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Кандидатский минимум по философии

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1. Ie?iaicc?aiea: nouiinoue e oi?iu. Ie?iaicc?aiea e oeeinioey.

Ie?iaicc?aiea anoue nenoaia iaiauaiiuo /oanoaiaaiee, eiooeoeaiuo
i?aaenoaaeaiee e oai?. acaeyaeia ia ie?oaeathuee ie? e ianoi /aeiaaea a
iai, ia iiiainoi?iiiea ioiio. /ae. e ie?o, e naiiio naaa e e ae?.
ethaeyi, nenoaia ia anaaaea iniciaiuo iniiaiuo aeeciaiiuo onoaiiaie
/ae., ii?aaeaeaiiie nioe. a?oiiu e iauanoaa, eo oaaaeaeaiee eaeaaeia,
oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoee1e, nioe.iieeo., i?aanoaaiiuo, yoe/aneeo e
?aeeaeiciuo i?eioeeiia iiciaiey e ioeaiie. I. – yoi naiaai ?iaea ea?ean
no?oeoo?u ee/iinoe, eeanna eee iauanoaa a oeaeii. Noauaeo I. –
ee/iinoue, nioe. a?oiia e iauanoai a oeaeii.

Iniiaa I. – ciaiey. Iie ninoaae. eioi?iaoeeiiioth noi?iio I. Anyeia
iiciaiea oi?ie?oao ie?iaicc?. ea?ean. Iaeaieueoay ?ieue a oi?ie?. yoiai
ea?eana i?eiaaeeaaeeo O., oae eae O. aicieeea e noi?ie?iaaeanue eae
ioaao ia ie?iaicc?ai/aneea aii?inu /aeiaa/anoaa. Ethaay o. auiieiyao I.
ooieoeeth, ii ia anyeia I. oeeinioe/ii. O. – yoi oai?ao. yae?i I.

A no?oeoo?o I. aoiaeyo ia oieueei ciaiey ii e eo ioeaiea. O.a. I
i?enoua ia oieueei eioi?i. ii e oeaiiinoiay (aeneieiae/aneay)
ianuuaiiinoue.

Ciaiey aoiaeyo a I. a aeaea oaaaeaeaiee. O. – yoi oa i?ecia /a?ac eio.
aeaeeony aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. O. – ia oieueei eioaeaeo. iiceoeey ,ii e
yiioe. ninoiyiea, onoie/eaay ineoie. onoaiiaea; oaa?aiiinoue a i?aaioa
naieo eaeaaeia, i?eioeeiia eaeae acaeyaeia, eioi?ua iiae/eiytho naaa
/oanoaa niaanoue aieth e iinooiee /aeiaaea.

A no?oeoo?o I. aoiaeyo e eaeaaeu. E. iiaoo auoue eae iao/ii
iainiiaaiiuie oae e eeethci?iuie, eae aeinoeaeeiuie oae e ia?aaeueiuie.
Eae i?aaeei iie ia?auaiu a aoaeouaa. E. – iniiaa aeooiaiie aeecie
ee/iinoe. Iaee/ea E. a I. oa?aeoa?ecoao aai eae iia?aaeathua io?aaeaiea,
eae neeo ia oieueei io?aae. aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue ii e i?eaioe?oao ia aa
eciaiaiea.

“AEeciue eaeao e niaa?oainoao ?oeiaiaeynue eaeaaeii,- oai, /oi aua ia
nou., ii iuneeony, aiia?aaeaaony aiciiaeiui e inou. Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue
anaaaea nooue aiieiuaiea eaeaaea, e, io?eoeay, eciaiyy aa, iu aeaeaai
yoi iioiio, /oi eaeaae aiieiuaiiue iaie aea a iae, oaea ia
oaeiaeaoai?yao ian, iu eiaai – nicaeaee a aiia?aaeaiee – eiie, eo/oee” –
Ai?ueeee.

I. neeaaeuaaaony iiae aicaeaenoaeai nioe. oneiaee, ainieoaiey e
ia?aciaaiey. Aai oi?i. ia/eiaaony n aeaonoaa. Iii ii?aaeaeyao ae.
iiceoeeth /.

O. – yoi nenoaia naiuo iaueo oai? acaeyaeia ia ie?, ianoi a iai /ae.,
oyniaiea ?ace oi?i ioiioaiey /ae. e ie?o. O. ioee/aaony io ae?. oi?i I.
ia noieueei i?aaeiaoii, neieueei niiniaii aai iniuneaiey, noaiaiueth
eioaeaeo. ?ac?aaioaiiinoe i?iaeai e iaoiaeia iiaeoeaea e iei.

2.I?AAeIAO OEEINIOEE. INIIAIUA OEE. I?IAEAIU E IAI?AAEAIEss.

Oee. – yoi oaeay iae. aeoo. aeayoaeueiinoe, eio. iniiauaaaony ia
iniaii,oee. oeia iuoeaiey, eaaeauai a iniiaa o. iiciaiey, e ia
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe i?aaeiaoa o. O. ia iaeaaeaao oaeei aea i?aaeiaoii eae
iai?eia? anoanoa. iaoee, a oii niunea, /oi i?aaeiao o. ia eieaeeciaai a
i?aaeaeao oie eee eiie eiie?aoiie iae. ciaiey eae iai?eia? aeie.,
aaieiaey… Iaeiaei i?aaeiao o o. anoue, e i?eioeei. iaaiciiaeiinoue
oeacaiiie aai eieaeecaoeee ninoaae. aai niaoeeo. iniaaiiinoue.

Yoa oa iaeanoue aeoo. aeayoaeueiinoe /ae., a iniiaaiee eio. eaaeeo
?aoeaeney iaae naiie aeayoaeueiinoueth e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaae aa
niuneii, oeaeueth e oi?iaie e a eiia/iii n/aoa iaae auyniaieai nouiinoe
naiiai /ae. eae noauaeoa eoeueoo?u, oi anoue nouiinoiuo ioiioaiee /ae. e
ie?o.

O. aicieeea n ia?aianaieai iniiaiiai aieiaiey a /ae. a aai ioiioaiee e
ie?o, o.a. ia /ae., iiciathuaai, i?aia?ac. e oai?yuaai ie?. N oa/aieai
enoi?ee eiie?aoiia iaiieiaiea yoie iauae niaoeeoeee o. i?aaeiaoa
iaiaeiie?aoii iaiiaeyeinue, iaiieiyeinue iiauie niuneiauie ithainaie, ii
anaaaea a iniiaa o. ciaiey eaaeaea onoaiiaea ia auyniaiea nayce iaaeaeo
/ae. e ie?ii, o.a. ia auyniaiea aioo?aiieo oeaeae, i?e/ei e niiniaia
iiciaiey e i?aia?aciaaiey ie?a /aeiaaeii.

O. – yoi o.i. ia i?inoi i. aeenoeeieeia, a aua e niaoeeo. oei iuoeaiey
e aeaaea naiaai ?iaea o. yiioeeiiaeueiue iano?ie, nenoaia ie?iaicc?.
/oanoa.

Eiaaony ee aioo?aiiaa aeaeaiea o. i?iaeaiaoeee, a oeaeii i?eaioeiaaiiie
ia auyaeaiea ioiioaee /ae. n ie?ii? Aua a aioe/iinoe oaeia aeaeaiea auei
iaia/aii, oioy iii e ia niaiaaeaao n nia?ai. no?oeoe?ie o. ciaiey, e
i?aaeaea anaai iioiio, /oi aio. o. aeeth/aea a naay oio ninoaa ciaiey,
eio. a iineaaenoaee ioioae e ano. iaoeai.

E ana aea oaea a aio. aiai?eeinue i IIOIEIAEE – o/aiee i auoee e i
AIINAIEIAEE eee YIENOAIIEIAE – o/aiee i iiciaiee, e i EIAEEA – o/aiee i
oi?iao iuoeaiey.

O. aii?inu. ssaeyaony ee neaaeinoue iauaeoeai naienoaii naoa?a eee yoi
eueoue noauaeoeaiia iuouaiea /ae.? I?eiaaeeaaeeo ee e?anioa i?aaei.
i?e?iaeu, ethaeyi… eee iia i?iaeeeoiaaia /oanoaii i?ae?aniiai, /aeia.
niiniaiinoueth aini?eieiaoue e?anioo? Aii?in i /ae. naiaiaea. Naycai ee
i?ia?ann iauanoaa eeoue n iauaeoeaiuie iieacaoaeyie oaiiia yeiiii
?acaeoey eee aea aeeth/aao e noauaeoeaiua, /aeia. aniaeou? Ana yoe
ai?inu cao?aaeaatho iaeio iauoth i?iaeaio: niioiioaiea auoey e niciaiey,
iauaeoeaiiai e noauaeoeaiiai, ie?a e /aeiaaea.

Aa?o?ai ?annae: “?acaeaeai ee ie? ia aeoo e iaoa?eth, a anee aae, oi
/oi oaeia aeoo e /oi oaeia iaoa?ey? Iiae/eiai ee aeoo iaoa?ee, eee ii
iaeaaeaao iacaaeneiuie niiniaiinoyie? Eiaao ee anaeaiiay eaeia eeai
aaeeinoai eee oeaeue? ?acaeaaaony ee anaeaiiay ii iai?aaeaieth e eaeie
eeai oeaee? Aeaenoaeoaeueii ee nou. caeiiu i?e?., eee iu i?inoi aa?ei a
iao aeaaiaea?y eueoue i?enouae iai neeiiiinoe e ii?yaeeo? Ioaeii ee
aeia?o auoue aa/iui, /oiau caneoaeeaaoue aun. ioeaiee, eee aea e aeia?o
ioaeii no?aieoueny, aeaaea anee anaeaiiay iaioa?aoeii aeaeaeaony e
aaaaee? Enneaaeiaaoue yoe aii?inu, anee ia ioaa/aoue ia ieo, – aeaei
oeeinioee.”

Aieueoay iiiaiieaiiaay i?iaeaia “ ie?-/aeiaae”, ii nooe, aunooiaao eae
oieaa?naeueiay e iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae anaiauaa oi?ioea,
aano?aeoiia au?aaeaiea i?aeoe/anee ethaie o. i?iaeaiiu. Aio ii/aio iia
iiaeao auoue a ii?. niunea iacaaia ini. ai?inii o.

3. Ieeaoneay oeiea, ieoaai?aeci.

Ae?. a?.o (aeao) aecieeea a eiieeneeo ai?iaeao cai iiaa?aaeuey iae Acee,
iniia. a?aeaie. Caeanue ?aiueoa ?acaeeanue ?aa., oi?aiaey. e au?inoay
ia eo iniiaa eoeueoo?a.(naycaia n eoeueoo?aie Aaaeeiia, Oeieeee e Aaeioa
– aieaa ae?aaiea oeea.)

Ia?aua o/aiey – a. Ieeao 7-6 a. aeiy – Oaean, Aiaeneiaiae?, Aiaeneiai.
Caaeaaoenue aii?inii ioeoaea ana aicieeaao e ai /oi i?aa?auaaony iie
eneaee ia/aei i?ienoeaeaeaiey e eciaiaiey anao aauae. Ia?aiaauanoai –
aeeaia a oeaeii e a /anoyo, iaaeaeaiiia aeooie e aeaeaeaieai.
Caieiaeenue e ?aciinoi?iiiae i?aeo aeayoaeueiinoueth.

OAEAN. eiiaoe 7 ia/aei6 aaeiy. Eoiaoe, iiiai iooaoanoaiaae.
Aeae?ieiaeaia?. I?iaeo iieeo iauaaeeiaiey iaeiac. ai?iaeia ia?aae
oa?icie Ia?nee. Ciaeii n aeinoeae. iaoee Aaa e Aaeioa. I?aaeneacae niei
caoiaiea a A. -585 aaeiy. Ecia?ae iaeio. ano?iiii i?eai?u.

Ana i?iecioei ec iaeiaai aeaaeiiai ia?aiaauanoaa eee aiaeu . Ana
?iaeaeaaony ec yoiai ia?aienoi/ieea. Caiey – ieineee aeene, ieaa. ia
iia. aiaeu. Aiaea e ana i?iecio ec iaa aaue – ia ia?oaua. Anaeaiiay
iieia aiaia, ana iaeooaaeaii. I?eia?u – iaaieo e yioa?ue iiaoo
i?eaiaeeoue a aeaeae. ae?. aaue – iie eiatho aeooo.

