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Концепция информационного общества в современной философии

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IINEIANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

Eiioeaioeey “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”

a nia?aiaiiie oeeinioee

?ac?aaioea ii oeeinioee

nooaeaioa II eo?na (ae/i)

th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

Eaaiiaa I.A. (a?. 205)

Iineaa, 1995

Ieai ?ac?aaioee:

TOC \o “1-3” Enoi?eei-aeia?aoe/aneay ni?aaea GOTOBUTTON
_Toc322717096 PAGEREF _Toc322717096 3

*anoue I. Acaeyaeu oeeinioia GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717097 PAGEREF
_Toc322717097 4

1. Iiiyoea “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717098
PAGEREF _Toc322717098 4

I.Oiooea?: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717099 PAGEREF _Toc322717099 4

Ae.Aaee: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717100 PAGEREF _Toc322717100 4

O.Noioiuea?: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717101 PAGEREF _Toc322717101 5

A.Oo?ai: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717102 PAGEREF _Toc322717102 6

A.Eai: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717103 PAGEREF _Toc322717103 7

O.Aeaeca?ae: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717104 PAGEREF _Toc322717104 7

2. Enoi?e/aneea yoaiu ?acaeoey e oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa
GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717105 PAGEREF _Toc322717105 8

E.ssnia?n: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717106 PAGEREF _Toc322717106 8

I.Oiooea?: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717107 PAGEREF _Toc322717107 9

A.Eai: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717108 PAGEREF _Toc322717108 10

O.Noioiuea?: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717109 PAGEREF _Toc322717109 11

O.Aeaeca?ae: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717110 PAGEREF _Toc322717110 12

?.Ae?en: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717111 PAGEREF _Toc322717111 13

3. Eoeueoo?a a iiaii iauanoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717112 PAGEREF
_Toc322717112 13

I.Oiooea?: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717113 PAGEREF _Toc322717113 13

O.Neieeiianee: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717114 PAGEREF _Toc322717114 14

A.Yooeeiie: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717115 PAGEREF _Toc322717115 14

E.ssnia?n: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717116 PAGEREF _Toc322717116 15

AE.Yeetheue: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717117 PAGEREF _Toc322717117 16

4. *aeiaae a iiaii iauanoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717118 PAGEREF
_Toc322717118 16

E.ssnia?n: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717119 PAGEREF _Toc322717119 16

I.Oiooea?: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717120 PAGEREF _Toc322717120 17

A.Eai: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717121 PAGEREF _Toc322717121 19

Ae.Aaee: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717122 PAGEREF _Toc322717122 19

O.Aeaeca?ae: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717123 PAGEREF _Toc322717123 20

Aeae.Ia?oei: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717124 PAGEREF _Toc322717124 21

5. I?iaeaiu iiaiai iauanoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717125 PAGEREF
_Toc322717125 22

E.ssnia?n: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717126 PAGEREF _Toc322717126 22

?.Eiyi: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717127 PAGEREF _Toc322717127 23

Ae.Aaee: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717128 PAGEREF _Toc322717128 24

AE.Yeetheue: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717129 PAGEREF _Toc322717129 24

*anoue II. Auaiaeu e ioeaiee GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717130 PAGEREF
_Toc322717130 26

1. Iiiyoea “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717131
PAGEREF _Toc322717131 26

2. Enoi?e/aneea yoaiu ?acaeoey e oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa
GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717132 PAGEREF _Toc322717132 27

3. Eoeueoo?a a iiaii iauanoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717133 PAGEREF
_Toc322717133 28

4. *aeiaae a iiaii iauanoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717134 PAGEREF
_Toc322717134 29

5. I?iaeaiu iiaiai iauanoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717135 PAGEREF
_Toc322717135 29

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u: GOTOBUTTON _Toc322717136 PAGEREF
_Toc322717136 30

Enoi?eei-aeia?aoe/aneay ni?aaea

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai – nioeeieiae/aneay e oooo?ieiae/aneay
eiioeaioeey, iieaaathuay aeaaiui oaeoi?ii iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoai e eniieueciaaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneie e ae?oaie eioi?iaoeee.
Eiioeaioeey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth oai?ee
iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa, iniiao eioi?ie iieiaeeee C.Aaeaceineee,
Ae.Aaee, I.Oiooea?. ?anniao?eaay iauanoaaiiia ?acaeoea eae “niaio
noaaeee”, noi?iiieee oai?ee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa naycuaatho aai
noaiiaeaiea n aeiieie?iaaieai “/aoaa?oiai”, eioi?iaoeeiiiiai naeoi?a
yeiiiieee, neaaeothuaai ca naeueneei oicyenoaii, i?iiuoeaiiinoueth e
yeiiiieeie oneoa. I?e yoii ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi eaieoae e o?oae eae
iniiaa eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa onooiatho ianoi eioi?iaoeee e ciaieth
a eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa. ?aaiethoeeiiece?othuaa aeaenoaea
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi a eioi?iaoeeiiiii
iauanoaa eeannu caiaiythony nioeeaeueii iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuie
“eioi?iaoeeiiiuie niiauanoaaie” (A.Ianoaea). O?aaeeoeeiiiui a?iiicaeeei
ei?ii?aoeeyi Oiooea? i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao “iaeua” yeiiiie/aneea oi?iu –
eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue ia aeiio, “yeaeo?iiiue eiooaaeae”.
Iie aeeth/aiu a iauoth no?oeoo?o eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa n aai
“eioi-”, “oaoii-” e ae?oaeie noa?aie /aeiaa/aneiai auoey. Auaeaeaaaony
i?iaeo “aeiaaeueiie yeaeo?iiiie oeeaeeecaoeee” ia aaca neioaca
oaeaaeaeaiey, eiiiuethoa?iie neoaeau e yia?aaoeee –
“oaeaeiiiuethoa?yia?aaoeee” (Aeae. Iaeoii). “Eiiiuethoa?iay ?aaiethoeey”
iinoaiaiii i?eaiaeeo e caiaia o?aaeeoeeiiiie ia/aoe “yeaeo?iiiuie
eieaaie”, eciaiyao eaeaieiaeth, i?aa?auaao aac?aaioeoeo a iaania/aiiue
aeinoa (O.Yaain). Nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea eciaiaiey ?anniao?eaathony
a oai?ee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa eae i?yiie ?acoeueoao
“iee?iyeaeo?iiiie ?aaiethoeee”. Ia?niaeoeaa ?acaeoey aeaiie?aoee
naycuaaaony n ?ani?ino?aiaieai eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoieee. Oiooea? e Aeae.
Ia?oei ioaiaeyo aeaaioth ?ieue a yoii oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie “eaaaeueiie
naoe”, eioi?ay iaania/eo aeaonoi?iiithth naycue a?aaeaeai n
i?aaeoaeuenoaii, iicaieeo o/eouaaoue eo iiaiea i?e au?aaioea
iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee. ?aaiou a iaeanoe “eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa”
?anniao?eaathony eae aiciiaeiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiie o?aeoiaee naiiai
/aeiaaea. Eiioeaioeey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa aucuaaao e?eoeeo ni
noi?iiu aoiaienoe/anee i?eaioe?iaaiiuo oeeinioia e o/aiuo, ioia/athueo
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue oaoiieiae/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia, oeacuaathueo ia
iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee iauanoaa.

*anoue I. Acaeyaeu oeeinioia

1. Iiiyoea “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”

I.Oiooea?:

“Oiooea? ia aeaao iiaie oeeaeeecaoeee (oioy a “Oooo?ioiea” ii
ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ia niaio “eiaeono?eaeueiiio iauanoao” i?eaeao
“noia?eiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai”) ii?aaeaeaiey,… ii /a?ac anth eieao
i?iaiaeeo iuneue i aa i?eioeeieaeueii iiaii oa?aeoa?a. (Iiiaia a yoie
aicieeathuae oeeaeeecaoeee i?ioeai?a/eo o?aaeeoeeiiiie eiaeono?eeaueiie
oeeaeeecaoeee. Yoi a iaeii e oi aea a?aiy e a aunoae noaiaie oaoie/anee
?acaeoay, e aioeeiaeono?eaeueiay oeeaeeecaoeey. “O?aouey aieia” ianao n
niaie iiaeeeiii iiaue ia?ac aeecie, iniiaaiiue ia aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiuo,
aiciaiiaeyaiuo enoi/ieeao yia?aee; ia iaoiaeao i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ua
aeaeatho onoa?aaoeie aieueoeinoai oaa?e/iuo nai?i/iuo eeiee; ia eaeie-oi
iiaie (“iaioeeaa?iie”) naiuea; ia iiaii einoeoooa, eioi?ue iia au auoue
iacaai “yeaeo?iiiui eiooaaeaeai”; ia ?aaeeeaeueii i?aia?aciaaiiuo oeieao
e ei?ii?aoeeyo aoaeouaai. Oi?ie?othuayny oeeaeeecaoeey ianao n niaie
iiaue eiaeaen iiaaaeaiey e auaiaeeo ian ca i?aaeaeu eiioeaio?aoeee
yia?aee, aeaiaaeiue n?aaenoa e aeanoe”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Eae aa?ii caiaoee Aaoaeia a i?aaeeneiaee e ?aoa?aoo eieae
“O?aouey aieia”, Oiooea? ie ?aco ia aeae i?yiiai ii?aaeaeaiey ei aea
naiei aaaaeaiiiio iiiyoeth “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai (eee iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai)
iauanoaa”. Ii aeaao ii?aaeaeaiea iienaoaeueii, /a?ac ia?a/eneaiea
yeaiaioia, eioi?ua yaeyony ?aaeeeaeueii iiauie aeey naaiaeiyoiae aeecie
e ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaiyo aeeciue iuiaoiaai eee aeeaeaeoaai iieieaiey.

Ae.Aaee:

“A ianooiathuai noieaoee ?aoathuaa cia/aiea aeey yeiiiie/aneie e
nioeeaeueiie aeecie, aeey niiniaia i?iecaiaenoaa ciaiey, a oaeaea aeey
oa?aeoa?a o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea i?eia?aoao noaiiaeaiea
iiaiai nioeeaeueiiai oeeaaea, ceaeaeouaainy ia oaeaeiiioieeaoeeyo.
?aaiethoeey a i?aaiecaoeee e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee e ciaiee, a eioi?ie
oeaio?aeueioth ?ieue ea?aao eiiiuethoa?, ?acaa?ouaaaony iaeiia?aiaiii ni
noaiiaeaieai iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa. O?e aniaeoa
iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa iniaaiii aaaeiu aeey iiieiaiey
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie ?aaiethoeee:

ia?aoiae io eiaeono?eaeueiiai e na?aeniiio iauanoao;

?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai oai?aoe/aneiai ciaiey aeey
inouanoaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo eiiiaaoeee;

i?aa?auaiea iiaie “eioaeeaeooaeueiie oaoiieiaee” a eeth/aaie eino?oiaio
nenoaiiiai aiaeeca e oai?ee i?eiyoey ?aoaiee”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia eiioeaioeee “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iauanoaa” (eia/a iacuaaaiiai “iinoeiaeono?eaeueiui iauanoaii”) Ae.Aaee
iaeiei ec ia?auo auaeaeee aai oa?aeoa?enoe/aneea i?eciaee. Aai
ii?aaeaeaiea aeaiiiai iiiyoey ethaiiuoii enoi?e/iinoueth naiaai
iiaeoiaea, o.a. ii ii?aaeaeyao nouiinoue iiaiai iauanoaa /a?ac
eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea a iauanoaa ianoiyuai, oai naiui auaeaeyy e
iiae/a?eeaay eiaiii oa i?eciaee, eioi?ua aoaeoo ioee/aoue
“iinea?aaiethoeeiiiia” iauanoai io iuiaoiaai.

O.Noioiuea?:

“…eino?oiaiou e iaoeiu, aoaeo/e iaauanoaeaiiui o?oaeii, nooue a oi aea
a?aiy iaauanoaeaiiay eioi?iaoeey. Yoa eaeay ni?aaaaeeeaa ii ioiioaieth e
eaieoaeo, caiea e ethaiio ae?oaiio oaeoi?o yeiiiieee, a eioi?ii
iaauanoaeai o?oae. Iao ie iaeiiai niiniaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai
i?eeiaeaiey o?oaea, eioi?ue a oi aea naiia a?aiy ia aue au i?eeiaeaieai
eioi?iaoeee. Aieaa oiai, eioi?iaoeeth, iiaeiaii eaieoaeo, iiaeii
iaeaieeaaoue e o?aieoue aeey aoaeouaai eniieueciaaiey. A
iinooeiaeono?eaeueiii iauanoaa iaoeeiiaeueiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu
nooue aai iniiaiay yeiiiie/aneay oeaiiinoue, aai naiue aieueoie
iioaioeeaeueiue enoi/iee aiaaonoaa.

Nouanoaoao o?e iniiaiuo niiniaa, eioi?uie no?aia iiaeao oaaee/eoue naia
iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai: 1) iinoiyiiia iaeiieaiea eaieoaea, 2) aiaiiua
caoaaou e oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?e?auaiey, 3) eniieueciaaiea iiaie
oaoiieiaee, ia?aaiaeyuae “ia?ano?nu” a ?ano?nu. A neeo aunieiai o?iaiy
?acaeoey oaoiieiaee a iinoeiaeono?eaeueiie yeiiiieea ia?aaiae ia?ano?nia
a ?ano?nu noae iniiaiui i?eioeeiii nicaeaiey iiaiai aiaaonoaa.

