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Концепция современного естествознания. Мировоззрение. Истина

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Eaaeaeue /aeiaae-yoi caaaaeea e a iniiaiii, caaaaeea aeey naiiai
naay. Iaoa iauanoai, iauanoai ethaeae – yoi naiay aieueoay oaeia, e
eiia/ii iiciaoue yoo oaeio, a neeao ia eaaeaeue, ii eaaeaeue, y oaa?ai,
oioy au a aeoaeia aeooe, iuoaaony yoo oaeio aeey naay i?eioe?uoue.
I?eioe?uoue aa, iiciaa naay naiiai.

ss aeoiath /oi a yoii aii?ina, aeey iaiy ee/ii, niiaeao iiii/ue
eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. Aaaeue iniiaiay oeaeue
nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey – iiciaiea ie?a, oi?ie?iaaiea iaoaai ee/iiai
ie?iaicc?aiey. Nae/an aeaaiay ooieoeey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey –
oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann. Nia?aiaiiue ie? noi?ie?iaaeny a ?yaea oaeoi?ia,
iniiaiie ec eioi?uo Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee I?ia?ann (IOI). Iniiaiua
iniaaiiinoe nia?aiaiiiai ie?a ii?aaeaeythony IOI.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee I?ia?ann – iniiaa nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee.
Aio anaai 300-350 eao. Eiaiii oiaaea aicieeea eiaeono?eaeueiay
oeeaeeecaoeey. IOI i?iieouaaao anth oeeaeeecaoeeth (aeayoaeueiinoue,
aeeciue ethaeae). Ana naycaii n IOI, aeaaea eoeueoo?a (nicaeaia
eiaeono?ey ?aciiiaeaiey i?iaeoeoia eoeueoo?u). Neaaeothuay oeaeue –
aeaeeii – yiioeee.

IOI aauue aeaiyeay: o iaai anoue eae iieiaeeoaeueiua, oae e
io?eoeaoaeueiua /a?ou. Iieiaeeoaeueiua – oeo/oaiea eiioi?oa,
io?eoeaoaeueiua – yeieiae/aneea (eiioi?o aaaeao e yeieiae/aneiio
e?eceno) e eoeueoo?iua (a nayce n ?acaeoeai n?aaenoa iauaiey iao
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eiioaeoa).

Ioiioaiea e iaio oiaea aeaiyeia: ianiio?y ia oneeaiiia ?acaeoea
Iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai I?ia?anna, ia o?iaia eoeueoo?u iao iiaeiaiiai ?inoa.
Aeaaea, iai?ioea, anoue iiey?iinoue. Iaeie aiai?yo, /oi iaoea oi?ioi,
ae?oaea – ieioi.

I?eaaaeai ?acoeueoaou ii?ina ii ioiioaieth e iaoea a Aiaeee.

45 % – aieueoa aeia?a (Noeeaioeci (NOe));

38 % – o?aaiiaaoaii.

11 % – aieueoa cea (Aioenoeeaioeci (ANOe)).

?ane?iai yoe aeaa iiiyoey.

Noeeaioeci – ie?iaicc?ai/aneay i?eaioaoeey, ainneaaeythuay IOI.

Aioenoeeaioeci – ie?iaicc?ai/aneay i?eaioaoeey, oi?aeathuay iaoeo ca
oi, /oi iia ia iiaeao ioaaoeoue ia ooiaeaiaioaeueiua aii?inu
/aeiaa/aneiai auoey.

Ii ana-oaee iniiaiay oeaeue-yoi /aeiaae e aua ?ac /aeiaae! *aeiaae
nicaeaao ie?oaeathuee aai ie?, aeaeaaao Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee I?ia?ann ana
aeaeueoa e aeaeueoa, ii aeooa /aeiaaea, aai aeooiaiia ia/aei, aio
iniiaa anaai. Aeooa-yoi iiiyoea ia iaoa?eaeueiia, aeooiaiia. Aac iaa
/aeiaae-yoi ?iaio, cai?ia?aie?iaaiiue ia auaeeaaiea.

Oae /oi aea oaeia ie?iaicc?aiea? Ie?iaicc?aiea – iaiaoiaeeiay
ninoaaeythuay /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey, iiciaiey. Yoi ia i?inoi iaeei ec
aai yeaiaioia a ?yaeo iiiaeo ae?oaeo, a eo neiaeiia acaeiiaeaenoaea.
?acii?iaeiua «aeiee» ciaiee, oaaaeaeaiee, iuneae, /oanoa, iano?iaiee,
no?aieaiee, iaaeaaeae, niaaeeiyynue a ie?iaicc?aiee, i?aaenoatho eae
aieaa eee iaiaa oeaeinoiia iiieiaiea ethaeueie ie?a e naieo naay.

Ie?iaicc?aiea – ia?aciaaiea eioaa?aeueiia. A iai i?eioeeieaeueii aaaeia
naycue aai eiiiiiaioia, eo «nieaa». E eae a nieaaa ?acee/iua ni/aoaiey
yeaiaioia, eo i?iii?oeee aeatho ?aciua ?acoeueoaou, oae ia/oi iiaeiaiia
i?ienoiaeeo e n ie?iaicc?aieai.

A ninoaa ie?iaicc?aiey aoiaeyo e ea?atho a iai aaaeioth ?ieue iaiauaiiua
ciaiey – iianaaeiaaiua, eee aeeciaiii-i?aeoe/aneea, i?ioanneiiaeueiua,
iao/iua. *ai nieeaeiaa caian ciaiee a oo eee eioth yiioo, o oiai eee
eiiai ia?iaea eee ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea, oai aieaa na?ueacioth iii?o
iiaeao iieo/eoue niioaaonoaothuaa ie?iaicc?aiea. Iaeaiia, iai?inaauaiiia
niciaiea ia ?aniieaaaao aeinoaoi/iuie n?aaenoaaie aeey /aoeiai,
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai, ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iainiiaaiey naieo acaeyaeia,
ia?auaynue /anoi e oaioanoe/aneei auiuneai, iiaa?ueyi, iau/ayi.

Noaiaiue iiciaaaoaeueiie ianuuaiiinoe, iainiiaaiiinoe, i?iaeoiaiiinoe,
aioo?aiiae niaeaniaaiiinoe oiai eee eiiai ie?iaicc?aiey auaaao ?aciie.
Iiciaiey ieeiaaea ia caiieiytho niaie anaai iiey ie?iaicc?aiey. E?iia
ciaiee i ie?a (aeeth/ay e ie? /aeiaaea) a ie?iaicc?aiee iniuneeaaaony
oaeaea aanue oeeaae /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, au?aaeathony ii?aaeaeaiiua
nenoaiu oeaiiinoae (i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeia?a e cea e ae?oaea),
auno?aeaathony «ia?acu» i?ioeiai e «i?iaeou» aoaeouaai, iieo/atho
iaeia?aiea (inoaeaeaiea) oa eee eiua niiniau aeecie, iiaaaeaiey.

I?ia?aiiu aeecie, aeaenoaey, iai?aaeaiiinoue iinooieia eiatho iiae niaie
aeaa «iii?u»: ciaiey e oeaiiinoe. Iie ai iiiaii «iiey?iu»,
i?ioeaiiieiaeiu ii naiae nooe. Iiciaieai aeaeaeao no?aieaiea e enoeia –
iauaeoeaiiio iinoeaeaieth ?aaeueiiai ie?a. Oeaiiinoiia niciaiea eiia:
iii aiieiuaao a naaa iniaia ioiioaiea ethaeae ei anaio i?ienoiaeyuaio a
niioaaonoaee n eo oeaeyie, iio?aaiinoyie, eioa?anaie, oai eee eiui
iiieiaieai niunea aeecie. A oeaiiinoiii niciaiee oi?ie?othony
i?aanoaaiiua, ynoaoe/aneea (e aiiaua ie?iaicc?ai/aneea) eaeaaeu.
Aaaeiaeoeie iiiyoeyie, n eioi?uie ecaeaaia naycuaaeinue oeaiiinoiia
niciaiea, aunooiaee iiiyoey aeia?a e cea, e?aniou e o?iaenoaa. *a?ac
niioianaiea n ii?iaie, eaeaaeaie inouanoaeyaony ioeaieaaiea –
ii?aaeaeaiea oeaiiinoe i?ienoiaeyuaai. Nenoaia oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee
ea?aao i/aiue aaaeioth ?ieue a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii e a?oiiiaii,
iauanoaaiiii ie?iaicc?aiee. I?e anae eo ?acii?iaeiinoe iiciaaaoaeueiue e
oeaiiinoiue niiniau inaiaiey ie?a a /aeiaa/aneii niciaiee, aeecie,
aeaenoaee aeieaeiu auoue eae-oi o?aaiiaaoaiu, i?eaaaeaiu a niaeanea.
Aeieaeii aeinoeaaoueny oaeaea iai?yaeaiiia aaeeinoai ae?oaeo «iiey?iuo»
eiiiiiaioia, aniaeoia, o?iaiae ie?iaicc?aiey: /oanoa e ?acoia, iiieiaiey
e aeaenoaey, aa?u e niiiaiey, oai?aoe/aneiai e i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa
ethaeae, iniuneaiey i?ioeiai e aeaeaiey aoaeouaai. Eo niioianaiea,
ni/aoaiea, neioac – neiaeiay e io/eoaeueiay aeooiaii-i?aeoe/aneay
?aaioa, i?ecaaiiay iaania/eaaoue naycaiiinoue e oeaeinoiinoue
/aeiaa/aneiai iiuoa, anae nenoaiu i?eaioaoeee.

Ie?iaicc?aiea – eiiieaeniay oi?ia niciaiey, iauaiethuay naiua ?aciua
«ieanou» /aeiaa/aneiai iiuoa, – niiniaii ?acaeaeaaoue oceea ?aiee
iianaaeiaaiinoe, eiie?aoiiai ianoa e a?aiaie, niioiineoue aeaiiiai
/aeiaaea n ae?oaeie ethaeueie, aeeth/ay e oao, /oi aeeee ?aiueoa, aoaeoo
aeeoue iioii. A ie?iaicc?aiee iaeaieeaaaony iiuo oyniaiey niuneiaie
iniiau /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, ana iiaua iieieaiey ethaeae i?eiauathony e
aeooiaiiio ie?o i?aaeaaeia, aeaaeia, iooeia, nia?aiaiieeia, /oi-oi,
aa?aaeii o?aiy, io /aai-oi ?aoeoaeueii ioeacuaaynue.

Eoae, ie?iaicc?aiea – yoi niaieoiiinoue acaeyaeia, ioeaiie, i?eioeeiia,
ii?aaeaeythueo naiia iauaa aeaeaiea, iiieiaiea ie?a.

AEeciue ethaeae a iauanoaa iineo enoi?e/aneee oa?aeoa?. Oi iaaeeaiii, oi
onei?aiii, eioaineaii eciaiythony ai a?aiaie ana ninoaaeythuea
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna: oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa e oa?aeoa?
o?oaea, ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie e naie ethaee, eo iunee, /oanoaa,
eioa?anu. Ie?iaicc?aiea /aeiaa/aneeo niiauanoa, nioeeaeueiuo a?oii,
ee/iinoae oaeaea iiaeaa?aeaii enoi?e/aneei ia?aiaiai. Iii aeoeaii
oeaaeeaaao, i?aeiieyao aieueoea e iaeua, yaiua e ne?uoua i?ioeannu
iauanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee. Aiai?y i ie?iaicc?aiee a aieueoii
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneii ianooaaa, eiatho a aeaeo i?aiaeaaeathuea ia oii
eee eiii yoaia enoi?ee i?aaeaeueii iauea oaaaeaeaiey, i?eioeeiu
iiciaiey, eaeaaeu e ii?iu aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, oi anoue auaeaeytho
iauea /a?ou eioaeeaeooaeueiiai, yiioeeiiaeueiiai, aeooiaiiai iano?iy oie
eee eiie yiioe. E a ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ie?iaicc?aiea
oi?ie?oaony a niciaiee eiie?aoiuo ethaeae e eniieuecoaony ee/iinoyie e
nioeeaeueiuie a?oiiaie a ea/anoaa ii?aaeaeythueo aeeciue iaueo
aicc?aiee. A yoi cia/eo, /oi, e?iia oeiiauo, noiia?iuo /a?o,
ie?iaicc?aiea eaaeaeie yiioe aeeaao, aeaenoaoao ai iiiaeanoaa a?oiiiauo
e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aa?eaioia.

No?iai aiai?y, eaaeaeue /aeiaae eee nioeeaeueiay a?oiia, auaeaeaiiay ii
oiio eee eiiio i?eciaeo (iai?eia?, ii eeanniaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe,
nioeeaeueiiio iieiaeaieth, o?iaith ia?aciaaiey, i?ioannee,
i?eaa?aeaiiinoe e eaeie-eeai ?aeeaee e ae?oaei), eiaao nianoaaiiua, ia
ai anai niaiaaeathuea n ae?oaeie, a eiiaaea e i/aiue neeueii
ioee/athueany io ieo naiua iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey i ie?a e aeeciaiiua
i?ia?aiiu. E ana aea a iiiaiia?acee aa?eaioia enoi?e/anee eciaiythueony
ie?iaicc?aiee iiaeii auaeaeeoue ?yae oe?oiiaiiuo a?aaeaoeee, oeiia.