AIAENEIAIAe?. Ia?aienoi/iee – yoi iaeia ia?aiaauanoi (aiae?ii) ec
eioi?iai iainiae. i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe oaieiai e oieiaeiiai, aeathuea
ia/aei anai aauai. Aiae?ii ia eiaao a?aieoe, ii aani?aaeaeai. Caiey –
oeeeeiae?. Ana iainiaeaoaany io aani?aaeaeueiiai aeieaeii aa?iooueny a
iaai. Iiyoiio ie?u aicieeatho e ?ac?ooathony.

AIAENEIAI. A?aiy caaiaaaiey Ieeaoa ia?naie. Ia?aiaauanoai – aicaeoo.
Ana aauanoaa iieo/athony iin?aaenoaii naouaiey e ?ac?yaeaiey aicaeooa.
Aicaeoo- yoi aeuoaiea, iaieiathuaa aanue ie?. Caiey – aeene,
iiaeaea?aeea. aiaeaeooii.

A 5 aaeiy Ieeao oo?aoee naiinoiyoaeueiinoue (Ia?nu) e ?acaeoea caeanue
oee i?ae?aoeeinue.

IEOAAI? E ?AIIEA IEOAAI?AEOeU. Ieoaai? ec Naiina 580-500aaeiy. I?e
oe?aia Iieee?aoa i?anaeeeny a TH.Eoaeeth a a. E?ioii aaea iniiaae iieeo
e ?ae. nithc i?aaenoaae. eioa?anu a?enoie?aoee. Nai ie/aai ia ienae.
O/aiey aai i?aoa?iaee cia/. yaiethoeeth. Auaeaeioe ?aaeoe o/aiea i
ii?yaeea. A iau. aeocie ii?yaeie – aeanue a?enoie?aoia.

Iineaaeia I. iauaaeeieeenue a nithc. Ai?ieenue n aeaiie?aoeae. A 5
aaeiy yoio nithc aue ?aca?iieai aeaiie?.

Ioaa?aaee iaoa?aaeeci Ieeaooeaa. Iniiaa ie?a ia iaoa? ia?aiia/ai a
/anea, eio ia?acotho einie/aneee ii?yaeie – i?iia?ac iau. ii?yaeea.
Iiciaoue ie? – cia/eo iiciaoue oi?aaeythuea ei /enea. Ia?aay iiiuoea
iinoaiiaee ai?ina i ?iee eiee/. noi?iiu yae. i?e?iaeu.

Iaoaiaoeea, aaiiao?ey, oai?ee a?oeoaeoo?u. iocuee, neoeueioo?u.( aunioa
oiia no?oiu caa. io aa aeeeiu.) Aeaeae iaaaniuo oae iiae/eiyaony iao.
niioiioaieyi – aa?iiiey noa?.

Ieoaai?aeoeu io?uaaee /enea io aauae, i?aa?auaee eo a naiinoiyoaeueiua
nouanoaa, aaniethoece?iaaee e iaiaeanoaeyee eo. Nayu. iiiaaea(aaeeieoea)
– yoi iaoue aiaia, anaiauaa ia?aiia/i e iniiaa anao i?e?.yaeaiee.
Aeaieea – yoi i?eioeei i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, io?eoeaoaeueiinoe a i?e?iaea.
I?e?iaea ia?acoao oaei (o?ieea), yaeyynue o?eaaeeinoaii ia?aiia/aea e
aai i?ioeai?. noi?ii. *aoaa?ea – ia?ac /aou?ao yeaiaioia i?e?. EOAe.
Iuneue i oii, /oi ana a i?e?. iiae/eiaii ii?aae. /ene niioiio.,
aeaaiaea?y aanie /enae i?eaiaeeea I. e eaeaaeenoe/aneiio ooaa?aeaeaieth,
/oi eiaiii /enei, a ia iaoa?ey yae. ia?aiiniiaie anaai.

Ana aaue ninoiyo ec i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae – /ao ia/ao, i?aaeae
aani?aaeaeueiia, aaeeinoai iiiaeanoai, i?aaia eaaia, ioaeneia aeaineia.
Iaeiaei eo i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe ia ia?aoiaeyo ae?oa a ae?oaa( a ioee/ee io
Aa?aeeeoa). Iniaia cia/aiea – i?aaeae e aani?aaeaeueiia. I?aaeae –
iaiiue, aani?aae. – aicaeoo.(ionoioa). Ie? aeuoeo ionoioie, ninoieo ec
acaeiiae. iaiy e aicaeooa.

4. AeEAEAEOEEA AA?AEEEOA. OEEINIOEss YEAAOIA.

AA?AEEEO. ?iaeii ec Yoana. (530 – 470 aaaeiy). A?enoie?ao,
iono?aieaoeeny io aeanoe. Enoiaeiue ioieo o/aiey i ie?a – i?aaenoaaeaiea
i i?aoiaeyuai, eciai/eaii oa?. anaai nouanoaothuaai.

Ana nou. aaue aicieeee ec iaoa?eaeueiiai ia?aiia/aea. Iaeiaei ia?aiaau.
– yoi iaiiue. Auai? iaiy a ea/. ia?aiaauanoaa iaoneiaeai acaeyaeaie A.
ia oa?aeoa? aeecie i?e?iaeu. Ie? iao. a iinoiyiiii i?ioeanna eciaiaiey,
a ec anao i?e?. aauae iaeaiea iiaeaeaeai, eciai/ea iaiiue. “ Yoio einiin
iaeei e oio aea aeey anaai nouanoaothuaai ia nicaeae ie eaeie aia e
ieeaeie aeiaae, ii anaaaea aue, anoue e aoaeao aa/ii aeeaui iaiai,
ia?aie caai?athueiny e ia?aie iioooathuei”. I?e/eia aa/iiai eciaiaiey –
ai?ueaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae.

Ie? inoaaony a iniiaa iaiai, ianiio?y ia ana eciaiaiey. Aeooa oiaea ec
iaiy, aeooa iaoa?eaeueia – yoi iaeiaiaa aeaaeiue iaiiue. Ana aaue
aicieeatho ec iaiy niaeanii iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Ie?ii i?aaeo “eiain”.(caeii,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue)”Aeaaea Nieioea ia iiaeao ia?anooieoue eiain.” Ie? anue
i?ioeann a eioi?ii anyeay aauue ia?aoiaeeo a naith i?ioeaiiie.(oieiaeiia
a oaieia, Aeiaeiia a nooia e iaiai?io)”Iaeuecy aeaaaeaeu aieoe a iaeio
?aeo” A /aeia. aeecie i?aa?au. a i?ioeaiiie. anoue ai?ueaa. Iia “ioaoe
anaai, oea?ue anaai”. Aeaaiaea?y ai?ueaa i?ioeaiiie. iaia?oaeeaaaony eo
aioo?aiiaa noiaenoai “thannia?oiua-nia?oiu, nia?oiua – aannia?oiu;
nia?oueth ae?oa ae?oaa iie aeeaoo, aeeciueth ae?oa ae?oaa iie oie?atho.”

Anaiauiinoue eciaiaiey e ia?aoiae eaaeaeiai ea/anoaa a i?ioeaii.
aeaeatho ana ea/. aauae ioiineoaeueiuie.(ii?neay aiaea – /enoaeoay e
aianoa n oai a?yciaeoay: aeey ?ua -ieoaoaeueia, aeey ethaeae -iaaiaeia)

Eiain – iniiaa anaiauiinoe e enoeiiinoe /ae. iiciaiey. A iniiaa
iuoeaiey eaaeao iuouaiey. Iuoeaiea i?aaeii/eoaao ana, /oi aeinooiii
/oanoaai c?aiey e neooa. Iuoeaiea – iauaa anai ethaeyi, anai aeaii
iiciaoue naay e auoue ?acoiiuie. Aeaaea anee /oi-oi inoaeinue ne?uoui io
naaoa, aini?eieiaaiiai /oanoaaie, iii ia iiaei ao oe?uoueny io
?acoieiiai naaoa, “io oiai, /oi ieeiaaea ia caoiaeeo”

Iaeiaei,n/eoaa A. aieueoeinoai ethaeae ia ciatho anaiauaai e aa/iiai,
ia euoo iiciaiey, i?eieiatho iiiaiciaiea ca oi.

YEAAOU. A 6-5 aaaeiy oeaio? aeoo. ?acaeoey ia?aiau. a
TH.Eoaeeth.(caieaaeaeue/aneay iaeanoue). I?ae. auoey: auoea anoue a
iaauoey iao, auoea aaeeii e iaaeaeeii, auoea iiciaaaaii.

ENAIIOAI. 6-5 aaeiy. Iiyo oee. iiauaae a TH. Eoaeee aiiaua iiiai
iooaoanoaiaae. A eiioea aeecie iinaeeeny a Yeaa, aaea iiae aaiaeeyieai
aicieeea oeiea yeaaoia. E?eoeeiaae i?aaenoaaeaiey i iiiaeanoa
aiaia.(Anee au eioaaee iiaee ?eniaaoue oi iie ecia?aceee au naieo aiaia
a aeaea eioaaeae) . Ii iaioaeno. Ie? aa/ai e iaoie/oiaeei, i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ia/oi aaeeiia e yoi aaeeiia e anoue aia. I?e?iaea ia
aiaeanoaaiia. Ana /oi ?iaeaeaaony e ?anoao anoue aiaea e caiey. I
i?e?iaea aiaia ia iiaeao auoue enoeiiiai ciaiey oieueei iiaiea.

IA?IAIEAe. Yeay. 6-5 aaaeiy. Ninoaaee caeiiu aeey Yeae, eioi?ua aeaaea
oai aeieai aeaenoaiaaee. Ie? – aau. oa?, a eioi?ii ieaaea iao ionoiou e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii aiciiaeiinoe aeaeaeaiey. (ana caiieiaii) Anyeay iuneue
anoue iuneue i nouanoaothuai. Iiyoiio ianouanoa. ieeae iaeuecy iuneeoue
eae ianou., ioeoaea ianouanoa. iao. Ionthaea iaaiciiaeii aicieeiiaaiea e
oie/oiaeaiea.

ec aan. caiieiaiiinoe neaaeoao, /oi ie? ia eiaao /anoae. Ii aaeei.
Iiiaeanoai – iaiai /oanoa. Ionthaea aea neaaeoao auaiae i iaaiciiaeiinoe
aeaeaeaiey, aicieeiiaaiey, oie/oiaeaiey. I?aaenoaaeaiey i aeaeaeaiee –
eueoue iiaiea, iianaaeiaaiua i?aaenoaaeaiey, io eioi?uo neaaeoao
ioee/aoue oee., eae o/aiea i enoeia, iaaeinooiiie aini?eyoeyi.

O/aiea I. iieii iaiao/iuo, ieoie. i?aaenoaaeaiee, A oeaio?a ie?a –
aiaeiy-i?aaeoaeueieoea (eee i?aaaea e iaiaoiaeeiinoue). Iia aea?aeeo
ae?aaee e i?aaeo anaie iaa. aeaeaeaieyie.

CAIII. O/aiee Ia?i..Auaeaeioe ?yae iieiaeaiee a cau. o/aiey I.(aii?ee)
Aeieacuaae iaaiciiaeiinoue aeaeaeaiey(iaoaoeceea). I?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi
aeaeae. iuneeii i?eaiaeeo e i?ioeai?a/eyi – iii ia iiaeao
inouanoaeoueny.( Aeey oiai /oiau aeaeaaoueny no?aea aeieaeia a iaeei
iiiaio a?aiaie iaoiaeeoueny a ii?. ianoa e ia iaoiaeeoueny a iai. Ii yoi
i?ioeai?a/eai – iaaiciiaeii) A yoeo ia?aaeienao aii?in ia a oii,
aiciiaeii ee aini?eyoea aeaeae /oanoaaie, a a oii, iiaeii ee iuneeoue
aeaeae. i?e oneiaee, /oi i?ino?ainoai ninoieo ec aaneiia/iiai iiiaeanoaa
iaaeaeeiuo /anoae (aeooaeueiay aeneiia/iinoue), a a?aiy ec a. iiiaeanoaa
iaaeaeeiuo iiiaioia.