Aaaeii iiieiaoue, /oi eioi?iaoeey eiaao iaeioi?ua niaoeeoe/aneea
naienoaa. Anee o iaiy anoue 1000 ae?ia caiee e y ec ieo ioaeai
eiio-ieaoaeue 500 ae?ia, o iaiy inoaiaony eeoue iieiaeia ia?aiia/aeueiie
ieiuaaee. Ii anee o iaiy anoue iaeioi?ay noiia eioi?iaoeee e aa iieiaeio
y ioaeai ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo, o iaiy inoaiaony ana /oi auei. Anee y
?ac?aoo eiio-ieaoaeue eniieueciaaoue iith eioi?iaoeeth, ?aciiii
iieaaaoue, /oi e ii iiaeaeeony ni iiie /ai-ieaoaeue iieaciui. Oae /oi, a
oi a?aiy eae naeaeee ii iiaiaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo aauae aaaeoo e
eiieo?aioeee, eioi?iaoeeiiiue iaiai aaaeao e nio?oaeie/anoao.
Eioi?iaoeey, oaeei ia?acii, – yoi ?ano?n, eioi?ui iiaeii aac niaeaeaiey
aeaeeoueny. Ae?oaay niaoeeoe/aneay /a?oa iio?aaeaiey eioi?iaoeee
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a ioee/ea io iio?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeia eee yia?aee,
aaaeouaai e oaaee/aieth yio?iiee ai Anaeaiiie, eniieueciaaiea
eioi?iaoeee i?eaiaeeo e i?ioeaiiieiaeiiio yooaeoo – iii oaaee/eaaao
ciaiey /aeiaaea, iiauoaao i?aaieciaaiiinoue a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea e
oiaiueoaao yio?iieth.”

Eiiiaioa?ee: Aeaiiay oeeoaoa ec o?oaea O.Noioiuea?a eiaao iniaaiii
aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”.
Aaoi? aeaao ?acaa?ioooth oa?aeoa?enoeeo iiiyoeth eioi?iaoeee,
aeaiiino?e?oy i?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea iineaaeiae io eiuo aeaeia
yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo oeaiiinoae. Oai naiui ii iainiiauaaao
eaeath ia eneeth/eoaeueiinoe ianooiathuae iiaie noaaeee e iaecaaaeiinoe
ea?aeeiaeueiiai ia?aeiia a enoi?ee n aa ianooieaieai.

A.Oo?ai:

“…iiiyoea iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa… – caeanue eiaanoeoeee
aeaeathony a eiie o?iaaiue, /ai a eiaeono?eaeueiii iauanoaa, oi anoue a
i?iecaiaenoai n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa. I?aaiecaoeey o?oaea cao?aaeaaao
eeoue ioiioaiey ?aai/eo iaaeaeo niaie, a iioiio e o?iaaiue, ia eioi?ii
aeaenoaoao i?iecaiaenoai. Iinoeiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai aeaenoaoao aieaa
aeiaaeueii ia oi?aaeai/aneii o?iaia, oi anoue a iaoaiecia i?iecaiaenoaa
a oeaeii. Yoi aeaenoaea i?eieiaao aeaa aeaaiua oi?iu. Ai-ia?auo, yoi
iiaiaaaaeaiey, oi anoue niiniaiinoue i?iecaiaeeoue iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth,
a /anoiinoe, eae ?acoeueoao eiaanoeoeee a iaoeo e oaoieeo; ai-aoi?uo,
naii oi?aaeaiea, oi anoue niiniaiinoue eniieueciaaoue neiaeiua nenoaiu
eioi?iaoeee e eiiioieeaoeee.

Aaaeii i?eciaoue, /oi iinoeiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai yaeyaony oaeei, a
eioi?ii ana yeaiaiou yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu cao?aaeaathony aeaenoaeyie
iauanoaa naii ia naay. Yoe aeaenoaey ia anaaaea i?eieiatho oi?io
niciaoaeueiie aiee, aiieiuaiiie a ee/iinoe eee aeaaea a?oiia ethaeae.
Aio ii/aio oaeia iauanoai aeieaeii iacuaaoueny i?ia?aiie?oaiui
iauanoaii, iaicia/aiea, eioi?ua ynii oeacuaaao ia aai niiniaiinoue
nicaeaaaoue iiaeaee oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii, i?aaiecaoeeae,
?ani?aaeaeaieai e iio?aaeaieai; iiyoiio oaeiai ?iaea iauanoai iiyaeyaony
ia iia?aoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia ia a ?acoeueoaoa anoanoaaiiuo caeiiia eee
niaoeeoe/aneeo eoeueoo?iuo oa?aeoa?enoee, a nei?aa eae ?acoeueoao
i?iecaiaenoaa, aeaaiaea?y aeaenoaeth iauanoaa naii ia naay, aai
nianoaaiiui nenoaiai nioeeaeueiiai aeaenoaey”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Ii iiaieth A.Oo?aia, iaeaieaa aaaeiui iiiaioii a
oi?ioee?iaea iiiyoey “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” yaeyaony aeoeaio ia
iiaua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey. A.Oo?ai iiae/a?eeaaao iniaoth aaaeiinoue
i?aia?aciaaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiie e oi?aaeai/aneie iieeoeee a oiaea
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiie ?aaiethoeee.

A.Eai:

“?acieoea iaaeaeo iiiyoeyie (eioi?iaoeey( e (eioaeeaeo( yaeyaony
eneonnoaaiiie, ii aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiie. (Eioi?iaoeey( no?aieony auoue
ioiineoaeueii oi?iaeueiie e eaaei aeinooiiie. (Eioaeeaeo( a aeaiiii
neo/aa oiio?aaeyaony aieueoa a cia/aiee (aiaiiia iuoeaiea(, /ai
(/aeiaa/aneia iuoeaiea(… Iiiyoea (eioaeeaeo( yaeyaony aieaa oe?ieei e
niaoeeoe/aneei, iaiaa ioeoeeaeueiui e oi?iaeueiui, /ai oi, /oi iu
iacuaaai eioi?iaoeeae. Iiiyoea (eioaeeaeo( icia/aao ciaiea i niauoeyo e
ethaeyo, yoi ciaiea iiaeao auoue i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueiui, eiooeoeaiui,
ee/iui e/eee iieo/aiiui iaoaaae, iaioeoeeaeueii eee oaeii.
(Eioaeeaeooaeueiua( aeaiiua iau/ii ia aeeth/athony a noaiaea?oiua
ea?oi/ee, a eioi?iaoeey aeeth/aao a naay oaaeiiiua aeaiiua, eioi?ua
iaeeaeathony io nenoaiu. O?oaeii naeaeaoue ?acee/ea iaaeaeo eioaeeaeoii
e eioi?iaoeeae aieaa /aoeei, ii eiaaea a nenoaio aaiaeyo (eioaeeaeo(, oi
yoi i?ienoiaeeo a iaiueoae noaiaie aeaaiaea?y iaoaie/aneiio eee
yeaeo?iiiiio i?ia?aiie?iaaieth, a a aieueoae noaiaie aeaaiaea?y
neo/aeiiio (eee caieaie?iaaiiiio) iaee/eth ioaeiuo ethaeae, ia ioaeiii
ianoa, a ioaeiue /an”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Enneaaeiaaiea A.Eaia i ?aca?aie/aiee iiiyoee “eioaeeaeoa” e
“eioi?iaoeee” yaeyaony aanueia aaaeiui aeey iiieiaiey nouiinoe
“eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”, eai iii iicaieyao /aoei auyaeoue ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo aeooiaiie (eiaaony a aeaeo /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi) e iaoa?eaeueiie
(eiaaony a aeaeo “eioi?iaoeey”) noa?aie aeecie iiaiai iauanoaa e oai
naiui iiae/a?iooue, /oi eioi?iaoeey naia ii naaa, ia iaeooioai?aiiay
/aeiaa/aneie yiioeeiiaeueiinoueth ia niiniaia aeaeaaoue aia?aae
/aeiaa/aneoth eoeueoo?o, niinianoaiaaoue i?ia?anno aeooa.

O.Aeaeca?ae:

“No?aieaiea au?aceoue nouiinoue iiaiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aaea aueeeinue a
oeaeue eaeaeaeineii ii?aaeaeaiee. Aeae.Eeoooaei aiai?eo i
iinoao?aeoaciii iauanoaa, ?.Aea?aiaei?o – iinoeaieoaeenoe/aneii,
A.Yooeeiie – iinoiiaea?ienoneii, E.Aioeaeeia – iinooeeaeeecaoeeiiiii,
A.Eai – iinoyeiiiie/aneii, N.Aeno?ii – iinoi?ioanoaioneii, ?.Naeaeaiaa?a
– iinoenoi?e/aneii, ?.Aa?iao aiineo a yoio eaeaeaeineii i?aaiaoe/aneoth
iioeo, i?aaeeaaay oa?iei (iinoiaooyiia iauanoai(. Aieueoeinoai yoeo
yieoaoia ainoiaeyo e iiiyoeth (iinoeiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai(,
iiioey?eciaaiiiio aeanyoeeaoea oiio iacaae aa?aa?aeneei nioeeieiaii
Ae.Aaeeii. Iauay i?enoaaea yoeo oa?ieiia ioaeaao eaeei-oi inaiiei
/oanoaii oayaeaiey, naienoaaiiui iaoaio aaeo, – iuouaieai eiioea”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Caaa?oathuay ia?aue ?acaeae aeaiiie ?ac?aaioee oeeoaoa ec
O.Aeaeca?aea eae au iiaeuoiaeeaaao eaeaeaeineii ii?aaeaeaiee nouiinoe
a?yaeouaai iauanoaa. Ii ia?a/eneyao anaaiciiaeiua iacaaiey,
iauaaeeiaiiua iauae i?enoaaeie “iino”. A yoie i?enoaaea neacuaaaony
iaeay ia?aie/aiiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey, neeiiiiai iooaeeeaaoueny
io oaea aeinoeaiooiai, ia ia?auay aieiaiey ia oi, /oi aeey
i?eioeeiaeueii iiaiai iauanoaa, no?iyuaainy ia i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo
i?eioeeiao, neaaeoao i?eaeoiaoue niaa?oaiii iiaia iacaaiea. Eiaiii
iiyoiio y n/ae iacaaiea “eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai” iaeaieaa io?aaeathuei
nooue a?yaeouaai nioeeoia e ?aoee i?eaea?aeeaaoueny a aeaeueiaeoai
eiaiii yoiai iaeiaiiaaiey.

2. Enoi?e/aneea yoaiu ?acaeoey e oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai

iauanoaa

E.ssnia?n:

“Oaoieea eae oiaiea i?eiaiyoue i?oaeey o?oaea nouanoaoao n oao ii?, eae
nouanoaotho ethaee… A aaeeeeo eoeueoo?ao ae?aaiinoe, iniaaiii a
caiaaeiii ie?a, auniei?acaeoay iaoaieea iicaieeea ia?aaiceoue ia?iiiua
oyaeanoe, aicaeaeaiooue caeaiey, no?ieoue aei?iae e ei?aaee,
eiino?oe?iaaoue… iaoeiu.

Iaeiaei yoa oaoieea inoaaaeanue a ?aieao oiai, /oi auei n?aaieoaeueii
ni?acia?ii /aeiaaeo, aeinooiii aai iaic?aieth. Oi, /oi aeaeaeinue,
i?iecaiaeeeinue ioneoeueiie neeie /aeiaaea n i?eaea/aieai neeu
aeeaioiuo, neeu iaoyaeaiey, iaiy, aao?a e aiaeu e ia auoiaeeei ca
i?aaeaeu anoanoaaiiie n?aaeu /aeiaaea. Ana eciaieeinue n eiioea XVIII
aaea… Eiaiii oiaaea i?iecioae nea/ie, ioaaoea anth oaoie/aneoth
noi?iio /aeiaa/aneie aeecie a oeaeii. Iinea oiai eae aaeaie aeaeaeenue
iiiuoee a yoii iai?aaeaiee e a ia/oao ethaeae oi?ie?iaaeinue
oaoieoeenoneia, oaoiie?aoe/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea, aeey eioi?iai
nicaeaaaeenue iao/iua i?aaeiinueee, a XIX aaea auea inouanoaeaia eo
?aaeecaoeey, aeaeaei inoaaeaoay ca niaie ana naiua iueeea ia/ou.

…Auee ioe?uou iaoeiu – iaoeiu, aaoiiaoe/anee i?iecaiaeyuea i?iaeoeou
iio?aaeaiey. Oi, /oi ?aiueoa aeaeae ?aianeaiiee, oaia?ue aeaeaao iaoeia.

Oae ia/aeinue ia Caiaaea oaoie/aneia e yeiiiie/aneia ianooieaiea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae XIX aaea, a oiaea eioi?iai i?aaeiaa ?aianei en/acei,
ca iaaieueoei eneeth/aieai niaa?oaiii iaiaoiaeeiuo aai io?aneae, e
eaaeaeue, eoi niaa?oae aaniieaciua a oaoie/aneii niunea iinooiee,
aacaeaeinoii oie/oiaeaeny. Oaeei ia?acii, a aicieeiiaaiee nia?aiaiiiai
oaoie/aneiai ie?a ia?ac?uaii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie anoanoaaiiua iaoee,
aeoo ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa e i?aaiecaoeey o?oaea. Yoe o?e oaeoi?a niiaua
iaeaaeatho ?aoeeiiaeueiinoueth. Ie iaeei ec ieo ia iia au
naiinoiyoaeueii nicaeaoue nia?aiaiioth oaoieeo. Eaaeaeue ec yoeo
oaeoi?ia eiaao naie enoiee e naycai iioiio n ?yaeii iacaaeneiuo io
ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia i?iaeai”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: E.ssnia?n, iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia oae iacuaaaiiai
“oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai” iiaeoiaea e enoi?ee, aiaeece?oao a i?ioeeoe?iaaiiii
o?aaiaioa i?e/eiu, i?eaaaeoea e aicieeiiaaieth iniaie “oaoieoeenoneie”
oeeaeeecaoeee nia?aiaiiinoe, eioi?oth ii auaeaeyao a ea/anoaa
niaoeeaeueiiai oeia oeeaeeecaoeee. Ii aeaeeo iniiaioth i?e/eio noieue
?aceie niaiu oeeaeeecaoeee a iiyaeaiee iaoei eae eiae/aneiai caaa?oaiey
oaoieee, eae iin?aaeothuaai caaia iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e i?e?iaeie, eai
eiaiii iie, ii aai iiaieth, niiaee eciaieoue ineoieiaeth ethaeae e
i?eaioiaeoue eo e iiaiio aeoeo enoi?ee.

