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Космоцентризм и онтологическая проблематика в античной философии

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230023, a. A?iaeii, oe. Aeca?aeeineiai 2/1

Aaei?onneee eiiia?/aneee oieaa?neoao oi?aaeaiey

A?iaeiaineee oeeeae

Iaoiaeenoo cai/iiai iao/aiey

EIIO?IEUeIAss ?AAIOA

ii oeeinioee

ia oaio : ” Einiioeaio?eci e iioieiae/aneay

i?iaeaiaoeea a aioe/iie oeeinioee”

auiieiee nooaeaio 1-ai eo?na

cai/iiai ioaeaeaiey

a?oiiu 7OeE1 oaeoeueoaoa IYI

Iaiaieaae/ Na?aae Ai?eniae/

230009, a. A?iaeii, oe. Eaeeiianeiai, ae. 3, ea. 47,

oae. 44-09-45 – aeii., 33-22-89 – ?aa.

EINIIOeAIO?ECI E IIOIEIAE*ANEAss I?IAEAIAOEEA

A AIOE*IIE OEEINIOEE.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee VI-IV aaeia aei iaoae y?u a A?aoeee i?ienoiaeee ao?iue
?anoeaao eoeueoo?u e oeeinioee. Ca yoio ia?eiae auee nicaeaiu iiaia
iaieoieiae/aneia iuoeaiea, iiaay ea?oeia ie?a, oeaio?aeueiui yeaiaioii
eioi?ie noaei o/aiea i einiina. Einiin ioaaouaaao Caieth, /aeiaaea,
iaaaniua naaoeea e nai iaaaniue naiae. Ii caieioo, eiaao noa?e/aneoth
oi?io e a iai i?ienoiaeeo iinoiyiiue e?oaiai?io – ana aicieeaao, oa/ao e
eciaiyaony. Ec /aai aicieeaao, e /aio aica?auaaony ieeoi ia ciaao.
Iaeie a?a/aneea oeeiniou (iaoo?oeeiniou) n/eoatho, /oi iniiaie aauae
yaeyaony /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiua yeaiaiou eenei?iae, iaiiue, aiaea,
caiey e ii?aaeaeaiiia aauanoai – aiae?ii; ae?oaea (ieoaai?aeoeu) aeaeaee
aa a iaoaiaoe/aneeo aoiiao; o?aouee (yeaaou) oniao?eaaee iniiao ie?a a
aaeeiii, iac?eiii auoee; /aoaa?oua n/eoaee oaeie iniiaie (Aeaiie?eo)
iaaeaeeiua aoiiu; iyoua (oeiea Ieaoiia) – caiiie oa? eeoue oaiue,
?acoeueoao aiieiuaiey oea?noaa /enoie iunee.

?acoiaaony, ana yoe oeeinioneea iai?aaeaiey auee ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo
iaeaiuie e i?ioeai?a/eauie ae?oa ae?oao. Ia ii?aaa aua aei eiioea n
ieoieiaeae, iie ioaiaeeee aiaai, naa?ouanoanoaaiiui neeai
aoi?inoaiaiiia, a oi e o?aoueanoaiaiiia ianoi, iuoaeenue iiciaoue ie? ec
iaai naiiai.

Ia ia?auo ii?ao ae?aaiaa?a/aneea oeeiniou ia iniciaaaee, /oi iniiaiie
aii?in oeeinioee iiaeao eiaoue ?aciia cia/aiea, ii oaea a V a. aei iaoae
y?u (iai?eia? Ieaoii, Aeaiie?eo) /aoei iaicia/eeenue aeaa
i?ioeaiai?noaothuea eeiee, ai?ueaa iaaeaeo eioi?uie i?ioiaeeo /a?ac anth
aeaeueiaeooth enoi?eth oeeinioee.