A aeaeueiaeoai y aoaeo enoiaeeoue ec o?ao iniiaiuo oeiia
ie?iaicc?aiee, i?eiyouo aeey ian – aa?iiaeoeaa, ia cao?aaeaay iiiaeo
ae?oaeo. Yoi O?ENOEAINOAI, IAOA?EAEECI e OAINIOEss. Aeey eaaeaeiai ec
auoaoiiiyioouo ie?iaicc?aiee nouanoaoao ?yae aii?inia, iiiiaathueo iai
?ane?uoue eo nouiinoue.

Aia eee iaoa?ey? Aeaa ie?a eee iaeei? O?enoeaineia aiai?eo iai:
«Aia anoue». A /oi anoue aia? Aia anoue ethaiaue, ethaiaue aaneiia/iay,
ethaiaue e ethaeyi, e ie?o, ei anaio a oeaeii. Aia anoue oai?aoe,
nicaeaoaeue anaeaiiie, oi anoue eiaiii oiai, /oi ian anao ie?oaeaao,
oiai /oi iu aaeaaeiaaii aeaeei e iuouaai. Iiaeniciaoaeueii iu /oanoaoai,
/oi eaeay-oi neea anoue. *oi yoi? Oaeia. O?enoeaineia o/aiea aiai?eo,
/oi Aia-yoi aaneiia/iia iiaouanoai, ii iaoa?eaeenou ooaa?aeaeatho
niaa?oaiii ia?aoiia. Aeey ieo Aiaa iao, eae iao e iaeie iiaouanoaaiiie
aeooiaiie neeu, eioi?ay aeaaainoaoao ai anaeaiiie, a nouanoaoao eeoue
iaoa?ey. ss ia i?eaea?aeeaathnue ie iaeiiai ec yoeo ie?iaicc?aiee a
ioaeaeueiinoe, ii aieueoa neeiiythnue e iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiio. ss n/eoath,
/oi noi?iiiee eaaeaeiai ec ieo, aea e iiaeaeoe ethaie, eoi oaaaeaeai a
/ai-oi iaeiii, a ethaia ae?oaia io?eoeaao, yaeyaony oaiaoeeii, eai y ia
yaeythnue ie a eiae ia?a. A iiai iiieiaiee ie? iaoa?eaeai ii ana-oaee
anoue eaeay-oi neea, ca i?aaeaeaie iiaai iiieiaiey. Iiaeii iacaaoue yoi
«aunoei ?acoiii». ss ia niaeanai n oainioneie oi/eie c?aiey, /oi iao ie
aiaa, ie iaoa?ee, a anoue eeoue iaeia aeooiaiia ia/aei oae eae ia
n/eoath «aunoee ?acoi» iaeei aeooiaiui ia/aeii. Ii iiaeao auoue
iaoa?eaeai, a iiaeao e ia auoue, ii ii auoa ian ii naiae nouiinoe.
Iaoa?eaeeci ii naiae nooe i/aiue oaaaeeoaeai, oae eae iniiauaaaony ia
yenia?eiaioa. *oi ia aeieacaii, oi ia yaeyaony oaeoii. Ii oi, /oi
iaoa?ey nouanoaiaaea aa/ii e aaneiia/ii e ia/aea iao oaeo aanueia
nii?iue. Eo iiaia oaaaeaeaiea, /oi ie? aiciee a ?acoeueoaoa «Aaeeeiai
ac?uaa» oiaea ia i/aiue-oi oaaaeeoaeueii. Aaaeue oi/ii oaeaea iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi aia nioai?ee ie? ec naiiai naay e iao ie/aai ia/aeueiaa
ia/aea, oi anoue aiaa.

Oae eae aea ono?iaia anaeaiiay? Aeey o?enoeai yoi aeaa ie?a –
aeaeeiue e iaaeaeeiue. Aeaeeiue – yoi oi, aaea iu aeeaai, /oi iu, oae
neacaoue, aeaeei aie?oa naay, a iaaeaeeiue – yoi oea?noai Ainiiaeiaa:
?ae e aae. Aeey iaoa?eaeenoia – yoi iaoa?eaeueiue ie?, ninoiyuee ec
iaeue/aeoeo /anoeoe, ie? iiciaaaaiue iaoeie e oieueei ath. Iaoa?eaeenou
i?eciatho e aeooiaiue ie?, ii ii ii?iaeaeai neeie ?acoia. Oainioey
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ie? yoi – iaeay aeooiiaoa?ey, /oi ii ninoieo ec
o?iaiae nouiinoae. ss n/eoath, /oi ie? iaoa?eaeai, ii aeey iaiy
iaeioi?ua yaeaiey iaiiiyoiu e iiea y a ieo aei eiioea ia ?acaa?onue,
a?yae ee niiao ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in ia ana noi.

Aeaeey, eae eieaa, eioi?oth iaienaee ethaee ni neia Aiaeueeo,
aiai?eo, /oi aeeciue aac Aiaa iaaiciiaeia. Iia ?anneacuaaao i
aiaeanoaaiiii i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie. O?enoeainoai ?acaeaaao nic?aaooth
a eoaeaecia eaeath aaeeiiai Aiaa, iaeaaeaoaey aaniethoiie aeaainoe,
aaniethoiiai ciaiey e aaniethoiiai iiaouanoaa. Ana nouanoaa e i?aaeiaou
yaeythony aai oai?aieyie, ana nicaeaii naiaiaeiui aeoii aiaeanoaaiiie
aiee. Aeaa oeaio?aeueiuo aeiaiaoa o?enoeainoaa aiai?yo i o?eaaeeinoaa
Aiaa e Aiaiaiieiuaiee. Niaeanii ia?aiio, aioo?aiiyy aeeciue aiaeanoaa
anoue ioiioaiea o?ao “eiinoanae”, eee eeoe: Iooea (aacia/aeueiiai
ia?aiia/aea), Nuia, eee Eiaina (niuneiaiai e ioi?ieythuaai i?eioeeia), e
nayoiai Aeooa (aeeaioai?yuaai i?eioeeia). Nui “?iaeaeaaony” io Iooea,
nayoie Aeoo “enoiaeeo” io Iooea. I?e yoii e “?iaeaeaiea” e
“enoiaeaeaiea” eiatho ianoi ia ai a?aiaie, oae eae ana eeoea
o?enoeaineie O?ieoeu nouanoaiaaee anaaaea – “i?aaeaa/iu” – e ?aaiu ii
aeinoieinoao – “?aaii/anoiu”.

*aeiaae, niaeanii o?enoeaineiio o/aieth, nioai?ai eae iineoaeue “ia?aca
e iiaeiaey” Aiaa. Iaeiaei a?aoiiaaeaiea, niaa?oaiiia ia?auie ethaeueie,
?ac?ooeei aiaiiiaeiaea /aeiaaea, iaeiaeea ia iaai iyoii ia?ai?iaeiiai
a?aoa. O?enoin, i?eiya e?anoiua ioee e nia?oue, “eneoiee” ethaeae,
iino?aaeaa ca aanue ?iae ethaeneie. Iiyoiio o?enoeainoai iiae/a?eeaaao
i/enoeoaeueioth ?ieue no?aaeaiey, ethaiai ia?aie/aiey /aeiaaeii naieo
aeaeaiee e no?anoae: »i?eieiay naie e?ano”, /aeiaae iiaeao iiaaaeaeaoue
cei a naaa naiii e a ie?oaeathuai ie?a. Oai naiui /aeiaae ia i?inoi
eniieiyao Aiaeuee caiiaaaee, ii e nai i?aia?aaeaaony e niaa?oaao
ainoiaeaeaiea e Aiao, noaiiaeony e iaio aeeaea. A yoii e anoue
i?aaeiacia/aiea o?enoeaieia, aai ii?aaaeaiea aea?oaaiiie nia?oe O?enoa.
N yoei acaeyaeii ia /aeiaaea naycaii oa?aeoa?iia oieueei aeey
o?enoeainoaa iiiyoea “oaeinoaa” – iniaiai eoeueoiaiai aeaenoaey,
i?ecaaiiiai ?aaeueii aaanoe aiaeanoaaiiia a aeeciue /aeiaaea. Yoi
i?aaeaea anaai – e?auaiea, i?e/anoea, eniiaaaeue (iieayiea), a?ae,
niai?iaaiea.

Ii aeaiiue oaeo aanueia niiieoaeai, oae eae iniiauaaaony ia ee/iii
iiuoa nicaeaoaeae, ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiii ?aaeueiuie yenia?eiaioaie.
Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia aea ie?iaicc?aiea oi?ioi ai anai e aanueia
oaaaeeoaeueii, anee ia n/eoaoue eo oaaaeaeaiea, /oi aeeciue aicieeea
neo/aeii. Aaaeue, eae ecaanoii, ie/oi ieeoaea ia ooiaeeo aanneaaeii e
ieioeoaea i?inoi oae ia iiyaeyaony. Oainiou n/eoatho eiiieaiaoiia
aicieeiiaaiea aeecie iaeaieaa i?eaieaiui aeey naay. Anee oae
caaeoiaoueny, oi oainioneay oi/ea c?aiey ii aii?ino aicieeiiaaiey
aeecie, yaeyaony aieaa iaiaa i?eaieaiie. Aaaeue oi, /oi anoue
eiiieaiaoiay aeeciue iu oae aei neo ii? e ia ciaai. Oae aeaaea Aia
iiaeao eiaoue iaeioi?ia ioiioaiea e eiiieaiaoyiai. Ana, /oi /aeiaae ia
iiaeao iauynieoue, ii iuoaaony iauynieoue /ai oi iaiau/iui,
naa?ouanoanoaaiiui.

Oae a /ai aea niune aeecie? Yoio aii?in, iiaeaeoe, ethaee noaayo
ia?aae niaie anaaaea. Aoaeue iie iaoa?eaeenou eee o?enoeaia, oainiou eee
ethaee ae?oaeo aicc?aiee. Yoio aii?in ia noieo eeoue ia?aae oaie, eoi
aeeaao aeiai naaiaeiyoiei. O?enoeaia n/eoatho, /oi /aeiaae aeeaao aeey
oiai, /oiau niaaeeieoueny n aiaii. Iaoa?eaeenou i?aneaaeotho iao/iua,
iaoa?eaeueiua eioa?anu, oeo/oatho naia aeaaininoiyiea ec iieieaiey a
iieieaiea. Oainiou no?aiyony niaaeeieoueny n «aunoae» yia?aeae. Ana iie
no?aiyony e /aio-oi aunoaio. Oioy aeey eaaeaeiai ec ieo yoi aaniethoii
?aciua aaue. A /ai aeey iaiy niune aeecie y iiea oi/ii ia ciath. E anoue
ee niune aeecie aiiaua? Iiciaoue iaiiciaiiia – a yoii iaaa?iia, e anoue
niune aeecie. Iaeoe naiiai naay a yoii noaoiii ie?a. Oc?aoue /oi-oi
oaeia, /oi ae?oaei iaaeinooiii e ia iioa?youe naay eae ee/iinoue.

Niune enoi?ee aeey iaiy – yoi naia enoi?ey. Iiciaiea, ioeaiea
i?ienoaaeoaai. *aeiaae aeieaeai o/eoueny ia /oaeeo ioeaeao, /oiau ia
niaa?oaoue naieo e /oaeeo iiaaaeao, /oiau naay niaa?oainoaiaaoue.
O?enoeaia n/eoatho, /oi niune a aeaeaeaiee io ?iaeaeaiey a a?aoa e
iieiiio i/euaieth a oea?noaa Ainiiaeiai, iooai ecaeeaaiey a naaa ethaiai
i?iyaeaiey a?aoa e /enoina?aea/iiai no?aieaiey e Aiao. Iaoa?eaeenou
n/eoatho, /oi niune a niaia oi?iaoeee e iino?iaiee aieaa niaa?oaiiiai
iauanoaa. Niaia ?an, iooai nai?aiey a iaia iaeiie e ?iaeaeaiey ae?oaie.
Iu nae/an aeey ieo iyoay ?ana.

A nouanoaoao ee nia?oue ? Iao ! Nia?oe iao e auoue ia iiaeao ,
aaaeue /aeiaae oie?ay , inoaaony aeeoue a naiai aeooiaiii ninoiyiee .
Ii eae au ?iaeaeaaony caiiai , niaaeeiyaony n aiaii . Oae n/eoatho
o?enoeaia . A iaoa?eaeenou ? Nia?oue anoue. Nia?oue anoue , e oie?ay ,
/aeiaae neeaaaony n iauei ca?yaeii – yoi oainioneia ie?iaicc?aiea . ss
aieueoa neeiiythnue e oi/ee c?aiey iaoa?eaeenoia. Eo iiceoeey iia
eaaeaony iaeaieaa i?eaieaiie n oie noi?iiu, /oi iia oaeay, eaeie y aa
aeaeo a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ie? aie?oa iaiy iaoa?eaeai. A oi , /oi
i?ienoiaeeo iinea nia?oe yoi oaea caaaaeea. ss eeoue aeaeo oi, /oi
/aeiaae oia?,i?aa?aoeeny a i?ao, a ?aaeueiii ie?a aai aieueoa iao. Iao
oaeiai, eaeei au y aai ciae.Oioy aiciiaeii ii a eiai-oi eee ai /oi-oi e
ia?aaiieiuaaony . ss ia yoii noaeeoue ia iiao. Yoi eeoue aeiiuneu.