I.Oiooea?:

“Nia/aea auea “ia?aay aieia”, eioi?oth ii [Oiooea?] iacuaaao
“naeueneioicyenoaaiiie oeeaeeecaoeeae”. Io Eeoay e Eiaeee aei Aaieia e
Iaeneee, io A?aoeee aei ?eia aicieeaee e i?eoiaeeee a oiaaeie
oeeaeeecaoeee, noaeeeaaynue ae?oa n ae?oaii e ?iaeaeay aan/eneaiiua
iano?ua ea?oeiu. Iaeiaei ca yoeie ?acee/eyie ne?uaaeenue
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iauea /a?ou. Aacaea caiey auea iniiaie yeiiiieee,
aeecie, eoeueoo?u, naiaeiie i?aaiecaoeee e iieeoeee. Aacaea
ainiiaenoaiaaei i?inoia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea e nouanoaiaaei ianeieueei
/aoei ii?aaeaeaiiuo eano e eeannia: ciaoue, aeooiaainoai, aieiu, eeiou,
?aau eee e?aiinoiua. Aacaea aeanoue auea aeanoei aaoi?eoa?iie. Aacaea
nioeeaeueiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea /aeiaaea ii?aaeaeyei aai ianoi a aeecie.
Aacaea yeiiiieea auea aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiie, oae /oi eaaeaeay iaueia
i?iecaiaeeea aieueooth /anoue oiai, a /ai eniuouaaea ioaeaeo.

O?enoa eao iacaae – iethn-ieion iienoieaoey – i?iecioae ac?ua, oaea?iua
aieiu io eioi?iai iaioee anth caieth, ?ac?ooay ae?aaiea iauanoaa e
ii?iaeaeay niaa?oaiii iiaoth oeeaeeecaoeeth. Oaeei ac?uaii auea,
eiia/ii, i?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey. Aunaiaiaeaeaiiay ath aeaaioneay neea,
?ani?ino?aieaoaynue ii ie?o, – “aoi?ay aieia” – i?eoea a nii?eeiniiaaiea
n einoeoooaie i?ioeiai e eciaieea ia?ac aeecie ieeeeiiia. … E
na?aaeeia XX aaea neeu “ia?aie aieiu” auee ?acaeou e ia caiea
aioee?eeanue “eiaeono?eaeueiay oeeaeeecaoeey”. Iaeiaei anaaeanoea aa
auei iaaeieaei, eai /ooue ee ia iaeiia?aiaiii n aa iiaaaeie ia ie?
ia/aea iaeaouaaoueny iiaay – o?aouey ii n/aoo – “aieia”, ianouay n niaie
iiaua einoeooou, ioiioaiey, oeaiiinoe”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: A i?ioeeoe?iaaiiii o?aaiaioa Aaoaeia aeaao noiie?othuee
?aoa?aoeaiue iaci? oiooea?ianeiai iiaeoiaea e enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa eae e
enoi?ee “o?ao aiei”. Ethaiiuoii, /oi Oiooea? aeaeeo a ea/anoaa
aeaeaeouae neeu enoi?ee iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann, eioi?iio iineooii
neaaeoao ineoieiaey ethaeae. Oaeei ia?acii, oa/aieth enoi?ee Oiooea?
i?eaeaao ianeieueei iaoaienoe/aneee iooaiie, i?aaenoaaeyy aai a aeaea
iinoiyiiie aieiu iaaeaeo iineaaeothuae e oaeouae “aieiaie”7

A.Eai:

“Aeieain?i/iue i?iaiic ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa, ?ann/eoaiiue ia iniiaa
aeaiiuo i?ioeiai e ianoiyuaai ?acaeoey ie?iaie yeiiiieee, ioaaouaaao
aeaa aaaeiaeoeo enoi?e/aneeo yoaia. Ia?aue yoai – yoi
naeueneioicyenoaaiiay ?aaiethoeey, eioi?ay i?iecioea ieiei 10 ouny/ eao
iacaae e eioi?ay oaeoe/anee nicaeaea nia?aiaiioth oeeaeeecaoeeth… Iia
?ani?ino?aiyeanue ii ie?o a oa/aiea 8 ouny/ eao. Iia ?acei eciaieea
oneiaey aeecie /aeiaaea, ii e noaaeeueiiio ?inoo yeiiiieee eee e
eciaeeeth iia ia i?eaaea.

Aoi?ie aaaeiaeoee yoai i?eiyoi iacuaaoue “Aaeeeee ia?aoiae”, eiaiii ia
yoii yoaia iu e iaoiaeeiny naaiaeiy. Ii ia/aeny 200 eao iacaae, eiaaea
ethaeae auei ia oae iiiai, aeeee iie aaaeii e anaoeaei caaenaee io nee
i?e?iaeu. Yoio ia?eiae, aeaeeii, caaa?oeony a iineaaeothuea 200 eao,
eiaaea aii?aee “eaoano?ioe/aneiio ni/aoaieth iaoaea/ e iaoiaeiai
?oeiaiaenoaa” /aeiaa/anoai, ii anae aeaeeiinoe, iaiiiai aic?anoao
/eneaiii, noaiao aiaaoui e a aieueoae noaiaie iao/eony oi?aaeyoue neeaie
i?e?iaeu.

Yoio /aou?aonioeaoiee ia?eiae iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia neaaeothuea o?e
oacu: oaca eiaeono?eaeueiie ?aaiethoeee, aeaeaa – oaca
noia?eiaeono?eaeueiie (oaoiieiae/aneie) ie?iaie yeiiiieee, a caoai e
oaca iinoeiaeono?eaeueiie ie?iaie yeiiiieee e ie?iaiai niiauanoaa…

Nieaeaiea oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa aaaeao e oiio, /oi aicieeatho
iiaua iayeiiiie/aneea oeiu aeayoaeueiinoe e eioa?anu. Yoa oaca ?acaeoey
iauanoaa iacuaaaony iaie (iinoeiaeono?eaeueiie(, oae eae a iauanoaa
nieaeaaony eioa?an e i?iiuoeaiiie e naeueneioicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
(ii ioithaeue ia e oiaa?ai), iiyoiio yoa oaca icia/aao eiia/iue iiiaio
yiioe Aaeeeiai ia?aoiaea, e, aa?iyoii, iia aoaeao aucuaaoue iinoiyiiua
eciaiaiey a oneiaeyo aeecie /aeiaaea”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Aoi?y Oiooea?o, A.Eai auaeaeyao “naeueneioicyenoaaiiue”
ia?eiae a ioaeaeueiue yoai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa. Iaeiaei aai
ia?eiaeecaoeey iiaie e iiaaeoae enoi?ee eiay. Caeanue ii yaii
?oeiaiaenoaoaony i?eioeeiia iiin?aaeiaaiiinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea e
i?e?iaeu (/a?ac oaoieeo – /a?ac oaoiieiaeth – /a?ac eioi?iaoeeth) n
oeaeueth i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoa iio?aaeaiey ec i?iaeoeoa i?e?iaeu.

O.Noioiuea?:

“(Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi ie iaeia aieueoay no?aia ieeiaaea ia
iaoiaeeeanue e ia iiaea iaieoenue aac oiai, /oiau a iae /aai-eeai ia
i?iecaiaeeeinue(, – ienae A.Nieo. Yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea naaiaeiy noieue aea
ni?aaaaeeeai, eae e aeaa aaea oiio iacaae. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua aaaeiua
aeoeaiou nianoeeenue. Oi/ii oae aea eae ai a?aiaia Nieoa oeaio? oyaeanoe
yeiiiieee noae niauaoueny io naeueneiai oicyenoaa e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oae
e naaiaeiy ii niauaaony io i?iiuoeaiiinoe e eioi?iaoeee. E iiaeiaii oiio
eae a eiioea XVIII – ia/aea XIX aaea neiaeeeanue iinoaa?a?iay yeiiiieea,
oae naaiaeiy oaoiieiae/anee ia?aaeiaua naeoi?u aeiaaeueiiai iauanoaa
ia?aoiaeyo ia noaaeeth iinoeiaeono?eaeueiie yeiiiieee.

A aa?a?iie yeiiiieea oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue auea naycaia
i?aeiouanoaaiii n i?iecaiaenoaii aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoia
ieoaiey, a eeieoe?othuei oaeoi?ii iau/ii auea aeinooiiinoue oi?ioae
caiee. A eiaeono?eaeueiie yeiiiieea oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue auea
ii i?aeiouanoao i?iecaiaenoaii oiaa?ia, a eeieoe?othuei oaeoi?ii – /aua
anaai eaieoae. A eioi?iaoeeiiiie yeiiiieea oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue
– yoi aeaaiui ia?acii i?iecaiaenoai e i?eiaiaiea eioi?iaoeee n oeaeueth
naeaeaoue ana ae?oaea oi?iu i?iecaiaenoaa aieaa yooaeoeaiuie e oai naiui
nicaeaoue aieueoa iaoa?eaeueiiai aiaaonoaa. Eeieoe?othuee oaeoi? caeanue
– iaee/iia ciaiea”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: O.Noioiuea? ?anniao?eaaao noaoai yeiiiie/aneee aniaeo
?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee. Caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey oi, /oi
oa?aeoa?ecoao eaaeaeoth iauanoaaiioth oi?iaoeeth /a?ac nouiinoue
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e eeieoe?othuee oaeoi?. I?iaeieaeay yoo
iuneue, iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi ec aai oai?ee n i/aaeaeiinoueth neaaeoao,
/oi ia?aoiae e iiaie iauanoaaiiie oi?iaoeee i?ienoiaeeo i?e eciaiaiee
iniiau oicyenoaiaaiey eee i?aiaeieaiey eeieoe?othuaai oaeoi?a.

O.Aeaeca?ae:

“A?iieueae Oieiae eae-oi caiaoee, /oi XX aae – yoi a?aiy, eiaaea
/aeiaa/anoai aia?aua ca anth naith enoi?eth iiaeao ana?ueac iiaeoiaoue i
aeaaininoiyiee anao ethaeae. Anee yoi oae, oi yoi a iniiaiii
aeaaiaea?y… yaiethoeee oieaa?naeueiie yeaeo?iiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie
naoe, niiniaiie naycaoue aiaaeeii anao ethaeae. ?a/ue eaeao i
ianooieaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aaea.

…Oaoiieiaey i?aaeeaaaao iai iaiiiai aieaa cia/eoaeueiua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua e eiiioieeaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu, /ai eiaaea-eeai eiaei
/aeiaa/anoai. Yoe ?ano?nu noieue aaeeee, /oi i/aaeaeii: iu anooiaai a
iiaoth y?o – eioi?iaoeeiiiue aae. NOA – ia?aay no?aia, inouanoaeaoay
o?aonoaaeeaeueiue ia?aoiae io aa?a?iiai iauanoaa e eiaeono?eaeueiiio e
io iaai e oaeiio iauanoao, eioi?ia aeaaea o?oaeii eae-oi iaeiicia/ii
ii?aaeaeeoue; ynia eeoue iaeia aai oa?aeoa?enoeea ec oeaeiai aaa?a
aiciiaeiinoae: iniiaiui aeaeii aai yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ai
anaaic?anoathuae noaiaie noaiiaeony i?iecaiaenoai, o?aiaiea e
?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee.

Eaeia aiciiaeiue noeaia?ee ?acaeoey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa a
i?aaenoiyuea aiaeu? … Iaeeoei iaeay iauay iiaeaeue eciaiaiee –
o?aonoaaeeeiia i?ia?anne?othuaa aeaeaeaiea: noaiiaeaiea iniiaiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo io?aneae ii i?iecaiaenoao e ?ani?aaeaeaieth eioi?iaoeee;
?anoe?aiea iiiaieeaoo?u eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa aeey ae?oaeo io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e aeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa; nicaeaiea oe?ieie naoe
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa ia iio?aaeoaeueneii o?iaia”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: O.Aeaeca?ae eiinoaoe?oao oaeo ia?aoiaea e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio
iauanoao a NOA. Ii oeaeeeii niaeaoaaony n i?aaeeiaeaiiie Oiooea?ii e
Aaeeii o?aonoaaeeaeueiie eiioeaioeeae e nin?aaeioa/eaaao naia aieiaiea
ia o?ainoi?iaoeeyo eiaiii iineaaeiae, “eioi?iaoeeiiiie” noaaeee ?acaeoey
iauanoaa.

?.Ae?en:

“Iuneue i i?ienoiaeyuae oaoiieiae/aneie ?aaiethoeee, iniiaaiiie ia
eioi?iaoeee, ia iiaa. Nioeeieia Aeyieae Aaee, eae e ae?oaea, a na?aaeeia
60-o aa. ynii oaeaeae, /oi NOA noaiiayony iinoeiaeono?eaeueiui
iauanoaii, iniiauaathueiny ia i?iecaiaenoaa oneoa, i?aaeaea anaai
naycaiiuo n eioi?iaoeeae. O?aouey i?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iniiauaaaony ia oniaoao a oaeaeiiioieeaoeeyo e
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannao. Caiyoinoue a noa?a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
no?ieoaeuenoaa inoaaony iiiaea aiaeu aieaa eee iaiaa iaeciaiiie a
aaniethoiii ecia?aiee, oiaaea eae a oeaeii ?aai/ay neea cia/eoaeueii
aic?inea a 60-70-a aiaeu. Aeieaia?aiaiiua oaiaeaioeee iieacuaatho, /oi
iaeaieaa ?anooueie a i?ioeii aaea auee noa?u, naycaiiua n eioi?iaoeeae”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: I?eaaaeaiiay oeeoaoa ec ?.Ae?en iiae/a?eeaaao iauiinoue
iiaiee anao oeeinioia, o?aeoiaaaoeo ia “eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa”, ii
iiaiaeo nooe i?ienoiaeyueo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eciaiaiee a iauanoaa e ?iee
IO? a iai. Ii a ioee/ea io Oiooea?a, ii aeoeaio?e?oao aieiaiea
eneeth/eoaeueii ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a, iieiinoueth eneeth/ay ec
?anniio?aiey nioeeaeueiue e eoeueoo?iue aniaeou iaiiaeaiey.

