?acaeoey, aeeth/athuee
ia oieueei eiee/anoaaiiua, ii e ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey, a o./. e
?aaiethoeee.

A OCEII NIUNEA YAIETHOeEss aunooiaao eae ia?eiae, i?aaeoanoaothuee
?aaiethoeee, aa iiaeaioiaea. Yaiethoeey ianooiaao e iinea iiaaaeu
?aaiethoeee, iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey iiaiai. E caeanue yaiethoeey aeeth/aao
e eiee/anoaaiiua, e ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey.

Iiiyoea “?aaiethoeey” naaiaeiy i?eiaieii a iniiaiii e iauanoaaiiui
yaeaieyi. A i?e?iaea eae aoaeoi ana noaaeeeciaaeinue e eeoue
yaiethoeeiiece?oao.

?AAIETHOeEss – yoi ei?aiiie, ea/anoaaiiue nea/ie, eiiathuee noa?ia a
naiie aai iniiaa, a ia ia?aaeaeuaathuee aai iaaeeaiii, iinoaiaiii.

Iiiyoea ?aaiethoeee, ianiiiaiii, i?ioeaiiieiaeii iiiyoeth ?aoi?iu. Ii
yoa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue ia aaniethoia: a?aiue iaaeaeo ieie aeeaay,
iiaeaeaeiay. Aa iaaei oiaoue ii?aaeaeeoue a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa.

CAEII IO?EOeAIEss IO?EOeAIEss. Yoio caeii aeeaeaeoeee i?aaie/anee naycai
n aeaoiy ?aiaa ?anniio?aiiuie. Aai nouiinoue iiaeii au?aceoue oae:
anyeay eiia/iay nenoaia, ?acaeaaynue ia iniiaa aaeeinoaa e ai?ueau
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, i?ioiaeeo ?yae aioo?aiia naycaiiuo yoaiia. Yoe
yoaiu au?aaeatho iaiaeieeiinoue iiaiai e nie?aeaaeaeiue oa?aeoa?
?acaeoey, eioi?ue i?iyaeyaony a ecaanoiii iiaoi?aiee ia aunoae nooiaie
?acaeoey iaeioi?uo /a?o enoiaeiie noaaeee iauaai oeeeea.

Iniiaiui niaea?aeaieai aeeaeaeoe/aneiai io?eoeaiey yaeythony aeaa
iiiaioa: oie/oiaeaiea, ioie?aiea noa?iai, ioaeeaoaai e a oi aea a?aiy
nio?aiaiea iieiaeeoaeueiiai, niiniaiiai e ?acaeoeth, ca?iaeaeathuaainy
iiaiai.

Io?eoeaiea io?eoeaiey i?aaeaea anaai i?aaeiieaaaao: a) iiaoi?yaiinoue a
i?ioeanna ?acaeoey; a) aica?ao e enoiaeiiio iieiaeaieth, ii ia iiaie,
aieaa aunieie nooiaie; a) ioiineoaeueioth caaa?oaiiinoue eiie?aoiuo
oeeeeia ?acaeoey; a) ianaiaeeiinoue ?acaeoey e aeaeaeaieth ii e?oao. A
yoii nouiinoue ?anniao?eaaaiiai caeiia.

EAOAAI?EE AeEAEAEOEEE. Anee caeiiu aeeaeaeoeee ?ane?uaatho a iniiaiii
i?ioeann ?acaeoey, oi acaeiinaycue yaeaiee e i?aaeiaoia
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe au?aaeaaony n iiiiuueth eaoaai?ee. E iei ioiinyony:
aaeeie/iia e iauaa, yaeaiea e nouiinoue, /anoue e oeaeia, oi?ia e
niaea?aeaiea, yeaiaiou e no?oeoo?a, i?e/eia e neaaenoaea, neo/aeiinoue e
iaiaoiaeeiinoue, aiciiaeiinoue e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. AAeEIE*IIA E
IAUAA. A oiaea i?aeoe/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia ie? /aeiaae noaeeeaaaony n
ioaeaeueiuie iaoa?eaeueiuie ia?aciaaieyie e aauaie. Ie iauaa, ie
aaeeie/iia ia iaeaaeatho naiinoiyoaeueiui nouanoaiaaieai, iie ia
nouanoaotho “eae oaeiaua”. Naiinoiyoaeueii nouanoaotho ioaeaeueiua
i?aaeiaou, yaeaiey, i?ioeannu. Iauaa aea e aaeeie/iia nouanoaotho eeoue
a ioaeaeueiii. Anyeia ioaeaeueiia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoai
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae.

A iaeii e oi aea a?aiy iii e aaeeie/iia, e iauaa. Aaeeie/iia noaaouaaao
iaiiaoi?eiua /a?ou ioaeaeueiiai, a iauaa io?aaeaao oi, /oi iiaoi?yaony e
a ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaieyo. I?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo
?acaeoey ioaeaeueiiai aaeeie/iia iiaeao noaiiaeoueny iauei, a iauaa –
aaeeie/iui (iiaua aeaeu ?anoaiee, ii?iaeu aeeaioiuo, iiaea).

Ec aaeeinoaa iauaai e aaeeie/iiai a ioaeaeueiii iiaeii naeaeaoue
niioaaonoaothuea auaiaeu aeey i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oae, /oiau
ninoaaeoue naaa aieaa iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii eee eiii iauaeoa (eee
noauaeoa), iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue ia oieueei oi, /oi o iaai yaeyaony
iauei n ae?oaeie iaoa?eaeueiuie ia?aciaaieyie, ii e oi, /oi ioee/aao aai
io ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee.

Anee eaaeaeiio yaeaieth iaiaoiaeeii i?enoua eae iauaa, oae e iniaaiiia,
oi a ?aoaiee i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/ neaaeoao enoiaeeoue ia oieueei ec
iauaai, iiaoi?ythuaainy (ana oae aeaeatho!), ii e ec iniaaiiiai,
i?enouaai oieueei aeaiiie iaeanoe. Yoi iaoneiaeeaaao iiiaiia?acea oi?i e
iooae ?aoaiey iaeiie e oie aea i?aeoe/aneie caaea/e.

A i?ioeanna iiciaiey iu euai iauaa iaaeaeo enneaaeoaiuie e oaea
eco/aiiuie yaeaieyie, a caoai ia?aoiaeei e iieneo aaeeie/iiai.

NOUIINOUe E ssAEAIEA. NOUIINOUe – niaieoiiinoue anao iaiaoiaeeiuo noi?ii
e ioiioaiee (caeiiia) aaue, acyouo a eo anoanoaaiiie acaeiicaaeneiinoe,
a eo aeecie. Yoi oi, aac /aai aeaiiay aauue ia iiaeao auoue naia niaie.
ssAEAIEA – yoi niinia iaia?oaeaiey nouiinoe /a?ac naienoaa e ioiioaiey,
aeinooiiua /oanoaai.

Nouiinoue anaaaea iaoiaeeony a aaeeinoaa n yaeaieai, eai iia a iai ia
oieueei iaia?oaeeaaaony, ii /a?ac iaai nouanoaoao, aeaenoaoao.

Nouiinoue anaaaea i?iyaeyaony. ssaeaiea nouanoaaiii, iaeiaei iii ia
oiaeaeanoaaiii nouiinoe, ioee/aaony io iaa. Iii aiaa/a nouiinoe, eai
i?eaiineo ia/oi eiia, /ai oi, /oi eaeao io nouiinoe. ssaeaiea a naia
niaea?aeaiea aeeth/aao iiaua iiiaiou, /a?ou, eioi?ua iaoneiaeaiu
aiaoieie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, e ec nouiinoe ia auoaeatho.

Iineieueeo nouiinoue aunooiaao eeoue /a?ac yaeaiea e iineaaeiaa
ia?aaeaao aa a i?aia?aciaaiiii, oae eee eia/a eneaaeaiiii aeaea,
iinoieueeo a iiciaiee e a aeecie iaeuecy ia?aie/eaaoueny oai, /oi eaaeeo
ia iiaa?oiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee. Iaiaoiaeeii i?iieeaoue a
aeoaue aauae, niauoee, i?ioeannia e aini?iecaiaeeoue eo nouiinoue a
niciaiee a oi?ia eaeaaeueiuo ia?acia.

Ia i?aeoeea ioaeii anaaaea iie?aoueny ia nouiinoue, ia ciaiea
iaiaoiaeeiuo naienoa e naycae, iniaaiii a ?aaioa n ethaeueie, eai
aiaoiinoue iaiai/eaa. Oi?ioay iaeaaeaea ca/anooth ne?uaaao iaaeinoaoee
oaea, oi?ioay aiaoiinoue – ii?iee aeooe.

ssaeaiea anaaaea oaeo/a, eciai/eai. Nouiinoue aea ninoaaeyao ia/oi
onoie/eaia, nio?aiythuaa naay ai anao eciaiaieyo. Iaeiaei aoaeo/e
onoie/eaie ii ioiioaieth e yaeaieth, nouiinoue ia inoaaony aaniethoii
iaeciaiiie. I?aoiaeyue, iiaeaeaeiu, oaeo/e ia oieueei yaeaiey, ii e
nouiinoe aauae.

NIAeA?AEAIEA E OI?IA. NIAeA?AEAIEAI IACUAAAONss EAOAAI?Ess,
ioaaouaathuay niaieoiiinoue anao eiiiiiaioia aaue, yaeaiey, i?ioeanna,
eo acaeiiaeaenoaee e eciaiaiee. Iii aeeth/aao e aioo?aiiea, e aiaoiea
acaeiiaeaenoaey. OI?IA – yoi i?aaiecaoeey onoie/eauo naycae iaaeaeo
eiiiiiaioaie niaea?aeaiey.

Ethaay nenoaia anaaaea eiaao eae oi?io, oae e niaea?aeaiea. Iao
aanniaea?aeaoaeueiie oi?iu e iaioi?ieaiiiai niaea?aeaiey. Iaoiaeynue ai
acaeiinayce, oi?ia e niaea?aeaiea au?aaeatho i?ioeaiiieiaeiua no?aieaiey
i?aaeiaoa. Niaea?aeaiea no?aieony e eciai/eainoe, oi?ia – e iinoiyinoao,
onoie/eainoe. Niaea?aeaiea ii?aaeaeyao oi?io, ii e oi?ia aeoeaii aeeyao
ia niaea?aeaiea.

Oi?ia iiaeao onei?youe ?acaeoea niaea?aeaiey, ii iiaeao e caiaaeeyoue
aai a caaeneiinoe io oiai, niioaaonoaoao ee iia niaea?aeaieth eee oaea
onoa?aea. Niioaaonoaea oi?iu niaea?aeaieth ieeiaaea ia auaaao iieiui. A
aunieie ni?acia?iinoe oi?iu e niaea?aeaiey – oaeia ecyuiiai.

OeAEIA E *ANOUe. NENOAIA, NO?OEOO?A. YEAIAIO. *anoue e oeaeia –
oeeinioneea eaoaai?ee, io?aaeathuea ioiioaiea iaaeaeo noi?iiaie
ioaeaeueiiai i?aaeiaoa.

Ethaie i?aaeiao ninoieo ec /anoae. Iaeiaei iiiuoee iiiyoue iniaaiiinoue
oiai eee eiiai i?aaeiaoa, yaeaiey ia iniiaa aiaeeca /anoae e
iineaaeothuaai noiie?iaaiey eo naienoa aaaeoo e iaoaea/ai. Oeaeia ia
naiaeeony e noiia aai /anoae. Iii aeeth/aao e niinia niaaeeiaiey yoeo
/anoae, eo acaeiinayce, acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue e iiiaia ae?oaia.
I?aaeiao ia iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeai /a?ac noiio ninoaaeythueo aai
/anoae iioiio, /oi iie aicieeatho e nouanoaotho oieueei a aaeeiie
nenoaia, o.a. ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia niaaeeiaiee. Oieueei a yoii
neo/aa iie noaiiayony /anoyie. Aianoa n oai IE?IAIA OeAEIA – yoi oeaeia,
ninoaaeaiiia ec /anoae, a ia oeaeia, ?acaeaeaiiia ia /anoe. Ia?ae/iia
anoue /anoe, a ia oeaeia. Oaeei ie? noi?ie?iaaeny a iaoai niciaiee,
oaeei ii inoaaony a iai aei neo ii?.

OeAEIA – enoiaeiue ioieo oai?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca eiaiii iioiio, /oi iii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oo oi?io, iin?aaenoaii eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony
i?iieeiiaaiea a nouiinoue aaue.

Eaoaai?ee “oeaeia” e “/anoue” noiaeiu e acaeiinaycaiu n iiiyoeyie
“nenoaia”, “no?oeoo?a” e “yeaiaio”.

NENOAIA (io a?a/. nenoaia – ninoaaeaiiia ec /anoae, oeaeia, niaaeeiaiea)
– niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia, iaoiaeyueony a ioiioaieyo e naycyo ae?oa n
ae?oaii, eioi?ay ia?acoao ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaeinoiinoue, aaeeinoai.

NO?OEOO?A (io eao. no?oeoo?a – no?iaiea, ?aniieiaeaiea, ii?yaeie) –
niaieoiiinoue onoie/eauo naycae iauaeoa, iaania/eaathueo aai
oeaeinoiinoue e oiaeaeanoaaiiinoue naiiio naaa, o.a. nio?aiaiea iniiaiuo
naienoa i?e ?acee/iuo aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo eciaiaieyo.

YEAIAIO (io eao. yeaiaiooi – noeoey, ia?aiia/aeueiia aauanoai) –
iiiyoea, icia/athuaa ia?ae/iua /anoeoeu, i?inoaeoea caaiuey nenoaiu, ec
eiiaeiaoeee eioi?uo iia neeaaeuaaaony, ia?acoaony.

I?E*EIA E NEAAeNOAEA. I?E*EIA – yoi aeaenoaea, iaoneiaeeaathuaa
ii?aaeaeaiiia eciaiaiea. NEAAeNOAEA – ?acoeueoao acaeiiaeaenoaey
yaeaiee, a eioi?ii oeene?oaony oi iiaia, /oi iiaoaeaeaeinue i?e/eiie.
Aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci ?anniao?eaaao i?e/eio ?acaeoey ethaiai
iauaeoa, yaeaiey, i?ioeanna a eo aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/eyo.

I?e/eia e neaaenoaea ia yaeythony canouaoeie noi?iiaie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iie ia?aoiaeyo ae?oa a ae?oaa, iaiythony ianoaie.
Oi, /oi a iaeieo oneiaeyo yaeyaony i?e/eiie, a ae?oaeo – neaaenoaeai e,
iaiai?io (iai?eia?, eiaeoeoeeiiiue oie a aaia?aoi?a e aeaeaaoaea).
Iiyoiio /oiau eco/eoue i?aaeiao ananoi?iiia, ioaeii aai ?anniio?aoue e
eae i?e/eio, e eae neaaenoaea acaeiiaeaenoaey ii?aaeaeaiiuo yaeaiee.

Iaeii e oi aea neaaenoaea iiaeao aicieeiooue a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey
?aciuo i?e/ei (?acaeoea e aeaaeue i?aaiecia, iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, iao/aiea a aoca e o.ae.). Aeaiiia
ianoiyoaeuenoai neaaeoao o/eouaaoue ia i?aeoeea i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iooae
aicaeaenoaey ia oo eee eioth iaeanoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Anee iaeii e
oi aea yaeaiea iiaeao aucuaaoueny e aeecie ?aciuie i?e/eiaie, oi,
anoanoaaiii, nouanoaoao ia iaeei, a iiiaeanoai iooae aeinoeaeaiey
iaeiiai e oiai aea ?acoeueoaoa. Ioaeii aua?aoue iaeaieaa
oeaeaniia?aciue, yooaeoeaiue, niioaaonoaothuee eiie?aoiui oneiaeyi
iooue.

Ia ana i?e/eiu, iaoneiaeaoea iiyaeaiea oiai eee eiiai neaaenoaey,
ea?atho iaeeiaeiaoth ?ieue. I?e/eiu iiaoo auoue iniiaiuie e
aoi?inoaiaiiuie (i?e/eiu ?acaaea NNN?, ia?aciaaiey NIA).

?acee/atho i?e/eiu aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea. Ia?aua ii?iaeaeathony
acaeiiaeaenoaeai iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie oeaeinoiinoe, aoi?ua auoaeatho ec
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo i?aaeiaoaie, yaeaieyie, i?ioeannaie.

Ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue a ?acaeoee iaoa?eaeueiiai iauaeoa ea?atho
aioo?aiiea i?e/eiu. A enoi?ee iiciaiey i?e/eiiua nayce iiieiaeenue
ii-?aciiio. Neiaeeeinue aeaa iniiaiuo iiaeoiaea – aeaoa?ieieci e
eiaeaoa?ieieci. AeAOA?IEIECI – o/aiea i anaiauae caeiiiia?iie nayce,
i?e/eiiie iaoneiaeaiiinoe yaeaiee. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiue aeaoa?ieieci
ooaa?aeaeaao iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa? i?e/eiiinoe (iao yaeaiee aac i?e/eiu).

AeEss EIAeAOA?IEIECIA OA?AEOA?II IO?EOeAIEA ANAIAUAAI OA?AEOA?A
I?E*EIIINOE. A e?aeiae oi?ia eiaeaoa?ieieci io?eoeaao aa aiiaua.

IAIAOIAeEIINOUe E NEO*AEIINOUe. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aiia/aeueii auea
caia/aia a i?ioeanna iiciaiey i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.
Iniuneeaay naycue neaaenoaey n i?e/eiie, iu iaia?oaeeaaai, /oi ca
ecaanoiie i?e/eiie neaaeoao ia ethaia, a no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiia
neaaenoaea.

IAIAOIAeEIINOUe anoue oi, /oi iaycaoaeueii aeieaeii i?iecieoe a
eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo. Iia auoaeaao ec aioo?aiiae iniiau yaeaiey, aai
nouiinoe. NEO*AEIINOUe – yoi oi, /oi iiaeao auoue, a iiaeao e ia auoue,
iiaeao i?iecieoe, a iiaeao e ia i?iecieoe. Iia eiaao iniiaaiea ia a
nouiinoe aeaiiiai yaeaiey, a a aicaeaenoaee ia aeaiiia yaeaiea ae?oaeo
yaeaiee.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue e neo/aeiinoue ia nouanoaotho ?acaeaeueii. Eaaeaeia
yaeaiea a iaeii e oi aea a?aiy e iaiaoiaeeii, e neo/aeii. Neo/aeiinoue
aunooiaao eae oi?ia i?iyaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iaoiaeynue a i?aaie/aneie
acaeiinayce e acaeiicaaeneiinoe, neo/aeiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue a oiaea
aeaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey iauaeoa ia?aoiaeyo ae?oa a ae?oaa, iaiythony
ianoaie: neo/aeiia noaiiaeony iaiaoiaeeiui, iaiaoiaeeiia – neo/aeiui.

Oae eae iaiaoiaeeiia i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo iiaeao noaiiaeoueny
neo/aeiui, a neo/aeiia – iaiaoiaeeiui, oi, iiciaa yoe oneiaey, iiaeii
nicaeaoue eo eneonnoaaiii e i?aa?aoeoue neo/aeiua naienoaa,
niioaaonoaothuea i?aeoe/aneei eioa?anai, a iaiaoiaeeiua, a iaiaoiaeeiua,
i?ioeai?a/auea eioa?anai ethaeae, – a neo/aeiua (iai?eia?, iiaua
enoi/ieee yia?aee e aaa?ee ia AYN).

AICIIAEIINOUe E AeAENOAEOAEUeIINOUe. Iaeia ec noi?ii acaeiinayce iaaeaeo
iauaeoeaii nouanoaothueie e aicieeathueie ia eo iniiaa iiauie yaeaieyie
i?aaenoaaeaia a aeeaeaeoe/aneii iaoa?eaeecia eaoaai?eyie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e aiciiaeiinoe. AICIIAEIINOUe – yoi oi, /aai aua iao,
ii iii iiaeao auoue. AeAENOAEOAEUeIINOUe anoue noaaoay, ?aaeeciaaaoayny
aiciiaeiinoue.

Aiciiaeiinoue e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue aunooiatho eae oanii naycaiiua
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, eioi?ua iiaeaeaeiu. A i?ioeanna ?acaeoey iie iiaoo
iaiyoueny ianoaie. *oiau auoue ?acoeueoaoeaiie, i?aeoe/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue aeieaeia iie?aoueny ia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue.

Aiciiaeiinoe iiaoo auoue i?ia?anneaiuie e ?aaeoeeiiiuie. Ia?aua
onei?ytho ?acaeoea, aoi?ua oi?iicyo aai. Aiciiaeiinoe, ii?iaeaeaiiua
caeiiiia?iui ?acaeoeai nenoaiu e iaiaoiaeeiuie naycyie e ioiioaieyie,
iacuaathony ?aaeueiuie. Oi?iaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe iie?athony ia
neo/aeiinoue eae aeiiieiaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe (iai?eia?, eaaeaeue /aeiaae
iiaeao noaoue ieeeeiia?ii).

?acee/atho aano?aeoiua (eo iauei i?eciaeii yaeyaony ionoonoaea a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeinoaoi/iuo aeey eo ?aaeecaoeee oneiaee e oaeoi?ia);
eiie?aoiua (aeey eo inouanoaeaiey eiathony iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey)
aiciiaeiinoe. Anyeay aiciiaeiinoue ia/eiaao i?iyaeyoueny a aeaea
aano?aeoiie, a ?aaeeciaaoueny niiniaia eeoue eiie?aoiie.

Iao auai? anaaaea naycai n aiciiaeiinoyie. aiciiaeiinoue auai?a – yoi
aaeeeia aeaai. Aeaaiia – ia oionoeoue a?aiy. A?aiy nie?auaao yoo
aiciiaeiinoue. Ii aua?aoue anaaaea o?oaeiaa, /ai i?inoi iaeoe.

Iauaeoeaiia niaea?aeaiea eaoaai?ee iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeee
ii?aaeaeyao eo ?ieue e ianoi a oeeinioee. Iie eiatho ie?iaicc?ai/aneia
cia/aiea, oae eae io?aaeatho iauaeoeaiue ie?, ?ane?uaatho aai nouiinoue.

Iaoaoeceea – aioeiiae aeeaeaeoeee.

Aioeiiaeii aeeaeaeoeee yaeyaony IAOAOECE*ANEEE IAOIAe. Oa?iei
“iaoaoeceea” (io eao. oa iaoa oa oeceea – aoeaaeueii “oi, /oi neaaeoao
iinea oeceee) aue aaaaeai a 1 a. aei i.y. eiiiaioaoi?ii A?enoioaey A.
?iaeinneei. Nenoaiaoece?oy i?iecaaaeaiey aaeeeiai ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai
iuneeoaey, ii ?aniieiaeee “iinea oeceee” oa ec ieo, aaea ?a/ue oea ia
iaueo aii?inao auoey e iiciaiey, i “ia?aie oeeinioee” (i nouiinoe,
i?e/eiao e o.ae.), a ioee/ea io “aoi?ie oeeinioee” – /anoii-iao/iiai
ciaiey.

A nia?aiaiiii iauanoaiciaiee IIIssOEA “IAOAOECEEA” EIAAO O?E INIIAIUO
CIA*AIEss:

1. OEEINIOEss EAE IAOEA I ANAIAUAI, enoiaeiui i?iia?acii eioi?ie e auei
o/aiea A?enoioaey i “ia?auo ?iaeao nouaai”. Oae, e?oiiue iaiaoeeee
oeeinio XX a. I. Oaeaeaaaa? ?anniao?eaae aa eae “?iae iiciaiey, eiathuee
i?aaeiaoii nouaa a oeaeii”. Iniiaiua aa eaoaai?ee – yoi i?aaeaeueiua
iiiyoey, “ioaaouaathuea” iaeiia?aiaiii e iauaeo, e noauaeo iiciaiey.

2. Iniaay oeeinioneay iaoea – IIOIEIAEss, O*AIEA I AUOEE EAE OAEIAII,
iacaaeneii io aai /anoiuo aeaeia e a ioaea/aiee io aii?inia oai?ee e
eiaeee iiciaiey. A yoii cia/aiee aeaiiia iiiyoea oiio?aaeyeinue eae a
i?ioeii (Aeaea?o, Eaeaieoe, Nieiica e ae?.), oae e a ianoiyuai, iniaaiii
a nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie oeeinioee.

3. OEEINIONEEE NIINIA IICIAIEss (IUOEAIEss) E AeAENOAEss, i?ioeainoiyuee
aeeaeaeoe/aneiio iaoiaeo eae naiaio aioeiiaeo. Eiaiii ia yoii aniaeoa
iiiyoey “iaoaoeceea” (aioeaeeaeaeoeea) ieaea e aoaeao eaeoe ?a/ue.

Naiay oa?aeoa?iay, nouanoaaiiay /a?oa iaoaoeceee – IAeIINOI?IIIINOUe,
aaniethoecaoeey iaeiie (aac?acee/ii eaeie eiaiii) noi?iiu aeeaiai
i?ioeanna iiciaiey, eee oe?a – oiai eee eiiai yeaiaioa oeaeiai, iiiaioa
aeayoaeueiinoe a ethaie aa oi?ia.

Iaoaoeceea, eae e aeeaeaeoeea, ieeiaaea ia auea /ai-oi ?ac iaanaaaea
aeaiiui. Iia eciaiyeanue, aunooiaea a ?acee/iuo enoi?e/aneeo oi?iao, ec
eioi?uo iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa iniiaiuo:

1. “NOA?Ass” IAOAOECEEA auea oa?aeoa?ia aeey oeeinioee e iaoee a
XVII-XIX aa. (iaoaoece/aneee iaoa?eaeeci, iaoo?oeeinioey, oeeinioey
enoi?ee e o.ae.). Niaoeeoeea yoie oi?iu iaoaoeceee – io?eoeaiea anaiauae
nayce e ?acaeoey, ionoonoaea nenoaiiiai, oeaeinoiiai acaeyaea ia ie?
(iuoeaiea ii i?eioeeio “eee-eee”), oaaaeaeaiiinoue a caaa?oaiiinoe anao
ie?iauo naycae.

2. IIAAss IAOAOECEEA, a ioee/ea io noa?ie, ia ioaa?aaao ie anaiauoth
naycue yaeaiee, ie eo ?acaeoea. Yoi auaeyaeaei au aano?aeii a yiioo
a?iiaaeiuo aeinoeaeaiee iaoee e iauanoaaiiie i?aeoeee. Iniaaiiinoue
aioeaeeaeaeoeee a iiaie oi?ia – nin?aaeioi/aiea oneeee ia iieneao
?acee/iuo aa?eaioia ENOIEEIAAIEss, eioa?i?aoaoeee ?acaeoey. ?acaeoea
caeanue iiaeao iiieiaoueny neaaeothuei ia?acii:

a) eae i?inoie, anaiauee e aa/iue ?ino, oaaee/aiea eee, iaiai?io,
oiaiueoaiea (o.i. “ieineee yaiethoeeiieci”), o.a. eae oieueei
eiee/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey,

a) eae oieueei ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey, oeaiue nieioiuo nea/eia
(“eaoano?ioeci”);

a) eae iiaoi?aiea, iiiioiiiue i?ioeann, eiathuee no?iai eeiaeioth
iai?aaeaiiinoue (“?acaeoea ii i?yiie eeiee”);

a) eae aa/iia aeaeaeaiea ii e?oao, aac aicieeiiaaiey iiaiai (eiioeaioeee
“e?oaiai?ioa”):

ae) eae aeaeaeaiea, ec eioi?iai ecuiaaony aai nouiinoue – i?ioeai?a/ea;

a) eae oieueei i?ia?ann, o.a. ainoiaeaeaiea io iecoaai e aunoaio, io
i?inoiai e neiaeiiio.

Aiciiaeiu e ae?oaea, a oii /enea e niaoaiiua eioa?i?aoaoeee ?acaeoey,
nayce e acaeiiaeaenoaey.

AEAeU IAOAOECEEE iiaoo auoue auaeaeaiu ii ?acee/iui iniiaaieyi
(e?eoa?eyi). Oae, iaoaoece/aneei, aioeaeeaeaeoe/aneei iiaeao auoue eae
iaoiae iiciaiey, oae e niinia i?aeoe/aneie aeaoaeueiinoe – ath?ie?aoeci,
eiina?aaoeci, aiethioa?eci, o.a. ethaua iaeiinoi?iiiea aeaenoaey.

Iaoaoece/aneee niinia iiciaiey aeeth/aao a naay oeaeue ?yae
?aciiaeaeiinoae, eioi?ua aicieeatho a ?acoeueoaoa aaniethoecaoeee
ioaeaeueiuo iiiaioia, oi?i, yoaiia e o.i. iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna.
?aiaa iaeioi?ua ec yoeo ?aciiaeaeiinoae auee iacaaiu – eaeaaeeci,
nainoaeeci, ?aoeeiiaeeci, yiie?eci, aeiaiaoeci, ?aeyoeaeci e ae?.

E iei neaaeoao aeiaaaeoue NIOENOEEO e YEEAEOEEO, eioi?ua ca?iaeeeenue
aua a ae?aaiae A?aoeee e eniieueciaaeenue aeey “iainiiaaiey” enoeiiuo
noaeaeaiee, auaoeo ia naiii aeaea caaaaeiiie eiaeueth. Oae, ciaiaieoue
aioe/iue nioeci “?iaaoue” “aeieacuaae”: “*oi ou ia oa?ye, oi eiaaoue; ou
ia oa?ye ?iaa: cia/eo, o oaay ?iaa”.

Nioenoeea e yeeaeoeea yaeythony, iiaeaeoe, iaeaieaa “eiaa?iuie e
oeo?uie” ?aciiaeaeiinoyie aioeaeeaeaeoe/aneiai niiniaa iuoeaiey. Iie e
naaiaeiy oe?iei eniieuecothony aeey “aeieacaoaeuenoaa” iaaa?iuo auaiaeia
e “iainiiaaiey” iai?aaaaeiuo aeae, iniaaiii a noa?a iieeoeee.

Nouiinoue nioenoeee e yeeaeoeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi eciai/eainoue,
aeaeinoue iiiyoee iie i?eiaiytho ia iauaeoeaii, o.a. ia eae aaeaeaaoiia
io?aaeaiea ?acaeaathuaeny aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a i?iecaieueii, /enoi
noauaeoeaenonee. Eae i?aaeei, eo aeaaiay oeaeue – niciaoaeueiia,
i?aaeiaia?aiiia eneaaeaiea enoeiu, eca?auaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, no?aieaiea auaeaoue eiaeue ca enoeio. Yoi
aeinoeaaaony, eae iieacaii auoa, n iiiiuueth nenoaiu niaoeeoe/aneeo
i?eaiia e oeiaie (nioeciia), iniiaaiiuo ia ia?ooaiee i?eioeeiia
oi?iaeueiie e aeeaeaeoe/aneie eiaeee.

Iniiaiia ?acee/ea nioenoeee e yeeaeoeee – i?e anai eo noiaenoaa –
ninoieo a oii, /oi oa?aeoa?iuie i?eaiaie iineaaeiae yaeythony
noauaeoeaenoneia auoaaouaaiea eeoue ioaeaeueiuo noi?ii i?aaeiaoa (eee
iuneae, acaeyaeia, oaeoia e o.i.) e eo i?iecaieueiia, iaoaie/aneia
niaaeeiaiea /enoi aiaoiei ia?acii. ?acoeueoaoii yoie i?ioeaaeo?u
yaeyaony aa?aaao, oaioe/aneia iiiaeanoai, a ia oeaeinoiay,
?acaeaathuayny nenoaia a aaeeinoaa anao naieo noi?ii e naycae.

Nioenoeea e yeeaeoeea, oioy e i?eciatho aeaeinoue, aeeaeaeoe/iinoue
iiiyoee (/oi, ianiiiaiii, yaeyaony eo aaaeiui ?aoeeiiaeueiui iiiaioii),
ii aneaaenoaea naiaai i?iecaiea e noauaeoeaecia ia aeioiaeyo aei
?aaeueiie aeeaeaeoeee iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: O/aaiee aeey aocia… *. 2. N. 95-184.

2. Aie/ae A. C. Oeeinioey: Iiniaea aeey nooaeaioia. Aoi?ia,
eni?aaeaiiia, ecaeaiea. – Ieine, 1995. N. 107-131.

3. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Oeeinioey”… N. 117-125.

4. ?ooeaae/ I. I., Eieoiai E. ss. Aeeaeaeoeea e oai?ey iiciaiey. I.,
1994. N. 9-33.

5. Nie?eei A. A. Iniiau oeeinioee… N. 154-255.

6. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aocia… ?inoia-i/Ae… N. 490-496.

1. Oaia XIV. OEEINIOEss IAUANOAA

1. Iiiyoea iauanoaa.

2. Iauanoai eae oeaeinoiay naii?acaeaathuayny nenoaia.

3. I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai eioi?iaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneiai iauanoaa.

Iiiyoea iauanoaa.

Iiiyoea “iauiinoue”, “iauanoai”, “nioeeaeueiue” /?acau/aeii
?ani?ino?aiaiu, oioy eo niune /anoi ieacuaaaony aanueia iiiaicia/iui e
iaaeinoaoi/ii yniui.

IAUIINOUe ii?aaeaeyaony eae oi?ia niaianoiiai auoey eee acaeiiaeaenoaey
ethaeae, naycaiiuo iauei i?ienoiaeaeaieai, ycueii, noaeueaie e
acaeyaeii. Oaeiau naiuey e ia?iae.

IAUANOAI iiieiaaony eae i?iaeoeo oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie e ?acoiii
i?aaieciaaiiie niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe aieueoeo a?oii ethaeae,
iauaaeeiaiiuo ia ia iniiaa iauiinoe, a ia niaianoiuo eioa?anao e
aeiaiai?a.

Eaoeineee aeaaie “NIOeEI” icia/aao niaaeeieoue, iauaaeeieoue, caoaaaoue
niaianoiue o?oae. Ionthaea ia?aiia/aeueiia cia/aiea iiiyoey “iauanoai” –
iauiinoue, nithc, nio?oaeie/anoai. Ii ia anyeay iauiinoue ethaeae
yaeyaony iauanoaii, iaeiaei ethaia iauanoai – yoi oae eee eia/a
naiioi?aaeythuayny iauiinoue.

Iiiyoea “iauanoai” neaaeoao ioee/aoue io iiiyoee “ia?iae”, “iaoeey” e
“ainoaea?noai”. IA?IAe – yoi oi?ia iauiinoe ethaeae, naycaiiuo i?aaeaea
anaai ycueii e eoeueoo?ie, a oaeaea i?ienoiaeaeaieai. IAOeEss – yoi
oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee aeecie iaeiiai ia?iaea (eee ianeieueeeo aeeceeo),
naycaiiay n ainoaea?noaaiiinoueth, yeiiiie/aneeie, iieeoe/aneeie e
aeooiaiuie ioiioaieyie ethaeae. AINOAeA?NOAI – iniiaaiiay ia i?aaa e
caeiia oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee aeecie ia?iaeia e iaoeee, i?iaeoeo
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee. ?acoiaaony, /oi ana
yoe iiiyoey acaeiii ia?anaeathony e iaoneiaeeaatho iiieiaiea ae?oa
ae?oaa.

*oiau iiiyoue oaiiiai iauanoaa, iaiaoiaeeii oynieoue oa?aeoa?
caeiiiia?iinoae, iauaaeeiythueo ethaeae a iaeia aaeeiia oeaeia, a
iauanoaaiiue “i?aaieci”. A i?eioeeia auaeaeythony O?E INIIAIUO IIAeOIAeA
e iauyniaieth yoeo naycae e caeiiiia?iinoae:

Ia?aue iiaeao auoue iaicia/ai eae IAOO?AEENOE*ANEEE. Nooue aai a oii,
/oi /aeiaa/aneia iauanoai ?anniao?eaaaony a ea/anoaa anoanoaaiiiai
i?iaeieaeaiey caeiiiia?iinoae i?e?iaeu, ie?a aeeaioiuo e a eiia/iii
eoiaa – Einiina. Iauanoai a yoii neo/aa i?aaenoaao eae aunoaa, ii
aeaeaei ia naiia “oaea/iia” e onoie/eaia ia?aciaaiea. I?aaeiieaaaaony, a
/anoiinoe, /oi iii iiaeao eciaieoue oi?io naiaai auoey, “oeoe” a Einiin
e oai ia/aoue iiaue aeoie naiae yaiethoeee.

Ae?oaie iiaeoiae iiaeao auoue iacaai “EAeAAEENOE*ANEEI”. Caeanue
nouiinoue naycae, iauaaeeiythueo ethaeae a aaeeiia oeaeia, oniao?eaaaony
a eiiieaena oao eee eiuo eaeae, aa?iaaiee, ieoia. Enoi?ey ciaea iaiaei
i?eia?ia nouanoaiaaiey oaie?aoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa, aaea aaeeinoai
iaania/eaaaony iaeiie aa?ie, eioi?ay oai naiui noaiiaeony
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaeae.

Iiiaea oioaeeoa?iua ?aaeeiu iniiauaaeenue ia aaeeiie ainoaea?noaaiiie
eaeaieiaee, eioi?ay auiieiyea ?ieue neaeaoa iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa.
?oii?ii yoeo eaeae aunooiae iau/ii ?aeeaeiciue eeaea? eee “aiaeaeue”
iaoeee e ia?iaea, a oa eee eiua enoi?e/aneea aeaenoaey (aieiu, ?aoi?iu e
o.ae.) caaenaee io aiee yoiai /aeiaaea, eioi?ay iie?aeanue ia aeaiioth
eaeaieiae/aneoth eee ?aeeaeicioth nenoaio.

O?aoee iiaeoiae iauyniaiey iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa naycai n oeeinioneei
aiaeecii iaae/aeiaa/aneeo naycae e ioiioaiee, eioi?ua aicieeatho a
niioaaonoaothueo i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo e i?e iaee/ee oao eee eiuo
aa?iaaiee, ii eiatho naiiaeiaeathuee, ii?aaeaeythuee oa?aeoa?.

Ana niiniau iauyniaiey iauanoaa eiatho ia/oi iauaa, a eiaiii
i?aaenoaaeaiea i NENOAIIIE I?AAIECAOeEE aeaiiiai oaiiiaia e
CAEIIIIA?IINOssO aai naii?acaeoey.

Iauanoai eae oeaeinoiay naii?acaeaathuayny nenoaia.

I?e eco/aiee aeaiiie i?iaeaiu auaeaeythony aeaa iniiaiuo aniaeoa:
no?oeoo?a iauanoaa e aai eciaiaiea.

NO?OEOO?A IAUANOAA, eae e anyeay i?e?iaeiay no?oeoo?a, aeeth/aao a naay
ia oieueei ioaeaeueiua iauaeou. Iauanoai anoue ia/oi aieueoaa, /ai
i?inoi noiia eiaeeaeaeia. Iii aeeth/aao a naay ?AAEUeIUA IOIIOAIEss,
eioi?ua e iauaaeeiytho ethaeae. Iiyoiio a ea/anoaa i?inoaeoaai i?eaieaii
ii?aaeaeaiea iauanoaa eae niaieoiiinoe ethaeae e eo acaeiiioiioaiee.

Anee ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae e eo ?aciiia?aciua iauaaeeiaiey iaia?oaeeoue
iao?oaeii, oi NAssCE E IOIIOAIEss IAAEAeO ETHAeUeIE oaeaeaoue neiaeiaa,
eai iie iinyo eae au aanieioiue, ne?uoue oa?aeoa?. Eiaiii iiyoiio
ia?iiiay ?ieue yoeo iac?eiuo ioiioaiee auea iiiyoa ia n?aco. A aa
ioeaiea iaiaei i?aae?annoaeeia nio?aiyaony e naaiaeiy. Ec ieo iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiu e?aeiee eiaeeaeaeoaeeci (eee nioeeaeueiue ieaeeeci) e
aieinoaothuee eieeaeoeaeci.

N oi/ee c?aiey NIOeEAEUeIIAI IEAEEECIA nouanoaotho oieueei ioaeaeueiua
ethaee, eiaeeaeaeooiu, a iauanoaaiiuo naycae e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iauanoaa ia nouanoaoao. A aeaiiii neo/aa iauanoai aunooiaao eae /enoay
oeeoeey, oaeiaiia neiai e ie/aai aieaa. Neaaenoaeai iiaeiaiiai
eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea yaeyaony aia?oeci, io?eoeathuee
nouanoaiaaiea iauaeoeaiuo iauanoaaiiuo naycae e cia/aiea iauanoaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee.

N oi/ee c?aiey e?aeiaai, AIEINOAOTHUAAI EIEEAEOEAECIA, iai?ioea,
iauanoai ia oieueei nouanoaoao, ii e yaeyaony aieaa iieiioeaiiui e
aunieei, /ai eiaeeaeaeu, ec eioi?uo iii ninoieo. Nouanoaoao aoaeoi au
oieueei iauanoai e ie/aai, e?iia iauanoaa. Ioaeaeueiua aea ethaee –
anaai eeoue /anoeoeu, aeioeee, “iiiaiou”, eae au?aaeaeny Aaaaeue, aieaa
oe?ieiai oeaeiai, iiaeiaii oiio eae iiae e ?oee /aeiaaea yaeythony
/anoyie aai oaea. I?e iineaaeiaaoaeueiii i?iaaaeaiee yoa oi/ea c?aiey
ii?iaeaeaao oioaeeoa?eci, iiae/eiythuee naaa ee/iinoue iieiinoueth,
?aaoee?othuee ana iiiaiou aa aeecie, aieioue aei iaeue/aeoeo.

Iaa yoeo i?aae?annoaeea, iniaaiii oioaeeoa?eci, iineoaeeee eaeaeiui
enoi/ieeii iiiaeo no?aaeaiee e aaae, /oi eeoiee ?ac naeaeaoaeuenoaoao,
ianeieueei iianiuie iiaoo auoue oeeinioneea, ie?iaicc?ai/aneea e
eaeaieiae/aneea caaeoaeaeaiey.

Nia?aiaiiay oeeinioey ?anniao?eaaao /aeiaa/aneia iauanoai eae
niaieoiiinoue iiiaeanoaa ?acee/iuo /anoae e yeaiaioia. I?e/ai, yoe /anoe
e yeaiaiou oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie, iinoiyiii acaeiiaeaenoaotho.
Iiyoiio iauanoai e nouanoaoao eae aaeeiue, oeaeinoiue i?aaieci, eae
aaeeiay nenoaia. Io ae?oaeo i?e?iaeiuo nenoai, a oii /enea oece/aneeo e
aeieiae/aneeo, iauanoai ioee/aaony naiae iniaie neiaeiinoueth e eiaao
?yae i?eciaeia:

1) IIIAEANOAAIIINOUe ninoaaeythueo iauanoai yeaiaioia, iiaenenoai, eo
ooieoeee, naycae e acaeiiioiioaiee,

2) ?acii?iaeiinoue, ?ACIIEA*ANOAAIIINOUe nioeeaeueiuo yeaiaioia, n?aaee
eioi?uo, ia?yaeo n iaoa?eaeueiuie, eiathony e eaeaaeueiua, aeooiaiua.

Iniaoth niaoeeoeeo nioeeaeueiie nenoaia i?eaeaao oieeaeueiinoue aa
aeaaiiai yeaiaioa – *AEIAAEA, iaeaaeathuaai aiciiaeiinoueth naiaiaeiiai
auai?a oi?i e niiniaia naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, iiaaaeaiey. Yoi i?eaeaao
?acaeoeth iauanoaa aieueooth noaiaiue iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iai?aaeneacoaiinoe.

Ii ia?a auyaeaiey oeeinioneie iuneueth neiaeiinoe e iiiaiia?acey
iauanoaaiiie aeecie oeeiniou ana ianoie/eaaa no?aieeenue iouneaoue
eaeia-oi iauaa iniiaaiea, iauee ciaiaiaoaeue, e eioi?iio iiaeii auei au
naanoe yoi iiiaiia?acea. Iinea aeieaeo aeeneonnee iie a eiioea eiioeia
i?eoee e iauaio auaiaeo: ana aiaoia iiiaiia?aciua yaeaiey iauanoaaiiie
aeecie i?aaenoaaeytho a nouiinoe oo eee eioth ?aciiaeaeiinoue NIAIANOIIE
AeAssOAEUeIINOE ETHAeAE. Yoi eae au ne?uoay, oaeiay nouiinoue,
ia?aiiniiaa, noanoaioeey anaai nioeeaeueiiai.

Iaeiaei i?e anai eneeth/eoaeueiii cia/aiee oaiiiaia /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe a nioeeaeueiie aeecie ?ieue aa ana aea ia neaaeoao
i?aoaaee/eaaoue, a oai aieaa aaniethoece?iaaoue. Iioiio /oi nioeeaeueiay
aeeciue, iniiauaaynue ia /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, oai ia iaiaa ia
naiaeeony e iae. Iaee/ea o nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu yoie aaeeiie iniiau
eneeth/aao i?aaenoaaeaiea i aa iiiaiia?iinoe, neiaeiinoe. Iiyoiio
nioeeaeueioth nenoaio iiaeii iiiyoue ia oieueei eae niaieoiiinoue
ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, ii e eae niaieoiiinoue ioaeaeueiuo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii eee eae NO?OEOO?O naycuaathueo yoe a?oiiu e
i?aaiecaoeee ioiioaiee.

Oae, a ea/anoaa ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiiai i?aaeiaoa eco/aiey
iiaeao auoue auaeaeaia enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoayny a oiaea niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae NO?OEOO?A NIOeEAEUeIUO IAUIINOAE (naiuey, ?iae,
ieaiy, iaoeey, eeann, nineiaey, eanou e o.i.). Iiaeao auoue oaeaea
niaoeeaeueii auaeaeaia e ?anniio?aia NO?OEOO?A NAssCAE, CAAENEIINOAE,
IOIIOAIEE iaaeaeo ethaeueie ii e?oiiui noa?ai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
iauanoaa, oaeei, eae yeiiiie/aneay, iieeoeei-i?aaiaay, aeooiaiay,
i?aanoaaiiay, ?aeeaeiciay, ynoaoe/aneay. Iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie aioo?e yoeo noa?, oae e ioiioaieyie iaaeaeo
naieie yoeie noa?aie.

Aiciiaeai e aiaeec iauanoaa n oi/ee c?aiey nouanoaothueo a iai
iiiaiia?aciuo EINOEOOOIA (?acee/iiai ?iaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
i?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiey eoeueoo?u e cae?aaiio?aiaiey, oeaio?aeueiua e
ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe e ae?.), iaania/eaathueo onoie/eainoue
nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee.

Aeiionoei e eiie oieaa?naeueiue, NEIOAOE*ANEEE IIAeOIAe E IIIEIAIETH
NO?OEOO?U IAUANOAA eae ninoiyuae ec ioaeaeueiuo ee/iinoae; ec
ioaeaeueiuo eieeaeoeaia, iaeuo a?oii; ec aieueoeo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii e
eo i?aaiecaoeee; ec ioaeaeueiuo ia?iaeia, iaoeee e ainoaea?noa; ec
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo, iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee e i?aaiecaoeee. I?e
oaeii iiaeoiaea eaaeaeue i?aaenoaaeoaeue ethaiai ec ?anniao?eaaaiuo
o?iaiae aunooiaao a ea/anoaa yeaiaioa aieaa neiaeiie no?oeoo?iie
i?aaiecaoeee. I?e/ai, eaaeaeue yeaiaio no?oeoo?u iaoiaeeony a nenoaia
iiiaiia?aciuo naycae ae?oa n ae?oaii eae aa?oeeaeueiuo, oae e
ai?eciioaeueiuo.

Aiaeec ia?a/eneaiiuo iiiaiia?aciuo yeaiaioia nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu
ninoaaeyao, ii nooe aeaea, niaea?aeaiea nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee. Ia
iuoaynue en/a?iaoue ana aa aiaaonoai, ia?aoei iniaia aieiaiea ia
noanoaioeeiiaeueioth iniiao yoie nenoaiu, o.a. ia NIAIANOIOTH
AeAssOAEUeIINOUe ETHAeAE.

AeAssOAEUeIINOUe ii?aaeaeyaony eae niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneay oi?ia
aeoeaiiai ioiioaiey e ie?oaeathuaio ie?o. Niaea?aeaiea aa ninoaaeyao
oeaeaniia?aciia iniuneaiea, eciaiaiea e i?aia?aciaaiea aeaiiiai ie?a.
Iii eiaaony oaea a i?inoaeoai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii nioeeaeueiii aeaenoaee.
Eaeiau aea aai ninoaaiua yeaiaiou?

Ia?aue yeaiaio, iaiaoiaeeiue oaeoi? anyeie aeayoaeueiinoe -*AEIAAE,
eiaeeaeae, ethaee. Ii aa aeoeaiay noi?iia, NOAUAEO. Ii iioiio ethaee
yaeythony noauaeoaie, /oi eo aeayoaeueiinoue iai?aaeaia ia oa eee eiua
IAUAEOU. A ea/anoaa oaeiauo iiaoo ieacaoueny e ioaeaeueiua eiaeeaeaeu
(aeayoaeueiinoue a?a/a, o/eoaey, i?aaenoaaeoaee iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
i?ioannee).

Iaeiaei /aua a yoii ea/anoaa aunooiatho iauaeou ae?oaiai ?iaea, /aoei
?acaeaeythueany ia aeaa iiaea?oiiu:

Ia?aay iiaea?oiia – aaue, i?oaeey e n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, nthaea aea
ioiinyony e i?oaeey aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa – ea?aiaeao, ?o/ea,
ia/aoiue noaiie e ae?. Eia/a aiai?y, yoa iiaea?oiia ninoieo ec aauae, n
iiiiuueth eioi?uo /aeiaae eciaiyao e i?eniinaaeeaaao ie?oaeathuoth
n?aaeo e naiei iio?aaiinoyi.

Aoi?ay iiaea?oiia – n?aaenoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, oioy e ia eiathuea aauanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a: ycue
aeanoia, caoeiaay e ienueiaiiay ?a/ue, eioi?iaoeey, caeeth/aiiay a aa
?acee/iiai ?iaea iineoaeyo – iaaieoiuo eaioao, aeeneaoao, ea?oeiao,
eieaao e o.ae. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie, ii ii?aaeaeaieth oeeinioia,
NEIAIEU, ciaee. Aicaeaenoaoy ia iaoa niciaiea, neiaieu e ciaee
iaania/eaatho oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie e eieeaeoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, aa niaeaniaaiiinoue. Iie iiiiaatho /aeiaaeo, eiiaaea
iiiaie?aoii, i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea.

Ii, e?iia iacaaiiuo, eiaaony aua iaeei yeaiaio, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey
anyeiai nioeeaeueiiai aeaenoaey. Yoi NAssCE, ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
oeacaiiuie iniiaiuie eiiiiiaioaie nioeeaeueiiai aeaenoaey. Eae
iieacuaaao iiuo, eo iaoaie/aneee iaai? ia ia?acoao aua ie nioeeaeueiiai
aeaenoaey, ie nioeeaeueiie aeecie a oeaeii, anee iao nayce,
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ieie. Eiaiii iiyoiio onoie/eaua, iiiaie?aoii
iiaoi?ythueany nayce iaaeaeo ethaeueie, aauaie e neiaieaie, iinoaiaiii
neeaaeuaathueany eae ia o?iaia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey, oae e ia
o?iaia nioeeaeueiuo a?oii e anaai iauanoaa, eiatho eneeth/eoaeueii
aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

Oaeei ia?acii, nouanoaotho /aou?a yeaiaioa anyeie /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe – ethaee, oece/aneea aaue, neiaieu e nayce iaaeaeo ieie.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue eo iinoiyiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa ii?iaeaeaao iniiaiua
oeiu iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia?acothuea aaciaoth no?oeoo?o a
iiiaiieaiiaie iauanoaaiiie nenoaia. Niioaaonoaaiii /aou?ai iniiaiui
yeaiaioai i?inoaeoaai nioeeaeueiiai aeaenoaey auaeaeythony e /aou?a oeia
eee noa?u, iaeanoe iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe:

· iaoa?eaeueiay,

· aeooiaiay,

· ?aaoeyoeaiay, eee oi?aaeai/aneay,

· aeayoaeueiinoue ianeoaeeaaiey, eiiaaea eiaioaiay aoiaieoa?iie, eee
nioeeaeueiie a oceii niunea neiaa.

Ana iie ia oieueei iaania/eaatho iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey ethaie
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii e iaeiia?aiaiii nicaeatho i?aaeiinueee
aeecianiiniaiinoe iauanoaa a oeaeii.

Eaeiau aea NIAOeEOEEA E OOIEOeEE eaaeaeie ec oeacaiiuo /aou?ao NOA?
NIOeEAEUeIIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE?

Ia/iai oa?aeoa?enoeeo yoeo noa? n auyaeaiey iniaaiiinoae IAOA?EAEUeIIAI
I?IECAIAeNOAA. Aai naiaia?acea ninoieo a oii, /oi iii i?ecaaii
nicaeaaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua aaue, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae ethaeae, iiaeaea?aeaiey eo aeoeaiinoe a ethaie noa?a.
Caeanue caiyou ethaee oece/aneiai e oinoaaiiiai o?oaea. Iie aeiauaatho
nu?uea, ia?a?aaaouaatho aai e nicaeatho ana iaiaoiaeeiia eae aeey
?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e aeey iaoa?eaeueiiai iniauaiey ia?aciaaiey,
iaoee, iaaeeoeeiu, iieeoeee, aeey iianaaeiaaiie aeecie ethaeae (aeeeuea,
i?iaeiaieuenoaea, iaeaaeaea e o.ae.).

Neeaaeuaaaoeany a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey
o?aaeeoeeiiii ioee/aeenue iniaie noaiaiueth iai?yaeaiiinoe,
eiioeeeoiinoe. I?iaeaia i?aiaeieaiey eiioeeeoia a yoie noa?a, oe?aieaiey
ioiioaiee nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa inoaaony e naaiaeiy aeooaeueiie
oai?aoe/aneie e i?aeoe/aneie caaea/ae.

I?eciaaay aieueooth ?ieue iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, nia?aiaiiay
nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey ana aea neeiiia n/eoaoue, /oi aai ea/anoaaiiia
ioee/ea io ae?oaeo noa? aeecie iauanoaa ia aeaao iniiaaiee naiaeeoue e
iaio ana iiiaiia?acea /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a iauanoaaiiie aeecie ea?aao AeOOIAIIA I?I-ECAIAeNOAI,
a i?ioeanna eioi?iai oi?ie?othony eaeae, nicaeathony iao/iua e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe. I?aaaea, yoe oeaiiinoe oae eee eia/a
iaoa?eaeecothony a oece/aneeo aauao (eieaao, ea?oeiao, neoeueioo?ao e
o.i.). Ii aeaaiia a yoeo i?aaeiaoao ia iaoa?eaeueiay noi?iia, a
aeooiaiia niaea?aeaiea, caeeth/aiiua a ieo eaeae, ia?acu, /oanoaa.

Aeooiaiay aeayoaeueiinoue, ia?yaeo n iaoa?eaeueiie, eiaao ia?iiiia,
iaioeaieiia cia/aiea. Aac i?aoaaee/aiey iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
aeinoeaeaiey nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee yaeythony a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
?acoeueoaoii ?acaeoey iaoee, eneonnoaa, ?aeeaee, aeooiaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii. Eiaiii iiyoiio o?oae o/aiiai, ooaeiaeieea,
eiiiiceoi?a, eiino?oeoi?a, a?oeoaeoi?a iieuecoaony a iauanoaa aunieei
i?ecaaieai.

A ea/anoaa aua iaeiie noa?u auaeaeyaony ?AAOEssOEAIAss, eee
OI?AAEAI*ANEAss AeAssOAEUeIINOUe, o.a. aeayoaeueiinoue ?acee/iiai ?iaea
aaeieieno?aoi?ia, oi?aaeythueo, iieeoeeia. Niaoeeoe/aneay caaea/a yoie
iaeanoe – iiaeaea?aeaiea naycae iaaeaeo ethaeueie, ?aaoee?iaaiea eo
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iineieueeo nayce e ioiioaiey aicieeatho noeoeeii,
iinoieueeo iie ia?aiia/aeueii ia ioaeaeathony a niaoeeaeueiie
?aaoeyoeee. Oieueei ni a?aiaiai aeey eo noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey
oi?ie?othony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aeaeu ?aaoeyoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe e
niioaaonoaothuea ei i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua e iaania/eaatho
niaeaniaaiiinoue, oii?yaei/aiiinoue ?acee/iuo noa? iauanoaaiiie aeecie.
Aac yoiai iauanoaaiiay aeeciue oaeaea iaaiciiaeia, eae iaaiciiaeia iia
aac iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

?aaoeyoeaiay, oi?aaeai/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, eae e ae?oaea aa oeiu,
aeeth/aao ?acee/iua aeaeu o?oaea. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai oi?aaeaiea
ethaeueie n i?eiaiaieai ?acee/iuo niiniaia, n?aaenoa, aeeth/ay
i?eioaeaeaiea. Ii yoi oaeaea e oi?aaeaiea aauaie, n?aaenoaaie
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa (caaiaeneeie iino?ieeaie, noaieaie, caieae
e o.i.).

Oi?aaeaiea inouanoaeyaony ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo: io ainoaea?noaa aei
i?aaei?eyoey e naiuee. Iii ea?aao ia?iiioth ?ieue a noaeueaao iauanoaa.
Aaaea a oii, /oi aai /anoi ii?aaeatho iiiai/eneaiiua aieacie:
ceioiio?aaeaiea iaoiaeaie i?eioaeaeaiey, ianeeey, ?ai?annee, /?acia?iia
?ac?anoaiea /eiiaie/ueaai aiia?aoa, ath?ie?aoecaoeey oi?aaeai/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eaciie?aaenoai, ei??oioeey, acyoi/ie/anoai e o.i.
Iniaaiii auniea oeaia ioeaie, i?in/aoia e ceioiio?aaeaiee a iieeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eai iia oae eee eia/a ii?aaeaeyao noaeueau ieeeeiiia e
ieeeeiiia ethaeae.

Iaeiaei i?e anae aaaeiinoe iieeoe/aneie e ae?oaeo aeaeia iauanoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaeecaoeey eo iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae i?aaeaea
anaai iaoneiaeaia iaee/eai aeoeaiuo ethaeae. Nicaeaiea i?aaeiinueie aeey
iieiioeaiiie aeecie, aini?iecaiaenoaa aeoeaiinoe ethaeae ninoaaeyao
niaea?aeaiea /aoaa?oiai aeaea iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe – NIOeEAEUeIIE
a oceii niunea neiaa, eee aeayoaeueiinoe ii ianeoaeeaaieth ethaeae. Yoi
o?oae a?a/a, o/eoaey, a?oenoa, ?aaioieeia noa?u ianeoaeeaaiey.

Eiia/ii, ethaee caieiathony naiiaini?iecaiaenoaii, naiiecea/aieai,
naiiia?aciaaieai, naie naay ei?iyo, ?acaeaeatho. Iaeiaei
aini?iecaiaenoai, nio?aiaiea aeecie, noeioee?iaaiea aeoeaiinoe,
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ianeoaeeaaiea /aeiaaea – ianoieueei aaaeiia
iauanoaaiiia aeaei, /oi iauanoai ia iiaeao iieiinoueth aeiaa?eoue aai
ioaeaeueiui ethaeyi, naiuea. Iauanoai aeeth/aaony a yoio i?ioeann /a?ac
oeieu, aocu, nenoaio cae?aaiio?aiaiey, eoeueoo?iiai ioaeuoa e o.ae.
Noa?a ianeoaeeaaiey – iaeia ec naiuo aeeiaie/iuo a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa.

Eoae, iniiaa iauanoaaiiie no?oeoo?u ia?acoaony ia aaca /aou?ao
aaaeiaeoeo aeaeia /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eaaeaeie ec ieo
niioaaonoaoao naiy niaoeeoe/aneay noa?a iauanoaaiiie aeecie n
nianoaaiiie aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?ie, iiiaeanoaii ioaeaeueiuo oi?i. Eo
aieaa eiie?aoiue aiaeec ninoaaeo niaea?aeaiea iineaaeothueo eaeoeee.

Iaoiaeynue a aaeeinoaa e acaeiinayce, ioaeaeueiua nioeeaeueiua noa?u
nicaeatho IAUANOAI EAE AAeEIOTH NENOAIO, eae oeaeia, eae iniaue
i?aaieci, iaeaaeathuee ia oieueei naienoaaie, i?enoueie ioaeaeueiui aai
/anoyi, ii e oaeeie naienoaaie, eioi?uo iao ie o iaeiie ec ieo. I?e/ai,
yoi oeaeia aieueoa ia oieueei eiee/anoaaiii, ii e ea/anoaaiii, o.a. o
nenoaiu eae oeaeiai anoue oaeea ea/anoaa, naienoaa, eioi?uo iao ie o
iaeiie ec ninoaaeythueo /anoae. Iiyoiio /oiau iiiyoue iauanoai eae
oeaeia, ioaeii eco/eoue ia oieueei aai /anoe, ii e auyaeoue iniaua
naienoaa iauanoaa eae oeaeiai. *oi aea yoi ca INIIAIUA NAIENOAA IAUANOAA
EAE OeAEIAI?

Nia?aiaiiay nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey auaeaeyao /aou?a oaeeo naienoaa:

· naiiaeayoaeueiinoue,

· naiii?aaiecaoeey,

· naii?acaeoea,

· naiiaeinoaoi/iinoue.

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi anee ia?aua o?e ec oeacaiiuo naienoa i?enoue ia
oieueei iauanoao a oeaeii, ii a oie eee eiie noaiaie e ninoaaeythuei aai
noa?ai, oi naienoai naiiaeinoaoi/iinoe i?enoua oieueei iauanoao a
oeaeii. NAIIAeINOAOI*IINOUe – yoi niiniaiinoue nenoaiu nianoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth nicaeaaaoue e ainnicaeaaaoue ana iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey
naiaai nouanoaiaaiey, i?iecaiaeeoue ana iio?aaiia aeey eieeaeoeaiie
aeecie.

Naiiaeinoaoi/iinoue – aeaaiia ioee/ea iauanoaa io aai ninoaaiuo /anoae.
Ie iaeei ec oeiia aeayoaeueiinoe ia iiaeao naiinoiyoaeueii
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue, ie iaeia ec ioaeaeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii ia
niiniaia.. auaeeoue “a iaeeii/eo”, iaania/eoue naay anai iaiaoiaeeiui.
Oaeie niiniaiinoueth iaeaaeaao eeoue iauanoai a oeaeii. Oieueei
niaieoiiinoue anao aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, ana aianoa acyoua e
acaeiinaycaiiua nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu e eo einoeooou nicaeatho iauanoai
eae naiiaeinoaoi/ioth nioeeaeueioth nenoaio.

Aaaeii oynieoue, /oi iauanoai, i?aaenoaaeyy niaie niaieoiiinoue
ioiineoaeueii onoie/eauo, noaaeeueiuo no?oeoo?, ia iaoiaeeony oai ia
iaiaa a ninoiyiee iaiiaeaeaeiinoe, iieiy. I iai, eae e i i?e?iaea,
iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iii iinoiyiii eciaiyaony. Iiyoiio nia?aiaiiua
oeeiniou aeinoaoi/ii aaeeiiaeooiu a oii, /oi ?anniio?aiea iauanoaa a
noaoeea, o.a. n oi/ee c?aiey aai i?aaiecaoeee, no?oeoo?u iaycaoaeueii
aeieaeii auoue aeiiieiaii aiaeecii aai aeeiaieee, eciaiaiey e ?acaeoey.