Anayce ni anai auoaeceiaeaiiui iiaeii neacaoue /oi a nia?aiaiiii
iauanoaa ie?iaicc?ai/aneay neooaoeey i/aiue neiaeiay.I/aiueiiiai ethaeae
aiai?eo i aiaa , a oiaea a?aiy i?eaea?aeeaaynue /enoi iaoa?eaeueiuo
eioa?ania e i?aeoe/anee ai iiiaii naaa i?ioeai?a/a ..

Auno?i neacaoue ia iniaaiiinoyo nia?aiaiiiai ie?a iaeuecy. Iiyoiio
eiathony a aeaeo iniaaiiinoe, aaaeiua aeey aeaeueiaeoaai eceiaeaiey.
Ia?iiiay e anaaic?anoathuay /aeiaa/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue. Iia
n?aaiyeanue a ianooaaa Caiee n aeaenoaeai oece/aneeo nee (caieao?ynaiey
e o.ae.). Ianooaau yoie aeayoaeueiinoe iaoiaeyony a yeniiiaioeeaeueiie
caaeneiinoe io ?inoa ianaeaiey.

1850 aiae – 1 000 000 000 /aeiaae.

1986 – 5 000 000 000; a iano. a?aiy aeecei e 6 000 000 000.

Oneeaiea oeaeinoiinoe e eioaa?aoeaiuo oaiaeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai
ie?a. Aeaiiay

iniaaiiinoue a iaoae no?aia noaea ?anniao?eaaoueny n 1984 aiaea. Iioii i
iae caauee.

Iniiaiie oacen: «Oieoeeaoeey a ia?aca e oi?iao aeecie» (aaeeiay
eioi?iaoeeiiiay naoue, o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiua ei?ii?aoeee e o. ae). Iaeiaei
ia?yaeo n yoei yaeaieai oaiaeaioeey e naia?aoecio (o. a. ethaee oioyo
nio?aieoue oioy au ieieiaeueiue iaai? eo ioee/eoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae io
ae?oaeo iaoeee).

Anai ecaanoii /oi nia?aiaiiia iauanoaa oa?aeoa?ecoaony
aeiaaeueiuie e?ecenaie aiai?yueie eeoue i oii , /oi nae/an e?aeia
iaiaoiaeeia niaia ie?iaicc?aiey .Eeai iu ana iieaeai ae?oaei , aoiaiiui
ii ioiioaieth e ie?o , iooai , eeai iaoa oeeaeeecaoeey iaanaaaea
en/aciao . Eo iiiai. Ia?aoei aieiaiea ia iniaaiii aeiaaeueiua (e?ecenu,
eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu oneeeyie aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ianaeaiey).

1) I?aanoaaiiue

2). Yeieiae/aneee.

3). Aeaiia?aoe/aneee.

Aeaa?aaeaoeey /aeiaaea , ?ac?ooaiea aai niciaiey , oiaaeie ii?aee
-ana yoi i?aanoaaiiue e?ecen , eioi?ue i?eaaaeao e oie/oiaeaieth ie?a.

Iniiaiay i?iaeaia ninoieo a oii, /oi ana oioyo aeeoue eae a
Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao Aia?eee, o.a. iiiai i?iecaiaeeoue, ii e iiiai
iieo/aoue. Ii aeey aieueoeinoaa oae aeeoue iaaiciiaeii. Ieaiaoa yoiai ia
auaea?aeeo (ia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe i?e?iaeu: ?ano?nu, yeieiaey e o.
ae.). Iia aua iaoneiaeaia e aeaiia?aoe/aneie i?iaeaiie. E 2100 aiaeo
ianaeaiea ninoaaeo 10-12 ie?ae., i?e/ai 9/10 aoaeao aeeoue a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao. Aicieeiao i?iaeaia n ieie. Oaeei ia?acii
ia?aianaeaiea ieaiaou , aeaiia?aoe/aneee e?ecen , i?eaaaeao e oiio , /oi
ethaeyi i?inoi iaaaea noaiao aeeoue , ia/ioony aeiaaeueiua ie?iaua aieiu
ca ianoi iiae nieioeai .

Ii iiaeaeoe yeieiae/aneee e?ecen ?ac?ooeo iaoo oeeaeeecaoeeth
ai?acaei auno?aa , /ai iu aeoiaai. ?ac?ooaiea iciiiaiai neiy Caiee oaea
nae/an neacuaaaony ia eeeiaoa ieaiaou. Ia?ooaaony i?e?iaeiue
yeieiae/aneee aaeain. Ie?iaia iioaieaiea i?eaaaeao e oiio , /oi nia/aea
ia/iaony aeiaaeueiay canooa , a anee nieioea ?anoiieo eueaeu Aioa?eoeee
e A?eoeee , oi any oeeaeeecaoeey en/aciao iiae aiaeie , eioi?ay
aiineaaenoaee iiae aeaenoaeai eniaiaeythuaai Nieioea oiaea en/aciao ,
oiany n niaie iineaaeiea oi?iu aeecie .

N AE.AE. ?onni aaaeaony aeoeaiay e?eoeea oneeaiey oaoiie?aoecia e
?aoeeiiaeecia. N 60-70 iiaay oaiaeaioeey, iniiaaiiay ia yeieiae/aneii
i?eioeeia (I?iaiicu ?eineiai eeoaa). A iaoa a?aiy e?eoeea eaeao ia yoeo
aeaoo i?eioeeiao aianoa. Iaoea ia auiieiyao oie i?inaaoeoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?oth aeaeaee ?aiaa. Ie?iaicc?ai/aneia cia/aiea iaoee
ia aieioao a aeieaeiie noaiaie ie oea?eiaue, ie ethaeae, ie naieo
o/aiuo. A yoii ieaia iaoeie ia eioa?anothony ainoaea?noaaiiua no?oeoo?u,
eo eioa?anotho yeiiiie/aneea aii?inu, naycaiiua n iaoeie.

A ea/anoaa eoeueoo?iiai yaeaiey iaoea oo?aoeea naie iiceoeee,
inoaaaynue i?inoi iniiaie nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee.

Iu iiaeioee e ?oaaaeo, eiaaea io naieo nianoaaiiuo oniaoia Iu
iiaeai iiaeaiooue, eae oeeaeeecaoeey. I?ia?ann aaaeao e aeaaee
/aeiaa/anoaa. Nia?aiaiiay oeeaeeecaoeey nicaeaea oaeia ie?iaicc?aiea ,
eioi?ia ianiaianoeii n nouanoaiaaieai naiie oeeaeeecaoeeae

Oae eaeie aea auoiae ec nicaeaaoaeny neooaoeee? Anoanoaaiii niaia
ie?iaicc?aiey . Ai ana enoi?e/aneea yiioe iaia?oaeeaaee naay e
i?iaeieaeatho nio?aiyoue aaaeiia cia/aiea a iaoe aeie ie?iaicc?ai/aneea
acaeyaeu, eaeae, iniiaaiiua ia cae?aaii niunea, iaoe?iii e iiiaiia?aciii
iianaaeiaaiii iiuoa. Eo ia?aaeei iacuaatho «aeeciaiiie oeeinioeae. Yoa
noeoeeii neeaaeuaathuayny oi?ia ie?iaicc?aiey caeeth/aao a naaa
ie?iiuouaiea, oiiiano?iaiea oe?ieeo neiaa iauanoaa. Aeaiiue ieano
niciaiey i/aiue aaaeai, iineieueeo yaeyaony ianniaui e ?aaeueii
«?aaioathuei» niciaieai. Aio ii/aio, enoaoe, oae iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau
ooaa?aeaeaaiua naaiaeiy a iaoae no?aia i?eioeeiu iiaiai iieeoe/aneiai,
yeiiiie/aneiai, yeieiae/aneiai, nioeeaeueiiai, i?aanoaaiiiai iuoeaiey
einioeenue ia aaeeieoe, a aioee a niciaiea ouny/, ieeeeiiia ethaeae,
noaee eiioeuenii eo AEecie, aeaenoaey. Ii yoi a iauai. A a /anoiinoe?

Iiaue ia?ac aeecie, iiaue niinia i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaay naiuey.
Caiaia oaoiieiaee ia aieaa i?ia?anneaioth , yeieiae/anee /enooth,
aaca?aaeioth aeey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu , iiaeiyoea ii?aeueiiai iaeeea
ianaeaiey , iooai iiciaiey aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae e i?iieeiiaaiey eo a
iannu, iiaeiyoey aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy , ia?auaieth e ?acoio /aeiaaea, e
iao/iiio iniuneaieth i?ienoiaeyuaai. A iaeioi?uo neeueii ?acaeouo,
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo no?aiao yoi i?ia?aiia eiio?iey ca ?iaeaeaaiinoueth,
oae iacuaaaiay i?ia?aiia «Aeaoo ieeeea?aeia», niune eioi?ie a oii ,
/oiau inoaaeoue ia ieaiaoa aeaa ieeeea?aea ethaeae e oai naiui ?aoeoue
i?iaeaio ia?aianaeaiey. Ii a?yae ee yoi auoiae, aaaeue yoi /enoie aiaeu
?aneci.?aneci a iauai niunea yoiai neiaa.

Yoi n iiceoeee iaoa?eaeecia .

Anee a?aoue o?enoeaineia ie?iaicc?aiea , oi yoi ia?auaiea e Aiao,
aeeoea ii caeiiai Aiaeueei. E a i?eioeeia anee au ana ia Caiea
i?ienoiaeeei au ii caeiiai aiaeueei, oi ia auei au aeiaaeueiuo e?ecenia
e aiieia aa?iyoii iauanoai ia i?eoei au e oaeie ooieeiaie neooaoeee.
Oioy o o?enoeai anoue e ae?oaay oi/ea c?aiey.Ii eo oaaaeaeaieth ana /oi
aie?oa ian-i?ao, eeoue iaoa?eaeueiay iaiei/ea, a iniiaiay aeeciue
ianooiaao eeoue iinea nia?oe a oea?noaa Ainiiaeiai,oae /oi ana /oi
aie?oa i?ienoiaeeo eeoue noaoa e aaniethoii ia aaaeii /oi ia caiea
aoaeao aeaeueoa. Aaaeue a?yaeao Aiieaeeinen e aanue iaoa?eaeueiue ie?
nai?eo a aeaia iaiaiiie.

O oainioia oiaea aeiaieueii oaee aioeie?iaia ioiioaiea e ie?o eo
ie?oaeathuaio. Ie? naaiaeiyoiee nai?eo a IAIA e iinea iaai iiyaeony
iiaue, oae ca/ai aea caaeoiuaaoueny iaae naaiaeiyoiei, aaaeue
iaoa?eaeueiay iaiei/ea yaeaiea a?aiaiiia.

Iiaeii i?eaanoe iiiaeanoai i?eia?ia , ii y iieoo eeoue iaeei.Yoi aua
iaeii iiieiaiea e?ecenia e iooae auoiaea ec ieo.Aiciiaeii ii ai iiiaii
noiae n i?aaeuaeoueie.Aiciiaeii yoi ooiiey,ii yoi iaeei ec auoiaeia.