3. Eoeueoo?a a iiaii iauanoaa

I.Oiooea?:

“Iu aeeaai a ie?a aeei-eoeueoo?u. Aianoi aeeeiiuo “ieoae” eaeae,
naycaiiuo ae?oa n ae?oaii, – “aeeiu” eioi?iaoeee: iauyaeaiey, eiiaiaeu,
ia?uaee iiainoae, eioi?ua ia niaeanothony ni noaiaie. Iiaua ia?acu e
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia iiaeaeathony eeanneoeeaoeee – io/anoe iioiio, /oi iie
ia oeeaaeuaathony a noa?ua eaoaai?ee, io/anoe iioiio, /oi eiatho
no?aiioth, oaeo/oth, aannaycioth oi?io.

…Ethaee “o?aoueae aieiu” /oanoaotho naay naiaiaeiaa, eiaiii
noaeeeaaynue n “aeeiaie” – eioi?iaoeeiiiuie niiauaieyie, io?uaeii ec
ianie eee noeoa, caaieiaeii, ioeueooeeueiii, eieeaaeai e o.ae..
Iaianuoiua /eoaoaee aeaoaauo ecaeaiee e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo aeo?iaeia,
iie ei?ioeeie i?eaiaie iiaeiuatho ia?iiiia eiee/anai eioi?iaoeee. Ii e
iie no?aiyony iaeoe iiaua iiiyoey e iaoaoi?u, eioi?ua iicaieeee au
nenoaiaoece?iaaoue eee i?aaieciaaoue “aeeiu” a aieaa oe?ieia oeaeia.
Iaeiaei aianoi oiai, /oiau iuoaoueny aoeniooue iiaua aeaiiua a
noaiaea?oiua eaoaai?ee e ?aiee “aoi?ie aieiu”, iie oioaee au ana
ono?ieoue ia naie nianoaaiiue eaae… Neiaii, aianoi oiai, /oiau i?inoi
caeinoaiaaoue aioiaoth eaeaaeueioth iiaeaeue ?aaeueiinoe, iu oaia?ue
naie aeieaeiu niiaa e niiaa ecia?aoaoue aa. Yoi oyaeeia a?aiy, ii iii
aianoa n oai ioe?uaaao aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaeoey
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, aeaianneoeeaoeee ee/iinoe e eoeueoo?u. Iaeioi?ua,
i?aaaea, ia auaea?aeeaatho, eiiathony eee iooiaeyo a noi?iio. Ae?oaea
i?aa?auathony a iinoiyiii ?acaeaathueony, eiiiaoaioiuo eiaeeaeaeia,
niiniaiuo iiaeiyoueny a naiae aeayoaeueueiinoe ia iiaue, aieaa aunieee
o?iaaiue. Ii a ethaii neo/aa /aeiaae ia?anoaao auoue noaiaea?oiui, eaaei
oi?aaeyaiui ?iaioii, eaeei aai ecia?aaeaee ienaoaee “aoi?ie aieiu”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Oiooea? iaeiei ec ia?auo iiaeiaoee i?iecioaaeoea ca
iineaaeiaa a?aiy ei?aiiua eciaiaiey a eoeueoo?a iauanoaa, iniaaiii
caiaaeiiai. Ia?anoathuay neea iioiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia iaaeaeo
ethaeueie ii?iaeeea iiaue oei eoeueoo?u, a eioi?ie ana iiae/eiaii
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eeanneoeeaoeee, oieoeeaoeee n oeaeueth iaeaieueoae
eiii?annee e iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?e ia?aaea/e io /aeiaaea e
/aeiaaeo, aoaeue oi ee/ii eee /a?ac n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.

O.Neieeiianee:

“Iiae oa?icie eceeoiae einooiaioaeecaoeee eoeueoo?a iaoiaeeo ?acee/iua
i?ioeaiaeaenoaey, ioaeooeiu. Auoiae ca i?aaeaeu ia?aie/eaathueo aa ?aiie
iiaeao auoue inouanoaeai iin?aaenoaii ia?eioeeia eee /a?ac yeneo?nu a
ainoi/ioth aeeinioeth. Aicieeiiaaiea oeeinioee oaoieee – ae?oaia
i?ioeaiaeaenoaea eoeueoo?u iianiinoe auoue caaeooaiiie eceeoiae
einooiaioaeecaoeeae, eai, iiaoi?yth, aeaaaou i i?e?iaea oaoieee – yoi
nii?u i aoaeouai /aeiaaea…”

Eiiiaioa?ee: Ni. ieaea e oeeoaoa A.Yooeeiie.

A.Yooeeiie:

“Aeaeaeaiea eiio?eoeueoo?u aua aeoaaea iiaei?aaei ?aoeeiiaeueiia
iuoeaiea e eaaeoeiaoeeth iniiaiiai i?iaeoa. Iii iinoaaeei iiae aii?in
eae oeaiiinoe ieaoaeueueeia, aunieee aeeciaiiue o?iaaiue, oae e
aeinoieinoaa iio?aaeaiey, oii?iiai o?oaea e aa?aaeeeainoe. Iii ioe?uoi e
i?yii a?ineei aucia aeinoieinoao ion?i/aiiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey,
naiii?aaieciaaiiinoe e ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe. Iii aicauneei aei o?iaiy
aeia?iaeaoaee ineoieiae/aneia oaeiaeaoai?aiea io iaaieueoie ?aaiou,
ne?iiiiai iio?aaeaiey e ioe?uouo ioiioaiee n ae?oaeie, i?e?iaeie e naiei
niaie, ioiioaiee, ia ecia?yaiuo aauaie. Iiaeeeiiue ?ino oniao?eaatho ia
a yeiiiieea, a a aa?iiie/iuo ioiioaieyo e aieaa aeoaieii iiieiaiee naay
e ae?oaeo. A eaeie au oi ie auei oi?ia – (oeaao aeaoae(, eoeueoo?a
ia?eioeeia, (eiiioiu(, ii?aaeaeaiiua eoeueou – eiio?eoeueoo?a aeaeaea a
iaiin?aaenoaaiiii oaeiaieuenoaee, a naiaiaeiii i?iyaeaiee ii?uaia, a
ia?aoeeiiaeueiii eee e??aoeeiiaeueiii iiaaaeaiee, a caaioa nei?aa i
ee/iinoiuo, /ai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioaeaeao eiaiii oo aeeciaiiinoue,
eioi?oth ethaee oa?yee a eiioea aeeeiiie oeaie ?aoeeiiaeueii
neiiaeie?iaaiiuo n?aaenoa, ninoaaeythueo iniiao iaoa?eaeenoneeo oneeee.
Oaoieea, iaoea e oi?aaeaiea ?anoeaieaaeenue ia eo/oa, /ai yeiiiie/aneea
no?aieaiey. Oioy iaeaieaa i/aaeaeiua iineoaee eiio?eoeueoo?u – naeou
oeiie – auno?i auai?aee e nei?i en/acee, iiaeiaii ae?oaei e?aeiei naeoai
a i?ioeie nioeeaeueiie enoi?ee, eo eoeueoo?iue e ineoieiae/aneee aeeaae
i?iaeieaeae nouanoaiaaoue. Eiio?eoeueoo?o ieoaei ionooieaiea
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe e aeaeaiea aeueoa?iaoeaiiai ie?a”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Aeaa auoai?eaaaeaiiua oeeoaou o?aeootho i n?aaieoaeueii
iaaeaaii aicieeoai yaeaiee “eiio?eoeueoo?u”. Iaeiaei neaaeoao ioiaoeoue,
/oi ai a?aiy ?ac?aaioee yoie oaiu eo aaoi?aie eiioeaioeey
“eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” ia auea aua noieue ?ac?aaioaia, eae nae/an,
e aii?in i iiaeaaeaiee, “iaacaeooaiee” /aeiaaea oaoieeie noiye ai?acaei
ino?aa. Eiio?eoeueoo?a ?iaeaeaeanue eae i?ioano eiaiii i?ioea
iaoaienoe/iinoe e ionoonoaey eoeueoo?u e aiana ia no?aieeanue noaoue
eiieo?aioii “aeei”- eee eiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?a aneaaenoaea
?acee/iie i?aaeiacia/aiiinoe.

E.ssnia?n:

“…oaoieea ia oieueei i?eaeeaeaao ian e iiciaiiie a oece/aneieo
eaoaai?eyo i?e?iaea. Oaoieea ioe?uaaao ia?aae iaie iiaue ie? e iiaua
aiciiaeiinoe nouanoaiaaiey a iai…

I?aaeaea anaai yoi e?anioa oaoie/aneeo ecaeaeee. O?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa,
iaoeiu, oaoie/aneea ecaeaeey iianaaeiaaiiai iieueciaaiey aeinoeaatho
niaa?oainoaa naieo oi?i. A oaoie/aneii i?iecaiaenoaa a naiii aeaea
niaa?oaaony ?ino e niceaeaiea aoi?ie i?e?iaeu. … E?anioa oaea/ii
auiieiaiiiai oaoie/aneiai iauaeoa ninoieo ia i?inoi a oeaeaniia?aciinoe,
ii a oii, /oi aeaiiay aauue iieiinoueth aoiaeeo a /aeiaa/aneia auoea. E
oae, eiia/ii, yoa e?anioa ninoieo ia a /?acia?ii aiaaoii i?iaiaioa e
eceeoieo oe?aoaieyo, iai?ioea, iie eaaeoony nei?aa iae?aneauie, ii a
/ai-oi oaeii, /oi iicaieyao iuooeoue a niaa?oaiiie oeaeaniia?aciinoe
i?aaeiaoa iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?e?iaeu, iaiaoiaeeiinoue, eioi?ay nia/aea
io/aoeeai i?inooiaao a oai?aiee /aeiaa/aneeo ?oe, a caoai oeaaeeaaaony a
aanniciaoaeueiii niceaeaiee aeecie… Yoe i?enouea naiie aaue ?aoaiey
ioe?uaathony eae au a no?aieaiee neaaeiaaoue aa/iui, ecia/aeueii aeaiiui
oi?iai”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: ssnia?n iaeiei ec ia?auo iiaeiye i?iaeaio iiaie ynoaoeee a
oaoiece?iaaiiii ie?a. Ii i?eciae caneeea oaoieee naa?oeaoeiny yaeaieai e
noi?ioee?iaae iiaoth “oaoie/aneoth ynoaoeeo”, eioi?ay, i/aaeaeii, noaiao
ni a?aiaiai iaiaeiaaaeiui yeaiaioii /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u.

4. *aeiaae a iiaii iauanoaa

I.Oiooea?:

“Yeaeo?iiiue eiooaaeae. ?aaeeeaeueiua eciaiaiey a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa
iaecaaaeii iiaeaeoo ca niaie caoaaouaathuea aeoo nioeeaeueiua eciaiaiey.
Aua i?e aeecie iaoaai iieieaiey e?oiiaeoea oaa?eee e o/?aaeaeaieay
iaiieiaeio iionoatho e i?aa?aoyony a neeaaeneea eee aeeeua iiiauaiey.
Eiaaea a iaeei i?ae?aniue aeaiue iu iieo/ei oaoieeo, iicaieythuoth a
eaaeaeii aeiia iai?oaeiaaoue iaaei?iaia “?aai/aa ianoi”, iniauaiiia
“oiiie” ieooouae iaoeieie, a iiaeao auoue, aua e eiie?iaaeueiie iaoeiie
eee eiiiuethoa?iui ioeueoii e oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiui ono?ienoaii, oi
aiciiaeiinoe i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou ia aeiio ?acei aic?anooo. ?yae
oooo?ieiaia n/eoaao, /oi ?acaeoea nenoai aeaonoi?iiiae nayce iicaieeo e
1990 a. cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eoue i?aeoeeo iaaeiiiiai o?oaea.

Ia?aaiae ?aai/eo iano ia aeii e oiaiueoaiea aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oa
iicaieeee au oaeaea oiaiueoeoue caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e
nieceoue ?anoiaeu ia aa ainonoaiiaeaiea. A iai?aaeaiee nicaeaiey
yeaeo?iiiiai eiooaaeaea aeaenoaotho e nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u. *ai aieueoa
nie?auaaony ?aai/ee aeaiue, oai aieueoa oaaee/eaaaony ioiineoaeueiia
a?aiy, cao?a/eaaaiiia ia iiacaeeo ia ?aaioo e ia?aoii, e oai aieaa
aano?aeiuie, e??aoeeiiaeueiuie, ?acae?aaeathueie noaiiayony yoe
“/aeii/iua aeaeaeaiey”. A yoi ia iiaeao ia niinianoaiaaoue ?inoo /enea
eeoe, ia aeaeathueo o?aoeoue noieueei a?aiaie aionooth e aunooiathueo ca
aieaa ?acoiioth i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiiaoe, a oii aea
iai?aaeaiee aeaenoaotho e aeoaieea oeaiiinoiua naeaeae, i?ienoiaeyuea a
iauanoaa. Iaeiiaoe, nicaeaiea yeaeo?iiiiai eiooaaeaea i?eaaei au e e
ii?aaeaeaiiui ineoieiae/aneei iineaaenoaeyi. Ie? aano?aeoiui neiaieia, a
eioi?ue ana aieueoa iia?oaeaaony ?aaioiee, iaaiaeeo ia iuneue i oii, /oi
aicieeathuay iiaay o?oaeiaay N?aaea /oaeaea iai e ia ii?aaeaeaiiii
o?iaia aeaaea aieaa aaceeea, /ai iuia nouanoaothuay. Iaeiaei ia ae?oaii
o?iaia ?aaioa ia aeiio i?aaeiieaaaao oaeoaeaiea i?yiuo yiioeeiiaeueiuo
ioiioaiee eae ni naieie aeiiaoieie, oae e n ninaaeyie”.