I?e enneaaeiaaiee i?iaeai ?acaeoey iauanoaa a nia?aiaiiie oeeinioee
oe?iei eniieuecothony oaeea oa?ieiu, eae “i?ioeann”,
“ooieoeeiie?iaaiea”, “eciaiaiea”, “?acaeoea”, “i?ia?ann”, “?aa?ann”,
“oaeoi?u ?acaeoey”, “yaiethoeey”, “?aaiethoeey” e ae?. ?anniio?ei e?aoei
niaea?aeaiea yoeo iiiyoee.

I?IOeANN – yoi aaeeiay na?ey eciaiaiee a nioeeaeueiuo nenoaiao, o.a. a
a?oiiao, einoeoooao, ae?oaeo yeaiaioao nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu. Aiciiaeiu
?acee/iua oeiu i?ioeannia: aioo?e ee/iinoe, iai?eia?, i?ioeann
naiiia?aciaaiey /aeiaaea; i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a ioiioaieyo aeaoo
eiaeeaeaeia; eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea aioo?e iauiinoe e iaaeaeo ieie;
i?ioeannu eciaiaiee, ioaaouaathuea no?oeoo?o e i?aaiecaoeeth iauanoaa a
oeaeii.

Aiciiaeai e eiie iiaeoiae e eeanneoeeaoeee oeiia nioeeaeueiuo
i?ioeannia. Oae, aiciiaeii auaeaeaiea i?ioeannia, iauaaeeiythueo,
naeeaeathueo, o?aaieaathueo ethaeae, a aiciiaeiu, iai?ioea, i?ioeannu,
?acuaaeeiythuea, ii?iaeaeathuea niia?ie/anoai, eiioeeeou.

I?inoaeoei i?ioeannii yaeyaony OOIEOeEIIE?IAAIEA iauanoaa, iiae eioi?ui
iiieiathony i?ienoiaeyuea a iai ia?aoeiua eciaiaiey, naycaiiua n aai
iianaaeiaaiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoueth a ?aieao neiaeeaoeony no?oeoo? e
ioiioaiee. Iiae ECIAIAIEAI iiieiaaony ia/aeueiue yoai aioo?aiiaai
ia?a?iaeaeaiey a iauanoaa eee aai ioaeaeueiuo /anoyo e eo naienoaao,
iinyuee eiee/anoaaiiue oa?aeoa?. ?ACAEOEA – anoue /anoiue neo/ae
eciaiaiee. Iii aicieeaao oiaaea, eiaaea iinoaiaiiua eiee/anoaaiiua
eciaiaiey i?eaiaeyo e aeoaieei, iaia?aoeiui ea/anoaaiiui naeaeaai, /oi
i?iyaeyaony a iaiaauaiee e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee yeaiaioia iauanoaaiiuo
no?oeoo? e ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ieie.

I?IA?ANN – iaeia ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae i?ioeanna ?acaeoey. Ii i?iyaeyaony a
?inoa i?eniiniaeaiey e aeecianiiniaiinoe nenoaiu a iaiythueony oneiaeyo
aa nouanoaiaaiey e naycai n i?ioeannii oneiaeiaiey nenoaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee. I?ioeaiiieiaeiui i?ia?anno yaeyaony iiiyoea “?AA?ANN” –
i?ioeann noaeaiey aiciiaeiinoae nenoaiu e naii?acaeoeth e onaiaieth
oneiaee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, oi?iuaiea e ?ac?ooaiea nenoaiu.

Aiaeec iauanoaa n oi/ee c?aiey aai eciaiaiey e ?acaeoey aeeth/aao a naay
neaaeothuea iniiaiua i?iaeaiu:

· iai?aaeaiiinoue niaa?oathueony a iauanoaa eciaiaiee,

· enoi/ieee eee oaeoi?u ?acaeoey,

· oi?iu, a eioi?uo niaa?oaaony ethaia ?acaeoea. I?e ?anniio?aiee ia?aie
ec auoaoeacaiiuo i?iaeai neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi nouanoaiaaiea
iinoiyiiuo, iai?aaeaiiuo, nenoaiaoe/aneeo eciaiaiee a iauanoaa i?eciatho
aeaeaei ia ana oeeiniou. Oaeoth iai?aaeaiiinoue ?acaeoey io iecoeo oi?i
e aunoei i?eciatho OEEINIOU-AeAOA?IEIENOU (Aaaaeue, Ia?en). A oi aea
a?aiy EIAeAOA?IEIENOU eee aiethioa?enou (Oiiaiaaoy?, Ieoeoa, Iiiia?),
aaniethoece?oy ?ieue neaiuo, aanniciaoaeueiuo ia/ae a /aeiaa/aneie
ineoeea e naycuaay n ieie ana nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea, io?eoeatho aai
iai?aaeaiiinoue e caeiiiia?iinoue.

Oai ia iaiaa, iacaaeneii io i?eciaiey iai?aaeaiiinoe i?ienoiaeyueo a
iauanoaa eciaiaiee, nai oaeo yoeo eciaiaiee i?eciaaony aieueoeinoaii
oeeinioia, eai o?oaeii io?eoeaoue iaiaauaiea aeooiaiie aeecie ethaeae,
?acaeoea iaoee, oaoieee, ?anoe?aiea aiciiaeiinoae oaeiaeaoai?aiey
?aciiia?aciuo /aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae.

Aaaeiui yaeyaony e aii?in ia ENOI*IEEAO, OAEOI?AO eee I?E*EIAO
i?ienoiaeyueo a iauanoaa eciaiaiee. Eaeea aea yoi i?e/eiu?

Iaeia ec ieo naycaia n iai?a?uaiui i?ioeannii ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
iauanoaa, iinoiyiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth ethaeae ii oaeiaeaoai?aieth naieo
ianouiuo iio?aaiinoae. A oiaea yoie iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaee
niaa?oainoaotho naie iaauee e niiniaiinoe, eciaiythony n aic?anoii.
Oie?atho, ?iaeaeathony e iiae?anoatho ana iiaua e iiaua iieieaiey. Oaea
a neeo yoeo anoanoaaiiuo i?e/ei, i?ienoaeathueo i?aeiouanoaaiii ec
caiaaeeaiiuo i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyo aeinoaoi/ii aeoaieea eciaiaiey a
no?oeoo?a e i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa.

Ii, e?iia i?ioeanna iianaaeiaaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iauanoaaiiie
aeecie, iaia?oaeeaathony e aieaa na?ueaciua, ei?aiiua eciaiaiey,
cao?aaeaathuea iniiau aeecie iauanoaa. Iie i?ienoiaeyo iiae aeeyieai
iiuiuo ?aoi?iaoi?neeo e ?aaiethoeeiiiuo aeaeaeaiee.

A nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee auneacuaaeenue ?acee/iua iiaiey ii iiaiaeo
i?e/ei ea/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a iauanoaa. Iaeie naycuaaee eo n
eciaiaieai i?e?iaeiuo iniia nioeeaeueiie aeecie (O. Iiioaneuea, A.
Aa?iaaeneee, E. Aoieeaa), ae?oaea eneaee i?e/eiu a eciaiaieyo yeiiiieee,
i?oaeee o?oaea, iaoiaeao i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa (E. Ia?en, O.
?inoio), o?aouee naycuaaee i?ioeann nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey n eciaiaieyie
a eoeueoo?iie aeecie, nenoaia aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae (A. Aaaaeue, I. Eiio,
I. Ni?ieei).

Eaaeaeue ec yoeo oaeoi?ia ieacuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia
?acaeoea iauanoaaiiie aeecie, oioy eo nioeeaeueiay ?ieue ia?aaiioeaiia.
I?e?iaeiua, yeiiiie/aneea e eoeueoo?iua oaeoi?u oaniaeoei ia?acii
naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie. Oae, oaaee/aiea ?iaeaeaaiinoe
(i?e?iaeii-aeieiae/aneee oaeoi?) aeaao yooaeo e niinianoaoao auno?iio
?acaeoeth iauanoaa oieueei i?e oneiaee iaeiia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aciaaiey, iaaeeoeeiu.

Aaeeea ?ieue oaoie/aneeo ecia?aoaiee. Oae, ecia?aoaiea e i?eiaiaiea
ia?iaie iaoeiu a XVIII a. i?aaeii?aaeaeeee i?iiuoeaiioth ?aaiethoeeth, a
caoai aucaaee iiaue oei eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa n ?acaeoie
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth, ao?aeoaceae e i?ieaoa?eaoii. ?acaeoea i?oaeee o?oaea,
i?ia?ann oaoieee, iaoee, eae oaaaeeoaeueii iieacuaaao enoi?e/aneee iiuo,
eciaiytho ana iaeanoe iauanoaaiiie aeecie, no?oeoo?o ?acee/iuo iauiinoae
ethaeae – iaeuo e aieueoeo, – eo eoeueoo?o e niinia oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae.

Aaeeea e ?ieue eoeueoo?u, a oii /enea aa iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey. Oae, aeoeaiue yenii?o a ssiiieth a XIX-XX aa.
aeinoeaeaiee iaoee ec Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e NOA niaeaenoaiaae oiio, /oi a
n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeee enoi?e/aneee n?ie ssiiiey, ianiio?y ia ii?aaeaiea
ai aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia, i?aa?aoeeanue a iaeio ec naiuo auniei?acaeouo
no?ai ie?a. Enoi?ee ecaanoiu iaiaei i?eia?ia e i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai
oa?aeoa?a, eiaaea i?iaiaeeiay ainiiaenoaothueie neeaie iieeoeea
ecieyoeeiiecia, iaaeiiouaiey a no?aio ie iiauo eaeae, ie iiauo oiaa?ia
aeiaiaeeea iiaouanoaaiiua ainoaea?noaa aei aeoaieiai e?ecena, oiaaeea:
onoa?aaaee eo einoeooou e nioeeaeueiua no?oeoo?u.

Iineieueeo eoeueoo?iia oai?/anoai iiaeao nicaeaaaoue ?aaeueioth oa?ico
nouanoaothuei einoeoooai, nioeeaeueiui no?oeoo?ai e aeanoe, iinoieueeo
iii iinoiyiii eiio?iee?oaony iauanoaii. Enoi?ey iaoee e oaoieee,
eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa ciaao iaiaei i?eia?ia nii?ioeaeaiey iiaui eaeayi
e oai?eyi (aea?aeieci), aaiaoeea, eeaa?iaoeea), oaoie/aneei
ecia?aoaieyi (aiaae?aieth ia?iauo iaoei, eiiiuethoa?ia), iiaui
eoeueoo?iui oeaiiinoyi.

Ii i?e anai cia/aiee NIOeEAEUeIUO i?aaeiinueie iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey –
yeiiiie/aneeo e eoeueoo?iuo – iaeuecy ia o/eouaaoue oiai, /oi ana ethaee
yaeythony aeeauie i?aaieciaie, aoiaeyueie a aeinoa?o ieaiaou Caiey,
oaeaie, iiaeaa?aeaiiuie neeai i?eoyaeaiey, yeaeo?iiaaieoiui iieyi,
einie/aneei eo/ai, oa?iiaeeiaie/aneei aicaeaenoaeyi. Aeey i?e?iaeiuo
oaiiiaiia iaaei eneaoue e i?e?iaeiua i?e/eiu. Iiyoiio i?aaiia?ii
aiai?eoue i nioeeaeueiie aeecie eae i yaeaiee, aeaeaeoueie neeaie
eioi?iai yaeythony oaeaea I?E?IAeIUA, aeinoa?iua oaeoi?u, oaeea,
iai?eia?, eae enneaaeiaaiiua E. Aoieeaaui ?eoiu yoiiaaiaca, aeeth/athuea
oacu iiaeuaia, aeai?annee e oiaaeea.

Caaea/ae nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee yaeyaony enneaaeiaaiea anao i?e?iaeiuo e
nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, oae eee eia/a eieoeee?othueo i?ioeannu ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iaeaieeaaynue, yoe oaeoi?u ii?iaeaeatho iiao/ea
?aoi?ienoneea e ?aaiethoeeiiiua aeaeaeaiey, noeioee?othuea e onei?ythuea
i?ioeann aeoaieeo nioeeaeueiuo ia?aiai.

NIOeEAEUeIUA AeAEAEAIEss au?aaeathony a eieeaeoeaiuo, niaianoiuo
aeaenoaeyo ethaeae, niaa?oathueony aieaa eee iaiaa i?aaieciaaiii aeey
aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae, eciaiythueo nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea
o/anoieeia aeaeaeaiee. I?e/eiie nioeeaeueiuo aeaeaeaiee yaeythony
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiua yeiiiie/aneea, eoeueoo?iua, iieeoe/aneea iio?aaiinoe
ethaeae. Eiaiii iie aucuaatho ninoiyiea ineoe/aneiai iai?yaeaiey,
nioeeaeueiiai aaniieienoaa. Yoi aaniieienoai i?iyaeyaony a oneeaiee
eiioaeoia, aeeneonnee, ?aciuoeaiee ii iiaiaeo neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee.
Ninoiyiea aaniieienoaa iiaeao ioaaouaaoue aieueoea eee iaiueoea iauiinoe
– aieioue aei oeaeuo eeannia e ia?iaeia.

Ninoiyiea aaniieienoaa, iai?yaeaiiinoe – enoiaeiue ioieo nioeeaeueiuo
aeaeaeaiee. Oa?aeoa? yoeo aeaeaeaiee ii?aaeaeyaony eo oeaeyie,
i?eiaiyaiuie iaoiaeaie, a oaeaea eiee/anoaii aiaea/aiiuo a ieo ethaeae.
Ii yoei i?eciaeai ?acee/athony ?aoi?iaoi?neea e ?aaiethoeeiiiua
aeaeaeaiey.

?AOI?IAOI?NEEA AeAEAEAIEss iau/ii ioaaouaatho iaeioi?ua ia?aie/aiiua
e?oae e iauiinoe. Iie aeaenoaotho a ?aieao onoaiiaeaiiiai nioeeaeueiiai
ii?yaeea e iiyoiio, eae i?aaeei, ia noaeeeaathony n ?ai?anneyie e
ianeeeai ni noi?iiu aeanoae. ?aoi?iaoi?u no?aiyony e aeinoeaeaieth
eciaiaiee, iai?eia?, iooai oeo/oaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Oaeiau
i?inaaoeoaeueneea, i?ioanneiiaeueiua, iaoeeoenoneea e io/anoe
iaoeeiiaeueiua aeaeaeaiey. Ianiio?y ia naie ie?iue, eaaaeueiue oa?aeoa?,
?aoi?iaoi?neea aeaeaeaiey eiiaaea i?eaiaeyo e aeoaieei iauanoaaiiui
eciaiaieyi.

?AAIETHOeEIIIUA AeAEAEAIEss a ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo iiaoo auoue iioiaee ia
?aoi?iaoi?neea. Ii ii ia?a naiaai ?acaeoey iie i?eia?aoatho ioee/ey:
ioaaouaatho oe?ieea iannu, oeaeua iauanoaaiiua eeannu, eniuouaathuea
iai?yaeaiea e aaniieienoai; cao?aaeaatho ei?aiiua, aeeciaiiua
iio?aaiinoe ethaeae. O/anoieee yoeo aeaeaeaiee /anoi iiaeaa?aathony
i?aneaaeiaaieyi e ?ai?anneyi ni noi?iiu aeanoae.

Ii iniiaiia ioee/ea ?aaiethoeeiiiuo aeaeaeaiee – a oeaeyo e iaoiaeao. Eo
oeaeue – ia ie?iay ?aoi?ia, a ieni?iaa?aeaiea nouanoaothuaai
nioeeaeueiiai no?iy iooai i?eiaiaiey neeu. Ionthaea e iaiaoiaeeiinoue
oe?ieeo ianooaaia, ianniainoe, iaee/ey iniauo i?aaiecaoeee, niiniaiuo
noaoue ca/aoeaie iiaie iieeoe/aneie aeanoe.

A neo/aa iiaaaeu ?aaiethoeeiiiua aeaeaeaiey aaiaeyo a aeeciue iiaua
ii?yaeee, ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaiytho no?ie iauanoaa, aai eeanniaoth
no?oeoo?o, ninoaa nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia, nenoaio oeaiiinoae, iau/ae,
ia?ac iiaaaeaiey. Iaeaieaa aeoaieea eciaiaiey a iauanoaa aucuaatho
?aaiethoeee, a eioi?uo o/anoaotho eeannu, ia?iaeu. Oaeiau ?aaiethoeee
1789-94 aa. ai O?aioeee, 1917 a. a ?innee, 1949 a. a Eeoaa. Aeoaieea
iauanoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?iecioee e a ?acoeueoaoa
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiuo ?aaiethoeee, naa?oeaoeony a XX a.,
iniaaiii iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu a ?yaea no?ai Acee, Ao?eee e
Eaoeineie Aia?eee.

?aaiethoeee ia oieueei ii?aeueii ii?aaaeaiiu, ii e iaiaoiaeeiu, anee iie
iai?aaeaiu i?ioea ioaeeaoeo ii?yaeeia, oe?aie/aneeo ?aaeeiia e o.i. Ii
iaaa?ii, aeaeeii, n/eoaoue, /oi oieueei n ?aaiethoeeyie naycaii ?acaeoea
iauanoaa. Iaeuecy ia o/eouaaoue, /oi ?aaiethoeee anaaaea i/aiue aei?iai
iaoiaeyony: nii?iaiaeaeathony no?aaeaieyie e ianniaie aeaaeueth ethaeae.

Oaeei ia?acii, nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneee aiaeec aeeth/aao a naay e noaoeeo
iauanoaa, e aai aeeiaieeo, o.a. ?anniio?aiea ninoaaeythueo aai a?oii,
einoeoooia, a oaeaea o/ao i?ienoiaeyueo a iauanoaa i?ioeannia eciaiaiey
e ?acaeoey.

I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai eioi?iaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneiai iauanoaa.

Ana oi, /oi oaea neacaii ia iauanoaa e aai ?acaeoee, aeaao iai iniiaaiea
?anniio?aoue i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai yoaia yaiethoeee yoie aeiaaeueiie
nenoaiu. A iaoe aeie yoio yoai iacuaatho ii-?aciiio: iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
?aaiethoeeae, oaoiieiae/aneie ?aaiethoeeae, eioi?iaoeeiiiie,
eiiiuethoa?iie, oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie e o.ae. Aeaei ia a oa?ieiao, a a
nouanoaa i?ioeanna, i?ienoiaeyuaai a iauanoaa, eioi?ia n 70-o aa. XX a.
/aua anaai iacuaatho iinoeiaeono?eaeueiui.

Yoe aeaoeieoeee (ii?aaeaeaiey) ioiinyony a iniiaiii e caiaaeiie e
yiiineie oeeaeeecaoeeyi, oioy ii?aaeaeaiiua /a?ou iiaeiaiuo i?ioeannia
i?iniao?eaathony e a ae?oaeo iauanoaaiiuo i?aaieciao. Aeaaiia caeanue –
?INO CIA*AIEss EIOI?IAOeEE A AEECIE IAUANOAA a n?aaiaiee n aauanoaii e
yia?aeae, eioi?ua aei neo ii? ii?aaeaeyee oaiiu ?acaeoey ie?iaie
oeeaeeecaoeee. Iiyaeaiea a 30-a aa. XX a. oai?ee eioi?iaoeee, a caoai e
eeaa?iaoeee ?acei noeioee?iaaei ?acaeoea eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee e
oaoiieiaee, /oi iicaieeei a ei?ia eciaieoue I?iecaiaenoai.

Aeey oeeinioneiai aiaeeca iniiaiia a aeaiiii i?ioeanna oi, /oi
ECIAIEEINUe IIEIAEAIEA E ?IEUe *AEIAAEA A IE?A, AAI ACAEIIIOIIOAIEA N
I?E?IAeIE E OAOIEEIE: iiyaeeenue eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai e
eioi?iaoeeiiiue /aeiaae, naiaia?aciue eieeaeoeaiue eioaeeaeo iaeoaoaeae
ieaiaou. E?e/aoue “o?a!” ii yoiio iiaiaeo eee ia oi?iieoueny n
ainoi?aaie? Ai anyeii neo/aa ia iaoaao i?eneooaoueny e auneacuaaieyi oao
nia?aiaiiuo iuneeoaeae, eioi?ua iaaniieiaiu iuiaoiei ninoiyieai aeae a
ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee.

Oae, I?oaaa-e-Aannao ienae, /oi iao aae aeoaiei oaa?ai a naieo
oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoyo, ii e ia ciaao, /oi aio oai?eoue. Oicyei anaai
ie?a, ii ia oicyei naiiio naaa. Ii ?anoa?yi n?aaee eciaeeey. Iaeaaeay
aieueoeie n?aaenoaaie, aieueoeie ciaieyie, aieueoae oaoieeie, /ai ana
i?aaeuaeouea yiioe, iao aae aaaeao naay, eae naiue oaiaee ec anao,
ieuaao ii oa/aieth.

Iiaaeaaneee eao?aao E.Ei?aioe aua /aoaa?oue aaea iacaae iaicia/ee
ainaiue “nia?oiuo a?aoia” oeeaeeeciaaiiiai /aeiaa/anoaa, iacaaa n?aaee
ieo: ia?aianaeaiiinoue ieaiaou; iionoioaiea aeeciaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa;
aacoaea?aeiue ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey; ?ac?ua o?aaeeoeee e
aneaaenoaea yoiai aeoaieia io/oaeaeaiea iaaeaeo iieiaeui e noa?ui
iieieaieyie; iao/iia aeieo?eia?noai; yaea?iia i?oaeea.

Ana iacaaiiia canoaaeyao ii-iiaiio acaeyiooue ia IIIssOEA EA*ANOAA
AEECIE *AEIAAEA eae eioaa?aeueiue iieacaoaeue o?iaiy ?acaeoey iauanoaa.
I?e anao ii?aaeathueo aiia?aaeaiea oniaoao iaoee e oaoieee, nicaeaiee
ia?iiiiai ii ianooaaai ie?a aauae e aaieia eioi?iaoeee a iniiaiii
aeeciue /aeiaaea ia noaea aaciianiaa e n/anoeeaaa, caei?iaaa e
aeaaiiieo/iaa. Aieaa oiai, aia?aaee ana iuooeiaa iay/eo i?ec?ae
i?aa?auaiey /aeiaaea a neoao ?iaioece?iaaiiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai,
/oi aieioao ia oieueei ienaoaeae-oaioanoia, ii e na?ueaciuo o/aiuo,
iieeoeeia.

Ia neo/aeii i?aeoe/anee ai anao nia?aiaiiuo oeeaeeecaoeeyo iaae?atho
neeu EIIOeAIOeEE OOIAeAIAIOAEECIA, nooueth eioi?uo yaeyaony oaiaoe/iia
no?aieaiea ea?aeeiaeueii eciaieoue ee/iinoue e iauanoai a niioaaonoaee n
aunoeie iaoaoece/aneeie i?aaenoaaeaieyie e caiiaaaeyie. Ia?aaeien yoiai
yaeaiey ninoieo aua e a oii, /oi, ioaa?aay iiiaea oeaiiinoe nia?aiaiiiai
ie?a – aeaiie?aoeth, eeaa?aeeci, aaoiiiieth ee/iinoe e o.ae., –
ooiaeaiaioaienou ioioii aini?eieiatho e aa?oo ia aii?oaeaiea ana
oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneea aeinoeaeaiey eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaiethoeee. Iie
aioiau aeaeaciie ?oeie caaiaoue /aeiaa/anoai a ?ae, ono?iaiiue, ii eo
i?aaenoaaeaieyi, ia iniiaa oioaeeoa?iie eaeaieiaee.

Iiiaea oeeiniou, iieeoieiae e nioeeieiae ia aac iniiaaiee iieaaatho, /oi
ooiaeaiaioaeeci naaiaeiy yaeyao niaie iaeaieueooth oa?ico aeey ?acaeoey
ie?iaiai niiauanoaa.

?ino /enea oaoiiaaiiuo eaoano?io, ioeac, eacaeinue au, naiie iaaeaaeiie
einie/aneie oaoieee e o.i. canoaaeytho aua ?ac aa?iooueny e ioeaiea e
ia?aioeaiea nenoaiu oeaiiinoae nia?aiaiiiai ie?a, aniiiieoue yoe/aneee
i?eioeei “aeaaiaiaaiey ia?aae aeeciueth”, noi?ioee?iaaiiue aua a 1915 a.
auaeathueiny iuneeoaeai e aoiaienoii Aeueaa?oii Oaaeoea?ii. Cia/aiea
yoiai i?eioeeia ia ?oaaaea XX-XXI aa. ia oieueei ia oiaiueoeeinue,
iaiai?io, eieinnaeueii aic?inei. ?aaeueiinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa,
iiaua oa?icu e iianiinoe, eioi?ua iii ianao /aeiaaeo e /aeiaa/anoao,
canoaaeytho ana aieaa e aieaa ia?auaoueny e iiciaieth iaoaieciia
noaaeeecaoeee, iaania/aieth onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey, ieieiecaoeee
i?aa?auaiey a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue aiciiaeiuo iai?aaeneacoaiuo i?ioeannia
e yaeaiee.

A nayce n yoei aniiieiathony ciaiaieoua neiaa iaeiiai ec aaee/aeoeo oiia
XX a. Aeueaa?oa Yeiooaeia. Aai eae-oi ni?ineee: /ai aoaeoo n?aaeaoueny
ethaee a o?aoueae ie?iaie aieia? Ii ioaaoee, /oi ia ciaao, /ai iie
aoaeoo n?aaeaoueny a o?aoueae ie?iaie aieia, ii oi/ii ciaao, /oi a
/aoaa?oie ie?iaie aieia n?aaeaoueny aoaeoo aeoaeiaie.

I?e anao oniaoao iaoee, oaoieee, oaoiieiaee aeaaiay iaaeaaeaea ana aea
naycuaaaony n naiei /aeiaaeii, n aai niiniaiinoueth iiciaoue oi, /oi
?aiueoa iacuaaee i?iaeaeaieai, a naaiaeiy – caeiiaie enoi?ee e
caeiiiia?iinoyie ?acaeoey iauanoaa, naeaeaoue ana aeey oiai, /oiau
i?aaeioa?aoeoue anaeaineoth eaoano?ioo.

Iiaeaaaeai eoiae. Iauanoai – yoi naa?oneiaeiay nenoaia, aeeth/aiiay a
noia?nenoaio Einiina e Caiee e iaeaaeathuay cia/eoaeueiie niaoeeoeeie a
naiai i?ienoiaeaeaiee, ooieoeeiie?iaaiee e ?acaeoee. Enoi/iee aa
?acaeoey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoai ?aciuo nee – i?e?iaeiuo,
nianoaaiii nioeeaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo. Niioiioaiea eo a oiaea enoi?ee
iaiyaony e ieeiaaea ia iiaeao auoue i?aaeneacaii n aaniethoiie
oi/iinoueth.

Iauanoai – aa?iyoiinoiay nenoaia n aua aeaeaei ia iieiinoueth
?aaeeciaaiiuie iioaioeeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie e n caeiiiia?iie
iai?aaeneacoaiinoueth iiiaeo niauoee. Anoue iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi
ie?iaay oeeaeeecaoeey a oeaeii iaoiaeeony ia ?oaaaea, eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii
aac i?iiaaeeaiey ?aoaoue aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiinoe e
ii?aaeaeyoue iiaua ai?eciiou ?acaeoey. Yoi canoaaeyao ii-iiaiio
acaeyiooue ia i?ioeannu acaeiiaeaenoaey eoeueoo? e oeeaeeecaoeee,
?aeeaee e ii?aeueiuo o/aiee, iieeoe/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo eiioeaioeee.

*aeiaa/anoai niiniaii auaeeoue, ?acaeaaoueny e yaiethoeeiie?iaaoue i?e
eneeth/aiee ianeeey eae iooe ?aoaiey anao i?iaeai iauanoaa e iaania/aiey
i?aaa eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea e aeinoa?u a oeaeii ia nouanoaiaaiea a
niioaaonoaee n eo i?aaeiacia/aieai e nouiinoueth.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aa?oeei A. N. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey. A 2-o /. I., 1993. *. 1. N.
192-215.

2. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: O/aaiee aeey aocia… *. 2. N. 416-478.

3. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey: O/aa. iiniaea aeey aocia. I., 1995. N.
69-84.

4. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aocia. ?inoia-i/Ae… N. 305-310, 340-342.

1. Oaia XV. OEEINIONEEA I?IAEAIU YEIIIIE*ANEIE AEECIE IAUANOAA

1. Yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue iauanoaa e aa iniiaiua i?iyaeaiey.

2. Iauaeoeaiua yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu. Yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey e
yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu.

3. Acaeiiaeaenoaea iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo noi?ii yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie iauanoaa.

Ia i?ioeie eaeoeee ?a/ue oea ia iauanoaa eae naii?acaeaathuaeny
nioeeaeueiie nenoaia, ia iniiaiuo noa?ao aai aeecie, iaeiie ec eioi?uo
yaeyaony YEIIIIE*ANEAss. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nioeeaeueiia
i?ino?ainoai, ia eioi?ii inouanoaeyaony YEIIIIE*ANEAss AEECIUe IAUANOAA.

?acee/iua noi?iiu aa eco/athony niioaaonoaothueie yeiiiie/aneeie
iaoeaie. Iaeiaei anoue oeaeue ?yae aii?inia, ieii eioi?uo ia iiaeao
i?ieoe nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai aii?inu i oii:

· eae niioiinyony iaaeaeo niaie iauanoai a oeaeii e aai yeiiiie/aneay
aeeciue e eae aeeyao iia ia ?acaeoea iauanoaa;

· eaeiau enoi/ieee ?acaeoey naiie yeiiiie/aneie aeecie e aa iniiaiua
i?iyaeaiey;

· eaeiai niioiioaiea aa iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo noi?ii;

· /oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie yeiiiie/aneia niciaiea e eae iii
aicaeaenoaoao ia yeiiiie/aneoth aeeciue iauanoaa;

· eae niioiinyony nouanoaothuea a iauanoaa yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey e
yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu ethaeae,

· eae acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo niaie yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu ?acee/iuo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae e iauanoaa;

· ianeieueei aiciiaeii niciaoaeueiia, a o./. iao/iia, aicaeaenoaea ia
yeiiiie/aneoth aeeciue iauanoaa, aa ?acaeoea;

· niioiioaiea yaiethoeee yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa e yeiiiie/aneeo
?aoi?i, ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a ieo.

Ana yoe e iiiaea ae?oaea i?iaeaiu eiatho ia oieueei yeiiiie/aneee, ii e
NIOeEAEUeII-OEEINIONEEE oa?aeoa?, eanathony nouanoaiaaiey iauanoaa eae
oeaeinoiie nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu. ?anniio?ei eo iaiiiai iiae?iaiaa.

Yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue iauanoaa e aa iniiaiua i?iyaeaiey.

YEIIIIE*ANEAss AEECIUe IAUANOAA I?AAeNOAAEssAO NIAIE I?AAEAeA ANAAI
I?IECAIAeNOAI, ?ANI?AAeAEAIEA, IAIAI E IIO?AAEAIEA ?ACIIAI ?IAeA
I?AAeIAOIA E ONEOA. Yoi iiaoo auoue iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa, a o./.
i?aaeiaou ieoaiey, iaeaaeaea, aeeeeua, ?acee/iua aeaeu o?ainii?oa e
nayce eee aea oaeea aeaeu oneoa, eae cae?aaiio?aiaiea e ia?aciaaiea.

Yoi iiaoo auoue e aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe, a o./. i?aaeiaou eneonnoaa,
iaoee, ia?aciaaiey e o.ae. A eo I?IECAIAeNOAI aeeaaeuaathony oa eee eiua
iaoa?eaeu, eiathuea naith noieiinoue, a oaeaea i?oaeey o?oaea e
iai?oaeiaaiea, a o./. naiua niaa?oaiiua, iai?eia?, i?e ia/aoaiee eiea,
aeo?iaeia e aacao. Iiyoiio ia?aaeei iie aunooiatho a oi?ia oiaa?a ni
anaie i?enoueie aio naienoaaie. I?aaaea, yoi oiaa? iniaiai ?iaea,
niaea?aeaiea eioi?iai aiieiuaii a ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ia?acao, iao/iuo
oai?eyo, /oanoaao e iuneyo ethaeae.

A i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ia anaaaea iineo iauanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?,
i?e?iaeiua iaoa?eaeu i?aia?acothony, ei i?eaeathony naienoaa, aeaaiaea?y
eioi?ui iie iiaoo oaeiaeaoai?youe ?aciiia?aciua iio?aaiinoe ethaeae. I?e
yoii /aeiaae iaoa?eaeo i?e?iaeu i?ioeainoieo eae neea iaeiia?aiaiii E
I?E?IAeIAss, E NIOeEAEUeIAss, /oi y?ei io?aaeaaony a niaoeeoeea
aicaeaenoaey ethaeae ia i?e?iaeo e naienoaao i?iecaiaeeiuo eie
i?aaeiaoia e oneoa.

?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiaao NIOeEAEUeIUE OEI oiai eee eiiai niiniaa
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aai ii?aaeaeytho nouanoaothuea ioiioaiey NIANOAAIIINOE ia
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e aai i?iaeoeou. Nicaeaiiuie i?aaeiaoaie e
oneoaaie a aieueoae noaiaie aeaaeaao, iieuecoaony e ?anii?yaeaaony oio,
a /ueae nianoaaiiinoe iaoiaeyony n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa.

A yoii aeaaiui ia?acii i?iyaeyaony acaeiiaeaenoaea, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
i?iecaiaenoaa, a n ae?oaie, – ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iio?aaeaiey nicaeaaaaiuo
i?aaeiaoia e oneoa. A naith i/a?aaeue, ioiioaiey ?ani?aaeaeaiey e naii
iio?aaeaiea ethaeueie i?aaeiaoia e oneoa nouanoaaiii aeeytho ia
i?iecaiaenoai. Iie iiaoo eeai noeioee?iaaoue, eeai naea?aeeaaoue aai
?acaeoea. Oae, iai?eia?, nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee i?iecaiaenoaa ai
anao ?acaeouo no?aiao ea?aao i?eioeei ?ANI?AAeAEAIEss II EIEE*ANOAO E
EA*ANOAO O?OAeA, i?eiaiyaiue ii ioiioaieth e iaaiiui ?aai/ei e
neoaeauei. Ei oi?ioi ieaoyo ca iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, ca
oai?/aneia aeeyiea ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann. Yoi iiauoaao
iaoa?eaeueioth caeioa?aniaaiiinoue ?aaioieeia.

Iai?ioea, O?AAIEOAEUeIUE i?eioeei ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia ii?iaeaeaao oaeeo
iioeaia e ii nooe inoaaeyao iaaino?aaiaaiiuie oai?/aneea niiniaiinoe
?aai/eo e neoaeaueo.

IIO?AAEAIEA yaeyaony iniiaiiieaaathuei noeioeii ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa,
aeeyao ia ?ino aai ianooaaia, ?acaeoea io?aneae, a o./. naeueneiai
oicyenoaa, eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iaoeiino?iaiey, o?ainii?oa, nayce e
o.ae. E oiio aea iaaei eiaoue aaeaeo ia oieueei EE*IIA, ii e
I?IECAIAeNOAAIIIA (iaooe, aaca, yeaeo?iyia?aee e o.ae.) iio?aaeaiea,
iaiaoiaeeiia aeey nouanoaiaaiey naiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna.

Yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue iauanoaa i?iyaeyaony oaeaea a IOIIOAIEssO IAIAIA
aeayoaeueiinoueth, oiaa?aie e oneoaaie iaaeaeo ethaeueie. A iniiaa aai
eaaeeo cae?aieaiiia ioiioaieyie nianoaaiiinoe iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea
o?oaea, eae iii neiaeeeinue a oo eee eioth enoi?e/aneoth yiioo. Oae,
iai?eia?, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue-nianoaaiiee aaoiiiaeeueiiai caaiaea
iaiaieaaao naie ecaeaeey ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth, noaeue, ae?oaea oiaa?u,
/oiau i?iaeieaeeoue i?iecaiaenoai, a oaeaea ia i?iaeoeou ieoaiey,
iaeaaeaeo, aeeeeua, o?ainii?o, /oiau oaeiaeaoai?eoue iio?aaiinoe ee/iua
e /eaiia naiae naiuee. Oi/ii oaeaea e?anoueyiei iaiaieaaao i?iaeoeou
caieaaeaeey eee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ia o?aeoi?u, eiiaaeiu,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea e o.ae. Iaiaieaathony iau/ii a
oiaa?iie oi?ia, ii eiiaaea e a oi?ia o.i. aa?oa?iuo naeaeie (i?yiie
i?iaeoeoiiaiai).

A aeaiiii neo/aa i?iaeoeoaie (oiaa?aie) ii nooe aeaea iaiaieaathony
iaaeaeo niaie ?acee/iua oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaee e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eo
niiniaiinoe. Aieaa iaaeyaeii yoi i?iyaeyaony i?e iaiaia oneoaaie.
Neaaeai, a?a/ i?ioanneiiaeueii neoaeeo ?aciui ethaeyi, ieacuaay ei
iaaeeoeeineoth iiiiuue. A oi aea a?aiy nai ii iieuecoaony oneoaaie
ii?oiiai, eioi?ue oueao aio einothi, o/eoaey, eioi?ue o/eo aai aeaoae,
aaeaieaoa, aaaeouaai aai aeaei, e o.ae. Iaiai i?iaeoeoaie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e oneoaaie iiin?aaeoao naycue iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaenoaii e iio?aaeaieai e oai naiui ea?aao nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa.

Ana aa i?iyaeaiey, a eiaiii i?iecaiaenoai ?aciiai ?iaea i?aaeiaoia e
oneoa, eo ?ani?aaeaeaiea, iaiai e iio?aaeaiea (ee/iia e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiia) oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie e acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa
n ae?oaii. Eo nayce e acaeiiaeaenoaey iinyo ii?ie neiaeiue e
i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?. Aianoa n oai iauaeoeaiua i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaenoaii e ?ani?aaeaeaieai, ?ani?aaeaeaieai e iaiaiii,
i?iecaiaenoaii e iio?aaeaieai yaeythony aeaeaeouae neeie ?acaeoey anae
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa.

?acaeoea iauanoaa e aai yeiiiie/aneie aeecie oanii acaeiinaycaiu. Iie
niioiinyony iaaeaeo niaie eae OeAEIA E AAI *ANOUe. Iineaaeiyy nouanoaoao
e i?iyaeyao naay a ?aieao aaeeiiai oeaeiai. Yeiiiieea eniuouaaao ia naaa
aicaeaenoaea anao noi?ii iauanoaaiiie aeecie, a o./. neiaeeaoaeny
nioeeaeueii-eeanniaie no?oeoo?u iauanoaa, aai iieeoe/aneie e aeooiaiie
noa?. A naith i/a?aaeue yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue iauanoaa e i?aaeaea anaai
niinia iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa nouanoaaiii e a ?yaea neo/aaa
?aoathua aeeytho ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea iauanoaa a oeaeii.

Iineaaeiaa aeeyiea ianoieueei aeoaiei e i/aaeaeii, /oi iiiaea iuneeoaee
n/eoatho niinia iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iniiaie nouanoaiaaiey e
?acaeoey anaai iauanoaa. Naie auaiaeu iie iiaeoaa?aeaeatho aeiaieueii
aaneeie a?aoiaioaie:

· aac iinoiyiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa nouanoaiaaiea
iauanoaa iaaiciiaeii;

· niinia i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaeaea anaai neiaeeaoeany ioiioaiey
nianoaaiiinoe e ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea ii?aaeaeytho iiyaeaiea e ?acaeoea
eeannia e ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii e neiaa iauanoaa, aai
nioeeaeueii-eeanniaoth no?oeoo?o;

· niinia i?iecaiaenoaa ai iiiaii iaoneiaeeaaao ?acaeoea iieeoe/aneie
noa?u aeecie iauanoaa. Eae i?aaeei, a iae aeiieie?otho yeiiiie/anee
ainiiaenoaothuea eeannu e nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu. Iie ii?aaeaeytho ?aaioo
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, niaea?aeaiea e iai?aaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe
iiiaeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e a eiia/iii n/aoa anae iieeoe/aneie aeecie,

· a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa nicaeathony iaiaoiaeeiua iaoa?eaeueiua
oneiaey ?acaeoey aeooiaiie aeecie iauanoaa, a o./. caeaiey aeey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey o/?aaeaeaiee aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u – aeaeeioaee, iocae,
oaao?u e o.ae., iieea?aoe/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea, aoiaaa, e?anee aeey
ia/aoaiey eiea, aeo?iaeia e aacao, iocueaeueiua eino?oiaiou e iiiaia
ae?oaia.

Eae aeaeei, auaiae i cia/eoaeueiie ?iee niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa a ?acaeoee
iauanoaa aeinoaoi/ii iainiiaai. Ia yoi oeacuaae Iaen Aaaa? (1864-1920),
eiaaea aiai?ee ia yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee E. Ia?ena e ioia/ae
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aa i/enoee io iiiaeo aeiaiaoe/aneeo ianeiaiee aai
iineaaeiaaoaeae. E oiio aea ii niaaoiaae o/eouaaoue ?ieue a ?acaeoee
iauanoaa ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia, iai?eia?, iieeoe/aneeo, ii?aeueiuo,
?aeeaeiciuo. ?ieue iineaaeieo Aaaa? iiae/a?eeaae iniaaiii. Iai anai yoii
aiai?eeinue a ia/aea aaea e ni?aaaaeeeai ii nae aeaiue.

Yeiiiie/aneea iio?aaiinoe ethaeae e iio?aaiinoe ?acaeoey naiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa yaeythony iaeaieaa aeoaieeie enoi/ieeaie ca?iaeaeaiey e
noaiiaeaiey anae yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa. Iu oaea /anoe/ii
oiiieiaee ia yoii. Caeanue, auaeaeyy aeaaiia, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
nioeeaeueiua iio?aaiinoe aunooiatho eae i?iyaeaiey nioeeaeueiie (oiai,
/oi iaiaoiaeeii ethaeyi a eo iauanoaaiiie aeecie), yeiiiie/aneea aea
iio?aaiinoe eae i?iyaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Oaeiau
iio?aaiinoe a ieua, iaeaaeaea, oaiea, aeeeeua, n?aaenoaao ia?aaeaeaeaiey
e o.ae. Iaeie ec ieo eiatho aeinioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa?, eae, iai?eia?,
iio?aaiinoe a ieua e oaiea, ae?oaea – /enoi nioeeaeueiue – iio?aaiinoe a
iiaeiie iaeaaeaea, nia?aiaiiii aaoiiiaeea, oaeaaeci?a e o.i. Ii ana yoe
iio?aaiinoe aunooiatho a NIOeEAEUeIIE OI?IA, a o./. e oa, eioi?ua
oaeiaeaoai?ythony n iiiiuueth ii-/aeiaa/anee i?eaioiaeaiiie ieue e
iino?iaiiiai aeeeeua e niaea?aeao a naaa ao?eaoou eoeueoo?u oiai eee
eiiai ia?iaea. Aeaiiua iaoa?eaeueiua iio?aaiinoe aunooiatho
iaeiia?aiaiii e eae YEIIIIE*ANEEA, iioiio /oi a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa
oaeiaeaoai?ythony a ?aieao yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie.

Ana yoe iio?aaiinoe aucuaatho e aeecie, iiaeaea?aeeaatho e noeioee?otho
i?iecaiaenoai oao eee eiuo i?iaeoeoia e oneoa. Iao iio?aaiinoae – iao e
i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e/ai, e?oa iio?aaiinoae iinoiyiii ?anoe?yaony. E oiio
aea iie ?acaeaathony ea/anoaaiii. A yoie nayce aiai?yo I CAEIIA
AICAUOAIEss IIO?AAIINOAE, o.a. eo iinoiyiiii niaa?oainoaiaaiee. Iaeuecy
caauaaoue e i iio?aaiinoyo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey naiiai i?iecaiaenoaa –
iio?aaiinoyo a enoi/ieeao yia?aee, nu?uea, iaoa?eaeao e o.ae. Oaeei
ia?acii, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iio?aaiinoe aunooiatho eae enoi/ieee
?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa, aai iinoiyiiua iniiaiua noeioeu.

Inoaaony aeiaaaeoue, /oi naie iio?aaiinoe, ia oieueei iauanoaaiiua, ii e
ee/iua, ?acaeaathony iiae aeeyieai i?iecaiaenoaa ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia e
oneoa. Oaeiau, iai?eia?, iio?aaiinoe ethaeae ai iiiaeo i?iaeoeoao
ieoaiey, nia?aiaiiie iaeaaeaea, auoiauo i?eai?ao, oieiaeeeueieeao,
oaeaaeci?ao e o.ae. Aicaeaenoaoy ia oi?ie?iaaiea yoeo iio?aaiinoae,
i?iecaiaenoai nicaeaao aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea aeey naiaai onoie/eaiai
?acaeoey.

Oaeiaa aeeaeaeoeea acaeiiaeaenoaey yeiiiie/aneeo iio?aaiinoae,
i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey eae iaeii ec i?iyaeaiee yeiiiie/aneie aeecie
iauanoaa.

NIINIA I?IECAIAeNOAA EIAAO AeAA NOI?IIU: I?IECAIAeEOAEUeIUA NEEU E
I?IECAIAeNOAAIIUA IOIIOAIEss. Eo ?ieue e oa?aeoa? acaeiiaeaenoaey
ananoi?iiia ?ane?uaathony a ia?enecia, oioy aii?in i ?iee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee a ?acaeoee iauanoaa noaaeeny e ?aoaeny iaeioi?uie
iuneeoaeyie aua aei iiyaeaiey ia?enenoneie oai?ee. Oae, niioa/anoaaiiee
Ia?ena, eioi?iai iacuaatho iniiaiiieiaeieeii iaiaoeeie yeiiiie/aneie
iunee, O?eae?eo Eeno (1789-1846) oeacuaae ia ?aoathuoth ?ieue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee oiai eee eiiai iauanoaa, ia
aai niiniaiinoue i?iecaiaeeoue iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa e oneoae e iinoiyiii
niaa?oainoaiaaoue yoo niiniaiinoue. Yoi cao/eo aanueia aeooaeueii e a
iaoa a?aiy. I?IECAIAeEOAEUeIUA NEEU IAUANOAA – yoi i?aaeaea anaai
i?eiaiyaiua a i?iecaiaenoaa i?oaeey o?oaea (nia?aiaiiay oaoieea, a
oaeaea eniieuecoaiua a iai oaoiieiaee, o?ainii?o, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
iiiauaiey), i?aaeiaou o?oaea e o.ae. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
aauanoaaiioth noi?iio i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie ethaee
aicaeaenoaotho ia i?e?iaeo, ia?a?aaaouaay aa iaoa?eae aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey naieo iio?aaiinoae.

Ae?oaoth noi?iio i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ieeoeaoai?ytho naie ethaee eae
iineoaee ciaiee, oiaiee, iaaueia, i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iiuoa. Iie
iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaotho aa n oeaeueth iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e yoii ethaee anooiatho iaaeaeo niaie a
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey. A naiai aaeeinoaa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey ia?acotho NIINIA
I?IECAIAeNOAA, ninoaaeythuee iniiao e aeaaiia niaea?aeaiea yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie iauanoaa.

I?IECAIAeNOAAIIUA IOIIOAIEss ethaeae oaeaea eiatho naith no?oeoo?o. A eo
ninoaaa iiaeii auaeaeeoue oaeea yeaiaiou, eae ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe,
iaiaia aeayoaeueiinoueth e ?ani?aaeaeaiey nicaeaaaaiuo a i?iecaiaenoaa
?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia e oneoa, i?e aaaeouae ?iee ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe
ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Io ieo caaenyo ioiioaiey iaiaia
aeayoaeueiinoueth, i?aaeaea anaai oi, eoi e eaeea ooieoeee auiieiyao a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea aaee/eia e niinia iieo/aiey ethaeueie
naiae aeiee io i?iecaaaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa a ?aieao nouanoaothueo
ioiioaiee aai ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu iauanoaa e nouanoaothuea a iai i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
ioiioaiey aeeaeaeoe/anee acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii.
I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu iauaeoeaii o?aaotho aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, eioi?ua au niioaaonoaiaaee eo o?iaith e
oa?aeoa?o e oai naiui iaania/eaaee au oneiaey aeey eo ?acaeoey e
yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey.

Anee i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey ia ioaa/atho ii?aaeaeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi,
iie ?aii eee iicaeii ioie?atho. Iiyaeythony ae?oaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
ioiioaiey, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho oaeei o?aaiaaieyi e niinianoaotho
yooaeoeaiiio eniieueciaaieth e ?acaeoeth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, o.a.
i?oaeee o?oaea, ee/iuo niiniaiinoae ?aaioieeia e o.ae. Yoi iiaoo auoue
aieaa niaa?oaiiua ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe, iaiaia aeayoaeueiinoueth e
?ani?aaeaeaiey.

A yoii caeeth/aaony aeeaeaeoeea acaeiiaeaenoaey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Ia?en au?acee aa a oi?ia CAEIIA
NIIOAAONOAEss I?IECAIAeNOAAIIUO IOIIOAIEE O?IAITH E OA?AEOA?O
I?IECAIAeEOAEUeIUO NEE. Nouanoaiaaiea yoiai caeiia, ?aaii eae e o/aiea
Ia?ena i niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa e aai ?iee a aeecie iauanoaa, i?eciathony
iiiaeie nia?aiaiiuie yeiiiienoaie e oeeinioaie. Yoi o/aiea i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie aaaeiia aeinoeaeaiea yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneie iunee
e neoaeeo aeey iauyniaiey iiiaeo yaeaiee yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa e
nia?aiaiiiai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.

Iauaeoeaiua yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu. Yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey e
yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu.

?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa e i?aaeaea anaai niiniaa
i?iecaiaenoaa iiae/eiyaony ii?aaeaeaiiui iauaeoeaiui caeiiai, /oi,
eiia/ii, ia eneeth/aao aeaenoaey a noa?a yeiiiieee neo/aeiinoae. Ia
iaeiii ec ieo iu oieueei /oi aiai?eee. Ethaie iauaeoeaiue caeii
i?aaenoaaeyaony eae IAIAOIAeEIAss, NOUANOAAIIAss E IIAOI?ssTHUAssNss
NAssCUe iaaeaeo yaeaieyie i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa. Oaeay naycue nouanoaoao
iaaeaeo iiiaeie yeiiiie/aneeie yaeaieyie, iai?eia?, iaaeaeo oeaiie
oiaa?a e eiee/anoaii o?oaea, cao?a/aiiiai ia aai i?iecaiaenoai, iaaeaeo
iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiui ?aai/ei e naiaiaeiui a?aiaiai, i?iecaiaenoaii e
iio?aaeaieai, ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai e o.ae. Aeaiiua caeiiiia?iua
nayce neeaaeuaathony IAUAEOEAII, o.a. iacaaeneii io niciaiey e aiee
ethaeae. A yoii e caeeth/aaony eo iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?.

Iiaeii iacaaoue oaeea IAUAEOEAIUA YEIIIIE*ANEEA CAEIIU, eae caeii
noieiinoe, caeii oeaiiia?aciaaiey, caeii yeiiiiee a?aiaie, caeiiu
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iaeiieaiey e iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. Ana yoe
e ae?oaea yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu au?aaeatho aeoaeiiua iauaeoeaiua nayce
iaaeaeo yeiiiie/aneeie i?ioeannaie e i?iyaeythony eae AINIIAeNOAOTHUEA
OAIAeAIOeEE ?acaeoey yeiiiieee.

Niaethaeaiea yoeo oaiaeaioeee, o.a. aeoaeiiuo naycae yeiiiie/aneeo
yaeaiee, niinianoaoao onoie/eaiio ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee. Ionooieaiea io
ieo iaoaao ii?iaeueiiio ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee, ?ac?ooaao aa. Iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeii iniciaaaoue ai anae iieiioa aeaenoaea yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia
e a niioaaonoaee n ieie no?ieoue naith yeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue.
Aaaeii, /oiau yoi iniciaaaeinue ia oieueei ioaeaeueiuie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie e ae?oaeie o/anoieeaie iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
ii e ia ainoaea?noaaiii o?iaia.

Aieueooth ?ieue a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa, ia?yaeo n caeiiaie,
ea?atho YEIIIIE*ANEEA IOIIOAIEss iaaeaeo ethaeueie. Auoa aiai?eeinue i
eo ?iee a ?acaeoee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. Neaaeoao aeiaaaeoue, /oi io
niaa?oainoaa yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee caaeneo ia oieueei ?acaeoea niiniaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e nioeeaeueiia ?aaiiaanea a iauanoaa, aai
noaaeeueiinoue. N eo niaea?aeaieai i?yii naycaii ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu
nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe, a caaeneiinoe io iauanoaaiiie cia/eiinoe
oiai eee eiiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe, aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeey iauanoaa, a
/anoiinoe, aeey ?aaeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania ethaeae.

A YEIIIIE*ANEEO EIOA?ANAO ethaeae iaiin?aaenoaaiii io?aaeathony eo
yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey. Oae, yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu i?aaei?eieiaoaey e
iaaiiiai ?aaioieea i?yii ii?aaeaeythony eo ianoii a nenoaia
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. Eioa?an iaeiiai – iieo/aiea iaeneiaeueiie
i?eauee, eioa?an ae?oaiai – aei?iaea i?iaeaoue naith ?aai/oth neeo e
iieo/eoue aiciiaeii aieueooth ca?aaioioth ieaoo. Yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu
e?anoueyieia, aoaeue oi oa?ia? eee /eai eieeaeoeaiiai e?anoueyineiai
oicyenoaa, oaeaea ii?aaeaeythony aai ianoii a nenoaia nouanoaothueo
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. Yoi aea ioiineony e neoaeauei – o/eoaeyi,
a?a/ai, o/aiui, eeoeai, caiyoui a o/?aaeaeaieyo eoeueoo?u, e o.ae.

Ei?i/a aiai?y, A YEIIIIE*ANEEO EIOA?ANAO ETHAeAE AU?AAEAIU! IOOE E
NIINIAU oaeiaeaoai?aiey eo iio?aaiinoae.

Oae, iieo/aiea i?eauee, a /ai caeeth/aaony yeiiiie/aneee eioa?an
i?aaei?eieiaoaey, anoue ia /oi eiia, eae niinia oaeiaeaoai?aiey aai
ee/iuo iio?aaiinoae e iio?aaiinoae aai i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iieo/aiea aieaa aunieie ca?aaioiie ieaou – eioa?an iaaiiiai ?aaioieea –
oaeaea anoue niinia oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae aai naiiai e aai
naiuee. Eae aeaeei, ?aaeecaoeey yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania oao eee eiuo
noauaeoia aunooiaao iaeiia?aiaiii e eae oaeiaeaoai?aiea eo iio?aaiinoae
iioeiaeueiui niiniaii. E yoio niinia ii?aaeaeyaony ianoii eaaeaeiai ec
ieo a nenoaia nouanoaothueo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi acaeiiaeaenoaea yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania ninoaaeyao
iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa. Ionthaea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a au?aaioea i?eioeeiia iioeiaeueiiai ni/aoaiey eioa?ania
ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae e nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, eo aa?iiiecaoeee. A yoii
caeeth/aaony aaeaa ee ia iniiaiay caaea/a yeiiiie/aneie iaoee e
i?aeoeee.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea iauaeoeaiie e noauaeoeaiie noi?ii yeiiiie/aneie aeecie
iauanoaa.

YEIIIIE*ANEAss AEECIUe IAUANOAA i?aaenoaao eae neiaeiia acaeiiaeaenoaea
aa iauaeoeaiie e noauaeoeaiie noi?ii. Yeaiaioia aa iauaeoeaiie noi?iiu
iu oaea eanaeenue. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai iauaeoeaiua iio?aaiinoe e eioa?anu
ethaeae, iaoneiaeeaathuea niaea?aeaiea e iai?aaeaiiinoue eo
aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu iauanoaa e nouanoaothuea a
iai i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey, ninoaaeythuea a naiai aaeeinoaa niinia
i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi oaeaea iauaeoeaiua yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu, eioi?ui
iiae/eiyaony ?acaeoea niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa e anae yeiiiie/aneie aeecie
iauanoaa.

Ana yoe e ae?oaea oaeoi?u, ninoaaeythuea IAUAEOEAIOTH NOI?IIO ?ACAEOEss
YEIIIIE*ANEIE AEECIE IAUANOAA, iaiaoiaeeii aeoaiei iniciaaaoue e
o/eouaaoue a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe. Oai aieaa, /oi iie /anoi ea?atho
ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue a ooieoeeiie?iaaiee e ?acaeoee iiiaeo
yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee. Eaii?e?iaaoue eo iaeuecy. Yoi aaaeao e ooieeiaui
yeiiiie/aneei neooaoeeyi, e?eceniui yaeaieyi e ?ac?ooeoaeueiui
oaiaeaioeeyi. Iai?ioea, o/ao iauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie iauanoaa niinianoaoao i?eiyoeth ?aaeenoe/aneeo, iauaeoeaii
ii?aaaeaiiuo ?aoaiee.

NOAUAEOEAIAss NOI?IIA YEIIIIE*ANEIE AEECIE IAUANOAA – yoi i?iyaeaiey
niciaiey ethaeae, eo aiee, oeaeae, oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee e o.ae. Ana
iie io?aaeatho aini?eyoey /aeiaaeii oao eee eiuo yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee e
aai i?aaenoaaeaiey i ieo e eanathony, iai?eia?, iieaciinoe oiaa?a, aai
ea/anoaa, oeaiu, ?iee aeaiaa, nouiinoe oao eee eiuo oeiainiauo iia?aoeee
e o.ae. Iiaeiaiia io?aaeaiea aeaiiuo e ae?oaeo yaeaiee yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie a niciaiee ethaeae i?ienoiaeeo eae ia o?iaia eo iauaeaiiuo
aeeoaeneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee e acaeyaeia (IAUAeAIIIA YEIIIIE*ANEIA
NICIAIEA), oae e ia o?iaia ?acee/iuo oai?ee, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie
nenoaio eiae/anee iainiiaaiiuo iieiaeaiee (OAI?AOE*ANEIA YEIIIIE*ANEIA
NICIAIEA). I?eia?aie iineaaeiaai iiaoo neoaeeoue o?oaeiaay oai?ey
noieiinoe Aaeaia Nieoa (1723-1790), oai?ey i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe
Yeaaia Aai-Aaaa?ea (1851-1914), oai?ey i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe Ea?ea
Ia?ena, iiiaoa?enoneay oai?ey Ieeoiia O?eaeiaia (?iae. a 1912 a.),
oai?ey ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee Aeaeiia Eaeina
(1883-1946) e iiiaea ae?oaea oai?ee.

Yeiiiie/aneia niciaiea i?iyaeyaony oaeaea /a?ac INEOIEIAETH ETHAeAE. Iia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie IOIIOAIEA NOAUAEOIA (aoaeue oi ioaeaeueiua
nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu, ee/iinoe eee aea aieueoea iannu ethaeae) e
yeiiiie/aneei yaeaieyi e i?ioeannai. Oi?iaie aai io?aaeaiey iiaoo auoue
aioo?aiiea iiaoaeaeaiey ethaeae e ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaenoaeyi, eo
no?aieaiey e aeaaea einoeieou, a oaeaea oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee, oeaee e
ae?. A eiia/iii n/aoa, iniciaaay oa eee eiua yeiiiie/aneea yaeaiey e
i?ioeannu, /aeiaae i?eieiaao eee ia i?eieiaao eo, a oi e
i?eniinaaeeaaaony e iei.

Ineoieiae/aneei oaeoi?ai yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa iiiaea iuneeoaee
i?eaeaaaee aieueoia cia/aiea. Oae, iaiaoeeee yeiiiieno Aonoaa oii
Oiieea? (1838-1917) oeacuaae ia aieueooth ?ieue einoeieoa eiieo?aioeee a
?acaeoee yeiiiieee, a aia?eeaineee yeiiiieno Oi?noaei Aaaeai (1857-1929)
iiae/a?eeaae cia/aiea a yoii einoeieoia ianoa?noaa e noyaeaoaeuenoaa.
Iaiaoeeee oeeinio e yeiiiieno Aa?ia? Ciiaa?o (1863-1941) ?acaeaae o/aiea
i “oicyenoaaiiii aeooa”. Aai niioa/anoaaiiee oaea ciaeiiue iai Iaen
Aaaa? iieacae aeeyiea ?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey, a oii /enea ?aeeaeiciie
ineoieiaee noi?iiieeia i?ioanoaioecia, ia ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieee. I ineoieiae/aneeo iniiaao yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee ienae
o?aioeocneee oeeinio e ineoieia Aaa?eaeue Oa?ae (1843-1904). Ia
ineoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u yeiiiie/aneie aeecie ia?auaee aieiaiea iiiaea
?onneea iuneeoaee, a o./. Aaaaiee Aaeaioeiiae/ ?iaa?oe (1843-1915),
Ieeieae Eaaiiae/ Ea?aaa (1850-1931), Ieeieae Ieoaeeiae/ Ei?eoiia
(1853-1904), Iao? Aa?iaa?aeiae/ No?oaa (1870-1944), Ieoaee Eaaiiae/
Ooaai-Aa?aiianeee (1865-1919), o?iaeaiaoe Eeaai Na?aae Ieeieaaae/
Aoeaaeia (1871-1944) e ae?.

Iiiaea nia?aiaiiua aaoi?u a naieo ?aaioao oeacuaatho ia oaeea
oa?aeoa?enoeee yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa, eae ineoieiae/aneea iioeau
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, eo ineoieiae/aneay aioiaiinoue e yeiiiie/aneiio
?eneo. ?ac?aaaouaathony i?iaeaiu ineoieiaee i?eiyoey ?aoaiee,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, yeiiiie/aneiai iaeiieaiey e
iio?aaeaiey e o.ae. Ecaeathony eieae “Ineoieiaey e yeiiiie/aneay
aeeciue”, “Ineoieiaey a aeciana” e o.i. Ana yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii,
/oi yeiiiie/aneay ineoieiaey ethaeae aunooiaao eae aaaeiia i?iyaeaiea eo
yeiiiie/aneiai niciaiey.

Oaeiaa no?oeoo?a yeiiiie/aneiai niciaiey ethaeae, eioi?ay aini?iecaiaeeo
niaea?aeaiea e no?oeoo?o eo yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee. Ana oeacaiiua auoa yeaiaiou yeiiiie/aneiai niciaiey
acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo niaie, ia?acoy iaeia oeaeinoiia yaeaiea.
Cia/aiea aai iinoiyiii aic?anoaao, eai nouanoaoao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
niciaoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey ethaeae ia ?acee/iua yeiiiie/aneea yaeaiey e
i?ioeannu.

Niciaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu anoue i?iyaeaiea
?AOeEIIAEUeIINOE, eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ia/aea a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie
iauanoaa. A iaoa a?aiy ?anoao ?ieue IAO*IIE ?AOeEIIAEUeIINOE, oi anoue
?acoiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu. ?acoiaaony, yoi ia
icia/aao eaii?e?iaaiey ineoieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia.

A ?aoeeiiaeueiii aicaeaenoaee ia yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu aieueooth ?ieue
iiaeao ea?aoue ainoaea?noai, aiciiaeiinoe eioi?iai ii?aaeaeythony
iaee/eai niioaaonoaothueo ?u/aaia aeanoe. ?a/ue eaeao ia i aeaoaeueiie
?aaeaiaioaoeee yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa n aai noi?iiu, a i?aaeaea
anaai i nicaeaiee iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee aeey oniaoiiai ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. E yoei oneiaeyi neaaeoao ioianoe:
aiaae?aiea a i?iecaiaenoai ?acoeueoaoia nia?aiaiiiai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
i?ia?anna; nicaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo io?aneyie
yeiiiieee, a o./. iooai aa no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee; auaeaeaiea
i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey; inouanoaeaiea
yooaeoeaiie iaeiaiaie iieeoeee; niaa?oainoaiaaiea oeiainiauo iaoaieciia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee e o.ae.