A yoeo aii?eyo aia?aua a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa ianoaeaeathony i?iaeaiu
iai?a?uaiinoe e aaneiia/iinoe. Aii?ee aeaee oie/ie ?acaeoeth
aeeaeaeoeee. (eioa?anii /oi iiiyoey aeooaeueii aaneiia/iiai auei
eneeth/aii ec oiio?aaeaiey a A. e caiaiaii iiiyoeai iioaioeeaeueii
aaneiia/iiai. I?eciaaaeanue aaneii. aeaeeiinoue aaee/ei, ii ia i?eci. eo
ninoaaeaiiinoue ec aane. /enea aeooaeueii aeaiiuo yeaiaioia).

5.AIOE*IUE AOIIECI. AAI YAIETHOeEss.(Aeaiie?eo, Yieeo?)

I?aaeiinueeie aoiiecia (A) auea iio?aaiinoue aeaoue iaoa?. iauyniaiea
iaaethaeaaiuonaienoa aauae – eo iiiaeanoaa, aeaeaeaiey e eciaiaiey.
Iinea Caiiia, aeieacaaoaai aoaeoi aeiioaca i aaneiia/iie aeaeeiinoe
aauae, i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie aaaeao e iaono?aieiui i?ioeai?a/eyi e
ia?aaeienai, anyeay iiiuoea iainiiaaoue ?aaeueiinoue iiiaeanoaa,
?acaeaeueiinoe aauae e eoiiaeaeaeiinoe aeieaeia auea n/eoaoueny n yoei.
O/aiea A. yaeeinue aai. iiiuoeie ?ac?aoaiey yoeo o?oaeiinoae. A.
i?aaeiieaaaee nou. aane. ii-aa oaeaniuo /anoeoe, iie aeiioneaee nou.
ionoiou a eio. i?ieno. aeaeae. /anoeoe e io?eoeaee ca /anoeoeaie aici.
aeaeeoueny aei aaneiia/iinoe, aeaeaee a ieo ia?iieoeaaiua aoiiu.

Niaeanii yoie aeiioaca eaaeaeay aauue, aoaeo/e noiiie aanueia aieueoiai
(ii ia aaneiia/ii) eie. /anoeoe – aanueia iaeuo, ii a neeo naiae
iaaeaeeiinoe ia ia?auathueony a ie/oi, oaea ia iiaeao ?aniao?eaaoueny
eae aane. aieueoay e a oi aea a?aiy aiana ia eiathuay aaee/eiu eae yoi
auei o Caiiia. Oaeei ia?acii aue ?ac?aoai e?ecen, aucaaiiue e?eoeeie C.

Iniiaaoaeue A. – Eaaeei.(?iaeaeai a Ieeaoa). Ana ninoieo ec iaeue/aeoeo
iaaeae. /anoeoe e ionoiou.

I?iaeieaeaoaeue A. – Aeaiie?eo (460 -370 aaaeiy). ?iaeeeny ai
o?aeeeneii ai?iaea Aaaea?ao. Iiauaae a no?aiao ainoiea. Eiathony o?oaeu
Ae. ioaaouaathuea aii?inu o., eiaeee, ineoieiaee, yoeeo, iieeoeee,
iaaeaaiaeee, oai?. eneonnoa, ycueiciaiey, iaoaiaoeee, oeceee,
einiieiaee. Aeoeaiue i?eaa?aeaiaoe ?aa. aeaiie?aoee.

Enoiaeiia iieiaeaiea a. nenoaiu – nou. aoiiia e ionoiou, ia?acothueo
naieei aaneii. iiiaiia?. niaaeeiaieyie ana neiaeiua oaea.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeiie ec ae. i?aaeiinueie aai o/aiey yae. acaeyae ii
eioi?iio iuou. i?aaenoaaeytho oioy e iaaeinoaoi/iue, ii iaiaoiaeeiue
enoi/iee iiciaiey.

Iaaeinoaoi/iua e iaoi/iua naeaeaoaeuenoaa iuou. eni?aaeythony aieaa
oiieei oniio?aieai oia. Oae aoiiu e ionoioa iaaeaeeiu, ii eo
nou.oaeinoiaa?ythony iniiaaiiui ia /oanoa. iaaethaeaieyo ?aciuoeaieai.
Ae. ioee/aao oi , /oi nou. ai iiaieee io oiai, /oi nou. a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. “eeoue a iauai iiaieee nou neaaeeia, a iiaieee –
ai?ueeia, a iiaiee – oaieia, a iiai. – oieiaeiia, a i. – oeaao, a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoee aea nou. oieueei aoiiu e ionoioa.” Iaeiaei Ae. ia
io?eoeaao ?aaeueiinoue /oanoa. aini?eieiaaiiai. A aeaiiii neo/aa Ae.
aiai?eo i oii,/oi o. caieiaaony eco/aieai ia oiai, /oi ecaanoii anai, a
oiai , /oi eaaeeo a iniiaa anaai, ia?acoao aai i?e/eio. Ii-aeaeeiiio Ae.
ia niaeanai n oai, /oi /oanoa. aini?eyoey ea/anoa niaiaaeatho n naieie
ea/anoaaie.

Aoiiu nooue anaaici. iae. oaea, ia eiathuea ea/anoa, ionoioa aea –
iaoni, a eioi?ii ana yoe oaea, a oa/aiee anae aa/iinoe iinynue aaa?o e
aiec, eee nieaoathony iaaeaeo niaie, eee iaoaeeeaathony ae?oa ia ae?oaa
e ioneaeeaatho, ?anoiaeyony e niiaa noiaeyony a oaeea niaaeeiaiey, e
oaeei ia?acii iie i?iecaiaeyo e ana i?i/ea neiaeiua oaea e iaoe oaea, e
eo ninoiyiey e iuouaiey.

Aeey iauyniaiey ?aaeueiiai iiiaiia?acey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe Ae.
aeiioneaao, /oi aoiiu ?acee/. ii oi?ia ii?yaeeo e iieiaeaieth. Yoe
ioee/ey e eaaeao a iniiaa anao iaaethae. ioee/ee. Ie iaeii ec ieo
neaaeia. ia yae. aani?e/eiiui. Ii io?eoeaao iaee/ea oeaeaniia?aciinoe a
i?e?iaea.

A. o/aiea ?an?ino?aiyaony Ae. ia o/aiea i aeecie e aeooa. AEeciue e
nia?oue i?a. naiaeeony e niaae. e ?aceiaeaieth aoiiia. Aeooa ninoieo ec
iaiaiiuo aoiiia e anoue eo a?aiaiiia niaaeeiaiea. Aeooa ia aannia?oia.

Iniiaa iiciaiey – iuouaiey. Io aauae ioaeaeythony “aeaeeee” –
iaoa?eaeueiua oi?iu aauae, iie ianoony ai ana noi?iiu a ionoii
i?ino?ainoaa e i?iieeatho a i?aaiu /aanoa /a?ac ii?u. Anee ii?u niioa.
ii aaee/eia e oi?ia i?iieeathuei a ieo aeaeeeai, oi a iuou. aicieeaao
ia?ac i?aaeiaoa, niioa. naiiio i?aaeiaoo. O.i. oaea a iuou iu iieo/aai
aa?iue ia?ac i?aaeiaoa. Iaeiaei nou. i?aaeiaou, eio. a neeo naiae iaeie
aaee/eiu iaaeinooiiu /oanoaai, Oaeea na-aa aau. iinoeaathony oiii, eyoi
iici. oaeaea i.a. aeinoiaa?iui.

Eaeaaeii Ae. yae. aeeciue, iaania/aiiayiauei caeiiii e ii?yaeeii,
aaciyoaaeiay e aeaaiaeooiay. Aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea – ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea.
Yoe/aneea aicc?aiey – ?acoiiia ianeaaeaeaiea aeeciueth nin oieo a
naaoeii e niie. ninoiyiee aeooe, iaoneiaeaiiii niaeaneai n i?e?.,
eniieiaieai aeieaa, ia?ie ai anai… Oiaiea aeioiaeeoue aei oaeiai nino.
aeaao iao/aiea, eio Ae. ia ioaeaeyao io ainieoaiey aac eio. ia iiaoo
auoue aeinoeaioou ie eneonnoai, ie ioae?inoue.

YIEEO?. (341-270aeiy Yiioa yeeeiecia) ?iaeeeny ia ino?iaa Naiina.
Ia?aaoae a Aoeiu, aaea iniiaae oeieo “Naae Yieeo?a”. Ae. caaea/a o. –
nicaeaiea yoeee, o/aiey i iiaaaeaiee, i?eaiaeyuai e n/anoueth. Ii yoeea
i.a. iino?iaia oieueei i?e oneiaee anee aoaeao ii?aaeaeaii ianoi, eio.
/aeiaae caieiaao a ie?a. Iiyoiio yoeea aeieaeia iie?. ia oeceeo, a
oeceea aeieaeii i?aaeoanoaiaaue ?ac?aa. oai?e iiciaiey.

Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee nainoaeeci. Ana, /oi iu iuou. enoeiii. Ioeaee
aicieeatho io iai?aa. ioeaiee oiai, /oi iu iuou. Ia iniiaa iuou.
aiciiaeiu caeethaiey i i?aaeiaoao e eo i?e/eiao. Aini?eyoea – aaeeinoa.
e?eoa?ee enoeiiinoe, iii anoue e?eo. e aeey caeeth/aiee i oaeeo aauao,
eio. iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaie ia aini?eieiathony, eeoue au caeeth/aiey yoe
ia auee a eia. i?ioeai?e/ee n aeaiiuie aini?eyoeyie.

Y. i?eiye iniiaiua iieiaeaiey A. Aeaiie?eoa. Aeieacuaae, /i o/aiea i
i?e/eiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe anao yae. i?e?iaeu ia aeieaeii aanoe e auaiaeai
i iaaiciiaeiinoe aeey /ae. naiaiaeu. A?aieao iaiaoiae. aeieaeai auoue
oeacai iooue e naiaiaea.

O Ae. aeaeae. aoiiia a iono. aucuaaaony iao. iaiaoiae. Y. iieaaaao, /oi
aea. iaoneiaeaii aioo?. na-aii aoiiia – eo oyaeanoueth, eio. ia?yaeo n
eo oi?iie, iieiaeaieai e ii?yaeeii noaiiaeony aaaeiui iauaeo.
ii?aaeaeaieai aoiia. Eie. oi?i aoiiia ia?aie/aii, o.e aoii ia iiae.
iaeaaeaoue a. oyaeanueth. I?e aeaeae. aoiiu iiaoo naiii?iecaieueii
ioeeii. ia iaaieueoie oaie e o.i ia?aoiaeeoue n i?yiie. iooae aeaeae. ia
e?eaieeiaeiua. Yoi yae. iaiaoiae. oneiaeai naiaiaeu /aeiaaea.

E?eoa?ee n/anouey – oaeiaieuenoaea. Aeaai -oi, /oi ii?iaeaeaao
oaeiaieuenoaea. Cei – oi, /oi ii?iaeae. no?aaeaiea. ?ac?aaioea o/aiey i
iooe e n/anoueth aeieaeii i?aaeoanoaiaaoue ono?aiaiea anaai, /oi noieo
ia yoii iooe: no?aoa ia?aae aiaaie, nia?oueth e caa?. ie?ii. Aiae ia
niiniaiu aiaoea. a iao ie?, a aeooa nia?oia.

Inaia. io no?aoia ioe?ua iooue e n/anoueth. 3 oeia oaeiaieuenoaey: 1.
i?e?iaeiua e iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeecie; 2. i?e?., iiaeey aeecie ia
iaiaoiaeeiua; 3. ia iaiao aeey aeecie e ia i?e?iaeiua. Ii no?aieony
oieueei e ia?aui e aicaea?ae. io inoaeueiuo. ?acoeueoao oaeiai
aicaea?aeaiey – iieiay iaaiciooeiinoue, eee aaciyoaaeiinoue, eio. e
anoue n/anouea oee.