“Naiuey aoaeouaai. Naaiaeiy iu iinoiyiii neuoei i ?aniaaea naiuee…
Iaeiaei, eiaaea oieeotho i naiuea, oi iau/ii eiatho a aeaeo ia ana
ia?iiiia iiiaiia?acea aa aiciiaeiue oi?i, a oio eii?eoaiue oei naiuee,
eioi?ue aoe ii?iaeaeai “aoi?ie aieiie”: ioae-ei?ieeaoe,
aeaia-aeiiioicyeea e aeaoe… E eiaaea naaiaeiy aeanoe i?ecuaatho ian
“ainnoaiiaeoue naiueth”, iie eiatho a aeaeo eiaiii yoo ioeeaa?ioth
naiueth “aoi?ie aieiu”… Ii anee au iu aeaenoaeoaeueii oioaoe
ainnoaiiaeoue ioeeaa?ioth naiueth, iai ioaeii auei au caoi?iiceoue oiae
enoi?ee. Eai iu yaeyainy naeaeaoaeyie ia nia?oe naiuee, eae oaeiaie, a
?ac?ooaiey naiaeiie nenoaiu “aoi?ie aieiu” e aicieeiiaaiey iiiaeanoaa
iiauo oi?i naiuee. Aeaianneoeeaoeey n?aaenoa eioi?iaoeee e i?iecaiaenoaa
nii?iaiaeaeaaony aeaianneoeeaoeeae naiuee. (…)

Oaoie/aneea ?acaeoua no?aiu noaiiayony naaiaeiy naeaoaeyie aicieeiiaaiey
iiiaeanoaa oi?i naiuee. Eiiioiu (iaueiu), a?oiiu i?anoa?aeuo,
iauaaeeiythueony aeey niaianoiiai aaaeaiey oicyenoaa, ieaiaiiua
a?oiie?iaee n?aaee iaeioi?uo yoie/aneeo iaiueoeinoa, eiio?aeoiua
(aeiaiai?iua) e na?eaeueiua (ia?eiaee/aneea) a?aee, naiuee, a eioi?uo
noi?oae aeeaoo e ?aaioatho a ?aciuo ai?iaeao, – aio aeaeaei ia iieiue
ia?a/aiue nouanoaothueo naiaeiuo oi?i… Eaeea oi?iu naiuee en/acioo, a
eaeea iieo/ao oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea, aoaeao caaenaoue ia noieueei io
i?iiiaaaeae i “nayoinoe naiuee”, neieueei io oiai, ii eaeiio ?oneo iu
iai?aaei ?acaeoea oaoieee e i?aaiecaoeeth o?oaea”.

“?iaeaeaiea (i?inuethia?a(. A ia?eiae “ia?aie aieiu” aieueoeinoai
ethaeae iio?aaeyei oi, /oi i?iecaiaeeee naie. Iie auee, oae neacaoue,
“i?io?aaeoaeyie”. I?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey ?acaaea ooieoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey, ii?iaeea oai naiui i?iecaiaeeoaey e
iio?aaeoaey. [A ianoiyuaa a?aiy] a?aieoea, ioaeaeythuay i?iecaiaeeoaey
io iio?aaeoaey, noaiiaeony ana iaiaa /aoeie. ?anoao cia/aiea
“i?inuethia?a”… Naeaeaoaeuenoaii oiio iiaeao neoaeeoue auno?ue ?ino
a?oii naiiiiiiiue ai iiiaeo i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao. ..

Ni a?aiaiai iieiay aaoiiaoecaoeey iicaieeo eeeaioo – /a?ac iin?aaenoai
eiiiuethoa?a, eioi?ue aoaeao ?aaoee?iaaoue niioaaonoaothuea i?ioeannu –
naiiio eiino?oe?iaaoue ioaeioth aio i?iaeoeoeeth. Oae /oi a eoiaa
iio?aaeoaeue noaiao oaeie aea /anoueth i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna,
eaeie ia nia?aiaiiii, oie?athuai, i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony nai?uee,
?aaioathuee ia eiiaaea?a.

Iaeiei neiaii, i?ienoiaeeo eae au aica?auaiea a iauanoai “i?inuethia?a”,
eioi?ue aue ainiiaenoaothuae oeao?ie a iauanoaa “ia?aie aieiu”. Ii,
?acoiaaony, yoi aoaeao “i?inuethia?”, iniauaiiue nia?aiaiiie oaoieeie,
?aaioathuee a yeaeo?iiiii eiooaaeaea e aaaeouee nia?aiaiiue ia?ac
aeecie”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: A i?ioeeoe?iaaiiuo o?aaiaioao ec ?aaiou “O?aouey aieia”
Oiooea? cao?aaeaaao iaeaieaa, ii aai iiaieth, aaaeiua noa?u
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea a iiaii iauanoaa: naiuey, aeii, auo.
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi oioy aai i?aaeiieiaeaiey e eiatho a naaa yeaiaio
yiie?e/iinoe e ooiie/iinoe, ii iie iniiauaathony ia no?iai iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaieyo e noaoenoe/aneeo aueeaaeeao.

Ae.Aaee:

“Caaiaeiy niaoeeaeenou i?aaeneacuaatho iiyaeaiea (eeiaeiuo ai?iaeia(, a
eioi?uo ia aoaeao oeaio?aeueiuo ieiuaaeae e oi?aiauo oeaio?ia,
oa?aeoa?iuo aeey eeanne/aneeo aa?iiaeneeo ai?iaeia. A.O.Neeiia?
iieaaaao, /oi a yiioo ?acaeouo eiiioieeaoeee iuiaoiea a?iiaaeiua e ana
iaiaa oi?aaeyaiua ai?iaea onooiyo ianoi naoyi iaaieueoeo ai?iaeia.
Ii?aaaeathony ee yoe i?iaiicu, iaynii: aeeciue e nia?oue ai?iaeia – yoi
aeeeoaeueiue enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann. *oi, iaeiaei, eciaieony, oae yoi
naia eiioeaioeey (o?aaiecia(. 30 eao iacaae E.Aa?o a naiai
caia/aoaeueiii ynna (O?aaieci eae ia?ac aeecie( ii?aaeaeee o?aaieci eae
a aunoae noaiaie eioa?aeoeaiue, iiaeeueiue e iieeoe/anee /oanoaeoaeueiue
ia?ac aeecie a i?ioeaiaan aeecie a iaaieueoii ai?iaeea eee aea?aaia,
ceaeaeoueony ia einoeoooao naiuee e oea?eae.

<...> A i?ioeii aieueoeinoai iauanoa auee yeeoa?iuie e cae?uouie a oii
niunea, /oi a?enoie?aoey auea /?acau/aeii caieiooui nineiaeai. A
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio nia?aiaiiua iauanoaa noaee ioe?uouie, i?e yoii
ii ia?a oiai eae ciaiey e oaoie/aneay eiiiaoaioiinoue noaiiaeeenue
iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai aeey aoiaea a yeeoo, iniiaie i?ioeanna aeey oaeiai
i?iaeaeaeaiey noaiiaeeinue ia?aciaaiea. A iinoeiaeono?eaeueiii iauanoaa
yeeoa – yoi yeeoa ciathueo ethaeae. Oaeay yeeoa iaeaaeaao aeanoueth a
i?aaeaeao einoeoooia, naycaiiuo n eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth –
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeee, oieaa?neoaoia e o.i. – ii a ie?a
aieueoie iieeoeee iia iaeaaeaao ia aieaa /ai aeeyieai. Iinoieueeo,
iineieueeo iieeoe/aneea aii?inu ana oaniaa ia?aieaoathony n oaoie/aneeie
i?iaeaiaie (a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao – io aiaiiie oaoiieiaee aei
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee), (yeeoa ciaiey( iiaeao noaaeoue i?iaeaiu,
eieoeee?iaaoue iiaua aii?inu e i?aaeeaaaoue oaoie/aneea ?aoaiey aeey
aiciiaeiuo ioaaoia, ii iia ia iaeaaeaao aeanoueth neacaoue (aea( eee
(iao(. A yoie nayce e?aeia i?aoaaee/aiiie i?aaenoaaeyaony eaeay i oii,
/oi (yeeoa ciaiey( iiaeao noaoue iiaie yeeoie aeanoe.

*oi, iaeiaei, aa?ii, oae yoi oi, /oi a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa ?anoao
yeeoa?eci, /aio a aieueoie ia?a niaeaenoaotho ?acee/iua a?oiiu (yeeou
ciaiey(, iniaaiii iieiaeaaeiie”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: A i?ioeeoe?iaaiiuo io?uaeao Ae.Aaee ia?auaao aieiaiea ia
aeaa aii?ina /aeiaa/aneiai auoey aoaeouaai: aeeciue a ai?iaeao e
i?ioeann o?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua oaea naaiaeiy aeinoaaeytho ianno caaio
eae a?aaeino?ieoaeyi, oae e yeieiaai, e nioeeaeueiua i?iii?oeee iiaiai
iauanoaa, a eioi?ii i?aaeiyy “?iaeiaay” yeeoa aoaeao iioaniaia a iieueco
“yeeou ciaiey”.

O.Aeaeca?ae:

“Iuiaoiea nenoaiu iiaoo iiaeeeth/aoue naieo aaiiaioia oieueei e
n?aaieoaeueii aieueoei e oeaio?aeeciaaiiui eiiiuethoa?iui aaieai.
Neaaeothuee oaa, eioi?ue oaoiieiaey iicaieyao naeaeaoue oaea nae/an,
aeano aaiiaioai aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaaaoue naie nianoaaiiua aacu aeaiiuo.
Ethaee niiaoo ia?aaeaaaoue niath eioi?iaoeeth oeaio?aeueiui aaieai
aeaiiuo, ae?oaei aaiiaioai – aacaiciacaeii eee ca ieaoo – eeai
iaeaieeaaoue aa ia aoaeouaa. Oae iu iieo/ei naiaai ?iaea iiaoth Ia?aoth
iii?aaeo e Eiinoeoooeee, iiaue aa?eaio iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai iauanoaa, aaea eaaeaeue /aeiaae – o?aieoaeue e
ecaeaoaeue naiae nianoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, aai aeayoaeueiinoue a yoii
ioiioaiee ia iiin?aaeoaony ieeaeeie aeanoyie – iauanoaaiiuie eee
/anoiuie, e ii naiaiaeii caieiaaony ath, iiea iiea/eaaao a eiioea
ianyoea n/aoa ca oaeaoiiii-eiiiuethoa?iua oneoae. <...>

A?yaeouea eciaiaiey… cao?iioo nenoaio iaoaai ia?aciaaiey… N iiaie
oaoiieiaeae (i?iaeieaeathuaany ia?aciaaiea( aoaeao /ai-oi aieueoei,
iaaeaee eo?nu ia?aiiaeaioiaee e ae?oaea aeaeu oae iacuaaaiiai
ia?aciaaiey aeey ac?ineuo… A eiioea eiioeia ia?aae iaie ioe?uaaao
ia?niaeoeau anooieaiey a aae, a eioi?ii ethaie ooieoea, neaey ca
eiiiuethoa?iui oa?ieiaeii a eaai?aoi?ee, ioena, ioaee/iie aeaeeioaea,
niiaeao i?iniao?eaaoue iaaiia?aceii eieinnaeueiua caeaaee eioi?iaoeee,
iaoiaeyuaeny a ?acee/iuo aaieao aeaiiuo. Yaeenii aiai?ee, /oi aaiee yoi
– 99% iioaiey e 1% aaeioiiaaiey. Oae aio, /a?ac /aou?a aeanyoeeaoey
iinea aai nia?oe iu noaee iaeaaeaoaeyie iaoei, eioi?ua iiaoo nie?aoeoue
/anoue ?aaiou, o?aaothuae iioaiey, ai?acaei aieueoa, /ai a 90 ?ac.
Iineieueeo a ?acoeueoaoa iaiiiai aieueoa, /ai i?aaeaea, ethaeae niiaoo n
oniaoii caieiaoueny enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaioie, yoi iaaa?iyea oaaee/eo
aa?iyoiinoue auyaeaiey ethaeae ni niiniaiinoyie Yeiooaeia eee Yaeeniia.
Aei neo aea ii?, ii iiaio iiaieth, eeoue aaeeieoeu iioaioeeaeueiuo
aaieaa /aeiaa/anoaa eiaee aiciiaeiinoue caieiaoueny enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
?aaioie”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: A io?uaea ec ?aaiou O.Aeaeca?aea iiae iacaaieai
“Ianooieaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aaea” cao?aaeaathony aaaeiua aii?inu,
eanathueany aua aeaoo noa? /aeiaa/aneie aeecie – ia?aciaaiey e
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa e naiaiae ee/iinoe. Ethaiiuoii, /oi anee
aeaeca?aeianeea i?iaiicu i ieeeeiiao Yaeeniiia e Yeiooaeiia ioaeatho
ooiie/iinoueth, oi aai nenoaia ?aaeecaoeee naiaiaeu neiaa aiieia
?aaeueia e i?aeoe/anee ?aaioiniiniaia oaea nae/an a aeaea iiiai/eneaiiuo
eiiiuethoa?iuo noaioeee e naoae.

Aeae.Ia?oei:

“I?aaenoaaueoa naaa ai?iae aoaeouaai… Aunioiua aeiia ?aniieiaeaiu ia
neeoeii aeecei ae?oa e ae?oao, oae /oi eo aeeoaeyi ioe?uaathony aeaeaeea
aeaeu. Iiae oeeoeaie i?iaaaeaiu eaaaeueiua naoe, iaania/eaathuea
anaaiciiaeiua aeaeu eiiioieeaoeee.