Nicaeaieth yoeo oneiaee iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue, a /anoiinoe,
ainoaea?noaaiiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay, eiaanoeoeeiiiay e oeiainiaay
iieeoeea. Oaeie iiuo anoue. A oeaeii ?yaea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai, a
o./. a NOA, n oniaoii i?eiaiyeinue o/aiea Aeaeiia Eaeina i
ainoaea?noaaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee yeiiiieee. Aai noi?iiieeia iaiaei a
ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaao. Ia yoii iii?eua iiaeao i?iyaeoue naay e ?inney.

Yaiethoeey yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa ia eneeth/aao aiciiaeiinoe
no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee, ei?aiiuo eciaiaiee a iaeanoe
ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, aeaiaaeiie e
oeiainiaie nenoaiu e ae?. ?aoi?i a oie eee eiie no?aia. I?e yoii
?aoi?iaoi?ai aaaeii iniciaaaoue oi, /oi a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee ?aaioaao ia
ia?niaeoeao, iiieiaoue oaeouea e aeieaia?aiaiiua eioa?anu ?acee/iuo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii iauanoaa, a oaeaea aeeaeaeoea e ioaeaeaiiua
iineaaenoaey i?aaei?eieiaaiuo aeaenoaee. A yoii aeaea iaeeiaeiai a?aaeiu
eae eiina?aaoeci, o.a. no?aieaiea nio?aieoue onoa?aaoea oi?iu
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, oae e aacaeoiiue ?aaeeeaeeci – no?aieaiea
oie/oiaeeoue ana noa?ia ?aaee iino?iaiey iiaiai.

Iaiaoiaeei o/ao anao iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo oneiaee ?acaeoey
iauanoaa, eo aeoaieee aiaeec n oai, /oiau a oiaea ?aoi?ie?iaaiey
ono?aieoue aeaenoaeoaeueii onoa?aaoaa e ii-iiaiio i?aaieciaaoue
i?iecaiaenoai, anth yeiiiie/aneoth aeeciue a eioa?anao aieueoeinoaa
ethaeae e iauanoaa a oeaeii.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. A?aoueaaa A. N. Iauanoai. Iiciaiea. I?aeoeea. I., 1988.

2. Aa?oeei A. N. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey. I., 1993. *. 1.

3. Aaaa? I. I?ioanoaioneay yoeea e aeoo eaieoaeecia // I. Aaaa?. Eca?.
i?ieca. I., 1990.

4. Aaaa? I. Niune “naiaiaeu io ioeaiee” a nioeeaeenoe/aneie e
yeiiiie/aneie iaoea // Oai aea. N. 596-598.

5. Ayea?aeo Aeae. Yeiiiie/aneea oai?ee e oeaee iauanoaa. I., 1979.

6. Aeeaeaeoeea iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. I., 1988.

7. I?iecaiaenoai eae iauanoaaiiue i?ioeann. I., 1986.

8. ?aeeoia A. E. Oeeaeeecaoeey, eoeueoo?a, oaoiieiaey e ?uiie //
Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1992, ?5.

9. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey: O/aa. iiniaea aeey aocia. I., 1995, ae.4.

1. Oaia XVI. I?AAIAAss NOA?A AEECIE IAUANOAA

1. Nioeeaeueiue einoeooo e nouiinoue i?aaa.

2. I?aaiia?acothuea i?eioeeiu: ?aaainoai, naiaiaea, ni?aaaaeeeainoue.

3. Eiioeaioeey i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa.

4. I?aainiciaiea e aai o?iaie.

Nioeeaeueiue einoeooo e nouiinoue i?aaa.

I?AAIAAss NOA?A AEECIE IAUANOAA anoue noa?a aeaenoaey i?aaa, o.a.
nioeeaeueiia i?ino?ainoai, a i?aaeaeao eioi?iai ooieoeeiie?otho i?aaiaua
ioiioaiey, iniiaaiiua ia aeaenoaothuai a oii eee eiii iauanoaa i?aaa.
Aicieeatho aii?inu: /oi oaeia i?aai eae nioeeaeueiue einoeooo, eaeiau
aai nouiinoue e iniiaiua ooieoeee?

NIOeEAEUeIUE EINOEOOO I?AAA ioiineony e ?aaoeyoeaiie noa?a iauanoaaiiie
aeecie. Aeaaiia aai iacia/aiea – yoi ?aaoeyoeey e eiio?ieue iiaaaeaiey
eiaeeaeaeia, caeeth/aiea yoiai iiaaaeaiey a ii?aaeaeaiiua ?aiee. Oi?iu,
i?eaieaiua aeey iauanoaa a oeaeii.

I?e anae i/aaeaeiinoe ooieoeee i?aaa aai NOUIINOUe i?iaeieaeaao
inoaaaoueny i?aaeiaoii aeeneonnee. Nae/an ianoaeaeathony aeaa iiaeoiaea
e iiieiaieth yoie nouiinoe: o?aaeeoeeiiiue, eee “cai?aoeoaeueiue” e
eeaa?aeueiue, iie?athueeny ia eaeath “anoanoaaiiuo”, iaio/oaeaeaaiuo
i?aa e naiaiae ee/iinoe.

O?AAeEOeEIIIUE IIAeOIAe oaeoe/anee ioiaeaeanoaeyao i?aai n caeiiii. Iii
i?aaenoaaeyaony nenoaiie iauaiaycaoaeueiuo ii?i (i?aaee) iiaaaeaiey
ethaeae, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo e iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo ainoaea?noaii. A i?eioeeia
yoi “ii?iaeueiay”, oae neacaoue, aeeoaeneay o?aeoiaea i?aaa, eiaaea iii
aini?eieiaaony eae iaeee naiae cai?aoia e ea?aoaeueiuo naieoeee ca eo
ia?ooaiea. Nooue oaeiai iiieiaiey i?aaa iiaeii au?aceoue i?eioeeiii:
“Cai?auaii ana oi, /oi ia ?ac?aoaii”.

Iaeiaei anee i?iaeoiaoue yoo iaaaciniiaaoaeueioth e aei XVIII a.
i?aeoe/anee iauai?eiyooth iiceoeeth aei aa eiae/aneiai eiioea, oi ethaia
iauanoai i?aaenoaiao nai?euai iioaioeeaeueiuo i?anooiieeia, eioi?uo
eeoue no?iainoue e iaioa?aoeiinoue iaeacaiey oaea?aeeaatho io
iaaeaaiaeaeiuo iinooieia. Caeanue ia ia?aue ieai auoiaeeo ?ai?anneaiay
ooieoeey i?aaa. Aai ii?iu e i?eioeeiu aeaeyony yoaeeie e?aniuie
oeaaeeaie, eioi?uie “iaeiaeeee” ethaeae aeey eo aea nianoaaiiiai aeaaa.
Aioo?e yoiai eieueoea oeaaeeia /aeiaaeo aa?aioe?othony ioiineoaeueiay
naiaiaea e aaciianiinoue, auoiae aea ca aai i?aaeaeu oa?iaeaao eeoaieai
oiai e ae?oaiai.

Nianai eiie iiaeoiae e iiieiaieth nouiinoe i?aaa au?aaeaao eiioeaioeey,
oneiaii iacaaiiay EEAA?AEUeIIE, eioi?ay aicieeea ai 2-ie iieiaeia XVIII
a. a ?aieao i?inaaoeoaeueneie oeeinioee e naycaia n eiaiaie Eiiaioeea
Eaioa, Oa?ey Iiioaneuea (1689-1755), AEaia AEaea ?onni (1712-1778),
*aca?a Aaeea?ea (1738-1794) e ae?. Iia enoiaeeo ec oaaaeaeaiey, /oi a
i?aaa ia?ae/iu ia cai?aou e ?ai?annee, ia ia?aie/aiey iiaaaeaiey
/aeiaaea, a, iaiai?io, – aai i?aaa e naiaiaeu.

Oa?ieio “i?aai” auei aica?auaii aai iiaeeeiiia niaea?aeaiea,
io?aaeathuaa nioeeaeueioth i?e?iaeo i?aaa: i?aaeaea anaai eiaiii i?aai
/aeiaaea ia aeeciue, nianoaaiiinoue, aaciianiinoue, naiaiaeo niaanoe,
neiaa, ia?aiauaiey e i?. Eiuie neiaaie, iniiaie i?aaa, aai
“ia?aiia/aeii”, “ia?aiyeaiaioii” i?eciathony “anoanoaaiiua” i?aaa e
naiaiaeu /aeiaaea, eioi?ua aeieaeiu niaethaeaoueny eaoaai?e/anee,
iacaaeneii io ethauo, ionoue aeaaea naiuo oeaeaniia?aciuo o?aaiaaiee
iiiaioa. Ieeaeie ainoaea?noaaiiue cai?ao e aiiaua ieeaeia o?aaiaaiea e
eiaeeaeaeo ia aeieaeiu iieooaoueny ia aai iaiouaieaiua i?aaa e naiaiaeu.

Enoi?e/aneoth iiaeiieaeo oaeiai eaoaai?e/aneiai o?aaiaaiey iiiyoue
iao?oaeii: ao?aeoacii-i?inaaoeoaeueneay iuneue io/ayiii ai?ieanue n
oneeeaaaoeiny aeaniioeciii oaiaeaeueii-aaniethoenoneeo ainoaea?noa, a
eioi?uo i?aai ii nooe aeaea yaeyeinue aicaaaeaiiie a caeii aieae
i?aaeoaey, ainoaea?y. Anoanoaaiii, /oi a yoeo oneiaeyo i?ioeaaoaee
i?iecaie e aeaniioeci. Anee eo /oi e naea?aeeaaei, oae yoi /enoi
oece/aneea a?aieoeu i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae iiaeaeaiiuo e
i?aaeaeu iiue ?ai?anneaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa.

Aeii?inaaoeoaeueneay i?aaiaay iuneue oaeaea iuoaeanue iaeoe eaeea-oi
ia?aie/aiey oaiaeaioeee niiecaiey ainoaea?noa e aeaniioecio. Iaeiaei
iniauo oniaoia ia aeinoeaea. Naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui n?aaenoaii ai?ueau n
yoei nioeeaeueiui ceii aue i?ecua e ?acoio i?aaeoaey, iiia?oa, eioi?iio,
aeaneaoue, iiiai auaiaeiaa caaioeoueny i naieo iiaeaeaiiuo, eae aeia?iio
iooeo i naieo iiiai/eneaiiuo aeaoyo. Aaaeue oiaaea e naiiio ainoaea?th
aoaeao iaania/aia niieieiay e aeioiaeiay aeeciue.

Iuneeoaee XVIII a. ?aoeoaeueii ioa?anuaatho yoe iaeaii-iaoa?iaeenoneea
acaeyaeu, ii caaea/a inoaaony i?aaeiae: iaeoe ii?iaoeaiua ia?aie/aiey
aeaniioe/aneie aeanoe ainoaea?noaa, aai ia?iiiie i?eioaeeoaeueiie neeu.
No?aieoaeueii ?acaeaathueeny eaieoaeeci ooaa?aeaeaao iiaua oi?iu
iiaaaeaiey ethaeae e niioaaonoaaiii eiie oei ee/iinoe.

Io /aeiaaea a aic?anoathueo ianooaaao o?aaotho e, cia/eo, eoeueoeae?otho
oaeea ea/anoaa, eae eieoeeaoeaiinoue, i?aaei?eei/eainoue,
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaeaea anaai ca naay, a ia ca
?iae eee iaueio. Niioaaonoaaiii aicieeaao e iaiaoiaeeiinoue aa?aioee,
caueou aeinoeaiooiai a aeecie iooai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oneeee io
i?iecaiea ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa. Eiaiii yoio nioeeaeueiue cai?in e
noae aacie i?inaaoeoaeueneie oeeinioee i?aaa io Eieea aei Eaioa,
noi?ioee?iaaaoae eiioeaioeeth anoanoaaiiuo i?aa e naiaiae /aeiaaea.
Oaeei ia?acii, aue iiaeaaaeai oai?aoe/aneee ooiaeaiaio iiae eaeath i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eioaeeoaeueiiai ia?aie/aiey naiie ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe.

Aunoei i?eioeeiii iiaie oeeinioee i?aaa aunooiaao I?ECIAIEA
IACAAENEIINOE EAAEAeIAI EIAeEAEAeA, aai iieiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e ia
iaiaa iieiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca naith noaeueao. Ainoaea?noai ia eiaao
i?aai ?aoaoue, /oi aeey eiaeeaeaea oi?ioi, a /oi ieioi. Ii eae-ieaoaeue
nai a yoii ?acaa?aony. ainoaea?noai ia iaoaao eiaeeaeaeo aeaenoaiaaoue
ia naie nianoaaiiue no?ao e ?ene, ii e ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oniao
eee iaoniao aai aeaenoaee. “Cai?aoeoaeueiue” aeoo noa?iai iiieiaiey
i?aaa iaiyaony ia “?ac?aoeoaeueiue”: ?AC?AOAII ANA, *OI IA CAI?AUAII.

Eiae/ii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a i?eioeeia iaa eiioeaioeee eiatho naith
“i?aaioo”, a ecaanoiii niunea iie “acaeiiaeiiieieoaeueiu”. Iaeiaei a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aannii?ii i?aaaee?oao eeaa?aeueii-i?inaaoeoaeueneay
o?aeoiaea nouiinoe i?aaa, ieacaaoayny iaiau/aeii ieiaeioai?iie. Eiaiii a
yoie oeeinioneie o?aaeeoeee iiyaeeinue iiiyoea i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa;
eiaiii a iae oaeaeinue /aoei auaeaeeoue iniiaiua i?aaiia?acothuea
i?eioeeiu, o.a. iieacaoue, /ai, nianoaaiii, i?aai ioee/aaony io
aani?aaey.

Nioeeaeueiue einoeooo i?aaa iaycai, i/aaeaeii, naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai
i?ioeannai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea e ?acaeoey oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaaeue
eiaiii iie iaeiia?aiaiii noaayo naiinoiyoaeueiuo eiaeeaeaeia a
iieiaeaiea anaiauae acaeiiie caaeneiinoe ae?oa io ae?oaa. I?e/ai,
acaeiicaaeneiinoue yoa iineo niaa?oaiii aiiieiiue ii nouanoao oa?aeoa?.
I?iecaiaeeoaeth oiaa?a ana ?aaii, eoi aai eoieo, a iio?aaeoaeth ia iaiaa
aac?acee/ii, eoi aai i?iecaae. Iaeiaei i?aiaeaaeaiea
iaia?niieoeoee?iaaiiuo ioiioaiee ii?iaeaeaao i?iaeaio aa?aioee
niaethaeaiey eioa?ania ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea: eiaeeaeae aeieaeai auoue
oaa?ai, /oi i?aaeinoaaeyy ae?oaei ia/oi, eiathuaa a iauanoaa oeaiiinoue,
ii niiaeao iieo/eoue acaiai niioaaonoaothuee yeaeaaeaio.

Aio ooo-oi e iiyaeyaony oiieay, iainycaaiay iaoa?ey i?aaa eae iniaie
nioeeaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe. Iauanoai eae au aa?aioe?oao eiaeeaeaeo
oaeiaeaoai?aiea aai nianoaaiiuo eioa?ania, iaania/eaaaiuo aiaeiae/iuie
oneeeyie ae?oaeo eiaeeaeaeia. Iauanoai, oaeei ia?acii, iuoaaony
ninoaaeoue i/aiue neiaeiue “aaeain” eioa?ania ioaeaeueiuo eeoe, eioi?ue
iiaeao auoue naaaeai oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ana iie aoaeoo
aeaenoaiaaoue ii iaeiei e oai aea i?aaeeai.

I?aaeea yoe aeaenoaotho ia oieueei a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaaeue
nicaeaaaaiay iauanoaaiiui ?acaeaeaieai o?oaea acaeiicaaeneiinoue
eiaeeaeaeia i?iyaeyaony ai anao noa?ao eo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. O/eoaey
e o/aieee, i?aaeoaee e iiaeaeaiiua, ioeoea?u e ?yaeiaua, a?oenou e
c?eoaee, aeaieoe e iaaanou – ana no?iyo naie acaeiiioiioaiey ia iniiaa
acaeiiie ioaeaeu ae?oa a ae?oaa. A niaeaniaaiiinoue eo oneeee ia o?iaia
iauanoaa eae ?ac e aeinoeaaaony aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth iaeioi?uo iaueo
i?aaee eee aeaaea noa?aioeiia iiaaaeaiey, a eioi?uo yaii eee iayaii
o/eouaathony eioa?anu eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaea e iauanoaa a oeaeii.

Iiae/a?eiai aua ?ac, /oi NOUIINOUe, NOANOAIOeETH I?AAA NINOAAEssTHO IA
NAIE YOE I?AAEEA IIAAAeAIEss (ii?iu, caeiiu, eiaeaenu). A OI, *OI IIE
I?ECAAIU ?AAOEE?IAAOUe: acaeiiua i?eoycaiey eiaeeaeaeia, eo iaeeaeaiey e
o?aaiaaiey aaeaeaaoiiai iauanoaaiiiai ioaaoa ia naie aeaenoaey e oneeey.
Oaeei ia?acii, I?AAI AUNOOIAAO EAE NIAIEOIIINOUe I?AAIAUO IAUANOAAIIUO
IOIIOAIEE, a eioi?uo au?aaeaia acaeiicaaeneiinoue eiaeeaeaeia.
TH?eaee/aneea aea ii?iu, caeiiu anoue eeoue aiaoiaa au?aaeaiea i?aaa,
aai enoi?e/aneay oi?ia.

Caeii e i?aai ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa oaeaea, eae, neaaeai, oeaia e
noieiinoue oiaa?a. Aeaaeaeaoe oiaa?a a i?eioeeia aieai iacia/aoue aio
ethaoth oeaio, ii ii i?ae?anii iiieiaao, /oi oiaa? aoaeao oniaoii
?aaeeciaai oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee oeaia ia aoaeao neeoeii neeueii
ioeeiiyoueny io aai ?aaeueiie noieiinoe.

Ii/oe oa aea neooaoeey e n th?eaee/aneeie caeiiaie. A i?eioeeia aunoee
caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?aai aeanoe iiaeao i?eiyoue ethaie caeii, aeaaea
naiue ae?aeiiianeee. Ii iiaeiaiia ananeeea caeiiiaeaoaeae – eeoue
aeaeeiinoue. Anee i?eiyoue caeii neeoeii aeaeaei ooae io iauaeoeaii
neiaeeaoaeny a iauanoaa i?aaiaie neooaoeee (aaeaina acaeiiue
i?aaenoaaeaiee e iieo/aiee), oi ii i?inoi ia aoaeao ?aaioaoue, o.a. ia
aoaeao eniieiyoueny.

Ciaiaieoue o?aioeocneee oeeinio yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey Ieoaeue Iiioaiue
(1533-1592) ?anneacuaae, /oi ciaiaieoiai ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai caeiiiaeaoaey
Nieiia eae-oi ni?ineee, iaeeo/oea ee caeiiu ii onoaiiaee aeey aoeiyi.
“Aea, – neacae oio a ioaao, – iaeeo/oea ec oao, eaeei iie niaeaneeenue
au iiae/eiyoueny”. Eae iaeiaei ia oaaoaao iiaeiaiie ioae?inoe iiiaei
iaoei iuiaoiei caeiiioai?oeai – naeaeaoaeuenoaii oiio ianna
ia?aaioathueo eee ioiaiyaiuo /ooue ee ia n?aco iinea i?eiyoey oeacia,
iinoaiiaeaiee, caeiiia e o.ae.

1. Oaeei ia?acii, iaeiie ec nouanoaaiiuo INIAAIIINOAE I?AAA ssAEssAONss
IAUAEOEAIUE, ANOANOAAIII-ENOI?E*ANEEE OA?AEOA? aai ?acaeoey. Ionthaea
iaeiaei aiana ia neaaeoao, /oi ninoaaeoaee caeiiia eeoue iineooii
?aaeno?e?otho noeoeeii neeaaeuaathueany i?aaiioiioaiey. ?ieue
caeiiioai?/anoaa a i?aaiecaoeee i?aaiaie aeecie aeinoaoi/ii aaeeea.
?a/ue eaeao eeoue i oii, /oi o noauaeoeaiie aiee caeiiiaeaoaeae anoue
naie iauaeoeaiua a?aieoeu.

2. Ae?oaie aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey i?aaa ioaeii
i?eciaoue aai EEANNIAUE OA?AEOA?. A iauanoaa, ?aneieioii ia eeanniaua
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, inouanoaeythuai naia ?acaeoea eiaiii /a?ac
acaeiiaeaenoaea yoeo i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, i?inoi ia iiaeao auoue eia/a.

A ia?enenoneii iiieiaiee eeanniainoue i?aaa auea iauyaeaia aai
nouiinoueth. Niaeanii ecaanoiiio aoi?ecio E.Ia?ena e O. Yiaaeuena,
i?aai anoue aiey ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna, aicaaaeaiiay a caeii. A yoii
ooaa?aeaeaiee, aannii?ii, anoue enoeia, ii ia any. A i?aaiaie nenoaia
eeanniai i?aaieciaaiiiai iauanoaa eioa?anu ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna
aaconeiaii i?aiaeaaeatho, ii yoi aiana ia icia/aao, /oi eioa?anu
inoaeueiuo a iae en/acathua iaeu.

3. A ea/anoaa aua iaeiie aaaeiie iniaaiiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey noa?u
i?aaa iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue aa OANIAEOOTH NAssCUe N IIEEOE*ANEEI
ONO?IENOAII IAUANOAA E AAI NA?AeOeAAEIIE – AINOAeA?NOAII. Eiaiii iii
aeaao iaoa?eaeueioth neeo i?aao, aunooiaao aa?aioii, eiio?iea?ii e
io?aieoaeai i?aaiii?yaeea.

I?aaiia?acothuea i?eioeeiu: ?aaainoai, naiaiaea, ni?aaaaeeeainoue.

Iiaeao iieacaoueny, /oi a yoeo neiaao au?aaeaiu eeoue iaeea i?aaiaua
eicoiae, /oi iie iiaoo auoue caoeene?iaaiu a eaeeo-ieaoaeue
aeaeea?aoeeyo-eiinoeoooeeyo, a aio ia aeaea, a ?aaeueiie aeecie eo
inouanoaeaiea ieacuaaaony i?ec?a/iui. Oaeie acaeyae yaeyaony aeiaieueii
?ani?ino?aiaiiui a ianniaii niciaiee.

Iaeiaei a yoii neo/aa noaaouaaaony eeoue aiaoiyy, iiaa?oiinoiay noi?iia
aeaea. Nooue aea, ne?uoay ca yoie aiaoiae aeaeeiinoueth, caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi ?aaainoai, naiaiaea e ni?aaaaeeeainoue ia aaiaeyony
caeiiiaeaoaeueii, ia yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii niciaoaeueiie i?ioeaaeo?u
i?eiyoey e eniieiaiey “oi?ioeo” caeiiia, a eioi?ua iie aienaiu “ai
ia?auo no?ieao”. Iai?ioea, e ?aaainoai, e naiaiaea, e ni?aaaaeeeainoue
oei?aiaiu, aienaiu a naio nioeeaeueioth ?aaeueiinoue e iaeaaeatho /enoi
IAUAEOEAIIE cia/eiinoueth.

Iie-oi e ninoaaeytho na?aeoeaaeio, NOOUe I?AAA, eioi?ay e o?aaoao
niioaaonoaaiii noauaeoeaii-aieaaiai ioi?ieaiey a aeaea caeiiia, oeacia e
i?i/eo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia. Ia i?eioaeeoaeueiay neea caeiia nicaeaao
?aaainoai, naiaiaeo e o.i., a, iaiai?io, iauaeoeaiue i?eioeei ?aaainoaa
eeoue i?iyaeyaony (eee ia i?iyaeyaony) a oii eaee eiii caeiia. I?aaeaea
/ai auoue caoeene?iaaiiui noauaeoeaii (a caeiia), naiaiaea e ?aaainoai
aeieaeiu i?enoonoaiaaoue a nioeeaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe IAUAEOEAII, eae
nioeeaeueiia ea/anoai naiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a ia i?inoi eae aeaaea
iiaeaeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeae.

Aniiiiei aua ?ac iaoo aiaeiaeth n oiaa?ii. I?aaiaie i?eioeei ?aaainoaa
icia/aao anaai eeoue i?eiaiaiea ?aaiie ia?u e caaaaeiii ia?aaiui (a
iieeoe/aneii, eiouanoaaiiii, naiaeiii e i?i/eo ioiioaieyo) eiaeeaeaeai.
Eae i?iecaiaeeoaeth oiaa?ia iao ?acieoeu, /oi i?iecaiaeeoue, auea au
i?eaueue, oae e ainoaea?noao ai iiiaii aac?acee/ii, /oi ca noauaeo
ia?aae iei – eeoue au ia ia?ooae nouanoaothueo ii?i iiaaaeaiey e oai
naiui iiaeaea?aeeaae iauee i?aaiaie ii?yaeie. I?e yoii i?eioeei
aano?aeoii anaiauaai ?aaainoaa oanii naycai n aeaoiy ae?oaeie
i?aaiia?acothueie i?eioeeiaie: naiaiaeie e ni?aaaaeeeainoueth.

Ii iunee Aaaaey, “nenoaia i?aaa anoue oea?noai ?aaeeciaaiiie naiaiaeu”.
Iaeiaei naiaiaea eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea eii/aaony oai, aaea
ia/eiaaony naiaiaea ae?oaiai. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e caeanue iaecaaaeii
i?eiaiaiea i?eioeeia ?aaainoaa: naiaiaea aeieaeia auoue ?aaiie aeey anao
eee aa ia aoaeao nianai. I?aai iiyoiio aunooiaao IA?IE NAIAIAeU
EIAeEAEAeIA, iii oeacuaaao aa ?aiee, i?aaeaeu, auoiae ca eioi?ua
ia?ooaao naiaiaeo ae?oaiai, a, cia/eo, iiae?uaaao i?aaiii?yaeie.

Inouanoaeaiea aea i?aaiauo i?eioeeiia ?aaainoaa e naiaiaeu ?aaii ii
niuneo o?aoueaio i?aaiaiio ia/aeo – NI?AAAAeEEAINOE. I?aaiaay
ni?aaaaeeeainoue e anoue a eiia/iii n/aoa niaethaeaiea iauaai aaeaina,
yeaeaaeaioiinoe acaeiiuo i?aaeinoaaeaiee e iieo/aiee, eioi?uie naycaiu
ae?oa n ae?oaii noauaeou i?aaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?aaainoai, naiaiaea e ni?aaaaeeeainoue ia?acotho eae au
o?e aa?oeiu o?aoaieueieea, eaaeauaai a iniiaaiee nioeeaeueiiai einoeoooa
i?aaa. E ie iaeio ec ieo iaeuecy ouaieoue aac oua?aa aeey aeaoo ae?oaeo.

Ana yoe caia/aoaeueiua i?eioeeiu ia ecia?aoaiu th?enoaie eee oeeinioaie,
a ecaea/aiu, aano?aae?iaaiu io ?aaeueiinoe. Iie “?aaioatho” a ouny/ao e
ieeeeiiao i?aeoe/aneeo, aeeoaeneeo neooaoeee, ?aaeueii ?aaoee?oy
acaeiiioiioaiey ethaeae. Oieueei aio anaiauaiethuay iieiioa ?aaeecaoeee
yoeo i?eioeeiia, eo anaiauiinoue, iieiioeaiiay caueoa ainoaea?noaii –
oau, aauue ii/oe iaaiciiaeiay aeey aieueoeinoaa nia?aiaiiuo ainoaea?noa.
A oae oai, aaea nouanoaiaaee eee nouanoaotho ?aanoai, e?aiinoie/anoai
eee eiua ouaieaiey naiaiaeu eee naiinoiyoaeueiinoe ee/iinoe, i?aai
i?aaenoaaeaii eeoue aeey iaiiiaeo. Oae /oi iiaeeeiii i?aaiaia ninoiyiea
iauanoaa aua ia noaei aeinoiyieai anaai /aeiaa/anoaa.

Eiioeaioeey i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa.

Aaaeiaeoae oa?aeoa?enoeeie oaeiai i?aaiaiai ninoiyiey iauanoaa yaeyaony
ii?aaeaeaiiia acaeiiioiioaiea i?aaa e iieeoe/aneie aeanoe, ?ac?aaioaiiia
eeaa?aeueii-i?inaaoeoaeueneie iuneueth a eiioeaioeee i?aaiaiai
ainoaea?noaa. Nooue yoiai acaeiiioiioaiey iiaeii naanoe e o?ai iniiaiui
iieiaeaieyi:

· eaoaai?e/aneia niaethaeaiea iniiaiuo i?aa e naiaiae ee/iinoe;

· aa?oiaainoai caeiia,

· ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae (caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie).

Iaeei ec aeaaiuo eino?oiaioia i?aaa – CAEIIU, a iie nicaeathony,
i?eieiathony e iaaeaeythony i?eioaeeoaeueiie neeie ioaee/iie aeanoueth,
ainoaea?noaii. Anee ainoaea?noai i?eieiaao caeiiu, ia?aie/eaathuea i?aaa
ee/iinoe, yoi i?aai eee aani?aaea? Aio ooo-oi e n?aaaouaaao oiiiyiooia
auoa ?acee/aiea i?aaa e caeiia: caeii iiaeao auoue e IAI?AAUI, anee ii
ia?ooaao iniiaiiieaaathuea i?eioeeiu i?aaa (?aaainoai, naiaiaea,
ni?aaaaeeeainoue), anee ii iieooaaony ia “anoanoaaiiua” i?aaa e naiaiaeu
ee/iinoe.

Iiyoiio ia?aui i?eioeeiii i?aaiaiai ninoiyiey ainoaea?noaa e iauyaeyaony
AACONEIAIIA NIAETHAeAIEA IAIOUAIEAIUO I?AA E NAIAIAe EE*IINOE, eioi?ua
“auoa” ethaiai caeiia, ethaiai ii?iaoeaii-i?eioaeeoaeueiiai aeoa
ainoaea?noaa. E?iia oiai, naii ainoaea?noai e aai /eiiaieee aeieaeiu
auoue iinoaaeaiu a ?aiee i?aaiauo caeiiia. Ainoaea?noaaiiay ananeeueiay
aiey naia aeieaeia auoue ia?aie/aia caeiiii. A yoii niune i?eioeeia
AA?OIAAINOAA CAEIIA. I?aai iaeeiaeiai iaycaoaeueii e aeey “aeanoue
i?aaea?aeaueo”, e aeey iiaeaeanoiuo.

Oaeia naiiia?aie/aiea ainoaea?noaa ?aaeueii aiciiaeii oieueei i?e
niaethaeaiee i?eioeeia ?ACAeAEAIEss AEANOAE, eneeth/athuaai
iiiiiieecaoeeth aeanoe a ?oeao iaeiiai eeoea eee i?aaia. Niune yoiai
i?eioeeia i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa – a i?aaeioa?auaiee niiecaiey
ainoaea?noaa e oioaeeoa?ecio, a ?acuaaeeiaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai iiiieeoa
ia o?e ?aaiii?aaiua /anoe (eee “aaoae aeanoe”), eioi?ua iaeaaeatho
naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth, iacaaeneiinoueth e aeaaiia – acaeiii
eiio?iee?otho ae?oa ae?oaa, ia aeiioneatho i?aauoaiey iieiiii/ee
eaeie-eeai ec aeanoae.

Eiioeaioeey i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa, aai/athuay iauee caiunae
eeaa?aeueii-i?inaaoeoaeueneie o?aeoiaee nouiinoe i?aaa, noaea
cia/eoaeueiui oai?aoe/aneei aeinoeaeaieai oeeinionei-i?aaiaie iunee. A
no?aiao, aaea yoa eiioeaioeey aeioea aei i?aeoe/aneiai aiieiuaiey, a
oeaeii noi?ie?iaaeny aeinoaoi/ii no?iaee i?aaiaie ii?yaeie. Iaeiaei aeey
aieueoae /anoe /aeiaa/anoaa, a o./. e aeey iaoae no?aiu, oi ninoiyiea
iauanoaa, eioi?ia iiaeii auei au iacaaoue iiaeeeiii i?aaiaui,
ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony eeoue caiai/eaie e aeaeaiiie oeaeueth, a iauai-oi
aiieia aeinoeaeeiie, ii, e niaeaeaieth, ia a naiii aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai.

I?aainiciaiea e aai o?iaie.

I?aai, i?aaiioiioaiey, i?aaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue anoanoaaiii io?aaeathony
a niciaiee .ethaeae a aeaea iaeeo ciaiee e ioeaiie, /oanoa e i?eau/ae, a
niaieoiiinoe ia?acothueo iniaoth oi?io iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey –
I?AAINICIAIEA. A iai au?aaeaiu i?aaenoaaeaiey eaeie-eeai nioeeaeueiie
a?oiiu eee eiaeeaeaea ia oieueei i naiii i?aaa, ii oaeaea ia
iaania/eaathueo nouanoaiaaiea i?aaa einoeoooao – ainoaea?noaa,
i?aainoaeee, caeiiiinoe.

I?aainiciaiea, eae e ethaay ae?oaay oi?ia niciaiey, iaiaeii?iaeii. Aai
“ieaeiee” yoaae ninoaaeytho i?aaiaua i?eau/ee, /oanoaa yiioeee,
ianenoaiaoece?iaaiiua ciaiey. Yoi iaeanoue IAUAeAIIIAI, eee
“I?AEOE*ANEIAI” NICIAIEss. A iai au?aaeaii ii?aaeaeaiiia oaeoe/aneia
ciaiea eiaeeaeaeaie i?aaa, i?iyaeythuaany a no?aieaiee neaaeiaaoue
i?aaiaui noaiaea?oai iiaaaeaiey.

Ethaiiuoii, /oi eiaeeaeae iiaeao e ia iiaeic?aaaoue i oii, /oi ii
yaeyaony iaeaaeaoaeai iaeie noiiu i?aaiauo ciaiee. Ii auiieiyy i?eiyoua
a iauanoaa i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey, oeia niaethaeaiey aeiaiai?aiiinoae,
i?aaeinoaaeaiey acaeiiuo oneoa, aiciauaiey oua?aa, niaa?oaiey aeoia
eoiee-i?iaeaaee e i?., eiaeeaeae oai naiui aeaiiino?e?oao “i?aeoe/aneia
ciaiea” i?aaiauo ii?iaoeaia, eioi?ua iiaoo e ia auaeaeyoueny niciaieai
eiaiii eae i?aaiaua. Oaeea, oaeoe/anee yaeythueany i?aaiauie, iaauee,
ciaiey ii nouanoao ianoo ia naaa aeaaioth iaa?oceo ii ?aaoee?iaaieth
iianaaeiaaiuo acaeiiioiioaiee ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae.

Oai aea, aaea ?a/ue eaeao i i?aaiauo ioiioaieyo ethaeae eae
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii eee aea yoe ioiioaiey
no?iyony /a?ac nioeeaeueiua einoeooou (ainoaea?noaa, i?aainoaeey e i?.),
oai iaiaoiaeei eiie o?iaaiue i?aainiciaiey – OAI?AOEEI-EAeAIEIAE*ANEEE.
Ia yoii o?iaia inouanoaeyaony iniuneaiea naiie nouiinoe i?aaa, aai
aiciiaeiinoae e a?aieoe, aiaeec iiuoa i?aaiaie aeecie, aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiauo einoeoooia e ?aaeueiie ioaea/e i?aaiauo ii?i e o.ae.

Yoi oaea – noa?a aeaenoaey i?ioanneiiaeia, o.a. oai?aoeeia, eaeaieiaia.
E eo eiiiaoaioeee ioiinyony ?ac?aaioea nenoaiu i?aaiauo iaoe,
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee caeiiiaeaoaeueiui e
i?aai-i?eiaieoaeueiui i?aaiai, iao/aiea i?aaiaui ciaieyi, iaaueai e
o.ae. Iineieueeo caeanue ?a/ue eaeao i oai?ee, o.a. iao/iii o?iaia
inaiaiey i?aaa, oi, eiia/ii, aea yoa aeayoaeueiinoue ioiineony e
aeooiaiiio i?iecaiaenoao ni anaie auoaeathueie ionthaea iineaaenoaeyie.

Noaiaiue ?acaeoinoe i?aainiciaiey eae i?aeoe/aneiai, oae e
oai?aoe/aneiai yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo iieacaoaeae iauaai
i?aaiaiai ninoiyiey iauanoaa, aai i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Anaiauay Aeaeea?aoeey i?aa /aeiaaea. Aeaeea?aoeey i?aa e naiaiae
/aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia. I., 1993.

2. Aaaaeue A. Oeeinioey i?aaa. I., 1990.

3. Eiinoeoooeey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. I., 1993.

4. Iaaeooaaneee A. I. *oi oaeia iieiue eiinoeoooeeiiaeeci? //
Nioeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, 1994, ?2.

5. Ia?nayioe A. N. I?aaiaia ainoaea?noai: enoi?ey e nai?aiaiiinoue //
Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1989, ?2.

6. Iauanoaaiiia niciaiea e aai oi?iu. I., 1986.

7. I?aai. Naiaiaea. Aeaiie?aoey // Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1990, ?6.

8. Nieiaueaa Y. TH. Ee/iinoue e i?aai // Nieiaueaa Y. TH. I?ioeia
oieeoao ian. I., 1991.

9. Nieiaueaa Y. TH. I?aaiaie ieaeeeci e aoiaienoe/aneee niune i?aaa //
Eaeioynnaioeey: Oeeinioneee aeueiaiao. I., 1990.

10. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey: O/aa. iiniaea aeey aocia. I., 1995. ae. 6.

11. Nie?eei A. A. Iniiau oeeinioee: O/aa. iiniaea aeey aocia. I., 1988.
Ae. XVI, ?acae. 3.

1. Oaia XVII. AeOOIAIAss AEECIUe IAUANOAA

1. Nioeeaeueiay i?e?iaea e niaea?aeaiea aeooiaiie aeecie.

2. Eneonnoai – aaaeiaeoee aeae aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

3. Ii?aeue eae ?aaoeyoi? nioeeaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey.

Nioeeaeueiay i?e?iaea e niaea?aeaiea aeooiaiie aeecie.

Iiae AeOOIAIIE AEECIUeTH IAUANOAA iau/ii iiieiatho oo iaeanoue auoey, a
eioi?ie iauaeoeaiay, iaaeuiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ?aaeueiinoue aeaia ia a oi?ia
i?ioeainoiyuae iai i?aaeiaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a a oi?ia iaiouaieaiie
/anoe aioo?aiiae nouiinoe naiiai /aeiaaea. Eae aeaeei, oaea a iiiuoea
ii?aaeaeaiey aeooiaiie aeecie n?aco iiyaeyaony i?ioeai?a/ea: a?iaea au
aeoo, eaeaaeueiia ia/aei ia nouanoaotho naie ii naaa, aia /aeiaaea, ii a
oi aea a?aiy iie – iaaeuiaeeaeaeoaeueiu, anaiaue, iauaeoeaiu, o.a. io
/aeiaaea a?iaea au e iacaaeneiu. Yoio iaiiiyoiue noaoon oaeeo
eaeaaeueiuo ia/ae, eae Enoeia, Aeia?i, E?anioa e ae?., e ninoaaeyao
nooue “i?iaeaiu aeooa”, anaaaea iaoiaeeaoaeny iiae i?enoaeueiui
aieiaieai oeeinioia.

O?aaeeoeey oeeinioneiai aiaeeca aeooiaiie aeecie ooiaeeo a aeoaieoth
ae?aaiinoue. Iaeio ec naiuo ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo iiiuoie io/aoeeai
iinoaaeoue e ?ac?aoeoue i?iaeaio aeooa i?aaei?eiye, eae aai ecaanoii,
ae?aaiaa?a/aneee oeeinio IEAOII. A aai oeeinioee aanieioiia
iaii?aaeaeaiiia eaeaaeueiia ia/aei i?aa?aoeeinue a aeinoaoi/ii /aoei
nenoaiaoece?iaaiioth e ea?a?oece?iaaiioth no?oeoo?o, eioi?ay aoeaaeueii
“aea?aeeo” ie?, ninoaaeyao aai iniiao. Eiaiii eaeaaeueiia ia/aei
ieacuaaaony ia?ainouei, a iaoa?eaeueiue ie? – eeoue aai ianiaa?oaiiui
iiaeiaeai. Oae ie? eaeae o ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai iuneeoaey i?eia?ae
naiinoiyoaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea.

A n?aaeiaaaeiauea “eeiey Ieaoiia” iieo/eea iaiaeeaeaiiia i?iaeieaeaiea e
naiaia?aciia ?acaeoea a o?enoeainoaa. O?enoeaineay ?aeeaey aanueia
nouanoaaiii eciaieea oeaeo iniiaiuo aeeciaiiuo oeaiiinoae. Eaaeia
i?aiaa?aaeaiea Ieaoiia iaoa?eaeueiie noi?iiie aeecie niaieeinue aa
iaeiicia/iui i?eieaeaieai e niioaaonoaaiii aicaaee/eaaieai aeooa, eai
nai Aia iauyaeyeny a eiia/iii n/aoa aeooiaiui ia/aeii. N?aaeiaaaeiaua
oeeiniou (aiieiaaou e noieanou), iaiaei iio?oaeeaoenue iaae eiae/aneie
noi?iiie aeooa, i?iaeaio eaeaaeueiiai oae e ia ?aoeee: ei n naiiai
ia/aea auei ynii, /oi aiaeanoaaiioth nooue aeooa iaaei i?eieiaoue eae
aeaiiinoue, a ia aeieaiuaaoueny aei i?e/ei aa i?iyaeaiey.

Eiiaoe n?aaeiaaaeiauey e ia/aei iiaie enoi?e/aneie yiioe, anoanoaaiii,
iciaiaiiaaeenue e niaiie oeeinioneeo i?aaeii/oaiee. Ianoi aaconeiaiiai
aaoi?eoaoa aiaeanoaaiiiai ?acoia caiye ia iaiaa eaoaai?e/iue aaoi?eoao
?acoia /aeiaa/aneiai. “?acoi i?aaeo ie?ii”, – i?iaicaeaneee
?aaiethoeeiia?u aeooa XVIII a., eiay aaeaeo aiciiaeiinoue ?acoiiiai
ono?ienoaa i?aaeaea anaai iauanoaaiiuo ii?yaeeia. ?aaeueiua oniaoe
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia ieacaeenue ianoieueei aaeeee e i/aaeaeiu
(i?iiuoeaiiinoue, iaoea, iieeoeea, i?aai), /oi eaeeo-eeai i?aa?aae ia
aai iooe i?inoi ia caia/aee. A oae aii?in i oii, eaeei ia?acii
/aeiaa/aneee ?acoi aae?oa noae oaeei “ananeeueiui”, aeaaea e ia
aicieeae.

Yoi i?iecioei iicaeiaa, iinea oiai, eae iaiaoeeay eeanne/aneay oeeinioey
iaaeaioe/ii i?iaiaeece?iaaea ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia
(Eaio), iieacaea aai aeeaeaeoe/aneoth i?ioeai?a/eainoue, iiiuoaeanue
auno?ieoue enoi?eth yaiethoeee aeooa (Aaaaeue) e, iaeiiaoe, a eeoea
Ia?ena /aoei iinoaaeea e ?aoeea iniiaiua aii?inu eioa?anothuae ian
i?iaeaiu.

Ia?enenoneay eiioeaioeey iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai iiieiaiey enoi?ee,
niuneiaui noa?aeiai eioi?ie auea eaeay caaeneiinoe iauanoaaiiiai
niciaiey io iauanoaaiiiai auoey, i?inoi e eiae/ii iauyniyea eae naii
iiyaeaiea /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia, oae e iiiaea aai iineaaeothuea
i?eeeth/aiey. E eae au ie ioeaieaaeanue iuia ia?enenoneay aeieo?eia a
oeaeii n aa yaii iaoaea/iuie enoi?e/aneeie i?iaiicaie, aieaa yniiai
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneiai ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu i?ienoiaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia iiea aua ieeoi ia i?aaeeiaeee.

Iaeiaei naao ?acoia, oae iiaaaeiiinii ainneyaoee aeey oeeinioia XVIII
a., a iineaaeothueo aeaoo noieaoeyo ia niia oaa?a/ue /aeiaa/anoai io
iannu iaoaea/iuo nioeeaeueiuo yenia?eiaioia, eieinnaeueiiai eiee/anoaa
iaeiiiiyoiuo aea?oa e no?aaeaiee, i?aeoe/anee iaoi?aaeyaiiai ?acaeoey
enoi?ee. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, /oi ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey, a
o./. ia?enenoneay, naeaea ainiiaenoaothuea iiceoeee.

A eiioea XIX a. aicieeea iiaay eeiey oeeinionoaiaaiey – IAEEANNE*ANEAss
OEEINIOEss. Iia ianiaoaeanue iaae iaeaiie aa?ie /aeiaa/anoaa a
?aoeeiiaeueiia ono?ienoai ie?a e aiciiaeiinoue aai aaeaeaaoiiai
iiciaiey, niciaoaeueii eoeueoeae?iaaea e??aoeeiiaeeci. Ia yoii iooe auei
ioe?uoi iaiaei ethaiiuoiuo enoei, ii eioa?anothuay ian i?iaeaia e a
aeaiiii neo/aa iao?eaeaeueiuo ?aoaiee ia iaoea.

Enoiee i?iaeaiu AeOOIAIIE AEECIE IAUANOAA ei?aiyony a AeAIENOAAIIINOE
iaoa?eaeueii-aeooiaiie i?e?iaeu naiiai /aeiaaea.

Aeooiaiay noi?iia auoey /aeiaaea aicieeaao ia iniiaa aai i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe eae iniaay oi?ia io?aaeaiey iauaeoeaiiai ie?a, eae
aeiiieieoaeueiia n?aaenoai i?eaioaoeee a yoii ie?a, a oaeaea
acaeiiaeaenoaey n iei. Aaiaoe/aneay (ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth) naycue aeooa n
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea ieeiaaea ia i?a?uaaaony: oae
auei ai a?aiaia noaiiaeaiey /aeiaa/anoaa, oae i?ienoiaeeo e nae/an, a
ia?eiae oi?ie?iaaiey (nioeeaeecaoeee) eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea.
Aaaeue aano?aeoiia iuoeaiea ia yaeyaony iaoae i?e?iaeiie niiniaiinoueth.
Iii ia ianeaaeoaony aeieiae/anee, a oi?ie?oaony a i?ioeanna i?eiauaiey
eiaeeaeaea e niaoeeoe/anee nioeeaeueiiio ia?aco aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe.

*aeiaa/aneia iuoeaiea ii nooe naiae anoue oa aea naiay i?aaeiaoiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, oieueei naycaia iia ia n ?aaeueii inycaaiuie
i?aaeiaoaie, a n eo eaeaaeueiuie caiaieoaeyie – ciaeaie, neiaieaie,
ia?acaie e o.ae. Eia/a aiai?y, ana iuneeoaeueiua iia?aoeee oi?ie?othony
a ?acoeueoaoa naiaia?aciiai ia?aiina aiaoiai?aaeiaoiuo aeaenoaee ai
aioo?aiiee eaeaaeueiue ieai. Eiaiii yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai e nicaeaao
iauaeoeaioth iniiao a?iaea au /enoi noauaeoeaiie /aeiaa/aneie
aeooiaiinoe.

Eieue nei?i i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea no?ieony ii caeiiai
iauaeoeaiiai ie?a, oi e iaoa aeooiaiay aeeciue aeieaeia neaaeiaaoue yoei
caeiiai. ?a/ue ia eaeao i iieiii oiaeaeanoaa iaoa?eaeueiiai e
eaeaaeueiiai. Nooue caeeth/aaony a eo i?eioeeieaeueiii aaeeinoaa,
niaiaaeaiee iniiaiuo, “oceiauo” iiiaioia. I?e yoii nicaeaaaaiue
/aeiaaeii eaeaaeueiue ie? iiiyoee, ia?acia e aeiae iaeaaeaao
nouanoaaiiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth, aaoiiiiiinoueth. Ii iiaeao i/aiue
aeaeaei io?uaaoueny io iaoa?eaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iiaeao aeaaea
aiciiieoue naay aaniethoii naiinoiyoaeueiui, naiinouei. Iaeiaei
ieii/aoaeueii ecaaaeoueny io naiae iaoa?eaeueiie iniiau aeoo ia iiaeao.
Iaoatho ii iaiueoae ia?a aeaa ianoiyoaeuenoaa: aai “iaoa?eaeueiia”
i?ienoiaeaeaiea e aai i?aaeiacia/aiea – i?eaioaoeey /aeiaaea a ie?a.
Iioa?y oaeie i?eaioaoeee icia/aao aeaaeue naiiai aeooa.

E?iia oiai, o aeooa anoue aua iaeii iniiaaiea iauaeoeaiinoe. ?acee/iua
i?iaeoeou aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe – eaeae, ii?iu, eaeaaeu e ae?., – ?ac
aicieeioa e aeieacaa naith i?aeoe/aneoth cia/eiinoue, iaia?aie/aiii
aeieai nio?aiythony a nioeeaeueiie iaiyoe /aeiaa/anoaa a oi?ia ciaeia,
neiaieia, caoeia, ecia?aaeaiee e o.ae. Yoi “ii?aaeia/eaaiea”
eaeaaeueiiai iaeiia?aiaiii aunooiaao e eae aai iauaeoeaaoeey. I?eiauaiea
e yoie iiaie “naa?oi?e?iaeiie” ?aaeueiinoe e ninoaaeyao nooue i?ioeanna
nioeeaeecaoeee /aeiaaea, o.a. onaiaiea ei iniiaiuo ii?i eoeueoo?u.

Iineieueeo aeooiaiay aeeciue /aeiaa/anoaa i?ienoiaeeo e iooaeeeaaaony
ana-oaee io noa?u iaoa?eaeueiie, iinoieueeo e no?oeoo?a aa ai iiiaii
aiaeiae/ia: aeooiaiay iio?aaiinoue, aeooiaiue eioa?an, aeooiaiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, nicaeaiiua ath aeooiaiua aeaaa (oeaiiinoe) e o.ae.
e?iia oiai, iaee/ea aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe e aa i?iaeoeoia iaiaoiaeeii
ii?iaeaeaao iniaue ?iae iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee (ynoaoe/aneeo,
?aeeaeiciuo, i?aanoaaiiuo e o.ae.).

Iaeiaei aiaoiyy iioiaeanoue i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie
noi?ii aeecie /aeiaaea ia aeieaeia caoaiiyoue nouanoaothueo iaaeaeo ieie
i?eioeeieaeueiuo ?acee/ee. E i?eia?o, iaoe aeooiaiua iio?aaiinoe, a
ioee/ea io iaoa?eaeueiuo, ia caaeaiu aeieiae/anee, ia aeaiu (oioy au a
iniiaa naiae) /aeiaaeo io ?iaeaeaiey. Yoi aiana ia eeoaao eo
iauaeoeaiinoe, oieueei aeaiiay iauaeoeaiinoue ae?oaiai ?iaea – /enoi
nioeeaeueiay. Iio?aaiinoue eiaeeaeaea a inaiaiee ciaeiai-neiaiee/aneiai
ie?a eoeueoo?u iineo aeey iaai oa?aeoa? IAUAEOEAIIE iaiaoiaeeiinoe –
eia/a /aeiaaeii-oi ia noaiaoue. Oieueei aio “naia niaie”, anoanoaaiiui
ia?acii yoa iio?aaiinoue ia aicieeaao. Iia aeieaeia auoue noi?ie?iaaia e
?acaeoa nioeeaeueiui ie?oaeaieai eiaeeaeaea a aeeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna aai
ainieoaiey e ia?aciaaiey.

Noieo caiaoeoue i?e yoii, /oi aia/aea iauanoai i?yii oi?ie?oao o
/aeiaaea eeoue naiua yeaiaioa?iua aeooiaiua iio?aaiinoe, iaania/eaathuea
aai nioeeaeecaoeeth. Aeooiaiua aea iio?aaiinoe aieaa aunieiai ii?yaeea,
naycaiiua n inaiaieai eae iiaeii aieueoae /anoe aiaaonoa ie?iaie
eoeueoo?u e iniaaiii n o/anoeai a eo i?eoiiiaeaiee, iauanoai iiaeao
oi?ie?iaaoue eeoue einaaiii, /a?ac nenoaio aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae, ia
eioi?ua eiaeeaeae i?eaioe?oaony a naiai aeooiaiii naii?acaeoee.

Aua iaeia ethaiiuoiay iniaaiiinoue aeooiaiuo iio?aaiinoae – eo
i?eioeeieaeueii IAIA?AIE*AIIUE oa?aeoa?. “I?aaeaeia ?inoa” iio?aaiinoae
aeooa i?inoi iao. Anoanoaaiiuie aea ia?aie/eoaeyie oaeiai ?inoa
aunooiatho eeoue iauaiu oaea iaeiieaiiuo /aeiaa/anoaii aeooiaiuo
oeaiiinoae aea neea aeaeaiey eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea o/anoaiaaoue a nicaeaiee
yoeo oeaiiinoae.

*oi aea eanaaony naieo aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae, aie?oa eioi?uo
neeaaeuaathony ioiioaiey ethaeae a aeooiaiie noa?a, oi yoei oa?ieiii
iau/ii iaicia/atho nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iia cia/aiea ?acee/iuo aeooiaiuo
ia?aciaaiee (eaeae, ii?i, ia?acia, aeiai e o.ae.). I?e/ai, a oeaiiinoiuo
i?aaenoaaeaieyo ethaeae iai?aiaiii i?enoonoaoao iaeee
i?aaeienaoaeueii-ioeaii/iue yeaiaio.

A aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoyo (iao/iuo, ynoaoe/aneeo, ?aeeaeiciuo) au?aaeathony
iauanoaaiiay i?e?iaea naiiai /aeiaaea, a oaeaea oneiaey aai auoey. Yoi
naiaia?aciay oi?ia io?aaeaiey iauanoaaiiui niciaieai iauaeoeaiuo
oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iauanoaa. A iiiyoeyo i?ae?aniiai e aacia?aciiai,
aeia?a e cea, ni?aaaaeeeainoe, enoeiu e i?. /aeiaa/anoai au?aaeaao naia
ioiioaiea e iaee/iie ?aaeueiinoe e i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao ae iaeia
eaeaaeueiia ninoiyiea iauanoaa, eioi?ia aeieaeii auoue onoaiiaeaii.
Ethaie eaeaae anaaaea eae au “i?eiiaeiyo” iaae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth,
niaea?aeeo a naaa oeaeue, aeaeaiea, iaaeaaeaeo, a iauai ia/oi aeieaeiia,
a ia nouaa.

Yoi-oi e i?eaeaao aeieaeiiio aeae eaeaaeueiie nouiinoe, a?iaea au
niaa?oaiii ie io /aai iacaaeneiie. Ia iiaa?oiinoe eeoue aai
ioeaieaathuee e i?aaeienuaathuee oa?aeoa?. Caiiua aea enoiee, ei?ie yoeo
eaeaaeecaoeee, eae i?aaeei, ne?uou, iioa?yiu, eneaaeaiu. A oii au ia
auei aieueoie aaaeu, anee au anoanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann ?acaeoey
iauanoaa e aai eaeaaeueiia io?aaeaiea niaiaaeaee. Ii oae auaaao aeaeaei
ia anaaaea. Ia?aaeei eaeaaeueiua ii?iu, ?iaeaeaiiua iaeiie enoi?e/aneie
yiioie, i?ioeainoiyo aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ae?oaie yiioe, a eioi?ie eo
niune aacaica?aoii oo?a/ai. Yoi oeacuaaao ia ianooieaiea ninoiyiey
ino?iai aeooiaiiai i?ioeaiai?noaa, eaeaieiae/aneeo aeoa e aeooaaiuo
iio?ynaiee.

*aeiaa/anoai aeaaii oynieei, /oi a ethauo n?aaeaieyo naiay iaaeaaeiay
a?iey – I?IOANNEIIAEUeIAss. A aeoaao eaeaeiuo – neooaoeey oa aea.
Iniiaiua oi?iu nouanoaiaaiey aeooa (eaeae, oai?ee, ia?acu, ii?iu e
o.ae.) ni a?aiai aicieeiiaaiey ia?auo eeanniauo iauanoa au?aaaouaathony
i?ioanneiiaeaie. Oa?iei “aeooiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” – ia iaoaoi?a, a
aiieia ?aaeueiia yaeaiea.

Iiae AeOOIAIUI I?IECAIAeNOAII iau/ii iiieiatho au?aaioeo niciaiey a
iniaie iauanoaaiiie oi?ia, inouanoaeyaioth i?ioanneiiaeaie oinoaaiiiai
o?oaea. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai i?iecaiaenoaa yaeythony ii iaiueoae ia?a o?e
“i?iaeoeoa”:

· eaeae, oai?ee, ia?acu, aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe;

· aeooiaiua iauanoaaiiua nayce eiaeeaeaeia;

· nai /aeiaae, iineieueeo ii, e?iia i?i/aai, yaeyaony nouanoaii
aeooiaiui.

No?oeoo?ii aeooiaiia i?iecaiaenoai ?aniaaeaaony ia o?e iniiaiuo aeaea
inaiaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe: IAO*IIA, YNOAOE*ANEIA, ?AEEAEICIIA. Oaeay
eeanneoeeaoeey aai aeaeia ia niaiaaeaao n i?eiyoie a iaoae Oeeinioneie
o?aaeeoeee noaiie ec oanoe oi?i iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey (iieeoeea, i?aai,
ii?aeue, eneonnoai, iaoea, ?aeeaey).

Iieeoeea, i?aai e ii?aeue ia yaeythony “io?aneyie” aeooiaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii?aeue iioiio, /oi aa ia nicaeatho niaoeeaeenou,
eaeaieiae. Iu ia iaeaeai a enoi?ee ie iaeiie ii?aeueiie ii?iu,
ecia?aoaiiie e aiaae?aiiie a aeeciue i?ioanneiiaeii. Aeaaea caiiaaaee
O?enoa “ia oaee”, “ia oe?aaee” – yoi oeenaoeey i?eioeeiia, noeoeeii
au?aaioaiiuo ii?aeueiie i?aeoeeie /aeiaa/anoaa, a ia eaeiai-oi
niaoeeaeenoa.

Iieeoeea e i?aai ia aienuaathony a aeooiaiia i?iecaiaenoai iioiio, /oi
nicaeaaaaiua a ?acoeueoaoa iieeoe/aneie e i?aaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
iauanoaaiiua nayce eiaeeaeaeia ia yaeythony ii i?aeiouanoao aeooiaiuie.
Iie neeaaeuaathony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ii iiaiaeo ?aaeueiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, a ia iiiyoee i iae. Ainoaea?noai aea n aai
aiia?aoii, /eiiaieeaie, a?ieyie, noaeaie e oth?ueiaie -yaeaiea naiia /oi
ie ia anoue iaoa?eaeueiia. Iiyoiio iieeoe/aneea, ?aaii eae e i?aaiaua
ioiioaiey, a iniiaa naiae iaoa?eaeueiu, a ia aeooiaiu.

A /ai caeeth/aaony NIAOeEOEEA AeOOIAIIAI I?IECAIAeNOAA? 1. I?aaeaea
anaai a oii, /oi aai eiia/iui i?iaeoeoii yaeythony eaeaaeueiua
ia?aciaaiey, iaeaaeathuea oeaeui ?yaeii caia/aoaeueiuo naienoa. E,
iiaeaeoe, aeaaiia ec ieo – ANAIAUEE OA?AEOA? EO IIO?AAEAIEss. Iao oaeie
aeooiaiie oeaiiinoe, eioi?ay ia auea au a eaeaaea aeinoiyieai anao!
Oanoueth oeaaaie, i eioi?uo aiai?eony a Aaaiaaeee, ana-oaee iaeuecy
iaei?ieoue ouny/o /aeiaae, a oanoueth eaeayie eee oaaeaa?aie eneonnoaa –
iiaeii!

Iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa ia?aie/aiu. *ai aieueoa ethaeae ia ieo i?aoaiaeoao,
oai iaiueoa i?eoiaeeony ia aeieth eaaeaeiai. N aeooiaiuie aeaaaie ana
ianoieo eia/a: io iio?aaeaiey iie ia oauaatho e aeaaea, iaiai?io, /ai
aieueoa ethaeae iaeaaeaaatho aeooiaiuie oeaiiinoyie, oai aieueoa
aa?iyoiinoue eo i?e?auaiey.

2. Ciaiaieoay o?aca “O?oae anoue enoi/iee anyeiai aiaaonoaa” aa?ia e ii
ioiioaieth e aeooiaiiio o?oaeo, aeaaiie iniaaiiinoueth eioi?iai yaeyaony
ANAIAUEE OA?AEOA?, /oi icia/aao:

· aeaiiue o?oae inouanoaeyaony “a eiiia?aoeee” ia oieueei n
nia?aiaiieeaie, ii e ni anaie i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie, eiaaea-eeai
ia?auaaoeieny e oie eee eiie i?iaeaia;

· oneeey ioaeaeueiiai ?aaioieea oinoaaiiiai o?oaea a i?aaeaeueiii
neo/aa niiniaiu iaiaaoeoue, “iaeaaiaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue” ?acii ana
/aeiaa/anoai, o.a. yooaeoeaiinoue aai ia eaeao ie a eaeia n?aaiaiea n
yooaeoeaiinoueth (ii e?aeiae ia?a i?ioeie e iuiaoiae) o?oaea
iaoa?eaeueiiai.

Aeoiaaony, /oi eiaiii anaiauei oa?aeoa?ii aeooiaiiai o?oaea iauyniyaony
oi, /oi aai ?aaioieee a iauae ianna o/anoieeia iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa anaaaea ninoaaeyee iaiueoeinoai. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
iauanoai ia iiaeao naaa iicaieeoue niaea?aeaoue neeoeii iiiai eeoe, ia
i?iecaiaeyueo iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa, a n ae?oaie – o iauanoaa i?inoi iao
iio?aaiinoe a iiiai/eneaiiie a?iee oaeeo ethaeae: iaeei Yeiooaei iiaeao
ia iiiai eao “icaaea/eoue” ana oieaa?neoaou, a iaeei Oaenie? –
iaania/eoue ?aia?ooa? anao oaao?ia ie?a. Aaaeue i?iaeoeou aeooiaiiai
o?oaea ecia/aeueii iauanoaaiiu, ii i?e?iaea naiae ia i?aaeiacia/aiu
i?aeiouanoaaiii aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey.

Aio caeanue-oi, aa?iyoii, e aicieeaao iniiaiia i?ioeai?a/ea aeooiaiiai
o?oaea: anaiauee ii niaea?aeaieth ii inouanoaeyaony /anoiui, oi/iaa –
EIAeEAEAeOAEUeIUI ia?acii. Aeaaea a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo, i?e auni/aeoae
noaiaie ?acaeaeaiey aeooiaiiai o?oaea, ii ii nooe naiae inoaaony
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui, ia?niieoeoee?iaaiiui. Nianai ia neo/aai oio oaeo, /oi
Iiaaeaaneea i?aiee a iaoea eieeaeoeaai aaoi?ia ia i?enoaeaeathony.

3. Aua iaeia aaaeiaeoay iniaaiiinoue aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?eiaiyaiua a iai “n?aaenoaa o?oaea” (eaeae,
ia?acu, aeiaiu) a neeo eo eaeaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a i?eioeeieaeueii
IAAICIIAEII IOAeAEEOUe io iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaeeoaey
(eiioeneiaaoue, ia?aaeaoue e o.ae.). Iiyoiio iau/iua aeey
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa eieeecee, naycaiiua n io/oaeaeaieai
i?iecaiaeeoaey io n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, a aeooiaiie noa?a iaaiciiaeiu.