6. NIOENOU. NIE?AO E NIE?AOE*ANEEA OEIEU.

Oeeinioneia aeaoaeaiea yiioe c?aeuo ?aaia. aeaiie?aoee.(5 – 6 aaeiy)

A 5 aaeiy ia niaio iieeo aeanoe a?enoie?aoee e oe?aiee ai ii. ai?iaeao
A. i?eoea aeanoue aeaiie?. ?acaeoea nicaeaiuo ath iiauo auai?iuo
o/?aaeaeaiee – ia?.nia?aiey e noaea, ea?aaoaai a. ?ieue a ai?ueaa ia?oee
e eeannia naia. ianaeaiey, ii?iaeeei iio?aaiinoue a iiaeaioiaea ethaeae,
aeaae. eneonnoaii noaeaaiiai e iieeo e?anii?a/ey, oiathueo oaaaeaeaoue.
Iaeioi?ua ec iaeaieaa auaeaeioaoeony a yoie iae. ethaeae noaiiaeeenue
o/eoaeyie ?eoi?eee, iieeo ciaiee… Iaeiaei ia?an/eaiaiiinoue
oiaaeaoiaai ciaiey e a. ?ieue, eio. i?eia?aea a oi a?aiy oee., i?eaaee
e oiio, /oi yoe iiaua iuneeoaeeiau/ii o/eee ia oieueei iieeo. e th?.
ioae?inoe, ii naycuaaee aaa n iaueie aii?. oee. e ie?iaicc?aiey. Eo
noaee iacuaaoue “nioenoaie” o.a. ioae?aoeaie, o/eoaeyie ioae?inoe.
Iicaeiaa nioenoaie noaee iacuaaoueny oa,eoi a naieo ?a/ao no?aieeny e
aeieac. i?aaeacyoieoe, eiie ?ac caaaaeiii eiaeiie, oi/ee c?aiey.

Oaeay oa?. iie?aeanue ia oi, /oi iia. o/eoaey o. noaee aeiaiaeeoue aei
e?aeiinoe iuneue ia ioiineoaeueiinoe anyeiai ciaiey.

O. oa/aiea nio. iaiaeii?iaeii. Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?ii ey anao
i?aaenoaaeoaeae N. yae. oacen i ioiineoaeueiinoe anao /ae. iiiyoee,
yooe/aneeo ii?i e ioeaiie. I?ioaai?: “*aeiaae anoue ia?a anao aauae,
nouanoaothueo /i iie nou., e ia nou., /oi iie ia nou.”

Noa?oay a?oiia: I?ioaai? (481 – 411aeiy), Ai?aee, Aeiiee e I?iaeee.
I?ioaai? aue iaoa?eaeenoii e o/ee i oaeo/anoe iaoa?ee e ia
ioiinoeoaeueiinoe anao aini?eyoee, Ii aeieacuaae, aoaeoi eaaeaeiio
ooaa?aeaeaieth iiaeao auoue n ?aaiui iniiaaieai i?ioeaiiinoaaeaii
i?ioeai?a/auaa aio ooaa?aeaeaiea.

Ai?aee. Ie/oi ia nouanoaoao. Anee e anoue ia/oi nouanoaothuaa, oi iii
iaiiciuaaaii. Anee iii iiciaaaii, oi iii iaau?aceii e iaecuynieii.

Noa?o. nio. auee e?oiiuie niaoeaie a aii?. i?aaa e iau-iieeo aii?inao.

Ieaaeoea nioenou.(6 aaeiy) A eo o/aieyo iniaaiii auaeaeythony yoe/aneea
e nioe eaeae. Eeeio?ii e Aeeeaeai io?eoeaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue eeannia
(ciaoiinoue yoi auiunae. I?e?iaea ieeiai ia nicaeaea ?aaaie e ethaee
?iaeaeathony naiaiaeiuie.)

O?aceiao ?an?ino?aiee o/aiea ia ioiineoaeuei. anyeiai ciaiey ia nioe.
yoe/aneea ioiioaiey e ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ni?aaaaeeeainoue yoi oi, /oi
iieacii neeueiiio.

NIE?AO. Aoeiyiei (469-399aeiy). N. nia?ae aie?oa naay iiiai/ene
o/aieeia, aieueoay /anoue eio. ieacaeanue a?aaaie ?aa. aeaiie?aoee. Yoi
a oaeaea aunooie naiiai N. i?ioea aeai. no?iy ainnoaiiaeee i?ioea iaai
ia?iae. Ii aue i?eaea/ai e noaeo e io?aaeeny.

Nai N. ie/aai ia ienae. I aai o/aiee ecaanoiiieiei ii niiauaieyi
o/aieeia:Eneeioiio, Ieaoii, A?enoioaia a oae aea A?enoioaey. Aeey N.
oa?aeoa?ia eiae/iinoue ?a/e, e?iiey, eciaee/aiea naea/eainoe iiiyoee
naieo niaanaaeieeia e ianoa?neia ?an/eaiaiea aii?ina, ninoaae. i?aaeiao
ianoaeaeaiey. Aunooiae i?ioea Nioenoia.

Oee.ii N. – o/aiea i oii eae neaaeoao aeeoue. N. aunooiaao i?ioe
aiaoo?oee., yiie?e/aneiai eco/aiey i?e?iaeu, iaauniei ioeaieaaao iiciaa
cia/. i?aaiia /oanoa. Aeaaiay caaea/a iiciaiey – iici. naiiai naay.
(naiiiiciaiea)

Ciaiea yoi iaia?oaeaiea iauaai aeey oeaeiai ?yaea aauae, O.i. ciaiea
anoue iiiyoea i i?aaeiaoa e aeinoeaaaony iin?aaenoaii ii?aaeaeaiey
iiiyoey. Aeieaeia nou. aaeeiay iauay e aunoay oeaeue, eio. iiae/ei. ana
/anoiua oeaee e eio. anoue aaconeiaiia aunoaa aeaai.

A yoeea N. ioaeaeanoaeya aeia?iaeaoaeue ni ciaieai. Iao /aeiaaea, eio.
ciay , /oi ii iiaeao naeaeaoue /oi-oi eo/oaaa, noae au iai?ioea aeaeaoue
ooaeoaa. Aeo?iia aeaenoaea anoue iaciaiea, a ioae?inoue – niaa?oaiiia
ciaiea.

Nie?aoe/aneea oeieu: iaaa?neay, yeeaeiy?eo?eeneay, eeie/aneay,
ee?aineay.

EE?AIAEEE. aeaai /ae. – yoi aai ianeiaeaeaiea. A yoii e niune e oeaeue
aeecie. ?aaeueii oieueei ianoiyuaa, oeaiii oieueei oi, /oi ou iieo/aaoue
a iano. iiiaio. Iniiaaoaeue yoie aaoae Aaaeiiei – iaeaai?aaeeaae yoe
i?eioeeiu, n/eoay , /oi /ae. aeieaeai aeanoaiaaoue iaae ianeaaeaeaieyie.
Iaeiaei aai iineaaeiaaoaee ia yoi iaieaaaee. Oaaei? aoaeno:” ?aaee
ianeaaeaeaiey ana n?aaenoaa oi?ioe”. Aeaacee: “ianeaaeaeaiea ieiieaoii,
aai o?oaeii iieo/eoue, iii i?aoeaeyua, ii anee niune aeecie a iane.
eioi?ia oae o?oaeii iieo/eoue, oi noieo ee aeeoue?”

EEIEEE. Aeeiaai, Aioenoai. *ae aeieaeai inaiaiaeeoue naay io
caaeneiinoae, i?eayc. e oaeiaieuenoaeyi naycua. /aeiaaea. Aaeeinoaaiii
?aaeueiu aaeeie/iua aaue, iauaai ia nouanoa. Iao iauoo ii?i e caeiiia
i?e?iaeu. Eaaeaeue nai ii naaa.

IAAA?NEAss: Niaaeeieee Nie?. aeia?iaeaoaeue n Ia?iaieaeianeei auoeai.
Anaiauaa e aaeaeeiia auoea iineo oa?.anaiauaai aeaaa. Ana aaeeie/iia _
eeoaaony noaoona naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe. O.a. ?aaeueii oieueei
iauaa. Nou. oieueei iaiaoiaeeiia, aiciiaeiinoe iao.

7. OEEINIOEss IEAOIIA. (Oaaeii, Nioeno, Ie?, Oaae? – ii auai?o)

Aei eiioea 5 a aeiy iniiaiui oeiii ae?aaiaa? oee aue iaoa?eaeeci.

Ieaoii (427-347aeiy). Aoeiyiei, aue i?ioeaieeii ao aeaiie?aoee. Oee
?acaeoea ia/aeinue a oeiea Nie?aoa. A ai?iaeao th. Eoaeee e Neoeeeee ii
i?iaeieaeee iciaeiieaiea n oee yeaeoeaa e ieoaai?aeoeaa. A 387a ii
aa?ioeny a Aoeiu e iniiaae oeieo (aeaaeaiey).

Ii-aeaeeiiio naith eeo aeayo ia/ae n iaaieueoeo aeeaeiaia ii aii?
yoeee. A c?aeue ia?eiae ei aue iaienai o?aeoao Ain-ai, caoai aeeaeiae
Ie?, Oayoao, Oaaeii. Eiicaeiei ?aaioai ioiineonyaeeaeia “Caeiiu”. O.
o/aiea I ioaaouaaao oe? e?oa aii?inia – i auoee, ie?a e aai
i?ienoiaeaeaiee, aeooa e iiciaiee, iauanoaa, ?acaeae o?oaea,
ainieoaieeTH eneonnoaa.

Ie? /aanoa aauae ia anoue ie? iiaeeeiii nouaai: /oanoa aaue aiciee e
iiaeaatho, eciaiythony e aeaeaeoony, a ieo iao ie/aai enoeiiiai.
Iiaeeeiie nouiinoueth aauae eo i?e/eiaie yae aanoaeaniua ia/oanoa oi?iu
(eaeae eee aeaeu), iinoeaaaiua oiii. Ii ioiio e /oano aauai eaeae e
i?e/eiu e ia?acoeu e oeaee, eio no?aiyony aaue, e iiiyoey ia iauae
iniiaa aauae eaaeaeiai eeanna.

O.e. /oano aaue i?aoiaeyue oi iie aeieaeiu auoue iaoneiaeau ia ieueei
auoeai, ii e iaauoeai. Yoi iaauoea anoue iaoa?ey. (iae ia?ae?au
aeaeaeaiey, aicieeiiaaiey e eciaiaiey) Iaoa? i?eieiaao ia naay eaeae e
i?aa?au eo ai iiiaeanoai /. aauae, ?acaeaeaiiuo i?ino?ainoaii.

Iaeanoue eaeae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ie?aieaeo, ia aa?oeia eio eaeay
aeaaa. Iia iaoneaaeeaaao iiciaaaaiinoue, nou i?aaeiaoia, io iaa iie
iieo/ naith nouiinoue. Eaeay aeaaa yae ia oieueei aa?oiaiie i?e/eiie
auoey, ii e aai oeaeueth (oaeaieiaey – o/aiea i oeaeaniia?aciinoe)

Eaeae aa/iu, ieaciaiiu, oiaeaeanoaaiiu, ia caa io oneiaee i?ino?ainoaa
e a?aiaie.Ie? / aauae – ie? aa/iiai aicieeiia e aeaaee, aeaeae e
eciai/eainoe, a iai ana naienoaa ioiineoaeueiu, ia?aie/aiu one
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie.

Ciaiea anoue i?eiiieiaiea. Aei naiaai anaeaiey a iaiei/eo aeooa
i?aauaaea ia iaaa e nica?oeaea oai enoeiii nouaa. Niaaeeieaoenue n oaeii
aeooa caauaaao oi, /oi ciaea, ii a aeoaeia yoe ciaiey inoathony.
Aeni?eyoey iao i?aaeiaoia iaiiieiatho aeooa iicaauoua ae ciaiey.

Eaeae iiciathony iooai eiooeoeee, iacaaeneiie io /oano aini?eyoey,
/oanoa aaue io?aaeathony eeoue ai iiaieyo, eio ia aeatho iiaeeeiiiai
ciaiey. Na?aaeeio iaaeaeo ii e iiaeeeiiui ciaieai caieiatho iaoaiao
ciaiey.Iie eiatho ia/oi ?iaenoaaiiia /oano aauai e eaeayi.