O aeeoaeae yoiai ai?iaea iao oaeie iaiaoiaeeiinoe a o?ainii?oiuo
iiacaeeao… Aaieianeea iia?aoeee inouanoaeythony ec aeiia, ?aaii eae e
i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?ia… Any/aneea iiiu?yaony ?aaioa aeiia, auiieyaiay
/a?ac oa?ieiaeu e aeaeaioiiu… I?anooiiinoue eaioea a i?ioeia, oee/iuo
ia?aaeaiee ia i?ienoiaeeo, iioiio /oi ethaee iinyo i?e naaa iaei
iaee/iinoe… I?aaeaea ethaee eiaee i?e naaa ea?iaiiue eaeueeoeyoi?,
oaia?ue – ea?iaiiue eiiiuethoa?iue oa?ieiae. Iauanoaaiiuua naoe
eiiioieeaoeee iianaianoiu e aeaoaau, aeinooiiu ec eaaeaeie oaeaoiiiie
aoaeee.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue oi?aaeyaony aeaaiui ia?acii iaoeiaie. Iniiaioth /anoue
iaoaie/aneie ?aaiou auiieiytho aaoiiaoe/aneea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eeiee e
?iaiou, a aaeieienoa?oeaiie – nenoaiu ia?aaioee aeaiiuo… Ai ecaaaeaiea
aac?aaioeoeu i?iaeeaiu oee-yiaeu, i?ionithcu aea o?aaotho aeaeueiaeoaai
nie?auaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie. Aoiaaeiay ?aaioa ?anoeaieaaaony eae
i?anooiiia ?anoi/eoaeuenoai a?aiaie. Aeaeiaua ethaee iinyo n niaie
ieieaoth?iua eiiiuethoa?u, /a?ac eioi?ua iie ec ethaie oi/ee
naycuaathony ni naiei ioenii.

I?aaenoaaueoa naaa iaaieueoia
[niaiauaiiia n nenoaiie oaeaaeaeaiey] onoienoai n eeaaeaoo?ie a eaaeaeii
aeiia. *a?ac iaai ii oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiui naoyi ia?aaeathony ianeiaeiua
niiauaiey oeaio?aeueiiio eiiiuethoa?o…. Iinea o?aineyoeee iieeoe/aneie
?a/e eee ai a?aiy ia?aaea/e iineaaeieo iiainoae c?eoaeeae i?inyo
niiaueoue i naiae iiceoeee ii oiio eee eiiio aii?ino. I?aceaeaio nai
iiaeao cai?ineoue iiaiea c?eoaeae ii oiio eee eiiio iieiaeaieth naiae
?a/e… ?aniiiaeaioiia oaeaaeaeaiea iiaeao noaoue yooaeoeaiaeoei eaiaeii
eiiioieeaoeee, /anoue aeaiie?aoe/aneiai i?ioeanna – a aieueoae noaiaie,
iaaeaee iuiaoiea ii?inu iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey.

?anoeaao aeaiie?aoee – i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia?iaea, neeaie ia?iaea e aeey
ia?iaea – eiae ianoi a Aoeiao e ae?oaeo a?a/aneeo
ai?iaeao-ainoaea?noaao. A?a/aneay aeaiie?aoey auea yooaeoeaia iioiio,
/oi o ioae/ei auei aeinoaoi/ii iiiai naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie, /oiau
ano?a/aoueny, aeeneooe?iaaoue e iieo/aoue iiaaeooth eioi?iaoeeth: ca ieo
o?oaeeeenue aeaiueiu e ?aau. Naaiaeiy iu anooiaai a aae aaoiiaoecaoeee,
aeaiueiu o?aaiaiu a i?aaao n ioae/eiaie, ii ?aau o ian iiaoo auoue – yoi
iaoeiu”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: O Aeae. Ia?oeia iiaeii iaaethaeaoue oaeia aea niaoaiea
ooiie/aneea e ?aaeenoe/aneeo yeaiaioia, eae e o O.Aeaeca?aea. A naiii
aeaea, ia/aei i?ioeeoe?iaaiiiai io?uaea iaiiieiaao ia?aua no?iee
oaioanoe/aneiai ?iiaia, a nenoaia ?aniiiaeaioiiai oaeaaeaeaiey
oaoie/anee ?aaeecoaia naaiaeiyoieie n?aaenoaa e eiiaaea aeaaea
i?eiaiyaony (i?aaaea, ia aeey aieiniaaiey, a a oio-ia?aaea/ao, aaea
iiaeaaaeaiea eoiaia i?iecaiaeeony ii?inii c?eoaeae ii oaeaoiio eee /a?ac
caiiee a nooaeeth).

5. I?iaeaiu iiaiai iauanoaa

AE.Yeetheue:

“Naaiaeiy iu ia?aaeeaaai oaiiiai, ii?iaeeaoee iiiai iaaeaaeae. Yoi –
i?aia?aaeaiea oaoieee. Iia oioaeinue au ooi/ieoue, /oi aieioue aei 70-o
aiaeia iaoaai noieaoey oaoieea auea iiiieeoiie neeie, i?eaioe?iaaiiie
eeoue a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee. Iia auea aeaenoaeoaeueii nenoaiie e eiaei
oieueei iaeio iuneeioth oeaeue – ?ino ai anao iai?aaeaieyo,
?acaa?ouaaiea iiuiinoae, i?iecaiaenoaa e o.ae., oioy iaeioi?ua
iaaethaeaoaee ia/eiaee oaea noaaeoue iiae niiiaiea yoio ?ino. Naaiaeiy
aaoiiaoecaoeey e eioi?iaoecaoeey niiniaiu iaei-iiiaeo niaieoue
i?eaioaoeeth oaoieee. Naia ii naaa oaoie/aneay iooaoeey, eioi?iaoecaoeey
oaoieee, ia auciaao ieeaeiai eciaiaiey a iieiaeaiee i?ieaoa?eaoa,
iaeioueo iann, ieeaeiai inaiaiaeaeaiey /aeiaaea ia i?eianao, anee ia
aoaeao ?aoeiinoe, niciaoaeueiiai auai?a, aiee, niiniaiie eniieueciaaoue
oaoieeo a yoii iai?aaeaiee. Iaciaai aa iieeoe/aneie aieae…
Eioi?iaoecaoeey iicaieeea au aua?aoueny ec oaoie/aneie nenoaiu… Ii
naaiaeiy aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeia iiaeeeiiay ?aaiethoeey ii ioiioaieth e
ainoaea?noao e aaoiiiiece?iaaaoaeny oaoieea.

Ia iie acaeyae, nae/an… iu auoee e ?acaeeea enoi?e/aneiai iooe, e
ianoo aiciiaeiiai ia?ana/aiey iaaeaeo naiaiaeiui nioeeaeeciii e
eeaa?iaoecaoeeae iauanoaa. Aeaei aua ia i?iea?aii. Aeaaiia, /oiau ie?
eioi?iaoeee, ionoue aeaaea naiui iaaeiiui e iaiaeeaaaeeenoneei ia?acii,
ia noae aaaioii oaoie/aneie nenoaiu, oaai/aa naia aeaeaeaiea e
eiioeaio?aoeee, e anai?iieeathuaio eiio?ieth. Eiaaea oaeia
eeaa?iaoece?iaaiiia ainoaea?noai “noaaoeony”, eae noaaouaaaony eaaeyiay
ooaa eee aaoii, oi aoaeao, no?iai aiai?y, oaea neeoeii iicaeii”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Aeaiiay oeeoaoa ec ?aaiou o?aioeocneiai nioeeieiaa e
iieeoieiaa AE.Yeethey naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oao o?oaeiinoyo, eioi?ua
aeaeoo /aeiaa/anoai ia iooe e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauanoao. Nianoaaiii
aiai?y, yoa i?iaeaia – “aeaiieeia ia/”, eioi?ua aoaeao aa/ii aenaoue
iaae /aeiaa/anoaii, eai aeaaea a “eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa” iianiinoue
iiyaeaiey eioi?iaoece?iaaiii-ath?ie?aoe/aneie iaoeiu inoaaony.

Ae.Aaee:

“Nae/an noaiiaeony ana aieaa i/aaeaeiie oa?ica iieeoeaeneiai e
iieeoe/aneiaiiaaethaeaiey ca eiaeeaeaeaie n eniieueciaaieai eciu?aiiie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoieee… Ana yoi yeaiaioa?ii iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iaeei ec
noa?aeoeo… iieeoe/aneeo o?theciia: eiaaea eaeia-eeai aaaionoai,
iaea/aiiia aeanoueth, onoaiaaeeaaao ath?ie?aoe/aneea ii?iu e no?aieony
ai /oi au oi ie noaei ianaaeaeaoue eo, nicaeaaony oa?ica
ceioiio?aaeaiee. Ae?oaie ia iaiaa aaaeiue iiiaio caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
eiio?ieue iaae eioi?iaoeeae /aua anaai aueeaaaony a ceioiio?aaeaiey,
ia/eiay n nie?uoey eioi?iaoeee e eii/ay aa iacaeiiiui iaia?iaeiaaieai, e
/oi, aeaau i?aaeioa?aoeoue yoe ceioiio?aeaieey, iaiaoiaeeiu
einoeoooeeiiaeueiua eciaiaiey, i?aaeaea anaai a noa?a eioi?iaoeee”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Iiaiea Ae.Aaeea ia?aeeeeaaony n i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea
AE.Yeethey i aiciiaeiinoe n?anoaiey eioi?iaoeee e ath?ie?aoee a aaeeioth
iiuioth nenoaio. Aiciiaeiinoue iinoaaeoue /aeiaaea iiae eiio?ieue
oaoieee – yoi aoi?ie “aeaiieeia ia/”, eioi?ue aoaeao aa/ii aenaoue iaae
aieiaaie aeeoaeae “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”.

E.ssnia?n:

“Ana aic?anoathuay aeiey o?oaea aaaeao e iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee
aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaioathuaai /aeiaaea. O?oae ia iaeaa/aao a?aiy /aeiaaea
a aai oii?iiii aicaeaenoaee ia i?e?iaeo, a i?aa?auaao /aeiaaea a /anoue
iaoeiu.

Aneaaenoaea oiiaeiaeaiey anae aeeciaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaioa iaoeiu
iauanoai noaiiaeony iioiaea ia iaeio aieueooth iaoeio, i?aaiecothuoth
anath aeeciue ethaeae. Ath?ie?aoey Aaeioa, ?eineie eiia?ee – eeoue
iiaenooiau e nia?aiaiioth ainoaea?noao n aai ?acaaoaaeiiui /eiiaie/ueei
aiia?aoii. Ana, /oi caaeoiaii aeey inouanoaeaiey eaeie-eeai
aeayoaeueiinoe, aeieaeii auoue iino?iaii ii ia?acoeo iaoeiu, o.a.
aeieaeii iaeaaeaoue oi/iinoue, i?aaeia/a?oaiiinoueth aeaenoaee, auoue
naycaiiui aiaoieie i?aaeeaie… Neaaenoaey yoie iaoeiecaoeee
i?ienoaeatho ec aaniethoiia i?aainoiaenoaa iaoaie/aneie
i?aaeia/a?oaiinoe, en/eneyaiinoe e iaaeaaeiinoe. Ana, naycaiiia n
aeooaaiuie ia?aaeeaaieyie e aa?ie, aeiioneaaony eeoue i?e oneiaee, /oi
iii iieacii aeey oeaee, iinoaaeaiiie ia?aae iaoeiie. *aeiaae nai
noaiiaeony iaeiei ec aeaeii au?uey, iiaeeaaeauaai oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie
ia?aaioea. Iiyoiio oio, eoi ?aiueoa aue noanoaioeeae oeaeiai e aai
niuneii – /aeiaae, – oaia?ue noaiiaeony n?aaenoaii… Ethaee a naiae
ianna oiiaeiaeythony ian/eieai e, aoaeo/e eeoaiu ei?iae, iiaoo auoue
iiyoiio eniieueciaaiu iaeeo/oei ia?acii. Iuouaiea aeecie neoaeeo iau/ii
?oaaaeii iaaeaeo i?aauaaieai ia ?aaioa e /anoiie aeeciueth. Iaeiaei
/anoiay aeeciue noaiiaeony ionoie, iaoaiece?oaony, e aeinoa,
oaeiaeaoai?aiea i?aa?auathony a ?aaioo”.

“Iiyoiio /aeiaae aeeaao eeai a ninoiyiee aeoaieie iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe
niaie, eeai ioeacuaaaony io naiiai naay, /oiau i?aa?aoueny a
ooeioeeiie?othuoth aeaoaeue iaoeiu, ia ?aciuoeyy, i?aaeaoueny naiaio
aeoaeueiiio nouanoaiaaieth, oa?yy naith eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue,
ia?niaeoeao i?ioeiai e aoaeouaai, e ia?aie/eoueny oceie iieineie
ianoiyuaai, /oiau, eciaiyy naiiio naaa, noaoue eaaei caiaiyaiui e
i?eaiaeiui aeey ethaie iinoaaeaiiie ia?aae iei oeaee, i?aauaaoue a ieaio
?ac e iaanaaaea aeaiiuo, iai?iaa?aiiuo, iaiiaeaeaeiuo,
iaaeeaeaeoe/aneeo, eaei niaiythueo ae?oa ae?oaa eeethci?iuo
aeinoiaa?iinoae.

Oio aea, eoi oaeo a naaa iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue, i?iyaeythuothny a aa/iii
aaniieienoaa, iinoiyiii iuouaao aioo?aiiee ?aceaae. Ii auioaeaeai
anaaaea iineoue ianeo, iaiyoue yoo ianeo a caaeneiinoe io neooaoeee e io
ethaeae, n eioi?uie ii iauaaony. Ii ia?anoaao iinoeaaoue naiiai naay,
oae eae, iiny iinoiyiii ianeo, ii a eiioea eiioeia nai oaea ia ciaao,
eoi ii”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: ssnia?n ianeieueei ae?aiaoece?oao neooaoeeth
“oae?o/aiiinoe” /aeiaaea a iiaii iauanoaa, ii aeaeaao yoi iaaieueii,
aa?y ca oi/eo ion/aoa naaiaeiyoiee eee caao?aoiee aeaiue, a ia
iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aaea”. E oioy ii
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao i oao aea iianiinoyo, /oi Yeetheue e Aaee, oai ia iaiaa
ii naouaao e?anee, caauaay i aeaoiai?aaeaiiii naienoaa eioi?iaoeee – iia
?aciiiaeaaony aia caaeneiinoe io oiai, ioeoaea enoiaeeo.