4. Iaaacuioa?anai e oio ioee/eoaeueiue oaeo, /oi aeooiaiay
aeayoaeueiinoue naia ii naaa iaeaaeaao ia?iiiie I?EOssAAOAEUeIIE NEEIE.
Ii/aio ooaeiaeieee, o/aiua, ienaoaee, ?aeeaeiciua aeayoaee iiaoo
oai?eoue, ia ia?auay aieiaiey ia i?eciaiea? Iaaa?iia, ia oieueei iioiio,
/oi iaea?aeeiu, a e iioiio, /oi nai i?ioeann oai?/anoaa aeinoaaeyao ei
noaeue neeueiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea, /oi ana inoaeueiia iaecaaaeii iooiaeeo
ia aoi?ie ieai.

Eia/a aiai?y, aeooiaiay aeayoaeueiinoue NAIIOeAIIA, iia iaeaaeaao
cia/eiinoueth ia?aaeei aacioiineoaeueii e ?acoeueoaoo. A iaoa?eaeueiii
i?iecaiaenoaa oaeia ii/oe ia ano?a/aaony. Iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai
?aaee naiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ieai ?aaee ieaia, – eiia/ii, iaeaiinoue
(i?aaaea, ia oae oae ?aaeei ano?a/aaoayny a niaaoneie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe). A aio eneonnoai aeey eneonnoaa – aiana ia oaeay
iaeaiinoue, eae yoi iiaeao iieacaoueny ia ia?aue acaeyae. ?acoiaaony,
ioiineoaeueiay naiiaeinoaoi/iinoue aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe aiana ia
io?eoeaao aa ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe.

Eneonnoai – aaaeiaeoee aee aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aaaeiaeoei aeaeii aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony ENEONNOAI.

Nouanoaoao IA?IAeIIA ENEONNOAI – ia?iaeiua ianie, oaioeu, iocuea e o.ae.
e I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIA ENEONNOAI – oai?aiey niaoeeaeenoia (ooaeiaeieeia,
iiyoia, iocueaioia) a iaeanoe ynoaoe/aneiai inaiaiey ie?a.

Ynoaoe/aneia ia yaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueiie i?a?iaaoeaie eneonnoaa. Iii
ninoaaeyao iaeio ec iaueo oa?aeoa?enoee naiiai nioeeaeueiiai auoey e eae
au “?aceeoi” ai anae nioeeaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe. Ynoaoe/aneei, o.a.
aucuaathuei o /aeiaaea niioaaonoaothuea /oanoaa, iiaeao auoue ana, /oi
oaiaeii: i?e?iaeiua eaiaeoaoou, ethaua i?aaeiaou iaoa?eaeueiie e
aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u, naie ethaee e anaaiciiaeiua i?iyaeaiey eo
aeoeaiinoe – o?oaeiaua, nii?oeaiua, ea?iaua e i?. Oi anoue ynoaoe/aneia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eae au iaeoth a?aiue i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea, eioi?ay ii?iaeaeaao o iaai niaoeeoe/aneia /oanoai e iunee.

Ynoaoe/aneea ia?aaeeaaiey, a neeo oieaa?naeueiinoe eaaeaueo a eo iniiaa
ioiioaiee, niiniaiu aicieeaoue a ethaii aeaea /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaeiaei a aieueoeinoaa ec ieo (o?oaea, iaoea, ea?a,
nii?oa) ynoaoe/aneay noi?iia yaeyaony iiae/eiaiiie, aoi?inoaiaiiie. E
oieueei a eneonnoaa ynoaoe/aneia ia/aei iineo naiiaeiaeathuee oa?aeoa?,
i?eia?aoaao iniiaiia e naiinoiyoaeueiia cia/aiea.

Eneonnoai eae “/enoay” ynoaoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue anoue ia/oi eiia,
eae iainiaeaoayny noi?iia i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. Eneonnoai
“au?anoaao” ec i?aeoeee a aeeeoaeueiii enoi?e/aneii i?ioeanna inaiaiey
ie?a /aeiaaeii. Eae niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue aeae aeayoaeueiinoe iii
iiyaeeinue eeoue a aioe/iinoe.

A aeieeanniaue aea ia?eiae enoi?ee oi, /oi iau/ii iacuaatho “ia?aiauoiui
eneonnoaii”, eneonnoaii a nianoaaiiii niunea yoiai neiaa ia yaeyeinue.
Ianeaeueiua ?enoiee, neoeueioo?iua oeao?ee, ?eooaeueiua oaioeu eiaee a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?aeeaeicii-iaae/aneia cia/aiea, a ioithaeue ia
ynoaoe/aneia. Yoi auee iiiuoee i?aeoe/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia ie? /a?ac
iaoa?eaeueiua ia?acu, neiaieu, ?aiaoeoeee niaianoiuo aeaenoaee e o.ae.

Eeoue a eeanniaii iauanoaa, n iiyaeaieai eeoe, inaiaiaeaeaiiuo io
oece/aneiai o?oaea, eneonnoai niiaei i?eia?anoe niaa?oaiii
naiinoiyoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, i?aa?aoeoueny a ?iae i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
caiyoee.

Eneonnoai, eae e ae?oaea aeaeu aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, nicaeaao naie,
iniaue, eaeaaeueiue ie?, eioi?ue eae au aeoaee?oao iauaeoeaii ?aaeueiue
ie? /aeiaaea. I?e/ai, ia?aue iaeaaeaao oaeie aea oeaeinoiinoueth, eae e
aoi?ie. Noeoee i?e?iaeu, iauanoaaiiua onoaiiaeaiey, aeooaaiua no?anoe,
eiaeea iuoeaiey – ana iiaeaa?aaaony ynoaoe/aneie ia?a?aaioea e ia?acoao
ia?aeeaeueiue ?aaeueiiio ie?o ie? ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai auiunea, eioi?ue
ii?ie auaaao oaaaeeoaeueiaa naiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

A /ai aea caeeth/aaony niune nicaeaiey ie?a eneonnoaa? Ca/ai ii ioaeai
/aeiaa/anoao? Ioaeaea a iai, iaaei i?eciaoue, aanueia iiiaiia?acia:

1. Eaeaaeueiue ie? eneonnoaa anoue naiaia?aciue eniuoaoaeueiue iieeaii
aeey iiiai/eneaiiuo /aeiaa/aneeo ono?aieaiee , aeaeaiee, no?anoae e
o.ae. Yenia?eiaioe?iaaoue n aeeauie ethaeueie ii?aeueii iaaeiionoeii, a
aio n ooaeiaeanoaaiiuie ia?acaie, neiaieaie – neieueei aeooa oaiaeii.
Oieueei ooaeiaeanoaaiiua n?aaenoaa iicaieytho aiaoiie?iaaoue ethaoth
aeeoaeneoth neooaoeeth, iinooiie, iioea aac oua?aa aeey /aeiaaea. Iiaeii
i?iea?uaaoue ethaua aa?eaiou /aeiaa/aneiai iiaaaeaiey, iaino?youe
eiioeeeou aei i?aaeaea, aeiaiaeeoue aei eiae/aneiai eiioea ana iuneeiua
iiaoaeaeaiey /aeiaaea. Eneonnoai, oaeei ia?acii, aunooiaao eino?oiaioii
naiiiiciaiey iauanoaa, a o./. e “ia i?aaeaea” aai aiciiaeiinoae, a
yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo.

2. Eaeaaeueiue ooaeiaeanoaaiiue ie? au?aaaouaaao nenoaio ynoaoe/aneeo
oeaiiinoae, yoaeiiia e?aniou, aucuaathueo o /aeiaaea no?aieaiea e
niaa?oainoao, iioeioio a ethaie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe.

3. Iaeaieaa aeoaieea e oaea/iua ooaeiaeanoaaiiua ia?acu au?anoatho aei
o?iaiy iaua/aeiaa/aneeo neiaieia, a eioi?uo aiieiuaia any aaiia
/aeiaa/aneeo oa?aeoa?ia, oaiia?aiaioia, niiniaia iiaaaeaiey. Aaieaou e
Aeii-Eeoiou, Ianoa?a e Ia?aa?eou, Iaaeiua anaaeieee e Anaaeieee aac
aieiau – ana yoi oi/iaeoea eeethno?aoeee e eieaa i /aeiaa/aneie
ineoieiaee, aa?iua i?eaioe?u a iaeaaeeaaiee acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo
ethaeueie. Eneonnoai, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aunooiaao e eae naiaai ?iaea
iaaeyaeiia n?aaenoai iao/aiey, iacaiaieiue niinia nioeeaeecaoeee
/aeiaaea.

4. Ynoaoe/aneee ie? yaeyaony iiaeeeiiie iaiyoueth /aeiaa/anoaa. A iai
aa?aaeii e iaaeaaeii a oa/aiea ouny/aeaoee nio?aiythony iaiiaoi?eiua
iniaaiiinoe naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo oeeaaeia aeecie.

Eiuie neiaaie, eneonnoai auiieiyao iiiaeanoai i?aeoe/anee iieaciuo
ooieoeee, ii aeaaiay ec ieo – YNOAOE*ANEAss. Nooue aa ninoieo a oii, /oi
eneonnoai i?ecaaii aeinoaaeyoue /aeiaaeo ynoaoe/aneia oaeiaeaoai?aiey e
ianeaaeaeaiea. Aaaeue a eiioea eiioeia iu oiaeei a eeii eee oaao? ia
caoai, /oiau ian oai o/eee aeecie eee aeaiiino?e?iaaee iio/eoaeueiua
i?eia?u aeey iiae?aaeaiey. Io i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa i?aaeaea anaai iu
oioei iieo/eoue oaeiaieuenoaea.

I?e/ai, ia i?inoi oaeiaieuenoaea, a oaeiaieuenoaea eiaiii ynoaoe/aneia.
Iii ioithaeue ia naiaeeony e aeaaii?eyoiiio ?aniieiaeaieth aeooa io
nica?oeaiey i?ae?aniiai. I?e?iaea ynoaoe/aneiai oaeiaieuenoaey
caeeth/aaony a aicaoaeaeaiiii, ?ano?aaiaeaiiii ninoiyiee aeooa,
eniuouaathuaai iaiie ainoi?a io aacoi?a/ii eniieiaiiie ?aaiou “ianoa?ia
eneonnoa”. E oae anee iu, aiiaeooaaeaiiua io nii?eeiniiaaiey n
iiaeeeiiui i?iecaaaeaieai eneonnoaa, ia?aiinei yoe yiioeee ia
iianaaeiaaiinoue, noa?aainy aeinoe/ue oioy au i?eaeeceoaeueii oaeiai aea
niaa?oainoaa a naiae iau/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, eneonnoai iiaeao n/eoaoue
naith aeaaioth caaea/o (ynoaoe/aneoth ooieoeeth) oniaoii auiieiaiiie.

Aanueia naiaia?aciue oa?aeoa? eiaao NIINIA ?ACAEOEss ENEONNOAA. Aaaeue
aai i?ia?anneaiay iai?aaeaiiinoue aeaeaei ia naiii/aaeaeia. I?yiia
iaeiaeaiea ethaie noaiu enoi?e/aneiai i?ia?anna ia enoi?eth eneonnoa
ii?iaeaeaao eeoue iaaeioiaiea: iaoaeaee nia?aiaiiay iocuea
“i?ia?anneaiaa” eeanne/aneie, aeeaiienue caoieea oioy au aeeaiienue
yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey, a eeoa?aoo?a i?aacioea aaieaa i?ioeiai noieaoey
(yiioe ia?acaeoiai eaieoaeecia)? Ethaiiuoii, /oi iiaeiaiua n?aaiaiey
ii/aio-oi anaaaea auaatho a iieueco ieioaoaai.

Ii, ?acoiaaony, naia iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu ynoaoe/aneiai i?ia?anna a oaeii
aeaea ia ai anai ei??aeoia. I?e?iaeo ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aaiey, iieiaeei,
ai ana a?aiaia iiaeii n/eoaoue iaeeiaeiaie. Ii YNOAOE*ANEAss C?AEINOUe
IAUANOAA – ?aciay. Iai?eia?, iauai?eciaiii eneonnoai aioe/iuo
neoeueioi?ia. Ia ainoeuaoueny niaa?oainoaii aioe/iie neoeueioo?u
naaiaeiy iaeuecy. Eia/a aan ni/ooo aeo?ii ainieoaiiui. Ii i?e anai
oaaaeaiee e aioe/iui oaaeaa?ai ieeoi ia niaoeo caiieiyoue eo eiieyie
iaoe ieiuaaee e eioa?uea?u. Yiioa – ia oa. E ynoaoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey
niioaaonoaaiii ae?oaea.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, naia aiciiaeiinoue iiyaeaiey eneonnoaa eae noa?u
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe naycaia n aicieeiiaaieai eeanniaie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iauanoaa. Naycue yoa nio?aiyaony e a aeaeueiaeoai,
iaeeaaeuaay ii?aaeaeaiiue ioia/aoie ia oiae ?acaeoey eneonnoaa. Iaeiaei
aa ia neaaeoao o?aeoiaaoue i?yiieeiaeii, eae iaee/ea ?aciuo oeiia
eneonnoaa: i?ieaoa?neiai e ao?aeoaciiai, iiiaue/ueaai e e?anoueyineiai e
o.i.

Oi/iaa neacaoue, eneonnoai anaaaea oyaioaao e aa?oiei, ainiiaenoaothuei
neiyi iauanoaa. Aoaeo/e caaeneii io ieo a iaoa?eaeueiii ieaia, iii
iaaieueii iano?aeaaaony ia aieio eioa?ania yeeou e ianeoaeeaaao aa
eioa?anu, auaeaaay eo ca anaiauea, iaua/aeiaa/aneea. E /oi eioa?anii – a
aeeeoaeueiie enoi?e/aneie ia?niaeoeaa yoa eeethcey iai?a/eaaaony
?aaeueiinoueth. Io eoi nae/an ana?ueac niio?eo ia a?a/aneea o?aaaaeee
eae ia i?eoioue ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa, a ia ethaiaiua ?iiaiu i?ioeiai
noieaoey eae ia n?aaenoai ioaea/aiey i?ieaoa?eaoa io eeanniaie ai?ueau?
A iauaeoeueoo?iia eo cia/aiea i/aaeaeii.

I?iaeaia EEANNIAINOE a eneonnoaa a eiia/iii n/aoa naiaeeony e
iaaeinooiiinoe aeey oe?ieeo ia?iaeiuo iann, ai-ia?auo, iio?aaeaiey, a,
ai-aoi?uo, i?iecaiaenoaa, nicaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiee aunieiai eneonnoaa. A
nia?aiaiiii ie?a i?iaeaia yoa (ii e?aeiae ia?a a ia?aie aa /anoe) a
iniiaiii ?aoaaony /enoi oaoie/anee: ?acaeoea n?aaenoa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee e eiiioieeaoeee, aeaeathueo oioy au iio?aaeaiea aeinoeaeaiee
eneonnoaa aeinooiiui i?aeoe/anee anai, auei au aeaeaiea.

Iaeiaei i?e yoii iiyaeyaony i?iaeaia “ioi?aaiiinoe” eneonnoaa io
ia?iaea. Aicieeaao aeinoaoi/ii ?aceia i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, eneonnoaa yeeoa?iiai, “aunieiai”, o?aaothuaai aeey naiaai
aini?eyoey iniaie ynoaoe/aneie iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe, a n ae?oaie, –
eneonnoaa ianniaiai, iauaaeinooiiiai, ynoaoe/anee iai?eoycaoaeueiiai.

Oniao?eaaoue a yoie iiaie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee /uee-oi eicie eee i?ienee
eeanniaiai a?aaa, eiia/ii, aanniuneaiii. Yoi i?inoi niinia inaiaiey
/aeiaa/anoaii iiaaoeee eoeueoo?u. A iaoae, aeiionoei, no?aia a i?ioeii
aaea i?inoay a?aiioiinoue auea oaea aieueoei aeinoeaeaieai ia oiia
iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa aaca?aiioiuo. Iui/a a?iaea au i?inoi –
a?aiioiuie noaee ana.

Aea aio aaaea: iiyaeeny iiaue oei a?aiioiinoe – eiiiuethoa?iie.
Naaiaeiy, iaaa?iia, niioiioaiea eiiiuethoa?ii a?aiioiuo e eiiiuethoa?ii
iaa?aiioiuo o ian i?eaeeceoaeueii oi aea, /oi e a i?ioeii aaea i?inoi
a?aiioiuo e iaa?aiioiuo. Ii anoue iaaeaaeaea, /oi enoi?e/aneee i?ia?ann
naeaeaao e a yoii neo/aa naia aeaei eni?aaii. E a eneonnoaa, i/aaeaeii,
neooaoeey noiaea.

Aoaeo/e iaeiei ec aeaeia inaiaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eneonnoai ia
iiaeao ia neaaeiaaoue iauaio ?oneo enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa.
Iaeiaei ec enoi?ee ecaanoii, /oi yiioe ?anoeaaoa iaoa?eaeueiie e
aeooiaiie eoeueoo? /anoi ia niaiaaeatho. I?e/eiie oiio yaeyaony ia
oieueei niaoeeoeea iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e
naiaia?aciue “i?eioeei nio?aiaiey” /aeiaa/aneie yia?aee: anee
aeoeaiinoue /aeiaaea a iaoa?eaeueiie noa?a eaeei-eeai ia?acii noaniaia,
ia?aie/aia, caoea a ooiee, oi iia iai?iecaieueii ia?aiauaaony,
ia?aeeaaaony a noa?o aeooa, aucuaay e aeecie iiaua iaoee, ooiiee,
eaeaieiaee e o.ae.

Eneonnoai oaeaea i?iyaeyao aieueooth aeoeaiinoue a i?aaee?eceniua.
ia?aeiiiua enoi?e/aneea yiioe, eiaaea iaiaaeathony, noaiiayony yaiuie eo
iniiaiua i?ioeai?a/ey, e niioaaonoaaiii ?acei aic?anoaao iieneiaay
aeoeaiinoue aeooa, i?aae/oanoaothuaai o?aaeci iaecaaaeiiai ?ac?aoaiey
yoeo i?ioeai?a/ee e iuoathuaainy iouneaoue eaeie-eeai i?eaieaiue auoiae.

Iaeiie ec naiuo iaaeyaeiuo eeethno?aoeee yoiio oaceno neoaeeo enoi?ey
eneonnoaa eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX aa., caoeene?iaaaoay ?iaeaeaiea oaeiai
naiaia?aciiai ynoaoe/aneiai yaeaiey, eae IIAeA?IECI. Ana aac eneeth/aiey
aeaeu e aeai?u eneonnoaa eniuoaee ia naaa neeueiaeoaa aeeyiea noeey
“iiaea?i”, ca ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee aoeaaeueii nie?ooeaoaai aaeiaua
ynoaoe/aneea noa?aioeiu. Aiaeece?oy yoi oaeeaeoaeueiia yaeaiea,
eniaineee oeeinio Oina I?oaaa-e-Aannao oniio?ae aai nooue a
“AeAAOIAIECAOeEE ENEONNOAA”. N iei o?oaeii ia niaeaneoueny.

Oiae ?annoaeaeaiee oeeinioa i?eaeeceoaeueii oaeia. Aieioue aei eiioea
XIX noieaoey ynoaoe/aneia oaeiaieuenoaea aieueoeinoai ethaeae iieo/aei
io nicaeaaaaiie i?iecaaaeaieyie eneonnoaa eeethcee aeeciaiiinoe,
aeinoiaa?iinoe aini?iecaiaeeiuo ?aaeee. A iueanao e ?iiaiao i?eaeaeaee
ia?eiaoee /aeiaa/aneeo noaeaa, a aeeaiiene – ociaaaaiinoue neooaoeee,
oa?aeoa?ia. Iaecaaee aini?eieiaeenue eae /oaeiua ianoa aeey nianoaaiiuo
i?iaoeie, a thaaee?iua eee ae?oaea ooaeiaeanoaaiiua ecaeaeey – eeoue eae
aaue, eioi?uie iaieioi au iiiieueciaaoueny naiei (oioy au e a
aiia?aaeaiee).

Iaeiaei ?aaeeci a eneonnoaa eeoue io/anoe yaeyaony nianoaaiii
eneonnoaii, aaaeue aeey iaai ia ioaeia iniaay ooaeiaeanoaaiiay
aini?eei/eainoue. Io /ai, e i?eia?o, ioee/aaony ethaay aeeoaeneay
enoi?ey, ?anneacaiiay iai neo/aeiui iiioo/eeii a aaaiia iiacaea, io
ouny/e aiaeiae/iuo enoi?ee, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia noeaia eee ye?aia?
?aaeiaaoueny eee niia?aaeeaaoue aa?iyi yoeo enoi?ee – aiana ia cia/eo
iieo/aoue ynoaoe/aneia ianeaaeaeaiea. Yoi anaai eeoue iaoaie/aneee
ioeeee.

“Iiaia eneonnoai” (XX a.) no?aieony e oiio, /oiau aai i?iecaaaeaiey auee
eeoue i?iecaaaeaieyie eneonnoaa e ie/ai aieueoa. Iii i?eioeeieaeueii
ecaaaaao “aeeaie ?aaeueiinoe”, “aeeauo oi?i”, i?aia?e?oy eo n
oeaaeiie?iaeai iaoaeiaiaiaoiia e aunoaaeyy ia naao aiaeee iai?eau/iua
iau/iiio aini?eyoeth aaue. Nicaeaoue ia/oi oaeia, /oi ia eiie?iaaei au
iaoo?u, ii iaeaaeaei au i?e yoii ii?aaeaeaiiui niaea?aeaieai, –
i?aaeiieaaaao aea? aieaa aunieee, eioi?ue oieueei e caneoaeeaaao
iacaaiey ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaecia noeey “iiaea?i” caeeth/aeanue a aeenoaioee?iaaiee
io ?aaeueiinoe, a ecaiaiee ec eneonnoaa iaiin?aaenoaaiiinoe /oanoa,
o.a. anaai aeeaiai, /aeiaa/aneiai, aoiaiece?iaaiiiai. Eneonnoai noaei
“AAC*AEIAA*IUI”, aeaaoiaiece?iaaiiui, ioaea/aiiui, oieiaeiui e
e?iie/iui.

AeAAOIAIECAOeEss ENEONNOAA eae iniiaa aai ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?eaiia
i?eianea iaiaei ynoaoe/aneeo ioe?uoee e i?eia?aoaiee, ?aaii eae e
iioa?ue. Eneonnoai aeaaoiaiece?iaaeinue iioiio, /oi oa aea oaiaeaioeey
iaae?aea neeo e a ae?oaeo noa?ao iauanoaaiiie aeecie, ?acaa?ioaoenue e
na?aaeeia noieaoey ai anae naiae iieiioa. AeAAOIAIECAOeEss ANAE
IAUANOAAIIIE AEECIE – iaeia ec ioee/eoaeueiuo /a?o enoi?ee iaoaai
noieaoey. Eneonnoai oaeaeaei yoo oaiaeaioeeth ia?aui, ?aiueoa ae?oaeo
oi?i aeooa – iaoee, ?aeeaee, ii?aee. Iii aea noaei e iaeiie ec ia?auo aa
aea?oa.

Aeaaoiaiecaoeey iauanoaa aiiaua e oioaeeoa?eci iieeoe/aneie aeecie a
/anoiinoe ii?iaeeee a na?aaeeia iaoaai aaea niaa?oaiii oieeaeueiia
yaeaiea – OIOAEEOA?IIA ENEONNOAI. Oieeaeueiinoue aai caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi naia i?aaeiacia/aiea eae oioaeeoa?iiai eneonnoaa ia ?iaeaeaao naii,
eiaeeie naiaai naii?acaeoey, a iieo/aao ecaia – ec iieeoe/aneie noa?u. A
yoii neo/aa eneonnoai oa?yao naith ynoaoe/aneoth i?e?iaeo, noaiiaeony
n?aaenoaii inouanoaeaiey /oaeaeuo aio iieeoe/aneeo oeaeae, eino?oiaioii
a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa.

Oai, aaea aicieeaao iiaeiaiue neiaeic iieeoeee e eneonnoaa, iaecaaaeii
?iaeaeaaony iaeee aaeeiue noeeue, eioi?ue iiaeii iacaaoue oioaeueiui
?aaeeciii. Aai iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ciaeiiu iai: “eneonnoai io?aaeaao
aeeciue”, “eneonnoai i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?iaeo” e i?. Naie ii naaa, a
iiiaiia?aciii naiaea ynoaoe/aneeo eaiiiia yoe i?eioeeiu, eiia/ii,
iaieioe. Ii iiae/eiaiiua /oaeaeui ynoaoeea iieeoe/aneei oeaeyi iie
caeiiiia?ii i?aa?auathony a yae aeey eneonnoaa.

Nia?aiaiiia ?inneeneia eneonnoai iioeoiiueeo auae?aaony ec naiae
oioaeeoa?iie iaiei/ee. E niaeaeaieth, iii iiiaaeaao “ec iaiy aea a
iieuiy”, /aio aeiie e?eceniia ninoiyiea iaoaai iauanoaa e no?aieaiea
iieeoe/aneeo nee eniieueciaaoue eneonnoai a naieo oeaeyo. Eneonnoai
aeoeaece?oaony a i?aaee?eceniua yiioe. A eeoea aea aiaea naieo e?ecenia
e nioeeaeueiuo eaoano?io aio ieioi. Aei iaai i?inoi ieeiio iao aeaea.
Iauanoai caiyoi nianaieai iaoa?eaeueiuo iniia naiaai nouanoaiaaiey. Ii
eneonnoai iai?aiaiii auaeeaao: neeoeii aaeeea e ioaaonoaaiia aai
nioeeaeueiay ?ieue. E inoaaony oieueei iaaeayoueny, /oi iineaaeothuaa
aai ?acaeoea aoaeao anoanoaaiii e i?aaie/ii. Oieueei i?e yoii oneiaee o
iaai nio?aieony aoaeouaa.

Ii?aeue eae ?aaoeyoi? nioeeaeueiiai iiaaeaiey.

*AEIAAE – NOUANOAI IAUANOAAIIIA. Iioiio, ai-ia?auo, /oi iai?aiaiiui
oneiaeai “aeiionea” a aeeciue iauanoaa yaeyaony i?ioeann nioeeaeecaoeee
eiaeeaeaea, o.a. inaiaiey ei niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneiai ia?aca aeecie,
iniiaiuo oeaiiinoae iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u. A ai-aoi?uo,
iioiio, /oi nia?aiaiiia eiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai iie?aaony ia
oe?i/aeoaa ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea (iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai),
ii?iaeaeathuaai oaniaeooth acaeiicaaeneiinoue ethaeae. Aaaeue naiia
iau/iia, ii?iaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea eaaeaeiai ec ian ieacuaaaony
caaeneiui io oiai, eae nioie e ouny/e niaa?oaiii iaciaeiiuo iai ethaeae
(i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiaa?ia, eo i?iaeaaoeia, o?ainii?oieeia, o/eoaeae,
a?a/ae, aiaiiuo e o.ae.) auiieiytho naith iau/ioth, ?ooeiioth ?aaioo.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi nai niinia /aeiaa/aneiai
nouanoaiaaiey iaiaoiaeeii ii?iaeaeaao iio?aaiinoue ethaeae ae?oa a
ae?oaa. Aicieeathuay a yoii neo/aa iauanoaaiiay naycue eiaeeaeaeia
iaaieueii caeeth/aao a naaa eo ai?ei?iia (aeiiiuoiia) aeiaa?ea,
aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiinoue, ni/oanoaea ae?oa ae?oao – aaaeue aac yoiai
ecia/aeueiiai aeiaa?ey e iaciaeiiui ethaeyi (a?a/ai, iiaa?ai, oioa?ai,
i?aaeoaeyi e o.ae.) ieeaeay iauanoaaiiay aeeciue iaaiciiaeia. Aio yoa-oi
iauanoaaiiay naycue e acaeiicaaeneiinoue ethaeae, aicieeathuay ec
i?inoiai oaeoa eo niaianoiie aeecie, e yaeythony iauaeoeaiie iniiaie
ii?aee – aaaeouaai aeooiaiiai ?aaoeyoi?a aeecie iauanoaa.

Iiae II?AEUeTH iau/ii iiieiatho iaeoth nenoaio ii?i, i?aaee, ioeaiie,
?aaoee?othueo iauaiea e iiaaaeaiea ethaeae a oeaeyo aeinoeaeaiey
aaeeinoaa iauanoaaiiuo e ee/iuo eioa?ania. A ii?aeueiii niciaiee
au?aaeai iaeee noa?aioei, oaaeii, aeai?eoi iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea,
i?eciaaaaiue iauanoaii eae iioeiaeueiue ia aeaiiue enoi?e/aneee iiiaio.
Nouanoaiaaiea ii?aee iiaeii eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue eae i?eciaiea iauanoaii
i?inoiai oaeoa, /oi aeeciue e eioa?anu ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea
aa?aioe?iaaiu oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee iaania/aii i?i/iia aaeeinoai
iauanoaa a oeaeii.

?acoiaaony, niaa?oay ii?aeueiue eee aii?aeueiue iinooiie, eiaeeaeae
?aaeei caaeoiuaaaony ia “iauanoaa a oeaeii”. Ii a ii?aeueiuo
onoaiiaeaieyo eae aioiauo oaaeiiao iiaaaeaiey iauanoaaiiua eioa?anu oaea
i?aaeoniio?aiu. Eiia/ii, ia neaaeoao aeoiaoue, /oi yoe eioa?anu eai-oi
niciaoaeueii i?in/eouaathony e caoai ioi?ieythony a ii?aeueiua eiaeaenu.
Ii?iu e i?aaeea ii?aee oi?ie?othony anoanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneei iooai, ii
aieueoae /anoe noeoeeii. Iie aicieeatho ec iiiaieaoiae ianniaie
aeeoaeneie i?aeoeee iiaaaeaiey ethaeae.

Ii?aeueiua o?aaiaaiey e eiaeeaeaeo a i?aanoaaiiii niciaiee i?eieiatho
naiua ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu: yoi iiaoo auoue i?yiua ii?iu iiaaaeaiey (“ia
eae”, “ii/eoae noa?oeo” e o.ae.), ?acee/iua ii?aeueiua oeaiiinoe
(ni?aaaaeeeainoue, aoiaieci, /anoiinoue, ne?iiiinoue e o.ae.),
oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee, a oaeaea ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneea iaoaieciu
naiieiio?iey ee/iinoe (aeiea, niaanoue). Ana yoi yeaiaiou no?oeoo?u
i?aanoaaiiiai niciaiey, iaeaaeathuaai oeaeui ?yaeii iniaaiiinoae. N?aaee
ieo noieo ioiaoeoue: anaiauaiethuee oa?aeoa? ii?aee, aa
aiaeinoeoooeeiiaeueiinoue, eiia?aoeaiinoue.

ANAIAUAIETHUEE OA?AEOA? II?AEE icia/aao, /oi ii?aeueiua o?aaiaaiey e
ioeaiee i?iieeatho ai ana noa?u /aeiaa/aneie aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe.
Ethaay iieeoe/aneay aeaeea?aoeey ia oionoeo neo/ay aiaeee?iaaoue e
i?aanoaaiiui oeaiiinoyi, ethaia i?iecaaaeaiea ecyuiie neiaaniinoe
iaycaoaeueii niaea?aeeo a naaa ii?aeueioth ioeaieo, ieeaeay ?aeeaeiciay
nenoaia ia iaeaeao iineaaeiaaoaeae, anee ia aeeth/aao a naay aeinoaoi/ii
no?iaoth ii?aeue, e o.ae. Ethaay aeeoaeneay neooaoeey eiaao naie
“ii?aeueiue n?ac”, eioi?ue iicaieyao i?iaa?eoue aeaenoaey o/anoieeia ia
“/aeiaa/iinoue”.

AIAEINOEOOOeEIIAEUeIINOUe ii?aee icia/aao, /oi a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo
i?iyaeaiee aeooiaiie aeecie iauanoaa (iaoea, eneonnoai, ?aeeaey) iia ia
yaeyaony noa?ie i?aaieciaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. I?iua aiai?y, iao
a iauanoaa oaeeo o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua iaania/eaaee au
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea ii?aee. A ?acaeoea ii?aee aeaaea n?aaenoa
aeiaeeoue iaeuecy – iaeoaea aeeaaeuaaoue. Ii?aeue anaiauaiethua e a oi
aea a?aiy iaoeiaeia!

O?aouey iniaaiiinoue ii?aee – EIIA?AOEAIINOUe – ninoieo a oii, /oi
aieueoeinoai ii?aeueiuo o?aaiaaiee aiaeee?oao ia e aiaoiae
oeaeaniia?aciinoe (iinooiae oae-oi e aeiaueaoueny oniaoa eee n/anouey),
a e ii?aeueiiio aeieao (iinooiae oae-oi, iioiio /oi yoiai o?aaoao oaie
aeiea), o.a. iineo oi?io eiia?aoeaa, i?yiiai e aaconeiaiiai iiaaeaiey.
I?e/ai, aeia?i neaaeoao oai?eoue ia ?aaee ioaaoiie aeaaiaea?iinoe, a
?aaee naiiai aeia?a eae oaeiaiai. A yoii i?ecuaa, aeoiaaony, anoue
aiieia ?aoeeiiaeueiue niune – aaaeue iauee aaeain oai?eiiai aeia?a e
aicaeayiee ca iaai naiaeeony oieueei ia o?iaia iauanoaa. Iaeeaeaoue aea
ioaaoiie aeaaiaea?iinoe ca naie aeia?ua aeaea a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii
neo/aa, i?aai, ia noieo.

N?aaee iiiaeanoaa auiieiyaiuo ii?aeueth OOIEOeEE iniiaiuie i?eiyoi
n/eoaoue: ?aaoeyoeaioth, ioeaii/ii-eiia?aoeaioth, iiciaaaoaeueioth.

AEAAIAss OOIEOeEss II?AEE, eiia/ii, ?AAOEssOEAIAss. Ii?aeue aunooiaao
i?aaeaea anaai eae niinia ?aaoee?iaaiey iiaaaeaiey ethaeae a iauanoaa e
naii?aaoee?iaaiey iiaaaeaiey eiaeeaeaea, eiathuaai aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaeii/anoue iaeei iinooiie ae?oaiio.

Ii?aeueiue niinia ?aaoeyoeee, a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo (i?aaiauo,
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo e i?.), oieeaeai. Ai-ia?auo, iioiio, /oi ia
ioaeaeaaony ie a eaeeo o/?aaeaeaieyo, ea?aoaeueiuo i?aaiao e o.ae.
Ai-aoi?uo, iioiio, /oi ii?aeueiia ?aaoee?iaaiea i?aaeiieaaaao onaiaiea
eiaeeaeaeaie niioaaonoaothueo ii?i e i?eioeeiia iiaaaeaiey a iauanoaa.
Eia/a aiai?y, aeaenoaaiiinoue ii?aeueiuo o?aaiaaiee ii?aaeaeyaony
aioo?aiiei oaaaeaeaieai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea. Oaeie ?aaoeyoi?
iiaaaeaiey, aaconeiaii, yaeyaony naiui iaaeaaeiui ec anao aiciiaeiuo.
I?iaeaia oieueei a oii, eae aai noi?ie?iaaoue. Yoi iiea iaei eiio
oaeaaaeinue.

Nouiinoue ii?aee ia iaiaa ynii i?iyaeyaony e a ae?oaie aa ooieoeee –
IOeAII*II-EIIA?AOEAIIE. Iia i?aaeoniao?eaaao ?acaeaeaiea anao
nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee ia “aeia?i” e “cei”. Nianoaaiii, n iiiiuueth yoeo
iniiaiiieaaathueo eaoaai?ee ii?aee e aeaaony ioeaiea ethaiio i?iyaeaieth
iauanoaaiiie aeecie e niioaaonoaaiii ioi?ieyaony iiaaeaiea (eiia?aoea)
eiaeeaeaeo: iinooiae oaeei-oi eiie?aoiui ia?acii, eai yoi aeia?i, e,
iaiai?io, aicaea?aeeaaeny io oaeeo-oi iinooieia, iioiio /oi yoi cei.

IICIAAAOAEUeIAss ooieoeey ii?aee a ecaanoiie noaiaie i?iecaiaeia io
ioeaii/iie. Ii?aeueiia iaeia?aiea eee aiciouaiea eaeei-eeai noeeai
iiaaaeaiey /anoi anoue naiue aa?iue iieacaoaeue oiai, /oi oa eee eiay
oi?ia aeecie onoa?aea, oo?aoeea naia enoi?e/aneia ii?aaaeaiea, eee,
iaiai?io, ciaiaioao niaie oioy e iai?eau/iue, ii aiieia ia?niaeoeaiue,
iiaue oeeaae aeecie. Ninoiyiea i?aaia a eaaeaeoth eiie?aoioth yiioo
anoue naiiaeeaaiinoeea iauanoaa, o.a. aai naiiiiciaiea, au?aaeaiiia
ycueii ii?aeueiuo ioeaiie, o?aaiaaiee e eaeaaeia.

Niaieoiiinoue iacaaiiuo e ae?oaeo (ainieoaoaeueiie, i?eaioe?othuae,
i?iaiinoe/aneie, eiiioieeaoeaiie e o.ae.) ooieoeee ii?aaeaeyao
NIOeEAEUeIOTH ?IEUe II?AEE.

Anyeay ii?aeue nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/anee iaoneiaeaia. A? eiie?aoiue iaeee
a oo eee eioth yiioo ii?aaeaeyaony iiiaeie oaeoi?aie: oeiii
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oa?aeoa?ii nioeeaeueiiai ?anneiaiey,
ninoiyieai ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie ?aaoeyoeee, oneiaee iauaiey,
n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee, nenoaiie i?eiyouo iauanoaii oeaiiinoae. e o.ae.
Eiuie neiaaie, ea/anoaaiii ?aciiia?aciua oeiu iauanoaa aucuaatho
iiyaeaiea ?acee/iuo oeiia ii?aeueiuo nenoai, a o./. ?aeeaeiciuo.

Ec anao ?aeeaeiciuo ii?aeueiuo nenoai eo/oa ae?oaeo iai ecaanoia,
iiaeaeoe, O?ENOEAINEAss. Iia i?aaeeiaeeea i?eioeeieaeueii iiaoth oeaeo
/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae, ?aoeoaeueii inoaeeea iau/ioth aeey eiioea
i?ioeie y?u aeanoieinoue, ianeeea, oaiaoaiea e aicaaee/eea
“no?aaeaeoueo”, iaeioueo, oaiaoaiiuo. Eiaiii o?enoeainoai oeaio?
oyaeanoe a ii?aeueiie ?aaoeyoeee oaeoe/anee ia?aianei n aiaoieo,
i?eioaeeoaeueiuo aa oi?i ia aioo?aiiea, iiae/eiythueany aaeaieyi
niaanoe. Oai naiui iii i?eciaei ecaanoioth i?aanoaaiioth aaoiiiieth e
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ee/iinoe.

?aeeaeiciia ia?aieaiea ii?aee eae aa iniiaiie i?eciae oa?aeoa?ii a
iniiaiii aeey yiioe n?aaeiaaaeiauey, oaiaeaeecia. Ii?aeue ao?aeoaciie
yiioe – nianai eiay. Aa ioee/atho ?acei au?aaeaiiay
eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneay iai?aaeaiiinoue i?aaia, eo a iaiaeie noaiaie
yaienoe/aneee oa?aeoa? (yaieci, a ioee/ea io eiaeeaeaeoaeecia, anoue
no?aieaiea /aeiaaea ia i?inoi naiinoiyoaeueii ?aaeeciaaoue naay, a
naeaeaoue yoi iai?aiaiii ca n/ao ae?oaiai). Niuneiaui aea noa?aeiai
ii?aeueiuo nenoai ao?aeoaciie yiioe neaaeoao i?eciaoue iaaycaiiue aua
oeeinioeae I?inaauaiey eoeueo ?acoia, niaeanii eioi?iio oieueei ?acoi
niiniaai i?aiaeieaoue aia?oeth cea, neiaaoue aai naiae aeoeaiinoueth,
niaaeeieoue oaioe/iua ono?aieaiey ethaeae a iaeia aa?iiie/iia oeaeia.

XX aae noae naeaeaoaeai iiiuoie nicaeaiey aua iaeiiai oeia ii?aee –
NIOeEAEENOE*ANEIE. Caiunae aai nicaeaoaeae a iauai-oi oniaoii aienuaaeny
a oai?eth ii?aee: anee i?aau ethaeae a eiia/iii n/aoa ii?aaeaeythony
iaoa?eaeueiuie oneiaeyie eo aeecie, oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, /oiau
ii?iaeeoue iiaoth ii?aeue, ioaeii i?aaeaea anaai eciaieoue yoe oneiaey.
*oi e auei naeaeaii (ia?aiia/aeueii a ?innee), i?e/ai naiui
?aaeeeaeueiui ia?acii.

Auee ?aoeoaeueii ia?aniio?aiu ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe, i?iecaiaenoaa a
oeaeii, iieeoeee, i?aaa e o.ae. Eciaieeenue e i?aau, eae a neeo
“anoanoaaiiiai oiaea aauae”, oae e iiae aicaeaenoaeai ianne?iaaiiiai
“i?aanoaaiiiai” eee “eiiioienoe/aneiai ainieoaiey”. Oeaiiinoe
eieeaeoeaecia, eioa?iaoeeiiaeecia, eaeaieiaey anaiauaai ?aaainoaa noaee
ia naiii aeaea aioo?aiieie oaaaeaeaieyie iiiaeanoaa ethaeae, ?aaeueiuie
?aaoeyoi?aie eo iiaaaeaiey.

Iaeiaei ianiio?y ia eieinnaeueiua oneeey ia?iiiiai ainoaea?-noaaiiiai e
eaeaieiae/aneiai aiia?aoa, ?aaeueiay i?aanoaaiiinoue oae e ia niiaea
aeioyiooueny aei o?iaiy “ioeoeeaeueiie ii?aee”, nenoaiu ii?i,
caoeene?iaaiiie oioy au a ecaanoiii “Ii?aeueiii eiaeaena no?ieoaey
eiiioiecia”.

Aeey oiai, /oiau ?acia?aoueny a nooe yoiai naiaia?aciiai oaiiiaia,
iaiaoiaeeii iiynieoue nai iaoaieci, niinia naii?acaeoey ii?aee. Eae aea
?acaeaaaony ii?aeue?

Ethaua eciaiaiey a iaoa?eaeueiuo ioiioaieyo ii?iaeaeatho iiaoth
iai?aaeaiiinoue eioa?ania ethaeae. Nouanoaothuea ii?aeueiua ii?iu
ia?anoatho niioaaonoaiaaoue eo iiaui eioa?anai e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iioeiaeueii ?aaoee?iaaoue iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey. Eo auiieiaiea oaea ia
aeaao aeaeaaiiai ?acoeueoaoa.

Ia?anoaiea ianiioaaonoaey iaaeaeo ianniaie ii?aeueiie i?aeoeeie e
ioeoeeaeueii cae?aieaiiuie ii?iaie anaaaea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
IAAEAAIIIEO*EE a iauanoaaiiie aeecie. I?e/ai, iaaeaaiiieo/ea yoi iiaeao
auoue neaiaeii iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeaiyeiai ?iaea ia?aiai:

a) eeai iauai?eiyoua ii?aeueiua ii?iu onoa?aee e o?aaotho caiaiu;

a) eeai ?acaeoea iaoa?eaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, io?aaeaaiuo a
ii?aeueiuo ii?iao, iioei nianai ia a oo noi?iio, a eaeoth iaeeaeaeinue,
e ii?yaeie iaaei iaaiaeeoue eiaiii a yoie noa?a.

Oaeay neooaoeey neiaeeeanue a iaoai iauanoaa a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey.
Aeoaieee e?ecen a yeiiiieea, ia ?aaioathuee oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci,
aanneeea ?oeiaiaenoaa eciaieoue iieiaeaiea oi?ie?iaaee i?aeoeeo
iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ay i?ioeai?a/eea ioeoeeaeueii i?iaicaeaoaiiui
ii?aeueiui o?aaiaaieyi. Ciaiaieoay ai a?aiaia nioeeaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieee oi?ioea “ieai – caeii aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey”
aeaenoaiaaea a aanueia naiaia?aciuo oneiaeyo.

Ecaanoii, /oi iiiaea io?anee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa no?aiu, iniaaiii oa,
/oi auioneaee oiaa?u ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey, ieeiaaea ia iieo/aee
oiiaee?oaiuo iaoa?eaeia iiae noii?ioeaioiia auiieiaiea ieaia. E yoi ia
iiaei ia oieeaoue oicyenoaaiiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ia ?aciiai ?iaea
ceioiio?aaeaiey ai eiy auiieiaiey onoaiiaeaiiuo nauoa caaeaiee, i?e/ai,
aeaaea aac anyeie ee/iie ei?unoe, a eeoue a eioa?anao i?aaei?eyoey.

Oae oaea ia noaaeee ieaie?iaaiey a oicyenoaaiiua ioiioaiey
caeeaaeuaaeenue caaaaeiiue iaiai, ianiioaaonoaea neiaa e aeaea. A /aai
noieea i?aeoeea ninoaaeaiey oaeoe/anee aeaoo ?aciuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
athaeaeaoia – aeaaiiieo/iiai aeey anaiauaai iaic?aiey e aeaoeoeeoiiai
aeey oceiai e?oaa iinayuaiiuo!

A eiia/iii n/aoa ii?aeueiue e?ecen iaoaai iauanoaa aue eeoue neiioiiii
e?ecena aieaa aeoaieiai – a yeiiiie/aneeo iniiaao iaoaai
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai auoey. Eo i/a?aaeiie ?aaeeeaeueiue iiai?io e noa?iio,
iniiaiiio ?oneo ?acaeoey aa?iiaeneie oeeaeeecaoeee cao?iiao eiia/ii, e
ii?aeue. Icaei?iaeo ee ii aa? A ia?niaeoeaa -aaconeiaii aea, a
aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai – a?yae ee. Aaaeue iiaua yeiiiie/aneea, iieeoe/aneea
e i?. ?aaeueiinoe ia?aai?a/eaatho nenoaio oeaiiinoae, neiaeeaoothny a
oa/aiea aeecie iiiaeo iieieaiee ethaeae.

A iiauo oneiaeyo /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ieacuaaaony ia iaiaa nayuaiiie,
/ai iauanoaaiiay; caeeaeiaiiay i?anooiiie niaeoeyoeey /anoi
iai?a/eaaaony /anoiui aecianii, a “?iaeiie” eieeaeoea a?inaao /aeiaaea
ia i?iecaie noaeueau, niaaooy iie?aoueny ia nianoaaiiua neeu e ia
caieiaoueny eaeaeeaai/anoaii.

Noieue “e?ooay” niaia oeaiiinoiuo onoaiiaie e i?eaioe?ia ia iiaeao
i?ieoe aeey ii?aee aacaieaciaiii. Yoi iaiiieiaao oe?o?ae/aneoth
iia?aoeeth aac aianoacee: aieueii, eiia/ii, ii iioa?ieoa, aiciiaeii
ninoiyiea oeo/oeony.

Iiea aea e?ecen ii?aee i?iaeieaeaao oaeoaeyoueny. Iaaeaaeaeo ia aai
i?aiaeieaiea iiaeii aeaeaoue, ii e?aeiae ia?a, a neaaeothuai:

ai-ia?auo, a i?inouo iaua/aeiaa/aneeo ii?iao i?aanoaaiiinoe (oeia “ia
oaee”, “ia oe?aaee”, “/oe iooea naiaai” e i?.), eioi?uo ana-oaee
aieueoeinoai ii?iaeueiuo ethaeae i?eaea?aeeaaaony ianiio?y ie ia /oi;

ai-aoi?uo, a iaoaiecia NAII?AAOEssOeEE ii?aee, eioi?ay ii naiie nooe
naiae i?aaeiacia/aia aeey niaethaeaiey iauaai, ?iaeiaiai eioa?ana a
oaina eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo no?anoae e ii?ieia. ?aaeueiay oa?ica yoiio
iauaio eioa?ano iiaeao noaaeeeciaaoue i?aau, inoaiiaeoue eo
aeaa?aaeaoeeth. Ii?aeueiue einoeieo ?aaeei iiaeaiaeeo /aeiaa/anoai.

Iaiiiiei aua ?ac, /oi ieeaeay ii?aeue ii naiie i?e?iaea yoiai
iauanoaaiiiai oaiiiaia ia iiaeao auoue aiaae?aia, iaaycaia “naa?oo”, n
auniou oai?aoe/aneiai o?iaiy (eae yoi aiciiaeii, iai?eia?, a iaoea). Iia
aeieaeia au?anoe “nieco”, neiaeeoueny e ioi?ieoueny ia yiie?e/aneii
o?iaia, eioi?ue oai?aoe/aneay ii?aeue iiaeao eeoue ei??aeoe?iaaoue,
neoaeeoue aio ia?acoeii, eaeaaeii.

?aaeueiie aea iniiaie oeo/oaiey i?aaia, o.a. i?aeoe/anee
neeaaeuaathueony i?aanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee e yiie?e/aneiai ii?aeueiiai
niciaiey, iiaeao auoue oieueei iaaaaeaiea II?ssAeEA a iaoa?eaeueiie e
ae?oaeo noa?ao aeecie iaoaai iauanoaa.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aa?oeei A. N. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey. I., 1993. *. 1. Ae. VI.

2. Aaaa? I. I?ioanoaioneay yoeea e aeoo eaieoaeecia // Aaaa? I.
Eca?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey. I., 1990.

3. Aieiiooie E. I. Oioaeeoa?iia eneonnoai a iieneao o?aaeeoeee //
*aeiaae. – 1991, I., 1990

4. Aonaeiia A., E??eeooe A. E?aoeay enoi?ey yoeee. I., 1980.

5. Aeooiaiia i?iecaiaenoai. I., 1981.

6. Eeueei E. A. Iooue aeooiaiiai iaiiaeaiey. Ae.1. I., 1993.

7. Iaiaaei E. Eaeaieiaey e ooiiey // Ooiiey e ooiie/aneia iuoeaiea. I.,
1991.

8. Ia?en E., Yiaaeuen O. Iaiaoeeay eaeaieiaey. Nia?. ni/. O. 3.

9. Iauanoaaiiia niciaiea e aai oi?iu. I., 1986.

10. I?oaaa-e-Aannao X. Aeaaoiaiecaoeey eneonnoaa // Ynoaoeea. Oeeinioey
eoeueoo?u. I., 1991.

11. I?eaiaeei E. Oeeinioey ianoaaeeueiinoe // Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1991,
?6.

12. ?inneeneay iaioaeueiinoue // Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1991, ?1.

13. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey: O/aa. iiniaea aeey aocia. Ae.7. I., 1995.

14. O?aie N. E. Aeooiaiua iniiau iauanoaa. I., 1993.

15. O?aeae 3. aoaeouaa iaeiie eeethcee // Noia?ee aiaia. I., 1990.

1. Oaia XVIII. ?ACAEOEA ANAIE?IIE ENOI?EE A XX AAEA, AA INIIAIUA
OAIAeAIOeEE

1. *aeiaa/anoai eae noauaeo enoi?ee.

2. Yeiiiie/aneea, nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu a XX aaea.

3. Aeiaaeecaoeey iauanoaaiiie aeecie a XX a.

4. Eaieoaeeci e nioeeaeeci – iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee XX a.

*aeiaa/anoai eae noauaeo enoi?ee.

Yoi ia?aay eaeoeey (aoi?ay caaa?oeo eo?n oeeinioee), iinayuaiiay
/aeiaa/anoao, ethaeyi ie?a, anai iai. Iaeiaei nouanoaoao ee oi, /oi
eiaioaony “/aeiaa/anoaii”, anoue ee iii?

A oaeie iinoaiiaea yoio aii?in iiaeao, eiia/ii, aucaaoue iaaeioiaiea.
Aea ?acaa eoi-eeai niiiaaaaony a oii, /oi iu anoue? A?iaea au iiaeii
nii?eoue i oii, /oi oaeia /aeiaa/anoai, /ai iii ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo
ninoaaeythueo ie?a, ii eae-oi no?aiii niiiaaaoueny a aai iaee/ee,
?aaeueiii auoee.

Iaeiaei ia aoaeai niaoeoue n ioeaieaie iinoaaeaiiiai aii?ina.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oaeo iaee/ey naieo naay, ae?oaeo eiaeeaeaeia, iiiaeo
ethaeae ia inia?eaaaony ie iaeiei cae?aaiiuneyuei /aeiaaeii, aoaeue ii
i?inoi iaeaiue ?aaeeno eee oeeinio-i?ioanneiiae. Eaaeaeue ynii iiieiaao
(anee ii ia aaniethoiue noauaeoeaeno-nieeineno), /oi iacaaeneii io iaai
nouanoaotho ae?oaea ethaee.

Ii aio nouanoaoao ee oaeie noauaeo aeayoaeueiinoe, aeaenoaothuee aaaio
enoi?ee, eae *AEIAA*ANOAI? Ioaao ia yoio aii?in o?aaoao oai?aoe/aneeo
aeieacaoaeuenoa. Ia iioiio ee oyniaiea nouiinoe aai ia ?ac noaaee a
ooiee aeaaea auaeathueany oiu. Nioeainy aeey ia/aea ia A. E. Aa?oeaia,
y?eiai e aeaai?iaeiiai ioa/anoaaiiiai iuneeoaey. A eieaa “Aueia e aeoiu”
ii ienae, /oi, ii aai ?acoiaieth, neiai “/aeiaa/anoai” i?ai?ioeaiia, iii
ia au?aaeaao ie/aai ii?aaeaeaiiiai, a oieueei e niooiinoe anao
inoaeueiuo iiiyoee iiaeaaaeyao aua eaeiai-oi iieoaiaa.

Iaiaei nia?aiaiiuo caiaaeiuo oeeinioia iuoathony aeieacaoue, /oi
/aeiaa/anoai eae ia/oi aaeeiia oeaeia – yoi oeeoeey. Oae, aia?eeaineee
oeeinio Notha?o *aec a eieaa “Oe?aiey neia” ooaa?aeaeae, /oi
/aeiaa/anoaa iao eae naiinoiyoaeueiie nouiinoe: “Iii?iaoe iicaaoue: Ye,
*aeiaa/anoai, nthaea! E ie iaeei Aaeai ia ioeeeeiaony ia aao i?ecua”.

Ciaiaieoue eoeueoo?ieia Inaaeueae Oiaiaea? a eieaa “Caeao Aa?iiu” ienae,
/oi /aeiaa/anoai – ionoia neiai e /oi aai iaaei eneeth/eoue ec e?oaa
i?iaeai enoi?e/aneeo oi?i. A oii aea aeooa ?aciuoeye oe?iei ecaanoiue
aiaeeeneee enoi?ee A?iieueae Oieiae. A aai eceiaeaiee *aeiaa/anoaa iao,
a anoue iaeioi?ua iacaaeneiua eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneea nenoaiu
(eieaeueiua oeeaeeecaoeee), aicieeathuea, noaiiayueany, ?acaeaathueany e
aeaiouea, iaiiaeiaea aeieiae/aneeo i?aaieciia.

Eae aeaeeoa, neaioeeia, iiaeaa?aathueo niiiaieth ?aaeueiinoue oaiiiaia
“/aeiaa/anoai”, iaiaei. Ii *AEIAA*ANOAI NOUANOAOAO ?AAEUeII E
IAUAEOEAII, iacaaeneii io oinoaaiiuo ecuneia oao eee eiuo oai?aoeeia.
Anoue /aeiaa/anoai eae o?aaiaio iauaeoeaiiai ie?a, anoue aai anaie?iay
enoi?ey, iiiai/eneaiiuie enneaaeiaaieyie oaea aeaaii caoeene?iaaiu aa
AAeEINOAI E ANAIAUIINOUe.

Ioa/anoaaiiua enoi?eee iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee io E. Eii?aaea aei A.
Ii?oiaaa, io E.Aoieeaaa aei E. Aaneeueaaa iieacaee, /oi iauay eeiey
?acaeoey enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna iiaeao auoue ioneaaeaia eeoue ia
iaoa?eaea enoi?ee anaai /aeiaa/anoaa, eioi?ia e yaeyaony aa iiaeeeiiui
noauaeoii.

Iiiyoii, /oi anaie?iay enoi?ey neeaaeuaaaony ec enoi?ee ioaeaeueiuo
ia?iaeia, yoiinia, ainoaea?noa, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo eiaao nianoaaiiia
eeoei. E ana aea iaeuecy ia niaeaneoueny n oai, /oi /aeiaa/anoai – yoi
i?aaeaeueiay eaoaai?ey anyeiai enoi?einioneiai, nioeeieiae/aneiai
?aciuoeaiey.

AAeEINOAI *AEIAA*ANOAA ia ethauo yoaiao aai auoey II?AAeAEAII AAeEINOAII
AAI AEIEIAE*ANEIE I?AAIECAOeEE. Ethaee ia?acotho aaeeiue aeae. Aeaoe
Caiee – /anoue aa aeinoa?u. Ethaee aaeeiu ii naiaio oece/aneiio iaeeeo,
ii?oieiae/aneei (aeaeiaui) i?eciaeai, aaiaoe/aneei oa?aeoa?enoeeai,
aio?iiiii?oe/aneei iinoiyiiui. Oa eee eiua ?acee/ey oeia ?aniauo
i?eciaeia – yoi eeoue aa?eaiou aaeeiiai iniiaaiey.

ETHAeE CAIEE AAeEIU NOUIINOII – NIOeEAEUeII. Eiaaea-oi ?aiiee E.Ia?en
oaaaeeoaeueii caiaoee, /oi eiaiii a ia?a?aaioea i?aaeiaoiiai ie?a
/aeiaae aia?aua aeaenoaeoaeueii ooaa?aeaeaao naay eae ?iaeiaia nouanoai.
I?iecaiaenoai anoue aai aeayoaeueiay ?iaeiaay aeeciue. O?OAeIAAss
AeAssOAEUeIINOUe – i?aaeaea anaai oi, /oi iauaaeeiyei a /aeiaa/anoai
iaeaiueeea a?oiiu ia?aiethaeae, ?annayiiua ii i?inoi?ai aeienoi?e/aneie
Ieeoiaiu (io a?a/. ieeoiaia – iaeoath, ianaeyth; iiae?acoiaaaaony
ianaeaiiay /aeiaaeii /anoue caiee). Aaea au ie aeeee ia?aiethaee, iie
auoee ec aaeeiiai ei?iy, eo aeaenoaey niioianaiu a neeo iaeii?iaeiinoe
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, eo iauaaeeiyao noanoaioeey o?oaea, iia eo aeaeaao
a?aiyie oeaeinoiinoe.

ETHAeE CAIEE AAeEIU EIOAEEAEOOAEUeII. A ethaii aeoa eiae/aneiai
?aciuoeaiey iiaeii oniio?aoue ne?aiu, noyaeaathuea ieeeeiiu e ieeeeiiu
eiaeeaeaeia, nioie e nioie iieieaiee a ia/oi aaeeiia. I?e?iaea ?acoia
(i?e anae aa enoi?e/iinoe) ana aea aaeeia, iia iaeia e oa aea o anao
ia?iaeia e eiaeeaeaeia, neieueei oaiaeii ?aciyueony ii anai ae?oaei
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneei i?eciaeai. Iaee/ea eiaeee o?aaoao io oia
i?eciaiey iaee/ey *aeiaa/anoaa.

Yeiiiie/aneea, nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu a XX a.

Aeoiaaony, aeey iniuneaiey ?acaeoey ie?a a XX a., aai iniiaiuo
oaiaeaioeee a?aiy aua ia i?eoei: i/aiue ii neiaeai, ia iioiae ia ana,
/oi ia?aaeeaaei /aeiaa/anoai i?aaeaea. E?iia oiai, iu ana aua neeoeii
iia?oaeaiu a yoio ie?, oae /oi aeenoaioee?iaaoueny io iaai, /oiau
iaic?aoue aai iauoth iaii?aio, ioaeaeeoue nouanoaaiiia io
noaoii-nethieiooiiai, iaaiciiaeii. Iiieiay anth oycaeiinoue iiaeiaiuo
iaia?aiee, ana aea iiiuoaainy i/a?oeoue iaeioi?ua eiioo?u enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa a XX a.

A YEIIIIE*ANEIE IAEANOE i?iecioee ia?iiiua iiceoeaiua eciaiaiey.
Naiaia?aciui oeaio?ii yoeo ia?aiai yaeeanue iao/ii-oaoie/aneay
?aaiethoeey, ?aaeueiia e ianooaaiia i?aa?auaiea iaoee a
iaiin?aaenoaaiioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth neeo. Eeaa?iaoecaoeey,
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey, eioi?iaoecaoeey, iiyaeaiea i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo
oaoiieiaee noaee ?aaeueiinoueth iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii nouanoao a XX a. eeaea?noai a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aoei e
aeooiaiie noa?a: eiaiii /aeiaa/aneee eioaeeaeo (aai aiciiaeiinoe)
i?aa?aoeeny a oaeoi?, ii?aaeaeythuee ianooaau, aeeiaieci, aiiaua aanue
iaeee nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa. Ia aaca yoeo ia?aiai ?acei aic?inei
niaieoiiia iaoa?eaeueiia e aeooiaiia aiaaonoai /aeiaa/anoaa. Ai iiiaeo
?aaeiiao ie?a neiaeeeenue iauanoaa, iaania/eaathuea aunieea noaiaea?ou
iio?aaeaiey, eiioi?oa, oneoa. Aaaeii oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi naeaeae a
iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaie/ii a naay aeeth/atho /aeiaaea-oai?oea
e o?aaotho ana aieaa iieiiai eniieueciaaiey aai oai?/aneeo,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-ee/iinoiuo ea/anoa e niiniaiinoae.

A IAEANOE NIOeEAEUeIUO NAeAEAIA, eae iieaaatho oeeiniou, iiaeii
ioiaoeoue o?e aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?a:

Ai-ia?auo, yoi ?ACAEOEA *AEIAA*ANOAA EAE NIOeEAEUeIIE IAUIINOE,
ioaaouaathuae aanue ie?. *aeiaa/anoai a ea/anoaa iaeie nioeeaeueiie
oeaeinoiinoe nouanoaiaaei anaaaea. Ii, anoanoaaiii, ia ?aciuo yoaiao
enoi?ee iii auei iaiaeeiaeiaui, ioee/aeinue oie eee eiie noaiaiueth
?acaeoinoe eioaa?aeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo naycae. XX a. yaeeny eiaiii oai
yoaiii anaie?iie enoi?ee, eiaaea ocu, naycuaathuea /aeiaa/anoai,
ie?aiee, eiie?aoece?iaaeenue. A iai ?acaeeinue “/oanoai eieoy”, iuouaiea
iauae noaeueau, iauaai iaeoaiey ia iaeiie ieaiaoa – Caiey.

Ioaeii i?e yoii ioiaoeoue aic?inooth nii?yaeaiiinoue /aeiaa/anoaa a
oeaeii e eaaeaeie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie noaeueau. I?e/ai, yoa
nii?yaeaiiinoue i?iyaeyaony ia i?inoi a iaeanoe /enoi ?annoaei/iie
?aoeaenee, a eiaiii a iaeanoe iianaaeiaaiuo, ?aaeueii-aeeciaiiuo
eioa?ania.