Niaoeeoeeie a?a/aneie oeeinioee, iniaaiii a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae a?
?acaeoey, yaeyaony no?aieaiea iiiyoue nouiinoue i?e?iaeu, einiina, ie?a
a oeaeii. Ia neo/aeii ia?auo a?a/aneeo oeeinioia – Oaeana,
Aiaeneiaiae?a, Aiaeneiaia, i?aaenoaaeoaeae oae iacuaaaiie ieeaoneie
oeieu (6 aae aei iaoae y?u), ianeieueei iicaeiaa – ieoaai?aeoeaa,
Aa?aeeeoa, Yiiaaeieea oae e iacuaaee – “oeceeaie”, io a?a/aneiai neiaa
physis – i?e?iaea. Iai?aaeaiiinoue eo eioa?ania ii?aaeaeyeanue a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue oa?aeoa?ii ieoieiaee, o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ycu/aneeo aa?iaaiee e
eoeueoia. A a?a/aneay ieoieiaey auea ?aeeaeae i?e?iaeu, e iaeiei ec
aaaeiaeoeo aii?inia a iae aue aii?in i i?ienoiaeaeaiee ie?a. Ii iaaeaeo
oeeinioeae e ieoieiaeae auei nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea. Ieo iiaanoaiaae i
oii, eoi ?iaeee an? nouaa, a oeeinioey ni?aoeaaea, ec /aai iii
i?iecioei. A “Oaiaiiee” Aaneiaea /eoaai, /oi ?aiueoa anaai aiciee Oain,
caoai Caiey, Oa?oa? (iiaecaiiia oea?noai) e Y?in – ethaiaiia aea/aiea,
Oain ii?iaeee Ii/ue e I?ae, io eo ethaiaiiai nithca aicieeee Aeaiue e
Yoe?. ?aiiea iuneeoaee euoo iaeioi?ia ia?aiia/aei, ec eioi?iai an?
i?iecioei. O Oaeana yoi – aiaea, o Aiaeneiaia – aicaeoo, o Aa?aeeeoa
(ie. 544-483 aiaeu aei iaoae y?u) – iaiiue. Naii aea ia?aiia/aei
i?aaenoaaeyei niaie ia i?inoi aauanoai, eae aai iiieiaao nia?aiaiiay
oeceea eee oeiey, a ia/oi oaeia, ec /aai aicieeaao aeeaay i?e?iaea e ana
ianaeythuea a? iaeooaae?iiua nouanoaa. Iiyoiio aiaea eee iaiiue caeanue
– yoi naiaai ?iaea iaoaoi?u, iie eiatho e i?yiia, e ia?aiiniia,
neiaiee/aneia cia/aiea.

Oaea o ia?auo “oeceeia” oeeinioey iuneeony eae iaoea i i?e/eiao e
ia/aeao anaai nouaai. A yoii iiaeoiaea neacaeny iauaeoeaeci e iioieiaeci
ae?aaiae oeeinioee (oa?iei “iioieiaey” a ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai icia/aao
“o/aiea i auoee”). A? oeaio?aeueiue iioea – auynieoue, /oi
aeaenoaeoaeueii anoue, oi anoue i?aauaaao iaeciaiiui ai anao naieo
eciai/eauo oi?iao, a /oi oieueei eaaeaony nouanoaothuei. Oaea ?aiiaa
oeeinioneia iuoeaiea ii aiciiaeiinoe euao ?aoeeiiaeueiua (eee
i?aaenoaaeythueany oaeiauie) iauyniaiey i?ienoiaeaeaiey e nouiinoe ie?a,
ioeacuaaynue (oioy aia/aea e ia iieiinoueth) io oa?aeoa?iuo aeey
ieoieiaee ia?niieoeeaoeee, a oai naiui io ia?aca “ii?iaeaeaiey”. Ia
ianoi ieoieiae/aneiai ii?iaeaeaiey o oeeinioia noaiiaeony i?e/eia.

Aeey ?aiieo iaoo?oeeinioia oa?aeoa?ia iniaiai ?iaea noeoeeiay
aeeaeaeoeea iuoeaiey. Iie ?anniao?eaatho einiin eae iai?a?uaii
eciaiythuaany oeaeia, a eioi?ii iaeciaiiia e naiioiaeaeanoaaiiia
ia?aiia/aei i?aaenoa?o a ?acee/iuo oi?iao, eniuouaay anaaiciiaeiua
i?aa?auaiey. Iniaaiii y?ei i?aaenoaaeaia aeeaeaeoeea o Aa?aeeeoa,
niaeanii eioi?iio an? nouaa iaaei iuneeoue eae iiaeaeaeiia aaeeinoai e
ai?ueao i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae; ia neo/aeii Aa?aeeeo n/eoae ia?aiia/aeii
iaiiue: iaiaiiay noeoey – naiay aeeiaie/iay e iiaeaeaeiay n?aaee
yeaiaioia einiina. Iaeiaei aeeaeaeoeea iaoo?oeeinioia, eae e an? eo
iuoeaiea, au? ia naiaiaeia io ia?acii-iaoaoi?e/aneie oi?iu, a iae
eiae/aneay ia?aaioea iiiyoee au? ia caiyea neieueei-ieaoaeue caiaoiiai
ianoa.

Inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaoaoi?e/iinoe iuoeaiey, oa?aeoa?iie aeey ?aiieo
iaoo?oeeinioia, i?aaeiieaaaei ia?aoiae io ciaiey, ia?aiai?iiiai
/oanoaaiiuie ia?acaie, e ciaieth eioaeeaeooaeueiiio, iia?e?othuaio
iiiyoeyie. Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo yoaiia oaeiai ia?aoiaea aeey a?aeia auei
o/aiea ieoaai?aeoeaa (iieo/eaoeo yoi eiy io aeaau oeieu – Ieoaai?a,
aeeaoaai ai aoi?ie iieiaeia VI aaea aei iaoae y?u), eioi?ua n/eoaee
ia/aeii anaai nouaai /enei, a oaeaea o/aiea yeaaoia – Enaiioaia,
Ia?iaieaea, Caiiia (eiiaoe VI – ia/aei VII aaea aei iaoae y?u),
au/eaieaoeo iiiyoey auoey eae oaeiaiai.

Niaeanii Ia?iaieaeo, auoea – yoi oi, /oi iiaeii iiciaoue oieueei
?acoiii, a ia n iiiiuueth i?aaiia /oanoa; aieaa oiai – iinoeaeeiinoue
?acoiii – aaaeiaeoaa ii?aaeaeaiea auoey. Aeaaiia ioe?uoea, eioi?ia eaaei
a iniiao aai iiieiaiey auoey, – yoi oi, /oi /oanoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth
/aeiaaea aeaii oieueei eciai/eaia, a?aiaiiia, oaeo/aa, iaiinoiyiiia; a
oi, /oi iaeciaiii, aa/ii, oiaeaeanoaaiii naaa, aeinooiii oieueei
iuoeaieth. Yoi nai? ioe?uoea Ia?iaieae au?acee a oi?ia aoi?ecia: “Iaeii
e oi aea anoue iuneue e oi, i /?i iuneue nouanoaoao”, eee, eia/a aiai?y,
iuoeaiea e auoea – yoi iaeii e oi aea. Ia?iaieaeo i?eiaaeeaaeeo e au?
iaeei aoi?eci: auoea anoue, a iaauoey iao. Neiaa Ia?iaieaea cia/ao:
anoue oieueei iaaeaeeiue, iainycaaiue ie?, iacuaaaiue “auoea”: e oieueei
auoea iuneeii. Auoiaeeo, ii Ia?iaieaeo, ie/aai ec oiai, /oi iu aeaeei,
neuoei, inycaai, ia naiii aeaea ia nouanoaoao: anoue oieueei iaaeaeeiue,
iainycaaiue ie?, eai oieueei ii iiaeao auoue iuneei aac i?ioeai?a/ey.

Caeanue a eeanne/aneie oi?ia au?aceeny ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa?
ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee, a? aeiaa?ea e ?acoio: oi, /aai iaeuecy aac
i?ioeai?a/ey iiiuneeoue, ia iiaeao e nouanoaiaaoue.

Aia?aua eiaiii oeiea yeaaoia n oaeie /?oeinoueth i?ioeaiiinoaaeea
enoeiiia auoea eae ia/oi oiiiinoeaaaiia /oanoaaiiiio ie?o,
i?ioeaiiinoaaeea ciaiea – iiaieth, oi anoue iau/iui, iianaaeiaaiui
i?aaenoaaeaieyi. Yoi i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea /oanoaaiiiai ie?a enoeiii
nouanoaothuaio (ie?o “ciaiey”) i?ioiaeeei a ea/anoaa eaeoiioeaa /a?ac
anth caiaaeioth oeeinioeth.

Niaeanii yeaaoai, auoea – yoi oi, /oi anaaaea anoue: iii oaeaea aaeeii
e iaaeaeeii, eae iuneue i i?i, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iiiaeanoaaiiinoe e
aeaeeiinoe anao aauae /oanoaaiiiai ie?a. Oieueei oi, /oi a naaa aaeeii,
iiaeao inoaaaoueny iaeciaiiui e iaiiaeaeaeiui, oi anoue oiaeaeanoaaiiui.
Ii iiaieth yeaaoia, iuoeaiea – yoi e anoue niiniaiinoue iinoeaaoue
aaeeinoai, a oi a?aiy eae /oanoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth ioe?uaaaony
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue, iiiaiia?acea a aauao e yaeaieyo. Ii yoi iiiaeanoai,
ioe?uoia /oanoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth, – iiiaeanoai ?ac?iciaiiuo i?eciaeia.