?.Eiyi:

“Iu ai?aaa aeiionoeoue, /oi iuiaoiea a?aiaia ii e?aeiae ia?a a aeaoo
aaaeiaeoeo ioiioaieyo ioee/athony io i?ioeiai. Ai-ia?auo, ii?aaeaeaiiue
eiee/anoaaiiue ?ino aeinoea e?eoe/aneie oi/ee, ca eioi?ie, eae i?eiyoi
aiai?eoue, eiee/anoai ia?aoiaeeo a ea/aoai, ?ino anooiaao a iaeioi?oth
iiaoth oaco… Aoi?ay aeeciaiii aaaeiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoaai a?aiaie…
yoi anaie?iue oa?aeoa? nioeeaeueiuo e oaoie/aneeo i?iaeai, eee, eae
neacae au iieiaeie Ia?en, iaia?oaeaiea… (?iaeiaie nouiinoe( yoeo
i?iaeai,.. n?aaee eioi?uo auaeaeythony neaaeothuea:

iieeoe/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea i?aiyonoaey e oiio, /oiau oaoieea
eniieueciaaeanue aeey eeeaeaeaoeee ieuaou; yoi ioiineony aeaaea e naiui
i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoui no?aiai, ia aiai?y oaea i no?aiao (o?aoueaai ie?a(,
aaea aaaeiinoue noaaeo ethaeae ia a?aiue au?iaeaeaiey;

ianiiniaiinoue nioeeaeueiuo iaoe – e yiie?e/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a eo
enoi?e/aneii aniaeoa, e enneaaeiaaiee nia?aiaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo
eciaiaiee, ?aaii eae e iaoiaeieiaee iauanoaaiiuo aeenoeeieei, – ?aoaoue
naie aeaaiua i?aeoe/aneea e oai?aoe/aneea caaea/e;

iaaeinoaoee ia?aciaaiey e ainieoaiey ai anai ie?a, i?aiyonoaothuea
?aoaieth oeacaiiuo i?iaeai, iaoathuea caei?iaiaio, oai?/aneiio
iiieiaieth iaoee e oaoieee eae ninoaaiie /anoe aoiaienoe/aneiai
ainieoaiey a yiioo iao/ii-oaoie/aneai i?ia?anna; yoi ioiineony e e
iiaeaioiaea niaoeeaeenoia, e e iauaio ia?aciaaieth aieueoeinoaa ethaeae
(e oiio aea iiaeaioiaea niaoeeaeenoia no?aaeaao eoeueoeae?oaiui
yeeoeciii);

ianiiniaiinoue iiiaeo no?ai ?ac?aoeoue i?iaeaiu naiaai
eiaeono?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey aioo?aiieo ?ano?nia
eeai iooai ni?aaaaeeeaiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey eaieoaeia e ?ano?nia
iaaeaeo ?acaeouie eaieoaeenoe/aneeie (a oaeaea nioeeaeenoe/aneeie, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue NNN?) no?aiaie e no?aiaie “o?aoueaai ie?a”, a oaeaea
eniieueciaaiey ecauoi/iiai nu?uey, aeiauaaaiiai a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
(ca eneeth/aieai iaooe e iaeioi?uo eneiiaaiuo ?oae a ?yaea ?aeiiia
ieaiaou);

ianiiniaiinoue iao/iie e oaoie/aneie yeeou i?aiaeieaoue naith
iaoeeiiaeueioth ia?aie/aiiinoue, yeeoa?enoneia niciaiea, anee ia
n/eoaoue ianeieueeeo aa?ie/aneeo eneeth/aiee (iai?eia?, Iaaoioneia
aeaeaeaiea eee AIC), a iniaaiiinoe yoi eanaaony ianiiniaiinoe
i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaaoue eaeaieiae/aneei ianeiaieyi a iaoea;

oaoeoeci iaoee, eaeouee ia?aeeaeueii n oaoeoeciii iio?aaeaiey,
aaueciii”.

Eiiiaioa?ee: ?.Eiyi iiiuoaeny a eiioeaio?e?iaaiiii aeaea i?aaenoaaeoue
/eoaoaeth i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa, eioi?ua iaecaaaeii noaioo aua
aieaa cia/eiuie ii ia?a oiai, eae iu aoaeao aoiaeeoue a “eioi?iaoeeiiiue
aae”. Nienie ec oanoe ioieoia cao?aaeaaao iiiaea iaeanoe /aeiaa/aneie
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, iaeiaei yaeyaony aeaeaei ia en/a?iuaathuei. Iia
eaaeaony, /oi ethaie /aeiaae iiaeao aeiienaoue a iaai aua ii ioieoo e
ana ?aaii nienie aoaeao ia iieii.

*anoue II. Auaiaeu e ioeaiee

1. Iiiyoea “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”

Ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” yaeyaony iaeiei ec
eeth/aauo iiiaioia aeaiiie ?ac?aaioee, e eiaiii iiyoiio y ?aoee auianoe
yoio aii?in a ioaeaeueioth oaio.

A 50-70-a aiaeu noaei i/aaeaeii, /oi /aeiaa/anoai anooiaao a iiaoth
yiioo, aei?iao e eioi?ie i?ieiaeeei ao?iia ?acaeoea oaoieee e, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue, eiiiuethoa?ia, e IO? a oeaeii. I?iaeaia nouanoaiaaiey e auoey
/aeiaaea a iieiinoueth “oaoiece?iaaiiii” e “eioi?iaoece?iaaiiii” ie?a ia
iiaea ia caieiaoue oeeinioia, /oi aucaaei e aeecie eiioeaioeeth
“eioi?iaoeeiiiiai” iauanoaa. Ie iaeei ec oeeinioia, ienaaoeo i aeaiiie
i?iaeaia, ia niiiaaaeny a ?aaeeeaeueiii iaiiaeaiee anae aeecie
/aeiaa/anoaa a ?aieao yoie iiaie oi?iaoeee, ii aieueoeinoai ec ieo
aiaeece?iaaee i?iaeaio iaeiinoi?iiia, aoaeue oi n iieeoe/aneie,
yeiiiie/aneie eee nioeeaeueiie oi/ee c?aiey. Yoi ii?iaeeee ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai ?aciiia?aciuo iacaaiee e ii?aaeaeaiee, i eioi?uo aiai?eo
O.Aeaeca?ae. Ethaiiuoii caiaoeoue, /oi ii/oe ana i?aaeeiaeaiiua iacaaiey
eiatho eaoeineoth i?enoaaeo “iino-”, o.a. “iinea-”, neiaii eo nicaeaoaee
iaeeaeatho eaeiai-oi anaie?iiai eaoaeeecia, aeiaaeueiiai ia?aai?ioa a
oaoieea e a niciaiee ethaeae, iinea eioi?iai aae?oa ia/iaony iiaay y?a,
iiaay yiioa, aicieeiao iiaia iauanoai. Eiaiii iiyoiio auei oae aaaeii
iaeoe i?eieoeeieaeueii iiaia iacaaiea, iaeiia?aiaiii iieacuaathuaa
i?aainoaaiiinoue e i?eioeeieaeueioth iiaecio a?yaeouaai iauanoaa. E
oaeei iacaaieai noaei i?eaeoiaiiia Oiooea?ii “eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai”.

Oae eae nai aaoi? eiioeaioeee “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” ia aeae
/aoeiai ii?aaeaeaiey naiaio “aeaoeuo”, y iiiuoathnue yoi naeaeaoue ca
iaai. I/aaeaeii, /oi iaeuecy ia?aie/eaaoueny a ii?aaeaeaiee /enoi
yeiiiie/aneei aniaeoii, eae yoi naeaeae A.Oo?ai, eee nioeeaeueiuie
oaeoi?aie, eae yoi iieo/eeinue o AE.Yeethey, iineieueeo eiiieaeniua e
iiiaiiai?aaeaiiua ia?aiaiu ioaaoyo i?aeoe/anee ana noa?u /aeiaa/aneie
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, “eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai” – yoi
oeeaeeecaoeey, a iniiaa ?acaeoey e nouanoaiaaiey eioi?ie eaaeeo iniaay
iaiaoa?eaeueiay noanoaioeey, oneiaii eiaioaiay “eioi?iaoeeae”,
iaeaaeathuay naienoaii acaeiiaeaenoaey eae n aeooiaiui, oae e n
iaoa?eaeueiui ie?ii /aeiaaea. Iineaaeiaa naienoai iniaaiii aaaeii aeey
iiieiaiey nouiinoe iiaiai iauanoaa, eai, n iaeiie noi?iiu, eioi?iaoeey
oi?ie?oao iaoa?eaeueioth n?aaeo aeecie /aeiaaea, aunooiay a ?iee
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, eiiiuethoa?iuo i?ia?aii,
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo i?ioieieia e o.i., a n ae?oaie, neoaeeo iniiaiui
n?aaenoaii iaaeee/iinoiuo acaeiiioiioaiee, iinoiyiii aicieeay,
aeaeieciaiyynue e o?ainoi?ie?oynue a i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea io iaeiiai
/aeiaaea e ae?oaiio. Oaeei ia?acii eioi?iaoeey iaeiia?aiaiii ii?aaeaeyao
e nioeei-eoeueoo?ioth aeeciue /aeiaaea e aai iaoa?eaeueiia auoea. A
yoii, ii iiaio iiaieth, e ninoieo i?eioeeieaeueiay iiaecia a?yaeouaai
iauanoaa.

2. Enoi?e/aneea yoaiu ?acaeoey e oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai

iauanoaa

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai eiioeaioeee, iuoathueony iauynieoue, ii/aio a
enoi?ee ana i?ienoiaeeei oae, a ia eia/a. Iniiaiuie ec ieo o?aaeeoeeiiii
n/eoathony “oeeaeeecaoeeiiiay” (aaoi?u – Oieiae, Aeaieeaaneee) e
“oi?iaoeeiiiay” (ciaiaieoay “iyoe/eaiea” Ia?ena). Ia?aay ec ieo eeaaeao
a iniiao ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa nioeei-eoeueoo?iua oeiu, a
aoi?ay – i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiua ioiioaiey.

Oeeiniou-aaoi?u eiioeaioeee “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai (iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai)
iauanoaa” oae e ia i?eoee e aaeeiiio iiaieth i oii, /oi ia?ae/ii a eo
enoi?e/aneie eiioeaioeee – aeooiaiay eeai iaoa?eaeueiay noa?a. Yoi
aeieacuaatho oeeoaou ec Oiooea?a e ssnia?na. Iniiaiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
acaeyaeaie Oiooea?a e ssnia?na caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi anee iineaaeiee
n/eoaao ia/aeii ia?aoiaea e iiaie oeeaeeecaoeee eciaieaoaany niciaiea
ethaeae, oi ia?aue iieaaaao iiiaioii ianooieaiey iiaie “aieiu”
eciaieaoaany auoea /aeiaaea e n?aaeo aai iaeoaiey.

Iaeiaei i?e anai iiiaiia?acee aicc?aiee ia oiae enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey
iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue ?yae iaueo oa?aeoa?enoe/aneeo /a?o o anao aaoi?ia:

enoi?ey iiae?acaeaeyaony ia o?e iniiaiuo aeiaaeueiuo yoaia, eioi?ua
oneiaii iiaeii iacaaoue “naeueneioicyenoaaiiue”, “eiaeono?eaeueiue” e
“iinoeiaeono?eaeueiue”;

?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo yoaiaie i?iaiaeeony ii i?eciaeo eaaeaueo a iniiaa
?anniao?eaaaiie oi?iaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee eee
acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea n i?e?iaeie (niioaaonoaaiii – /a?ac i?oaeey,
/a?ac iaoeio eee oaoieeo e /a?ac eioi?iaoeeth);

ia?aoiae e neaaeothuaio yoaio inouanoaeyaony iooai iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
?aaiethoeee, a oiaea eioi?ie eciaiyaony n?aaea iaeoaiey, /oi, a naith
i/a?aaeue, aea/ao o?ainoi?iaoeee a niciaiee ethaeae;

caaa?oathuei enoi?e/aneei yoaiii, eioi?ue, ii iiaieth iaeeio oeeinioia,
oaea ianooiee, a, ii iiaieth ae?oaeo, ianooieo a aeeaaeeoai aoaeouai,
yaeyaony “eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai”.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi ii naiae nooe eiioeaioeey ?acaeoey
enoi?ee o aaoi?ia “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” ai?acaei aeeaea e
“oi?iaoeeiiiie” oai?ee, /ai iiaeao iieacaoueny ia ia?aue acaeyae.
Iniiaiia noiaenoai caeeth/aaony a i?eiaoa iaoa?eaeueiie noa?u auoey iaae
aeooiaiie (ca eneeth/aieai ssnia?na eae oeeinioa oaoieee), a iniiaiia
?acee/ea – a ia?eiaeecaoeee (anee Ia?en aeaeee ii i?eioeeio
noi?ie?iaaaoeony eeannia, ii oeeoe?iaaiiua aaoi?u ?anniao?eaatho, eae
oaea aiai?eeinue, iniiao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee).

3. Eoeueoo?a a iiaii iauanoaa

E niaeaeaieth, aaoi?u eiioeaioeee “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” (ca
eneeth/aieai, iiaeaeoe, I.Oiooea?a) ia oaeaeyee aeinoaoi/ii ianoa aeey
?anniio?aiey aii?ina i oii, eaeea iineaaenoaey aai ianooieaiey i?eianao
aeey eoeueoo?iie aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa. Yoio aii?in aue niaoeeaeueii
?ac?aaioai eeoue Oiooea?ii a aai eieaao “O?aouey aieia” e noaoueyo i
aoaeouai o?oaea. Eiaiii iiyoiio oiicaeeth/aiey i eoeueoo?a a iiaii
iauanoaa y aoaeo no?ieoue ai iiiaii ia iniiaaiee aai ?aaio.