Auoea – oiaeaeanoaaiiia e iaeciaiiia, iaeiaei a aeeaeiaao Nioeno e
Ia?iaieae I. i?eo e auaiaeo, /oi aunoea ?iaeu nouaai – Auoea, aeaeae.,
iieie, oiaeaeanoai e eciaiaiea – iiaoo iuneeony oieueei oaeei niiniaii,
/oi eaaeaeue ec ieo e anoue e ia anoue, e ?aaa naiiio naaa e ia ?aaai.,
e oiaeaeanoaaiai naaa e i?aoiaeeo a eiia. Oae auoea iineieueeo iii
?anniao? naii ii naaa – aaeeii, aa/ii, oiaeaeanoaaiii, iaeciaiii,
iaiiaeaeaeii, ii iii aea iineieueeo iii ?anni ii ioiio e eiiio,
niaea?aeeo a naaa ?acee/ea, eciai/eai , iiaeaeaeii. Iiyoiio auoea
niaea?aeo a naaa i?ioeai?a/ey: iii aaeeii e iiiaeanoaaiii, aa/ii e
i?aoiaeyua, iaeciaiii e eciai/eai.

I?ioeai?a/ey anue iaiaoi oneiaea aeey iiaoaeaeaieth aeooe e iuoeaieth.
Eneonnoai iiaoaeaeaoue e ?aciuoeaieth iin?aaenoaii auyaeaiey
i?ioeai?a/ee, oayueony a iianaaeiaaiuo iiaieyo, anoue , ii I., eneonnoai
aeeaeaeoeee.

A einiiaiie/aneii o/aieeI ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iineaaeieie ye-oaie anao
aauae yae iaaeaeeiua o?aoaieueieee eee aaiiao?e/aneoa aanoaeaniua aoiiu.

*ae aeooa iacaaeneia io oaea e aannia?oia. Aeooa ninoieo ec 3 /anoae:
?acoiiie, eio nicaeaaony naiei oai?oeii, aooaeoeaiie e aiaeaeaeathuae,
eio nicaeathony iecoeie aiaaie. Iiaaaea ?acoiiie /anoe iaae no?anoyie e
aiaeaeaeaieyie aici i?e niioa ainieoaiee. O.e. ethaee ia iiaoo ee/iuie
oneeeyie i?eae e niaa?oainoao oi iaiaoiaeeii ain-ai e caeiiu. Ain-ai
iniiaaii ia ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea iaaeaeo ?ac?yaeaie naia a?aaeaeai.

A o/. i aeaeaiee a?aaeaeai ia ?ac?yaeu I ?oeiaiaenoaoaony naiae eeanneo
/anoae aeooe. ?ac /anoe aeieaeai niioa ?ac?yae i?aaeoaeae-oeeinioia,
aooaeoiie – aieiia, aiaeaeaeaiiie – ?aianeaiieeia. Eaaeaeue ?ac?yae
aeieaeai auoue ia?aie/ai auiiei naieo iaycaiiinoae e aicaea?aeea io aiao
a aeaea ae?oaeo.

*anoiay nianoa e naiuey – iiae?uaatho oneiaey iauanoaa. Iiyoiio I
?ac?aaioae ieai iauaaeeoey, iniiaaiiiai ia ono?aiaiee aeey i?aaeo e
aieiia – ee/iie nianoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea o/aiea i iauiinoe aeai e ain
ainieoaiee aeaoae.

IE?.

Oaae?: Y?io – ae?aaiaeoee aia., ia?aienoi/iee aaee/aeoeo aeaa.
Ethaiaue aeieaeia o/eoue nouaeeoueny iinouaeiiai eno?aieoueny e
i?ae?aniiio. Iaaeinoieiue iinooiie …nouae ia?aae aicethaeaiiui. Aienei
eee ain-ai ec aethaeaiiuo. Anee Aiia? aiai?eo, /oi iaeio aa?iyi ioaaao
aiooaao aia, oi ethaycei aa aiooaao Y?io. Ethayuea aioiau oia?aoue ae?oa
ca ae?oaa (Aeeanoeaea ?aoeeanue oia?aoue ca naiaai ioaea) Aiae oiaea
auniei /ooo i?aaeaiiinoue e naiiioa a ethaae.

Iaanaiee: Y?ioia 2 – iaaaniue e iioeue. Ethaia aeaei naii ii naaa ia
auaaao i?ae? eee aacia?aciui, a niio?y ii oiio eae iii aeaeaaony. Oio
y?io i?ae?anai, eio iiaoaeaeaao i?ae?anii ethaeoue. Iioeue y?io: yoi oa
ethaiaue eio ethayo ethaee cao?yaeiua – ethayo aeaiuei aieueoa /ai
thiioae e aieueoa oaei, /ai aeooo.

Iaa y?io – iaea?aeeiua yoei y?ioii ia?auathony e thiioai, ioaeaaay
i?aaeii/oaiea oiio, /oi neeueiae io i?e?iaeu e iaaeaeaii aieueoei
?acoiii. Oae eae ethaia aeaei ia e i?ae? e aacia?aciui, oi iaa ethaiaue
aicieeaao, eiaaea iieeiiiee n/eoaao ni?aaaaeeeaui ieauuaaoue
onooieaoaio thiioa ethaua oneoae, a thiioa n/eoaao ni?aa ie a /ai ia
ioeacuaaoue /ae, eioi?ue aeaeaao aai ioae?ui e aeia?ui., oiiui e
aeiaeanoiui.

Y?eeneiao (a?a/): Aeaienoaaiiue y?io caeeth/ai a naiie i?e?iaea
oaea(aieueiia ia/aei e caei?iaia) oaiaeaeaoue ia/aeo oi?ioaio – oi?ioi,
ieioiio-ieioi.. Aa?iiiey A?a/aaaiea, iocuea, iiaiaea, caieaaeaeea.

A?enoioai: Ethaee ia ciatho aaee/aeoae neeu y?ioa, eia/a aio au
aicaeaeaee o?aiu. Eia-/oi i /ae i?e?iaea. Auei 3 iiea. Iaeei niaaeeiye e
ioaeneia e aeaineia ia/aei. Ethaee auee ?anna/aiu iiiieai aiaaie. N yoeo
ii? naienoaaiii ethaeyi ethaiaiia aea/aiea, eioi?ia niaaeeiyy iieiaeiu,
iuoaaony naeaeaoue ec 2 iaeii e oai naiui enoeaeeoue /aeia i?e?iaeo.
Ethaiaue yoi aeaaeaea oeaeinoiinoe e no?aieaiea e iae.

Aaaoii. Oi/ao ainoaaeeoue naiiai Y?ioa , a ia aai aea?u eae aeaeaee
i?aaeiea i?aoi?u. Y?io naiue iieiaeie, oae eae ii iaoiaeeo noa?inoue e
ia?aceo/ai n iieiaeuie. Ii iaaeai. Aiia? – iaaeiu noiiu o iaa: ia
eanaaony eie I?aoa caiiiai; iia ii aeaaai /aeiaa/aneei oiaeeo. ( i
aiaeia Aoa) Ii aeaie. Ni?aaaaeeea, ieeiaaea ia iaeaeaao ie aiaia ie
ethaeae. Aeaai?acoiai. O?aa? e oae.

Nie?ao: Y?io-yoi ethaiaue e eiio-ieaoaeue. Ethaiaue aiaeaeaeaao e
naiaio i?aaeiaoo. Aiaeaeaeaao, eiaaea ia iaeaaeaao (nii?iue aii?in…)
=Aiaeaeaeaiea aucuaaao oi, /aai iaaeinoaao. Anee caei?iaue /aeiaae oi/ao
auoue caei?iaui, oi ii oi/ao auoue caei?iaui a aoaeouai. A yoi icia/aao
ethaeoue oi, /aai aua iao, anee oi/aoue nio?aieoue ia aoaeouaa oi, /oi
eiaaoue oaia?ue. Y?io – ethaiaue e e?anioa. Cia/eo ii ia eiaao e?aniou e
ioaeaeaaony a iae.

?a/ue, oneuoaiiay io aoeiyiee.Iaaeaeo ioae?inoueth e iaaaaeanoaii anoue
ia/oi n?aaeiaa. Aa?iia, ii ia iiaee?aie aeiaiaeaie i?aaenoaaeaiea – ia
anue ciaiea. Anee iao iauyniaiey, eaeia aea yoi ciaiea. (ii e ia
iaaaaeanoai) Y?io neaaeiaaoaeueii ii na?aaeeia iaaeaeo e?aeiinoyie. Y?io
ia aia, oae eae iaaeaeai e?anioie. Ii ia nia?oiue e ia aannia?oiue. – ii
aeaiii, iin?aaeiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie e aiaaie. Ii caiieiyao i?iiaae
iaaeaeo ieie e naycuaaao ie? aioo?aiiae naycueth.

Y?io – oeeinio oae eae ii ethaeo i?ae?aniia, a ioae?inoue i?ae?ania.
Oeeinio caieiaao i?iiaae iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo ioae?aoeii e iaaaaeaeie.

Ana ethayo aeaai e oioyo auoue n/anoeeauie, ii iu aiai?ei ia iai anao,
/oi iie ethayo. Iu aa?ai oieueei iaeio ?aciiaeaeiinoue ethaae e
cae?aieyai ca iae iauaa iiiyoea, a ae? ?aciiaeaeiinoe eiaioai eia/a.

ethaiaue – yoi ethaiaue e aa/iiio iaeaaeaieth aeaaii. *oiau no?aieaiea e
aeaao iiaeii auei iacaaoue ethaiaueth iaiaoiaeeii ?iaeeoue a i?ae?aniii
eae oaeanii oae e aeooiaii. ?iaeaeaiea – yoi aeiey aannia?oey e
aa/iinoe, eio ioiouaia nia?oiiio nouanoao. Ethaiaue yoi e no?aieaiea e
aannia?oeth.

Nia?oiay i?e?iaea iiaeao noaoue aannia?oiie oieueei aeaoi?iaeaeaieai,
inoaaeyy eaaeaeue ?ac iiaia aianoi noa?iai. *aeiaae io ?iaeaeaiey aei
noa?inoe n/eoaaony iaeiei eeoeii, ii ii ieeiaaea ia auaaao iaeiei e oai
aea. Ana nia?oiia nio?aiyaony onoa?aaay e ooiaey, ii a oi aea a?aiy
inoaaeyy naia iiaia iiaeiaea.

Aeiaeanoue – ?aaee aannia?oiie neaau.

Aunoea oaeinoaa ethaae. Nia/aea /aeiaae aeieaeai iiethaeoue i?ae?aniia
oaei e ?iaeeoue i iai i?ae?aniua iunee. Caoai ii noaiao ethaeoue ana
i?ae? oaea, a e iaeiiio ioeaaeaao eai ni/oao oaeoth ethaiaue iaeeie.
Iinea yoiai ii ia/iao oeaieoue e?anioo aeooe auoa /ai e? oaea. iinoeaiao
e?anioo ianouiuo aeae e iau/aaa. Io ianou aeae ii aeieaeai ia?aeoe e
iaoeai, /oiau oaeaeaoue eo e?anioo e no?aiynue e e?anioa oaea ai anai aa
iiiaiia?acee ia auoue ?aaii i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe eiai-oi eee /aai-oi, a
iiaa?iooue e ioe?uoiio ii?th e?aniou e nica?oeay aai a iaoeeiiiii
no?aieaiee e ioae?inoe, iaeeueii ?iaeaeaoue aaeeeieaiiua ?a/e e iunee.,
iiea ii ia oaeaeeo oie aaeeinoaaiiie iaoee, eio eanaaony e?aniou.

E?ANIOA: Oio eoi i?ieaeao aanue iooue oaeaeeo a eiioea yoiai iooe ia/oi
oaeeaeoaeueii i?ae?aniia, ia/oi, ai-ia?auo aa/iia, o.a. ia ciathuaa ie
?iaeaeaiey ie nia?oe, ie ?inoa, ie ineoaeaiey, ai-aoi?uo ia a /ai-oi
i?ae?aniia, a a /ai-oi aacia?aciia. E?anioa i?aaenoaiao i?aae iei naia
ii naaa, /a?ac naay naiia, anaaaea iaeeiaeiaay, ana ae?oaea
?aciiaeaeiinoe i?ae?aniiai i?e/anoiu e iae oaeei ia?acii, /oi iie
aicieeatho e aeaioo, a aa ia noaiiaeony aieueoa eee iaiueoa. Ii oaeaeeo
aa /enoie, aac i?eianae, aac eneaaeaiee, ia ia?aiaiaiioth /ae ieioueth.
Yoi aiaeanoaaiiay e?anioa.