Iniciaiea i?e?iaeu iuoeaiey eiaei aeaeaei eaeouea iineaaenoaey aeey
?acaeoiee ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo oeeinioia. Ia neo/aeii o Ia?iaieaea, aai
o/aieea Caiiia, a iicaeiaa – o Ieaoiia e a aai oeiea iiiyoea aaeeiiai
ieacuaaaony a oeaio?a aieiaiey, a ianoaeaeaiea niioiioaiey aaeeiiai e
iiiaiai, aaeeiiai e auoey noeioee?oao ?acaeoea aioe/iie aeeaeaeoeee.

Ae?aaiaa?a/aneee iuneeoaeue Oaean ec Ieeaoa auneacae eaeath, /oi an?
i?ienoiaeeo ec aiaeu e a aiaeo aea ia?auaaony. Yoi anoanoaaiiia ia/aei
ieacuaaaony aaeeiie iniiaie anao aauae, iineoaeai anao eciaiaiee e
i?aa?auaiee. Oioy eaeay Oaeana i “ia?ainouiinoe” i?aaenoaaeyaony iai
oaia?ue iaeaiie, ii n enoi?e/aneie oi/ee c?aiey iia ii/oe
?aaiethoeeiiia, oae eae a iieiaeaiee “ana ec aiaeu” auea aeaia “ionoaaea
ieeiieeneei aiaai”, oi anoue a eiia/iii n/?oa – ieoieiae/aneiio
iuoeaieth, e i?ieiaeai iooue e anoanoaaiiiio iauyniaieth i?e?iaeu.
I?aaiiee Oaeana Aiaeneiaiae? oniao?eaae ia?aiia/aei ia a eaeii eeai
eiie?aoiii aauanoaa, a a ia?aiaauanoaa – aiae?iia (/oi cia/eo
“aani?aaeaeueiia”). Ae?oaie ae?aaiaa?a/aneee oeeinio Aiaeneiai iieaaae,
/oi ia?aiia/aeii anaai yaeyaony aicaeoo. Aaeeeei aeeaeaeoeeii aioe/iiai
ie?a yaeyaony Aa?aeeeo Yoanneee. An? nouanoaothuaa, o/ee ii, iinoiyiii
ia?aoiaeeo ec iaeiiai ninoiyiey a ae?oaia: “an? oa/?o, an? eciaiyaony”;
“a iaeio e oo aea ?aeo iaeuecy aieoe aeaaaeaeu…”; a ie?a iao ie/aai
iaiiaeaeaeiiai: oieiaeiia oaieaao, o?ieia oieiaeaao, aeaaeiia aunuoaao,
nooia oaeaaeiyaony. Aicieeiiaaiea e en/aciiaaiea, aeeciue e nia?oue,
?iaeaeaiea e aeaaeue – auoea e iaauoea – naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie, iie
iaoneiaeeaatho e ia?aoiaeyo ae?oa a ae?oaa. Aa?aeeeo aea iiieiae, /oi
oaeouay ?aea, “eciaiyynue, iieieony”. Niaeanii aai aicc?aieyi, ia?aoiae
yaeaiey ec iaeiiai ninoiyiey a ae?oaia niaa?oaaony /a?ac ai?ueao
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, eioi?oth ii iacuaae aa/iui “anaiauei eiainii”, oi
anoue aaeeiui, iauei aeey anaai nouanoaiaaiey caeiiii. Aa?aeeeo o/ee,
/oi ie?, aaeeiue ec anaai, ia nicaeai ieeai ec aiaia e ieeai ec ethaeae,
a aue, anoue e aoaeao aa/ii aeeaui iai?i, caeiiiia?ii ainieaiaiythueiny
e caeiiiia?ii oaanathuei. Aeeaeaeoeea Aa?aeeeoa, o/eouaathuaai iaa
noi?iiu yaeaiey – e aai eciai/eainoue e aai iaeciaiioth i?e?iaeo, ia
auea aaeaeaaoii aini?eiyoa nia?aiaiieeaie e iiaeaa?aaeanue oaea a
aioe/iinoe naiie ?aciiia?aciie e?eoeea. Oae, iai?eia? yeaaou – Enaiioai,
Ia?iaieae, Caiii eiioeaio?e?iaaee aieiaiea ia iiiaioa onoie/eainoe,
oi?aeay Aa?aeeeoa a i?aoaaee/aiee ?iee eciai/eainoe. I?eciaaay, /oi ie?
/oanoaaiiuo aeaiiuo iaonoie/ea e eciai/ea (oi ia?iaeaeaaony, oi
?anoeaaoaao, oi iiaeaaao), yeaaou i?ioeaiiinoaaeee yoiio
iaii?aaeae?iiiio e iaonoie/eaiio /oanoaaiiiio ie?o ie? aaeeiiai e
iaiiaeaeaeiiai auoey, ioe?uoiai /enoiio iuoeaieth, eioi?ia iaeii oieueei
e neaaeoao i?eciaoue enoeiiui auoeai. Noeoeeiinoue iaoa?eaeecia yeaaoia,
eo neeiiiinoue e i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieth iuoeaiey e iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a
i?eaaee e oiio ianoiyoaeuenoao, /oi, iiaeaea?aeeaay aeeaeaeoeeo a
ioiioaiee aiaoiaai ie?a, iie aianoa n oai i?iaicaeaoaee eaeaaeueiue ie?
oea?noaai iaoaoece/aneiai iieiy. Aa/iinoue n/eoaeanue eie ao?eaooii
enoeiiinoe. Aicieeea ae?aiaoe/aneay neooaoeey a ?acaeoee iiciaiey: iaeie
?anieaaeyee ie? a iioiea iaiy, a ae?oaea eae au e?enoaeeece?iaaee aai a
iaiiaeaeaeiii eaiia.