A na?aaeeia iaoaai aaea auea iaienaia Aeaieeeii Aiae?aaaui –
iineaaeiaaoaeai Aeaaeeie?a Nieiaueaaa – eieaa “?ica Ie?a”. Yoio
oeeinioneee o?aeoao aue nicaeai aaoi?ii a iieeoe/aneii ecieyoi?a, a
oth?ueia e yaeyaony, ii iiaieth e?eoeeia, iaeiie ec naiuo iaiau/iuo eiea
OO aaea. Ae.Aiae?aaa iuoaaony iieacaoue a “?ica Ie?a” iooe
i?aaeioa?auaiey aeaoo naiuo no?aoiuo cie a nia?aiaiiii ie?a – ie?iauo
aiei e anaie?iie oe?aiee, iooe eciaiaiey iauanoaa ai ana/aeiaa/aneii
a?aonoai.Ii aiai?eo, /oi a ie?a nouanoaoao einoaioeey, iiiai eao
i?aoaiaeothuay ia oi, /oiau noaoue aaeeinoaaiiie, iaoeeiiiie
iauaaeeieoaeueieoeae ethaeae, i?aaeioa?auathuae io ieo iianiinoue
aieiu anao i?ioea anao, iianiinoue iaaeaiey a oain. Oaeay einoaioeey
-ainoaea?noai. Ni a?aiai ieii/aiey ?iaeiaiai no?iy, ia anao enoi?e/aneeo
yoaiao, ainoaea?noai yaeyeinue nouanoaaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth. Ia
ai?ueeii iiuoa /aeiaa/anoai oaaaeaeaaony, /oi ie
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea aeaeaeaiey, oi?aaeyaiua aieui ?annoaeeii,
ie aeinoeaeaiey iaoee naie ii naaa ia a ninoiyiee i?iaanoe /aeiaa/anoai
iaaeaeo oe?aieyie e ie?iauie aieiaie.Iaoea i?aa?auaaony a iineooioth
neoaeaieo iieeoe/aneeo aeaniioee, eoaea aieaa iineooioth e
iaaeaaeioth, /ai auea oea?eiaue aeey oaiaeaeueiuo aeaaeue. O?aaaaeey,
ii neiaai Aiae?aaaa, ei?aieony a oii, /oi iao/iay aeayoaeueiinoue n
naiiai ia/aea ia auea nii?yaeaia n aeoaiei i?iaeoiaiiui i?aanoaaiiui
ainieoaieai. E yoie aeayoaeueiinoe aeiioneaeenue ana, iacaaeneii
io o?iaiy eo i?aanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi eaaeaeue
oniao iaoee oaoieee ia?auaaony oaia?ue iaeiie noi?iiie i?ioea
iiaeeeiiuo eioa?ania /aeiaa/anoaa.Oaeei ia?acii, iiuo enoi?ee iiaeaiaeeo
ian e iiieiaieth oiai i/aaeaeiiai oaeoa, /oi iianiinoe aoaeoo
i?aaeioa?auaiu e nioeeaeueiay aa?iiiey aeinoeaiooa ia iooai ?acaeoey
iaoee e oaoieee naieo ii naaa, ia ia?a?acaeoeai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ia/aea, ia i?eoiaeii e aeanoe iaoeeoenoneeo i?aaiecaoeee
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai oeia – ii onoaiiaeaieai iaae Anaie?ii
oaaea?aoeeae ainoaea?noa iaeiae iacaiyoiaiiie, iaiiaeeoiiie,
aunieiaaoi?eoaoiie einoaioeee, einoaioeee yoe/aneie,
aiaainoaea?noaaiiie e iaaeainoaea?noaaiiie, eai i?e?iaea
ainoaea?noaa aiayoe/ia ii naiaio nouanoao.Yoo einoaioeeth Aiae?aaa
oneiaii iacuaaao Eeaie I?aia?aciaaiey nouiinoe ainoaea?noaa. Aa caaea/e:
iineaaeiaaoaeueiia inouanoaeaiea anaioaaouaathueo ?aoi?i, ainieoaiea
/aeiaaea iaeaai?iaeaiiiai ia?aca, caiaia i?eioaeaeaiey
aeia?iaieueiinoueth, ie?eeia aiaoiaai caeiia aieinii aeoaieie niaanoe,
– aeieaeiu iiaeaioiaeoue ii/ao aeey nicaeaiey Oaaea?aoeee ainoaea?noa.
Iooue ei anaie?iiio iauaaeeiaieth a yoii neo/aa eyaeao /a?ac eanoieoeo
?acee/iuo nooiaiae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nieeaea?iinoe, /a?ac iauaaeeiaiea e
neeyiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo niae?oaeanoa; iineaaeiae nooiaiueth oaeie
eanoieoeu noaiao anaie?iue ?aoa?aiaeoi. Aeey inouanoaeaiey oaeiai
yoe/aneiai iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy Ae.Aiae?aaa aeaeeo iaiaoiaeeiui
nicaeaiea o/aiey, a aunoae noaiaie ie?iiauaiethuaai – e
i?aanoaaiiiai, e iieeoe/aneiai, e oeeinioneiai, e ?aeeaeiciiai. Oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi iineaaeiaa e?oiiia ?aeeaeiciia aeaeaeaiea a
/aeiaa/anoaa – i?ioanoaioneay ?aoi?iaoeey – eiaei ianoi 400 eao iacaae,
a iineaaeiyy ?aeeaey ie?iaiai cia/aiey, eneai, ian/eouaaao oaea 13
aaeia naiaai nouanoaiaaiey, auaeaeaaaony eiiaaea eae a?aoiaio a
iieueco iiaiey, /oi ?aeeaeiciay y?a a /aeiaa/anoaa caaa?oeeanue. Aieaa
eiie?aoiay oeaeue yoiai o/aiey: iauaaeeiaiea Caiiiai Oa?a a
oaaea?aoeeth ainoaea?noa n yoe/aneie eiio?iee?othuae einoaioeeae iaae
iath,?ani?ino?aiaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai aeinoaoea e aunieiai eoeueoo?iiai
o?iaiy ia ana ianaeaiea anao no?ai, ainieoaiea iieieaiee ethaeae
iaeaai?iaeaiiiai ia?aca, iauaaeeiaiea oea?eaae, i?aa?auaiea ieaiaou a
naae, a ainoaea?noa – a a?aonoai.A inouanoaeaiee yoeo eaeaaeia Aiae?aaa
aaaeioth ?ieue ioaiaeeo eneonnoao. Iiuo iineaaeieo aaeia e ?ino ee/iinoe
i?eaaee e oiio, /oi niciaiea /aeiaaea iuouaao oneiaiinoue e
oaniioo ethaie aeiaiaoeee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,neieue aaeiaiaoe/iuie ie auee
au oacenu ?icu Ie?a, neieue au ie auee iie i?iieeioou aeooii
?aeeaeiciie aeeiaieee, ii aanueia iiiaea cao?oaeiyony i?eiyoue aeaaea
eo. Caoi iiiaeanoaa e iiiaeanoaa ioeeeeioony ia aa cia, anee ii
aoaeao ia?auai ia noieueei e eioaeeaeoo, neieueei e na?aeoeo, cao/a
a aaieaeueiuo oai?aieyo neiaa,iocuee, oaao?a, a?oeoaeoo?u. Ia?acu
eneonnoaa inoaaeytho aieueoa naiaiaeu aiia?aaeaieth, iie i?aaeinoaaeytho
eaaeaeiio oieeiaaoue o/aiea oae, eae yoi i?aaie/iaa e iiiyoiaa eiaiii
aeey aai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe.Aiae?aaa iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi aaniethoiay
oeaiiinoue ee/iinoe caeeth/aia a oii, /oi iia niaea?aeeo aaeeii?iaeiua n
Aiaii niiniaiinoe oai?/anoaa e ethaae.E eiaiii a yoii y aeaeo
caiai/eainoue yoie eaeae. Eieaa Ae. Aiae?aaaa i?iiecaia iaaeaaeaeie ia
naaoeia aoaeouaa, ia oi,/oi iaoe aioee e i?aaioee aoaeoo naeaeaoaeyie
i?eoiaea ?icu Ie?a e aeanoe iaaei anae caieae. Ii ieoao: ”
…Aniiiiei anaaeieeia Aiieaeeinena. Eeoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
anaaeieeia a enoi?ee ia oa, /oi i?aaeneacae i?iaeaeaoe ia ino?iaa
Iaoiina:ia?aui i?ii/aeny *a?iue – y?a ainiiaenoaa ea?ie?aoee ia
oaiaeaeueiie iniiaa. Oaia?ue caaa?oaao naie iooue anaaeiee aoi?ie,
E?aniue: eaaeaeue iieiao, /oi oaeony ca yoei neiaieii. AEaeai e oiiaaai
ia anaaeieea Aaeiai – ?ico Ie?a, cieioie aae /aeiaa/anoaa! (ni.1)”

Ianeieueei aea aaaeii eiaoue ie?iaicc?aiea ? I/aiue aaaeii. Aoaeue
oi /aeiaae a ioaeaeueiinoe eee iauanoai a oeaeii , ie?iaicc?aiea eiaoue
iaiaoiaeeii. Oioy yoi naiia iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i iaoai ie?a , aac iaai
iauanoai e /aeiaae aoaeoo iaoiaeeoueny a aaeooia , a iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe
.Ia aoaeao oeaee , a cia/eo e nouanoaiaaiea aoaeao aanniuneaiii .

I?eaaaeai i?eia?u eiaaea ie?iaicc?aiea oi?ie?othaony iiae aeeyieai
ciaiee e iiuoa ethaeae a ?acee/iuo noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe. Oae, ii i?aao
aiai?yo i ie?iaicc?aiee o/aiuo, eiaeaia?ia, iieeoe/aneeo aeayoaeae,
/eiiaieeia. Iaiauaiey aeeciaiiiai iiuoa /a?ac aeayoaeueiinoue
iaaeaaiaia, ioaeeoeenoia, ienaoaeae, i?aaenoaaeoaeae oai?/aneeo
i?ioannee a ?acee/iuo aeaeao eneonnoaa aiaae?ythony a iauanoaaiiia
niciaiea, ?aaeueii aeeaoo e ooieoeeiie?otho a iai. Nia?aiaiiay neooaoeey
iaaeyaeii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ethaee, ninoaaeythuea oeaao
iaoee, eoeueoo?u, aeoaiei e ianooaaii ?aciuoeythuea i aieueoeo,
aeeciaiii aaaeiuo i?iaeaiao, ieacuaatho oi?ie?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia
iauanoaaiiia ie?iaicc?aiea.

Aicueiai e i?eia?o o?enoeaineia ie?iaicc?aiea . O?enoeaia ,
oaaaeaeaiiua , /oi iao ie/aai ia/aeueiaa Aiaa , /oi Aia-oai?aoe e
iiaaeeoaeue , aeeaoo ii caeiiai Aiaeueei , e ie? i?aaenoaaeytho e
nicaeatho ii yoei caeiiai , oi anoue niaeanii nayoiio ienaieth-Aeaeee.
Aeey ieo Aeaeey-enoi/iee ciaiey, eo O/eoaeue. A n?aaeiea aaea , eiaaea
iaoa?eaeeci aua ia neiaeeeny , eae i?aeoe/anee iauai?eiyoia
ie?iaicc?aiea , a Aa?iia aeaaainoaiaaei o?enoeaineia ie?iaicc?aiea. Iaae
iauanoaii noiyea oea?eiaue e eiaiii ii aa caeiiai iii e ?acaeaaeinue.
N?aaeiaaaeiaua ?uoea?e ai eiy O?enoa niaa?oaee iiaeaeae e ooiaeeee a
e?anoiaua iioiaeu. Ia aea?ii eo iacuaaee e?anoiiinoeu. Iie ianee ia
naieo ueoao nayoie e?ano-neiaie o?enoeaineie aa?u e aioiau auee ca iaai
oia?aoue , oia?aoue ca Aiaa. Ianoieueei neeueia auea eo aa?a. Nayoay
eieaeceoeey enei?aiyea ethaua i?iyaeaiey a?ane, oai naiui ia aeaaay
?acaeaaoueny aieaa i?ia?anneaiiio iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiio ie?iaicc?aieth.
Aeaaa ainoaea?noaa aue i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth caaenei io oea?eae e aa
aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo neoaeeoaeae. Oae /oi iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a oa
a?aiaia o?enoeaineia ie?iaicc?aiea iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyei iiaaaeaiea
/aeiaaea e iauanoaa.

Ie?iaicc?ai/aneea eaeae, aicieeathuea a i?ioeanna iao/iiai,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai, iieeoe/aneiai e ae?oaiai oai?/anoaa, iiaoo a
ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie aicaeaenoaiaaoue e ia iuoeaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
oeeinioia. ss?eee i?eia? oiio – ia?iiiia aeeyiea oai?/anoaa E. I.
Oienoiai, O. I. Aeinoiaaneiai ia ioa/anoaaiioth e ie?iaoth oeeinioeth.

Ie?iaicc?aiea, au?aaeaiiia a aai iauaeaiiuo, oeiiauo, ianniauo,
yeaiaioa?iuo i?iyaeaieyo, caeeth/aao a naaa ia oieueei aiaaooth «iaiyoue
aaeia», oaaaeeoaeueiue aeeciaiiue iiuo, iaauee, o?aaeeoeee, aa?o e
niiiaiey, ii e iiiaeanoai i?aae?annoaeeia. Oaeia ie?iiiieiaiea ii?ie
neaai caueuaii io ioeaie, iiaeaa?aeaii aeeyieth iacaei?iauo iano?iaiee
(iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo e ae?oaeo), nia?aiaiiuo («ieoia» (iai?eia?,
aoeueaa?ii oieeoaiiai ?aaainoaa) e eiuo ia aiieia c?aeuo i?iyaeaiee
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, ia aiai?y oaea i oeaeaiai?aaeaiiii aicaeaenoaee
ni noi?iiu i?aneaaeothueo naie oceiyaienoe/aneea oeaee ioaeaeueiuo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii. Ia cano?aoiaaiu io oaeiai ?iaea aeeyiee e acaeyaeu
iaeioi?uo ethaeae, i?ioanneiiaeueii caiyouo iao/iui, eeoa?aoo?iui,
eiaeaia?iui e ae?oaei o?oaeii.

A ethaua a?aiaia /aeiaae iuoaaony ii?aaeaeeoue aeey naay /oi oaeia
enoeia.