*ae oaeaeaaoee yoo e?anioo noiaao ?iaeeoue ia i?eciaee niaa?oainoaa, a
niaa?oaiii enoeiiia, iioiio /oi iinoeaaao ii enoeio, a ia i?ec?ae.

8. OEEINIOEss A?ENOIOAEss.

?iaeeeny a O?aeeeneii ai?iaea Noaae?, iao/aeny a ieaoiiianeie
aeaaeaiee. (384-322 aeiy). Iinea nia?oe Ieaoiia i?iaeeaae a Aoa?iaa
(ino?ia Eanain) a caoai i?e aeai?a iaeaaeiineiai oea?y Oeeeiia a
ea/anoaa ainieoaoaey aai nuia – Aeaenaiae?a. A 335 aiaeo aica?aoeeny a
Aoeiu, aaea iniiaae oeieo – aeiianee (Eeeae).

Aei ian aeioee ia ana oaenou A.. Iiiaea ec aeioaaeoeo ii aeaeeiiio ia
yae. oaenoaie naiiai A.. Iai?eia? “Iaoaoeceea” ii-aeaeeiiio
i?aaenoaaeyao ninoaaeaiiua neooaoaeyie naiaeu ?acee/iuo ii a?aiaie
eo?nia A. I/aiue aaaeiu aeey iiiei. A. aai ni/ei.: “I aeooa”, “Oeceea”,
“eaoaai?ee”. O. A. ioaaouaaao aii?inu eiaeee, ineoieiaee oai?e iiciaiey,
O/aiey i auoee, einiieiaee, oeceee, ciieiaee, iieeo. yeiiiiee, iieeoeee,
yoeee, iaaeaaiaeee, ?eoi?eee, ynoaoeee. Ii ianoaeaeaao e e?eoeeoao
ioaeaeueiua iieiaeaiey I., aoiienoia, ieoaai?aeoeaa, ?aiieo
iaoa?eaeenoia. Yoe e?eo. aaaaeaiey i?aaenoaaeytho a. oeaiiinoue.

E?eoeea I. oai?eee “eaeae”, Eiaeea. O/aiea A. – iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci.
Iii neiaeeeinue a ?ac. e?eoeee o/ai.I. ia eaeayo. Yoa oai?.(ia eaeayo)
ianinoiyo. ii ?yaeo i?e/ei:

1. Eaeae I nooue i?inoua eiiee, eee aeaieieee, /oanoaaiiuo aauae e ia
ioee/athony io ieo ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth.

2.Oae eae I. ioaeaeee ie? eaeae io ie?a aauae, oi eaeae ie/aai ia iiaoo
aeaoue nouanoaiaaieth aauae. E oioy I. ooaa?aeaeaao, aoaeoi aaue
i?e/anoiu e eaeayi, yoa eo i?e/anoiinoue i?inoi iaoaoi?a. O/aiea I ia
iiaeao iauynieoue ioiio eaeae e aauai aua e iioiio, /oi I. io?eoeaao
niiniaiinoue eaeae auoue iaiin?. nouiinoyie aauae.

3.Ooaa?aeaeay , aoaeoi eaeae ioiinyony e ae?. eaeayi, eae iauaa e
/anoiiio I. aiaaeaao a i?ioeai?a/ea. I?e oaeii iiieiaiee eaaeaeay eaeay
anoue iaeiia?aiaiii e nouiinoue, oae eae aoaeo/e iauae, iia i?enoonoaoao
a iaiaa iauae, e ianouiinoue, o.e. naia iia a naith i/a?aaeue i?e/anoia
e noiyuae iaae iath aieaa iauae eaeaa, eio. e aoaeao aa nouiinoueth.

4.I. o/aiea i nou. eaeae iacaaeneiuo ii ioiio e aauai /oanoa ie?a
i?eaiaeeo e iaeaiiio auaiaeo: oae eae iaaeaeo eaeayie e aauaie anoue
noiaenoai e oae eae ii I., aeey anaai noiaeiiai aeieaeia nou aaeay, oi
e?iia eaeae , iai?ei. /ae. e e?iia niioa ae aauae, aeieaeia nou eaeay
oiai noiaeiiai , /oi nou iaaeaeo ieie. Aeaeaa aeey yoie iiaie eaeae /ae
e aeey iao iiae iath ia?aie eaeae e aa aauae aeieaeia nou aua iaeia –
o?aouey – eaeay…

5.Iainiaea eaeae a ie? aa/iuo nouiinoae, ioee/iue io eciai/eaiai /oanoa.
ie?a, I. eeoee naay aici. iauynieoue oaeou ?iaeaeaiey, aeaaee e
aeaeaeaiey.

Ii A. eaaeaeay aaeei. aauue anoue aaeeinoai iaoa?ee e oi?iu. Oi?ia
iaiaoa?eaeueia, ii iia ia anoue e iioonoi?iiiyy nouiinoue. Oae iaaeiue
oa? anoue aaeeinoai aauanoaa – iaaee – e oi?iu – oa?iaeaeiinoe, eio.
i?eaeaia iaaee ianoa?ii, ii a ?aaeueii nou. oa?a iia ninoaaeyao iaeii n
aauanoaii.

I?ioeaiiie. iaoa?ee e oi?iu iaaaconeiaiay. Iaaeue anoue iaoa?ey ii
ioiioaieth e oa?o, ii iia aea e oi?ia ii ioiio. e oec. yeaiaioai,
niaaeeiaieai eio., ii A. yaeyaony iaaeue. Iaaeue eeoaia oi?io o.e. aua
ia yae. oa?ii e a oi aea a?aiy iia anoue aiciiaeiinoue oi?iu. Oi?ia
anoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue oiai aiciiaeiinoueth /aai yae. iaoa?ey.
Niaeanii . a i?aaeaeao ie?a /oanoa. aauae aiciiaeai iineaaeia. ia?aoiae
io iaoa?ee e niioiineoaeueiie ae oi?ia e iaiai?i. Eaoaai?eee yoe o.i.
noaiiayony oaeo/eie.

eaaeaeay oi?ia iiaeio ?anni. e eae iaoa?ey aeey eio. aeieaeia nou
niioa. ae aunoay oi?ia. Iai?eia? anee ee?ie/, yae. oi?iie aeeiu, ?anni.
eae iaoa?eth, oi oi?iie yoie iao. aoaeao aeii. Iaeiaei oae iu
iiaeieiaainy aei oi?iu, eio. oaea iaeuecy ?anni eae iaoa?eth. Oaeie
i?aaeaeueiie oi?iie yae. ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue eee aia. – eaeaaeeci. Ii
aiiaua ii A. /oanoaaiii- aini?ei aaue anoue aaeeinoai iaoa?ee e oi?iu.

Oai?ey iiciaiey. Enoiaeiay oi/ea – nouanoa. iacaaeneiie io noauaeoa
iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iuou. /ae. yaeythony io?aaeaieyie,
eiieyie i?aaeiaoia ai. ie?a. O. i. enoi/ieeii iiciaiey yae. /oanoa iiuo,
a iuou. i?aaeiieaaaao iacaaeneiue io niciaiey i?aaeiao aini?eyoey. E
oioy ii iieaaaao , /oi a ?acoia iao ie/aai, /oi a auei au ?aiueoa a
iuou., ooaa?aeaeaiea yoi ii ia ?ani?inoaiyao ia iineaaeiea aeneiiu
iaoee, eio ii aai iiaieth ia iiaoo auoue auaaaeaiu ec aunoeo ii
ioiioaieth e iei iieiaeaiee e eio. aeieaeiu auoue i?eciaiu
oiic?eoaeueiuie, a ia iiuoiuie i?aaeiinueeaie ciaiee.

Eiaeea ii A. – iaoa i aeieacaoaeuenoaa, a oaeaea i oi?iao iuoeaiey,
iaiao aeey iiciaiey. Nayce iuneae yae. ii A. io?aaeaieyie iauaeo. nou
naycae. A. ?anni. eia. no?iaiea noaeaeaiee, aii?inu i oa?ieiao, ia
ii?aaeaeaiee no?iaiee e i i?aa oiicaeeth/aiee e aeie-a. A oeaio?a anao
yoeo enne. eaaeeo oai?ey oiicaeeth/aiee. A niioa. n niaoeeoeeie
aioe/iiai ciaiey, ia?aie/. i?yiui iaaethaeaieai e iino?iaieai oiic?eo.
aeiioac, A. aeaaiia cia/. i?eaeaao aeinoiaa?iui e iaiaoiaeeiui auaiaeai,
a ia auaiaeai aa?iyoiinoe e aiciiaeiinoe. Iiyoiio ii ia ia?aue ieai
uaeaeaaao aeaeae iunee io iauaai e /anoiiio (aeaaeoeoeey) a ia
eiaeoeoeethia?au. iaei aieiaiey.

Einiieiaey e oeceea. Einiieiaey – aaioeaio?e/aneay. Caiey – oa?.
Enoi/iee aeaeaeaiey – aia (ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue).

Oeceea. Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo i?eioeeiia yae. o/aiea i oeaeaniia?. a
i?e?iaea. Yoio i?eioeei ?ani?ino?ai. ia ana auoea e aeaaea ia aiaa. Yoa
oeaeaniia?. yaeyaony aioo?aiiae e aanniciaoaeueiie oeaean. i?e?iaeu.
I?eia?u oeaeaniia?. aeaeae a ?inoa i?aaieciia.

Iauanoaaiii iieeo. oai?ee A. Iao/iia nica?oeaiea anoue aunoay
aeiaeanoue, iaeaieaa niaa?o. aeae aeaaeainoaa. Nica?oe aeayoaeueiinoue
?acoia nou. ?aaee naay naiie, ia no?aieony ie e eaeie aiaoiae oeaee e
caee. a naaa ae iaeiie naienoaaiiia ianeaaeaeaiea. Iaeeo/oee ec anao
eeannia – caieaaeaeue/aneee., iaeiaei iie a neeo naiaai ia?aca aeecie e
oa??eoi?. ?aniueaiiinoe ia iiaoo aeoeaii aiaoeaaoueny a aii?.
oi?aaeaiey, Yoei aeaeii aeieaeiu caiei n?aaeiacaaeeoi/ioa eeannu
iauanaa.

A ?acea/aao 3 oi?. e 3 ieioeo oi?iu oi?aaeaiey ain-aii. Oi?ioeie ii
n/eoaao oi?iu, i?e eio. eneeth/aia aiciiaeiinoue ei?unoiiai
eniieueciaaiey aeanoe, a naia aeanoue neoaeeo iauanoao a oeaeii – oaeiau
iiia?oey, a?enoie?aoey e iieeoey (aeanoue n?aaeiaai eeanna, iniia. ia
niaoaiee ieeaa?oee e aeaiie?aoee). Ieioea eee au?iaeeaoeany oi?iu – yoi
oe?aiey, ieeaa?oey e e?aeiyy aeaiie?aoey.

9. INIAAIIINOE N?AAeIAAAEIAIE OEEINIOEE.

Aicieeei oaiae. iauanoai (e?aiinoiia i?aai). Cia/. ?ieue ea?aei
aeooiaainoai. Iiianou?e auee e e?aiinoyie e oeaio?aie caieaaeaeey e
i/eaaie i?inaauaiey e eoeueoo?u. Oea?eiaue noaea o?aieoaeueieoeae
ienueiaiiinoe e ia?aciaaiiinoe a Aa?iia. ?aiiaa n?aaeiaaaeiauea
oa?aeoa?. noaiiaeaieai o?eno. aeiaiaoeee a oneia. oi?ie?iaaiey aa?.
aioae. a ?-oa iaaeaiey ?eineie eiia?ee. A oneiaeyo aeanoeiai aeeeoaoa
oea?eae e ain aeanoe o. auea iauyaeaia neeaeaieie aiaineiaey, eio.
aeieaeia auea eniieueciaaoue naie ?aoeeii. aiia?a aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey
aeiaiaoia o?enoeainoaa. Yoa oee. iieo/eea iacaaiea
“noieanoeee”.(iie?aeanue ia oi?i. eiaeeo A?enoioaey)

Aua a 5 a.(o?enoeainoai oaea ain. ?aeeaey a A?aoeee e ?eia) auei
neeueii aeeyiea oee. iaiieaoiiecia, a?aaeaeaaiiai o?enoeainoao.
(Iao?eno. o. oeieu auee cae?uou ii aeae?aoo eii. THnoeaia a 529a.) I?e
yoii iaeie o?. eaeaieiae neeiiyeenue e io?eoeaieth, ae?oaea e
eniieueciaaieth o/aiee o. eaeaaeenoia ae?aaiinoe. Oae aicieeea eeo-?a
aiieiaaoia (caueoieeia) o?enoeainoa, a ca iae aici. iao?enoeea – ni/.
iooeia oea?eae, ienao., caeiaeeaoeo iniiau o. o?enoeainoaa.