Eoae, oaea o ae?aaieo iuneeoaeae eiaee ianoi ca/aoee ia oieueei
aeeaeaeoeee, ii e iaoaoeceee, yaeaoaeny neaaenoaeai aaniethoiiai
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey ie?a iaoa?ee e iuoeaiey.

Ia/eiay n Aa?aeeeoa, a ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee an? aieaa io/?oeeai
i?ineaaeeaathony nianoaaiii iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea e eaeaaeenoe/aneea
oaiaeaioeee. Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oaiaeaioeey auea iaoa?eaeenoe/anee
iainiiaaia a aoiienoe/aneii o/aiee Eaaeeia e iniaaiii – Aeaiie?eoa (ie.
460 aiae aei iaoae y?u). Aoiienou ?anniao?eaaee ie? eae aaeeiia oeaeia,
ninoiyuee ec aan/eneaiiiai iiiaeanoaa iaeue/aeoeo iaaeaeeiuo, iaaeaeeiuo
/anoe/ae – aoiiia, eioi?ua aeaeaeoony (“ia/oony ai ana noi?iiu”,
“o?ynoony ai anao iai?aaeaieyo”) a ionoioa. Aoiiu, niaeanii Aeaiie?eoo,
iaoa?eaeueiu, iie iaaeaeeiu aneaaenoaea naiae aaniethoiie ieioiinoe,
eneeth/eoaeueiie iaeinoe e ionoonoaey a ieo ionouo i?iiaaeooeia. Iie
aaneiia/ii ?aciiia?aciu ii oi?ia, ?acia?o e aano: iaeie oa?ioiaaoua,
ae?oaea e?oaeua, o?aouee oaeiaaoua e e?th/eiaaoua. Aeooa /aeiaaea, ii
Aeaiie?eoo, oiaea ninoieo ec aoiiia, ii oieueei aieaa iiaeaeaeiuo,
iaeeeo e e?oaeuo. Aoiiu e ionoioa – aaeeinoaaiiay ?aaeueiinoue;
niaaeeiaiea aoiiia ia?acoao an? iiiaiia?acea i?e?iaeu, a oii /enea e
/aeiaa/aneoth aeooo. Oaeei ia?acii, Aeaiie?eo ia?aue a enoi?ee aioe/iie
oeeinioee i?aiaeieae i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea iaoa?ee e aeooa, oaea?aeeaay
aaeeioth, oieaa?naeueioth i?e?iaeo iaoa?ee e iuoeaiey. Eiaiii ii yoiio n
eiaiai Aeaiie?eoa e naycuaaaony a enoi?ee oeeinioee ca?iaeaeaiea
iaoa?eaeecia eae nianoaaiii oeeinioneie aeieo?eiu.