A nayce n a?yaeouei ianooieaieai “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aaea”, iniiaiie
caaea/ae noaiiaeony iaeneiaeueii onei?eoue e oi?inoeoue ia?aaea/o
eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo ethaeueie e iiauneoue aa “onaiyaiinoue”. Eiaiii
iiyoiio iia noaiaea?oece?oaony e eeanneoeoee?oaony n oai, /oiau eae
iiaeii neeueiaa onei?eoue i?ioeann ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iioiea.
Yoio i?ioeann aicaeaenoaoao ia eoeueoo?o aeaiyei: n iaeiie noi?iiu,
iaeneiaeueii naeeaeathony aeooiaiay e iaoa?eaeueiay noi?iiu aeecie
/aeiaaea, eai a eoeueoo?a iaiaoiaeeiui ia?acii i?enoonoaoao
iiaeaa?aathueeny auoaiienaiiui o?ainoi?iaoeeyi eioi?iaoeeiiiue yeaiaio,
a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?ienoiaeeo ?aceia ?aca?aie/aiea yiioeeiiaeueiiai e
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aniaeoia eoeueoo?u. ss oioae au aieaa iiae?iaii
inoaiiaeoueny ia yoeo oaiaeaioeeyo.

Naeeaeaiea aeooiaiiai e iaoa?eaeueiiai ia ii/aa eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
yeaiaioa eoeueoo?u eeethno?e?oaony oiooea?ianeie “aeei”-eoeueoo?ie. A
naiii aeaea, iia ia yaeyaony a iieiii niunea eoeueoo?ie, a neoaeeo
eneeth/eoaeueii n?aaenoai ia?aaea/e e i?eaia eaeie-eeai eioi?iaoeee,
o?aaeeoeeiiii ioiineiie e noa?a eoeueoo?u. Oae, aeaaaeoeaoeno?aie/iue
ia?aneac ?iiaia Oienoiai “Aieia e ie?” aoaeao “aeei”-eioi?iaoeeiiiie
auaeeieie yoiai ?iiaia. I/aaeaeii, /oi /aeiaae, no?aiyueeny e enoeiiie
eoeueoo?a, aiana ia oaeiaieuenoaoaony e?aoeei ia?aneacii nthaeaoa, a
iinoa?aaony iieo/eoue yiioeeiiaeueiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea, i?i/eoaa ?iiai
oeaeeeii n oai, /oiau ianeaaeeoueny e?anioaie aaoi?neiai noeey e
oi/iinoueth i?iiene oa?aeoa?ia.

Eiaiii a yoii e?iaony i?e/eia /aoeiai ?aca?aie/aiey yiioeeiiaeueiiai e
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai yeaiaioa eoeueoo?u. Yoi oi?ioi aeaeii ia i?eia?a
aeeaiiene. Anee ?aiueoa ea?oeiu ooaeiaeieeia-?aaeenoia oaeiaeaoai?yee
iaa yoe iio?aaiinoe, oi oaia?ue eo ooieoeee ?acei ?aca?aie/aiu –
/a?oaaee e ea?ou nooue eioi?iaoeey, aano?aeoeeiienoneea ea?oeiu nooue
ynoaoe/aneia ianeaaeaeaiea.

E?iia oiai, iia oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue, /oi eoeueoo?a iiaiai iauanoaa
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aanueia iaiaeii?iaeioth ianno, eai iaoiaeeony a
i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey, caaa?oaiey eioi?iai neaaeoao aeaeaoue, ii anae
i/aaeaeiinoe, e na?aaeeia XXI aaea.

4. *aeiaae a iiaii iauanoaa

I?aaenoaaeaiey aaoi?ia eiioeaioeee “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” i aeecie
/aeiaaea a iiaii nioeeoia yaeythony neaaea neaci/iuie e ooiie/iuie.
Oaeiau eaeeeee/aneea ia/oaiey e aicaeooiua caiee Aeae. Ia?oeia e
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo, ia i?ioeeoe?iaaiiuo caeanue aaoi?ia. Iie
?oeiaiaenoaothony eaeaae i oii, /oi iiaeii naeaeaoue /aeiaaea
n/anoeeaui, ?aoea ana aai iaoa?eaeueiua i?iaeaiu, ecaaaea io ?aaiou e
iaania/ea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue aeinoa. Eae oaea iaiaeiie?aoii auei
aeieacaii, yoi niaa?oaiii iaaa?iay oi/ea c?aiey. Ethaiiuoii aoaeao
?anniio?aoue auoea /aeiaaea a iiaii iauanoaa, ?aceiaeea aai ia
ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou.

Aeii e naiuey. ?aniaae eeanne/aneie “ioeeaa?iie” naiuey eae “y/aeee
iauanoaa” ia naaiaeiy noae ?aaeueiinoueth. Aaeeinoai oi?iu naiuee
caiaiyaony ia iiiaiia?acea aeaeia a?aea e niaianoiiai i?iaeeaaiey.
Anoanoaaiiinoue yoie oaiaeaioeee i/aaeaeia, e, niaeanii aeaiiui
noaoenoeee, a NOA oaea naaiaeiy eiua oi?iu a?aea /eneaiii i?aauoatho
eiee/anoai “ioeeaa?iuo” naiae. *oi aea eanaaony aicieeiiaaiey
“yeaeo?iiiiai eiooaaeaea”, oi caeanue y ia niaeanai n Oiooea?ii. Eieaa
auea iaienaia a 70-o aiaeao, eiaaea noaaeeanue oeaeue ecaaaeaiey io
aoiaaeii-eaioeaey?neiai o?oaea, n eaeiaie oeaeueth ?aaioa ia?aiineeanue
ia eiiiuethoa? e ioaeaaaeanue ia aeii. Nae/an iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ca 20 enoaeoeo eao yoio i?ioeann aeieaeai aue i?eeoe
e eiae/aneiio caaa?oaieth. E oio oaeo, /oi yoiai ia i?iecioei,
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao eaeath i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ee/iiai eiioaeoa ethaeae aeey
auiieiaiey aieueoeinoaa aeaeia oai?/aneie, a eiiaaea e iaoai?/aneie
?aaiou.

Aeaoe e ia?aciaaiea. I/aaeaeii, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?aciaaiea
i?aoa?iaaaao ia?iiiua eciaiaiey, i?aaeaea anaai, a ieaia
niaoeeaeecaoeee, aeeaa?neoeeaoeee e eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee. Ooiie/aneea
eaeae iao/aiey ii oaeaaeci?o inoaeenue ia?aaeeciaaiiuie a neeo iaeie
i?aeoe/aneiai yooaeoa aeaiiiai niiniaa.

Iieeoe/aneay, nioeeaeueiay e iauanoaaiiay aeeciue. A yoie noa?a y
iieiinoueth niaeanai n eaeayie ?aniiiaeaioiiai oaeaaeaeaiey e
?aaeecaoeee naiaiaeu neiaa /a?ac nicaeaiea nianoaaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
aaieia, auneacaiiuie Aeaeca?aeii e Ia?oeiii. Ianiio?y ia iaeioi?oth
ooiie/iinoue iiiuoie iino?iaiey “ianoiyuae” aeaiie?aoee, iiaeiaiua
oaoie/aneea iiaiaaaaeaiey neoaeeee au eae ieieioi iaaeaaeiie caueoie
i?ioea iiiuoie oioaeeoa?iiai aic?iaeaeaiey.

5. I?iaeaiu iiaiai iauanoaa

A i?eioeeia, aii?in i i?iaeaiao cao?aaeaaeny a eaaeaeie /anoe
?ac?aaioee. Iaeiaei y n/ae oianoiui auianoe aai a ioaeaeueiue ia?aa?ao n
oai, /oiau i?eaea/ue aieiaiea e i?iaeaiai eiaiii “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
(iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai) iauanoaa”. ss i?eaeaeath e yoiio aieiaiea
iioiio, /oi iiiaea aaoi?u (e yoi aeieacuaatho i?eaaaeaiiua iiith
oeeoaou) neeoue aiaaeeii o?e aeaea i?iaeai: o?oaeiinoe ianoiyuaai
iiiaioa, o?oaeiinoe ia?aoiaea e iiaiio iauanoao e nianoaaiii i?iaeaiu
iiaiai iauanoaa. ?anniio?ei yoe a?oiiu ianeieueei iiae?iaiaa.

I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai ie?a oe?iei ecaanoiu: yeieiaey, eieaeueiua aieiu,
yeiiiie/aneay i?iianoue iaaeaeo Caiaaeii e no?aiaie “o?aoueaai ie?a” e
o.ae.. Eiiai ?iaea i?iaeaiu iiaeaeeaeatho ian i?e ia?aoiaea e
“eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauanoao” – oaeiio, eae aai eaeaaeece?iaaiii iiieiatho
aaoi?u eiioeaioeee. Iu oaea i?aeoe/anee auynieee, /oi iaaei aeaeaoue, ii
ia anaaaea ciaai eae – oi anoue inoaaony ioe?uoui aii?in oaoiieiaee.
E?iia oiai, iaynai aii?in i ia?ano?ieea niciaiey ethaeae aeey iiaiai
oeia iuoeaiey.

*oi aea eanaaony i?iaeai “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”, oi caeanue
ianeieueei aeiaaeueiuo yaeythony i?e/eiie aieaa iaeeeo. Ia?aay ec ieo –
i?eioeeieaeueiay iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue nouiinoe eioi?iaoeee, eae
iaoa?eaeueiie, oae e n oeeinioneie oi/ee c?aiey. Ae?oaay –
acaeiiaeaenoaea oaoieee e i?e?iaeu -yaeyaony ee ia?aay i?iaeieaeaieai
aoi?ie eee aa aioeiiaeii. Iaeiiaoe, o?aouey – acaeiiioiioaiey oaoieee,
eioi?iaoeee e /aeiaaea – aeieaeai ee /aeiaae i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e ao?ii
?anoouaio oeaaeo eioi?iaoeee e no?aieoaeueii iaiythuaeny oaoieea eee aea
neaaeoao caoi?iiceo ?acaeoea e iieneaoue eiie iooue. A i?eioeeia,
aii?inu i ath?ie?aoe/anee-eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia e oioaeueiie eiio?iea
yaeythony i?ieciaaeiuie io yoeo o?ao. Yoe aii?inu aua aeaeoo naieo
enneaaeiaaoaeae.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

Oeeinioneee neiaa?ue. I.:Iieeoecaeao, 1987.

Nia?aiaiiay caiaaeiay oeeinioey. Neiaa?ue. I.: Ecae-ai iieeo.
eeoa?aoo?u, 1991.

Oiooea? I. Niauaiea aeanoe: ciaiea, aiaaonoai e i?eioaeaeaiea ia ii?iaa
XXI aaea. I.: Ecae-ai AI NNN?, 1991.

Iiaay oaoiie?aoe/aneay aieia ia Caiaaea. Iiae ?aae. I.N.Ao?aae/a.
I.:I?ia?ann, 1986.

Oiooea? I. O?aouey aieia. A aeo?.: NOA – yeiiiieea, iieeoeea,
eaeaieiaey. ? 7-11 ca 1982 aiae.

Eioi?iaoeey i?eaiaeeony ii [2], n. 117-118

Aaoaeia Y.ss. I eieaa Y. Oiooea?a. [5] ?7 n. 85

Aaee Ae. Nioeeaeueiua ?aiee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa. [4], n.330

Noioiuea? O. Eioi?iaoeeiiiia aiaaonoai: i?ioeeue iinoeiaeono?eaeueiie
yeiiiieee.[4], n.393, 395-396

Oo?ai A. Io iaiaia e eiiioieeaoeee: ?iaeaeaiea i?ia?aiie?iaaiiiai
iauanoaa. [4], c.414-415

Eai A. A?yaeouee iiaeuai: yeiiiie/aneee, iieeoe/aneee, nioeeaeueiue.
[4], n.195

Aeaeca?ae O. Ianooieaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aaea. [4], c.343-344

ssnia?n E. Nia?aiaiiay oaoieea. [4], n. 124-126

Aaoaeia Y.ss. I eieaa Y. Oiooea?a. e Oiooea? I. O?aouey aieia
(?aoa?aoeaiia eceiaeaiea) [5] ?7, c. 85

Eai A. A?yaeouee iiaeuai: yeiiiie/aneee, iieeoe/aneee, nioeeaeueiue.
[4], n. 169-170

Noioiuea? O. Eioi?iaoeeiiiia aiaaonoai: i?ioeeue iinoeiaeono?eaeueiie
yeiiiieee.[4], n. 397

Aeaeca?ae O. Ianooieaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aaea. [4], n.343

Ae?en ?. Oaoiieiaey e yeiiiie/aneee ?ino. [4], n. 325

Oiooea? I. O?aouey aieia. [5] ?7, n. 99

Neieeiianee O. Oeeinioey oaoieee eae oeeinioey /aeiaaea. [4], n. 242

Yooeeiie A. Ianooaaiay iiaanoea aeiy. Ia?ano?aeaay Aia?eeo aei XXI
aaea. [4], n. 303

ssnia?n E. Nia?aiaiiay oaoieea. [4], n. 138-139

Oiooea? I. O?aouey aieia. [5] ?9, n. 79-82

Oiooea? I. O?aouey aieia. [5] ?10, n. 99-102

Oiooea? I. O?aouey aieia. [5] ?11, n. 95-96

Aaee Ae. Nioeeaeueiua ?aiee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa. [4], n.338

Aeaeca?ae O. Ianooieaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aaea. [4], n.346-348

Ia?oei Aeae. Oaeaiaoe/aneia iauanoai. Aucia aeeaeaeoaai aoaeouaai. [4],
n. 373,375,378

Yeetheue AE. Ae?oaay ?aaiethoeey. [4], n. 148-151

Aaee Ae. Nioeeaeueiua ?aiee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa. [4], n.340

ssnia?n E. Nia?aiaiiay oaoieea. [4], n. 144

ssnia?n E. Nia?aiaiiay oaoieea. [4], n. 121

Eiyi ?. Nioeeaeueiua iineaaenoaey nia?aiaiiiai oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.
[4], n. 212-219

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