Ni 2a. A?. aiieiaaou ia?au e eiia?aoi?ai, i?aneaaeiaaaoei o?. Iie no?ai
aeieacaoue, /oi o?. iiaeieiaao oaeea aii?. eio. noaaeea e i?aaeoanoa.
a?. oee., ii aeaao aieaa iaa?o eo ?ac?aoaiea. Aeaeiue aiieiaao –
Oa?ooeeai (ec Ea?oaaaia, 2a.) – nou. iai?eie?eiia ?aciiaeanea iaaeaeo
?aeeaeae, aiae. ioe?iaaieai, nayu. ienaieai e /ae. ioae?inoueth. Ia
nicaeaa o. nenoai ai. iaeiaei iaiaoeee e?oa aii?inia, eio. noaee
iniiaiuie aeey o?. o. (i aiaa, i oai?aiee ie?a, i i?e?. /ae e aai
oeaeyo).

Iaeaieaa aeeyo. ec iooeia oea?eae – yoi Aaaonoei (354 -430, ?iae. a
Oaaanoa -ao?ee. Ioieaeey) Aeieacuaae, /oi aia yae. aunoei aueai, Aia
nioai?ee ie? ec ie/aai ii naiae aeia?ie aiea, a ia ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe.
Ie? i?aaenoaeyao niaith iai?a?. eanoieoeo nouanoa, ainoieaeyuoth e
nicaeaoaeth. Iniaia ianoi caieiaao /ae., eio niaaeeiyao i?e?. iao oaea e
iaeaaeaao ?acoii. aeooae e naia. aiee. Aeooa iaiaoa?, aannia?ia.
Noauaeoeaii /ae aeaenoaoao naiaiaeii, ii ia naiii aeaea ana, /oi ii
aeae., aeaeaao /a?ac iaai aia.

Noieanoeea. Ae. iai?aaeaiea a ?aca o. n?aaeiaa. Iia i?aiiaeaa a oeieao
e oieaa?neoaoao. 3 ia?eiaea: 1.?aiiyy noie.(9-12a) 2.ia?eiae
o?aeinoe(13a) 3.oiaaeie (14-15a) Oeaio?. aii?in – i ioiioaiee ciaiey e
aa?a. N/eoaeinue , /oi enoeia oaea aeaia a aeae. oaenoao e iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeeueii enoieeiaaoue eo. O.e. a. oaenou ioee/aeenue eiineacaoaeueiui
oa?., oi aeey eo oieeiaaiey o?aaia. eciu?aiiay eiaeea.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo o. aii?inia, aue aii?in ia ioiioaiee iauaai e
aaeeie/iiio. Nii? ii yoiio iia. ecaanoai eae nii? i oieaa?naeeyo, o.a i
i?e?. iaueo ?iaeia e iiiyoee. Nou. 2 iniiaiuo ?aoaiey yoiai aii?ina.

1.iauea ?iaeu (oiea.) nou. ?aaeueii, iacaaeneii io /ae. – ?aaeeci.(Eiaii
Neio Y?eoaaia, Oiia Aeaeineee) 3 aeaea nou. oieaa?naeee: (o?iyeinoue
nouanoaiaaiey) “aei aauae” a aiae. ?acoia, “a naieo aauao” eae eo
nouiinoue eee oi?iu e “iinea aauae” – a /ae. ?acoia eae ?-o aano?aeoeee.
– oia?aiiue ?aaeeci ( nou e e?aeiee ?aae. – iauaa nou. oieueei aia aauae
-Ainaeuei). I. Aaaey? – nou. oieueei aaeei. aaue. Ii iie iiaoo auoue
noiaeiu iaaeaeo niaie, ia yoii no. e iniia. aiciiaeiinoue oieaa?naeee.
Eiaaea iu ooaa?aeaeaai /oi-oi ii ioiio e iiiaei aauai, iaoa ooaa?aeae.
ioiineony ia e aau., a e neiao (yoi iiieiaeeci). Ii ia?yaeo n yoei ii
i?aaeiie. ?aaeueiinoue iaueo iiiyoee a oia aiaa. Yoi ia?acoeu ii eio aia
oai?eo aaue.

2.Oieaa?naeee ia nou. ?aaeueii, iacaa io /aeia. Iie nooue oieueei
eiaia.(?inoeaeei). Nou. oieueei eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia e oieueei iii iiaeao
auoue i?aaei. iiciaiey. – iiieiaeeci. I?aaenoaaeoaeue Oeeueyi Ieeai.
Caaea/a ciaiey – iinoeaeaiea /anoiiai, aaeeie/iiai. Iauaa nou. oieueei
a oia /ae.. A naieo aauao iao ie iauaai ie aaeeie/iiai. E oi e ae?.
i?enoua oieueei iaoaio niiniao ?annieo?aiey iaeiie e oie aea aaue. Aeey
iauyniaiey ia?aoiaea iunee e iauaio I. aaiaeeo iiiyoea eioaioeee, o.a. i
iai?aaeaiiinoe iunee, i eia. e ineo. aeoao eee ciaeao. Ana iauea iiiyoey
– yoi ciaee, eiae/anee iaicia/athuea iiiaea iauaeou.

Aeaaiua i?aaenoaaeoaee noie. Aeueaa?o Aieueooaaeneee, Oiia Aeaeineee,
Aeoin Neio e ?aeioiae Eoeeee.

A.A. – 13a. I?iaiaeee enne. a iaoeao i i?e?., caueu. o. i?ioea
aiaineiaey. A aii?. i oieaa?n. – oia?aiue ?aaeeno (ni. i.1) Ioiioaiea
iaaeaeo aa?ie e ?acoiii – iaeio. aeiaiaou iaiinoeaeeiu aeey ?acoia,
iai?eia? i 3 eeoeao aiaa.

O.A.(1225-1274). Ini. oeaeue io?aaioea iniiaiuo aeiaiaoia o?.
aa?io/aiey a oi?iao cae?aaiai niunea. Iie?aynue ia iicaeiaai A?eno.
eaiiiece?iaae o?. iiiei. niioiioaiey eaeaaeueiiai e iaoa?. eae niioi.
ecia/aeueiiai i?eioeeia oi?iu n iaonoaiiaiao. i?eioeeiii
iaoa?ee.(neaaaeoei aeaeii auoey). Neeyiea ia?aii?eioeeiia oi?iu e iaoa?.
?iaeaeaao ie? eiaeea. yaeaiee. Aeooa /ae. enoue oi?iiia?ac i?eioeei,
iaeiaei naia iieiia eiaeea. aiieiuaiea iia iieo/aao oieueei i?e niaaeei.
n oaeii.

Oae aue ?ac?aoai iaeei ec naiuo ino?uo aii?. o? noie. Noie aeieaeia
auea enoieeiauaaoue naia ioiio. e iaoa?eee o.e. Eenon O?enoin aue yaeai
a aeaea /aeia., o.a iauaaeeiee a naaa aiae.(eaeaae) e /ae. (iaoa?)
i?e?iaeo. Yoio oaeo ia aeaaae aiciiaeiinoe o?aeoiaaoue iao. eae ie/oi
(/aai o?aaiaae aeiaiao i oai?aiee ie?a ec ie/aai). Iiyoiio eaaeeo
iaoa?ee O.A. n iii. oeaeie nenoaiu ooii/aiiuo ?anoaeaeaiee a ea/anoaa
“neaaaeoaai aeaea auoey” auea aini?eiyoa oea?eiaueth eae auoiae ec
ooieea.

Aaaei cia/aiea eiaei o/aiea i ?acee/ee nouiinoe e nouanoaiaaiey. Iie
niaiaaeatho oieueei a aiaa. Nouanoaia. auoa nouiinoe, ioiineony e iae
eae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue e aiciiaeiinoe.

Aeie-ai nou. aiaa. Eaaeaeiy yae eiaao i?e/eio. Iiaeieiaynue ii
eanoieoea i?e/ei iu i?eoiaeei e iaiaoiaeeiinoe nou. aiaa – aa?oiaiie
i?e/eiu.

10. O*AIEA O. AAE0IA I IICIAIEE E IAOEA. (IIA.I?AAIII)

Ia?aui o. , niciaoaeueii iinoaaeaoei ia?aae niaie caaea/o ?ac?aaioee
iao/iiai iaoiaea ia iniiaa iao. iiieiaiey i?e?iaeu, aue O.Ayeii (1561 –
1626). Anoanoaiciaiea – enoeiiay iaoea, a oeceea, iie?. ia /oanoa iiuo –
aaaeiaeoay /anoue anoanoaiciaiey. *oanoaa iaiia?aoeiu e anoue enoi/iee
anyeiai ciaiey. Iaoea anoue iiuoiay iaoea e ninoieo a i?eiaiaiee
?aoeeii. iaoiaea e /oanoaaiiui aeaiiui. Eiaeoeoeey, aiaeec, n?aaiaiea,
iaaethaeaiea, yenia?eiaio nooue aeaaiua oneiaey ?aoe. iaoiaea. Aeaaiue
o?oae – “Iiaue I?aaiii”. A yoii i?iecaaae A. niciaoaeueii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao naia iiieiaiea iaoee e aa iaoiaea oiio iiieiaieth, ia
eio. iniiaai “I?aaiii” A?enoioaey.

A. ?acee/aao 2 aeaea iiuoia: 1. “ieiaeiiiniua” – oeaeue – i?eianaiea
iaiin?. iieuecu /aeiaaeo 2. “naaoiiiniua” – oeaeue ia iaiin?. iieueca,
a iiciaiea caeiiia e naienoa aauae

I?aaeiiueea i?aia?ac iaoee – e?eoeea anae nou noie. e niiiaiea a
enoeiiinoe anaai, /oi aei neo ii? eacaeinue enoeiie. Iaeiaei niiiaiea
eeoue n?aaenoai iaoiaeaeaiey aei?iae e enoeia. Iaaeinoiaa?iinoue
ecaanoiiai aeinaea ciaiey iaoneiaeaia iaiaaeaaeiinoueth oiic?eoaeueiiai
iaoiaea oiicaeeth/aiee e aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Ia?aui oneiaeai ?ao. iaoee
yae. oniaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeia iaiauaiey – eiaeoeoeee. Neaaeothuei
oaaii aeieaeii auoue i/euaiea ?acoia io caaeoaeaeaiee. A. ?acee/aao 4
aeaea oaeeo caae. eee eaeieia – ?iaea, iaua?u, ?uiea , oaao?a.

Eaeieu ?iaea – i?ai, iaone i?e?iaeie /aeiaaea. *ae noaeeo i i?e? ii
aiaiaee n nianoaaiiuie naienoaaie. Ionthaea aiciee oaeaieiae/aneia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?e?iaea, ioeaee, i?ienoaeathuea ec ianiaa?oainoaa /ae
/oanoa, iiae aeeyieai ?acee/iuo aeaeaiee, aea/aiee.

Iaua?u – ioeaee, aici. aneaaenoaee noauaeo i?aaeii/oaiee, neiiaoee,
aioeiaoee o/aiuo: iaeie aieueoa aeaeyo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo i?aaeiaoaie,
ae?. – eo noiaenoaa. Iaeie neeiiiu aa?eoue a iaiia?ao aaoi?eoao
ae?aaiinoe, ae?, iaiai?io, ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea oieueei iiaiio.

?uiea – i?ai, aiciee aneaaenoaee iauaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie
iin?aaenoaii neia. Ii ai iiiaeo ne. cia/aiey neia auee onoaiiaeaiu ia ia
iniiaa iiciaiey nouiinoe i?aaeiaoa, a ia iniiaa nia. neo/ aia/aoeaiey io
yoiai i?aaeiaoa.