Aoiienoe/aneay oai?ey iauyniyea yaeaiey i?e?iaeu anoanoaaiiuie
i?e/eiaie e oai naiui inaiaiaeaeaea ethaeae io ieoieiae/aneiai no?aoa
ia?aae oaeinoaaiiuie, naa?ouanoanoaaiiuie neeaie. Aeaiie?eo o/ee, /oi
ie? ia nicaeai aiaaie, a nouanoaoao aa/ii, /oi a i?i an? aeaeaeaony e
i?aa?auaaony ec iaeiiai ninoiyiey a ae?oaia aeaaiaea?y niaaeeiaieth e
?acuaaeeiaieth aoiiia, ana yaeaiey iiae/eiaiu a i?i i?e/eiiui naycyi.
Aeaiie?eo ia aeiioneae aiaoiaai ii ioiioaieth e iaoa?ee enoi/ieea
aeaeaeaiey.

Aoiienoe/aneia o/aiea Aeaiie?eoa, a eioi?ii auee ane?uou aioo?aiiea
i?e/eiu aa/iiai aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee, iieo/eea nai? aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
o Yieeo?a (341-270 aei iaoae y?u). Aeaeaeaiea aoiiia, aiai?ee Yieeo?,
iaoneiaeaii eo aioo?aiiei naienoaii – oyaeanoueth. Au? aieaa aaaeiui
yaeyaony, ii aai iiaieth, niiniaiinoue aoiiia naiii?iecaieueii
ioeeiiyoueny i?e aeaeaeaiee io i?yiie eeiee. Naiiioeeiiaiea aoiiia – yoi
oio ieieioi naiaiaeu a i?e?iaea, aac eioi?ie iaiuneeii ia oieueei
iauyniaiea neo/aeiuo yaeaiee a i?e?iaea, ii e naiaiaeu aeaenoaee
ethaeae. ?acoiiia eniieueciaaiea i?aaeinoaaeaiiie /aeiaaeo naiaiaeu
caeeth/aaony, ii Yieeo?o, a aeinoeaeaiee oece/aneiai caei?iauey a
niaaeeiaiee n aicauoaiii-niieieiui ninoiyieai aeooe. N?aaenoaii aeey
aeinoeaeaiey auaeaeiooiai ei i?eioeeia oaeiaieuenoaey, eae iaeaunoaai
aeaaa yaeythony oeeinioneea ?aciuoeaiey. A oae eae iniiaiua no?aaeaiey
i?e/eiytho aeooa no?ao nia?oe e no?aoe, i?ienoaeathuea ec ieoieiae/aneie
aa?u a naa?ouanoanoaaiiua, aiaeanoaaiiua neeu, a aannia?oea aeooe e
noaeueau, oi, /oiau inaiaiaeeony io yoeo no?aoia e niioaaonoaothueo
no?aaeaiee, iaiaoiaeeii ?acoiiia ie?iaicc?aiea, eioi?ia iauyniyei au an?
ec anoanoaaiiuo i?e/ei.

Auniei ioeaieaay noeoeeiue iaoa?eaeeci ae?aaieo, iaeuecy ia caiaoeoue,
/oi yeaiaiou eaeaaeenoe/aneeo iino?iaiee ano?a/athony e a oeeinioee
Aeaiie?eoa, i?eciaaoaai nouanoaiaaiea aiaia, ninoiyueo ec iniauo
i?eaeeae?iiuo e aa/iui eiioeao?aoeeyi aoiiia, e neeiiiiai e
iaoaie/aneiio oieeiaaieth i?e/eiiinoe a oua?a aeeaeaeoeea, e oeeinioee
Yieeo?a, oaeaea i?eciaaoaai nouanoaiaaiea aiaia, eioi?ua o iaai,
iaeiaei, ia aiaoeaaeenue a oiae yaeaiee i?e?iaeu e aeaea ethaeae, oae
eae yoi ia?ooeei au eo aaciyoaaeiia nouanoaiaaiea, e a oeeinioee
Eoe?aoeey, eioi?ue, oaeaea io?eoeay aiaoaoaeuenoai aiaia a caiioth
aeeciue, i?eciaaae an? aea iaee/ea a ie?a “iaeie ne?uoie neeu”,
iaiiaeaeanoiie i?inoiio i?eioeeio i?e/eiiinoe.