I?iaeaia enoeiiinoe ciaiey, e?eoa?ee enoeiu ecaeaaia
eioa?aniaaea auaeathueany oiu. Aac ?aoaiey aeey naay i?iaeaiu ia
iaoiaeeeanue e ia iaoiaeeony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ie iaeia iaeanoue ciaiey,
aoaeue iia iaoeie iie?athuaeny ia aeneiiaoeeo, ?ac e iaanaaaea
aeaiioth, eeai ia iai?a?uaii eciaiythuaany e ooi/iythuaany iniiaaiea.
Acaeyaeu ia aeaiioth i?iaeaio iai?a?uaii iaiythony. I?aaeeaaaeenue e
ooi/iyeenue iiaua eiioeaioeee iiieiaiey e iiciaaaiey ie?a. Oae eee
eia/a, ie? iiciaaony /aeiaaeii e o?ainoi?ie?oaony a caaeneiinoe io
aeoaeiu e ea/anoaa iieo/aaiuo ciaiee.Caeanue iu iaecaaaeii noaeeeaaainy
n aii?inii:yaeyaony iaoa ciaiea i ie?a enoeiiui, niioaaonoaothuei iaoei
auaiaeai ec aanueia ia?aie/aiiiai iiuoa? Iiiuoaainy acaeyiooue ia
/aeiaaea e /aeiaa/anoai n iiceoeee aiciiaeiinoe ia?aaea/e ciaiey ae?oa
ae?oao, aiciiaeiinoe /aeiaaea enneaaeiaaoue yaeaiea e aeaeaoue auaiaeu.
Iiae aiciiaeiinoueth ia?aaeaaaoue ciaiey iu iiieiaai iaeioi?oth
niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioa?iuo aeaenoaee, au?aaeathueo ii?aaeaeaiiua iunee
ia?aaeathuei,eioa?i?aoaoeey yoeo yeaiaioa?iuo aeaenoaee i?eieiathuei, e
nicaeaieai o naay aeinoaoi/ii aeeceeo iuneae e ia?acia n ia?aaeathuei
noauaeoii, oi anoue iauaiea noauaeoia aiciiaeii eeoue a “/aeiaa/aneeo”
aeaenoaeyo, a iiiyoeyo “i?eaeoiaiiuo” /aeiaaeii (ia?aie/aiuo /oanoaaie).
Eioa?i?aoaoeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iuneae ia “iaua/aeiaa/aneii” ycuea
(onoiay ?a/ue, ienueiaiiay e oae aeaeaa) i?eaiaeeo e iioa?a e
iaoi/iinoe iuouaiee. Oaeei ia?acii, aeey iiieiaiey e iniuneaiey ie?a e
naiaai ianoa a iai, /aeiaaeo iaiaoiaeeii iinoiyiiia niaa?oainoaiaaiea,
?anoe?aiea e ooi/iaiea iauanoaaiiuo oa?ieiia (eiaaony a aeaeo ia
oieueei iao/iua oa?ieiu, ii e eneonnoai). Eoae, ecia/aeueii /aeiaaeii
iiaeao enneaaeiaaony ie?oaeathuee ie?, ii eeoue “io?aaeaiiue”,
eioa?i?aoe?iaaiiue a /aeiaa/aneii niciaiee, a /aeiaa/aneeo oa?ieiao e
iiiyoeyo.

Iicoiio aeey ?anoe?aiey iaoeo ciaiee i ie?a iaiaoiaeeii ?anoe?aiea,
oaeoaeaiea e ooi/iaiea oa?ieiia e iiiyoee, eniieuecoaiuo /aeiaaeii.
Nai i?ioeann oinoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iiciaaony /a?ac oaeie aea
oiic?eoaeueiue i?ioeann, e a eoiaa ianao ieieioi eioi?iaoeee i naiii
/aeiaaea. *aeiaa/anoai iaiaeiie?aoii i?aaei?eieiaei iiiuoee iao/iiai
enneaaeiaaiey e nenoaiaoecaoeee aii?inia aicieeiiaaiey iiauo iiiyoee,
eniieuecoy eeoue “eiooeoeaiua” niiniaiinoe e iinoeaeaieth iiaiai.
?anoe?aiea iiiyoee aiciiaeii eeoue a oiaea enneaaeiaaiee naiiai
i?ioeanna eo aicieeiiaaiey. *ai io/aoeeaae /aeiaae aoaeao aeaeaoue
naay, /ai aeoaaea aoaeao iiciaiea caeiiia iuoeaiey, oai y?/a e
iiiaiia?aciaa aoaeao eacaony ie?oaeathuee ie?.

Oae /oi aea oaeia enoeia eae iiiyoea? Enoeia -yoi iaeaieaa
aaeaeaaoiia iiieiaiea ie?a. Yoi iaeeo/oaa ie?iaic?aiea. Ii aaeeiie aeey
anao enoeiu ia auaaao, eae ia auaaao e aaeeiiai ie?iaicc?aiey. Iai?eia?,
iao/iay enoeia-yoi iao/iay ea?oeia ie?a, eioi?ay iinoiyiii iaiyaony, ii
aaeeiie inoaaony aa iaoa?eaeueiay nouiinoue, iniiaa.

Ii iiciaoue enoeio aeiaieueii o?oaeii e ai iiiaii yoi caaeneo io
oiai e eaeiio enoi/ieeo iiciaiey ia?aoeoueny. Anee ia?aoeony e iao/iiio
enoi/ieeo, iu iieo/ei iao/ioth enoeio. Anee e o?enoeaineiio, oi
o?enoeaineoth. E ?aoeeiiaeueiiio enoi/ieeo iiciaiey – ?aoeeiiaeueioth
enoeio. A anee e oainioneiio, oi anoanoaaiii iu iieo/aai oainioneoth.
Oae aea anee iu ia?aoeiny e ethaiio ae?oaiio enoi/ieeo iiciaiey. Io e
i?eia?o ionoeueiaineiio. Aaaeue iaeuecy ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi enoi/ieeia
oieueei /aou?a. Eo aaeeeia iiiaeanoai. I?inoi iu auae?aai aeey
?anniio?aiey oieueei /aou?a.

Iai?eia? A?enoioaeue n/eoae, /oiau ciaiea auei enoeiiui, iii ia
oieueei aeieaeii auoue iiiyoeai i i?aaeiaoa. E?iia oiai, naiei
i?aaeiaoii iiciaiey iiaeao auoue ia i?aoiaeyuaa, ia eciai/eaia, ia
oaeouaa auoea, ii oieueei auoea iai?aoiaeyuaa, i?aauaathuaa. Oaeia
iiciaiea aiciiaeii, oioy ioaeaeueiua i?aaeiaou, a eioi?uo oieueei e
nouanoaoao iai?aoiaeyuay nouiinoue, anaaaea oieueei i?aaeiaou
i?aoiaeyuea, oaeo/ea. E oaeia iiciaiea iiaeao auoue oieueei iiciaieai
“oi?iu”. Yoa oi?ia eaaeaeiai i?aaeiaoa aa/ia: iia ia aicieeaao e ia
iiaeaaao. O A?enoioaey enoeia ?anniao?eaaaony eae aunoay oi?ia auoey.
*aeiaae, iinoeaay enoeio, i?eaeeaeaaony e niaa?oaiiiio auoeth. Ii ia
yoii iooe iiiai o?oaeiinoae. «Enneaaeiaaoue enoeio a iaeiii ioiioaiee
o?oaeii, a ae?oaii eaaei. Yoi aeaeii ec oiai, /oi ieeoi ia a ninoiyiee
aeinoe/ue aa iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii, ii ia eaaeaeue oa?ieo iieioth
iaoaea/o, a eaaeaeue aiai?eo /oi-oi iiiaeeii/ea, i?aaaea, ie/aai eee
iaei aeiaaaeyao e enoeia, ii, eiaaea an? yoi neeaaeuaaaony, iieo/aaony
caiaoiay aaee/eia. …Aa?ii oaeaea e oi, /oi oeeinioey iacuaaaony
ciaieai ia enoeia. A naiii aeaea, oeaeue oiic?eoaeueiiai ciaiey –
enoeia, a oeaeue ciaiey, eanathuaainy aeayoaeueiinoe – aeaei: aaaeue
ethaee aeayoaeueiua aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea iie ?anniao?eaatho aaue,
eaeiau iie, enneaaeotho ia aaue, a aauue a a? ioiioaiee e /aio-oi e a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy. Ii iu ia ciaai enoeiu, ia ciay i?e/eiu(ni.2).»

O?enoeainoai (io a?a/aneiai neiaa christos – “iiiacaiiee”,
“Ianney”) ca?iaeeeinue eae iaeia ec naeo eoaeaecia a I a. i. y. a
Iaeanoeia. Yoi ecia/aeueiia ?iaenoai n eoaeaeciii – /?acau/aeii aaaeiia
aeey iiieiaiey ei?iae o?enoeaineie ?aeeaee – i?iyaeyaony e a oii, /oi
ia?aay /anoue Aeaeee, Aaooee caaao, – nayuaiiay eieaa eae eoaeaaa, oae e
o?enoeai(aoi?ay /anoue Aeaeee, Iiaue caaao, i?eciaaony oieueei
o?enoeaiaie e yaeyaony aeey ieo aeaaiaeoae). ?ani?ino?aiyynue a n?aaea
aa?aaa Iaeanoeiu e N?aaeecaiiiii?uey, o?enoeainoai oaea a ia?aua
aeanyoeeaoey naiaai nouanoaiaaiey caaiaauaaei i?eaa?aeaioeaa e n?aaee
ae?oaeo ia?iaeia.

Aicieeiiaaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea o?enoeainoaa i?eoeinue ia ia?eiae
aeoaieiai e?ecena aioe/iie oeeaeeecaoeee oiaaeea aa iniiaiuo oeaiiinoae.
O?enoeaineia o/aiea i?eaeaeaei iiiaeo, ?aci/a?iaaaoeony a ?eineii
iauanoaaiiii ono?ienoaa. Iii i?aaeeaaaei naiei i?eaa?aeaioeai iooue
aioo?aiiaai nianaiey: ooiae io enii?/aiiiai, a?aoiaiiai ie?a a naay,
aioo?ue nianoaaiiie ee/iinoe, a?oaui ieioneei oaeiaieuenoaeyi
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony no?iaee aneaoeci, a aunieiia?eth e ouaneaaeth
“neeueiuo ie?a naai” – niciaoaeueiia nie?aiea e iiei?iinoue, eioi?ua
aoaeoo aiciaa?aaeaeaiu iinea ianooieaiey Oea?noaa Aiaeueaai ia caiea. A
o?enoeainoaa eiaiii Aeaeeth i?eiyoi n/eoaoue enoi/ieeii iiciaiey.

Enoi?e/anee ii aue ia?aui. Aeaeey-yoi nayoia ienaiea, ia/aei
eioi?ie auei iieiaeaii Iienaai. Aia iiaaaeae aio aeanyoue caiiaaaeae n
oai, /oiau Iienae aeiian eo aei ethaeae. Ii a aeaea eieae yoe aiaeuee
caaaou iiyaeeenue ai?acaei iicaea. Eae ecaanoii Aeaeey auea iaienaia ni
neia i?i?ieia ethaeae, neuoaaoeo aean Aiaeee. Yoi auei aeey ieo
ioe?iaaiea. Ii oi, /oi yoi ioe?iaaiea auei eeoue aeey oceiai e?oaa
ethaeae e oi, /oi nayuaiiia ienaiea auei eceiaeaii ethaeueie, oioue e ni
neia Aiaeueeo, aeaao iai iniiaaiey niiiaaaoueny a enoeiiinoe yoiai
enoi/ieea. Ii aeey o?enoeai yoio enoi/iee iacuaeai. Ianoaeaeaiea
enoeiiinoe Aeaeee- yoi aeey ieo nayoioaonoai.

?aeeaeiciue enoi/iee iiciaiey iniiauaaaony ia ?aeeaeiciii iiuoa
?aeeaeiciuo ee/iuo ia?aaeeaaieyo, aeaenoaeyo, i?ienoaaeoeo n eiie?aoiui
/aeiaaeii eeai a?oiiie ethaeae, eo ?aeeaeiciuo /oaean. Yoio iiuo ia
ia?aaeaaony ieeiio ae?oaiio, oae eae ia iiaeao auoue iiaoi?ai a ae?oaeo
oneiaeyo. Naiia aaeeeia /oaei yoi eiia/ii aea Aine?anaiea Eenona O?enoa.
Ioe?iaaiea Ainiiaeia yoi oiaea a?iiaaeiue ?aeeaeiciue iiuo aeey
i?i?ieia, eiio aeaii auei Neiai Aiaeuea. Yoi iiao/ee enoi/iee, ii ii
noauaeoeaai oae eae ia?aie/ai ii?aaeaeaiiui e?oaii ethaeae, eca?aiiuo
Aiaii. ss ee/ii ia ano?a/aeny iai?yioth n ?aeeaeiciui iiuoii e iiao
noaeeoue i iai eeoue ni neia Aeaeee e ethaeae i?eaa?aeaiiuo
O?enoeainoao.

A Oainioee enoi/iee iiciaiey niaea?aeeony a oainioneeo o?oaeao
A.I.Aeaaaoneie e ?a?eo (yeeaeoe/aneia niaaeeiaiea ienoeee aoaeaeecia e
ae?oaeo ainoi/iuo o/aiee n yeaiaioaie ieeoeueoecia e iai?oiaeienaeueiiai
o?enoeainoaa). ?aaioa e enneaaeiaaiey , i?iaaaeaiiua eie eiia/ii
a?aiaeeiciu e yaeythony aeey oainioia naiaai ?iaea Aeaeeae . Oio oaeo ,
/oi iienaiiia a oiiao Aeaaaoneie auei eae au i?iaeeeoiaaii ae aieinii
nauoa , i?e/ai a aeiaieueii-oaee ei?ioeee n?ie, aeaao eiia/ii ii/ao aeey
?aciuoeaiee . Yoi-enoeia aeey oainioia e n yoei iaeuecy ia niaeaneoueny.
Eae ethaia o/aiea iii eiaao i?aai ia nouanoaiaaiea. Ii iii i/aiue
caaaaei/ii e iaiauynieii, cia/eo iaiiiyoii e y n/eoath ooiie/ii.

Enoi?e/anee iao/iue enoi/iee iiciaiey aiciee ec /aeiaa/aneeo
i?ioeai?a/ee. *aeiaae /oanoaiaae iaoaeiaeaoai?aiea io oie eaeae,
eioi?oth aio iaaycuaaea ?aeeaey. Ii no?aieeny nai iiciaoue ie?. Ii oioae
nai iauynieoue oa i?ioeannu e yaeaiey, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeeee aie?oa iaai.
E yoi aiieia anoanoaaiii. *aeiaae anaaaea no?aieony e iiciaieth. Aio
o?aaoaony naiiio nii?eeiniooueny n ie?ii. Ociaoue, eae ii ono?iai.