Ai-aoi?uo, a XX a. iai?aaeaiea nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey ana aieaa
niauaaony IO NIOeEAEUeII-EEANNIAUO IAUIINOAE, iaeaaeaaoeo ia?iiiie
nioeeaeueii-?aaoeyoeaiie neeie, iiaeieiaaoae iiae naay /aeiaaea, E AIEAA
AeEIAIE*IUI IEE?INIOeEAEUeIUI IAUIINOssI. Eiaiii yoio neie nioeeaeueiuo
naycae e ioiioaiee, eae i?aaenoaaeyaony oeeinioai, e ninoaaeyao
nioeeaeueioth n?aaeo auoey /aeiaaea XX a. I?e yoii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue,
/oi noaiaiue eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-ee/iinoiiai auai?a /aeiaaeii nioeeaeueiie
iauiinoe, aeeceie e eiioi?oiie aio, aic?inea.

A-o?aoueeo, XX a. iciaiaiiaaeny a?iiaaeiuie ia?aiaiaie A IAEANOE
YOIIIAOeEIIAEUeIUO IOIIOAIEE. N iaeiie noi?iiu, a XX a. auea
ieii/aoaeueii eeeaeaee?iaaia eieiieaeueiay nenoaia oaiaoaiey e
ii?aaiuaiey iiiaeo ia?iaeia, iaoeee e ?an. N ae?oaie, XX a., iniaaiii
aai iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey, ioia/ai aniuoeaie iaoeeiiaeecia,
i?ioeainoiyieai iaoeee ae?oa ae?oao. Aeaeeii, yoio ac?ua iaoeeiiaeecia
ia aei eiioea iiiyo. Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi anoue eaeay-oi aeoaeiiay,
ia aiieia yniay naycue iaaeaeo ?acaeoeai iaoeeiiaeueiie eaeae e
yaiethoeeae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe.

Neiaii, XX a. n oi/ee c?aiey nioeeaeueiie yaiethoeee i?aaenoaaeytho
ea?oeio iano?oth e i?ioeai?a/eaoth. Iaeie nioeeaeueiinoe oe?aieeenue e
?anoeaaee, ae?oaea – noiaeyo n enoi?e/aneie a?aiu, iaeie nioeeaeueiua
i?ioeai?a/ey yaii niya/athony, iai?eia?, eeanniaua, ae?oaea, oaeea, eae
iaoeeiiaeueiua, iaeanoi/athony.

A IIEEOE*ANEIE IAEANOE a XX a. oaeaea iaaethaeaeenue iaiaeiicia/iua e
i?ioeai?a/eaua i?ioeannu.

I?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue oaeie oaeo, eae ?ACEIA ?ANOE?AIEA
IANOOAAIA O*ANOEss IANN A IIEEOEEA. Anee n?aaieoue XX a. n i?aaeuaeoueie
ii eiee/anoao ethaeae, eioa?anothueony iieeoeeie, o/anoaothueo a
?acee/iuo iieeoe/aneeo aeoeeyo, oi, aeoiaaony, XX a. ia eiaao naaa
?aaiuo. Aai iiaeii iacaaoue aaeii, eiaaea iannu noaee noauaeoii
iieeoeee.

I?e yoii naycue ethaeneeo iann n iieeoeeie ?acaeaaaony eae au ii aeaoi
i?ioeaiiieiaeiui, a ia naiii aeaea acaeiinaycaiiui ?oneai. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, /aeiaae eae au aieueoa aeenoaioee?oaony io iieeoeee, i?iaiaey
io/aoeeaoth a?aiue iaaeaeo naiae aeeciueth, eioa?anaie e iaeanoueth
aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa e ae?oaeo iieeoe/aneeo einoeoooia. N
ae?oaie, eiaiii n yoie aeenoaioeee, oe?aieaoenue a nianoaaiiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo iniiaao, /aeiaae aeoeaiaa eioa?anoaony
iieeoeeie, aeeyao ia iaa, o?aaoao, /oiau iia aieueoa o/eouaaea aai
eioa?anu e ?aaae?iaaea ia ieo. Iiyoiio i?iaeaia i?aa e naiaiae /aeiaaea
a XX a. i?eia?aea iniaia cia/aiea.

XX a. yaeeny a?aiaiai ?acaeoey eeanne/aneie aeaiie?aoee,
iiiaiia?oeeiinoe. Oioy e neiaeii, n ionooieaieyie e e?aeiinoyie, ii ana
aea aeaiie?aoey ii?aaeaeyea ia?niaeoeau iieeoe/aneie yaiethoeee XX a.,
iia auea e inoaaony yoaeiiii iieeoe/aneie aeecie, ia eioi?ue
i?eaioe?iaaeinue iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai no?ai.

Aianoa n oai iieeoe/aneay enoi?ey XX a. ioia/aia e aniuoeaie naiiai
e?aeiaai aioeiiaea aeaiie?aoecia – oioaeeoa?ecia, ?aaeoeeiiiie
aeeeoaoo?u. Yoio oioaeeoa?eci aiieioeeny a oaoenoneeo ?aaeeiao Eoaeee,
Aa?iaiee, a noaeeineii ?aaeoeeiiiii ?aaeeia, ainiiaenoaiaaaoai a NNN? e
ianaaeaeaaoainy a ?yaea nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai. Oioaeeoa?eci
aace?iaaeny ia iiaeaaeaiee /aeiaa/aneeo i?aa e naiaiae, ia i?aaie/iii
iai?eyoee oeaiiinoe /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe.
Oioaeeoa?iua ?aaeeiu XX a. canoaaeee /aeiaa/anoai aniiiieoue i naiuo
i?a/iuo no?aieoeao naiae iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee. Aioeaoiaiiinoue
oioaeeoa?iuo ?aaeeiia caeiiiia?ii i?eaaea eo e e?aoo.

Iaeiaei enoi?eeai, iieeoieiaai, nioeeaeueiui oeeinioai aua i?aaenoieo
i?eeiaeeoue iaiaei oneeee, /oiau iiiyoue, ii/aio a XX a. ia?yaeo n yaiui
i?ia?annii iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae, aeaiie?aoee aicieeee /oaeiaeua
oioaeeoa?iuo ?aaeeiia, ii/aio iie ca/anooth ia?aceoe?iaaee ia naiuo
i?ia?anneaiuo nioeeaeueiuo eaeayo, ii/aio iannu ethaeae aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy oee ca Aeoea?ii, Noaeeiui e o.ae.

Iiaeao auoue, ioeaainy, ii iieaaaai, /oi XX a. ia iciaiaiiaaeny
eaeeie-oi ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie naeaeaaie a iaeanoe aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u.
Iiaeaeoe, oieueei a iaeanoe iao/iiai iiciaiey – yoi a?aiy
?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?i?uaia. Ii i?e anae cia/eiinoe iaoee iia ana
i?ino?ainoai aeooiaiie aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa ia caiieiyao. Inoathony aua
iaeanoe i?aanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa, eneonnoaa, oeeinioee, iienee a iaeanoe
?aeeaeiciuo oeaiiinoae e o.ae. e o.i.

Aeiaaeecaoeey iauanoaaiiie aeecie a XX a.

Iao aae – yoi a?aiy ia oieueei iauaai ?inoa ianooaaia /aeiaa/aneeo
i?aia?aciaaiee, ii e a?aiy, eiaaea yoe i?aia?aciaaiey i?eia?aoatho
anaiauee oa?aeoa?, noaiiayony niauoeyie a aeecie anaai /aeiaa/anoaa. Oae
/oi XX a. n ii?aaeaeaiiui iniiaaieai iiaeii iacaaoue aeiaaeueiui aaeii.
Yeiiiie/aneie iniiaie yoie aeiaaeecaoeee yaeyaony, eiia/ii, ?ino
ianooaaia niceaeaoaeueii-i?aaeiaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.
Anaie?iinoue, ioaao anao eiioeiaioia e no?ai, ia?aoaaeaaiea a?aieoe
ainoaea?noa – yoi /a?ou nia?aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oi/ii oaeaea ?ino
aeinooiiuo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, aeayoaeueiinoue n?aaenoa ianniauo
eiiioieeaoeee, eioi?iaoeee e o.ae. naeeaeatho ia?iaeu, aeaeatho
eaaeaeiai i?aeoe/anee iaiiaaiii nii?e/anoiui e aeaeai anaai ie?a.

Iaeuecy a nayce n yoei iaaeiioeaieaaoue e cia/aiey aeinoeaeaiee
einiiiaaoeee. Aaaeue naaiaeiy einiiiaaou, ii nooe aeaea, –
i?aaenoaaeoaee anaai /aeiaa/anoaa. Iaeiei neiaii, aeeciue /aeiaa/anoaa a
XX a. noaiiaeony ana aieaa anaie?iie, aa i?ino?ainoai – any iaoa
ieaiaoa.

Aianoa n oai oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue, /oi a aeeciue /aeiaa/anoaa
aeiaaeueiinoue aioea ianeieueei ia?aaeienaeueiui ia?acii, oae neacaoue,
ni ciaeii “ieion”. Eiaiii a XX a. ie? noieeioeny n oaeei iaaaoeaiui
yaeaieai, eae ie?iaua aieiu, eiaiii a yoii aaea /aeiaa/anoai aieioioth
iiaeioei e ?oaaaeo aoiiiiai naiioaeenoaa, eiaiii a yoi noieaoea iii
noieeioeinue n oa?icie yeieiae/aneiai naiioie/oiaeaiey. Yoe niauoey, yoe
o?aaaaeee /aeiaa/aneiai auoey iieacaee ethaeyi, /oi ie? caieyi aaeei.

Iaeiiaoe, i aeiaaeueiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai auoey naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei
anaie?iia i?ioeainoiyiea eaieoaeecia e nioeeaeecia, ioaaoeaoaa, ii nooe,
aanue ie? e iiae/eieaoaa aai ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia.

?aciuoeyy iaae i?iaeaiaie aeiaaeecaoeee aeecie a XX a., neaaeoao
auneacaoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi naiie aeoaeiiie iniiaie yoiai
yaeaiey aunooiaao naia aeiaaeueiinoue eae /a?oa /aeiaa/aneiai auoey.
Eiaiii oieaa?naeueiinoue /aeiaa/aneie nouiinoe, aaca?aaeiinoue
niiniaiinoae /aeiaaea, n?aaee eioi?uo niciaiea e o?oae neaaeoao
iinoaaeoue ia ia?aia ianoi, ia acaeyae oeeinioia, e yaeeenue naiuie
aaaeiuie enoieaie aeiaaeueiuo i?ioeannia XX a. “*aeiaae
eioeiii-aeiaaeueiue”, iiaeao auoue, oae ioaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue aai a
XX a.

Eaieoaeeci e nioeeaeeci – iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee XX a.

Iiaeaeoe, naiay iniiaiay eio?eaa XX a. – yoi acaeiinaycue ie?iaiai
eaieoaeecia e nioeeaeecia. (Caeanue ?a/ue ia eaeao i nouiinoe
nioeeaeecia, i oii, ianeieueei i?aaiia?ii oa?aeoa?eciaaoue no?ie a NNN?
e ae?oaeo no?aiao Aa?iiu, Acee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee eae
nioeeaeenoe/aneee. Iu enoiaeei ec ii?aaeaeaiiie o?aaeeoeee iaicia/aiey
yoeo ainoaea?noa e eo iauaaeeiaiey).

?anniao?eaay a iauae ?ao?iniaeoeaa XX a., o?oaeii iaeiicia/ii ioaaoeoue
ia aii?in: /ae aea yoi aae, eaeay oi?iaoeey caeanue oi?aeanoaoao, a
eaeay iioa?iaea enoi?e/aneia ii?aaeaiea?

Eiia/ii, anee iiae oi?iaoeeyie iiieiaoue nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea
i?aaieciu, ii?aaeaeaiiua no?aiu, eioi?ua i?eiyoi iacuaaoue
eaieoaeenoe/aneeie e nioeeaeenoe/aneeie, oi ioaao ia iinoaaeaiiue aii?in
i/aaeaeai. XX aae i?iaeaiiino?e?iaae ia caaieaaiea, ia caeao
eaieoaeecia, ia aai anaiauoth aeaaeue, a, iai?ioea, aai iiaue iiaeuai.

*oi aea eanaaony noaeueau nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai, oi iia iienoeia
o?aae/ia. Ia/aaoee naia enoi?e/aneia oanoaea a 1917 a. nioeeaeeci,
ooaa?aeeaoenue nia/aea a iaeiie no?aia, caoai aiieioeaoenue a
nioeeaeenoe/aneii eaaa?a, aeinoeaioa aanueia iuooeiiai iieeoe/aneiai
aana a ie?a, aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneiai ia?eoaoa, ia oeieoa aaea ii nouanoao
?aniaeny. E ?aniaeny ii ia iiae aicaeaenoaeai aiaoieo nee, aiei,
noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee e o.ae., a a neeo ei?aiiuo aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/ee.

Oio oaeo, /oi auoiae ec nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey ia?iaeu
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai euoo, ia?aoeaoenue e oeaiiinoyi
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ie?a, aua ?aeueaoiaa iiae/a?eeaaao eiiaiaioioth
oua?aiinoue nioeeaeenoe/aneie iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie iiaeaee XX a. Oae
/oi ioaao ia aii?in i oii, eaeay nenoaia iiaaaeeea ia enoi?e/aneie
aeenoaioeee XX a., ynai. E oeieoo aaea o?eoioaoi?ii i?eoae eaieoaeeci, a
nioeeaeeci, anee eniieueciaaoue oo aea nii?oeaioth oa?ieiieiaeth, aiiaua
nioae n aeenoaioeee.

Ii yoio auaiae ia iniiaiie eio?eaa XX a. i?e anai aai niioaaonoaee
enoi?e/aneei ?aaeeyi ana aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eeoue nouiinoue ia?aiai
ii?yaeea. Aeoiaaony, anoue aieaa aeoaieee niie enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey,
aiaeec eioi?iai iieacuaaao, /oi aeaei ianoieo aeaeaei ia noieue
iaeiicia/ii, eae yoi iiaeneacuaaaony aiaoiei oiaeii niauoee.

I?aaeaea anaai noieo caaeoiaoueny iaae oai, eaeei ia?acii eaieoaeeci
iaania/ee naia i?ioeaaoaiea a XX a. Eiia/ii, iniiaiua
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oaiaeaioeee eeanne/aneiai eaieoaeecia
inoaeenue i?e iai e a XX a. Iaeiaei e /anoe ia?iaeia yoeo no?ai, aai
iaeaieaa iaania/aiiuo neiaa, aai iieeoe/aneie e eioaeeaeooaeueiie yeeou
neaaeoao ioianoe oi, /oi iie iiiyee: anee aeaeueoa ia?aueaaoue
eeanniaoth yenieoaoaoeeth, anee aeaeueoa caeaaaeyoue o?oaeyueony, anee
eaii?e?iaaoue eo i?aaa, naiaiaeu, oai?/anoai, oi yoi -iooue, aaaeouee e
naii?ac?ooaieth iauanoaa.

Ionthaea ia?ai?eaioaoeey a iieeoeea, iineaaeiaaoaeueiia ?acaeoea
aeaiie?aoecia e eoeueoo?ii-aoiaienoe/aneeo o?aaeeoeee, iai?anoaiiia
ia?aie/aiea yaienoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee ?aaioiaeaoaeae, iiai?io e
i?ei?eoaoo iaueo eioa?ania iauanoaa, iaonoaiiue iiene oi?i nioeeaeueiiai
eiinainona, aai nio?aiaiea e ?acaeoea.

Ia?aaeei aiai?yo, /oi i?ioeaaoaiea ia?iaeia a no?aiao nia?aiaiiiai
eaieoaeecia – ?acoeueoao ai?ueau o?oaeyueony. Eiia/ii, yoi aeinoeaeaiea
?aaioieeia iaaiiiai o?oaea iaeuecy na?anuaaoue ni n/aoia eee
iaaeiioeaieaaoue. Ii, i?eciaaay yoo enoeio, iaeuecy cae?uaaoue ath
ae?oaoth, aieaa aeoaieoth: ?ino e i?ioeaaoaiea iauanoaa, nioeeaeueiue
ie? e aa?iiieth a iai, aunieee o?iaaiue aeecie anao ethaeae
iaania/eaatho ana eeannu e nioeeaeueiua neie. Iaeiei neiaii, eaieoaeeci
a XX a. aeiaeeny oiai, /oi /aeiaaeo noaei aeeoue eo/oa, eiioi?oiaa, /oi
ii noae nioeeaeueii aieaa caueuaiiui, iieeoe/anee aieaa aeoeaiui, a a
oeaeii – aieaa naiaiaeiui e aieaa oai?/aneei noauaeoii.

Iao?oaeii oaaaeeoueny, /oi yoe ?acoeueoaou e oeaiiinoe, e eioi?ui
no?aieeny e eioi?uo aeinoea eaieoaeeci, iinyo iaua/aeiaa/aneee oa?aeoa?.
Aieaa oiai, eo iaua/aeiaa/aneay nouiinoue yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii e
au?aaeaieai oeaiiinoae nioeeaeecia. Aaaeue ia?aui neiaieii e aunoae
oeaeueth nioeeaeecia ai anao aai iiaeeoeeaoeeyo – io naiuo i?eieoeaiuo
aei naiuo neiaeiuo – yaeyaony /aeiaae, aai i?ioeaaoaiea, nioeeaeueiay
ni?aaaaeeeainoue. Eia/a aiai?y, iu iiaeai neacaoue, /oi eaieoaeeci a XX
a., enoiaey ec nianoaaiiuo oaiaeaioeee e i?aneaaeoy nianoaaiiua oeaee,
?acaeaaeny ii iooe iiai?ioa e iaua/aeiaa/aneei e iaeiia?aiaiii
nioeeaeenoe/aneei oeaiiinoyi.

Ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue a yoie nioeeaeueiie ei??aeoeee no?aoaaee
eaieoaeecia nua?ae ia?aue iiuo ?aaeueiiai nioeeaeecia a XX a. Ia?aua
oaae nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey i?aaeaea anaai iieacaee anaio ie?o
i?eoyaaoaeueiinoue eaeae aoiaiecia, nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe,
nioeeaeecia aeey o?oaeyueony, aea e aeey anaai iauanoaa. Aeaeaa
oioaeeoa?iay aeeciue iiae ciaiaiaie noaeeineiai nioeeaeecia iieacaea
anaio ie?o, eae aaaeiu oeaiiinoe, eioi?uie ii iaeaaeaao, eae aaaeii eo
o?aieoue e i?eoiiiaeaoue, eae eaaei eo iioa?youe e e /aio iiaeii i?eeoe
a ?acoeueoaoa yoie iioa?e.

E ana aea, i?eciaaay anth cia/eiinoue i?eia?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
nioeeaeecia, ia iaaei aai e i?aoaaee/eaaoue. Eaieoaeeci ?acaeaaeny ia
iooai ieaaeaoa nioeeaeenoe/aneeo oeaiiinoae, ?acaeaaaiuo aaea-oi aia aai
nioeeaeueiiai i?ino?ainoaa, a ii nianoaaiiie o?aaeoi?ee, ?aaeecoy oio
iioaioeeae, oa aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua caeiaeaiu eiaiii a iai. A yoie
nayce oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi iaua/aeiaa/aneea, nioeeaeenoe/aneea
oeaiiinoe iiaoo ?acaeaaoueny eiaiii ia yoie aaca. canoaaeyao ia i/aiue
iiiaii caaeoiaoueny.

Io a /oi aea nioeeaeeci, eae auaea?aeae ii ia?aia eniuoaiea enoi?e/aneie
?aaeueiinoueth? Neaaeoao n?aco aea neacaoue, /oi nioeeaeueiua
i?ioeai?a/ey, i?eaaaeoea e nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee, iauaeoeaiu, a
naia ?aaiethoeey caeiiiia?ia. O?aaiaaiey o?oaeyueony eeannia a
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee ni?aaaaeeeau, nioeeaeenoe/aneea oeaee e
eaeaaeu, eioi?ua i?iaicaeaneee eeaea?u nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee, –
oaaaeaiea e ethaeyi o?oaea, ai?ueaa i?ioea yenieoaoaoeee, naiaiaea
ia?iaeia, ?aaainoai iaoeee, i?aaa /aeiaaea e o.ae. e o.i. –
i?ia?anneaiu. Oae /oi ii naiei eiioeuenai, ii naiei oeaeyi i?ioeannu,
aueeaoeany a nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth e nioeeaeenoe/aneia
no?ieoaeuenoai, aiieia iiaee i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia eeaea?noai a ie?iaii
i?ia?anna.

Ii oa iiaeaeue nioeeaeecia, eioi?ay i?aoai?eeanue a aeeciue a XX a., eae
iaai io caiee, ieacaeanue aeaeaeie io yoeo oeaeae e eaeaaeia.
Eeeaeaeaoeey yenieoaoaoi?neeo eeannia ioithaeue ia i?eaaea e
nioeeaeueiiio ?ane?aiiuaieth o?oaeyueony. Naa?aiooua eeannu auee
caiaiaiu ia?oeeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie yeeoie, eioi?ay a naiai ?aaeueiii
ioiioaiee e ia?iaeo ieacaeanue ia iaiaa, a aieaa aeanoieei
yenieoaoaoi?ii, /ai ao?aeoacey e iiiaueee. Iauanoaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue,
i?aa?aoeaoenue a ainoaea?noaaiioth, i?eaaea ia aeaea e eieinnaeueiiio
io/oaeaeaieth o?oaeyueony io nianoaaiiinoe, a ca?iaeuoa oie/oiaeea
?acaeoea ethaiai yeiiiie/aneiai eioa?ana.

ainoaea?noai aeeeoaoo?u i?ieaoa?eaoa, a caoai iauaia?iaeiia ainoaea?noai
ieacaeinue ?aaiiaeooiui e ?aaeueiui eioa?anai ethaeae, aieaa oiai, eo
i?ioeaieeii, aaoi?ii e eniieieoaeai ?ai?annee, aiaeiaia eioi?ui enoi?ey
aiiaua ia ciaao. Eiiioienoe/aneay eaeaieiaey ia yoii oiia noaea naiie
?aciocaeaiiie aeaiaaiaeae, eaeaieiae/aneei n?aaenoaii iaieioeyoeee
iannaie, n?aaenoaii eo iaiaia.

Ii, iiaeaeoe, naiue aeaaiue ii?ie iiaeaee nioeeaeecia XX a. -aa ei?aiiia
iai?eyoea /aeiaaea, aai eioa?ania. Iia i?eaioe?iaaeanue ia eioa?anu
eeannia, ii, no?iai aiai?y, ?a/ue oea ia i ieo. ?acaiai?u i eeanniaii
eioa?ana eeoue i?ee?uaaee eioa?anu naiie oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiu.

Ana yoi i?eaaei e oiio, /oi ?aaeueiay enoi?ey nioeeaeecia a XX a. noaea
enoi?eae ia?aaeienia e i?ioeai?a/ee: ia?aaeiaay eaeaieiaey e oeeieci
iieeoe/aneie i?aeoeee, aiaiiay iiuue e ieuaoa ia?iaea, aaiiieeoe/aneea
aiaeoeee e aioo?aiiyy ionoioa, ?acaiai?u i /aeiaaea e aai ?aaeueiia
aani?aaea e o.ae. Ana yoi iaeaieeaaeinue, iaino?yeinue e caaa?oeeinue
caeiiiia?iui e?aoii.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?e anao ionooieaieyo, “ioeaoao”, eioi?ua auee
i?aaeaea a enoi?ee e eioi?ua nii?iaiaeaeaee enoi?e/aneia noaiiaeaiea
iiauo iauanoaaiiuo oi?i, ?acaaea oaeiai ianooaaa, oaeie eioaineaiinoe,
oaeiai oioaeueiiai io?eoeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo oi?i aeecie enoi?ey aua ia
ciaea.

*oi aea nua?aei ?ieue aeaaiie i?oaeeiu a yoii ?acaaea nioeeaeecia? A
eiioaenoa iaoae eaeoeee iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa iiiaioa:

ai-ia?auo, yoi ioeac io nooe naiie eaeae nioeeaeecia – aaconeiaiue
i?ei?eoao /aeiaaea a iauanoaa ai anao ecia?aieyo aai auoey. Eae ?ac
/aeiaae, aai eioa?an ieacaeenue naiui iaeeei e ianouanoaaiiui oaeoi?ii a
yoii nioeeaeecia;

ai-aoi?uo, ?aaeueiue nioeeaeeci XX a. caeinoaiaae naiua ieciaiiua /a?ou
i?ioeuo iauanoa: yenieoaoaoeeth ethaeae, iieeoe/aneia ecoaa?noai,
eeoeaia?ea, aeaiaaiaeth e iaiai, iaania/aiea eiioi?oiie aeecie aeey
eca?aiiie iieeoe/aneie yeeou e o.ae. e o.i. Ei?i/a aiai?y, ana oa
ii?iee, eioi?ua naienoaaiiu ?aanoao, oaiaeaeecio e eaieoaeecio a aai
ia/aeueiuo e aeeeeo oi?iao, aic?iaeeeenue a enoi?ee nioeeaeenoe/aneeo
no?ai.

Eiaiii a neeo iacaaiiuo i?e/ei nioeeaeeci XX a. ia auaea?aeae eniuoaiey
enoi?e/aneie ?aaeueiinoueth e ?acaaeeeny iiae aiaoii nianoaaiiuo
iaono?aieiuo i?ioeai?a/ee.

Iaeiaei aa?iainy e iniiaiiio aii?ino: eiio i?eiaaeeaaeeo XX a., ii
/ueaio noeaia?eth ?acaa?ouaaeanue aai enoi?ey?

Naaiaeiy i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi noaaeoue aii?in i?inoi ia aeueoa?iaoeaa
“eaieoaeeci-nioeeaeeci” iaaeinoaoi/ii, iineieueeo yoe iiiyoey oaea ia
aiieia aaeaeaaoiu oai ?aaeeyi, eioi?ua iie iau/ii iaicia/atho. Iiyoiio e
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea eo a ea/anoaa iniiaiie aeaeaeouae neeu XX a. a
aeaiiii neo/aa ia aiaeeony. Caeanue ioaeai eiie
eaoaai?eaeueii-iiiyoeeiue no?ie iuoeaiey.

Ii iiaieth nia?aiaiiuo oeeinioia, iniiaiia oa/aiea enoi?ee XX a.
ii?aaeaeyao ?acaeoea oeeaeeecaoeee, oie oeeaeeecaoeee, i?ei?eoaoii aeey
eioi?ie yaeyaony /aeiaae, eioi?ay aeeth/aao a naay aunieee o?iaaiue aai
o?oaea, niceaeaiey, ?acaeoea aai iio?aaiinoae e eo oaeiaeaoai?aiea,
nioeeaeueioth aa?iiieth, iieiioo iieeoe/aneeo i?aa, aa?aioeth io
yeieiae/aneeo, aoiiiuo eaoano?io e, iiaeaeoe, naiia aeaaiia – naiaiaeo
/aeiaaea a aa yenoaineaiii e eioaineaiii i?iyaeaiee.

A XX a. ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ie?a auei aieaa iieiui e aaeaeaaoiui
au?aaeaieth iaua/aeiaa/aneiai niaea?aeaiey ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee. *oi
aea eanaaony ae?aiaoe/aneie noaeueau ie?iaiai nioeeaeecia, oi ii a naiae
?aaeueiie i?aeoeea ioioae io oeaiiinoae oeeaeeecaoeee, a iioiio e
iioa?iae enoi?e/aneia ii?aaeaiea. Eeoue nae/an ia?iaeu auaoeo
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai n o?oaeii euoo aei?iao e yoei oeaiiinoyi.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aa?oeei A. N. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey. *. 1: O/aaiee. I., 1993. Aeaau
VIII, IX e X.

2. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: O/aaiee aeey aocia. *. 2. I., 1989. Ae.
XVIII e Caeeth/aiea.

3. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Oeeinioey”. I., 1991. Eaeoeey 11.

4. Nia?aiaiiay oeeinioey: Neiaa?ue e o?anoiiaoey. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio,
1995. Ae. V. ?acae. 5.

5. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey: O/aa. iiniaea aeey aocia. I„ 1995. Ae. 9.

6. Aie/ae A. C. Oeeinioey: O/aa. iiniaea. Ieine, 1995 aeaau 16, 17, 20,
22.

7. Caiaeaaa A. O. Eaeoeee ii enoi?ee ?onneie Oeeinioee. *. 1. NIa,
1994. Eaeoeey 8. ?acae. 2.

8. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aocia. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1995. Ae. XIV.

1. Oaia XIX. OAI?Ess IICIAIEss

1. Aiinaieiaey eae oeeinioneay aeenoeeieeia. Aa aaca e oeaeue.

2. Iniiaiua oi?iu iiciaiey e o/aiea ia enoeia.

3. Ninoaa, no?oeoo?a e aeeiaieea ciaiey.

Aiinaieiaey eae Oeeinioneay aeenoeeieeia. Aa aaca e oeaeue.

Niciaiea, eae auei neacaii ?aiaa, anaaaea anoue iniciaiiia auoea.

CIAIEA – iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue, aeaiiay a niciaiee /aeiaaea, eioi?ue
a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe io?aaeaao, eaeaaeueii aini?iecaiaeeo iauaeoeaii
caeiiiia?iua nayce ?aaeueiiai ie?a.

IICIAIEA – iaoneiaeaiiue i?aaeaea anaai iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie
i?aeoeeie i?ioeann i?eia?aoaiey e ?acaeoey ciaiey, aai iinoiyiiia
oaeoaeaiea, ?anoe?aiea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea. Yoi oaeia acaeiiaeaenoaea
iauaeoa e noauaeoa, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?iai yaeyaony iiaia ciaiea i ie?a.

OAI?Ess IICIAIEss (AIINAIEIAEss) – yoi ?acaeae oeeinioee, a eioi?ii
eco/athony oaeea i?iaeaiu, eae i?e?iaea iiciaiey, aai aiciiaeiinoe e
a?aieoeu, ioiioaiea noauaeoa e iauaeoa iiciaiey, enneaaeothony oneiaey
aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey, e?eoa?ee aai enoeiiinoe, oi?iu e o?iaie e o.ae.

Oa?iei “aiinaieiaey” a nia?aiaiiie eeoa?aoo?a oiio?aaeyaony a aeaoo
iniiaiuo cia/aieyo:

1) eae o/aiea i anaiaueo iaoaieciao e caeiiiia?iinoyo iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, i “ciaiee aiiaua”, iacaaeneii io aai oi?i e
aeaeia;

2) eae oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey, i?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiey eioi?ie
yaeyaony iao/iia iiciaiea a aai niaoeeoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoeeao.

Oai?ey iiciaiey (a iaieo cia/aieyo yoiai oa?ieia) oanii naycaia n oaeeie
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie iaoeaie, eae iioieiaey -o/aiea i auoee e aeeaeaeoeea
– o/aiea i anaiaueo caeiiao ?acaeoey auoey e iiciaiey, a oaeaea n
eiaeeie (a aa ?acee/iuo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo) e iaoiaeieiaeae. Iineieueeo
noauaeoii iiciaiey yaeyaony /aeiaae, iinoieueeo aiinaieiaey oe?iei
eniieuecoao aeaiiua oeeinioneie aio?iiieiaee, nioeeieiaee e ae?oaeo
iaoe. Oaeay iii?a oai aieaa iaiaoiaeeia, iioiio /oi iiciaaaoaeueiue
i?ioeann anaaaea i?ioaeaao a ii?aaeaeaiiii nioeeieoeueoo?iii iiaeoaenoa,
e aiinaieiaey iinoaiaiii i?aia?acoaony a iiaeeeiiia
nioeeaeueii-aoiaieoa?iia enneaaeiaaiea.

I?e eco/aiee ee/iinoe iiciathuaai noauaeoa oai?ey iiciaiey iie?aaony ia
aeaiiua ineoieiaee, oeceieiaee, iaaeeoeeiu. Aiaaoue iaoa?eae aeey
iaiauathueo auaiaeia ae iinoaaeytho iaoaiaoeea, eeaa?iaoeea,
anoanoaaiiua e aoiaieoa?iua iaoee a niaieoiiinoe anao naieo
iiiaiia?aciuo aeenoeeieei, enoi?ey oeeinioee e iaoee e ae?. I?e
iniuneaiee yoiai iaoa?eaea iaaeiionoeii eae iaaeiioeaieaaoue (a oai
aieaa iieiinoueth eaii?e?iaaoue), oae e aaniethoece?iaaoue eaeie-eeai
iaeei ec enoi/ieeia. Oae, no?ieoue oai?eth iiciaiey oieueei e
eneeth/eoaeueii ia iniiaa aiaeeca iaoaiaoe/aneiai (Aeaea?o) eee
anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai ciaiey (eiae/aneee iiceoeaeci) – cia/eo iinooiaoue
iaeiinoi?iiia e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ioeai/ii.

Enoi?ey iiciaiey iieacuaaao, /oi ciaiey anaaaea iaoneiaeaiu
iio?aaiinoyie iauanoaa, i?aaeaea anaai cai?inaie iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aeoeee. Iiyoiio ia eaaeaeii ec yoaiia iauanoaaiiiai
?acaeoey iie aieouaatho a naay ana oi iiaia, /oi i?eiineo n niaie
eaaeaeue ec ieo e i?eia?aoatho niaoeeoe/aneee iaeee. Oae, niaea?aeaiea
aiinaieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee eiioea XX a. ii?aaeaeyaony iniaaiiinoyie
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa e, a /anoiinoe, iie?aaony ia aeaiiua o.i.
“iinoiaeeanne/aneie” iaoee.

Aeey yoiai yoaia oa?aeoa?iu: eciaiaiea iauaeoia enneaaeiaaiey (eie ana
/aua noaiiayony oeaeinoiua, naii?acaeaathueany “/aeiaaei-?acia?iua”
nenoaiu), oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea eaeae e iaoiaeia neia?aaoeee – iaoee i
oaeeo nenoaiao; iaoiaeieiae/aneee ieth?aeeci; i?aiaeieaiea ?ac?uaa
iaaeaeo iauaeoii e noauaeoii iiciaiey; niaaeeiaiea iauaeoeaiiai ie?a e
ie?a /aeiaaea; aiaae?aiea a?aiaie ai aia iaoee, eo aeoaieay
aeeaeaeoecaoeey e ae?.

*oi eanaaony IAOIAeIA, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo aiinaieiaey enneaaeoao naie
i?aaeiao, oi iia ai?aaa e iaycaia eniieueciaaoue ethaua iaoiaeu e
i?eaiu, eioi?ua ieaaeoony iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuie a aeaiiie
iiciaaaoaeueiie neooaoeee. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai oeeinioneea iaoiaeu –
aeeaeaeoe/aneee, oaiiiaiieiae/aneee, aa?iaiaaoe/aneee e ae?. Yoi e oi,
/oi iacuaatho iauaiao/iie iaoiaeieiaeae – nenoaiiue,
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiue, aa?iyoiinoiue e ae?. iiaeoiaeu.

Yoi iauaeiae/aneea iaoiaeu – aiaeec, neioac, eiaeoeoeey, aeaaeoeoeey,
aiaeiaey e ae?. Yoi oaeaea yiie?e/aneea e oai?aoe/aneea n?aaenoaa e
i?eaiu, oa?aeoa?iua aeey /anoiuo iaoe (e iao/iuo aeenoeeieei), eioi?ua
iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a oai?ee iiciaiey n o/aoii aa niaoeeoeee.

Ana iacaaiiua e ae?oaea iaoiaeu a aiinaieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo
eniieuecothony a oaniii aaeeinoaa e aeeiaie/iii acaeiiaeaenoaee.

INIIAIE E OeAEUeTH IICIAIEss ssAEssAONss I?AEOEEA. Eaoaai?ey i?aeoeee,
aeoeaiie /oanoaaiii-i?aaeiaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, iai?aaeaiiie ia
eciaiaiea ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, noaea oeaio?aeueiie eaoaai?eae
aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee a oeaeii e aa aiinaieiaee, a
/anoiinoe. N aaaaeaieai i?aeoeee a oai?eth iiciaiey auynieeinue, /oi
/aeiaae iiciaao ?aaeueiue ie? ia iioiio, /oi i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey yoiai
ie?a ianneaii aeaenoaotho ia aai i?aaiu /oanoa, a iioiio, /oi ii nai
aeoeaii oeaeaiai?aaeaiii aicaeaenoaoao ia ie?oaeathuoth aai
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, i?aia?acoao e a oiaea yoeo eciaiaiee iiciaao aa.
I?aeoeea e iiciaiea – aeaa acaeiinaycaiiua noi?iiu aaeeiiai
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. Yoi oeaeinoiay nenoaia niaieoiiie iaoa?eaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaa/anoaa. Aaaeiaeoea OI?IU I?AEOEEE:

· iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai (o?oae), i?aia?aciaaiea i?e?iaeu,
anoanoaaiiiai auoey ethaeae;

· nioeeaeueiua aeaenoaey – i?aia?aciaaiea iauanoaaiiiai auoey,
eciaiaiea nouanoaothueo nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuie “ianniauie
neeaie” (?aaiethoeee, ?aoi?iu, aieiu e o.i.);

· iao/iue yenia?eiaio – aeoeaiay (a ioee/ea io iaaethaeaiey)
aeayoaeueiinoue, a i?ioeanna eioi?ie /aeiaae eneonnoaaiii nicaeaao
oneiaey, iicaieythuea aio enneaaeiaaoue eioa?anothuea aai naienoaa
iauaeoeaiiai ie?a.

INIIAIUA OOIEOeEE I?AEOEEE A I?IOeANNA IICIAIEss: 1. I?aeoeea yaeyaony
ENOI*IEEII IICIAIEss iioiio, /oi ana ciaiey aucaaiu e aeecie aeaaiui
ia?acii aa iio?aaiinoyie. A /anoiinoe, iaoaiaoe/aneea ciaiey aicieeee ec
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ecia?youe caiaeueiua o/anoee, au/eneyoue ieiuaaee,
iauaiu, ii?aaeaeyoue a?aiy e o.ae. Ano?iiiiey auea aino?aaiaaia
cai?inaie oi?aiaee e ii?aieaaaiey e o.i. Iaeiaei ia anaaaea, eiia/ii,
ioe?uoey a iaoea (iai?eia?, ia?eiaee/aneee caeii Iaiaeaeaaaa) aeaeathony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii “ii caeaco” i?aeoeee.

2. I?aeoeea aunooiaao eae INIIAA IICIAIEss, aai aeaeaeouay neea. Iia
i?iiecuaaao ana noi?iiu, iiiaiou, oi?iu, nooiaie iiciaiey io aai ia/aea
e aei aai eiioea. Aanue iiciaaaoaeueiue i?ioeann, ia/eiay io
yeaiaioa?iuo iuouaiee e eii/ay naiuie aano?aeoiuie oai?eyie, a eiia/iii
n/aoa iaoneiaeeaaaony caaea/aie e iio?aaiinoyie i?aeoeee. Iia noaaeo
ia?aae iiciaieai ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iaeaiu e o?aaoao eo ?aoaiey. A
i?ioeanna i?aia?aciaaiey ie?a /aeiaae iaia?oaeeaaao e enneaaeoao ana
iiaua e iiaua aai naienoaa e noi?iiu e ana aeoaaea i?iieeaao a nouiinoue
yaeaiee.

I?aeoeea neoaeeo iniiaie iiciaiey e a oii niunea, /oi iaania/eaaao aai
oaoie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie – i?eai?aie, iai?oaeiaaieai e o.i., aac eioi?uo
iii ia iiaeao auoue oniaoiui.

3. I?aeoeea iiin?aaeiaaiii yaeyaony OeAEUeTH IICIAIEss, eai iii
inouanoaeyaony ia ?aaee i?inoiai ethaiiuonoaa, a aeey oiai, /oiau a oie
eee eiie ia?a ?aaoee?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae. Ana iaoe ciaiey a
eiia/iii n/aoa aica?auathony a i?aeoeeo e aeoeaii aeeytho ia aa
?acaeoea. *aeiaae aeieaeai ia oieueei iiciaaaoue e iauyniyoue ie?, ii e
eniieueciaaoue iieo/aiiua ciaiey aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey naieo
iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo iio?aaiinoae, aeey nicaeaiey iieiioeaiiie
aeecie ethaeae.

4. I?aeoeea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aoathuee E?EOA?EE ENOEIU, o.a.
iicaieyao ioaeaeyoue enoeiiua ciaiey io caaeoaeaeaiee (ia yoii – ieaea).

Ioe?uoea i?aeoe/aneie iaoneiaeaiiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey iicaieeei
auyaeoue aeeaeaeoeeo iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. Ieacaeinue, /oi
iiciaiea iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue eae ia/oi aioiaia, canouaoaa,
iaeciaiiia. Neaaeoao auyniyoue, eae ec iaciaiey iiyaeyaony ciaiea, eae a
oiaea i?aeoeee iaiieiia, iaoi/iia ciaiea o?ainoi?ie?oaony a aieaa
iieiia, oi/iia, aeoaieia e niaa?oaiiia.

Iniiaiua Oi?iu iiciaiey e o/aiea ia enoeia.

Iiciaiea eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe nouanoaoao a
iauanoaa n iiiaioa aai aicieeiiaaiey, i?ioiaey aianoa n iei
ii?aaeaeaiiua yoaiu ?acaeoey. Ia eaaeaeii ec ieo i?ioeann iiciaiey
i?ioaeaao a iiiaiia?aciuo e acaeiinaycaiiuo nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo
oi?iao. Iiyoiio iiciaiea eae oeaeinoiue oaiiiai iaeuecy naiaeeoue e
eaeie-eeai oi?ia, oioy au e oaeie aaaeiie eae iao/iay. Aiinaieiaey ia
iiaeao aeaeaoue auaiaeu, /a?iay iaoa?eae aeey iaiauaiee ec iaeiie
oieueei noa?u – iao/iie, a o./. ec “auniei?acaeoiai anoanoaiciaiey”.

Eoae. INIIAIUA OI?IU IICIAIEss:

Oaea ia ?aiieo yoaiao ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa nouanoaiaaei
IAUAeAIII-I?AEOE*ANEIA IICIAIEA. Iii iinoaaeyei yeaiaioa?iua naaaeaiey i
i?e?iaea, a oaeaea i naieo ethaeyo, oneiaeyo eo aeecie, nioeeaeueiuo
naycyo e o.ae. e i?aaenoaaeyei niaie i?inoie iaai? naaaeaiee, ii?i,
i?aaee e o.i. Noa?a iauaeaiiiai iiciaiey aeeth/aao a naay cae?aaue
niune, aa?iaaiey, i?eiaou, eiooeoeaiua oaaaeaeaiey, i?aae/oanoaey e i?.

Iaeia ec enoi?e/anee ia?auo oi?i – EA?IAIA IICIAIEA eae aaaeiue yeaiaio
aeayoaeueiinoe ia oieueei aeaoae, ii e ac?ineuo. A oiaea ea?u (aeaeiaie,
nii?oeaiie, aeoa?neie e ae?.) eiaeeaeae aeoeaii iiciaao ie?oaeathuoth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, i?eia?aoaao aieueoie iauai iiauo ciaiee, aieouaaao
a naay aiaaonoaa eoeueoo?u. Ia neo/aeii a iaoaiaoeea, yeiiiieea,
eeaa?iaoeea e ae?oaeo iaoeao naaiaeiy ana /aua i?eiaiythony
niaoeeaeueiua iiaeaee e noeaia?ee aeey i?iea?uaaiey ?acee/iuo aa?eaioia
neiaeiuo i?ioeannia e ?aoaiey oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/. Ea?u
ieoatho iaennyeaaioth ethaiciaoaeueiinoue aeaoae, oi?ie?otho eo
aeooiaiue ie?, aeatho ii?aaeaeaiiua ciaiey, au?aaaouaatho iaauee iauaiey
e o.i.

Aaaeioth ?ieue, iniaaiii ia ia/aeueiii yoaia enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa,
ea?aei IEOIEIAE*ANEIA IICIAIEA. Aai niaoeeoeea – a oaioanoe/aneii
io?aaeaiee ?aaeueiinoe, a aanniciaoaeueii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ia?a?aaioea
ia?iaeiie oaioaceae caaaaei/iuo yaeaiee i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa. Ieoieiaey
aeaaaea ii?aaeaeaiiua ciaiey i i?e?iaea, einiina, i naieo ethaeyo,
oneiaeyo eo auoey, oi?iao iauaiey e o.ae.

A ?aieao ieoieiaee ca?iaeaeaeanue OOAeIAEANOAAIII-IA?ACIAss OI?IA
IICIAIEss, iaeaieaa ?acaeoay a eneonnoaa. Oioy iii niaoeeaeueii e ia
?aoaao iiciaaaoaeueiua caaea/e, ii niaea?aeeo a naaa aeinoaoi/ii iiuiue
aiinaieiae/aneee iioaioeeae. A no?oeoo?o ethaiai i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa
anaaaea a oie eee eiie oi?ia aeeth/athony ii?aaeaeaiiua ciaiey i ethaeyo
e eo oa?aeoa?ao, i ?aciuo no?aiao e ia?iaeao, eo auoa, iau/ayo, i?aaao e
o.ae.

E ae?aaiei oi?iai iiciaiey, aaiaoe/anee naycaiiui n ieoieiaeae, neaaeoao
ioianoe oaeaea OEEINIONEOTH e ?AEEAEICIOTH (i ieo oea ?a/ue ia ia?aie
eaeoeee). Caeanue aea ioiaoei, /oi anee aeey ?aeeaeiciiai iiciaiey
oa?aeoa?ii niaaeeiaiea yiioeeiiaeueiiai ioiioaiey e ie?o n aa?ie a
naa?ouanoanoaaiiia, oi nouiinoue iao/iie e oeeinioneie oi?i iiciaiey –
?aoeeiiaeueiinoue, eioi?ay yiioeee e aa?o niaea?aeeo a ea/anoaa
iiae/eiaiiuo iiiaioia.

OEIIEIAECAOeETH CIAIEss iiaeii i?iaanoe ii naiui ?acee/iui iniiaaieyi
(e?eoa?eyi). Auaeaeytho, iai?eia?, ciaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiua e
yiioeeiiaeueiua, yiie?e/aneea e oai?aoe/aneea, ooiaeaiaioaeueiua e
i?eeeaaeiua, oeeinioneea e /anoiiiao/iua, anoanoaaiiiiao/iua e
aoiaieoa?iua e o.i. Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo oi?i ciaiey iu ?anniio?ei ia
neaaeothuae eaeoeee.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiay oeaeue iiciaiey a ethaie aai oi?ia – ENOEIA. Iooue e
iae iau/ii neiaeai, o?oaeai e i?ioeai?a/ea. Iinoiyiiue e iaiaoiaeeiue
niooiee enoeiu (a ia neo/aeiay aiiiaeey) ia anao yoaiao aa ?acaa?ouaaiey
– caaeoaeaeaiea. Eaoaai?ee enoeiu e caaeoaeaeaiey – eeth/aaua a oai?ee
iiciaiey. Iie au?aaeatho aeaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiua, ii ia?ac?uaii naycaiiua
noi?iiu, iiiaioa aaeeiiai i?ioeanna iiciaiey. Eaaeaeay ec yoeo noi?ii
eiaao naith niaoeeoeeo, ia eioi?ie iu e inoaiiaeiny.

CAAEOAEAeAIEA – CIAIEA. IA NIIOAAONOAOTHUAA NAIAIO I?AAeIAOO, IA
NIAIAAeATHUAA N IEI. Caaeoaeaeaiea aeaaiui naiei enoi/ieeii eiaao
ia?aie/aiiinoue, ia?acaeoinoue eee oua?aiinoue iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie
i?aeoeee e naiiai iiciaiey. Iii ii naiae nooe anoue eneaaeaiiia
io?aaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aicieeathuaa eae aaniethoecaoeey
?acoeueoaoia iiciaiey ioaeaeueiuo aa noi?ii. Iai?eia?, caaeoaeaeaieai a
oeaeii yaeyaony “oai?aoe/aneay ano?ieiaey”, oioy ioaeaeueiua iiiaiou
enoeiu a iae eiathony. Niaea?aeaony caaeoaeaeaiey e a iao/iie
ano?iiiiee, ii a oeaeii yoi iaeanoue enoeiiiai ciaiey, iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiay
iaaethaeaieyie.

CAAEOAEAeAIEss IIIAIIA?ACIU II NAIEI OI?IAI. Neaaeoao, iai?eia?,
?acee/aoue caaeoaeaeaiey iao/iua e iaiao/iua, yiie?e/aneea e
oai?aoe/aneea, ?aeeaeiciua e oeeinioneea e o.ae. N?aaee iineaaeieo
nouanoaotho oaeea, eae yiie?eci, ?aoeeiiaeeci, nioenoeea, yeeaeoeea,
aeiaiaoeci, ?aeyoeaeci e ae?. ( i ieo – ieaea).

Caaeoaeaeaiey neaaeoao ioee/aoue io eaee – i?aaeiaia?aiiiai eneaaeaiey
enoeiu a ei?unoiuo eioa?anao – e naycaiiie n yoei ia?aaea/e caaaaeiii
eiaeiiai ciaiey, aeaceioi?iaoeee. Anee caaeoaeaeaiea – oa?aeoa?enoeea
ciaiey, oi ioeaea – ?acoeueoao iai?aaeeueiuo aeaenoaee eiaeeaeaea a
ethaie noa?a aai aeayoaeueiinoe: ioeaee a au/eneaieyo, a iieeoeea, a
aeeoaeneeo aeaeao e o.ae. Auaeaeytho ioeaee eiae/aneea – ia?ooaiea
i?eioeeiia e i?aaee eiaeee (oi?iaeueiie eee aeeaeaeoe/aneie) e
oaeoe/aneea, iaoneiaeaiiua iaciaieai i?aaeiaoa, ?aaeueiiai iieiaeaiey
aeae e o.i.

?acaeoea i?aeoeee e naiiai i?ioeanna iiciaiey iieacuaaao, /oi oa eee
eiua caaeoaeaeaiey ?aii eee iicaeii i?aiaeieaaathony: eeai noiaeyo ni
noeaiu (eae, iai?eia?, o/aiea i “aa/iii aeaeaaoaea”), eeai
i?aa?auathony a enoeiiua ciaiey (oi?ie?iaaiea oeiee ec aeoeiee).
Aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea i?aiaeieaiey caaeoaeaeaiee – eciaiaiea e
niaa?oainoaiaaiea ii?iaeeaoeo eo nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee, c?aeinoue
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie i?aeoeee, ?acaeoea e oaeoaeaiea ciaiee.
Nicaeaiea yoeo i?aaeiinueie o?aaoao eiino?oeoeaii-e?eoe/aneiai, a ia
aiieiaaoe/aneiai (caueoeoaeueii-ii?aaaeaoaeueiiai) iiaeoiaea e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ?aaeecaoeee iaoiaea “i?ia e ioeaie” (E. Iiiia?).

ENOEIA – CIAIEA, NIIOAAONOAOTHUAA NAIAIO I?AAeIAOO, NIAIAAeATHUAA N IEI.
Eia/a aiai?y, yoi aa?iia, i?aaeeueiia io?aaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – a
aeeaii nica?oeaiee eee a iuoeaiee. Aeinoeaeaiea enoeiu –
iaiin?aaenoaaiiay oeaeue iiciaiey a ethaie aai oi?ia (iao/iie,
oeeinioneie, ia?acii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiie e ae?.). Eaeiau INIIAIUA NAIENOAA
ENOEIU?

Ia?aia e enoiaeiia ec ieo – IAUAEOEAIINOUe: eiia/iay iaoneiaeaiiinoue
?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth, i?aeoeeie e iacaaeneiinoue niaea?aeaiey
enoeiiiai ciaiey io ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae (eae, iai?eia?, ooaa?aeaeaiea i
oii, /oi Caiey a?auaaony aie?oa Nieioea).

Aoaeo/e iauaeoeaia ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth, enoeia noauaeoeaia ii oi?ia:
aa iiciatho ethaee e au?aaeatho a ii?aaeaeaiiuo iiiyoeyo, caeiiao,
eaoaai?eyo e o.i. Iai?eia?, anaie?iia oyaioaiea i?enoua iaoa?eaeueiiio
ie?o, ii a ea/anoaa enoeiu, caeiia iaoee iii auei ioe?uoi E. Iuethoiiii.

ENOEIA ANOUe I?IOeANN, a ia iaeee iaeii?aciaue aeo iinoeaeaiey iauaeoa
n?aco, oeaeeeii e a iieiii iauaia. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iauaeoeaiie
enoeiu eae i?ioeanna i?eiaiythony eaoaai?ee aaniethoiiai (au?aaeathuae
onoie/eaia, iaeciaiiia a yaeaieyo) e ioiineoaeueiiai (io?aaeathuae
eciai/eaia, i?aoiaeyuaa).

AANIETHOIAss E IOIINEOAEUeIAss ENOEIU – yoi aeaa iaiaoiaeeiuo iiiaioa
iaeiie e oie aea iauaeoeaiie enoeiu, ethaiai enoeiiiai ciaiey. Iie
au?aaeatho ?aciua nooiaie, noi?iiu iiciaiey /aeiaaeii iauaeoeaiiai ie?a
e ?acee/athony eeoue ii noaiaie oi/iinoe e iieiua aai io?aaeaiey.
Iaaeaeo ieie iao eeoaeneie noaiu. Yoi ia ioaeaeueiua ciaiey, a iaeii,
oioy eaaeaeay ec iacaaiiuo noi?ii, iiiaioia eiaao naith niaoeeoeeo.

AANIETHOIAss ENOEIA (oi/iaa, aaniethoiia a iauaeoeaiie enoeia)
iiieiaaony,

ai-ia?auo, eae iieiia, en/a?iuaathuaa ciaiea i aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a
oeaeii – aiinaieiae/aneee eaeaae, eioi?ue ieeiaaea ia aoaeao aeinoeaioo,
oioy iiciaiea ana aieaa i?eaeeaeaaony e iaio;

ai-aoi?uo, eae oio yeaiaio ciaiee, eioi?ue ia iiaeao auoue ieeiaaea
ii?iaa?aioo a aoaeouai: “ioeoeu eiatho eetha”, “ethaee nia?oiu” e o.ae.
Yoi o.i. aa/iua enoeiu, ciaiey ia ioaeaeueiuo noi?iiao i?aaeiaoia.

Aaniethoiay enoeia a aeaea oeaeinoiiai o?aaiaioa ciaiey neeaaeuaaaony ec
noiiu ioiineoaeueiuo, ii ia iooai iaoaie/aneiai niaaeeiaiey aioiauo
enoei, a a i?ioeanna oai?/aneiai ?acaeoey iiciaiey ia iniiaa i?aeoeee.

IOIINEOAEUeIAss ENOEIA (oi/iaa, ioiineoaeueiia a iauaeoeaiie enoeia)
au?aaeaao eciai/eainoue eaaeaeiai enoeiiiai ciaiey, aai oaeoaeaiea,
ooi/iaiea ii ia?a ?acaeoey i?aeoeee e iiciaiey. I?e yoii noa?ua enoeiu
eeai caiaiythony iiauie (iai?eia?, eeanne/aneay iaoaieea niaieeanue
eaaioiaie), eeai ii?iaa?aathony e noaiiayony caaeoaeaeaieyie (iai?eia?,
“enoeia” i nouanoaiaaiee yoe?a, iiiyoey i oaiei?iaea, oeiaenoiia e
o.i.). Ioiineoaeueiinoue enoeiu caeeth/aaony a aa iaiieiioa, oneiaiinoe,
i?eaeeceoaeueiinoe, iacaaa?oaiiinoe.

Nouanoaotho aeaa e?aeiea iiceoeee a iiieiaiee ioiioaiey aaniethoiiai e
ioiineoaeueiiai iiiaioia a enoeia. AeIAIAOECI i?aoaaee/eaaao cia/aiea
onoie/eaiai iiiaioa, ?AEssOEAECI – eciai/eaie noi?iiu eaaeaeie enoeiu.

A naia a?aiy Aaaaeue ni?aaaaeeeai iiae/a?eeaae, /oi aaniethoiie enoeiu
iao, ENOEIA ANAAAeA EIIE?AOIA. EIIE?AOIINOUe – AUA IAeII AAAEIIA
NAIENOAI ENOEIU. Yoi cia/eo, /oi ethaia enoeiiia ciaiea (a iaoea,
oeeinioee, eneonnoaa e o.i.) anaaaea ii?aaeaeyaony a naiai niaea?aeaiee
e i?eiaiaiee oneiaeyie aeaiiiai ianoa, a?aiaie e iiiaeie ae?oaeie
niaoeeoe/aneeie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, eioi?ua iiciaiea aeieaeii o/anoue eae
iiaeii iieiaa e oi/iaa. Eaii?e?iaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiinoe neooaoeee,
?ani?ino?aiaiea enoeiiiai ciaiey ca i?aaeaeu aai aeaenoaeoaeueiie
i?eiaieiinoe iaieioaii i?aa?auaao enoeio a naie aioeiiae – a
caaeoaeaeaiea. Aeaaea oaeay i?inoay enoeia, eae 2+2=4 yaeyaony oaeiaie
oieueei a aeanyoe/iie nenoaia en/eneaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, iauaeoeaiay, aaniethoiay, ioiineoaeueiay e eiie?aoiay
enoeia – yoi ia ?aciua “ni?oa” enoei, a iaeii e oi aea enoeiiia ciaiea n
yoeie naieie oa?aeoa?iuie i?eciaeaie (naienoaaie).

Ii aii?ino I E?EOA?EE ENOEIU a enoi?ee oeeinioee e iaoee auneacuaaeenue
?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey. A ea/anoaa oaeiai e?eoa?ey auaeaeaaeenue:
iauacia/eiinoue (oi, /oi i?eciaaony iiiaeie ethaeueie); oi, /oi yaeyaony
auaiaeiui, iieaciui, i?eaiaeeo e oniaoo – i?aaiaoeci (io a?a/. i?aaia –
aeaei, aeaenoaea); oi, /oi niioaaonoaoao oneiaiiio niaeaoaieth –
eiiaaioeeiiaeeci (io eao. eiiaaioeei – aeiaiai?, niaeaoaiea); oi, ai /oi
ethaee neeueii aa?yo; oi, /oi niioaaonoaoao iiaieth aaoi?eoaoia, e o.ae.
Aaoi?u yoeo e ae?oaeo eiioeaioeee a iieneao enoeiu, eae i?aaeei, ia
auoiaeeee ca i?aaeaeu naiiai ciaiey.

Aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey niaaeeieea anaiauiinoue
e?eoa?ey enoeiu n iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth iooai
aaaaeaiey a oai?eth iiciaiey iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie i?aeoeee.

I?iaa?ea ciaiey “ia enoeio” i?aeoeeie ia anoue eaeie-oi iaeii?aciaue
aeo, ia/oi iaeciaiiia eee ca?eaeueiia nee/aiea. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
i?ioeann, o.a. iineo enoi?e/aneee, aeeaeaeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. A yoi
cia/eo, /oi E?EOA?EE I?AEOEEE IAeIIA?AIAIII II?AAeAEAI E IAII?AAeAEAI,
AANIETHOAI E IOIINEOAEAI. Aaniethoai a oii niunea, /oi oieueei
?acaeaathuayny i?aeoeea ai anae iieiioa aa niaea?aeaiey iiaeao
ieii/aoaeueii aeieacaoue eaeea-eeai oai?aoe/aneea eee eiua iieiaeaiey. A
oi aea a?aiy aeaiiue e?eoa?ee ioiineoaeai, oae eae naia i?aeoeea
?acaeaaaony, niaa?oainoaoaony, iaiieiyaony iiaui niaea?aeaieai, e iioiio
iia ia iiaeao a eaaeaeue aeaiiue iiiaio, oio/an e iieiinoueth aeieacaoue
oa eee eiua auaiaeu, iieo/aiiua a i?ioeanna iiciaiey.

A aeiauaaiee enoeiu, eae e a aa i?iaa?ea, iaiaoiaeeii AAeEINOAI OAI?EE E
I?AEOEEE, eioi?ia anoue ei?aiiie i?eioeei oeeinioneie aiinaieiaee. Yoi
oaeia eo aeeaeaeoe/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea, a eioi?ii i?aeoeea ana aea
auoa, aaaeiaa iiciaiey, e, eae auei iieacaii ?aiaa, enoiaeiue e eiia/iue
ioieo iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna.

Ninoaa, no?oeoo?a e aeeiaieea ciaiey.

?acaeoea oeeinioee, iaoee e ae?oaeo oi?i aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
ethaeae iieacuaaao, /oi ethaia ciaiea anoue aaeeinoai aeaoo
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iiiaioia, noi?ii – /oanoaaiiiai e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai. Iii
iaaiciiaeii ie aac iaeiiai ec ieo. I?aaiu /oanoa aeinoaaeytho ?acoio
niioaaonoaothuea aeaiiua, oaeou. ?acoi eo iaiauaao e aeaeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua auaiaeu. Aac i?aaiia /oanoa iao ?aaiou ?acoia, a
/oanoaaiiua aeaiiua a oie eee eiie ia?a anaaaea iniuneaiu, oai?aoe/anee
iaa?oaeaiu, ?aaoee?othony ?acoiii.

*OANOAAIIIA IICIAIEA (EEE AEEAIA NICA?OeAIEA) inouanoaeyaony /a?ac
i?aaiu /oanoa – c?aiea, neoo, inycaiea e ae?., eioi?ua o /aeiaaea anoue
“i?iaeoeou anaie?iie enoi?ee”, a ia oieueei aeieiae/aneie yaiethoeee.
I?aaiu /oanoa – yoi aaeeinoaaiiua “ai?ioa”, /a?ac eioi?ua a iaoa
niciaiea iiaoo i?iieeaoue naaaeaiey ia ie?oaeathuai ian ie?a. Aoaeo/e
iiiaioii /oanoaaiii-i?aaeiaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe (i?aeoeee), aeeaia
nica?oeaiea inouanoaeyaony a o?ao iniiaiuo acaeiinaycaiiuo oi?iao. Yoi
iuouaiey, aini?eyoey e i?aaenoaaeaiey, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo anoue
noauaeoeaiue ia?ac iauaeoeaiiai ie?a.

IUOUAIEss i?aaenoaaeytho niaie io?aaeaiea a niciaiee /aeiaaea
ioaeaeueiuo noi?ii, naienoa i?aaeiaoia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
aicaeaenoaothueo ia i?aaiu /oanoa. Iuouaiey iiae?acaeaeythony ia
c?eoaeueiua, ea?athuea iaeaieaa aaaeioth ?ieue, neooiaua, inycaoaeueiua,
aeoniaua e ae?. Iie, eae i?aaeei, aunooiatho a ea/anoaa eiiiiiaioa aieaa
neiaeiiai ia?aca – aini?eyoey. AINI?EssOEA – yoi oeaeinoiue ia?ac
i?aaeiaoa, iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaiiue a aeeaii nica?oeaiee a niaieoiiinoe
anao naieo noi?ii, neioac ioaeaeueiuo iuouaiee.

I?AAeNOAAEAIEA – yoi iaiauaiiue /oanoaaiii-iaaeyaeiue ia?ac i?aaeiaoa,
aicaeaenoaiaaaoaai ia i?aaiu /oanoa a i?ioeii, ii ia aini?eieiaaiiai a
aeaiiue iiiaio. Nthaea ioiinyony ia?acu iaiyoe (Nianneay aaoiy E?aiey),
ia?acu aiia?aaeaiey (?onaeea, eaioaa?) e ae?. A ioee/ea io aini?eyoey, a
i?aaenoaaeaiee ionoonoaoao iaiin?aaenoaaiiay naycue n ?aaeueiui
iauaeoii. Yoi iau/ii ?anieua/aoue, on?aaeiaiiue, ia/aoeee ia?ac
i?aaeiaoa, ii oaea a iai niaa?oaaony yeaiaioa?iia iaiauaiea n
auaeaeaieai iaeioi?uo iaueo i?eciaeia e ioa?anuaaieai ianouanoaaiiuo.