A ai?ueaa n iaoa?eaeenoe/aneei ie?iaicc?aieai oi?ie?iaaeny oeeinioneee
eaeaaeeci. ?iaeiia/aeueieeii iineaaeiaaoaeueiie oeeinioneie nenoaiu
iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia aue Ieaoii (427-347 aei iaoae y?u).

Niaeanii o/aieth Ieaoiia, eeoue ie? eaeae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enoeiiia
auoea, a eiie?aoiua aaue – yoi ia/oi n?aaeiaa iaaeaeo auoeai e iaauoeai,
iie oieueei oaie eaeae. Eaeae enoieeiauaathony Ieaoiiii eae eaeaaeueiua
ia?acu – ia?acoeu aeey /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiiai ie?a aauae.
Aano?aae?iaaa eaeae io ?acoia eiie?aoiuo ethaeae, Ieaoii iauyaee ie?
eaeae aiaeanoaaiiui oea?noaii, a eioi?ii aei ?iaeaeaiey /aeiaaea
i?aauaaao aai aannia?oiay aeooa. Caoai iia iiiaaeaao ia a?aoioth caieth,
aaea, a?aiaiii iaoiaeynue a /aeiaa/aneii oaea, eae ociee a oaiieoea, iia
“aniiieiaao” i ie?a eaeae. Iiciaiea, ii Ieaoiio, anoue ainiiieiaiea
aeooie naiaai aeicaiiiai nouanoaiaaiey.

Niioiioaiea iaaeaeo iuoeaieai e auoeai i?aaenoaaeyeinue a oeeinioee
Ieaoiia ia?aa??iooui n iia ia aieiao, e ec oaeiai eiaeiiai iiieiaiey
oeeinio auaiaeee eaeaaeenoe/aneoth o?aeoiaeo i?ioeanna iiciaiey. Ii
n/eoae, /oi /oanoaa iaiaiuaatho /aeiaaea, e iiyoiio niaaoiaae aeey
iiciaiey enoeiu “cae?uoue aeaca e caoeiooue ooe” e aeiaa?eoueny
aniiieiathuae i nai?i aiaeanoaaiiii i?ioeii aeooa.

Iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci Ieaoiia niaaeeiyaony n aeeaeaeoe/aneei iaoiaeii
oeeinioneeo ?annoaeaeaiee: aeeaeaeoeea aaeeiiai e iiiaiai,
oiaeaeanoaaiiiai e eiiai, aeaeaeaiey e iieiy. Aeey oeeinioee i?e?iaeu
Ieaoiia, oaeaea eae aeey ieoaai?aeoeaa, oa?aeoa?ia a? naycue n /eneiaie
neiaieeeie, eioi?ay o?aeooaony eae oi?aaeoaeueieoea ie?a /oanoaaiiuo
aeaiiuo. ?ac?aaaouaaaiay Ieaoiiii aeeaeaeoeea iiiyoee, ianiio?y ia a?
eaeaaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, eiaea iaioeaieiia cia/aiea aeey
iineaaeothuaai ?acaeoey aeeaeaeoe/aneie eiaeee.