A oiaea a?aiy iiyaeyaony e eaeay aaoiiiiee ?acoia. Aa ooiaeaiaio
caeeaaeuaaao Oiia Aeaeiao (Aeaeineee). Eaeay ninoieo a oii, /oi ?acoi
/aeiaa/aneee iacaaeneii ia io /aai nai iiaeao iiciaaaoue. Iooue iiciaiey
– /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi. ?acoi iieiinoueth ioaeaeyaony io ?aeeaee. A
aeaeueiaeoai eaeay aaoiiiiee ?acoia i?iyaeyaony a ?aoeeiiaeueiii
iuoeaiee.

E?aoeay aeia?aoey Eiiaioeea Eaioa

Eiiaioee Eaio ?iaeeeny a I?onneii ei?ieaanoaa a 1724 aiaeo, a ai?iaea
Eaieanaa?aa, a naiuea ianoa?iaiai – ianoa?a naaeaeueiiai oeaoa.
Ieii/ee aeiiaceth e Eaieanaa?aneee oieaa?neoao. Iiia/aeo ?aaioae
aeiiaoiei o/eoaeai. N 1755 aiaea i?aiiaeaaae a Eaieanaa?aneii
oieaa?neoaoa e eeoue a 46 eao / a 1770 aiaeo/ iieo/ee i?ioanni?neoth
eaoaae?o eiaeee e iaoaoeceee /aue aeaeaiii oaeoeueoaoa e aeaaaeaeu
ecae?aeny ?aeoi?ii oieaa?neoaoa/. A oiaea naieeaoiae aieiu Eaieanaa?a
aue caiyo ?onneeie aieneaie, a a 1794 aiaeo Eiiaioee Eaio ecae?aaony
/eaiii ?inneeneie aeaaeaiee.

Oioy eieae Eaioa noaee ioaeeeiaaoueny a 70-a aiaeu, oe?ieoth
ecaanoiinoue ii iieo/ee eeoue a iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea XVIII aaea.
*oanoaoy, /oi ia/ae ae?yoeaoue, Eaio inoaaeyao i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, ii i?iaeieaeaao naie oeeinioneea enneaaeiaaiey.

A 1804 aiaeo Eaio oia?. Ii iioi?iiai a Eaieanaa?aa /Eaeeieia?aaea/ ia
Ino?iaa Eaioa.

Naiue aeaaiue i?aaeiao a ie?a –

yoi /aeiaae, eai ii aeey naay –

naiy iineaaeiyy oeaeue. I?aai /aei-

aaea aeieaeii n/eoaoueny nayuaiiui.

E. Eaio.

A ?aaioao Eaioa “e?eoe/aneiai ia?eiaea” i?iaeaiu oai?ee iiciaiey,
yoeee e aii?inu i oeaeaniia?aciinoe a i?e?iaea auee ?anniio?aiu eae
acaeiinaycaiiua e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiua.

Yoi i?aaeaea anaai, ioiineony e iinoaiiaea oai?aoeei –
iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?iaeai, iaoaaeoeo naia caaa?oaiea, niaeanii eaioianeie
eiioeaioeee, a ynoaoeea.

…A aiaeeca i?ioeanna iiciaiey Eaio iniai auaeaeee iiiyoeeiia
iuoeaiea (“iuoeaiea anoue iiciaiea /a?ac iiiyoey”), oeacuaay, /oi,
iiieii nica?oeaiey, nouanoaoao eeoue iaeei niinia iiciaiey, a eiaiii
iiciaiea /a?ac iiiyoey, ia eiooeoeaiia, a aeeneo?neaiia. A “E?eoeea
*enoiai ?acoia” ia aii?in i oii, /oi oaeia enoeia, Eaio ioaaoee
neaaeothuei ia?acii: enoeia aiciiaeia eeoue a oi?ia i?aaeiaoa, oi anoue
eae niioaaonoaea ?annoaeea (naiie oi?iu anaiauiinoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoe) e
/oanoaa (yiie?e/aneiai iiiaiia?acey iuouaiee, aicieeathueo a
ai?ei?iuo oi?iao a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa).

I?aaeiaoiinoue iiieiaeanue, eae i?aaeei, ?aniieiaeaiea iuouaiee a
i?ino?ainoaa e ai a?aiaie, eioi?ia caeeth/aao a naaa i?eiaiaiea /enoiai
?annoaeea (eaoaai?ee) e n iiiiuueth eioi?iai noauaeoeaiua niaaeeiaiey
aini?eyoee iieo/atho iauaeoeaiue e anaiauee oa?aeoa?”. (Ni. [4], no?.
50-51)

Eaio ?acee/ae e iainiaeye nica?oeaiea e ?annoaeie, ioaiaey
eaaeaeiio ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue a iiciaaaoaeueiii i?ioeanna. Iaeiaei ii
iinoiyiii iiae/a?eeaae eo acaeiinaycue: “Aac /oanoaaiiinoe ie iaeei
i?aaeiao ia aue au iai aeai, a aac ?annoaeea ie iaeei iaeuecy auei au
iuneeoue. Iunee aac niaea?aeaiey ionou, nica?oeaiey aac iiiyoee
neaiu. Iiyoiio a iaeeiaeiaie ia?a iaiaoiaeeii naie iiciaiey aeaeaoue
/oanoaaiiuie (oi anoue i?eniaaeeiyoue e iei a nica?oeaiee i?aaeiao), a
naie nica?oeaiey iinoeaaoue ?annoaeeii, oi anoue iiaeaiaeeoue eo iiae
iiiyoey. Yoe aeaa niiniaiinoe ia iiaoo auiieiyoue ooieoeee ae?oa
ae?oaa.

?annoaeie ie/aai ia iiaeao nica?oeaoue, a /oanoaa ie/aai ia
iiaoo iuneeoue. Oieueei ec niaaeeiaiey eo iiaeao aicieeiooue ciaiea”.
(Ni. [3],o.3, no?. 154-155)

A ?aaioao Eaioa aeaeaaony iiiuoea acaeyiooue ia i?ioeann iiciaiey
ia ecaia, a ecioo?e /aeiaaea. Iieacuaaaony ia?aie/aiiinoue niiniaiinoe
/aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey.

“Ana oi, /oi i?ioeai?a/eo caeiiai ?annoaeea e ?acoia, iaaiciiaeii
i?e anao neo/ayo; iaeiaei n oai, /oi, aoaeo/e i?aaeiaoii /enoiai
?acoia, ia iiae/eiyaony oieueei caeiiai nica?oeaoaeueiiai iiciaiey,
aeaei ianoieo eia/a. Aaaeue yoi ?anoiaeaeaiea iaaeaeo /oanoaaiiie e
?annoaei/iie niiniaiinoueth oeacuaaao oieueei ia oi, /oi oi /anoi
ia iiaeao au?aceoue

eiie?aoii e i?aa?aoeoue a nica?oeaiea oa aano?aeoiua eaeae, eioi?ua ii
iieo/ee io ?annoaeea. Ii yoa noauaeoeaiay o?oaeiinoue, eae yoi ia?aaeei
auaaao, ioeai/ii eaaeaony eaeei-oi iauaeoeaiui i?ioeai?a/eai e eaaei
aaiaeeo a caaeoaeaeaiea ethaeae iainiio?eoaeueiuo, canoaaeyy eo
i?eieiaoue a?aieoeu /aeiaa/aneiai oia ca i?aaeaeu, a eioi?uo
niaea?aeeony naia nouiinoue aauae”. (Ni. [3],o.3, no?. 310-312)

Oeeinioey, eco/aaoay ciaiea a nouanoaiaaaoeo a iaoea oiai
a?aiaie ia?acoeao, i?eoea ii e?aeiae ia?a, e aeaoi
noi?ie?iaaaoeiny iiceoeeyi. Anaaaeaoiyy iacaaa?oaiiinoue iiuoa
i?eaiaeeea ?aoeeiiaeenoia e auaiaeo, /oi oieueei ?acoi iiaeao
niiaueoue ciaieth anaiauiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue. A iioiio ciaiea
i?iecaiaeeony ?acoiii. Yiie?eci, iai?ioea, ia iaiaa oaaaeeoaeueii
aeieacae, /oi aac /oanoa, aac ioaaoa ieeaeia ciaiea aicieeiooue ia
iiaeao e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ciaiea – i?iaeoeo iiuoa. Iaaa?iia, iiaeii
niaeaneoueny n I.E.Aaooiieiui, (ni. [5], no?. 27-29) ooaa?aeaeathuei
neaaeothuaa: “I?eieiay ai aieiaiea yoe acaeyaeu, Eaio noae ?annoaeaeaoue
neaaeothuei ia?acii. Ii i?eiye iuneue, /oi iiuo no?aaeaao
iacaaa?oaiiinoueth.

Niaa?oainoai ciaieth niiauaao ?acoi, i?eienuaathuee iauaeoai oi,
/oi ii aa?ao ec naiiai naay. ?acoi a oe?ieii niunea neiaa icia/aao
naiiaeayoaeueiinoue noauaeoa, aeeth/athuoth a naay eae ai?ei?iua oi?iu
?annoaeea (eaoaai?ee), oae e ai?ei?iua eaeae, i?iecaiaeeiua ?acoiii
oaea a oceii niunea yoiai neiaa. Ai?ei?iua oi?iu /oanoaaiiiai
nica?oeaiey e ?annoaeea,

ioee/athueany io iiuoa, niiauatho aeinoiaa?iinoue ciaieth, iieo/aaiiio
a iiuoa”.

Yoi iiaay iiceoeey ii n?aaiaieth ni acaeyaeaie eae ?aoeeiiaeenoia,
oae e yiie?eeia. Eoae, anee i?aaeoanoaaiieee Eaioa i?iaeaio
i?ienoiaeaeaiey ciaiey noaaeee a oi?ia aeeeaiiu (ciaiea- i?iaeoeo iiuoa,
e ciaiea i?iecaiaeeony ?acoiii), oi Eaio ?aoae aa oae: iao/iia ciaiea
aicieeaao aeaaiaea?y iiuoo iin?aaenoaii ai?ei?iuo oi?i nica?oeaiey e
?annoaeea.

Ia?yaeo n eiie?aoii-iao/iui ciaieai iaiaoiaeeii auei iauynieoue
naiaia?acea oeeinioneiai ciaiey. Oaeay caaea/a ia noaaeeanue
i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie Eaioa. Eaio i?aaeeiaeee neaaeothuaa: oeeinioneia
ciaiea auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu iiuoa, anee a ioaaoa aeaiu yaeaiey,
ninoaaeythuea niaea?aeaiea eiie?aoii-iao/iiai ciaiey, oi oeeinioneia
ciaiea ioiineony e aauai naiei ii naaa, oaeei, eae aeooa, naiaiaea,
aia. Yoi ciaiea, iieeaeathuaa noa?o iiuoa, ia iiaeao i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia
aeinoiaa?iinoue. Iii-i?aaeiao aa?u e iaiaoiaeeii eeoue aeey i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. A ioiioaiee e aauai naiei ii naaa Eaio oniao?eaae
naiaia?acea oeeinioneiai ciaiey. A oae eae yoi ciaiea ia iiaeao
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia aeinoiaa?iinoue, oi oeeinioey, eae io?aneue ciaiey,
ioaeaeaaony a i?aia?aciaaiee. Iia ia iiaeao auoue iaoeie i auoee, a
aeieaeia auoue iaoeie i iiciaiee, i a?aieoeao ?acoia, i aai
niiniaiinoe e ai?ei?iiio iiciaieth.

A ioee/ee io i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, Eaio iieaaaao ai?ei?iinoue ia
oieueei aeayoaeueiinoe eioaeeaeoa, ii e /oanoa. Yoi ai?ei?iia
nica?oeaiea. N iiiiuueth ai?ei?iiai nica?oeaiey iiciathony oieueei
yaeaiey, ii ia aaue naie ii naaa. “Aauue a naaa” inoaaony
iaiiciaiiie iaie, oioy iia naia ii naaa e aeaenoaeoaeueia. E iuoeaieth
i aauao naieo ii naaa ?acoi iiaoaeaeaao iacaaa?oaiiinoue iiuoa. A
i?aaeaeao iiuoa ciaiea iiaeao ?anoe?youeny aei aaneiia/iinoe. Ii
neieueei au iii ia ?anoe?yeinue, iu ieeiaaea ia iiciaai aaue naie
ii naaa. A yoii ioiioaiee iiuo ianiaa?oaiai.”

Ii iiaieth I.E.Aaooiieia, Eaio ?acee/aao neaaeothuea aeaeu ciaiey:

i?ienoaaeoea ec iiuoa,

i?ienoaaeoaa ec iauaai i?aaeea, eioi?ia eiaaea-oi auei caeinoaiaaii ec
iiuoa. Iineaaeiea yaeythony ai?ei?iuie, /enouie ciaieyie. “Ec ai?ei?iuo
ciaiee – iiyniye Eaio -, /enouie iacuaathony oa ciaiey, e eioi?ui
niaa?oaiii ia i?eiaoeaaaony ie/oi yiie?e/aneia”.