?aoeeiiaeueiia iiciaiea iaeaieaa iieii e aaeaeaaoii au?aaeaii a
iuoeaiee. IUOEAIEA – inouanoaeythueeny a oiaea i?aeoeee aeoeaiue
i?ioeann iaiauaiiiai e iiin?aaeiaaiiiai io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
iaania/eaathuee ia iniiaa /oanoaaiiuo aeaiiuo ?ane?uoea aa caeiiiia?iuo
naycae e eo au?aaeaiea a nenoaia aano?aeoeee (iiiyoee, eaoaai?ee e
ae?.). *aeiaa/aneia iuoeaiea i?aaie/anee naycaii n ?a/ueth, a aai
?acoeueoaou oeene?othony a ycuea eae ii?aaeaeaiiie ciaeiaie nenoaia,
eioi?ay iiaeao auoue anoanoaaiiie eee eneonnoaaiiie (ycue iaoaiaoeee,
oi?iaeueiie eiaeee, oeie/aneea oi?ioeu e o.i.).

Iuoeaiea /aeiaaea – ia /enoi aai i?e?iaeiia naienoai, a au?aaioaiiay a
oiaea enoi?ee ooieoeey nioeeaeueiiai noauaeoa. Iiyoiio iuoeaiea, aai
oi?iu, i?eioeeiu, eaoaai?ee, caeiiu aioo?aiia naycaiu n enoi?eae
nioeeaeueiie aeecie, iaoneiaeaiu ?acaeoeai i?aeoeee.

Auaeaeytho aeaa iniiaiuo o?iaiy iuoeaiey – ?acoi e ?annoaeie. ?ANNOAeIE
– enoiaeiue o?iaaiue iuoeaiey, ia eioi?ii iia?e?iaaiea aano?aeoeeyie
i?ienoiaeeo a i?aaeaeao iaeciaiiie noaiu, caaeaiiiai oaaeiia, aeanoeiai
noaiaea?oa. Yoi niiniaiinoue iineaaeiaaoaeueii e ynii ?annoaeaeaoue,
i?aaeeueii no?ieoue naie iunee, /aoei eeanneoeoee?iaaoue, no?iai
nenoaiaoece?iaaoue oaeou. Caeanue niciaoaeueii ioaeaeathony io ?acaeoey,
acaeiinayce aauae e au?aaeathueo eo iiiyoee, ?anniao?eaay eo eae ia/oi
onoie/eaia, iaeciaiiia. Aeaaiay ooieoeey ?annoaeea – ?an/eaiaiea e
en/eneaiea.

Iuoeaiea a oeaeii iaaiciiaeii aac ?annoaeea. Ii iaiaoiaeei anaaaea, ii
aai aaniethoecaoeey iaecaaaeii aaaeao e iaoaoeceea. ?annoaeie – yoi
iauaeaiiia, iianaaeiaaiia aeeoaeneia iuoeaiea eee oi, /oi iacuaatho
cae?aaui niuneii. Eiaeea ?annoaeea – oi?iaeueiay eiaeea, eioi?ay eco/aao
no?oeoo?o auneacuaaiee e aeieacaoaeuenoa, ia?auay iniiaiia aieiaiea ia
oi?io “aioiaiai” ciaiey, a ia ia aai niaea?aeaiea.

?ACOI (aeeaeaeoe/aneia iuoeaiea) – aunoee o?iaaiue ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
iiciaiey, aeey eioi?iai i?aaeaea anaai oa?aeoa?iu oai?/aneia
iia?e?iaaiea aano?aeoeeyie e niciaoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea eo nianoaaiiie
i?e?iaeu (naii?aoeaeney). Oieueei ia yoii o?iaia iuoeaiea iiaeao
iinoe/ue nouiinoue aauae, eo caeiiu e i?ioeai?a/ey, aaeaeaaoii au?aceoue
eiaeeo aauae a eiaeea iiiyoee. Aeaaiay caaea/a ?acoia – iauaaeeiaiea
iiiaiia?aciiai, aieioue aei neioaca i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae e auyaeaiea
ei?aiiuo i?e/ei e aeaeaeoueo nee eco/aaiuo yaeaiee.

I?ioeann ?acaeoey iuoeaiey aeeth/aao a naay acaeiinaycue e
acaeiiia?aoiae ?annoaeea e ?acoia.

OI?IU IUOEAIEss (EIAE*ANEEA OI?IU) – niiniau io?aaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iin?aaenoaii acaeiinaycaiiuo aano?aeoeee, n?aaee
eioi?uo enoiaeiuie yaeythony iiiyoey, noaeaeaiey e oiicaeeth/aiey. Ia eo
iniiaa no?iyony aieaa neiaeiua oi?iu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiciaiey, oaeea,
eae aeiioaca, oai?ey e ae?., ia eioi?uo inoaiiaeiny ia neaaeothuae
eaeoeee.

IIIssOEA – oi?ia iuoeaiey, io?aaeathuay iauea caeiiiia?iua nayce,
nouanoaaiiua noi?iiu, i?eciaee yaeaiee, eioi?ua cae?aieythony a eo
ii?aaeaeaieyo. Iaeaieaa iauea iiiyoey – yoi oeeinioneea eaoaai?ee
(iaoa?ey, ea/anoai, i?ioeai?a/ea e ae?.). Iiiyoey au?aaeathony a
ycueiaie oi?ia – a aeaea ioaeaeueiuo neia (aoii, aiaei?iae e ae?.) eee a
aeaea neiaini/aoaiee, iaicia/athueo eeannu iauaeoia (yeiiiie/aneea
ioiioaiey, yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu e ae?.).

NOAEAeAIEA – oi?ia iuoeaiey, io?aaeathuay aaue, yaeaiey, i?ioeannu
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eo naienoaa, nayce e ioiioaiey. Yoi iuneaiiia
io?aaeaiea, iau/ii au?aaeaaiia iiaanoaiaaoaeueiui i?aaeeiaeaieai, iiaeao
auoue eeai enoeiiui (Ia?eae noieo ia Naia), eeai eiaeiui (I?ae –
noieeoea ?innee).

OIICAEETH*AIEA – oi?ia iuoeaiey, iin?aaenoaii eioi?ie ec ?aiaa
onoaiiaeaiiiai ciaiey (iau/ii ec iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo noaeaeaiee)
auaiaeeony iiaia ciaiea (oaeaea iau/ii a aeaea noaeaeaiey).
Eeanne/aneee i?eia? oiicaeeth/aiey:

1. Ana ethaee nia?oiu (iinueea).

2. Nie?ao – /aeiaae (iainiiauaathuaa ciaiea).

3. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, Nie?ao nia?oai (auaiaeiia ciaiea, iacuaaaiia
caeeth/aieai eee neaaenoaeai).

Aaaeiaeoae oa?aeoa?enoeeie ciaiey yaeyaony aai AeEIAIEEA, o.a. aai ?ino,
eciaiaiea, ?acaeoea e o.i. ?acaeoea ciaiey – neiaeiue aeeaeaeoe/aneee
i?ioeann, eiathuee ii?aaeaeaiiua ea/anoaaiii ?acee/iua yoaiu. Oae, yoio
i?ioeann iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae aeaeaeaiea io ieoa e eiaino, io
eiaina e “i?aaeiaoea”, io “i?aaeiaoee” e iaoea, io eeanne/aneie iaoee e
iaeeanne/aneie e o.ae.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aeaenaaa I. A., Iaiei A. A. Oai?ey iiciaiey e aeeaeaeoeea. I., 1991.

2. A?aieoeu iaoee: i aiciiaeiinoe aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iiaeaeae iiciaiey.
I., 1991.

3. Aeeaeaeoeea iiciaiey. E., 1988.

4. Caaaaeea /aeiaa/aneiai iiieiaiey. I., 1991.

5. Eeueei A. A. Oai?ey iiciaiey. Aaaaeaiea. Iauea i?iaeaiu. I., 1994.

6. Iiciaiea a nioeeaeueiii eiioaenoa. I., 1994.

7. ?ooeaae/ I. I., Eieoiai E. ss. Aeeaeaeoeea e oai?ey iiciaiey. I.,
1994.

8. Nia?aiaiiua oai?ee iiciaiey. I., 1992.

9. Oai?ey iiciaiey: A 4 o. I., 1991-1995.

10. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aocia. ?inoia-i/Ae., 1995.

1. Oaia XX. IAO*IIA IICIAIEA

1. Iao/iia iiciaiea, aai niaoeeoeea e no?iaiea.

2. Iaoiaeieiaey iao/iiai iiciaiey.

3. ?ieue iaoee a ?acaeoee oaoieee.

Iao/iia iiciaiea, aai niaoeeoeea e no?iaiea.

Iaoea eae naiaia?aciay oi?ia iiciaiey ia/aea ?acaeaaoueny ioiineoaeueii
naiinoiyoaeueii a yiioo noaiiaeaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai niiniaa
i?iecaiaenoaa (XVI-XVII aa.). Iaeiaei naiinoiyoaeueiinoue ia
oiaeaeanoaaiiay naiieciee?iaaiiinoe. Iaoea anaaaea auea naycaia n
i?aeoeeie, iieo/aea io iaa ana iiaua e iiaua eiioeuenu aeey naiaai
?acaeoey e, a naith i/a?aaeue, aicaeaenoaiaaea ia oiae i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ii?aaeia/eaaeanue, iaoa?eaeeciaaeanue a iae.

IAOEA – yoi oi?ia aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, eioi?ay i?iecaiaeeo
ciaiey i i?e?iaea, iauanoaa e i naiii iiciaiee. Aa iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
oeaeueth yaeyaony iinoeaeaiea enoeiu e ioe?uoea iauaeoeaiuo caeiiia
?acaeoey ie?a. Iiyoiio iaoea a oeaeii ia?acoao aaeeioth,
acaeiinaycaiioth, ?ACAEAATHUOTHNss NENOAIO CIAIEE I OAEEO CAEIIAO.

Aianoa n oai, a caaeneiinoe io eco/aiey oie eee eiie oi?iu iaoa?ee,
noi?iiu aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iaoea ?acaeaeyaony ia iiiaeanoai io?aneae
ciaiey (/aeiuo iaoe). Yoi aeaaiue e?eoa?ee eeanneoeeaoeee.
Eniieuecothony e ae?oaea e?eoa?ee. A /anoiinoe, II I?AAeIAOO E IAOIAeO
IICIAIEss iiaeii auaeaeeoue iaoee i i?e?iaea – anoanoaiciaiea e
iauanoaa – iauanoaiciaiea (aoiaieoa?iua, nioeeaeueiua iaoee), i
iiciaiee, iuoeaiee (eiaeea, aiinaieiaey e ae?.). I/aiue naiaia?aciie
iaoeie yaeyaony nia?aiaiiay iaoaiaoeea. Ioaeaeueioth a?oiio ninoaaeytho
oaoie/aneea iaoee.

A naith i/a?aaeue eaaeaeay a?oiia iaoe iiaeaa?aaaony aieaa aeaoaeueiiio
/eaiaieth. Oae, a ninoaa anoanoaaiiuo iaoe aoiaeyo iaoaieea, oeceea,
oeiey, aeieiaey e ae?., eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo iiae?acaeaeyaony ia ?yae
iao/iuo aeenoeeieei – oece/aneay oeiey, aeioeceea e o.i. Iaoeie i
iaeaieaa iaueo caeiiao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yaeyaony oeeinioey, eioi?oth,
eae iu auynieee a ia?aie eaeoeee, iaeuecy iieiinoueth ioiineoue oieueei
e iaoea.

Aicueiai aua iaeei e?eoa?ee: II NAIAE OAeAEAIIINOE IO I?AEOEEE iaoee
iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa e?oiiuo oeia: OOIAeAIAIOAEUeIUA. aaea iao
i?yiie i?eaioaoeee ia i?aeoeeo, e I?EEEAAeIUA – iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
i?eiaiaiea ?acoeueoaoia iao/iiai iiciaiey aeey ?aoaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
e nioeeaeueii-i?aeoe/aneeo i?iaeai. Iaoea eae oi?ia iiciaiey e
nioeeaeueiue einoeooo naia naay eco/aao n iiiiuueth eiiieaena
aeenoeeieei, a eioi?ue aoiaeyo enoi?ey e eiaeea iaoee, ineoieiaey
iao/iiai oai?/anoaa, nioeeieiaey iao/iiai ciaiey e iaoee, iaoeiaaaeaiea
e ae?. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ao?ii ?acaeaaaony oeeinioey iaoee (ia yoii – a
neaaeothuae eaeoeee).

I?e anai yoii iu anaaaea aeieaeiu iiiieoue, /oi iacaaeneii io e?eoa?eaa
e aeoaeiu eeanneoeeaoeee a?aieoeo iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie iaoeaie e
iao/iuie aeenoeeieeiaie oneiaiu e iiaeaeaeiu.

INIIAIUA INIAAIIINOE IAO*IIAI IICIAIEss: 1. Ia?aay e iniiaiay caaea/a
iao/iiai iiciaiey, eae iu oaea auynieee, – iaia?oaeaiea iauaeoeaiuo
caeiiia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – i?e?iaeiuo, nioeeaeueiuo (iauanoaaiiuo),
caeiiia naiiai iiciaiey, iuoeaiey e ae?. Ionthaea i?eaioaoeey
enneaaeiaaiey aeaaiui ia?acii ia nouanoaaiiua naienoaa i?aaeiaoa e eo
au?aaeaiea a nenoaia aano?aeoeee. Aac yoiai ia iiaeao auoue iaoee, eai
naii iiiyoea iao/iinoe i?aaeiieaaaao ioe?uoea caeiiia, oaeoaeaiea a
nouiinoue eco/aaiuo yaeaiee.

2. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiay oeaeue e aunoay oeaiiinoue iao/iiai iiciaiey –
iauaeoeaiay enoeia, iinoeaaaiay i?aeiouanoaaiii ?aoeeiiaeueiuie
n?aaenoaaie e iaoiaeaie, ii, ?acoiaaony, ia aac o/anoey aeeaiai
nica?oeaiey. Aeoeaiinoue noauaeoa – aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea e i?aaeiinueea
iao/iiai iiciaiey. Ii i?ei?eoao a iai ioaeaaony iauaeoeaiinoe.
IAUAEOEAIINOUe – oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa iao/iiai iiciaiey.

3. Iaoea a aieueoae ia?a, /ai ae?oaea oi?iu iiciaiey, i?eaioe?iaaia ia
i?aeoe/aneoth aiieiuaiiinoue. AEeciaiiue niune iao/iiai ecuneaiey iiaeao
auoue au?aaeai oi?ioeie: “Ciaoue, /oiau i?aaeaeaeaoue, i?aaeaeaeaoue,
/oiau i?aeoe/anee aeaenoaiaaoue” – ia oieueei a ianoiyuai, ii e a
aoaeouai.

4. Iao/iia iiciaiea a aiinaieiae/aneii ieaia – yoi neiaeiue,
i?ioeai?a/eaue i?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa ciaiee, eioi?ua ia?acotho
oeaeinoioth ?acaeaathuothny nenoaio iiiyoee, oai?ee, aeiioac, caeiiia e
ae?oaeo eaeaaeueiuo oi?i, cae?aieaiiuo a ycuea – anoanoaaiiii eee, /oi
aieaa oa?aeoa?ii, – eneonnoaaiiii (iaoaiaoe/aneay neiaieeea, oeie/aneea
oi?ioeu e o.i.). I?ioeann iai?a?uaiiai naiiiaiiaeaiey iaoeie naiaai
eiioeaiooaeueiiai a?naiaea – aaaeiue iieacaoaeue iao/iinoe.

5. A i?ioeanna iao/iiai iiciaiey i?eiaiythony oaeea niaoeeoe/aneea
iaoa?eaeueiua n?aaenoaa, eae i?eai?u, eino?oiaiou, ae?oaia o.i. “iao/iia
iai?oaeiaaiea”, ca/anooth i/aiue neiaeiia e aei?iainoiyuaa
(neio?ioacio?iiu, ?aaeeioaeaneiiu, ?aeaoii-einie/aneay oaoieea e o.ae.).
E?iia oiai, aeey iaoee a aieueoae ia?a, /ai ae?oaeo oi?i iiciaiey,
oa?aeoa?ii eniieueciaaiea a enneaaeiaaieyo naieo iauaeoia e naiie naay
oaeeo eaeaaeueiuo (aeooiaiuo) n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia, eae nia?aiaiiay
eiaeea, iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu, aeeaeaeoeea, nenoaiiue, eeaa?iaoe/aneee
e ae?oaea iauaiao/iua i?eaiu e iaoiaeu (ia yoii – ieaea).

6. Iao/iiio iiciaieth i?enoue no?iaay aeieacaoaeueiinoue,
iainiiaaiiinoue iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia, aeinoiaa?iinoue auaiaeia.
Aianoa n oai a iai iaiaei aeiioac, aeiaaaeie, i?aaeiieiaeaiee,
aa?iyoiinoiuo noaeaeaiee. Aio ii/aio aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea caeanue eiaao
eiaeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea enneaaeiaaoaeae, eo oeeinioneay
eoeueoo?a, oiaiea i?aaeeueii eniieueciaaoue caeiiu e i?eioeeiu iuoeaiey.

A nia?aiaiiie iaoiaeieiaee auaeaeytho ?acee/iua e?eoa?ee iao/iinoe. E
iei ioiinyo, e?iia auoa iacaaiiuo, oaeea, eae aioo?aiiyy nenoaiiinoue
ciaiey, aai oi?iaeueiay iai?ioeai?a/eainoue, iiuoiay i?iaa?yaiinoue,
aini?iecaiaeeiinoue, ioe?uoinoue aeey e?eoeee, naiaiaea io
i?aaeacyoinoe, no?iainoue e ae?. A ae?oaeo oi?iao iiciaiey oeacaiiua
e?eoa?ee i?iyaeythony a ?aciie ia?a, ii ia yaeythony ii?aaeaeythueie.

NIAOeEOEEA IICIAIEss NIOeEAEUeIUO ssAEAIEE. Aeieaia a?aiy aiaeec iaoee e
iao/iiai iiciaiey iiaeaee?iaaeny ii anoanoaaiii-iaoaiaoe/aneei iaoiaeai
iiciaiey. Aai oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eienuaaeenue iaoea a oeaeii eae oaeiaie,
i /ai iaaeyaeii naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae iiceoeaeci. A iineaaeiea aiaeu ?acei
aic?in eioa?an e nioeeaeueiiio (aoiaieoa?iiio) iiciaieth. Eiaaea ?a/ue
caoiaeeo i nioeeaeueiii iiciaiee eae iaeiii ec naiaia?aciuo aeaeia
iao/iiai iiciaiey, oi neaaeoao eiaoue aaeaeo aeaa aai aniaeoa:

1) ethaia iiciaiea a eaaeaeie ec naieo oi?i anaaaea nioeeaeueii, iioiio
/oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo e aeaoa?ieie?iaaii
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeie i?e/eiaie;

2) iaeei ec aeaeia iao/iiai iiciaiey, eioi?ue eiaao naiei i?aaeiaoii
nioeeaeueiua (iauanoaaiiua) yaeaiey e i?ioeannu – iauanoai a oeaeii eee
aai ioaeaeueiua noi?iiu: yeiiiieeo, iieeoeeo, aeooiaioth noa?o e ae?.

I?e enneaaeiaaiee iaaeiionoeii eae naaaeaiea nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee e
i?e?iaeiui (iiiuoee iauynieoue iauanoaaiiua i?ioeannu oieueei caeiiaie
anoanoaiciaiey), oae e i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea i?e?iaeiiai e nioeeaeueiiai,
aieioue aei iieiiai eo ?ac?uaa. A ia?aii neo/aa nioeeaeueii-aoiaieoa?iia
ciaiea ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n anoanoaaiii-iao/iui e iaoaie/anee,
iae?eoe/anee naiaeeony (?aaeoeoeey) e iaio. Yoi iaoo?aeeci, aunooiathuee
a oi?iao iaoaieoeecia, oeceeaeecia, aeieiaecia e ae?. Ai aoi?ii neo/aa
iaeeoei i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea anoanoaiciaiey e iaoe i eoeueoo?a,
nii?iaiaeaeaaiia ia?aaeei aeene?aaeeoaoeeae “oi/iuo” iaoe
(“aoiaieoa?enoeea”).

Iaa oeia iaoe – aaoae iaoee eae oeaeiai, oa?aeoa?ecothueany aaeeinoaii e
?acee/eai. Eaaeaeay ec ieo, i?e oaniie acaeiinayce, eiaao naie
iniaaiiinoe. Niaoeeoeea nioeeaeueiiai (aoiaieoa?iiai) iiciaiey
i?iyaeyaony a neaaeothuai:

1. Aai i?aaeiao – “ie? /aeiaaea”, a ia i?inoi aauue eae oaeiaay. A yoi
cia/eo, /oi aeaiiue i?aaeiao eiaao noauaeoeaiia ecia?aiea, a iaai
aeeth/ai /aeiaae eae “aaoi? e eniieieoaeue naiae nianoaaiiie ae?aiu”, ii
aea e aa enneaaeiaaoaeue. Aoiaieoa?iia iiciaiea eiaao aeaei ia n
?aaeueiuie aauaie e eo naienoaaie, a n ioiioaieyie ethaeae. Ooo oanii
ia?aieaoaaony iaoa?eaeueiia e eaeaaeueiia, iauaeoeaiia e noauaeoeaiia,
niciaoaeueiia e noeoeeiia e o.i. Caeanue noaeeeaathony eioa?anu e
no?anoe, noaayony e ?aaeecothony ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee e o.ae.

Iineieueeo iauanoai – aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae, iinoieueeo nioeeaeueiia
iiciaiea enneaaeoao aa iiiaiia?aciua oi?iu, a ia i?e?iaeo. Iaia?oaeaiea
caeiiia yoie aeayoaeueiinoe anoue aianoa n oai ioe?uoea caeiiia iauanoaa
e, ia yoie iniiaa, caeiiia e i?eioeeiia naiiai iiciaiey, iuoeaiey.

2. Nioeeaeueiia iiciaiea ia?ac?uaii e iinoiyiii naycaii n i?aaeiaoiuie
(ioeaiea yaeaiee n oi/ee c?aiey aeia?a e cea, ni?aaaaeeeaiai e
iani?aaaaeeeaiai e o.i.) e “noauaeoeaiuie” (onoaiiaee, acaeyaeu, ii?iu,
oeaee e o.i.) oeaiiinoyie. Iie ii?aaeaeytho /aeiaa/anee aaniiia e
eoeueoo?iia cia/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo yaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Oaeiau, a
/anoiinoe, iieeoe/aneea, ie?iaicc?ai/aneea, i?aanoaaiiua oaaaeaeaiey
/aeiaaea, aai i?eaycaiiinoe, i?eioeeiu e iioeau iiaaaeaiey e o.ae. Ana
oeacaiiua e ei iiaeiaiua iiiaiou aoiaeyo a i?ioeann nioeeaeueiiai
enneaaeiaaiey e iaecaaaeii neacuaathony ia niaea?aeaiee iieo/aaiuo i?e
yoii ciaiee.

3. Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey yaeyaony aai
i?aeiouanoaaiiay i?eaioaoeey ia “ea/anoaaiioth ie?aneo niauoee”. Caeanue
yaeaiey enneaaeothony aeaaiui ia?acii ni noi?iiu ea/anoaa, a ia
eiee/anoaa. Iiyoiio oaeaeueiue aan eiee/anoaaiiuo iaoiaeia a
aoiaieoa?iuo iaoeao iaiiiai iaiueoa, /ai a iaoeao
anoanoaaiii-iaoaiaoe/aneiai oeeeea, oioy eo i?eiaiaiea noaiiaeony ana
aieaa oe?ieei. I?e yoii aeaaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aiaeeco aaeeie/iiai,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai, ii ia iaiiaa iauaai, caeiiiia?iiai.

4. A nioeeaeueiii iiciaiee iaeuecy iieueciaaoueny ie iee?ineiiii, ie
oeie/aneeie ?aaeoeaaie, ie oai aieaa neiaeiaeoei oaoie/aneei
iai?oaeiaaieai. Ana yoi aeieaeia caiaieoue neea aano?aeoeee. Iiyoiio
caeanue eneeth/eoaeueii aaeeea ?ieue iuoeaiey, aai oi?i, i?eioeeiia e
iaoiaeia. Anee a anoanoaiciaiee oi?iie iinoeaeaiey iauaeoa yaeyaony
iiiieia (eai i?e?iaea “iie/eo”), oi a aoiaieoa?iii iiciaiee – yoi
aeeaeia (ee/iinoae, oaenoia, eoeueoo? e o.i.). Aeeaeiae/aneay i?e?iaea
nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey iaeaieaa iieii au?aaeaaony a i?ioeaaeo?ao
iiieiaiey. Iii eae ?ac e yaeyaony iia?oaeaieai a “ie? niuneia” ae?oaiai
/aeiaaea, iinoeaeaieai e enoieeiaaieai (eioa?i?aoaoeeae) aai /oanoa,
iuneae e no?aieaiee, Iiieiaiea eae i?eiauaiea e niuneai /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe e eae niuneiia?aciaaiea oanii naycaii n naiiiiieiaieai e
i?ienoiaeeo a oneiaeyo iauaiey ethaeae.

5. A neeo oeacaiiuo auoa ianoiyoaeuenoa a nioeeaeueiii iiciaiee
eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao “oi?ioay” oeeinioey e aa?iue
iaoiae. Eo aeoaieia ciaiea e oiaeia i?eiaiaiea iicaieytho aaeaeaaoii
iinoeaaoue neiaeiue, i?ioeai?a/eaue, noaoai aeeaeaeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?
nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee e i?ioeannia, i?e?iaeo iuoeaiey, aai oi?i e
i?eioeeiia, eo i?iiecaiiinoue oeaiiinoii-ie?iaicc?ai/aneeie eiiiiiaioaie
e eo aeeyiea ia ?acoeueoaou iiciaiey, niunei-aeeciaiiua i?eaioaoeee
ethaeae, iniaaiiinoe aeeaeiaa (iaiuneeiiai aac iinoaiiaee e ?ac?aoaiey
i?ioeai?a/ee-i?iaeai) e o.ae. Yoi oai aieaa aaaeii aua e iioiio, /oi
aeey nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey oa?aeoa?iu ionoonoaea iauai?eciaiiuo
ia?aaeeai (aaaeouaa ca/anooth e “oai?aoe/aneiio aia?oecio”),
iiaeaeaeiinoue e ?anieua/aoinoue aai yiie?e/aneiai aacena, neiaeiay
i?e?iaea oai?aoe/aneeo iaiauaiee (naycaiiay i?aaeaea anaai n
aeeth/aiiinoueth a ieo oeaiiinoiuo eiiiiiaioia e “ee/iuo
iiaeaeueiinoae”).

Yoi ae?aooea ana i i?aaeiaoa e niaoeeoeea iao/iiai iiciaiey. Oaia?ue
inoaiiaeiny ia AAI NO?IAIEE.

Iao/iia iiciaiea anoue i?ioeann, o.a. ?acaeaathuayny nenoaia ciaiey. Iia
aeeth/aao a naay AeAA INIIAIUO O?IAIss – yiie?e/aneee e oai?aoe/aneee.
Iie oioue e naycaiu, ii ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa, eaaeaeue ec ieo
eiaao naith niaoeeoeeo. A /ai iia caeeth/aaony?

Ia YIIE?E*ANEII O?IAIA i?aiaeaaeaao aeeaia nica?oeaiea (/oanoaaiiia
iiciaiea), ?aoeeiiaeueiue iiiaio e aai oi?iu (noaeaeaiey, iiiyoey e
ae?.) caeanue i?enoonoaotho, ii eiatho iiae/eiaiiia cia/aiea. Iiyoiio
iauaeo enneaaeoaony i?aeiouanoaaiii ni noi?iiu naieo aiaoieo naycae e
ioiioaiee, aeinooiiuo aeeaiio nica?oeaieth. Nai? oaeoia, eo ia?ae/iia
iaiauaiea, iienaiea iaaethaeaaiuo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo, eo
nenoaiaoecaoeey, eeanneoeeaoeey e eiay oaeoioeene?othuay aeayoaeueiinoue
– oa?aeoa?iua i?eciaee yiie?e/aneiai iiciaiey.

Yiie?e/aneia enneaaeiaaiea iai?aaeaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii (aac
i?iiaaeooi/iuo caaiueaa) ia naie iauaeo. Iii inaaeaaao aai n iiiiuueth
oaeeo i?eaiia e n?aaenoa, eae n?aaiaiea, ecia?aiea, iaaethaeaiea,
yenia?eiaio, aiaeec, eiaeoeoeey (ia yoeo i?eaiao – ieaea). Iaeiaei ia
neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi iiuo ieeiaaea, oai aieaa a nia?aiaiiie iaoea, ia
auaaao neaiui: ii ieaie?oaony, eiino?oe?oaony oai?eae, a oaeou anaaaea
oae eee eia/a oai?aoe/anee iaa?oaeaiu. Iiyoiio ENOIAeIUE IOIEO, IA*AEI
IAOEE – yoi, no?iai aiai?y, ia naie ii naaa i?aaeiaou, ia aieua oaeou
(aeaaea a eo niaieoiiinoe), a oai?aoe/aneea noaiu, “eiioeaiooaeueiua
ea?eanu aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe”. Iie ninoiyo ec aano?aeoiuo iauaeoia
(“eaeaaeueiuo eiino?oeoia”) ?aciiai ?iaea – iinooeaou, i?eioeeiu,
ii?aaeaeaiey, eiioeaiooaeueiua iiaeaee e o.i.

Iu, ieacuaaaony, naie “aeaeaai” iao iiuo. Eiaiii oai?aoee oeacuaaao
iooue yenia?eiaioaoi?o. I?e/ai, oai?ey ainiiaenoaoao iaae
yenia?eiaioaeueiie ?aaioie io aa ia?aiia/aeueiiai ieaia e aei iineaaeieo
oo?eoia a eaai?aoi?ee. Niioaaonoaaiii, ia iiaeao auoue e “/enoiai ycuea
iaaethaeaiee”, oae eae ana ycuee “i?iiecaiu oai?eyie”, a aieua oaeou,
acyoua aia e iiieii eiioeaiooaeueiuo ?aiie, ia yaeythony iniiaie oai?ee.

Niaoeeoeeo OAI?AOE*ANEIAI O?IAIss iao/iiai iiciaiey ii?aaeaeyao
i?aiaeaaeaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiiaioa – iiiyoee, oai?ee, ca-eiiia e
ae?oaeo oi?i e “iuneeoaeueiuo iia?aoeee”. AEeaia nica?oeaiea caeanue ia
ono?aiyaony, a noaiiaeony iiae/eiaiiui (ii i/aiue aaaeiui) aniaeoii
iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. Oai?aoe/aneia iiciaiea io?aaeaao yaeaiey e
i?ioeannu ni noi?iiu eo oieaa?naeueiuo aioo?aiieo naycae e
caeiiiia?iinoae, iinoeaaaiuo n iiiiuueth ?aoeeiiaeueiie ia?aaioee
aeaiiuo yiie?e/aneiai ciaiey. Yoa ia?aaioea aeeth/aao a naay nenoaio
aano?aeoeee “aunoaai ii?yaeea”, oaeeo, eae iiiyoey, oiicaeeth/aiey,
caeiiu, eaoaai?ee, i?eioeeiu e ae?.

Ia iniiaa yiie?e/aneeo aeaiiuo enneaaeoaiua iauaeou iuneaiii
iauaaeeiythony, iinoeaaaony eo nouiinoue, “aioo?aiiaa aeaeaeaiea”,
caeiiu eo nouanoaiaaiey, ninoaaeythuea iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea oai?ee –
“eaeioynnaioeee” ciaiey ia aeaiiii o?iaia.

Aaaeiaeoay caaea/a oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey – aeinoeaeaiea iauaeoeaiie
enoeiu ai anae aa eiie?aoiinoe e iieiioa niaea?aeaiey. I?e yoii iniaaiii
oe?iei eniieuecothony oaeea iiciaaaoaeueiua i?eaiu e n?aaenoaa, eae
aano?aae?iaaiea – ioaea/aiea io ?yaea naienoa e ioiioaiee i?aaeiaoia,
eaeaaeecaoeey – i?ioeann nicaeaiey /enoi iuneaiiuo i?aaeiaoia (“oi/ea”,
“eaeaaeueiue aac” e ae?.), neioac – iauaaeeiaiea iieo/aiiuo a
?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca yeaiaioia a nenoaio, aeaaeoeoeey – aeaeaeaiea
iiciaiey io iauaai e /anoiiio, ainoiaeaeaiea io aano?aeoiiai e
eiie?aoiiio e ae?. I?enoonoaea a iiciaiee eaeaaeecaoeee neoaeeo
iieacaoaeai ?acaeoinoe oai?aoe/aneiai ciaiey eae iaai?a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
eaeaaeueiuo iiaeaeae.

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey yaeyaony aai iai?aaeaiiinoue
ia naay, AIOO?EIAO*IAss ?AOEAENEss, o.a. enneaaeiaaiea naiiai i?ioeanna
iiciaiey, aai oi?i, i?eaiia, iaoiaeia, iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa e o.ae. Ia
iniiaa oai?aoe/aneiai iauyniaiey e iiciaiiuo caeiiia inouanoaeyaony
i?aaeneacaiea, iao/iia i?aaeaeaeaiea aoaeouaai.

YIIE?E*ANEEE E OAI?AOE*ANEEE O?IAIE IICIAIEss ACAEIINAssCAIU, a?aieoea
iaaeaeo ieie oneiaia e iiaeaeaeia. A ii?aaeaeaiiuo oi/eao ?acaeoey iaoee
yiie?e/aneia ia?aoiaeeo a oai?aoe/aneia e iaiai?io. Iaeiaei iaaeiionoeii
aaniethoece?iaaoue iaeei ec yoeo o?iaiae a oua?a ae?oaiio.

YIIE?ECI naiaeeo iao/iia iiciaiea eae oeaeia e yiie?e/aneiio aai
o?iaith, i?eieaeay eee aiana ioaa?aay oai?aoe/aneia iiciaiea.
“NOIEANOE*ANEIA OAI?AOECE?IAAIEA” eaii?e?oao cia/aiea yiie?e/aneeo
aeaiiuo, ioaa?aaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ananoi?iiiaai aiaeeca oaeoia eae
enoi/ieea e iniiau oai?aoe/aneeo iino?iaiee, io?uaaaony io ?aaeueiie
aeecie. Aai i?iaeoeoii yaeythony eeethci?ii-ooiie/aneea, aeiaiaoe/aneea
iino?iaiey, oaeea, iai?eia?, eae eiioeaioeey i “aaaaeaiee eiiioiecia a
1980 a.” eee “oai?ey” ?acaeoiai nioeeaeecia.

?anniao?eaay oai?aoe/aneia iiciaiea eae aunoaa e iaeaieaa ?acaeoia,
neaaeoao i?aaeaea anaai ii?aaeaeeoue aai no?oeoo?iua eiiiiiaiou. E
iniiaiui ec ieo ioiinyony: i?iaeaia, aeiioaca e oai?ey (“oceiaua
iiiaiou” iino?iaiey e ?acaeoey ciaiey ia aai oai?aoe/aneii o?iaia).

I?IAEAIA – oi?ia ciaiey, niaea?aeaieai eioi?ie yaeyaony oi, /oi aua ia
iiciaii /aeiaaeii, ii /oi ioaeii iiciaoue. Eia/a aiai?y, yoi ciaiea i
iaciaiee, aii?in, aicieeoee a oiaea iiciaiey e o?aaothuee ioaaoa.
I?iaeaia ia anoue canouaoay oi?ia ciaiey, a i?ioeann, aeeth/athuee aeaa
iniiaiuo iiiaioa (yoaia aeaeaeaiey iiciaiey) – aa iinoaiiaeo e ?aoaiea.
I?aaeeueiia auaaaeaiea i?iaeaiiiai ciaiey ec i?aaeoanoaothueo oaeoia e
iaiauaiee, oiaiea aa?ii iinoaaeoue i?iaeaio – iaiaoiaeeiay i?aaeiinueea
aa oniaoiiai ?aoaiey.

Iao/iua i?iaeaiu neaaeoao ioee/aoue io iaiao/iuo (inaaaeii?iaeai),
iai?eia?, i?iaeaia nicaeaiey aa/iiai aeaeaaoaey. ?aoaiea eaeie-eeai
eiie?aoiie i?iaeaiu anoue nouanoaaiiue iiiaio ?acaeoey ciaiey, a oiaea
eioi?iai aicieeatho iiaua i?iaeaiu, a oaeaea auaeaeaathony iiaua
i?iaeaiu, oa eee eiua eiioeaiooaeueiua eaeae, a o./. e aeiioacu.

AEIIOACA – oi?ia ciaiey, niaea?aeauay i?aaeiieiaeaiea, noi?ioee?iaaiiia
ia iniiaa ?yaea oaeoia, enoeiiia cia/aiea eioi?iai iaii?aaeaeaiii e
ioaeaeaaony a aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Aeiioaoe/aneia ciaiea iineo aa?iyoiue, a
ia aeinoiaa?iue oa?aeoa? e o?aaoao i?iaa?ee, iainiiaaiey. A oiaea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa auaeaeioouo aeiioac iaeie ec ieo noaiiayony enoeiiie
oai?eae, ae?oaea aeaeieciaiythony, ooi/iythony e eiie?aoece?othony,
i?aa?auathony a caaeoaeaeaiey, anee i?iaa?ea aeaao io?eoeaoaeueiue
?acoeueoao.

Noaaeeth aeiioacu i?ioee e ioe?uoue Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaaui ia?eiaee/aneee
caeii, e oai?ey *. Aea?aeia, e o.ae. ?aoathuae i?iaa?eie enoeiiinoe
aeiioacu yaeyaony i?aeoeea (eiae/aneee e?eoa?ee enoeiu ea?aao i?e yoii
aniiiiaaoaeueioth ?ieue). I?iaa?aiiay e aeieacaiiay aeiioaca ia?aoiaeeo
a ?ac?yae aeinoiaa?iuo enoei, noaiiaeony iao/iie oai?eae.

OAI?Ess – iaeaieaa ?acaeoay oi?ia iao/iiai ciaiey, aeathuay oeaeinoiia
ioia?aaeaiea caeiiiia?iuo e nouanoaaiiuo naycae ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. I?eia?aie yoie oi?iu ciaiey yaeythony eeanne/aneay
iaoaieea Iuethoiia, yaiethoeeiiiay oai?ey Aea?aeia, oai?ey
ioiineoaeueiinoe Yeiooaeia, oai?ey naiii?aaiecothueony oeaeinoiuo nenoai
(neia?aaoeea) e ae?.

A i?aeoeea iao/iua ciaiey oniaoii ?aaeecothony eeoue a oii neo/aa,
eiaaea ethaee oaaaeaeaiu a eo enoeiiinoe. Aac i?aa?auaiey eaeae a ee/iia
oaaaeaeaiea, aa?o /aeiaaea iaaiciiaeia oniaoiay i?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey
oai?aoe/aneeo eaeae.

Iaoiaeieiaey iao/iiai iiciaiey.

IAOIAe (io a?a/. iaoiaein) a naiii oe?ieii niunea neiaa – “iooue e
/aio-eeai”, niinia nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe a ethaie aa oi?ia, a ia
oieueei a iiciaaaoaeueiie. Iiiyoea “iaoiaeieiaey” eiaao aeaa iniiaiuo
cia/aiey:

1) nenoaia ii?aaeaeaiiuo niiniaia, i?eaiia e iia?aoeee, i?eiaiyaiuo a
oie eee eiie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe (a iaoea, iieeoeea, eneonnoaa e o.i.);

2) o/aiea ia yoie nenoaia, oai?ey iaoiaea. Oae, iaoiaeieiaey iaoee
enneaaeoao no?oeoo?o e ?acaeoea iao/iiai ciaiey, n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu
iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey, niiniau iainiiaaiey aai ?acoeueoaoia, iaoaieciu
e oi?iu ?aaeecaoeee ciaiey a i?aeoeea. Iaeiaei iaaa?ii naiaeeoue
iieiinoueth iaoiaeieiae/aneia e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio. “Ana nouaa ia aeaeeony
ia ?acoi aac inoaoea”, oae eae nouanoaotho e aia?aoeeiiaeueiua n?aaenoaa
e i?eaiu iiciaiey.

Eoae, IAOIAe (a oie eee eiie naiae oi?ia) – YOI NIAIEOIIINOUe
II?AAeAEAIIUO I?AAEE, NIINIAIA, II?I IICIAIEss E AeAENOAEss. Ii anoue
nenoaia i?aaeienaiee, i?eioeeiia, o?aaiaaiee, eioi?ua i?eaioe?otho
noauaeoa ia ?aoaiea eiie?aoiie caaea/e, aeinoeaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
?acoeueoaoa a aeaiiie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii aeenoeeieeie?oao iiene
enoeiu, iicaieyao (anee i?aaeeueiue) yeiiiieoue neeu e a?aiy,
aeaeaaoueny e oeaee e?ao/aeoei iooai. Iniiaiay ooieoeey iaoiaea –
?aaoee?iaaiea iiciaaaoaeueiie e eiuo oi?i aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ethaie iaoiae ?ac?aaaouaaaony ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiiie oai?ee, eioi?ay
oai naiui aunooiaao aai iaiaoiaeeiie i?aaeiinueeie. Yooaeoeaiinoue, neea
eaaeaeiai iaoiaea iaoneiaeaiu niaea?aeaoaeueiinoueth, aeoaeiie,
ooiaeaiaioaeueiinoueth oai?ee, eioi?ay “naeeiaaony a iaoiae”. A naith
i/a?aaeue, iaoiae ?anoe?yaony a nenoaio, o.a. eniieuecoaony aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai oaeoaeaiey e ?acaa?ouaaiey ciaiey, aai iaoa?eaeecaoeee a
i?aeoeea.

Iaoiae nouanoaoao, ?acaeaaaony oieueei a neiaeiie aeeaeaeoeea
noauaeoeaiiai e iauaeoeaiiai, i?e ii?aaeaeythuae ?iee iineaaeiaai. A
yoii niunea ethaie iaoiae i?aaeaea anaai iauaeoeaai, niaea?aeaoaeai,
oaeoe/ai. Aianoa n oai ii iaeiia?aiaiii noauaeoeaai, ii ia eae
niaieoiiinoue oiic?eoaeueiuo i?eaiia, i?aaee e i?ioeaaeo?, a eae
i?iaeieaeaiea e caaa?oaiea iauaeoeaiinoe, ec eioi?ie ii au?anoaao.

A nia?aiaiiie iaoea ana iaoiaeu iao/iiai iiciaiey II NOAIAIE IAUIINOE E
NOA?A AeAENOAEss aeaeyo ia iyoue iniiaiuo a?oii:

I. OEEINIONEEA IAOIAeU, n?aaee eioi?uo iaeaieaa ae?aaieie yaeythony
aeeaeaeoe/aneee e iaoaoece/aneee. E eo /eneo oaeaea ioiinyony
aiaeeoe/aneee, eiooeoeaiue, oaiiiaiieiae/aneee, aa?iaiaaoe/aneee e ae?.

A ?aoaiee i/aiue neiaeiiai aii?ina I IAOIAeIEIAE*ANEIE ?IEE OEEINIOEE a
iao/iii iiciaiee neiaeeeenue aeaa e?aeiea iiaeaee:

Ai-ia?auo, OIIC?EOAEUeII-OEEINIONEEE IIAeOIAe (iaoo?oeeinioey,
enoi?einioey e o.i.), i?e eioi?ii enoiaeiua iieiaeaiey iao/iuo oai?ee
auaiaeyony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec oeeinioneeo i?eioeeiia, ieioy aiaeec
niaoeeaeueiiai – oaeoe/aneiai e eiioeaiooaeueiiai – iaoa?eaea aeaiiie
iaoee (Oaeeeia, Aaaaeue). Ai-aoi?uo, IICEOEAECI, niaeanii eioi?iio
“iaoea naia naaa oeeinioey”.

A ia?aie iiaeaee ?ieue oeeinioee a /anoii-iao/iii iiciaiee
aaniethoece?oaony, ai aoi?ie – i?eieaeaaony eee aeaaea aiana
ioaa?aaaony. E oioy iaa e?aeiinoe aeaee ii?aaeaeaiiua iiceoeaiua
?acoeueoaou, iaeiaei oeacaiiay i?iaeaia ia auea ?aoaia.

Enoi?ey oeeinioee iieacuaaao, /oi AICAeAENOAEA AIINAIEIAEE IA I?IOeANN
?ACAEOEss IAOEE e aa ?acoeueoaou y?ei i?iyaeyaony a neaaeothueo iniiaiuo
iiiaioao:

1. Oeeinioey aeeyao ia iao/iia iiciaiea oae eee eia/a ia anao aai
noaaeeyo, ii a iaeaunoae ia?a – i?e iino?iaiee oai?ee, iniaaiii
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo. Iiaeiaiia /aua anaai iaaethaeaaony a ia?eiaeu “e?oouo
eiiie” iiiyoee e i?eioeeiia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee.
I/aaeaeii, oeacaiiia aeeyiea iiaeao auoue eae iiceoeaiui, oae e
iaaaoeaiui. Ana caaeneo io oiai, eaeie oeeinioeae – “oi?ioae” eee
“ieioie” – ?oeiaiaenoaoaony o/aiue. “Aeo?iay oeeinioey, – aiai?ee A.
Aaecaiaa?a, – eniiaeaieue aoaeo oi?iooth oeceeo”.

2. Ia ?acaeoea iao/iiai iiciaiey oeeinioey nouanoaaiii aeeyao naiae
oiic?eoaeueii-i?iaiice?othuae ooieoeee: a aa iaae?ao au?aaaouaathony
eaeae, iao/iay cia/eiinoue eioi?uo iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony /a?ac aaea
(iai?eia?, eaeae aoiiecia aioe/iinoe). E?iia oiai, i?eioeeiu oeeinioee
i?e ia?aoiaea io oiic?aiey e oai?aoe/aneiio enneaaeiaaieth auiieiytho
naeaeoeaioth ooieoeeth. Ec iiiaeanoaa oiic?eoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee o/aiue
auae?aao oa, eioi?ua niaeanothony n aai nianoaaiiuie oeeinioneeie
i?aaenoaaeaieyie.

3. Oeeinioneea i?eioeeiu ia i?ioeann iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey anaaaea
aicaeaenoaotho ia i?yii e iaiin?aaenoaaiii, a neiaeiui, iiin?aaeiaaiiui
iooai – /a?ac iaoiaeu, oi?iu e eiioeaioeee ae?oaeo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo
o?iaiae. I?e/ai, ?aaeecaoeey oeeinioneeo i?eioeeiia a iao/iii iiciaiee
icia/aao aianoa n oai eo ia?ainiuneaiea, oaeoaeaiea, niaa?oainoaiaaiea e
?acaeoea.

4. Oeeinioneea iaoiaeu ia anaaaea aeatho i naaa ciaoue a i?ioeanna
enneaaeiaaiey a yaiii aeaea. Iie iiaoo o/eouaaoueny e i?eiaiyoueny eeai
noeoeeii, eeai niciaoaeueii. Ii a ethaie iaoea anoue yeaiaiou anaiauaai
cia/aiey (iai?eia?, caeiiu, eaoaai?ee, iiiyoey, i?e/eiu e o.i.), eioi?ua
e aeaeatho anyeoth iaoeo i?eeeaaeiie eiaeeie, i?iiecaiiie oeeinioneei
eiiiiiaioii.

5. I?eioeeiu oeeinioee ?aaeueii ooieoeeiie?otho a iaoea a aeaea anaiaueo
?aaoeyoeaia, oieaa?naeueiuo ii?i, ia?acothueo a naiae niaieoiiinoe
iaoiaeieiae/aneoth i?ia?aiio naiiai aa?oiaai o?iaiy. Aeaiiay i?ia?aiia
ia aeieaeia auoue aeanoeie noaiie, oaaeiiii, noa?aioeiii, ii eioi?iio
“e?iyo e ia?ae?aeaatho oaeou”, a eeoue i/aiue aeaeei e aeeiaie/iui iauei
?oeiaiaenoaii aeey enneaaeiaaiey.

6. Oeeinioey ?ac?aaaouaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua oieaa?naeueiua iiaeaee
?aaeueiinoe, neaicue i?ecio eioi?uo o/aiue niio?eo ia i?aaeiao
enneaaeiaaiey, auae?aao anaiauea iiciaaaoaeueiua n?aaenoaa -eaoaai?ee,
i?eioeeiu, iiiyoey e o.i., ii?aaeaeaiiua ie?iaicc?ai/aneea e oeaiiinoiua
onoaiiaee, niuneiaeeciaiiua i?eaioe?u (iniaaiii a aoiaieoa?iuo iaoeao),
aii?oaeaaony ciaieai iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae naiiai iiciaaaoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna e o.i.

7. Oeeinionei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu auiieiytho ooieoeeth
aniiiiaaoaeueiiai, i?iecaiaeiiai io i?aeoeee, e?eoa?ey enoeiu, i /ai
oaea oea ?a/ue.

II. IAUAIAO*IUA IIAeOIAeU E IAOIAeU ENNEAAeIAAIEss. Iie oe?iei
?acaeaathony e i?eiaiythony a iaoea XX.a. e i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
naiaia?acioth i?iiaaeooi/ioth iaoiaeieiaeth iaaeaeo oeeinioeae e
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneeie iieiaeaieyie
niaoeeaeueiuo iaoe. E iauaiao/iui /aaea anaai ioiinyo oaeea iiiyoey, eae
eioi?iaoeey, iiaeaeue, eciii?oeci (io a?a/. ecin – iaeeiaeiaue e ii?oi –
oi?ia), no?oeoo?a, ooieoeey, nenoaia, yeaiaio e o.ae.

Ia iniiaa iauaiao/iuo iiiyoee e eiioeaioeee oi?ioee?othony
niioaaonoaothuea iaoiaeu e i?eioeeiu iiciaiey, eioi?ua e iaania/eaatho
naycue e iioeiaeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea oeeinioneie iaoiaeieiaee ni
niaoeeaeueii-iao/iui ciaieai e aai iaoiaeaie. E /eneo iauaiao/iuo
i?eioeeiia e iiaeoiaeia ioiinyony nenoaiiue e
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiue, eeaa?iaoe/aneee, aa?iyoiinoiue,
iiaeaee?iaaiea. oi?iaeecaoeey e ae?. Aaaeiay ?ieue iacaaiiuo iiaeoiaeia
ninoieo a oii, /oi a neeo naiaai i?iiaaeooi/iiai oa?aeoa?a iie
iiin?aaenoaotho acaeiiia?aoiae oeeinioneiai e /anoiiiao/iiai ciaiey (e
niioaaonoaothueo iaoiaeia).

III. *ANOIIIAO*IUA IAOIAeU, o.a. niaieoiiinoue niiniaia, i?eioeeiia
iiciaiey, enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?eaiia e i?ioeaaeo?, i?eiaiyaiuo a oie
eee eiie io?anee iaoee, niioaaonoaothuae aeaiiie iniiaiie oi?ia
aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee. Yoi iaoiaeu iaoaieee, oeceee, oeiee, aeieiaee e
aoiaieoa?iuo (nioeeaeueiuo) iaoe.

IV. AeENOeEIEEIA?IUA IAOIAeU, o.a. nenoaiu i?eaiia, i?eiaiyaiuo a oie
eee eiie aeenoeeieeia, aoiaeyuae a eaeoth-eeai io?aneue iaoee eee
aicieeoae ia nouea iaoe. Eaaeaeay ooiaeaiaioaeueiay iaoea, eae iu oaea
auynieee, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiieaen aeenoeeieei, eioi?ua eiatho
niaoeeoe/aneee i?aaeiao e naiaia?aciua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey.

V. IAOIAeU IAAEAeENOeEIEEIA?IIAI ENNEAAeIAAIEss eae niaieoiiinoue ?yaea
neioaoe/aneeo, eioaa?aoeaiuo niiniaia (aicieeoeo a ?acoeueoaoa ni/aoaiey
yeaiaioia ?acee/iuo o?iaiae iaoiaeieiaee), iaoeaeaiiuo aeaaiui ia?acii
ia nouee iao/iuo aeenoeeieei.

Oaeei ia?acii, a iao/iii iiciaiee ooieoeeiie?oao neiaeiay, aeeiaie/iay,
oeaeinoiay, noai?aeeie?iaaiiay nenoaia iiiaiia?aciuo iaoiaeia ?aciuo
o?iaiae, noa? aeaenoaee, iai?aaeaiiinoe e o.i., eioi?ua anaaaea
?aaeecothony n o/aoii eiie?aoiuo oneiaee.

?anniio?ei e?aoei iaeioi?ua iaoiaeu, i?eaiu e n?aaenoaa iao/iiai
enneaaeiaaiey, i?eiaiyaiua ia ?aciuo aai yoaiao e o?iaiyo.

IAO*IUIE IAOIAeAI YIIE?E*ANEIAI ENNEAAeIAAIEss yaeythony IAAETHAeAIEA –
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aini?eyoea yaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe (naycaiiia n eo
iienaieai e ecia?aieai), N?AAIAIEA e YENIA?EIAIO, aaea i?ienoiaeeo
aeoeaiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a i?ioaeaiea eco/aaiuo i?ioeannia.

N?aaee IAO*IUO IAOIAeIA OAI?AOE*ANEIAI ENNEAAeIAAIEss /aua anaai
auaeaeytho oi?iaeecaoeeth, aeneiiaoe/aneee e aeiioaoeei-aeaaeoeoeaiue
iaoiaeu;

1. OI?IAEECAOeEss – ioia?aaeaiea niaea?aeaoaeueiiai ciaiey a ciaeiaie
oi?ia (oi?iaeeciaaiiue ycue). Ii nicaeaaony aeey oi/iiai au?aaeaiey
iuneae n oeaeueth eneeth/aiey aiciiaeiinoe iaiaeiicia/iiai iiieiaiey.
I?e oi?iaeecaoeee ?annoaeaeaiey ia iauaeoao ia?aiinyony a ieineinoue
iia?e?iaaiey ciaeaie (oi?ioeaie). Ioiioaiey ciaeia caiaiytho niaie
auneacuaaiey i naienoaao e ioiioaieyo i?aaeiaoia. Oi?iaeecaoeee ea?aao
nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a ooi/iaiee iao/iuo iiiyoee. Iaeiaei oi?iaeueiue
iaoiae – aeaaea i?e iineaaeiaaoaeueiii aai i?iaaaeaiee – ia ioaaouaaao
anao i?iaeai eiaeee iao/iiai iiciaiey (ia /oi oiiaaee eiae/aneea
iiceoeaenou).

2. AENEIIAOE*ANEEE IAOIAe – niinia iino?iaiey iao/iie oai?ee, iniiaaiiue
ia iaeioi?uo enoiaeiuo iieiaeaieyo-aeneiiao (iinooeaoao), ec eioi?uo ana
inoaeueiua ooaa?aeaeaiey yoie oai?ee auaiaeyony /enoi eiae/aneei iooai,
iin?aaenoaii aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Aeey auaiaea oai?ai ec aeneii (e aiiaua
iaeieo oi?ioe ec ae?oaeo) oi?ioee?othony niaoeeaeueiua i?aaeea auaiaea.

3. AEIIOAOEEI-AeAAeOEOEAIUE IAOIAe – niinia oai?aoe/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey, nouiinoue eioi?iai caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee nenoaiu
aeaaeoeoeaii naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie aeiioac, ec eioi?uo a eiia/iii
n/aoa auaiaeyony ooaa?aeaeaiey ia yiie?e/aneeo oaeoao. Oai naiui yoio
iaoiae iniiaai ia auaaaeaiee (aeaaeoeoeee) caeeth/aiee ec aeiioac e
ae?oaeo iinueie, enoeiiinoiia cia/aiea eioi?uo iaecaanoii. A yoi cia/eo,
/oi caeeth/aiea, iieo/aiiia ia iniiaa aeaiiiai iaoiaea, iaecaaaeii
aoaeao eiaoue eeoue aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa?.

A iaoea oe?iei eniieuecothony o.i. IAUAEIAE*ANEEA IAOIAeU E I?EAIU
ENNEAAeIAAIEss. Ec ieo iiaeii auaeaeeoue:

1. AIAEEC – ?aaeueiia eee iuneaiiia ?acaeaeaiea iauaeoa ia ninoaaiua
/anoe e NEIOAC – eo iauaaeeiaiea a aaeeiia oeaeia.

2. AANO?AAE?IAAIEA – i?ioeann ioaea/aiey io ?yaea naienoa e ioiioaiee
eco/aaiiai yaeaiey n iaeiia?aiaiiui auaeaeaieai eioa?anothueo
enneaaeiaaoaey naienoa.

3. EAeAAEECAOeEss – iuneeoaeueiay i?ioeaaeo?a, naycaiiay n ia?aciaaieai
aano?aeoiuo (eaeaaeece?iaaiiuo) iauaeoia, i?eioeeieaeueii ia
inouanoaeiuo a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe (“oi/ea”, “eaeaaeueiue aac”,
“aaniethoii /a?iia oaei” e o.i.). Aeaiiua iauaeou ia anoue “/enoua
oeeoeee”, a aanueia neiaeiia e i/aiue iiin?aaeiaaiiia au?aaeaiea
?aaeueiuo i?ioeannia. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeioi?ua i?aaeaeueiua
neo/ae iineaaeieo, neoaeao n?aaenoaii eo aiaeeca e iino?iaiey
oai?aoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i ieo. Eaeaaeecaoeey oanii naycaia n
aano?aae?iaaieai e iuneaiiui yenia?eiaioii.

4. EIAeOEOeEss – aeaeaeaiea iunee io aaeeie/iiai (iiuoa, oaeoia) e
iauaio (eo iaiauaieyi a auaiaeao) e AeAAeOEOeEss – ainoiaeaeaiea
i?ioeanna iiciaiey io iauaai e aaeeie/iiio.

5. AIAEIAEss (niioaaonoaea, noiaenoai) – onoaiiaeaiea noiaenoaa a
iaeioi?uo noi?iiao, naienoaao e ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo iaoiaeaeanoaaiiuie
iauaeoaie. Ia iniiaaiee auyaeaiiiai noiaenoaa aeaeaaony niioaaonoaothuee
auaiae – oiicaeeth/aiea ii aiaeiaee. Aai iauay noaia: iauaeo A iaeaaeaao
i?eciaeaie a, a, n, ae; iauaeo N iaeaaeaao i?eciaeaie a, n, ae;
neaaeiaaoaeueii,, iauaeo N, aiciiaeii, iaeaaeaao i?eciaeii a. Oai naiui
aiaeiaey aeaao ia aeinoiaa?iia, a aa?iyoiia ciaiea.

6. IIAeAEE?IAAIEA – iaoiae enneaaeiaaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo iauaeoia iooai
aini?iecaaaeaiey eo oa?aeoa?enoee ia ae?oaii iauaeoa – iiaeaee, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aiaeia oiai eee eiiai o?aaiaioa aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
(aauiiai eee iuneeoaeueiiai) – i?eaeiaea iiaeaee. Iaaeaeo iiaeaeueth e
iauaeoii, eioa?anothuei enneaaeiaaoaey, aeieaeii nouanoaiaaoue ecaanoiia
iiaeiaea (noiaenoai) a oece/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoeeao, no?oeoo?a, ooieoeeyo
e ae?. Oi?iu iiaeaee?iaaiey aanueia iiiaiia?aciu. Iai?eia?, i?aaeiaoiia
(oece/aneia) e ciaeiaia. Aaaeiie oi?iie iineaaeiaai yaeyaony
iaoaiaoe/aneia (eiiiuethoa?iia) iiaeaee?iaaiea.

Iaoiaeieiaey iao/iiai iiciaiey, eae e naia iaoea, – yaeaiea
eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneia. *oi eanaaony nia?aiaiiiai, IINOIAEEANNE*ANEIAI
yoaia ?acaeoey iaoee, oi aeey iaai oa?aeoa?iu neaaeothuea iniiaiua
IAOIAeIEIAE*ANEEA IIAAOeEE:

1. Eciaiaiea oa?aeoa?a iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey (ei ana /aua noaiiaeony
naii?acaeaathueany ioe?uoua neiaeiua “/aeiaaei?acia?iua nenoaiu”) e
oneeaiea ?iee iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuo, eiiieaeniuo i?ia?aii a eo eco/aiee.

2. Iniciaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeiaaeueiiai ananoi?iiiaai acaeyaea ia ie?.
Ionthaea – naeeaeaiea anoanoaaiiuo e nioeeaeueiuo iaoe (e iaiai eo
iaoiaeaie), ainoi/iiai e caiaaeiiai iuoeaiey, ?aoeeiiaeueiuo e
e??aoeeiiaeueiuo, iao/iuo e aiaiao/iuo iiaeoiaeia e o.i. Ana aieaa
oa?aeoa?iui aeey nia?aiaiiie iaoee noaiiaeony iaoiaeieiae/aneee
ieth?aeeci.

3. Oe?ieia aiaae?aiea ai ana /anoiua iaoee e iao/iua aeenoeeieeiu eaeae
e iaoiaeia neia?aaoeee – oai?ee naiii?aaiecaoeee, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia
iiene caeiiia yaiethoeee ioe?uouo ia?aaiiaaniuo nenoai ethaie i?e?iaeu –
i?e?iaeiuo, nioeeaeueiuo, iiciaaaoaeueiuo.

4. Auaeaeaeaiea ia ia?aaeiaua iiceoeee oaeeo iiiyoee, eae
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue (aeae acaeiiaeaenoaee, eeoaiiue eiia/iie onoie/eaie
oi?iu), noieanoe/iinoue, aa?iyoiinoue, ii?yaeie e oain, iaeeiaeiinoue,
eioi?iaoeey e ae?., au?aaeathueo oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoaai ia?aaiiaaniiai,
ianoaaeeueiiai ie?a a oeaeii e eaaeaeie ec aai noa?. Ia?aee aoi?oth
aeeciue e ieiaeioai?ii ?aaioatho a nia?aiaiiie iaoea eaoaai?ee
neo/aeiinoe, aiciiaeiinoe, ?acaeoey e i?ioeai?a/ey, i?e/eiiinoe.

5. Aiaae?aiea a?aiaie ai ana iao/iua aeenoeeieeiu, ana aieaa oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea eaeae ?acaeoey – “enoi?ecaoeey”, “aeeaeaeoecaoeey”
iaoee.

6. Niaaeeiaiea iauaeoeaiiai ie?a e /aeiaaea, ?ac?ooaiea aeanoeiai
?acaaoaeaiey anoanoaaiiuo e nioeeaeueiuo iaoe, naeeaeaiea e
acaeiiaeaenoaea eo iaoiaeia, ana aieaa ?anoouaa cia/aiea “aio?iiiiai
i?eioeeia”, onoaiaaeeaathuaai naycue iaaeaeo Anaeaiiie e yaiethoeee
aeecie /aeiaaea ia Caiea.

7. Oneeeaathuayny iaoaiaoecaoeey iao/iuo oai?ee e aic?anoathuee o?iaaiue
eo aano?aeoiinoe e neiaeiinoe, iiauoaiea ?iee eiee/anoaaiiuo
oi?iaeueii-aano?aeoiuo iaoiaeia iiciaiey. Yoio i?ioeann oanii
ia?aieaoaaony n ?inoii cia/eiinoe oeeinioneeo iaoiaeia, aac eioi?uo
naaiaeiy ia iiaeao iaieoenue ie iaeia iaoea.

8. Iiauoaiea ?iee “iiieiathueo iaoiaeee” (aiia?aoa aa?iaiaaoeee),
“ee/iinoiuo iaoiaeia” (iai?eia?, aeia?aoe/aneiai), oeaiiinoiiai e
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaeia, iaoiaea nioeeaeueii-aoiaieoa?iuo yenia?oec,
?ieaauo e eieoaoeeiiiuo ea?, eiee/anoaaiiuo e noaoenoe/anee-aa?iyoiuo
i?eaiia e n?aaenoa iiciaiey e ae?.