Aoaeo/e enoi/ieeii eae iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie, oae e eaeaaeenoe/aneie eeiee
a oeeinioee, aioe/iinoue nicaeaea e ia?aua iiiuoee eo i?eiaiaiey a
i?aaeaeao aaeeiie oeeinioneie nenoaiu. Iaeiie ec aa?oei oeeinioneie
iunee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee a yoii ioiioaiee yaeythony oai?aiey A?enoioaey
(384-322 aei iaoae y?u), aicc?aiey eioi?iai yioeeeeiiaaee/anee aia?aaoea
a naay aeinoeaeaiey aioe/iie iaoee, niaea?aeao eae aeoaieea
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea e aeeaeaeoe/aneea eaeae, oae e yeaiaiou eaeaaeecia.
Naie oeeinioneea acaeyaeu A?enoioaeue ia/ae ?ac?aaaouaaoue a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eaeaaeecio Ieaoiia (eiaiii aio e i?eienuaaaony
ec?a/aiea: “Ieaoii iia ae?oa, ii enoeia aei?iaea!”). A ?aiieo ?aaioao
A?enoioaeue ?acaee o?e oeia eaeaaeecia, no?aiynue i?aiaeieaoue
Ieaoiiianeee ?ac?ua iaaeaeo ie?ii /oanoaaiiuo aauae e ie?ii eaeae.
Enoiaey ec i?eciaiey iauaeoeaiiai nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee, A?enoioaeue
n/eoae a? aa/iie, ianioai?eiie e iaoie/oiaeeiie. Iaoa?ey ia iiaeao
aicieeiooue ec ie/aai, aiai?ee ii, ia iiaeao oaeaea oaaee/eoueny eee
oiaiueoeoueny a nai?i eiee/anoaa. Iaeiaei a aieaa iicaeieo ?aaioao ii
/anoe/ii aa?ioeny e i?eciaieth ie?a Ieaoiiianeeo eaeae eae ia?aiiniiau
ie?a. Naia ii naaa iaoa?ey, ooaa?aeaeae A?enoioaeue, ianneaia. Iia
niaea?aeeo a naaa eeoue aiciiaeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiiai
iiiaiia?acey aauae, eae i?aii? – aiciiaeiinoue ?acee/iuo noaooe. *oiau
yoo aiciiaeiinoue i?aa?aoeoue a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, iaaei i?eaeaoue
iaoa?ee niioaaonoaothuoth oi?io. Ooieoeeth oi?iiia?aciaaiey inouanoaeyao
oi – ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue. Iiae oi?iie A?enoioaeue ?acoiae i?aaeoanoaothuee
aauee aeoeaiue, oai?/aneee oaeoi?, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio iia noaiiaeony
aeaenoaeoaeueiie. Oi?ia – yoi noeioe e oeaeue, eaeaaeueiue ia?ac,
i?e/eia noaiiaeaiey iiiaiia?aciuo aauae ec iaeiiia?aciie iaoa?ee, a
iaoa?ey – naiaai ?iaea aeeia. Aeey oiai /oiau ec ia? aicieeee
?aciiia?aciua aaue, iaiaoiaeei “aii/a?” – aia (eee oi –
ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue). Iniiaiui aeaeaaoaeai ie?a yaeyaony aia, ii?aaeaeyaiue
eae oi?ia anao oi?i, eae i?e/eia e iaeiia?aiaiii aa?oeia ie?icaeaiey.
Iicaeiee A?enoioaeue, oaeei ia?acii, ioi?aae oi?io aauae io naieo aauae
e i?aa?aoee a? a naiinoiyoaeueioth noanoaioeeth ii aiaeiaee n ie?ii
ieaoiiianeeo eaeae. Iaeiaei a aiinaieiaee A?enoioaeue iineaaeiaaoaeueii
ionoaeaae iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea iiceoeee. Eco/aiea ie?a ninoieo a ioe?uoee
oi?i, ii aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoiai iu aeieaeiu ioi?aaeyoueny ia io naieo
oi?i, a io aeaiiie iai aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Aaeeie/iua aaue, ooaa?aeaeae
ii, eciai/eau, a eo aaeeie/iua oi?iu iaeciaiiu – a yoii ooaa?aeaeaiee
A?enoioaey aeeaeaeoeea e iaoaoeceea neeeenue aiaaeeii. Aianoa n oai
A?enoioaeue iaeiei ec ia?auo ?ac?aaioae iiae?iaiaeooth eeanneoeeaoeeth
oi?i e niiniaia ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iuoeaiey. Aai o/aiea i iaeaieaa iaueo
oeeinioneeo iiiyoeyo, eee eaoaai?eyo (eiee/anoai, ea/anoai, ioiioaiea,
nouiinoue, a?aiy, i?ino?ainoai e ae?.), n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ii no?aieeny
au?aceoue aeeaeaeoeeo auoey e iuoeaiey, yaeeanue ia?iiiui aeeaaeii a
oai?eth iao/iiai iiciaiey. A?enoioaeue – iniiaiiieiaeiee oi?iaeueiie
eiaeee, oaeaea eae Ieaoii – iniiaiiieiaeiee eiaeee aeeaeaeoe/aneie.
Aioe/iay oeeinioey, a eioi?ie niaea?aeaeenue i?ioioeiu anao iniiaiuo
aeaeia ie?iaicc?aiey, ?ac?aaaouaaaoeony ai ana iineaaeothuea aaea, – yoi
aaeeeia oai?/anoai /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa, e iiyoiio iia ieeiaaea ia
iioa?yao naiaai aunieiai cia/aiey a aeacao iuneyuaai /aeiaa/anoaa.

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