Aeey iauae Eaioianeie eiaeee oa?aeoa?ii oi, /oi iia ie/aai ia
caeinoaoao ec ineoieiaee. Caeiiu iauae eiaeee yaeythony, ii Eaioo,
io?eoeaoaeueiuie, eee oi?iaeueiuie, e?eoa?eyie enoeiiu. Iineieueeo
iauay eiaeea aeaao oi?iaeueioth enoeiiinoue, Eaio iacuaaao aa
aiaeeoeeie.

Ii o Eaioa anoue e ae?oaay, a eiaiii o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay
eiaeea. Oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe eaioianeie o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie
eiaeee naiaeeony e neaaeothuaio:

1) Anee iauay eiaeea aano?aae?oaony io aii?ina i i?ienoiaeaeaiey
ciaiey e ?anniao?eaaao oieueei eiae/aneoth oi?io a ioiioaiee ciaiee
ae?oa e ae?oao, oi anoue oi?io iuoeaiey aiiaua, oi
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay eiaeea aeieaeia oaeaea enneaaeiaaoue
i?ienoiaeaeaiea iaoeo ciaiee i i?aaeiaoao.

2) Ioaeae o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie eiaeee, iacuaaaiie aiaeeoeeie,
yaeyaony, eae aiai?eo Eaio, “eiaeeie enoeiu”.

3) Iaeiie ec caaea/ o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie eiaeee yaeythony
iauaaeeiaiea oi?iu e “iaoa?ee”, oi anoue niaea?aeaiea ciaiey.

A iniiao o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie eiaeee Eaio eeaaeao “eaeath iaoee
i /enoii ciaiee, i?ienoiaeyuai ec ?annoaeea e ?acoia, i ciaiee,
iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai i?aaeiaou iuneyony aiieia a priori. Oaeay iaoea,
ii?aaeaeythuay i?ienoiaeaeaiea, iauai e iauaeoeaiia cia/aiea iiaeiaiuo
ciaiee, aeieaeia iacuaaoueny o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie eiaeeie, iioiio /oi
iia eiaao aeaei eneeth/eoaeueii n caeiiaie ?annoaeea e ?acoia, ii eeoue
iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iie a priori ioiinyony e i?aaeiaoai, a ioee/ea
io iauae eiaeee, eioi?ay eiaao aeaei n yiie?e/aneeie ciaieyie, e n
/enouie ciaieyie ?acoia aac ?acee/ey”. (Ni. [3],o.1, no?. 212-213)

Eaio i?aaei?eiye iiiuoeo nicaeaoue iiaoth eiaeeo, nouanoaaiiui
ia?acii ioee/athuothny io noa?ie, oi?iaeueiie eiaeee.
O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay eiaeea anoue, ii aai caiuneo, eiaeea enoeiu,
eiaeea aaeeinoaa niaea?aeaiey e oi?iu, eiaeea, enneaaeothuay
i?ienoiaeaeaiea ciaiey.

O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay eiaeea eiaao naiae caaea/ae aeieacaoue
iaiiciaaaaiinoue aauae a naaa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iaaeinoeaeeiinoue
iauaeoeaiie enoeiiu.

Aeey iiieiaiey i?aaeiaoa, caaea/, e cia/aiey iaoee eiaeee
iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue aii?in i i?aaeeueiinoe e enoeiiinoe iuoeaiey. Aeey
?aoaiey yoiai aii?ina iaaei ia?aoeony e eaioianeie oai?ee enoeiu.
Aii?in ia enoeia Eaio noaaeo ai aaaaeaiee e ?acaeaeo
“O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay eiaeea” “E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia” (ni. [3],o.3).
“*oi anoue enoeia? – aio noa?ue ecaanoiue aii?in, eioi?ui noa?aeenue
iinoaaeoue a ooiee oeeinioia e i?eaanoe eo e aeaeeiio eiae/aneiio
e?oao, eee e i?eciaieth eo iaaaaeaiey, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ouaoiinoe
eiaeee, – ieoao Eaio. – Iiieiaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea enoeiu, niaeanii
eioi?iio iia anoue niioaaonoaea ciaiey n aai i?aaeiaoii, caeanue
aeiioneaaony e i?aaeiieaaaaony ca?aiaa”. (Ni. [3], o.3, no?. 64)

Iaeiaei iiaeiaiia ii?aaeaeaiea ioithaeue ia icia/aao oiai, /oi
Eaio i?eieiae oai?eth io?aaeaiey, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao enoeio, eae
i?aaeeueiia io?aaeaiea iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eae niioaaonoaea
ciaiee iauaeoo, nouanoaothuaio aia e iacaaeneii io iiciathuaai
noauaeoa. A “Eiaeea” Eaio ienae: “Enoeiiinoue, aiai?yo, ninoieo a
niaeanee ciaiey n i?aaeiaoii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a neeo iaeiiai yoiai
neiaiiaueyniaiey, iia ciaiea, /oiau eiaoue cia/aiea enoeiiiai,
aeieaeii auoue niaeaniui n iauaeoii. Ii n?aaieaaoue iauaeo n iiei
ciaieai y iiao eeoue aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi y iiciath ia?aue.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iia ciaiea aeieaeii iiaeoaa?aeaeaoue naii naay, a
yoiai aua aeaeaei ia aeinoaoi/ii aeey enoeiiinoe. Aaaeue oae eae iauaeo
iaoiaeeony aia iaiy, a ciaiea ai iia, oi y iiao noaeeoue eeoue i oii:
niaeanii ee iia ciaiea ia iauaeoa n iiei aea ciaieai ia iauaeoa”. (Ni.
[3],o.1, no?. 42-43)

Ionoaeaay naie acaeyaeu ia enoeiiinoue iuoeaiey, Eaio noaaeo
neaaeothuea aii?inu:

1) nouanoaoao ee anaiauee iaoa?eaeueiue e?eoa?ee enoeiiinoe?

2) nouanoaoao ee oi?iaeueiue anaiauee e?eoa?ee enoeiiinoe?

Ia ia?aue aii?in Eaio aeaao io?eoeaoaeueiue ioaao, ia aoi?ie –
iieiaeeoaeueiue. N aai oi/ee c?aiey, anaiauaai iaoa?eaeueiiai e?eoa?ey
auoue ia iiaeao, eai naii nouanoaiaaiea oaeiai e?eoa?ey ii n/eoaao
i?ioeai?a/eaui. Iainiiauaay yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea, Eaio ieoao a “E?eoeea
/enoiai ?acoia”: “Anee enoeia ninoieo a niaeanee iiciaiey n
i?aaeiaoii, oi iin?aaenoaii iaa yoio i?aaeiao aeieaeai auoue ioee/ai io
ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia; a naiii aeaea, ciaiea caeeth/aao a naaa eiaeue,
anee iii ia niaeanoaony n oai i?aaeiaoii, e eioi?iio ioiineony, oioy au
iii e niaea?aeaei a naaa /oi-eeai oaeia, /oi iiaei au eiaoue cia/aiea
aeey ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia. Iaaeaeo oai anaiauei e?eoa?eai enoeiu iia au
auoue eeoue oaeie e?eoa?ee, eioi?ue eiae au cia/aiea aeey anao
ciaiee, aac ?acee/ey eo i?aaeiaoia. Ii oae eae a oaeii neo/aa iu
ioaeaeaainy io anyeiai niaea?aeaiey ciaiey (ioiioaiey aai e iauaeoo),
iaaeaeo oai eae enoeia caeeth/aaony eiaiii a yoii niaea?aeaiee, oi
ionthaea ynii, /oi niaa?oaiii iaaiciiaeii e iaeaii o?aaiaaoue i?eciaea
enoeiiinoe yoiai niaea?aeaiey ciaiey e /oi aeinoaoi/iue e a oi aea
a?aiy anaiauee e?eoa?ee enoeiu ia iiaeao auoue aeai. Oae eae auoa iu
iacaaee oaea niaea?aeaiea ciaiey iaoa?eae, oi iu iiaeai au?aceoue yoo
iuneue neaaeothuei ia?acii: o?aaiaaoue anaiauaai e?eoa?ey enoeiiinoe
ciaiey ni noi?iiu aai iaoa?ee iaeuecy, oae eae yoe o?aaiaaiey
i?ioeai?a/eau”. (Ni. [3],o.3, no?. 285-286)

Ioaa?aay anaiauee iaoa?eaeueiue e?eoa?ee enoeiu, Eaio, n/eoae
aiciiaeiui nouanoaiaaiea /anoe/iiai iaoa?eaeueiiai e?eoa?ey enoeiu,
iiieiay iiae “iaoa?eaeueiui” e “iaoa?eae” ia aeaenoaeoaeueioth iaoa?eth,
eae iauaeoeaioth ?aaeueiinoue, a ninoiyiea niciaiey. Yoio e?eoa?ee
aeey Eaioa ninoieo a niioaaonoaee ciaiey “iaoa?ee”, oi anoue iuouaieyi
e aini?eyoeyi, e iineieueeo iineaaeiea ia iiaoo oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny
naienoaii anaiauiinoe, oi e “iaoa?eaeueiue” e?eoa?ee iiaeao auoue eeoue
/anoe/iui.

Ioaa?aay iauaeoeaioth enoeio, Eaio iuoaaony iainiiaaoue enoeio
oi?iaeueioth. Ii yoiio iiaiaeo Eaio oeacuaaao a “E?eoeea /enoiai
?acoia”: “*oi aea eanaaony iiciaiey ni noi?iiu iaeiie eeoue aai oi?iu
(inoaaeyy a noi?iia anyeia niaea?aeaiea), oi ynii, /oi eiaeea,
iineieueeo iia eceaaaao anaiauea e iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeea ?annoaeea, aeaao
e?eoa?ee enoeiu eiaiii a yoeo i?aaeeao. Oi, /oi i?ioeai?a/eo ei, anoue
eiaeue, oae eae ?annoaeie i?e yoii i?ioeai?a/eo iauei i?aaeeai
iuoeaiey, oi anoue naiiio naaa. Iaeiaei yoe e?eoa?ee eanathony
oieueei oi?iu enoeiu, oi anoue iuoeaiey aiiaua, e iioiio iaaeinoaoi/iu,
oioy e aiieia i?aaeeueiu. A naiii aeaea, ciaiea, aiieia niia?aciia n
eiae/aneith oi?iith, oi anoue ia i?ioeai?a/auaa naaa, oai ia iaiaa
iiaeao i?ioeai?a/eoue i?aaeiaoo. Eoae, /enoi eiae/aneee e?eoa?ee
enoeiu, eiaiii niaeanea ciaiey ni oi?iaeueiuie anaiaueie caeiiaie
?annoaeea e ?acoia anoue, i?aaaea, condito sine que non, oi anoue
io?eoeaoaeueiia oneiaea anyeie enoeiu, ii aeaeueoa yoiai eiaeea ia
iiaeao aeaoue ieeaeiai i?eciaea, /oiau ioe?uoue caaeoaeaeaiea,
eanathuaany ia oi?iu, a niaea?aeaiey”. (Ni. [3],o.3, no?. 327-328)

Oaeei ia?acii, Eaio aeaeaao neaaeothuee ca A?enoioaeai oaa. A
aai o/aiee aeinoaoi/ii oaaaeeoaeueii iieacuaaaony “noauaeoeaiue
oa?aeoa? enoeiu. Iiyoiio iaaiciiaeai anaiauee e?eoa?ee enoeiu. Iiciaiea
ie?a inouanoaeyaony ?acoiii /aeiaaea ia iniiaa ai?ei?iuo oi?i ?annoaeea.
I?ioeann iinoeaeaiey enoeiu aeieaeai eaeoe ii iooe enneaaeiaaiey caeiiia
?acoia.

Oae /oi aea oaeia ai?ei?iua ciaiey? Oaea ia/eiay n Aaeaeai Aaeaeay
ia/eiaaony yenia?eiaio a iaoea. Iauaeo iao/iiai yenia?eiaioa eco/aaony
i?aaeaea anaai, ia iniiaa iiuoa. Iaoea eco/aao ie? yaeaiee
oaiiiaiaeueiue ie? iiyoue oaee ia iniiaa iiuoa. Ii iaoea aeiionoeea
enoeio. Ie? iaoa?eaeai, Aiaa iao e iiuoo i?aaeoanoaotho ai?ei?iua
ciaiey-ciaiey aei iiuoa. Oi anoue eiay yoio iinooeao iu iiaeai
i?iaiaeeoue ethaie iiuo (yenia?eiaio) iniiauaaynue aua e ia oii /oi ie?
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iieiinoueth cae?uoue iauaeo. Ec anaai auoa
neacaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi iaoea aeaao iai /?acau/aeii i?aaaeeaua
naaaeaiey, ii i?e oneiaee i?eiyoey iaie auoaoeacaiiiai iinooeaoa.

Ec yoiai iiaeii naeaeaoue i/aiue i?inoie auaiae: a iaoea ieeiaaea ia
iiaeao auoue aiciiaeai /enoue iiuo.

?anniio?ei aeaeaa no?oeoo?o iao/iiai ciaiey /oi aeano iai
aiciiaeiinoue aua ?ac ioeaieoue iao/iue enoi/iee iiciaiey.

Eoae iniiaie, OOIAeAIAIOII iaoee, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, yaeythony
ai?ei?iua ciaiey. Caeanue aea aaaaeaiu aeaa iinooeaoa.

1) Ie? iaoa?eaeai.

2)Ie? cae?uoue, eciee?iaaiiue.

Aeaeaa iu iaaethaeaai OAEI iaoee oi anoue naie iao/iua oaeou,
auoaeathuea ec iao/iiai iiuoa.