?ieue iaoee a ?acaeoee oaoieee.

Iiiyoea “OAOIEEA” ai anai iiiaiia?acee ii?aaeaeaiee anaaaea iie?aeinue
ia a?a/aneia iiieiaiea oaoieee eae eneonnoaa, oiaiey, ianoa?noaa. A
aioe/iinoe iiae oaoieeie iiieiaeenue e aioo?aiiyy niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea
e niceaeaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, e caeiiu naiie yoie aeayoaeueiinoe, e,
iaeiiaoe, iaoaieciu, iiiiaaaoea /aeiaaeo a aa i?iaeoeoeaiii
inouanoaeaiee. A yoii ii?aaeaeaiee ynii i?iniao?eaaaony naycue
i?aaeiaoia aeayoaeueiinoe e naieo aa noauaeoia. I?e/ai, eiaaony aaeaeo
naycue ia aiaoiyy, eiaaea i?oaeeyi ioaiaeeony oieueei aniiiiaaoaeueiay
?ieue, a ia o?iaia aeoa i?iaeoeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Neaaeothuae oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie oaoieee yaeyaony aa NIOeEAEUeIAss
NOUIINOUe. I?oaeey o?oaea a yiioe ooo/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa naie auee
i?iecaaaeaieai eneonnoaa. Iie io?aaeaee eiaeeo nicaeaoaey, aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua o?oaeiaua iaauee. A yoii neo/aa nioeeaeueioth
cia/eiinoue i?oaeeth o?oaea i?eaeaaaee eniieueciaaiiua i?e aai nicaeaiee
ciaiey e oiaiey, au?aaioaiiua /aeiaa/anoaii, a oaeaea “o/anoea” naiiai
i?oaeey o?oaea a i?iecaiaenoaa nioeeaeueii cia/eiiai i?iaeoeoa.

Ni a?aiaie i?aa?auaiey iaoee a iaiin?aaenoaaiioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth
neeo /aeiaa/anoai iinoaaeei i?iecaiaenoai i?oaeee o?oaea ia iioie,
nicaeaei nenoaio eneonnoaaiiuo i?aaiia aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa. A yoie
nenoaia ii?aaeia/eaathony oaea eieeaeoeaiua o?oaeiaua iaauee,
eieeaeoeaiua ciaiey e iiuo a iiciaiee e eniieueciaaiee i?e?iaeiuo nee.
Iaoeiiia i?iecaiaenoai i?oaeee o?oaea iicaieeei aiai?eoue i oi?ie?iaaiee
nenoaiu oaoieee, eioi?ay ia ioaa?aaao, iaiai?io, aeeth/aao a naay
/aeiaaea. Aeeth/aao iioiio, /oi oaoieea iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue e
aeaenoaiaaoue oieueei ii eiaeea /aeiaaea e aeaaiaea?y aai iio?aaiinoyi.

Nenoaio *aeiaae-oaoieea” o?aaeeoeeiiii ioiineee e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui
neeai iauanoaa. Iaeiaei n ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaa aeaa iacaaiiuo
eiiiiiaioa aeiiieiee o?aoee, ia iaiaa aaaeiue – i?e?iaea. iicaea – any
ie?oaeathuay n?aaea. Neo/eeinue oae iioiio, /oi /aeiaae nicaeaao oaoieeo
ii caeiiai i?e?iaeu, aeey i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia o?oaea eniieuecoao
i?e?iaeiue iaoa?eae, e, a eiia/iii n/aoa, i?iaeoeou /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe naie noaiiayony yeaiaioaie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. A iaoa
a?aiy iineaaeiyy oi?ie?oaony oeaeaiai?aaeaiii ii eiaeea iio?aaiinoae
/aeiaaea. Oaeei ia?acii, a nia?aiaiiii iiieiaiee oaoieeo iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eae yeaiaio nenoaiu, ianouae ia naaa ioia/aoie aa
iiiai/eneaiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae.

Oaia?ue ia?aoeiny e ?anniio?aieth oaoieee n oi/ee c?aiey aa aeoeaiuo e
ianneaiuo i?iyaeaiee. IANNEAIAss OAOIEEA aeeth/aao a naay
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiiauaiey, nii?oaeaiey, n?aaenoaa nayce (aei?iae,
eaiaeu, iinou e ae?.), n?aaenoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee
(oaea?aaeeinaycue, eiiiuethoa?iay naycue e o.ae.). AEOEAIOTH OAOIEEO
ninoaaeytho i?oaeey o?oaea (eae ?o/iiai, oae e oinoaaiiiai),
iaania/eaathuea aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea (iai?eia?, i?ioacu),
aiia?aou oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie
i?ioeannaie.

A enoi?ee oaoieee iiaeii auaeaeeoue ?yae yoaiia. A nia?aiaiiie
oeeinioneie e nioeeieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ia?aoiae io iaeiiai yoaia e
ae?oaiio i?eiyoi naycuaaoue n ia?aaea/ae io /aeiaaea e oaoie/aneei
i?oaeeyi ii?aaeaeaiiuo ooieoeee, n iiauie niiniaaie niaaeeiaiey /aeiaaea
e oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa. ?acaeoeth oaoieee niinianoaoao oaeaea
o?ainoi?iaoeey i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia a oaoiieiae/aneea. A yoie
neooaoeee, eae iaoei caiaoee I. Oaeaeaaaa?, ?aiueoa ?aei ei?iee ethaeae
e aunooiae iaeiia?aiaiii iauaeoii ynoaoe/aneiai /oanoaa, naaiaeiy aea
ciaiaieoay ?aea aeaeeony eeoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iauaeoii, iineieueeo aa
aeaaiuie caaea/aie noaee noaeioiaenoai e iinoaaea yeaeo?iyia?aee.

ONIAOE NIA?AIAIIIE OAOIEEE A IA?AOTH I*A?AAeUe CAAENssO IO ?ACAEOEss
IAOEE. Oaoie/aneea iiaoanoaa aace?othony ia iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ciaieyo.
Ii ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi e oaoieea noaaeo ia?aae iaoeie ana iiaua e
iiaua caaea/e. Ia neo/aeii o?iaaiue ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa
ii?aaeaeytho aeinoeaeaiey iaoee e oaoieee.

N ooieoeeiiaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oi/ee c?aiey aeey iuiaoiaai yoaia
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna oa?aeoa?iu neaaeothuea /a?ou:

· iaoea i?aa?auaaony a aaaeouoth noa?o ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa,

· ea/anoaaiii i?aia?acothony ana yeaiaiou i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee –
i?iecaiaeeoaeue, i?oaeea e i?aaeiao o?oaea,

· eioaineoeoee?oaony i?iecaiaenoai aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth iiauo,
aieaa yooaeoeaiuo aeaeia nu?uey e niiniaia aai ia?aaioee;

· nieaeaaony o?oaeiaieinoue ca n/ao aaoiiaoecaoeee e
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee, iiauoaiey ?iee eioi?iaoeee e ae?.

N nioeeaeueiie oi/ee c?aiey nia?aiaiiia iao/ii-oaoie/aneia ?acaeoea
aucuaaao iio?aaiinoue a ethaeyo n aunieei o?iaiai iauaai e
niaoeeaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, a eii?aeeiaoeee oneeee o/aiuo ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia. Naaiaeiy cao?aou ia iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey
noieue aaeeee, /oi i/aiue iaiiiaea iiaoo iicaieeoue naaa ?ineioue aanoe
eo a iaeeii/eo. E oiio aea oaeea enneaaeiaaiey /anoi ieacuaathony
aanniuneaiiuie, iioiio /oi eo ?acoeueoaou i/aiue auno?i ianniai
oe?aaee?othony e ia neoaeao aeey aaoi?ia aeieain?i/iui enoi/ieeii
naa?oi?eaueae. Ii eae au oai ie auei, aaoiiaoecaoeey e eeaa?iaoecaoeey
aunaiaiaeaeatho e a?aiy ?aaioieeia, e naio ?aai/oth neeo. Iiyaeyaony
iiaue aeae i?iecaiaenoaa – eiaeono?ey aeinoaa.

N iauanoaaiii-ooieoeeiiaeueiie oi/ee c?aiey nia?aiaiiue yoai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna icia/aao nicaeaiea iiaie aacu
i?iecaiaenoaa (iiauo oaoiieiaee), oioy nenoaio i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nei
ii-i?aaeiaio ninoaaeytho “/aeiaae-oaoieea-ie?oaeathuay n?aaea”.

Oaeiau iaeioi?ua iniiaiua oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiie
oaoieee. A a /ai aea ninoieo niaoeeoeea anae
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu ia ?oaaaea XX-XXI aa.?

Aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy aeeaae oaoieee a oeeaeeecaoeeth ia aeeneooe?iaaeny.
Oaoieeo e iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann ethaee oaaeiiii ioeaieaaee eae
ianiiiaiiua aeinoeaeaiey /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia. Noieue yaii
i?aaiaoe/aneay ioeaiea yoeo nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee ia niinianoaiaaea
eioaineaiiio oeeinioneiio iniuneaieth aeaiiuo i?iaeai, ia ii?iaeaeaea
oeeinioneeo aii?inia. Caoi ooaeiaeanoaaiiia aini?eyoea oaoieee e
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna ia auaeyaeaei noieue aeaainoiui. Caeanue,
aeaeeii, ?aoathuoth ?ieue nua?aei ia ?aoeeiiaeueiia iniuneaiea, a
eiooeoeey.

Oae eaeea aea eiie?aoiua nioeeaeueiua aii?inu iiaeiyee o/aiua e
oeeiniou, eiaaea aeoeaii acyeenue ca ?anniio?aiea yoie oaiu? *oi
acaieiiaaei e icaaioeei eo?

Iie onoaiiaeee, /oi ?aaeecaoeey eaeae aaneiia/iiai i?ia?anna a ?acaeoee
oeeaeeecaoeee iaoieeioeanue ia ?aaeueiua o?oaeiinoe nouanoaiaaiey
/aeiaaea, naycaiiua n en/a?iaieai ?ano?nia, aeeyieai iiai/iuo aai
i?iaeoeoia ia yeieiaeth Caiee e iiiaei ae?oaei. Oeeiniou iiiyee, /oi i?e
ioeaiea iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee ethaee aeieaeiu ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny ia
oieueei eo i?ienoiaeaeaieai (iii anaaaea eaaeaony aeaainoiui), ii e eo
aeeth/aiiinoueth a eiioaeno neiaeiaeoeo e ca/anooth i?ioeai?a/eauo
nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia. I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea o?aaeeoeeiiiia iiieiaiea
iaoee e oaoieee eae aaconeiaiiai aeaaa aeey /aeiaa/anoaa ioaeaeaaony a
na?ueaciie ei??aeoe?iaea.

Eiaiii iiyoiio oeeinioneea aii?inu naaiaeiy cao?aaeaatho naiue oe?ieee
niaeo? auoey oaoieee e eiioeaio?e?othony a iniiaiii ia aeaoo
iai?aaeaieyo: oaoieea e i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea e
nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu oaoieee e iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. A yoio
e?oa i?iaeai aeeth/athony, a /anoiinoe, enneaaeiaaiea acaeiicaaeneiinoe
eiaeaia?iiai e nioeeaeueiiai aniaeoia nia?aiaiiie oaoieee, iieac aa
anaiauaiethuaai oa?aeoa?a, ya?enoe/aneie e i?eeeaaeiie ooieoeee.

Nia?aiaiiia i?iecaiaenoai i?aa?auaao i?e?iaeo a ?aai/aa ianoi /aeiaaea,
i?e?iaeiua i?ioeannu noaiiayony oi?aaeyaiuie, ei ca?aiaa iiaoo auoue
caaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua naienoaa, e iie, oaeei ia?acii, i?aa?auathony a
oaoiieiae/aneea. Caeanue oaeony ia?iiiay iianiinoue aeey /aeiaa/anoaa:
nicaeaaay iiaoth nenoaio “/aeiaae-oaoieea-ie?oaeathuay i?e?iaea”, iii
nei?aa ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeinue aieae, /ai ?acoiii. E eae neaaenoaea: ei?ie
yeieiae/aneeo eaoano?io eaaeao a eaii?e?iaaiee eee iaiiieiaiee
oeaeinoiiai oa?aeoa?a aeieiae/aneeo nenoai. ?aaeoeoeeiienoneay
iaoiaeieiaey, aaea yooaeoeaiinoue neiaeiuo nenoai enneaaeoaony ia
iniiaaiee aiaeeca eo ioaeaeueiuo /anoae, ia n?aaaouaaao.

Ia oieueei i?e?iaea aeieaeia auoue i?aaenoaaeaia eae aeeiaie/iay
nenoaia, ii e /aeiaae, acaeiiaeaenoaothuee n iae /a?ac oaoieeo, aeieaeai
auoue aeeth/ai a oeaeinoiinoue aieaa aunieiai ii?yaeea.

Nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea a i?aaie/aneii aaeeinoaa n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie
iiaeii iienaoue eae naii?acaeoea. *aeiaae i?eniinaaeeaaaony e
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, ii iia eciaiyaony a ?acoeueoaoa aai aeayoaeueiinoe,
e iniaaiii auno?i a iaoa a?aiy. Oaeei ia?acii, ianoiyuaa auoea /aeiaaea
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ii aeieaeai i?eniiniaeoueny e ieiaeai naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. ?aaeeciaaoue i?ioeann naiiaaeaioaoeee, eioi?ue
i?eia?aoaao naaiaeiy aeiieie?othuee oa?aeoa?. ?acaeaathony oaoieea e
oaoiieiaee aicaeaenoaey ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, a oaeaea oaoiieiaee
naiiaaeaioaoeee, o.a. oi?ie?oaony eoeueoo?a aeecie a nicaeaiiie
/aeiaaeii n?aaea. I?e?iaea ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee
?acaeoey. Oaeei enoi/ieeii aeey /aeiaaea noaiiaeony aua e aai
naii?acaeaathuayny eoeueoo?a.

A nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee nioeeaeueiua einoeooou, eoeueoo?a (a aa
einoeoooeeiiiii au?aaeaiee), oaoieea e nioeeaeueiua oaoiieiaee
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie yeaiaiou aaeeiiai ?acaeaathuaainy oi?iiia?aciaaiey,
eioi?ia /a?ac /aeiaaea i?eia?aoaao oa?aeoa? oeaeinoiinoe. Iiyoiio
iniuneeaaoue i?iaeaiu oaoieee e iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna iiaeii
eeoue n iiceoeee iaoiaeieiaee enoi?ecia e oeaeinoiinoe.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: O/aaiee aeey aocia… *.2… N. 359-415.

2. Nie?eei A. A. Iniiau oeeinioee: O/aaiia iiniaea… N. 303-325.

3. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aocia… ?inoia-i/Ae… N. 466-514.

1. Oaia XXI. OEEINIOEss OAOIEEE E IAOEE

1. Oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Aai iethnu e ieionu.

2. *aeiaa/aneee ?acoi e iaoea.

3. Oeeinioey nia?aiaiiiai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

Oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Aai iethnu e ieionu.

Nia?aiaiiay oeeaeeecaoeey, acyoay anaieaiaoii, aeiaaeueii, eiaao
?acee/iua oa?aeoa?enoeee. Iaeaieaa /anoi aa iacuaatho OAOIIAAIIUI OUEII
EIAeONO?EAEUeIIE OeEAEEECAOeEE.

Oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea ?oaaaea, aeinoeaiooiai /aeiaa/anoaii ia enoiaea XX
noieaoey, eaaeeo a ?onea nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneiai ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneiai
enoieeiaaiey enoi?ee. Iii, ?acoiaaony, ioee/aaony io oa?aeoa?enoee,
eniieuecoaiuo a ?acee/iuo eiioanneiiaeueiuo oi?iao ?aeeaee e
ycioa?e/aneie, ieeoeueoiie iunee. Yoa eaeay (a iniiaiii ?ac?aaioaiiay
caiaaeiie oeeinioeae) iaiioiaea e ia oi?iaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae, caaeaiiue
eeanne/aneei ia?eneciii. Ia io?eoeay ya?enoe/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae aai
eaeae, ana aea neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi eo ieacaeinue iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey
oyniaiey ie?iaie neooaoeee eiioea iaoaai aaea.

Iiyoiio a ea/anoaa nouiinoiie oa?aeoa?enoeee yiioe i?aaiia?ii
eniieueciaaoue iacaaiiua iaie iiiyoey – OAOIIAAIIUE IE?,
EIAeONO?EAEUeIAss OeEAEEECAOeEss. ?acoiaaony, iiaeaeue enoi?e/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey, o?aeooaiay eae
o?aaeeoeeiiiia-eiaeono?eaeueiia-iinoeiaeono?eaeue-iia-eioi?iaoeeiiiia-ye
ieiae/aneia iauanoai, ia aunaa/eaaao anao a?aiae /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee.
Yoa iiaeaeue iiaeao e aeieaeia auoue aeiiieiaia. Iaeiaei iia oi?ioi
?aaioaao ia auyniaiea nooe e oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae iaoee e oaoieee
eae aaaeiaeoeo eiiiiiaioia iauanoaaiiie aeecie iaoeo aeiae.

Enoaoe, iacaaiiia ea/anoaaiiia ninoiyiea nia?aiaiiiai ie?a iieiinoueth
i?eiaieii eeoue e /anoe no?ai, ioaaouaathuae ia aieaa iaeiie iyoie
ianaeaiey caiiiai oa?a. Ii i?e ioeaiea enoi?ee iaeuecy oiiaeiaeyoueny
ei?aaeaaiaeeoaeyi, eioi?ua nei?inoue yneaae?u ii?aaeaeytho ii nei?inoe
iineaaeiaai ei?aaey. A enoi?einioee i ninoiyiee aeiaaeueiiai nioeeoia
eo/oa noaeeoue ii oai aa?oeiai, eioi?uo aeinoeaee eeaea?u.

Anee a i?ioeuo noieaoeyo i?iaeaiu iaoee eioa?aniaaee eeoue oceee neie
i?e/anoiuo e iae eioaeeaeooaeia, a ioiioaiea e oaoieea auei noaoai
i?eeeaaeiui, oi iaoa a?aiy iaa yoe yaeaiey auaeaeioei a oeaio?
iauanoaaiiiai aieiaiey, i?eaeaeei e iei aci?u ieeeeiiia ethaeae.
Iniuneaiea eo cia/eiinoe aeey enoi?ee e eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea noaei
ianouiie caaea/ae oeeinioneie iunee. Nae/an “oeeinioey oaoieee”,
“oeeinioey iaoee” noi?ie?iaaeenue eae ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiua
iaeanoe oai?aoe/aneiai iienea, ia iaiaa cia/eiua, /ai o?aaeeoeeiiiua
iioieiaey e aiinaieiaey.

Oeaaeai ia oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi anee IAOEA – ae?aaiee iauaeo
oeeinioneie iunee, oi OAOIEEA i?aaeiaoii i?ioanneiiaeueiiai oeeinioneiai
aiaeeca noaea n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii. Oeeinioey oaoieee aicieeea oieueei
a XIX a. a Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, a ia/aea XX a. a ?innee (?aaiou
Yiaaeueiaea?a). Na?aaeeia iaoaai noieaoey iciaiaiiaaeanue iaino?aiiui
aieiaieai oeeinioia e yoie i?iaeaia (Ia?oei Oaeaeaaaa?, Ea?i ssnia?n,
Oiian Aaaeai, Ieaei Oiooea? e ae?.).

A enoi?ee oeeinioneie iunee naii iiiyoea “oaoieea” o?aeoiaaeinue
ii-?aciiio. Aua a ae?aaiae A?aoeee (yoi iu oaea auynieee) eniieueciaaeny
oa?iei “oaoia”, eioi?ue icia/ae ianoa?noai, eneonnoai, iiieiaaiia eae
oiaiea ia/oi noi?ie?iaaoue, nicaeaoue ec anoanoaaiiiai iaoa?eaea. A
ia?enenoneie o?aaeeoeee oaoieea i?aaenoaaeaia eae nenoaia eneonnoaaiiuo
i?aaiia iauanoaaiiiai /aeiaaea, ninoaaiay /anoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee
iauanoaa, eo aauiue yeaiaio. Ii Oaeaeaaaa?o, – yoi iaoa ia?aiiniiaa,
ei?iaaia /aeiaa/aneia ia/aei, niinia naii?aaeecaoeee /aeiaa/anoaa.

Eiee/anoai ii?aaeaeaiee iiaeii auei au oiiiaeeoue. Eo iaiaei. Iaeiaei
auaeaeei a ieo aeaaiia: ana iie aa?uee?otho oi OOIAeAIAIOAEUeIIA
NAIENOAI OAOIEEE, eioi?ia iiaeii auei au iacaaoue I?EIOeEIII
I?AIA?ACIAAIEss. Eiuie neiaaie, oaoieea anoue oi, i?e iiiiue /aai
/aeiaae i?aia?acoao i?e?iaeo, naiiai naay, iauanoai.

Eoeueoo?iia i?ecaaiea, iniiaiay nioeeaeueiay ooieoeey oaoieee ninoieo a
eiino?oe?iaaiee, ?aeiino?oe?iaaiee i?aaeiaoiie ?aaeueiinoe. I?e aieaa
eiie?aoiii aeaeaiee oaoieea i?aaenoaaeyaony i?oaeeeii, i?aaeiaoii eee
aea oaoiieiae/ii. *ai /aeiaae aicaeaenoaoao ia iauaeou, eciaiyy eo, –
yoi oaoieea.. E EAE eiaiii ii aicaeaenoaoao – yoi oiaea oaoieea, ii iia
iaia?oaeeaaao naay oaea eae OAOIIEIAEss.

Anoue ianeieueei eiioeaioeee ENOI?E*ANEIAI ?ACAEOEss OAOIEEE. A
/anoiinoe, i?eaeaeaoaeueiu e aeooaeueiu eaeae i IA?EIAeECAOeEE ?ACAEOEss
OAOIEEE, auneacaiiua aia?eeaineei oeeinioii e nioeeieiaii Euethenii
Iaioi?aeii. Ii auaeaeee o?e oaoie/aneeo yiioe:

1) “yioaoie/aneay” (1000-1750 aa.) eiaao a iniiaa oaoiieiaeth “aiaeu e
aea?aaa”;

2) “iaeaioaoie/aneay (io 2-e iieiaeiu XVIII a. aei na?aaeeiu XX a.)
iie?aaony ia eiiieaen “oaey e aeaeaca”;

3) “iaioaoie/aneay” (iuia aeeyuayny) eniieuecoao eiiieaen “yeaeo?e/anoaa
e nieaaia”. Eae aeaeei, a iniiao ia?eiaeecaoeee iieiaeai iniiaiie aeae
yia?aee e oi “aauanoai”, eioi?ia caieiaao oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a
nicaeaiee oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa.

Iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo oeceeia XX a. Iaen Ai?i, no?aiynue iieacaoue aeaaiua
?oaaaee ?acaeoey oaoieee, a eieaa “Iiy aeeciue e acaeyaeu” auneacae
eioa?anioth iuneue i oii, /oi iaeiei ec ?aoathueo oaeoi?ia enoi?ee
yaeyaony oio aeae yia?aee, eioi?ui /aeiaa/anoai ?aniieaaaao a aeaiiue
iiiaio. A yoii naaoa any enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa –
oieueei aeaa – aaeeeeo ia?eiaea: ia?aue – io Aaeaia aei iaoeo aeiae,
aoi?ie – n iiyaeaieai aoiiiie yia?aee, ioiuia e ia ana aoaeouea a?aiaia.

Ia?aoiae io ia?aiai ia?eiaea ei aoi?iio ciaiaioaony ieii/aieai
iio?aaeaiey nieia/iie yia?aee e ia/aeii eniieueciaaiey aa /enoi caiiuo
enoi/ieeia.

Iiiaea aaoi?u oeene?otho “naiiaeaeaeaiea” oaoieee io ?o/iuo i?oaeee e
iieiinoueth aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui, eiiiuethoa?ece?iaaiiui nenoaiai. I?eia?u
ia?eiaeecaoeee oaoie/aneie enoi?ee iiaeii i?iaeieaeeoue. Aaaeii
iiae/a?eiooue iaeii: IAO *AEIAAEA E IAUANOAA AIA “OAOIINOA?U”, OAOIEEA
ENOI?E*IA, ia noieo ia ianoa, iaiiaeyaony. Oaoie/aneea iiaeiee neoaeao
eaoaeecaoi?ii, eiioeuenii ei?aiiuo eciaiaiee ai anae nenoaia
iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

Ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e ie?o oaoieee iaiaeiicia/ii. Oae, aei iaoeo aeiae
aeioee eaeae iaaeiaa?ey, a?aaeaeaaiinoe e oaoieea – OAOIIOIAEss. A
ae?aaiai Eeoaa noa?oeu-ioae?aoeu ia iieueciaaeenue eieanii aeey
aiaei/a?iaiey, i?aaeii/eoaee iineoue aiaeo ec ‘?aee a aaaeaeeao. Naie
aeaenoaey iie iioeae?iaaee oai, /oi, iie, oaoie/aneea i?eniiniaeaiey
ioieiatho o /aeiaaea naiaiaeo aeaenoaee. Oaoieea, ?annoaeaeaee iie,
iaeaa/aao aeeciue e aeaeaao aa eiioi?oiaa, ii ieaoa ca yoi iaiiia?ia –
ii?aaiuaaony /aeiaa/aneia “ss”.

Enoi?ey ciaea e eoaeaeeoia, ?ac?ooeoaeae noaieia, iiyaeaoeony a eiioea
XVIII – ia/aea XIX aa., e nia?aiaiiuo iaieoaeaeeoia, iaaeiythueo
aacaeooioth iaoeia?eth iaoeo aeiae, eioi?ay, ii eo neiaai, i?aa?auaao
/aeiaaea a aaciieaioth aeaoaeue nioeeaeueiiai iaoaiecia, oeaeeeii
caaenyuoth io i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e auoiaie oaoieee.

Iuneeoaee ?aciuo eaeaeiuo iai?aaeaiee ia ?ac auneacuaaee e i?iaeieaeatho
auneacuaaoue iianaiea i aiciiaeiii auoiaea oaoieee ec-iiae eiio?iey
ethaeae. Aua a 30-a aiaeu iaoaai aaea Inaaeueae Oiaiaea? a eieaa
“*aeiaae e oaoieea” ooaa?aeaeae, /oi /aeiaae, aeanoaeei ie?a, nai noae
?aaii iaoei. Oaoieea aiaeaeaao anao ian, iiieii iaoaai aeaeaiey, a naie
aaa, iiae/eiyao nianoaaiiiio ?eoio.’ E a yoie aaoaiie aiiea /aeiaae,
n/eoathuee naay aeanoaeeiii, aoaeao caaiai iania?oue. “Aoio iaoei” –
?anoiaeay oaia a nia?aiaiiie ianniaie eoeueoo?a.

Eiaaea-oi, aua a ia/aea i?ioeiai aaea, aiaeeeneay ienaoaeueieoea Iy?e
Oaeee a naiai ?iiaia “O?aieaiooaei, eee Nia?aiaiiue I?iiaoae” (1818)
nicaeaea ia?ac eneonnoaaiiiai “aeaiiia”, eioi?ue iuoaeny oai?eoue
aeia?i, ii, iaeanoi/aiiue iaeeii/anoaii, oaee naiaai oai?oea. Neiaii,
ainnoae i?ioea nicaeaaoeo aai ethaeae. N oao ii? yoio iaiieoieiae/aneee
ia?ac ia iieeaeaao no?aieoe ia/aoe, eeiieaio e ye?aiia oaeaaeci?ia. Ii
noae ia?eoeaoaeueiui aeey iiaeia?aaa oaoiioiaee ai anao aa oi?iao.

Iaoaiecaoeey e iioi?ecaoeey i?iieeatho a iaoo aeeciue, iiae/an
i?aa?auatho /aeiaaea a naiaia?aciue aea?eae aeieiae/aneiai e
oaoie/aneiai ono?ienoaa. Noieo, iai?eia?, ioeaieoue aicaeaenoaea ia
ethaeae nia?aiaiiuo o?ainii?oiuo nenoai. Ii aeaiiui ecaanoiie eieae
?aei?aeia Aeiiana, a 1991 a. a ie?a auei i?iecaaaeaii 46,5 iei.
aaoiiiaeeae, a o./. ii/oe 35 iei. eaaeiauo iiaeaeae. I?aaeiieaaaaony,
/oi e eiioeo iaoaai noieaoey ii aei?iaai ieaiaou aoaeoo eo?ne?iaaoue aei
300 iei. nianoaaiiuo aaoiiiaeeae, o.a. ii iaeiiio ia eaaeaeiai iyoiai
/aeiaaea.

Aaoiiiaeeue ai iiiaeo no?aiao – iieacaoaeue o?iaiy i?anoeaeiinoe,
aiaeaeaeaiiay oeaeue, neiaie oniaoa. Aaoiiiaeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue e
o?ainii?oiay nenoaia, iiaeiuay iaooyiua ?ano?nu, oeaaoiua e /a?iua
iaoaeeu, naaiaeiy ai iiiaii oi?ie?otho aioo?aiithth e iaaeaeoia?iaeioth
iieeoeeo, oeiainiaua ioiioaiey, auo e i?aau.

Aoi?aeaiea oaoieee ai ana noa?u /aeiaa/aneiai auoey – io aeiaaeueiuo aei
noaoai eioeiiuo – eiie ?ac ii?iaeaeaao aacoaea?aeioth aiieiaeth oaoieee,
naiaia?acioth eaeaieiaeth e ineoieiaeth oaoieoeecia. O?oaaaeo?u
iiaeiaiuo eaeae n ainoi?aii ia?aiinyo ia /aeiaa/anoai e ee/iinoue
oa?aeoa?enoeee, i?enouea iaoeiai e iaoaieciai. Noa?ue oacen o?aioeocneeo
iaoa?eaeenoia XVIII a. “/aeiaae-iaoeia” iaeaeaaony a iiaeioth
yeaeo?iiii-eeaa?iaoe/aneoth, eiiiuethoa?ece?iaaiioth oa?ieiieiaeth.
Oe?iei i?iiaaaiaee?oaony eaeay i oii, /oi /aeiaae e /aeiaa/anoai oaeaea,
eae e iaoaieciu iaeaaeatho nenoaiiui naienoaii, iiaoo auoue i?iia?aiu
oaoie/aneeie ia?aiao?aie e i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaoiieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeyo.

OAOIEEA AeAIIIE*IA, IE? – YOI “IAAAIAOEIA” – OAEIAU ENOIAeIUA OACENU
OAOIEOeECIA eae ia?aca iuneae, niaeaney n naiiiiae/eiaieai oaoieea. E
/aio i?eaiaeeo iaeiinoi?iiiaa “oaoiece?iaaiiia” ?anniio?aiea
/aeiaa/aneeo i?iaeai, iiaeii noaeeoue ii ?aeyoeaenoneie eiioeaioeee
“EEAI?AECAOeEE”. Niaeanii yoie oai?ee, a aoaeouai /aeiaae aeieaeai
ioeacaoueny io naiaai oaea. Nia?aiaiiuo ethaeae niaiyo “eeai?ae”
(eeaa?iaoe/aneea i?aaieciu), eioi?ua, niaaeeiea aeeaia e oaoie/aneia,
aeaaeoo eaeie-oi iiaue nieaa.

Oaeia oiiaiea oaoie/aneeie ia?niaeoeaaie, ia iao acaeyae, iianii e
aioeaoiaiii. ?acoiaaony, aeeth/aiea a /aeiaa/aneoth oaeaniinoue
eneonnoaaiiuo i?aaiia (?acee/iuo i?ioacia, ea?aeeinoeioeyoi?ia e o.ae.)
– aauue ?acoiiay e iaiaoiaeeiay. Ii iaaei iiiieoue i oii ?oaaaea, ca
eioi?ui eiie?aoiue eiaeeaeae ia?anoaao auoue naiei niaie. Aac oaea iao
/aeiaaea. Aai i?aaiecaoeey ia iiaeao auoue ?aaeeeaeueii auoaniaia
ieeaeeie oaoie/aneeie i?eniiniaeaieyie.

Oaoie/aneee e oaoiieiae/aneee oaoeoeci a iaoe aeie ioithaeue ia
?aaeeinoue. Ei neeueii ca?aaeaia oaoie/aneay eioaeeeaaioeey, ii
i?iieeaao a noa?o oicyenoaaiiie e iieeoe/aneie yeeou. Oaoieoeeci,
naycaiiue n aaniethoecaoeeae oaoieee, ooaa?aeaeaao aa aaoiiiiiinoue e
naiiaeinoaoi/iinoue. Ii iieaaaao, /oi iiaeii ?aoeoue ethaua nioeeaeueiua
eieeecee, ieioy /aeiaaea eae aeoeaiiai noauaeoa enoi?ee, i?aiaa?aaay
oa?aeoa?ii iaee/iuo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Iai aeieaeia auoue /oaeaea oaoiieiae/aneay ieoieiaey, no?aieaiea ana e
any “iaoeiece?iaaoue”. *aeiaae e /aeiaa/anoai — yoi ia iaoeia, ia
oaoie/aneay nenoaia. Ia /aeiaa/anoai oaoie/ii, a oaoieea /aeiaa/ia. Iia
aiieiuaao a naaa oi, /oi ecaea/aii /aeiaa/anoaii ec i?e?iaeu, oi, /oi
ooaa?aeaeaao a ie?a aai nianoaaiiua iiuue e ?acoi.

Eiia/ii, ooaa?aeaeaiea ia ieaiaoa oaoiinoa?u, aicieeiiaaiea
“ieoeueoo?aiiie” i?e?iaeu, ianouae ia naaa ia/aoue oia e aiee ethaeae,
ia iiaoo ia ii?iaeaeaoue iiauo ino?uo i?iaeai. No?aieoaeueiia ?acaeoea
oaoiinoa?u iia?aaeaao yaiethoeeiiii neiaeeaoeany i?eniiniaeoaeueiua,
aaeaioeaiua aiciiaeiinoe /aeiaaea. Cao?oaeiaiey a ninoueiaaiee
ineoioeceieiae/aneeo iioaioeee /aeiaaea n o?aaiaaieyie nia?aiaiiie
oaoieee e oaoiieiaee caoeene?iaaiu iianaianoii e oai?aoe/anee e
i?aeoe/anee. Caauaaoue yoiai iaeuecy.

?acaeoea oaoieee, eae ioia/aeinue a ie?iaie oeeinioee (AE. Yeetheue),
iiae/an ii?iaeaeaao neooaoeeth aano?aea. Oae, iai?eia?, no?aieoaeueiia
?ani?ino?aiaiea eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo oaoie/aneeo naoae (oaeaoii,
?aaeeioaeaoii, eiiiuethoa?iua naoe) iia?aaeaao aiciiaeiinoue eo
cia/eiiai e ioaaonoaaiiiai iaiieiaiey. Iiao/ea oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa
?ani?ino?aiytho aaiaeueiinoe, caaeaathony iaei/iie, ionoie,
aanniaea?aeaoaeueiie eioi?iaoeeae. Iiiaea oaoie/aneea eiiiaaoeee
(ecia?aoaiey, eiino?oeoi?neea ?ac?aaioee) iiae/an iia?aaeatho naia
a?aiy, ieacuaathony yeiiiie/anee iaauaiaeiuie. Ianniaia eiee/anoai
oaoie/aneeo i?eniiniaeaiee, eo aiaae?aiea a i?iecaiaenoai e auo
iia?aaeatho eioaeeaeooaeueiue (e iniaaiii i?aanoaaiiue) o?iaaiue
ianniaiai niciaiey. Aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeeth/aiey a oaoie/aneea
nenoaiu ia?aie/eoaeae, iaania/eaathueo oi, /oi aiaee/aia iacuaatho “ooe
i?oo” (caueoa io aeo?aea). Caaeoinoue oaoieeie anaai iioiea aeecie
oiiiaeaao eaoano?iou, aaa?ee, o?aae/aneea i?ienoanoaey.

E ana aea oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann i?e anae aai aeanoeinoe iainoaiiaei. E
anee iiaeii aiai?eoue i aeaeeiii, aeaenoaeoaeueiii i?ia?anna
(ainoiaeaeaiea io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio, io iecoaai e aunoaio), a
/ai-eeai, oi yoi i?aaeaea anaai a iaeanoe ?acaeoey oaoieee.

*aeiaa/aneee ?acoi e iaoea.

Ec anao aeooiaiuo oai?aiee /aeiaaea a iaoe aeie iaeaieueoaa aieiaiea,
iiaeaeoe, i?eaeaeaao e naaa iaoea. Aoiaea ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiie
nioeeioaoiieiae/aneie ?aaiethoeee (eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiiuethoa?iie,
aeioaoiieiae/aneie, yeieiae/aneie) e o/aiui ana /aua ia?auathony aci?u
ieeeeiiia ethaeae, iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, oicyenoaaiiuo no?oeoo? e
i?aaeoaeuenoa. Any iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneay, nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay
e eoeueoo?iay neooaoeey iaoeo aeiae oaeiaa, /oi iaoea a ie?a i?eia?aea
ianiecia?eioth n iaaeaaiei i?ioeui aaniiinoue e aeeyiea.

I iaoea nii?yo, aa ainoaaeytho e a?aiyo, iiaeaea?aeeaatho e i?ieeeiatho,
ia iaa aiceaaatho ?aaeoaeiua iaaeaaeaeu, ae aea i?aaeuyaeytho n/ao ca
ai?anoe /aeiaa/anoaa. Niaeo? ioeaiie iaoee iiiaie?ani/ai: io
aacoaea?aeiie aiieiaee aei i?ecuaa aaoaoue o/aiuo e iauyaeoue ii?aoi?ee
ia iao/iua ioe?uoey.

Nae/an a ?innee ?acei iaaeaao .eae i?anoeae iaoee, oae e noaoon o/aiuo.
Iaoa iaoea oaaaao aaa?o ii eanoieoea, aaaeouae aiec. A ie?iaay iaoea ia
noieo ia ianoa. E ai iiiaeo ainoaea?noaao iia . iiaeaea?aeeaaaony
aeanoiuie e eiuie no?oeoo?aie. Ana aea ia aoaeai oa?youe iaaeaaeaeu.
Eioaeeaeooaeueiue iioaioeeae Ioa/anoaa iiao/ e aua aeaeaei ia en/a?iai.
Auneaaeai oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi iaoa iaoea ia oieueei auaeeaao, ii e,
eae oaieen, aini?yiao ec iaiea, ii?aaeoao anao ian iiauie ioe?uoeyie,
i?ic?aieyie e naa?oaieyie.

Aiai?y i iaoea, iinoaaei aeaa aii?ina (iie noi?ioee?iaaiu ecaanoiui
iaoiaeieiaii iaoee iaoeo aeiae Iieii Oaea?aaaiaeii): 1) *OI ANOUe IAOEA
– eae iia aeaenoaoao, eaeiau aa ?acoeueoaou? 2) A *AI NINOIEO OeAIIINOUe
IAOEE? Aeaenoaeoaeueii ee iia eo/oa, /ai einiieiaey eiaeeeneiai ieaiaie
Oiie, oai?aoe/aneea iino?iaiey A?enoioaey, ae?aaiaeeoaeneia o/aiea i
Aeai? A iiaeao auoue, iaoea ie/ai ia ioee/aaony io ?aciiia?aciuo ieoia,
yaeyy niaie eo ?aciiaeaeiinoue?

I?eiai ai aieiaiea, /oi naaiaeiyoiaa iaoeio/aiea (oeeinioneay aeieo?eia
iaoee, aa aaeeiay oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneay iiaeaeue) enoiaeyo ec
oieeiaaiey iaoee eae iaeioi?iai enoi?e/anee eiie?aoiiai aeaea
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe.

Iiiyoea ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe a enoi?ee oeeinioneie iunee oi?ie?iaaeinue eae
i?iecaiaeiia io “?aoeei” – ?acoia, o.a. ii?aaeaeaiey oiai /aeiaa/aneiai
ie?iioiioaiey, eioi?ia enoiaeeo a noaeaeaieyo i ie?a e /aeiaaea ec
aeaiiuo iunee, eiae/aneeo iia?aoeee, i?iaa?yaiuo, aeinoiaa?iuo ?an/aoia.
?AOeEIIAEECI – oio iiaeoiae e ie?o, eioi?ue oniao?eaaao a ?acoia aunooth
ec niiniaiinoae /aeiaaea.

A naiii oe?ieii niunea ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue iiaeao auoue enoieeiaaia eae
NIINIAIINOUe ?ACOIA (EIAIII ?ACOIA) E OeAEINOIIIO IOAAOO I?E?IAeU,
IAUANOAA E NIANOAAIIIE NOAUAEOEAIINOE.

Iaoea e aunooiaao eae ?aoeeiiaeueiia ca?ii, i?eaioe?iaaiiia ia
aeiauaaiea aeinoiaa?iie enoeiu, ?anoe?yaiie e iaiiaeyaiie, oie enoeiu,
eioi?ay i?aaenoaao eae eiae/anee i?aaieciaaiiay e aeieacoaiay. IAOEA a
nianoaaiiii niunea neiaa, eae naaiaio /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u, ANOUe
AeAssOAEUeIINOUe II I?IECAIAeNOAO IIAUO CIAIEE I IE?A E *AEIAAEA,
IAEAAeATHUEO IAUAEOEAIIE CIA*EIINOUeTH.

Iia iai?aaeaia ia eco/aiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe “iauaeoii”, a ioaea/aiee
io ioeaii/ii-noauaeoeaiuo iiiaioia, ?acoiaaony, oaeay oeaeue eae
iieo/aiea “aaniethoii /enoiai” ia?aca eco/aaiiai iauaeoa iaauiieieia. Ia
ethaii auaiaea iaoee eaaeeo ia/aoue a?aiaie, i?eiyoie niiauanoaii o/aiuo
iao/iie ia?aaeeaiu, iniaaiiinoae ee/iinoe enneaaeiaaoaey. Ii
iai?aaeaiiinoue iaoee eiaiii oaeiaa – ia iauaeo “eae ii anoue”.

A nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa iaoea i?aaenoaaeyao neiaeiia, ni iiiaeie
caaiueyie, aeoaiei aioo?aiia ?an/eaiaiiia aeooiaiia ia?aciaaiea. Naiae
aii?ioathuae, iinoeaathuae, eniuouaathuae, enneaaeothuae noi?iiie iia
ia?auaia ei anaio nouaio. Eiaaea-oi auei neacaii ia eneonnoaa, /oi iii
“ia a?acaeeai”, aio aei anaai anoue aeaei. E iaoea yoi iiaeii ioianoe a
aua aieueoae noaiaie. Iao oie noi?iiu, a?aie, aniaeoa ie?icaeaiey,
eioi?ua ia iiaee au noaoue iauaeoii iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey. Aai
aiciiaeiinoe e a?aieoeu ii?aaeaeaiu aiciiaeiinoyie e a?aieoeaie iao/iie
nioeeaeueiie i?aeoeee (iiieiaaiie a naiii oe?ieii niunea neiaa). A
eiia/iii n/aoa iaoea, aoaeo/e anaiauei i?iaeoeoii aeayoaeueiinoe,
oa?aeoa?ecoao ?aaeueiue o?iaaiue e aiciiaeiinoe naiie i?aeoeee.

A oaoiiaaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee eiioea XX noieaoey iao/iay ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue
ia?aoaao iniaoth cia/eiinoue. Ioiioaiea e ie?o n iiceoeee iao/iie
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe ooaa?aeaeaao oaa?aiiinoue /aeiaaea a aiciiaeiinoe
inouanoaeaiey eiio?iee?oaiuo eciaiaiee naay e ie?a, aeinoeaeaiey
iioeiaeueiiai niaeaney /aeiaaea n ie?ii e naiei niaie.

“Ciaiea-neea”. Yoio oacen O.Ayeiia, noaaoee iacaaieai iiioey?iiai
ioa/anoaaiiiai aeo?iaea, ecaanoai aeaaii. Ii neea – iii?a aeanoe. E ia
oieueei aeanoe iieeoe/aneie, ii e aeanoe iaae i?e?iaeiuie i?ioeannaie,
iaae naiei niaie; yoi iaeaaeaiea e naiiiaeaaeaiea. Aeanoiay
ono?aieaiiinoue iao/iuo naa?oaiee iiaeieiaao aeinoieinoai /aeiaaea,
oe?aieyao aai oaa?aiiinoue, aeaao oaa?aeoth ii/ao iiae iiaaie.

A nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa iaoea noaea iai?aiaiiui nioeeaeueiui aeaeii
auniei niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie, i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iiaeaioiaea o/aiiai – iaeaieaa aeeeoaeueiue e iaeaieaa aei?iaie i?ioeann
ai anae nenoaia neeaaeuaaiey eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea. Iaoea naaiaeiy
aeaaiue, a ai iiiaeo neo/ayo aaeeinoaaiiue, enoi/iee i?eioeeieaeueiuo
eiiiaaoeee a oaoieeo e oaoiieiaeth. Aoiiiay eee eaca?iay, eiiiuethoa?iay
eee aeieiaeaia?iay oaoiieiaey “nineieuecioee” n ia?a o/aiuo e ia iiaee
i?i?anoe naie ii naaa ec iianaaeiaaiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iiuoa.

?acoiaaony, yoe iieiaeaiey ia neaaeoao enoieeiauaaoue a aeooa
iaeiiaieiai, oceinoeeaioe/aneiai, aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiiai i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey
iaoee ae?oaei ninoaaeythuei /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa. Eae au ie auea aaaeia
iaoea, iia ia ca/a?eeaaao cia/eiinoue i?aanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae,
yiioeeiiaeueiuo ii?uaia, ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo iieneia, ?aeeaeiciiai iiuoa,
ycioa?e/aneeo i?ic?aiee e o.ae.

Naaiaeiy i/aiue ino?i anoae aii?in i ianoa a iaii?aia aeooa AIAIAO*IIAI
CIAIEss. Eiiaaea aai o?aeootho eae iaoanoaea i?aeiaaney, aioeiaoee,
iiaeiaiu iiaeeeiiie ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe oa?eaoaiiie ia?aiaoeie. Ii aeoo
/aeiaa/aneee ia oieueei caaeoaeaeaaony, ii e “aeoaeaeaao”, ia/aony a
iieneao enoeiu, ia aicaiaey naaa ieeaeeo iai?ioiaeeiuo i?aa?aae. “Aeoo
a?iaeeo, aaea oi/ao” – yoi aeaeaeneia auneacuaaiea aeinoaoi/ii
au?aceoaeueii.

?acoi iiiaiia?acai. E iioiio ia noieo aunieiia?ii ioa?anuaaoue oa eeiee
iienea, eioi?ua eiatho ca niaie iiiaiouny/aeaoithth o?aaeeoeeth.
Aa?iaoe/aneia ycioa?e/aneia ciaiea, ainoiaeyuaa e Aa?iano O?eniaaenoo,
iino?iaiea Eaaaaeu (ienoe/aneia oa/aiea a eoaeaecia), oaenou Aeaeee e
Ei?aia, eeoaeneay “Eieaa ia?aiai”. Aaaeu e Oiaieoaaeu – ana yoi
auiieiaii e nio?aiaii a aaeao. Yoi ia iaoea. Ii yoi eiua oi?iu inaiaiey
aeooiaiiai ie?a, ioai?a/eaaoueny io eioi?uo auei au ii iaiueoae ia?a
ii?iiao/eai.

E a iaoe aeie iu noaeeeaaainy n neooaoeeae, i eioi?ie aiai?ee oaeie
i?eciaiiue naa?o?aoeeiiaeeno, eae Ethaeaea Aeoaaiooaei. Ii ooaa?aeaeae,
/oi neeiiiinoue e ienoe/aneiio neaaeoao ec oiai, /oi iaoea inoaaeyao
iaoe aeaeaiey iaauiieiaiiuie. Iu /oanoaoai, /oi aeaaea anee ia ana
iao/iua aii?inu aoaeao aeai ioaao, iaoe /aeiaa/aneea i?iaeaiu inoaioony
iao?iioouie.

Ia ana oi oi?ioi, /oi anoue oieueei iaoea. Iaeiaaeaeu auei iaoei
neacaii, /oi ethaiaue, iai?eia?, yaii ia iaoea. Io e /oi? ?acaa io yoiai
oiaeaia aa cia/eiinoue a aeooa eaaeaeiai ec ian? Nae/an aic?iaeaeathony
e ?iaeaeathony AEUeOA?IAOEAIUA IAOEE (iai?eia?, o?ainia?niiaeueiay
ineoieiaey N. A?ioa, “ooieiaey”, ainoi/iua nenoaiu ie?iiiieiaiey e
o.ae.). Eae e iei ioiineoueny? Ie? ia?iiai, e aeoo /aeiaa/aneee
aacaeiiai. Iaiiciaiiiai anaaaea aieueoa, /ai iiciaiiiai. Ianoa oaaoeo
anai oi?iai inaiaiey ie?a /aeiaaeii. *aeiaaeo iaiaoiaeeii ana, e ie/ai
i?aiaa?aaaoue ia neaaeoao.

Iaoea eae oaeiaay – n?aaieoaeueii iicaeiee i?iaeoeo eoeueoo?u. Iiiaea
ouny/aeaoey ethaee aeeee, aicaeaeuaay caieth, no?ieee aeeeeua, ethaeee e
no?aaeaee, iniuneeaaee e ioeaieaaee oae eee eia/a naia i?enoonoaea a
ie?a. A iaoee ia auei. Iieieaiea ca iieieaieai aoiaeeee a aeeciue e
ooiaeeee ec iaa, iie?aynue ia o?aaeeoeee, yiie?e/aneee iiuo, aeyaey ia
ie? /a?ac i?ecio ieoieiaee eee ?aeeaee. A iaoee ia auei. Auei ciaiea,
iii auei anaaaea, aac iaai /aeiaae ia aue au oai, /oi ii anoue, ia
ioaa/ae au iaeiiio ec ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo aai ii?aaeaeaiee “oiii naieain”
– /aeiaae ?acoiiue.

Iaeiaei iiiaea ouny/aeaoey ciaiey /aeiaa/aneea iaeaeaeenue a eioth
oi?io, eeai aeiiao/ioth, eeai aiaiao/ioth. Ieo, iaaey, ieeoeueoiay
i?aeoeea, aa?iaoe/aneea (caieiooua ia ie?a noauaeoeaiuo ia?aaeeaaiee),
eneonnoaa, ia?aaea/a iaeiieaiiiai iiuoa aiaoai?aoe/aneei ee/iui (o.i.
“ocoaeueiui”) ia?acii, io ianoa?a e iiaeianoa?ueth, io o/eoaey e
o/aieeo, – ana yoi aaea e aaea auei aeinoaoi/iui aeey iaania/aiey
oneiaee /aeiaa/aneie aeecie.

A aa?iiaeneii aioe/iii ie?a eee ae?aaiai Ainoiea iaoee eae oaeiaie
(aacee/iiai, oai?aoe/aneiai ciaiey i nouiinoe aauae e i?ioeannia) aua ia
auei. Oa e?oieoeu “iaoeiiiaeiaiiai” ciaiey iiaeii auei au iieaaaoue eae
i?aaeiaoeo. Iai iaaaaeiiu eiaia oao, eoi iaoae niiniau iauaeoeae?iaaoue
ciaiey, au?aaeaoue eo a aacee/iie oi?ia e ia?aaeaaaoue neaaeothuei
iieieaieyi. Ia?aienoiee iaoee, aa i?aoi?iu oa?ythony a aeoaeia aaeia.
Io iaeaieeoa aei aioe/iinoe iaeaieeaaeenue ?ac?iciaiiua i?aaeiinueee
iaoee, aua ia neeaaeuaaynue a oeaeinoiinoue e ia aeeth/aynue eae
aaniethoii iaiaoiaeeiue iiiaio a iauanoaaiioth aeeciue. Oio eoeueoo?iue
e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee eiioaeno, a eioi?ii iaoea oaea neiaeeeanue e
ioaaoeea ia cai?inu yiioe, aiciee a Aa?iia eeoue a iicaeiaa
n?aaeiaaaeiauea e ia/aea Iiaiai a?aiaie.

Anoue iiiai IA?EIAeECAOeEE a inaauaiee enoi?ee iaoee, iino?iaiiuo ia
?aciuo iniiaaieyo. Niaeanii iaeiie ec iaeaieaa naaaeeo ia?eiaeecaoeee
(A. N. E?aaaoe, 1993), aa?oueo ca iniiao nioeeieoeueoo?iua ia?aiao?u,
iiaeii auaeaeeoue /aou?a ia?eiaea nioeeaeueiie c?aeinoe aa?iiaeneie
iaoee:

IA?AUE – io XV aei XVIII a. – ?IIAIOE*ANEEE, thaaiaeueiue. Yoi a?aiy
noaiiaeaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, ?aiiaai eaieoaeecia, ia?aiia/aeueiiai
iaeiieaiey. Iaoea ia?anoaao auoue /anoiui, “ethaeoaeueneei” caiyoeai,
noaiiaeony i?ioanneae. Eaeao aeanae?aeecaoeey iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, aicieeaao iiuoiia anoanoaiciaiea. Iono?aeaaaony
aeenoeeieeia?iay no?oeoo?a iaoee. Ia?aciaaiea aieouaaao a naay aa
auaiaeu.

AOI?IE – EEANNE*ANEEE (XVIII-XIX aa.) naycai n ooaa?aeaeaieai c?aeuo
oiaa?ii-?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, iaoeiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?ino?aiaieai
noaaoaai ia iiae eaieoaeecia. A yoi a?aiy nicaeathony ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
oai?ee, iaoea aaoaeony e i?aaenoaao eae niaieoiiinoue niaoeeaeueiuo
oai?ee. Eae i?aaeei, iia noaiiaeony ia neoaeao ainoaea?noao. I?anoeae
o/aiuo a iauanoaa iiauoaaony.

O?AOEE – IINOEIANNE*ANEEE ia?eiae (i?eia?ii aoi?ay o?aoue XX a.) – yoi
oio, eiaaea aicieeaao o.i. “Aieueoay iaoea”, nicaeatho iniiaiua oai?ee
nia?aiaiiiai enoieeiaaiey ie?a (oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe, iiaay
einiieiaey, yaea?iay oeceea, eaaioiaay iaoaieea, aaiaoeea). Eaeao
o?iioaeueiia aiaae?aiea iao/iuo eaeae a oaoie/aneea eiiiaaoeee, a
i?iecaiaenoai e auo.

E, iaeiiaoe, *AOAA?OUE – IINOIAEEANNE*ANEEE ia?eiae naycai n
?acaa?ouaaieai ai anao ?aeo?nao “Aieueoie iaoee”. Ii aeeeony iiiuia. A
aiinaieiae/aneii ioiioaiee aeaiiue ia?eiae naycai n oi?ie?iaaieai eaeae
iinoiaeeanne/aneie iaoee. A yoi a?aiy iaoea, eae i?aaeei, noaiiaeony
i?aaeiaoii ananoi?iiiae iiaee ainoaea?noaa, yeaiaioii aai nenoaiu.
Oa?aeoa?iui aeey oaeiai ninoiyiey iaoee yaeyaony ?aaeecaoeey ianooaaiuo
i?iaeoia oeia aoiiiie eee einie/aneie i?ia?aiiu, i?aaiecaoeey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee oeia “aaiii (niaieoiiinoue aaiia)
/aeiaaea” eee yeieiae/aneee iiieoi?eia.

?acoiaaony, i?aaeeaaaaiay ia?eiaeecaoeey – yoi noaia. E eae anyeay noaia
iia ia o/eouaaao iiiaeo aeaoaeae, ii?ie aanueia aaaeiuo. E ana aea iia
aeaao iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo nooiaiyo
ainoiaeaeaiey iaoee.

Aioo?aiiyy i?aaiecaoeey, NO?OEOO?A IAOEE yaeyao niaie iiiaiia?acioth e
iiiaieeeoth ea?oeio. Eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo noai aa iaiaei. Ii naaiaeiy
aicieeea neooaoeey, i eioi?ie aiai?ee A. E. Aa?iaaeneee, eiaaea oniaoiue
enneaaeiaaoaeueneee iiene eaeao ia /a?ac nonaee ioaeaeueiuo iaoe, a
/a?ac oceu iaueo i?iaeai.

Aeaei a oii, /oi ia?yaeo ni ana aieaa ae?iaiie AeEOOA?AIOeEAOeEAE iaoe e
iao/iuo iai?aaeaiee eaeao iiao/ee i?ioeann EIOAA?E?IAAIEss ciaiee.
Aicieeatho iaaaaeenoeeieeiu. Nae/an ?aciua aaoi?u ian/eouaatho io
iieooi?a aei aeanyoe ouny/ naiinoiyoaeueiuo aeenoeeieei. O/aiua
ia?anoatho iiieiaoue ae?oa ae?oaa, eai eaaeaeay ec aeenoeeieei -yoi naiy
oa?ieiieiaey, nianoaaiiua iaoiaeeee, aaoiiiiiua enneaaeiaaoaeueneea
no?oeoo?u.

Eiiaaea aiai?yo, /oi i?e?iaea-aea iaaeaeeia, iu aa aeaeei ii ?oa?eeai
niia?acii naiei eioa?anai. Yoi e oae e ia oae. Ie? oeaeinoai, ii ia
iiiioiiai. Ii ia yaeyao niaie aaceeeoth, nieioioth, iaeii?iaeioth
ionouith. Ie? oeaeinoai e iiiaioeaaoai, ?aciiea/anoaaiai, iaeaaeaao
aiaaoie aioo?aiiae i?aaiecaoeeae, aeeiaie/iie e i?aoa?iaaathuae oa eee
eiua iaoaii?oicu.

Iiyoiio aeenoeeieeia?iay i?aaiecaoeey iaoee ii?aaaeaia. Ii eeoue i?e
oneiaee iinoiyiiiai aieiaiey e oai?aoe/aneiio neioaco. E a yoii
i?ioeanna iniaaiii aaaeia ?ieue oeeinioee, auiieiythuae ii ioiioaieth e
aeooiaiiio ie?o ooieoeee anaiauae aaia?aeecaoeee ciaiee.

A nia?aiaiiie iaoea /anoi i?eiaiytho iiiyoea “IA?AAeEAIA” aaaaeaiiia O.
Eoiii aeey iaicia/aiey niaieoiiinoe iauai?eiyouo eaeaaeia e ii?i
iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey e oie ea?oeiu ie?a, n eioi?ie niaeania iniiaiay
ianna iao/iiai niiauanoaa. Niaia ia?aaeeai – ?aaiethoeeiiiue naeaea a
iaoea, aa auoiae ia iiaua ?oaaaee. N na?aaeeiu iaoaai noieaoey
iaicia/eeny ia?aaeeaiaeueiue naeaea, ?aceia eciaiaiea aeaeaiey ie?a e
/aeiaaea. Yoi naycaii n aeoaeiiuie, iiaeeeiii ?aaiethoeeiiiuie
eciaiaieyie a iaoea, aicieeiiaaieai iinoiaeeanne/aneiai yoaia aa
?acaeoey, nicaeaiey iaieeanneee.

Iaeia ec aeaaiuo eeiee noaiiaeaiey aeaiiiai yoaia ninoieo a oii, /oi a
iaoeo aoiaeeo aeneieiae/aneee (oeaiiinoiue) iiiaio. Ia ianoa /enoi
iauaeoeaenoneiai (iaoo?aeenoe/aneiai) aeaeaiey ie?a auaeaeaaaony oaeay
nenoaia iino?iaiey iaoee, a eioi?ie iaycaoaeueii i?enoonoaoao a oie eee
eiie ia?a (ia oieueei a einiieiaee, ii e iianthaeo) “AIO?IIIUE
I?EIOeEI”.

Nooue aai, iiaeao auoue, a ?acei oi?iuaiiii aeaea ninoieo a
ooaa?aeaeaiee oeia: ie? oaeia iioiio, /oi a iai anoue iu, ethaie oaa
iiciaiey iiaeao auoue i?eiyo oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ii ii?aaaeai
eioa?anaie ?iaea ethaeae, aoiaienoe/ii i?eaioe?iaai. Aeey yoiai oeia
oa?aeoa?ai iiai?io iai?aaeaiiinoe iao/iiai iienea iioieiae/aneeo
(nouiinoiuo) i?iaeai ia “/aeiaaei?acia?iua” auoeeiua i?iaeaiu.

Eeoue oa iaoea i?eaieaia, eioi?ay iaania/eo nio?aiaiea e aoaeouaa ?iaea
ethaeae, ia aeano aio en/aciooue, ?anoai?eoueny a oieiaeiii, aacaeooiii
Oieaa?noia. Iaoea aeieaeia aeaoue n?aaenoai aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey
Aiieaeeinena, iaania/eaaoue auaeeaaiea /aeiaa/anoaa, i?iaeieaeeoue aai
enoi?eth, ooiaeyuoth a aaneiia/iinoue. Yoi ea?aeeiaeueiay caaea/a
nia?aiaiiie ie?iaie iaoee.

Oeeinioey nia?aiaiiiai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ia/aeanue ea?aeeiaeueiay ?aaiethoeey,
i?eioeeieaeueii eciaiythuay ioiioaiea ie?a /aeiaaea e ie?a i?e?iaeu. Iia
aua ia iieo/eea iauai?eiyoiai iacaaiey. Yoi e iiiyoii – iia aieaa a
enoieao, /ai a ?acai?ioa. Aa ?anoeaao aua aia?aaee.

A ?aciuo oai?aoe/aneeo nenoaiao iia eiaioaony iaiaeeiaeiai. A
ia?enenoneie oa?ieiieiaee yoi “iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey”, ii
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiie oeiieiaee I. Oiooea?a – “nioeei-oaoie/aneay
?aaiethoeey”. *aua anaai aa iacuaatho eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiiuethoa?iie eee
eioi?iaoeeiiii-yeieiae/aneie. Aa nianoaaiiui aioo?aiiei noa?aeiai
aunooiaao nicaeaiea e ?acaa?ouaaiea yeaeo?iiii-eiiiuethoa?iie e
aeioaoiieiaee. Aa ?acoeueoaoii a naiii oe?ieii niunea iiaeao noaoue
iiaay oeeaeeecaoeey, oneiaii aiai?y “iinoeiaeono?eaeueiay”,
“eioi?iaoeeiiiay”, “eioi?iaoeeiiii-yeieiae/aneay”.

Iauanoai, eiioo?u eioi?iai oieueei-oieueei i?iyaeythony, aoaeao
oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny iiaui e niaa?oaiii iniaui ianoii a iai eioi?iaoeee e
ciaiey. Oaea naaiaeiy a iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?aiao iniiaiua iaeanoe
i?iiuoeaiiiai e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, naycue e
eiiioieeaoeee, auo e ?acaea/aiey, ia?aciaaiea e aeooiaiay aeeciue i?i/ii
iie?athony ia aeinoeaeaiey ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo iaoe, noaiiaynue ana aieaa
e aieaa iaoeiaieeie. Iiene, nicaeaiea e o?aiaiea, niuneiaay
o?ainoi?iaoeey, oe?aaee?iaaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea ciaiee caieiaao ana
aieueoaa ianoi a aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. EIOI?IAOeEss NOAIIAEONss
OeAIIUI I?IAeOEOII E INIIAIUI OIAA?II.

Yoe iieiaeaiey iiaoaeaeatho e oiio, /oiau i?enoaeueiaa aaeyaeaoueny a
naii IIIssOEA “EIOI?IAOeEss”. Aua iaaeaaii, oae neacaoue, a
aeieeaa?iaoe/aneoth ii?o eioi?iaoeey iiieiaeanue eae ia?aaea/a
niiauaiey. A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ia aieia eeaa?iaoe/aneiai aoia yoi
iiiyoea ia?ainiuneeaaeinue e oaeoaeyeinue. Naaiaeiy iii o?aeooaony eae
iaeioi?ay noanoaioeey, eioi?ay ieoaao enneaaeiaaoaeae, a/eouaathueony a
iaiiciaiiia, oao, eoi noieo o ?oey i?ioeannia oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii
e nioeeaeueiie aeeciueth.