E aa?oooeie yoiai aenaa?aa yaeyaony IAO*IAss EA?OEIA IE?A.

Eae enoi/iee iiciaiey iao/iue enoi/iee i/aiue eioa?anai e
aeiaieueii-oaee i?aaaeea, ii aai iniiaa i/aiue caei?iai ?anea/eaaao ana
caeaiea iaoee.

Iaoea – noa?a /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiie ia
auyaeaiea i?aaeaea anaai caeiiiia?iiai a nouanoaiaaiee e ?acaeoee
iauaeoia, yaeaiee, i?ioeannia (eee eaeeo-oi eo noi?ii). Nia?aiaiiay
iaoea – yoi neiaeiii?aaieciaaiiay nenoaia.

Niaia iao/iuo ea?oei ie?a aicieeaao i?e iaia?oaeaiee yaeaiee,
eioi?ua ia oaeaaony iauynieoue a ?aieao nouanoaothueo iao/iuo
acaeyaeia (eee oiaaea, eiaaea ia iaia?oaeeaaaony yaeaiea,
i?aaeneacuaaaiia oai?eae). Oiaaea e iiyaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
ei?aiiii ia?aniio?a.

Ciaiea caeiia (o.a. oiai, i?ioea /aai i?e?iaea ia aic?aaeaao), – yoi,
iaiiiiei, i?aaeiinueea oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea,
aaaeiaeoee yeaiaio iao/iiai i?aaeaeaeaiey oai?ee, a ?aaeeeaeueiii
eciaiaiee ia oieueei niaea?aeaiey ciaiey, ii e noeey iao/iiai iuoeaiey.
Iniciaoue ianinoiyoaeueiinoue ooiaeaiaioaeueiie oai?ee, aua iaaeaaii
eacaaoaeny aiieia iaaeaaeiie, iaeaaei. Ii aua neiaeiaa ae?oaia.
Aaaeue anee i?aaeiyy oai?ey ooieoeeiie?iaaea eae oai?ey, oi iia,
cia/eo, /oi-oi aeaenoaeoaeueii iauyniyea, o.a. niaea?aeaea yeaiaiou
iauaeoeaiie enoeiu. E yoe yeaiaiou aeieaeiu auoue auyaeaiu, eia/a
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oai?ee aoaeao iaaiciiaeiui.

Iiyoiio niaia iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a eiaao aeaa noi?iiu: ?ac?ooaiea
i?aaeiae iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a, naycaiiuo n iath noa?aioeiia iuoeaiey
(iooai iaia?oaeaiey ioeai/iuo eaeae) e ia yoie iniiaa – oi?ie?iaaiea
iiaiai ciaiey, oi/iaa io?aaeathuaai iauaeoeaioth ?aaeueiinoue.
Caeanue-oi e aicieeatho eaeaeiua ae?aiaoe/aneea eieeecee. Aaaeue
?annoaaaoueny n i?eau/iuie acaeyaeaie i/aiue iai?inoi… A eiaaea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue yoiai noaiiaeony aeinoaoi/ii i/aaeaeiie, oi aaeee
niaeaci i?inoi ioa?ineoue i?aaeithth eiioeaioeeth eae iaoaea/ioth.

Iiyoiio niaia iao/iuo ea?oei ie?a, naycaiiay n ei?aiiie eiieie
i?aaeieo e oi?ie?iaaieai iiauo i?aaenoaaeaiee i oao eee eiuo iaeanoyo
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – caeiiiia?iue yoai a ?acaeoee iao/iiai iiciaiey. A
eoiaa i?ienoiaeeo niaia iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a, i?aaenoaaeythuae niaie
?acoeueoao iaiauaiey e neioaca ciaiey a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo iaoee. Yoa
ea?oeia ie?a (aace?othuayny ia oeeinioneie ea?oeia ie?a eae aai
oeaeinoiie e iaeaieaa iauae iiaeaee) neeaaeuaaaony iiae i?aeiouanoaaiiui
aeeyieai iaeaieaa ?acaeoie (“aaaeouae”) iaoee – “eeaea?a”. Aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy oaeiaui auea oeceea (naaiaeiy ?acaeaeythuay yoo ?ieue n ?yaeii
ae?oaeo iaoe), n aeinoeaeaieyie eioi?ie naycaiu iaoaie/aneay (Iuethoii
(aeaa iiceoeee:1-aeaeci-?aeeaeicii-oeeiniooneay aeieo?eia, eioi?ay
i?eciaao aiaa eae ie?iaie ?acoi, neiino?oe?iaaaoee oeaeaniia?acioth
«iaoeio» i?e?iaeu e aeaaoee ae caeiiu e aeaeaeaiea, ii ioaa?aaao
aeaeueiaeoaa aiaoaoaeuenoai aiaa a naiiaeaeaeaiea i?e?iaeu e ia
aeiioneaao eiuo iooae e iiciaaaieth aiaa, e?iia
?acoia;,2-oaeci-?aeeaeiciia ie?iaicc?aiea, enoiaeyuaa ec iiieiaiey aiaa
eae aaniethoiie ee/iinoe, i?aauaathuae aia ie?a, naiaiaeii nicaeaaoae
aai e aeaenoaothuae a iai., oaieiaay (iieiia io?eoeaiea aiaa),
eaaioiai-?aeyoeaenoneay (iicaieeea iiiyoue iiiaea naienoaa oaa?aeuo oae,
iauynieoue yaeaiey naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe, oa??iiaaiaoecia, naa?ooaeo/anoe,
eaaeeo a iniiaa yaea?iie yia?aaoeee, iiciaoue caeiiu iaoaie/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey oae i?e nei?inoyo, n?aaieiuo ni nei?inoueth naaoa (iniiaaia
ia oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe)) ea?oeiu ie?a. Nae/an yoi neia?aaoe/aneay
ea?oeia ie?a (synergetikos-niaianoiue, niaeaniaaiii aeaenoaothuee),
aeeth/athuay a naay iaeanoue iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee, oeaeue eioi?uo
auyaeaiea iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae i?ioeannia naiii?aaiecaoeee a ioe?uouo
nenoaiao, i?eaiaeyueo eiiaaea e aicieeiiaaieth a ieo iiauo no?oeoo?.
Iineaaeiea iiaoo aicieeaoue a nenoaiao, iaoiaeyueony a nouanoaaiii
ia?aaiiaaniuo oneiaeyo (eceo/aiea eaca?a, aicieeiiaaiea nie?aeueiuo
aaeaeoee). Aeaeaa yoi iiaeao auoue iiaeaeue Aiaa Oeau – ea?oeia
iaii?aaeaeaiiiai ie?a.

?aiaa iu oaea cao?aaeaaee eaeath Oiiu Aeaeioneiai ia aaoiiiiee
?acoia. Eiaiii n iaa e ia/eiaaony ?aoeeiiaeueiia iuoeaiea. Eiaiii ooaea
ooiaeyo ei?ie ?aoeeiiaeueiiai enoi/ieea iiciaiey. Aaaeue i?eioeei
?aoeeiiaeecia au?aaeaaony aoeaaeueii iaeiie o?acie: «ss NAI». A yoii e
anoue ?aoeeiiaeueiay enoeia, i?aaeiinueee eioi?ie iaicia/eeenue aua a
naiii ia/aea aicieeiiaaiey o?enoeainoaa. A oi a?aiy yoi auea eeoue
a?oiia iuneeoaeae – aiinoeeia, n?aaee eioi?uo Aaneeee, Oaiaeio e ae?oaea
oiu, iuoaaoeany a oi a?aiy au?aaoue ?acoi ec iiae aiaoa ?aeeaee. Ii anee
a?aoue /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi ioaeaeueii io iaoee, aac eaeiai-eeai
ooiaeaiaioa, iniiauaaynue ia /enoii ?acoia, oi iiaeii eaaei oaeaeaoue
aanue ooiieci, iaiauaeoeaiinoue ?aoeeiiaeecia. Aaaeue ia eiay iiae niaie
iiuiie iniiau /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi, io?eoeay ana, aeeth/ay iaoeo e
?aeeaeth, e i?eciaaay eeoue naay naiiai niiniaai caaeoaeaeaoueny,
nicaeaaaoue ooiiee, eiiaaea, i?aaaea, a?aie/auea n aaieaeueiinoueth.
Anee acyoue iaoaiaoeeo, oi iia anoue ie/oi eiia, eae aaieaeueiay iuneue,
iniiaaiiay eeoue ia ?acoia /aeiaaea. E eiiaaea iaeuecy iiiyoue /oi anoue
aaieaeueiinoue, a /oi anoue ooiiey. Ianoieueei iaea a?aiue iaaeaeo ieie.
Auneooeaay oeeinioia, i?eaea?aeeaathueony ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iuoeaiey
i/aiue o?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, aaieaeueiue yoi /aeiaae eee i?inoi
no?aaeathuee ineoe/aneei ?anno?ienoaii. ?aoeeiiaeeno iiaeao i?eaeoiaoue
ethaoth oai?eth, neieue iaaa?iyoia iia au ie auea, e iia aoaeao eiaoue
i?aai nouanoaiaaiey oae eae iniiauaaaony ia aai oiicaeeth/aieyo, aai
?acoia e niioaaonoaaiii ee/iii i?aaenoaaeaiee, iacaaeneii io inoaeueiiai
ie?a. Iniiauaaynue ia auoaeceiaeaiiii iu iiaeai ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
?aoeeiiaeueiue enoi/iee iiciaiey aeaao eeoue noauaeoeaioth enoeio,
aeiaieueii oaee aeaeaeoth io ianoiyuae ENOEIU.

Oae eae aea eneaoue ENOEIO? Eae auei neacaii auoa iiiaea aaeeeea oiu
iuoaeenue ii?aaeaeeoue aeey naay e?eoa?ee enoeiu. Eaio, A?enoioaeue
ii?aaeaeyee enoeio ii-?aciiio. Ii enoeia iiciaaony eeoue a n?aaiaiee e
aeoaieii aiaeeca enoi?e/anee iieo/aiiuo ciaiee. E ae?aooea
i?iaiaeece?iaaa aeaiiue iaoa?eae, iiaeii auaeaeeoue enoeio aeey eaaeaeie
ec ?anniao?eaaaiuo a iauanoaa oaiaeaioeee. Iao iaoiae iienea enoeiu
ninoieo a oii, /oi ca iniiao aiaeeca iu aa?ai iaoeo. Aeaeaa iu
?aciuoeyai iaae iaoa?eaeii n o?ao ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo iiceoeee:
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie, o?enoeaineie e oainioneie (i?aaaea a iaeioi?ie
noaiaie iu cao?aaeaaai e eaeath ?aoeeiiaeecia). E a eoiaa aeaeaai naie
auaiae.

Iao/iay enoeia-yoi anoue iao/iay ea?oeia ie?a, eioi?ay, i?aaaea,
iinoiyiii iaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io ?acaeoey iaoee. Iia i?eiaieia eeoue
e iaoea e ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ie ia eaeia ae?oaia ie?iaicc?aiea.

O?enoeaineay enoeia auea auneacaia O?enoii 2000 eao iacaae e aei neo
ii? ia eciaieeanue. Aa iniiaa – ?aeeaeiciue enoi/iee iiciaiey. Aaeeinoai
Aiaa. Ia/aeueiinoue Aiaa. Aia oi?aaeyao ie?ii. Ana io Aiaa. Aia
nicaeaoaeue e aaeeiiaeanoiue aeaaeuea.

Oainioneay enoeia – caiooaiiay iiaeaeue ie?icaeaiey. Enoeia a oainioneii
o/aiee. Iii iaiieieaaeii e ia auiineony ia ianoaeaeaiea. Nouanoaiaaiea
iaeeo aiaia (iaoaoiu- iieo ethaee, iieo i?i?iee), oi?aaeythueo ie?ii.

?aoeeiiaeueiay enoeia ninoieo a aaoiiiiee ?acoia e ia aeaao
iauaeoeaiinoe, oae eae naienoai /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia nicaeaaaoue ooiiee,
caaeoaeaeaoueny.

ss aea n/eoath, /oi iao/iay enoeia iaeaieaa i?eaieaiay aeey iiiyoey
ENOEIU, oae eae eiaao iiae niaie iao/iua oaeou, iainiiaaiiua
yenia?eiaioii. E anoanoaaiii, enoiaey ec yoiai, naia ie?iaicc?aiea y
ii?aaeaeyth, eae iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia, ii n iaeioi?ie aeieae niiiaiey
ioiineoaeueii ei?iae(ooiaeaiaioa) iao/iie enoeiu e iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai
ie?iaicc?aiey.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Aiae?aaa Ae.E. “?ica Ie?a”. I, ec-ai “I?iiaoae.”. 1991.

2. A?enoioaeue. Ni/eiaiey. I., “Iuneue”, 1975 a.

3. Eaio E. Ni/eiaiey, I., “Iuneue”, 1964 a.

4. E.I.Oa?iai. “Oai?ey iiciaiey e oeeinioey eoeueoo?u”.I., “Iaoea”,
1986 a.

5. I.E.Aaooiiei. “Oai?ey iao/iiai ciaiey Eiiaioeea Eaioa.” I.,
“Iaoea”, 1986 a.

Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai

anoanoaiciaiey .

Ie?iaicc?aiea.

Enoeia.

Ni/eiaiea

IAAA

a?oiia AYA 97-1

nooaeaio Neeaioueaa A.I.

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