Aicieeee oeeinioneea eiioeaioeee, a eioi?uo eioi?iaoeey noaaeeanue a
iaeei ?yae n i?ioyaeaiiinoueth e aeaeaeaieai. Eioi?iaoeeiiiinoue
o?aeooaony a ieo eae naienoai anaai Oieaa?noia e eaaeaeie aai
ninoaaeythuae. I?e anai yoii eiae/anee no?iaiai iauai?eiyoiai
ii?aaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee iiea iao.

E ia auoiaii o?iaia oaea oiaeyo i?eneacee oeia “eioi?iaoeey-iaoue
y?oaeeoeee”. Iiieiaiea oiai, /oi eioi?iaoeey anoue iaeioi?ue
niaea?aeaoaeueiue naonoie ethaiai ciaiey, aai aioo?aiiyy aeiieiaioa,
aeoaeiiue noa?aeaiue noaiiaeony oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui. Iieaaay
aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeoey iauanoaa eae “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai”, iu oai naiui
ooaa?aeaeaai, /oi oeaio? oyaeanoe a “oaoiinoa?a” e aiiaua ai anae
eneonnoaaiiie n?aaea /aeiaa/aneiai auoey ia?aiauaaony n “yia?aaoe/aneeo”
e “aauanoaaiiuo” iiiaioia ia “eioi?iaoeeiiiua”.

Aunieea oaoiieiaee eiioea aaea (yeaeo?iieea, eioi?iaoeea, einie/aneia
i?iecaiaenoai, aeioaoiieiaee e o.ae.) auaiaeyo i?iecaiaenoai ia iiaue
o?iaaiue, i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/iue io i?aaeoanoaothuae enoi?ee. A eo
eeoea ie? aaeyaeuaaaony a naia iaic?eiia aoaeouaa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
nicaeaiea yoeo oaoiieiaee aiieia iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae
?aaiethoeeth, o.a. ?aaeeeaeueiia ea/anoaaiiia i?aia?aciaaiea a ioiioaiee
*aeiaa/anoaa e I?e?iaeu.

Aanue ie? i?iecaiaenoaa oai, aaea ii anooiee a oaco ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
eciaiaiee, ?aceoaeueii iaiyao naie iaeee. Iaiyaony niioiioaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa aeaa e noa?u oneoa a iieueco iineaaeiae. Nieaeaaony
aaniiinoue oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eaeao aa ?acoe?oiiaiea,
aeeaa?neoeeaoeey (oiiiaeaiea iiiaiia?acey). AEanoeea aa?oeeaeueiua
iiiino?oeoo?u caiaiythony oa??eoi?eaeueii ?annayiiuie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie
naoyie. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeaa?aaaony ananoi?iiiae
“oaoiieiaecaoeee”. Eiiiuethoa?iay oaoiieiaey ?anoe?yao aiciiaeiinoe
iuneeoaeueiuo aeoia, ?aci?oaeaao iaiyoue, nicaeaao i?aaeiinueee aeey
oai?/aneeo aceaoia.

A yoie neooaoeee ?acei aic?anoaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey “?anioaeeee
o/aiuo”, o.a. oiai niiauanoaa, eioi?ia caieiaeinue au aani?a?uaiie
aoaeie iaecaaaeaiiiai, oiiiaeaea au “oinoaaiioth neeo” ?iaea ethaeae.
Auniei cia/eiui noaiiaeony ianniaia ia?aciaaiea, iino?iaiiia ia iniiaa
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo naa?oaiee iaoee. No?aia, aaea i?aiaa?aaatho noa?ie
ia?aciaaiey e iiai?a/eaathony nieiie e iaoea, ia?a/aia ia aieaiea.

Aeaeueiiaeaeiua yeiiiienou aeaaii iniciaee cia/eiinoue “/aeiaa/aneiai
eaieoaea”. A yoi cia/eo, /oi iaeaieaa aia/aoeythuee ?acoeueoao,
auni/aeooth yooaeoeaiinoue aeatho “aeiaeaiey” a /aeiaaea. Aoaeouaa
yeiiiieee, yeieiaee, aiiaua /aeiaa/aneie aeecie caaeneo i?aaeaea anaai
io oiai, eaeia eioaeeaeooaeueiue aaaaae ethaeae e eaeia eo aeooiaiue,
i?aanoaaiiue iaeee.

EIOI?IAOeEIIII-EIIIUeOA?IAss ?AAIETHOeEss IIAeAIOAAEEAAAO AACO AeEss
AEOAIEEO NIOeEAEUeIUO ECIAIAIEE. Iie ioaaoyo ana yoaaee iauanoaaiiie
oeaeinoiinoe – nioeeaeueiia ono?ienoai, oicyenoaaiioth aeeciue e o?oae,
iaeanoe iieeoeee e ia?aciaaiey. O?aaeeoeeiiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i
nioeeaeueiuo no?oeoo?ao, oa?aeoa?iua aeey XIX a. eee 1-e iieiaeiu XX a.,
ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, oeaeoo a i?ioeia. Oaea i?ienoiaeyo i?ioeannu,
aaaeouea e oiio, a i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa inoaaony ana iaiueoa
“neieo ai?ioie/eia” (?aai/eo). Caoi ana aieueoa noaiiaeony “aaeuo
ai?ioie/eia” (niaoeeaeenoia) e “noaeueiuo ai?ioie/eia” (?iaioia).
Aicieeaao iiaue neie ?aaioieeia n aunieie eioaeeaeooaeueiie
eaaeeoeeaoeeae. A. Oiooea? iacuaaao aai “eiaiaoa?eao”.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey no?aieoaeueii ?acaeaaaony. Oae, a 1971 a.
ia?aue a ie?a iee?ii?ioeanni? (“E?aiieaaue /ei”) niaea?aeae 2300
o?aicenoi?ia e iicaieye auiieiyoue 60 ouny/ iia?aoeee a naeoiaeo. A 1993
a. eiiiuethoa? iyoiai iieieaiey niaea?aeae oaea 3 iei. 300 ouny/
o?aicenoi?ia e auiieiye 166 iei. eiiaiae a naeoiaeo. Ciaoiee e yenia?ou
iieaaatho, /oi e eiioeo noieaoey iiyayony eiiiuethoa?u oanoiai e
naaeueiiai iieieaiey, eioi?ua aoaeoo niaea?aeaoue a eaaeaeii i?ioeanni?a
80-100 iei. o?aicenoi?ia e auiieiyoue aei 2 ieeeea?aeia eiiaiae a
naeoiaeo.

Nouanoaaiii eciaieony e aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iay noa?a iauanoaa.
Eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey noaiao iiuiui aaia?aoi?ii e ?aceei oneeeoaeai
eoeueoo?iuo naeaeaia e eiiiaaoeee. Iia auciaao i?ioeai?a/eaua e
iaiaeiicia/iua i?ioeannu. Yeaeo?iiiua n?aaenoaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
iieueciaaiey iicaieyo ethaiio /aeiaaeo iieo/aoue iaiaoiaeeioth
eioi?iaoeeth. E yoi eciaieo oa?aeoa? ianniaie eoeueoo?u, nenoaiu
ia?aciaaiey, ?anoe?eo e?oaici? eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea. .Aeaa
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo i?ioeanna a eoeueoo?a – ianneoeeaoeey e
aeaianneoeeaoeey, – acaeiiia?aieaoaynue, auciaoo iaiaei
iai?aaeneacoaiuo eieeecee e iaiaeeaeaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae. A oeaeii iie
auaaaeoo eoeueoo?o ia eiie ea/anoaaiiue o?iaaiue.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay ?aaiethoeey ia iiaeao ia cao?iiooue noa?o iieeoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iineaaenoaey aa io?aaeiu: ?anoe?aiea
aiciiaeiinoae iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey eaaeaeiai a i?eiyoee
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ?aoaiee, oi?i/aiea aeaiie?aoe/aneie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
naiaiaeu. Ii aianoa n oai aicieeaao iianiinoue anaioaaouaathuaai
eiio?iey i?aayueo no?oeoo? iaae ethaeueie, aieioue aei iaieioee?iaaiey
eie. I?aiaeieaiea yoiai i?ioeai?a/ey aiciiaeii eeoue ia iooyo
iaaeiiouaiey ethauo oi?i oioaeeoa?ecia e caueou aeinoieinoaa e naiaiaeu
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea.

E, iaeiiaoe, eioi?iaoeeiiiay ?aaiethoeey ieaaeao na?ueaciia aicaeaenoaea
ia naiiai /aeiaaea, aai ia?ac aeecie, ?iae caiyoee, naii/oanoaea.
?acoiaaony, iiiaia caaeneo io oiai, a eaeii nioeeaeueiii eiioaenoa
aoaeao i?ioaeaoue eioi?iaoecaoeey /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, eae iia aoaeao
naycaia n aeaiie?aoecaoeeae nioeeaeueiinoe, aoiaiecaoeeae aeooiaiie
aoiinoa?u. Oai ia iaiaa iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea aaieia
ciaiee, aeinooiiuo aeey anao, noaiiaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie yienoaiieiaee
(oai?ee iiciaiey) ieaaeoo aicaeaenoaea ia oa?aeoa? eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

A ie? aianoa n eiiiuethoa?ecaoeeae aoiaeeo iiaue aeae ?aaeueiinoe –
“AE?OOAEUeIAss ?AAEUeIINOUe”, eneonnoaaiiay inaaaein?aaea, n eioi?ie
iiaeii iauaoueny eae n iiaeeeiiie. Yoa iiaay oaoiieiae/aneay n?aaea
ieaaeao iiuiia (e iiea /oi niaa?oaiii iai?aaeneacoaiia) aicaeaenoaea ia
/aeiaa/aneoth ineoeeo. Naaiaeiy yoa ia?niaeoeaa iaia?oaeeaaaony, a
/anoiinoe, a oaiiiaia iaiueyeia eiiiuethoa?iuo ea? e yenoaoe/aneie
(iaoiaeyuaeny a ninoiyiee yenoaca) iia?oaeaiiinoe a “ae?ooaeueioth
?aaeueiinoue”.

Aeeaeia iee?ii?ioeanni?iie nenoaiu e /aeiaaea, i?aa?aoeaoenue a
iinoiyiiue e iaiaoiaeeiue iiiaio aeeciaiiiai iooe, ai iiiaii nouanoaaiii
i?aia?acoao i?ioeann iao/aiey, i?ioanneiiaeueiue o?oae, aeinoa, ea/aiea.
Aunieee o?iaaiue eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe, iii?inoo ia n?aaieiue n nia?aiaiiui,
i?iaoaeaeaiea oai?/aneiai iioaioeeaea, iaaeaeaiiua niiniau iauaiey
ethaeae – ana yoi ii?iaeeo eiie oei /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe.

Oa?aeoa?ecoy a?yaeouaa iauanoai eae eioi?iaoeeiiiia, aicieeathuaa ia
iniiaa eiiiuethoa?iie oaoiieiaee, neaaeoao, aeaeeii, naeaeaoue iaeii
aaaeiia aeiiieiaiea. Eae ioia/aeinue ioa/anoaaiiuie enneaaeiaaoaeyie
(iai?eia?, A. Ae. O?noe), yoi iauanoai aeieaeii auoue ia oieueei
eioi?iaoeeiiiui, ii e yeieiae/aneei. Auaeaeaeaiea a iinoeiaeono?eaeueiii
iauanoaa ia ia?aue ieai eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?iaeai aua ia ?aoaao anao
eieeecee a ioiioaiee “iauanoai-i?e?iaea”. Iac?aaathuee aeiaaeueiue
yeie?ecen (i iai iiae?iaiaa – a neaaeothuae eaeoeee) iiaaeeoaeueii
o?aaoao iiai?ioa iauanoaa a noi?iio eiyaiethoeeiiiuo caaea/, o.a.
aeinoeaeaiey iioeiaeueiuo ioiioaiee /aeiaa/anoaa e aai
i?e?iaeii-yeieiae/aneie n?aaeu. I?iecaiaenoai ia iiaeao ia noaoue
yeieiaece?iaaiiui. Eia/a iu caoeaaiainy a aai ioa?inao, iiaoaei
anoanoaaiiua oneiaey iaoaai iaeoaiey.

Eae yoi ie ia/aeueii, ii aauanoaaiiua e yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu
ennyeatho. Oaea anoue iainiiaaiiua ?an/aou, ia neieueei niiaeao oaaoeoue
a iaic?eiii aoaeouai iaaiciaiiaeyaiuo ?ano?nia (oaieue, iaooue, aac e
ae?.). Ii anoue iaeei ?ano?n, eioi?ue no?aieoaeueii aic?anoaao –
eioaeeaeooaeueiue, eioi?iaoeeiiiue e i?aaeaea anaai ?ano?n
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ciaiey, ia?aciaaiiinoe, eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe ethaeae.
Iie?aynue aeaaiui ia?acii ia yoio ?ano?n, aeeth/ay e
aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiia aiaaonoai, /aeiaa/anoai a ninoiyiee i?aiaeieaoue
iac?aaathuoth aeiaaeueioth ianoaaeeueiinoue e aueoe e iiaui ai?eciioai
enoi?ee.

Caaa?oay eaeoeeth i oeeinioneeo i?iaeaiao nia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoey iaoee e
oaoieee, iinoaaei aii?inu: anoue ee aoaeouaa o iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
i?ia?anna? Ai anao ee ioiioaieyo aai iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae i?ia?ann?

Aeaei a oii, /oi, nicaeaaay “oaoiinoa?o”, /aeiaa/anoai oanieo i?e?iaeo,
aio?iiiaaiiia (naycaiiia n aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea) aicaeaenoaea ia
aeinoa?o Caiee noaiiaeony aoaeoaeueiui, i?a?uaathony anoanoaaiiua oeeeeu
aiciaiiaeaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Ieaoa ca oaeianoaa, eiioi?o, aunieea
o?iaeae e aeiia n ai?y/ei aiaeiniaaaeaieai ieacuaaaony iaiiia?ii auniea.
Aeaeeii, ia ii anai ia?aiao?ai e ia ai anao ioiioaieyo
iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann anoue aeaai. Iiiaia a iai ioaathua auno?i
iai?a/eaaaony ceii. Ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii aicieeee aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu
auaeeaaiey ?iaea ethaeae. Ii ia yoii ?acaiai? iieaeao a neaaeothuae
eaeoeee.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaeaaa ?. O. Oeeinioey eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeeaeeecaoeee. I., 1994.

2. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth… *. 2. Aeaau 13, 15.

3. Aaaa? I. Eca?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey. I., 1990. *. 3. ?acae. “Iaoea eae
i?ecaaiea e i?ioanney”.

4. Eaeea A. AE. Iaoea eae eiiiiiaio nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu. I., 1988.

5. Eiycaa A. E. *aeiaae e oaoiieiaey. Eeaa, 1990.

6. Ie? oeeinioee: Eieaa aeey /oaiey. I., 1991. Ae.2. ?acae. 7, §2.

7. ?aeeoia A. E. Oeeinioey eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaiethoeee. I., 1993.

8. Nia?aiaiiay oeeinioey: Neiaa?ue e o?anoiiaoey. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio,
1995. Ae. V. ?acae. 7.

9. Noaiei A. N. Oeeinioneay aio?iiieiaey e oeeinioey iaoee. I., 1992.

10. Oaa?ecyi A. I. Oaoieea. Eoeueoo?a. *aeiaae. I., 1988.

11. Oaea?aaaiae E. Eca?aiiua o?oaeu ii iaoiaeieiaee iaoee. I., 1986,
?acae. 2, 4.

12. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aocia. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio… Ae. XIII.

1. Oaia XXI. NIA?AIAIIAss OeEAEEECAOeEss: AA i?iaeaiu E IA?NIAEOEAU

1. Niaoeeoeea ie?iaie neooaoeee eiioea XX a.

2. Iniiaiua aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiinoe. I?aaeiinueee eo
i?aiaeieaiey. 3. Aiciiaeii ee i?aaeaeaeaoue aoaeouaa?

Niaoeeoeea ie?iaie neooaoeee eiioea XX a.

Eeanneeo /eoaoue iieacii. Iao-iao aea e iaeaeaoue a iae auneacuaaiea,
ii?aaeathuaa naaaeanoueth e ino?ioie. A o?anoiiaoeeii-ecaanoiie iiaanoe
I. A. Aiaiey “Aee” aae?oa iaoaeeeaaaoueny ia o?aco: “Oeeinio, iioa?eaoe
iiaaie ai ana noi?iiu, neacae iaeiiaoe io?uaenoi: A aaea aea aei?iaa?”.
E aeoiaaoue – aaaeue yoi i ian, oeeinioao eiioea XX a. E i anai
naaiaeiyoiai /aeiaa/anoaa. Yoi e e iai aii?in. Eaii a?yaeaoe? Eoaea aea
iooue aea?aeeoue, /aeiaa/anoai? *oi iaeeaeaaoue, ?iae ethaeneie?

ss?ei au?aaeaiiay aieaciaiiinoue iiaeiaiiai aii?ioaiey oneeeaaaony oai,
/oi aei 2000 a. inoaeinue nianai iaiiiai a?aiaie. Yoa aeaoa i?eoyaeaaao
e aieioao. Aeaaea oa, eoi ia iiaeaa?aeai ieoaai?aeneie ienoeea oeeo?, ia
iiaoo ia n/eoaoueny n iiuiui neiaiee/aneei aicaeaenoaeai, ieacuaathuei
ia anao ian ?oaaaeii XX-XXI aa. Oai aieaa, /oi naaiaeiy oaea ieeoi ia
niiiaaaaony a oii, /oi iu iaoiaeeiny ia ia?aeiiiii yoaia, ia ii?iaa
iiaiai enoi?e/aneiai ecia?aiey, a iioiio noa?aoaeueii iuoaainy
i?aaeoaaaeaoue naia iaic?eiia aoaeouaa.

Oae, n iai?yaeaiiui aieiaieai a 2000 a. io ?iaeaeanoaa O?enoiaa
aniao?eaathony o?enoeaineea aiaineiau. Eo aiieaeeioe/aneea oiiiano?iaiey
ana /aua iiyaeythony ia no?aieoeao ia/aoe. Iie, a /anoiinoe,
aeooaeece?otho “oeeinioeth eiioea naaoa”, i?iiecuaathuoth Ioe?iaaiey
Nayoiai Eiaiia Aiaineiaa, iineaaeithth aeaao Aeaeee.

O?aae/aneea i?aaeneacaiey cao/ao ia oieueei a o?enoeaineeo o?aiao, ii e
a ionoeueiaineeo ia/aoyo. Caeanue ec ono nayuaiiineoaeeoaeae ia?aaeei
?acaeathony oe?aaeu oeia: “I, ?aau Aeeaoa, y aithnue aeey aan oaeaniiai
iaeacaiey”. Iiyaeythony iiiai/eneaiiua “i?i?iee” e naeou. Iie noaayo
ceiaauea aeeaaiicu, a?iaea oiai, /oi ie? iaoiaeeony ia iaeiie ec
iineaaeieo nooiaiae aeooiaiie ieuaou e aeaa?aaeaoeee, /oi aio-aio ia
aieiau ethaeae ia?ooaony iaaeaeaiiua ?aiaa aeanoieea aieiu, aoaeoaeueiua
aeey caiee o?aaaiu, caieao?ynaiey, /oi ia iaiaa 90% caieyi aoaeao
eniaiaeaii, oie/oiaeaii e o.ae., e o.i. Nianoony eeoue aaeaiou “o/aiee”,
iauyaeythueo naay aaeeinoaaiii enoeiiuie.

Ecioa?eee, iaiai?io, ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iaoe ai?eciiou aieaa yniu, eai
aeeceony ia?aoiae io Eaee THae (“/a?iiai aaea”) e Naoea THaa (“naaoeiio
aaeo”), /oi aeanoeay yiioa ?ua niaieony yiioie iyaeiai Aiaeieay. Iaoe
iuiaoiea no?aaeaiey iie iauyniytho yia?aaoe/aneei aeeyieai Ieooiia,
eioi?ue iaoiaeeony nae/an a naiii neeueiii ciaeeaeaeueiii ciaea
Nei?ieiia. Ia neaaeoao, aiai?yo ecioa?eee, iniai aaniieieoueny: ana
iaoiieeii aeaeaeaony ii ciaeeaeaeueiui iooyi. *aeiaa/anoai ai ecaaaeaiea
aeaeueiaeoeo no?aaeaiee iauaaeeieony, nicaeano iauaieaiaoa?iue aeii.
Oieueei au ia oionoeoue iiaeoiaeyuee iiiaio. Iaoa a?aiy – ?aoathuaa. A
/oi aeoiatho ii yoiio iiaiaeo ethaee ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iuoeaiey? O/aiua e
nioeeieiae iieaaatho, /oi a a?yaeouai aaea aiciiaeiu eae aceao, oae e
oiaaeie. Iie aiai?yo i aoaeouai iiiaiia?iii ie?a, aicieeiiaaiee
iaaaaeiiie aua iiaeaee ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee. O/aiua o?oaeu e n?aaenoaa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee caiieiaiu naioaioeeyie: ie? ia eceiia, ia
ia?aioouea, ii ono?aieai e iiaiio aeiaaeueiiio ii?yaeeo; aia?aaee –
?acaeeea enoi?ee, iaiaoiaeei auai? aeaeueiaeoaai iooe.

I?e ioeaiea aeiaaeueiie neooaoeee eiioea aaea, aeaeeii, ia neaaeoao
i?aiaa?aaaoue iiiaiiiey?iie oa?aeoa?enoeeie nia?aiaiiiai ie?a,
iaen/a?iaaiui iiiaiia?aceai aeeiaie/iuo nioeeieoeueoo?iuo oi?i.
Auni/aeoea aeinoeaeaiey iaua/aeiaa/aneiai i?ia?anna io?aaeaiu a
niaa?oaiii iiauo oaoiieiaeyo, yooaeoeaiii i?iiuoeaiiii e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, ?acaaoaeaiiie Eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe,
ie?a ooii/aiiiai eneonnoaa. E a oi aea a?aiy ?yae ?aaeiiia caiiiai oa?a
nio?aiyao ?aeeeoiaua, a?oae/iua nioeeaeueiua ia?aciaaiey, ia iieuecoaony
aeaaaie oeeaeeecaoeee, aea/eo aeaeeia nouanoaiaaiea.

A aaaeue, eaaeaony, aua nianai iaaeaaii iu aeeee a “aeaooiiethniii”
ie?a: nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie eaeaeii-iieeoe/anee ae?oa ae?oao
i?ioeainoiyee no?aiu ?acaeoiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa (eaieoaeecia) e
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai niae?oaeanoaa. Aieueooth /anoue caieyi i?e/eneyee e
?anieua/aoi iaii?aaeaeaiiiio “o?aoueaio ie?o”. ?aniaae
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai niae?oaeanoaa e aeoaieea eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea a
iaoai Ioa/anoaa, ?acei e iaiaeeaeaiii eciaieee anth iaii?aio ie?iaiai
niiauanoaa.

Oa?aeoa?ecoy neiaeeaoothny neooaoeeth, ecaanoiue iaiaoeeee iieeoieia
?aeueo Aea?ai-aei?o n ?anoa?yiiinoueth aiai?ee: “Eae aoaeoi ia?iiiue
o?aaai ?ac?ooee iieeoe/aneee iaecaae, oie/oiaeea ana i?eaioe?u”.
Aicieeea iiiaiiiey?iinoue, ia ia?aue ieai auoei i?ioeainoiyiea, eioi?ia
oneiaii iiaeii auei au iaicia/eoue “Naaa?-THa”. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoay a?oiia auniei?acaeouo no?ai n onoie/eaie
iieeoe/aneie nenoaiie, iiaaeoae eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiiuethoa?iie
oaoiieiaeae, n aunieei o?iaiai aeaaininoiyiey, n ae?oaie, iniiaiay ianna
no?ai, oaoiieiae/anee eiaeono?eaeueiuo, a oi e aeieiaeono?eaeueiuo.
Caeanue iaaethaeathony ao?iue ?ino ia?iaeiianaeaiey, ianniaay
aaaeiinoue, ianoaaeeueiinoue aioo?aiiae aeecie. I aeoaeia i?iianoe
iaaeaeo “cieioui ieeeea?aeii” e /aou?ueiy ieeeea?aeaie inoaeueiiai
ianaeaiey iiaeii noaeeoue ii oaeei aeaiiui. A 1992 a. 20% iaeaieaa
aiaaouo no?ai iieo/aee 83% ie?iaiai aeioiaea, a ia aeieth aoonaeaea?ia
inoaaaeinue anaai 17%, a o./. oaeaeueiue aan aaaeiaeoae /anoe ninoaaeye
anaai eeoue 1,4%. NOA e Eaiaaea o?aoyo ia ia?aciaaiea a ?an/aoa ia aeooo
ianaeaiey a 90 ?ac aieueoa, /ai iiiaea ao?eeaineea no?aiu. Eiaeey aeaao
ie?o 1/3 anao iaa?aiioiuo, Eeoae – /aoaa?ooth /anoue.

Io yoiai i?ioeainoiyiey ieeoaea ia oeaeaoue. Ia eiioa?aioeee III,
iinayuaiiie ie?oaeathuae n?aaea e ia?niaeoeaai ie?iaiai ?acaeoey (ethiue
1992 a.), ecaanoiue iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue Ii?aaaee A?o Oa?eai
A?oiaeeaiae cayaeea: “*aeiaa/aneay enoi?ey aeinoeaea aiaei?acaeaea, ca
eioi?ui eciaiaiea iieeoeee noaiiaeony iaecaaaeiui. Aieaa ieeeea?aea
/aeiaae, ia iiaoueo oaeiaeaoai?eoue iniiaiua iio?aaiinoe, iaoe
nianoaaiiua aeaoe e aioee e. naia ieaiaoa Caiey o?aaotho ?aaiethoeee.
Iia a?yaeao. Iu ciaai, /oi o ian anoue aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeioa?aoeoue
iianiinoue, oain e eiioeeeou, eioi?ua a i?ioeaiii neo/aa iaecaaaeiu”.

*oi e aiai?eoue, neiaa no?iaua e i?aaaeeaua. Iaeiaei i?ioiaeyo aiaeu, a
ieeaeeo nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee ia iaaethaeaaony. Iniiaiay ianna
iieeoeeia aea e ?yaeiauo ethaeae ia aiaietho a?iciui i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieyi,
?oeiaiaenoaothony a aeecie oae oi?ioi ciaeiiui ?onneei neiaii “aainue”.
Aainue i?iianao, naie ii naaa ?anninoony aaaeu e ia/aee, ia a?yiao a?ii.
Ii iaaei niio?aoue i?aaaea a aeaca. Oai aieaa, ii?aaeaeeeenue oa
oaiaeaioeee, eioi?ua ii?iaeaeatho o?aaiao. Ia neo/aeii aea iano?ua
eiioeaioeee aeiaaeueiiai ?acaeoey iiae/an oa?aeoa?ecothony eae iiene
“no?aoaaee auaeeaaiey”. ?a/ue eaeao oaea ia i oii, eae “aeeoue”, a i
oii, eae “auaeeoue”. E yoi ia iiaeao ia aucuaaoue aeoaieie icaai/aiiinoe
o anao iuneyueo ethaeae.

Iniiaiua aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiinoe. I?aaeiinueee eo
i?aiaeieaiey.

Eoae, IA?AAss AEIAAEUeIAss I?IAEAIA iaoeo aeiae – ana aua nio?aiythuayny
OA?ICA OA?IIssAeA?IIAI IIAEA?A. I?ec?ae “noaeiiai aeiy”, “iiieoeeaea”,
oie/oiaeaiey anao e any aua a?iaeeo ii ieaiaoa. Aiciiaeiinoe
aicieeiiaaiey “ananaeeaathuaai ieaiaie” e iineaaeothuae “yaea?iie ceiu”
ioithaeue ia aano?aeoiu, o ieo anoue c?eiua /a?ou.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeiaiai?u i nie?auaiee no?aoaae/aneeo yaea?iuo
a?naiaeia iiaeienaiu, iie/aeeai niaethaeathony, ii aua ie iaeiei
yaea?iui ainoaea?noaii ia ?aoeoeoee?iaaiu, ia i?eia?aee noaoona caeiia.
Iiea oie/oiaeaii eeoue ianeieueei i?ioeaioia ia?iiiuo yaea?iuo caiania.
I?ioeann yaea?iiai ?aci?oaeaiey iiaeao ?anoyiooueny ia iaii?aaeaeaiii
aeeeoaeueiue n?ie. A oieueei ia oa??eoi?ee NOA e auaoaai NNN? a
na?aaeeia 1995 a. ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 25 ouny/ yaea?iuo aiaaieiaie.

E oiio aea eaeao ?aniiecaiea aoiiiie oaoiieiaee. Oaea aioiau e
i?iecaiaenoao yaea?iiai i?oaeey Eiaeey, Iaeenoai, THA?, Ec?aeeue e ?yae
ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa. Ia?anoaao iianiinoue iaeaaeaiey yaea?iui i?oaeeai
aacioaaonoaaiiuo iieeoe/aneeo aaaioth?enoia e aeaaea e?eieiaeueiuo
yeaiaioia.

Nae/an a?iaea au oiaiueoeeanue iianiinoue i?yiiai aiaiiiai noieeiiaaiey
yaea?iuo naa?oaea?aeaa, ii i?e yoii ia en/acea, a aeaaea oaaee/eeanue
oa?ica neaiie oaoiieiae/aneie neo/aeiinoe – “/a?iiaueueneiai aa?eaioa”.
Enoaoe, i?e/eia eaoano?iou ia I?eiyoe aei neo ii? ia onoaiiaeaia. Anoue
iaiaei aa?nee, ii iie – aua ia enoeia. Ethaay oaoieea, eae
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao enoi?ey, eiaaea-eeai eiiaaony. E aaniethoiie aa?aioee
io iiaoi?aiey *a?iiauey ieeoi ia aeaao. Yoi iniaaiii o?aaiaeeo, anee
o/anoue, /oi ia ieaiaoa nae/an ian/eouaaaony aieaa 430 aeaenoaothueo
aoiiiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee, eo eiee/anoai oaaee/eaaaony. Ainnoaiiaeea naith
AYN A?iaiey. 15 iiauo aoiiiuo noaioeee iaia?ai aaanoe a yenieoaoaoeeth
Eeoae.

AOI?Ass AEIAAEUeIAss I?IAEAIA – IAAeAEAATHUAssNss YEIEIAE*ANEAss
EAOANO?IOA. Eieuaaeue iaoa e iaeoaeue a iianiinoe. A /ai aea nooue
yeieiae/aneie oa?icu?

A oii, /oi ?anoouaa aeaaeaiea aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia ia aeinoa?o iiaeao
iieiinoueth ?aci?aaoue anoanoaaiiua oeeeeu aini?iecaiaenoaa
aeieiae/aneeo ?ano?nia, naiii/euaiey ii/au, aiae, aoiinoa?u. Yoi
ii?iaeeo “eieeain” – ?aceia e no?aieoaeueiia oooaeoaiea yeieiae/aneie
ianoaiiaee e, eae neaaenoaea, nei?ioa/ioth aeaaeue ianaeaiey ieaiaou.

Oaea ia aiai?yo, a e?e/ao ia oiaiueoaiee eiee/anoaa eenei?iaea a
aoiinoa?a, ia?anoaiee “ia?ieeiaiai yooaeoa”, ?aniiecaiee iciiiauo aeu?,
aacinoaiiai/iii caa?yciaiee i?e?iaeiuo aiae. Iiaen/eoaii, /oi ia iaiaa 1
ie?ae. 200 iei. caieyi eniuouaatho ino?oth iaoaaoeo ieoueaaie aiaeu.
Eioaineaiia naeueneia oicyenoai enoiuaao ii/au a 20-40 ?ac auno?aa, /ai
iie iiaoo anoanoaaiii ainnoaiiaeoueny. Aeieiae oeene?otho aaeaaeiaaioth
iioa?th 150 aeaeia aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee. Ii i?iaiicai Noaieneaaa Eaia a
XXI a. i?aeoe/anee aui?oo ana aeeeea aeeaioiua. Eiaaea aea iiaeao
ianooieoue oaeie “eieeain”?

I?aaeneacuaatho n?iee io 2-3-o aeanyoeia eao aei noieaoey. Ii aeaei
aeaaea ia a n?ieao: ana naaaeouea ethaee, iniciaaoea aeanoeinoue
neooaoeee, niaeaniu, /oi aac i?eiyoey ia? aeiaaeueiiai ianooaaa ii
iaioa?aoei.

N?aaee yoeo ia? iacuaatho, a /anoiinoe, ia?aie/aiea i?e?inoa
ia?iaeiianaeaiey. Naaiaeiy ii ninoaaeyao aei 83 iei. /aeiaae a aiae.
I?e/ai, iiyaeythony ia aaeue naao aia/aea ia “?aai/ea ?oee”, a “?ou”.
Iiyoiio iaeiio?iee?oaiue ?ino ianaeaiey, iniaaiii a “?acaeaathueony”
no?aiao, iiae?uaaao ?ano?nioth aaco, no?aieoaeueii i?eieaeaao ian e
iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiui iaa?oceai ia i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo. Ec ae?oaeo ia?
iniaiai aieiaiey caneoaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue

?aoaiey i?iaeaiu caa?yciaiey aeeciaiiie n?aaeu enaiiaeioeeaie
(aauanoaaie, a?aaeaeaaiuie aeecie). Oeie/aneia, ?aaeeaoeeiiiia
caa?yciaiea ia?anoaao. A ciio iianiinoe iiiaea noa?a iaoaai
iaua/aeiaa/aneiai aeinoiyiey: Ie?iaie ieaai, einie/aneia i?ino?ainoai,
Aioa?eoeaea. Auaiae iaeei: iaaei aiai?eoue n I?e?iaeie ia iiiyoiii ae
ycuea.

Iiuue /aeiaaea iaa?ioeanue i?ioea iaai naiiai. A yoii nooue
yeieiae/aneie i?iaeaiu. Caiaoei, /oi yeieiae/aneee aucia ia iaiaa, anee
ia aieaa, iianai e o?aae/ai, /ai yeiiiie/aneee e iieeoe/aneee. Ii iaaei
i?eciaoue e oi, /oi ioaaoeoue ia iaai iaaiciiaeii aac ?aaeeeaeueiuo
naeaeaia a ie?iaie yeiiiieea e iieeoeea, a niciaiee eeaea?ia e ieeeeiiia
?yaeiauo ethaeae.

O?AOUess AEIAAEUeIAss I?IAEAIA – IIANIINOUe. IAAENOAss IAAe *AEIAA*ANEIE
OAEANIINOUeTH. Iiae aeiiieeiaui ia/ii iaoiaeeony ia oieueei “aiaoiyy”
i?e?iaea, oa yeieiae/aneay ieoa, a eioi?ie iu aeeaai, ii e “aioo?aiiyy”:
iao i?aaieci, ieioue, /aeiaa/aneay oaeaniinoue. Oaei – aauue ia
oooaeiay. Iu n iei i?eoiaeei a yoio ie? e inoaaeyai iaoe a?aiiua
oaeaniua inoaoee, iieeaeay aai. Oaei aeinoaaeyao ia?iiiua ?aaeinoe e
aeanoiei oa?caao ian oai?yie e iaaeoaaie. Oaeaniia caei?iauea – anaaaea
ia iaeiii ec ia?auo iano a nenoaia /aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae.

E oai o?aaiaeiaa neuoaoue ia?anoathuea i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey aeieiaia,
aaiaoeeia, iaaeeeia i oii, /oi iu noiei ia?aae iianiinoueth ?ac?ooaiey
/aeiaa/anoaa eae aeaea, aeaoi?iaoeee aai oaeaniuo iniia. A /anoiinoe, ia
eneeth/aia aiciiaeiinoue eiiee iniiaiiai aaiaoe/aneiai eiaea a
?acoeueoaoa iai?iaeoiaiiuo aiaoaoaeuenoa a aai no?oeoo?o. Ia?anoaao
aaiaoe/aneay ioyaiuaiiinoue /aeiaa/aneeo iiioeyoeee. Iiae aicaeaenoaeai
enaiiaeioeeia e iiiai/eneaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo e ee/iuo no?annia
iianaianoii oeene?oaony ?aceia ineaaeaiea eiioiiiai aiia?aoa /aeiaaea.

Oaea anoue c?eiua iineaaenoaey yoiai yaeaiey. Eaaeaiyuaa neiai “NIEAe”
ana /aua aoi?aaaony a /aeiaa/aneoth aeeciue. Oaeay aaaea, iinoeaoay
/aeiaa/anoai, anoue ia?aay a enoi?ee aeiaaeueiay iaiaeaiey (iiaaeueiay
yieaeaiey), nathuay nia?oue ia a iaeiie no?aia, a ii anaio ie?o. ?yae
enneaaeiaaoaeae iieaaaao, /oi yoi ia i?inoi aieaciue, a iaeee yoai a
aeieiae/aneii nouanoaiaaiee ?iaea ethaeae. Ii naycai n eo iaiaocaeaiiui
ianniaui aoi?aeaieai a i?e?iaeiua iniiau nianoaaiiiai auoey. NIEAe
naaiaeiy – oaea ia iaaeeoeeineay, a iiaeeeiii iaua/aeiaa/aneay i?iaeaia.

Ieaai oeie/aneeo aauanoa, a eioi?ue iia?oceeanue iaoa iianaaeiaaiay
aeeciue, ?aceea eciaiaiey a iieeoeea e ceacaae a yeiiiieea – ana yoi
aeaenoaoao ia ia?aioth nenoaio, aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiua niiniaiinoe e
niiaoe/aneea i?iyaeaiey ieeeeiiia ethaeae. Iaeeoei a ?yaea ?aaeiiia
i?eciaee oece/aneiai au?iaeaeaiey, iaoaea?aeeiia, iiaeeeiii
yieaeaie/aneia ?aniiecaiea ia?eiiaiee, aeeiaieecia.

Iaeiiaoe, *AOAA?OAss, ia iaiaa no?aoiay AEIAAEUeIAss I?IAEAIA – E?ECEN
*AEIAA*ANEIE AeOOIAIINOE. I?aeoe/anee ana naaoneea e ?aeeaeiciua,
aeiaaeueiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua, ae?aaiea e iiaua eaeaieiaee ia iiaoo
naaiaeiy aeaaea neieueei-ieaoaeue aeieacaoaeueii ioaaoeoue ie ia
aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu yiioe, ie ia aa/iua cai?inu aeooa. Aaccaueoiay,
ia/ouayny, o?iiathuay /aeiaa/aneay iuneue ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ieacuaaaony
ianiiniaiie ioaaoeoue ianoiyuaa, c?aei ioeaieoue i?ioeia, oioy au eae-oi
i?aaeaeaeaoue aoaeouaa.

Iao nae/an iaaeaaeiuo nioeeaeueiuo oai?ee e oeeinionei-aio?iiieiae/aneeo
eiioeaioeee, a ?aieao eioi?uo iiaeii auei au aieaa eee iaiaa
ii?aaeaeaiii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue iaoa naaiaeiy e oai aieaa – caao?a.
No?ao, o?aaiaa, aaniieienoai i?iiecuaatho ana ieanou /aeiaa/aneiai
niciaiey. Iaeei ec aeeyoaeueiuo aia?eeaineeo oeeinioia ?e/a?ae ?i?oe
aaniie 1995 a. a Einoeoooa oeeinioee ?AI iiaaaeae i oii, /oi a
aia?eeaineii oeeinioneii niiauanoaa ana ianoieueei ooiieaiu, /oi
iaaeathony ia iiyaeaiea /aai-oi, ii ieeoi ia eiaao ie iaeaeoaai
i?aaenoaaeaiey, eaeei iii aeieaeii auoue.

Iao naaaeaai acaeyaea ia ie?. Ieeoi ia iauoiae iooaaiaeiie ieoe
ianooaaiiai ie?iniceaeathuaai oa?aeoa?a. I?iecaiaenoai aaeioiiaeythueo
neiaieia e i?ecuaia eae-oi niioeioeinue e caoeaaioeinue. Eiiaaea
aiai?yo, /oi ec XIX noieaoey e iai i?eoee aeaa eaeae, aeinoieiua auoue
iacaaiiuie eaeayie aaea (iiieiay, /oi yoi neeueiia oi?iuaiea, ana aea
oneiaii n iei niaeaneiny). Iaeia eaeay – nioeeaeenoe/aneay, ae?oaay –
iao/ii-oaoiieiae/aneay. N/eoaeinue, /oi, iie?aynue ia ieo, ethaee Caiee
iino?iyo ni?aaaaeeeaia iauanoai, ia?aooo iieiioo aeecie, ooaa?aeyo
naiaiaeo e aeinoieinoai ee/iinoe.

Iaa yoe eaeae nae/an – a ?oeiao. E oa, e ae?oaay noieeioeenue n
a?aieoeaie, iinoaaeaiiuie aeinoa?iuie aeiaaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie
/aeiaa/aneiai auoey.

Aeaai?iaeia auea aeaaiyy ia/oa ethaeae ia iauanoaa ni?aaaaeeeainoe,
?aaeueiiai nioeeaeueiiai ?aaainoaa, aunieiai /aeiaa/aneiai aeinoieinoaa,
oaeiaeaoai?aiey anao cai?inia – aeooiaiuo e iaoa?eaeueiuo. Yoi eaeay
nioeeaeecia, eaeay eiiioienoe/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey. Ii oau. Ia aiai?y
oaea ia aa o?iaeeeaii eneaaeaiee a iaoae no?aia e ?yaea ae?oaeo no?ai,
iioaaeoeo ca iaie, iia ieacaeanue aioo?aiia oycaeia, eai aeaaec
eiiioiecia “eaaeaeiio ii iio?aaiinoyi” ia iia iia?aoueny ia ?aaeee
aeecie. Ia/oa Ia?ena i “iioiea aiaaonoaa” aeey anao inoaeanue ia o?iaia
aeaaiaeooiuo iaaeaaeae.

Anoue i?inoie ?an/ao: anee noaiaea?o iio?aaeaiey 4 ie?ae. aoonaeaea?ia
iiaeiyoue aei o?iaiy oaea oiiieiaaoaainy iaie “cieioiai ieeeea?aea”, oi
ca 50 eao iaaei a 2 ?aca oaaee/eoue iio?aaeaiea anao ?ano?nia e a 500
?ac – i?iecaiaenoai yia?aee. I?e yoii ia iaaei caauaaoue, /oi
/aeiaa/anoai e 2030 a. oaeaieony. Aeinoa?a ieaiaou i?e nouanoaothueo
oaoiieiaeyo e iio?aaeoaeueiuo i?eaioaoeeyo yoiai i?inoi ia auaea?aeeo.
Aea i?e iuiaoiae oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa yoi e
iaaiciiaeii.

Oi aea ioiineony e e oaoiie?aoe/aneiio iioeiecio, e eaeaa i aaee/ee
oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. I?eciaii anaie, /oi oaoieea ianao a naaa ia
oieueei aeaai, ii e cei. Iiyoiio iacaaiiua eaeae nae/an a oaeii
ninoiyiee, /oi iie?aoueny ia ieo o?oaeii. Iiaeii (aea e aeieaeii)
nii?eoue i oii, eiatho ee iie aoaeouaa, a anee “aea”, oi a eaeie
iiaeeoeeaoeee. A a?oea naeaaaoue eo ia neaaeoao, ii e iieaaaoueny ia ieo
eae-oi iianii.

Nioeeaeenoe/aneay eaeay iiaeieiaea ia ueo nioeeaeueioth
ni?aaaaeeeainoue, oaoiie?aoe/aneay – yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue. Eo
ninoueiaea, nii?yaeaiea, i?aaie/aneia iauaaeeiaiea naaiaeiy ia
oaeaaony. A iiauo y?eeo, i?eioeeieaeueiuo, iauaaeeiythueo eaeae iao aae
ia ii?iaeee. E ana /aeiaa/anoai nae/an a eaeii-oi eaeaeiii aaeooia.
Oaeiaa noaeueaa naaoneeo, iao/iuo e oeeinionei-nioeeieiae/aneeo eaeae.

A ie?iaua aea e ianoiua ?aeeaee, eee ycioa?e/aneea o/aiey caiaaeiuo e
ainoi/iuo iooaieia, eae ei e iieiaeaii, ciaoo a “ie? eiie”. Iaeiaei
ianiio?y ia iaeeea iai?aeeaee (oeia “ioiecia” eee “aaoaecia”),
iiiaieeeiai naeoaionoaa a ie?iauo ?aeeaeyo, i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo eaeae
iao. Ana yoi eeoue ia?aeeoeiaea o?aaeeoeeiiaeenoneeo, eaiiie/aneeo
iieiaeaiee, i?eoaaeoeo ec i?ioeiai, iiae/an i/aiue aeaaiaai. Aeeiaieea
?aceeo aeiaaeueiuo enoi?e/aneeo naeaeaia i?eaiaeeo eiiaaea e iioa?a
i?eaioaoeee, e?aoo nayouiue, aeooiaiiio iionoioaieth.

Oaeiau iaeioi?ua aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiinoe. Iie ?aaeueiu. Eo
iaeuecy ia aeaeaoue. Iaeiaei ia noieo iioneaoue ?oee, aiaaeaoue a
aani?inaaoiue ianneieci, io/aeaaoueny e ae?aiaoece?iaaoue ana e any.
Anoue oa?icu, ii anoue e iaaeaaeaeu. Ionoue ?iaeea, ii ana aea
iaaeaaeaeu, i?aaeiinueee i?aiaeieaiey aeiaaeueiuo e?eceniuo eieeecee,
aeiee?iaaiey e i?aaeioa?auaiey anaeaineie oa?icu /aeiaa/anoao.

IA?AAss I?AAeIINUEEA – ?ACAA?OUAAIEA EIOI?IAOeEIIIIE (EIIIUeTHOA?IIE),
AEIOAOIIEIAE*ANEIE ?AAIETHOeEE. Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi eiaiii iia
nicaeaao iauaeoeaioth i?aaeiaoioth iniiao, eioi?ay iicaieeo ioaanoe
oa?iiyaea?ioth e yeieiae/aneoth oa?ico, a oaeaea iianiinoue, iaaenooth
iaae /aeiaa/aneie oaeaniinoueth.

AOI?Ass I?AAeIINUEEA – OOAA?AEAeAIEA NIAOAIIIE ?UII*IIE E NIOeEAEUeII
CAUEUAIIIE YEIIIIEEE N YEAIAIOAIE EIIAA?AAIOIIAI OEIA EAE
AeIIEIE?OTHUAAI OEIA IE?IAIAI OICssENOAA. Yoa oi?ia yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue oaycea eioa?ania ?aciuo oicyenoaaiiuo
noauaeoia, aa?iiiecaoeee naycae, iaoiaeaeaieth aaeaina iaaeaeo
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoueth e nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoueth.
Iai?aaeaiea iauaai iienea iioeiaeueiiai oicyenoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa,
niioiioaiea ieaia e ?uiea a iniiaiuo /a?oao oaea ii?aaeaeeeenue. E yoi
iineoaeeo oi?i/aieth ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo naycae, ?aoaieth aeiaaeueiuo
i?iaeai.

O?AOUess I?AAeIINUEEA – NOAIIAEAIEA I?EIOeEIA IAIANEEEss E
AeAIIE?AOE*ANEIAI NIAEANEss ai aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae iieeoeea, a
a?oiiiauo e iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaieyo. Eae yoi ie i?enei?aii, ii
aa?anney, ianeeea auee aa/iuie niooieeaie enoi?ee. Aieiu, ia?aai?iou,
e?iaue nii?iaiaeaeatho ana cia/eiua niauoey.

Inoaaaynue ia ii/aa ?aaeueiinoe, iu aeaeei, /oi auno?aeu aua a?aiyo,
e?iaue ethaeneay i?ieeaaaony, iaiaaenoue neaieo e “ia?ac a?aaa” ia
en/acaao. Iaeiaei n iaiaeuie ecaea?aeeaie, /a?ac ionooieaiey e inoaiiaee
eaeay ia?aoiaea io eoeueoa neeu e aeeaeiao, iieneai niaeaney,
acaeiii?eaieaiuo ?aoaiee i?iaeaaao naaa aei?iao. Oa?ieiu “eiinainon”,
“ia?aaiai?iue i?ioeann”, “eiii?iienn” noaiiayony iinoiyiiuie a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie e aioo?aiiae iieeoeea. E yoi iaiae?yao, anaeyao
iaaeaaeaeo ia oi, /oi a ia?niaeoeaa (ionoue ia naiie aeeceie) aiciiaeii
ono?aieoue aieiu, aii?oaeaiiua eiioeeeou, aeanoieea “?acai?ee”.

*AOAA?OAss I?AAeIINUEEA – IAUAAeEIEOAEUeIUA (IEEOIAIE*ANEEA) I?IOeANNU
AeOOIAIIE AEECIE eae a ?aeeaeiciii, oae e a naaoneii aa?eaioa. N
iaiaeuie ecaea?aeeaie eaeao iiene oiai, /oi iiaeao naeeaeaoue
eeaa?aeueioth e nioeeaeenoe/aneoth iuneue, onoaiiaee Aaoeeaia e
I?aaineaaey, caiaaeiue iaioaeeoao e ainoi/iue yoeeao. Iiiuoee
iiaeaea?aeaoue yoio i?ioeann ia?aaeee. Aaoeeai oaea i?aaeeiaeee ea?a?oai
I?aaineaaey iaeoe iooe aeey i?aiaeieaiey oea?eiaiiai ?aneiea, eaeouaai
io 1054 a. Nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneea eeaea?u no?aiyony iaeoe oi/ee
nii?eeiniiaaiey n eiiioienoaie e eiina?aaoi?aie.

Iiiuoee eaeaeiiai naeeaeaiey, acaeiiiiieiaiey ana a?aiy aiciaiiaeythony.
Iie aua neaau, ?iaee, iaoaa?aiiu, iaoaeeeaathony ia oii?iia
nii?ioeaeaiea ooiaeaiaioaeenoia anao ie?anie. E ana-oaee eaeao i?ioeann
i?eiyoey oa?ieiinoe (oiea?aioiinoe), ioeaca io oi?yiiai
eaeaeii-aeooiaiiai i?ioeainoiyiey eae oneiaey aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiiai
iienea acaeiii?eaieaiuo oeaiiinoae.

IssOAss I?AAeIINUEEA – YOI IAAEYOIE*ANEAss E IAAEEOEUeOO?IAss
EIOAA?AOeEss i?e nio?aiaiee aaoiiiiiinoe e oieeaeueiinoe eaaeaeiai
yoiina e eaaeaeie eoeueoo?u. Ana oe?a ?acaa?ouaaaony oieaa?naeecaoeey
eoeueoo?iie aeecie ia oiia nio?aiaiey naiiauoiinoe anao o/anoieeia
aeaiiiai i?ioeanna. ?acei ?anoe?ythony iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea e
eoeueoo?iua eiioaeou. Aeaaii ?ooioe oacen i “iai?iieoeaaiinoe” e iieiie
caieiooinoe naiiaeinoaoi/iuo ia?iaeia e eo ia?aca aeecie. Onei?yaony
eioaineaiue iaiai oeaiiinoyie. Neioac e acaeiiaeeyiea aeiaeatho iaae
canei?oceie caieiooinoueth.

?acoiaaony, anieane “yoie/iinoe”, iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo no?anoae
i?iaeieaeatho nio?ynaoue /aeiaa/aneee ?iae, ii, aeoiaaony, /oi yoi –
o?iaeeeaue ceacaa enoi?ee. Anoue iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi ii
iaaeieaiaa/ai. Ono?aieaiiinoue e aaeeinoao aoaeao aeiaeaoue. Iieeoiiey
naiiauoiiai e iaua/aeiaa/aneiai, eo iioeiaeueiay naycue i?iaueao naaa
aei?iao.

OANOAss I?AAeIINUEEA (iineaaeiyy ii n/aoo, ,ii ia ii cia/eiinoe) –
IAIA*ATHUEANss I?I?UAU A IAEANOE EIOAEEAEOOAEUeIIAI IIENEA. Eiiaaea
aeaaea aiai?yo, /oi iu – a i?aaeaeaa?ee eioaeeaeooaeueiie ?aaiethoeee.
?a/ue eaeao i iienea e iaoiaeaeaiee iiaie ia?aaeeaiu iuoeaiey, ia
eneeth/athuae i?ioeai?a/ee, ii ia?auathuae aieiaiea ia
eiiieeiaioa?iinoue, acaeiiaeiiieieoaeueiinoue eaeae, eo eioaa?e?iaaiea a
iiiaiia?ioth oeaeinoiinoue.

Caaa?oay iaic?aiea i?aaeiinueie i?aiaeieaiey aeiaaeueiuo e?eceniuo
eieeecee, neaaeai i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiino?oe?iaaiey aeiaaeueiie yoeee,
oieaa?naeueiuo i?aanoaaiiuo i?eioeeiia, oe?aieythueo ana/aeiaa/aneoth
nieeaea?iinoue. Ioae?inoue e niaanoue auoa i?yiieeiaeiuo enoei
nooi-?aoeeiiaeueiiai ciaiey. Ciaiea, ia iaeaai?iaeaiiia aa/iuie
oeaiiinoyie, ia iiiiiaeaiiia ia eaeath aeaaa, ia ooaa?aeaeathuaa
ni?aaaaeeeainoue, iiaeao i?eaanoe e anaiauae aeaaee. Aac yoeee
/aeiaa/aneie nieeaea?iinoe oa?icu ia niiaoo auoue ioaaaeaiu, a
iaaeaaeaeai ia noaeaeaii aoaeao inouanoaeoueny. Oaeiau iniiaaiey aeey
auoiaea ec aeiaaeueiiai e?ecena, a eioi?ue iu iia?oaeaiu.

Aiciiaeii ee i?aaeaeaeaoue aoaeouaa?

Aoaeouaa. Iii iaieo e ioaaao. I?ioeia oaea naa?oeeinue. Aai iiaeii
eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue, ia?ainiuneeaaoue. Ii oi, /oi auei, ia eciaieoue. A
aoaeouaa ieeai ia cai?ia?aiie?iaaii. Iii – ioe?uoay no?aieoea. Ia
iioiio ee oae oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii iiaiea i iai?aaeneacoaiinoe
aoaeouaai. “Iai iaaaaeii caiunae Anaaea?aeeoaey”, – ooaa?aeaeatho
aiaineiau. “Iaaiciiaeii i?aaeoaaaeaoue iaii? aeeciaiiiai iioiea”, –
cayaeytho nioeeieiae. “Ianoaaeeueiue Oieaa?noi ia aeaao iniiaaiee aeey
neieueei-ieaoaeue iainiiaaiiuo e oi/iuo i?aaeaeaeaiee”, – oaa?ytho
o/aiua e oeeiniou.

Niiiaiey a aiciiaeiinoe iaic?aaaoue a?yaeouaa ai iiiaii iie?athony ia
iaaaoeaiue iiuo iiiaeanoaa oooo?ieiae/aneeo ecaeaiee, iiyaeaoeony a
50-60 aa. iaoaai aaea. Oiaaea aicieeea oooo?ieiaey – “iaoea i aoaeouai”.
E eiaaea a eiioea aaea ia?auaaoueny e aa i?aaeneacaieyi, oi aeaeeoue,
/oi iai?aaeaeaeaiiiai, iaoaaaeaiiiai, iai?aaeneacoaiiai aieueoa oiai,
/oi ii?aaaeaeinue, naueinue.

Iiaaaeu ia iaeieo o/anoeao iaa?ioeenue ecuyiaie e i?iaaeaie ia ae?oaeo.
O ian anoue ?aeaou e aeaeueiyy aaeaoeey, ii ia ?iaeeeny iiaue Oaenie?
eee Aeinoiaaneee. Ethaee noaee eioi?ie?iaaiiia, ii noaee ee iie
ii?aeueiaa, aeaai?iaeiaa, ieeina?aeiaa? Eae iu oaea aiai?eee, iaeeoei
yaiia naeeaeaiea anao ia?iaeia Caiee. Ii aianoa n oai aaeueaaiece?othony
aeaaiea no?aoe e i?ioeainoiyiey, iaino?ythony eiioeeeou, caiaoaiiua ia
yoie/aneeo i?aae?annoaeeao.

Oae, iiaeao auoue, ioeacaoueny io ?aoeeiiaeueiuo iiiuoie caaeyiooue
aia?aae e aa?iooueny e aaaeaieyi ia einoyo, ea?oao, eioaeiie aoua? E
ionoue iiaiyaeaiiua ?aeeaeiciua i?i?iee, aaaeaeee, oieeiaaoaee niia
niiauatho iai i oii, “/oi aoaeao, /ai na?aeoea oniieieony”. Iaaa?iia,
oaeay iiceoeey iaaeinoieia iuneyuaai /aeiaaea. Iaeuecy iiaeiaii no?aono
ca?uoue aieiao a ianie e aeeoue ii i?eioeeio Oaaeea: “Aoaeue, /oi
aoaeao, eae-ieaoaeue aea aoaeao, ieeiaaea ia auei, /oiau /aai-ieaoaeue
ia auei”.

Aeaeeii, ?a/ue aeieaeia eaeoe ia i e?aeiinoyo, a i acaaoaiiii,
iioeienoe/iii acaeyaea a aoaeouaa. Iniuneeaay i?ioeia, i?enoaeueii
aaeyaeuaaynue a aeooaeueiua niauoey ianoiyuaai, iu iiaeai aeaeaoue eo
ia?niaeoeao, aa?iyoiinoue enoiaea iaoeo iaia?aiee. I?ioeai?a/eaay naycea
oacenia “iao ie/aai iiaiai iiae Eoiie” e “ia?aae iaie – ioe?uoia iiea
iaecaaaeaiiiai” ii?aaeaeyao aeayoaeueiinoue i?iaiicenoa, aai iaoiaeee e
iioa?e. Aeaei oooo?ieiaia – yoi iaoea e eneonnoai, ?acoeueoao
?aciuoeaiee e eiooeoeaiuo aniuoae, eco/aiea iiuoa ieeeeiiia e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?ioiaeia a oi, /oi aua ia naa?oeeinue. Iiyoiio ia
aoaeai neeoeii no?iau e oiio, /oi ia ana ii?aaaeaeinue, /oi
i?aaeneacuaaeinue e iaia/aeinue.

Nae/an oi?ioee?oaony eiioeaioeey “onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey”, iacaaiiay
aeaaeaieeii Ieeeoie Iienaaaui no?aoaaeae /aeiaa/anoaa. A aa ?aieao e
eaeao i?iaiiciue iiene. A oeaio?a aai iaoiaeyony oa aeaenoaey, eioi?ua
iicaieyo caieyiai iaania/eoue nii?yaeaiiia (eiyaiethoeeiiiia) ?acaeoea
*aeiaaea e I?e?iaeu.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaeie no?aoaaee aucaaia oai, /oi aeinoa?a ieaiaou i?eoea
a ninoiyiea ia?aaiiaaney. Iii ana aieaa e aieaa oaeoaeyaony. Aio e
iiyaeeanue iio?aaiinoue a iao/ii iainiiaaiiuo ioaaoao ia oaeea, a
/anoiinoe, aii?inu: Eae ainnoaiiaeoue ia?eoao iauanoaa e aeinoa?u? Eae
niioianoe yeieiae/aneea, oaoiieiae/aneea e nioeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu, /oiau
aa?iiiece?iaaoue eo a oeaeinoiii aaeeinoaa? Eae ooaa?aeeoue ie? e
niieienoaea ia ieaiaoa e a eaaeaeie no?aia? Eae oia?eoue e aiana niyoue
nioeeaeueioth iai?yaeaiiinoue?

Aei iieiiai i?iyniaiey neooaoeee aua i/aiue aeaeaei, ii oaea nae/an
niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi ethaeyi Caiee i?eaeaony (oi/aony oiai eee iao)
oia?eoue naie iio?aaeoaeueneea aiiaoeou, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eceeoithth
eiioi?oiinoue ainiiaenoaothueo yeeo. I?aaeony yoi aeaaiaeainoaothuei
aa?oai eee iao, ii aac aioea?aiey ni?aaaaeeeainoe iieiy ia ieaiaoa Caiey
ia .aoaeao.

Ii eae aea anaai yoiai aeiaeoueny? Oi/iiai ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in ieeoi
ia ciaao. E iuia aeaaiay oeaeue i?iaiicenoia ninoieo a oii, /oiau
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue aeueoa?iaoeau aeayoaeueiinoe, oiaea e enoiaea
aeiaaeueiuo i?ioeannia.

Ioae?aoeu e iiyou, iieeoeee e yeiiiienou, i?aaeoaee e ?yaeiaua ec
?yaeiauo – ia?aae anaie noieo iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?acoiiiai auai?a iooe.
Neaaeoao i?aaeoniio?aoue iac?aaathuea i?ioeai?a/ey, aiciiaeiua
eiioeeeou, i?aiyonoaey aeey eo i?aiaeieaiey. Ioaeia nieeaea?iinoue
nioeeaeueiuo nee anao no?ai. Ianouii iaiaoiaeeii iiyaeaiea
iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo eaeaieiaee e iaaaiaeueiuo iiaeoiaeia.

No?aoaaey /aeiaa/anoaa ia XXI a. – oieueei a iaiaoeao. Aeiaaeueiay
neooaoeey a ieo i?aaenoaao iieai ioe?uouo aiciiaeiinoae. Iiyoiio ana
/aua cao/eo i?ecua: “Aeaenoaiaaoue eieaeueii, iuneeoue aeiaaeueii”.
AEeciue eiioeiaioia, ?aaeiiia, ioaeaeueiuo ainoaea?noa nae/an
niioiineony n ieaiaoa?iie oeaeie.

Iu aeyaeei a eeoei iiaie Oeeaeeecaoeee e caaeaai naaa aii?in ca
aii?inii: Eae e eaeie iia neiaeeony? ?anoeaao eee oiaaeie? Oi?aeanoai
?acoia eee aacaeoiiay e aacaieueiay aeaaeue? Yeniainey a Aaeaeoeeo eee
caiueaiea a noaiiayuaeny iaeiiaaeaaeiie aeinoa?a Caiee? ?acaeoea a
eaeeo-oi iiauo oi?iao aeaiie?aoe/aneeo onoaiiaeaiee eee oi?aeanoai
iai?aaiaaeaaeaeue/aneie iaaaiaoeiu? Yoe e iiiaea ae?oaea aii?inu ?aoeoue
iiaeii oieueei ia o?iaia neeaaeuaathuaainy iauaieaiaoa?iiai eioaeeaeoa.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaeaaa ?. O. Oeeinioey eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeeaeeecaoeee. I., 1994.

2. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: o/aaiee aeey aocia. A 2 *. I., 1989. *. 2.
Ae.18.

3. Aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu e iaua/aeiaa/aneea oeaiiinoe. I., 1990.

4. Aeaaeaeiae/ A., Aaieeia ?. Eoi ou, /aeiaa/anoai? Oai?aoe/aneee
ii?o?ao. I., 1975.

5. Ie? oeeinioee: Eieaa aeey /oaiey. I., 1991. *. 2. ?acae. 8.

6. Iienaaa I. O?aoueaai aa?eaioa iai ia aeaii //
Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee aeo?iae, 1995, ?2.

7. Iynaeo Ae., Yao?aeei I. *oi ian aeaeao a 90-a aiaeu? I., 1992.

8. ?aeeoia A. E. Oeeinioey eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaiethoeee. I., 1991.

9. Oeeinioey: O/aaiee aeey aocia. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1995.

10. Oanea A. Oeeinioey e yeieiaey. I., 1994.

11. *aeiaae e iauanoai. Nia?aiaiiue ie?. I., 1994.

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