Oaao?a – i?ai, ii?iaeaeaaiua iae?eoe/anee onaiaiiuie eiaeiuie iiaieyie.
eaeieu. o. ia a?iaeaeaiu iaoaio oio? iie aicieeatho aneaaenoaee
iiae/eiaiey oia ioea iiaieyi.

Ciaiea aeaeia i?aiyonoaee iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue ioeaie. Iaeiaei yoi
ciaiea eeoue io?eoe. noi?iia caae. nicaeaiey iao/iiai iaoiaea. iaiao
oaeaea iieiae o/aiea i iaoiaea enneaaeia. A enoi?ee iaoee /aoei
aunooiatho 2 iooe eee iaoiaea eneaaeia: aeiaiaoe/aneee e yiie?e/aneee.
Aeiai iaoiae ia/ei n iaueo oiic? iieiaeaiee e no?ai auaanoe ec ieo ana
/anoi neo/ae. Aeiaiaoee iioiae ia iaoea, eio ec naiiai naay oeao
iaooeio.

O/, neaaeothu yiie? iaoiaeo iioiae ia io?aauey, eio aanii?yaei/ii
oaueo ana, /oi ie iiiaaeaony aio ia iooe. Enoeiiue iaoiae ninoieo a
oinoaaiiie ia?aaaioea iaoa?eaeia, eio aeinoaaeyao iiuo.( i/aea)

Aei neo ii? ioe?uoey aeaeaeenue neo/aeii. Eo auei au aieueoa, anee au
enneaaeia. auee aii?oaeaiu i?aa iaoiaeii. Iaoiae – yoi iooue, aeaaiia
n?aaenoai ene. E iaio ioiinyony i?oaeey, niaa?o. niiniaiinoue iaoaai
aini?eyoey, e i?oaeey, niaa?o. naio /aeia iuneue. Iaoeo ?anoe?yao ia
ianneaiia nica?oeaiea, a yenia?eiaio, o.a aeoeaiia eniuoaiea i?e?iaeu.

Aeaaiia oneiaea i?ia?anna ciaiey – niaa?oainoaiaaiea niiniaiinoe
oiicaeeth/aiey, aaaeiaeoae oi?iie eio. yaeyaony i?aaeeueiay eiaeoeoeey.
Aei A. oee, ienaaoea i eiaeoeoeee ia?auaee aieiaiea ia oa neo/ae, eio
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho aeieacuaaaiua eee iaiu. eie iieiaeaiey. A. iiae/a?eioe
cia/aiea oao neo/aaa, eio. ii?iaa?aatho iaiauaiea, i?ioeai?a/ao aio. Yoi
oae iacua. io?eoeaoaeueiua einoaioeee.

11. ?AIA AeAEA?O – INIIAIIIEIAEIEE ?AOeEIIAEECIA (?ANNOAEAe. I IAOIAeA)

?iaeeeny a 1596 a ai O?. a naiuea aeai?yieia. Neoaeee a a?iee. Iiiai
iooaoanoaiaae. Aeieaea aiaeu aeee a Ieaea?eaiaeao, aaea caieiaeny
iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth. A 1649a. ia?anaeeeny a Noieaieuei, aaea e
oia? a 1650a.

Ini. /a?oa o. ie?iaicc?aiey – aeoaeeci. Ae. aeiioneaao 2 iacaaeneiuo
ae?oa io ae?. ia?aiia/aea: iuneyuoth noanoaioeeth e iaoa?eaeueioth
“i?ioyaeaiioth noanoaioeeth”. A a?aieoeao aai oeceee iaoa?ey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoa. noanoaioeeth, aaeeinoaaiiia iniiaaiea
auoey e iiciaiey. A oi aea a?aiy a ineoieiaee, oai?ee iiciaiey, a o/aiee
i auoee Ae. – eaeaaeeno. A oai? iici. Ae. iauyaeyao naiie aeinoiaa?iie
enoeiie enoeio i nou. niciaiey, iuoeaiey: “ss iuneth neaaeiaaoaeueii ss
nouanoaoth”. A o/. i auoee ii ia oiueei i?eciaao nou aeooiaiie
noanoaioeee, ii e ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iaae ieie iaaeie a ea/anoaa aunoae
noanoaioeee i?aauaaao aia.

Aeaea?o – auaeathueeny o/aiue. Ii oai?aoe aiaeeo. aaiiao?e, aaae iaoiae
eii?aeeiao, aeaaeae iiiyoeai i ooieoeee. Io Aeae. aaaeao ia/aei neno
aeaaa?ae/aneeo iaicia/aiee. A iao. Ae. oeacae ia ioiineoaeueiinoue
aeaeaeaiey e iieiy, noi?ioee?iaae c-i aeaenoaey e i?ioeaiaeaenoaey, a
oaeaea c-i nio?aiaiey iieiiai eie-aa aeaeae. i?e niioaea?aiee aeaoo
iaoi?oaeo oae.

Ae. ioiaeaeanoaeye iaoa?eth n i?ioyaeaieai, eee i?ino?ainoaii, n/eoay,
/oi /oanoa. aini?eieiaaiua ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoia naie ii naaa, o.a
iauaeoeaii ia nou. Auaiaeu ec yoiai : ie?iaay iaoa?ey (=i?ino?ainoai)
aani?aaeaueia, iaeii?iaeia, ia eiaao ionoio e aaneiia/ii aeaeeia.
Naiaeeo ana ea/anoaaiiia ?aciiia?acea i?e?. yaeaiee e : 1. iaoa?ee,
oiaeae. n i?ino?ainoaii e 2. e aa aeaeaeaieth. Aea. aicieeaao a ?-oa
oie/ea. ia?aii. oie/ae aeae aia.

I?iaeaia iaoiaea. Ae. euao aaconeiaii aeinoiaa?iue enoiaeiue oacen aeey
anaai ciaiey e iaoiae, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai iiaeii, iie?aynue ia yoio
oacen, iino?ieoue noieue aea aeinoiaa?iia caeaiea iaoee. Ca eno ioieo ii
i?eieiaao niiiaiea a iauai?eiyoii ciaiee ( oae eae oaeiai oacena ii ia
iao a noieanoeea). Yoi niiiaiea anoue oieueei i?aaeaa?eo. i?eai. Iiaeii
niiiaaaoueny ai anai, iaeiaei naii niiiaiea ai anyeii neo/aa nouanoaoao.
Niiiaiea anoue iaeei ec aeoia iuoeaiey. ss niiiaaathnue, iineieueeo y
iuneth. Anee o.i niiiaie – aeinoia. oaeo, oi iii nou. eeoue iineieueeo
nou iuoeaiea, eeoue iine y nai nou a ea/anoaa iuneyuaai. (ss iuneth
neaaeia. y nou) Yoi iieiaeaiea e anoue eneiiay aeinoiaa?iay iii?a
ciaiey. Yoio auaiae ia o?. eiae/aneiai aeie-aa, ii anoue ?-o eiooeoeee
oia.

ssniinoue e io/aoeeainoue iuoeaiey Ae ioeai/ii iauyaeyao iaiao e
aeinoaoi/iuie i?eciaeaie anyeiai aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey. E?eoa?ee
enoeiiinoe ciaiey o.i ia a i?aeoeea, a a /aeia. niciaiee.

Iaeaaeeci Ae. onoaoaeeny ?aeeaeiciuie i?aaeiin. aai nenoaiu. A neeo
yoiai aeey aeie. ?aaeueiiai nou. ie?a aiaoiaeeii aeie. nou. aiaa. A
/enea i?i/eo eaeae a oia nou eaeay aiaa. Eae iiiyoea i nou.
ananiaa?oaiiii, eaeay aiaa iaeaaeaao aieueoae ?aaeueiinoueth /ai ana
ae?. eaeae. A i?e/eia aeieaeii auoue ii e?aeiae ia?a noieueei aea
?aaeueiinoe neieueei aa iao. a neaaenoaee. O.e. iu nou e o.e. iunooue
neaaenoaey ia?aii?e/eiu, oi nou e naia ia?aii?e/eia o.a. aia. Ii anee
ananiaa?o. aia nou, oi yoei eneeth/aaony aiciiaeiinoue, /oiau ii ian
iaiaiuaae. Yoei iaoneiaeaia naia aiciiaeiinoue iicaiey.

Aici enoeiu iaoneiaeaia nou. a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeae eee enoei
(i?aae?aniieiaeaiey oia e ecaanoiui aeneiiai e iieiaeaieyi) e eio. ii
ioiineo i?aaeaea anaai iao. aeneiiu.

A iiciaiee aeaaioth ?ieue ea?aao ?acoi – ?aoeeiiaeeci. Ae. iieaaae,
/oi enoi/ieeii aeinoiaa?iinoe ciaiey iiaeao auoue oieueei nai ?acoi.

A i?ioe. iiciaiey eneeth/. ianoi ioaae aeaaeoeoeee. Enoiaeiua
iieiaeaiey – aeneiiu. A eia oeaie aeaaeoeoeee, neaae. ca aeneiiaie,
eaaeaeia neaae caaii aeinoiaa?ii. Iaeiaei aeey yniiai e io/aoeeaiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey anae oeaie ioaeia neea iaiyoe. Iiyoiio iaiin?. i/aaeaeiua
enoiaeiua iieiaeaiey, eee eiooeoeee, eiatho i?aeiouanoai n?aaieoaeueii n
?annoaeae. aeaaeoeoeee.

Aii?. eiooeoeeae e aeaaeoeoeeae ?acoi iiaeao aeinoe/ aeinoiaa?iiai
ciaiey a neo/aa anee aoaeao aii?oaeai iaoiaeii. Iaoiae Ae. ninoieo ec 4
o?aaiaaiee: 1.aeiioneaoue a ea/. enoeiiuo oieueei oaeea iieiaeaiey, eio
i?aaenaae. oio ynii e io/aoeeai, ia iiaoo aucaaoue ieeaeeo niiiaiee a
enoeiiinoe; 2. ?an/eaiyoue eaaeaeoth neiaeioth i?iae. ia ninoaaeythuea
aa /anoiua i?iae; 3. iaoiaee/anee ia?aoiaeeoue io ecaanoiiai e
aeieacaiiiai e iaeca. e iaaeie.; 4.ia aeiioneaoue ieeaeeo i?iioneia a
ia. caaiueyo enneaaeiaaiey.

12. I?IAEAIA NOANOAIOeEE A O*AIEssO NIEIICU E EAEAIEOeA.

Aaiaaeeeo Nieiica.(iaoa?eaeeno) – (1632 – 1677). ?iaeeeny a Ainoa?aeaia
a aa?aeneie naiuea. Ciaeiinoai N. n eaeayie Aeae. i?eaaei e ?ac?uao n
eoaeaeciii. N. aue ioeo/ai io iaueiu e auioaeaeai aue iiaeeaaoue a
n?aaea naeoaioia e aeiauaaoue naie oeaa oeeoiaeie eeic aeey oaeaneiiia.
Oia? io ooaa?eoeaca.

Iniiaiay oeaeue oee. – caaiaaaiea ainiiaenoaa iaae aiaoiae i?e?iaeie e
niaa?o. /aeia. i?e?iaeu. ?acaeaay yoe eaeae i?aaeoanoaaiieeia ii
aeiiieiee eo o/aieai i naiaiaea.

N. o/ee, /oi nou eeoue iaeia noanoaioeey – i?e?iaea, eio yaeyaony
i?e/eiie naiie naay. I?e?. yaeyaony n iaeiie noi?iiu i?e?iaeie oai?yuae,
a n ae?. – i?e?iaeie nioai?aiiie. Eae i?e?iaea oai?yuay iia anoue
noanoaioeey, eee, /oi oiaea naiia – aia. Ioiaeaeanoaeyy i?e? e aiaa, N.
io?eoeaao nou. naa?oi?e?iaeiiai nouanoaa, ?anoai?yao aiaa a i?e?iaea e
oai naiui iainiiauaaao iaoa?eaeeno. iiieiaiea i?e?iaeu.

Iainiiauaaao aaaeiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo nouiinoueth e nouanoaiaaieai. A
aaeeie/iuo, i?aoiaeyueo aauao noui. ia niai. n nouanoa., ii a aa/iie e
aaneiia/iie noanoaioeee ec nouiinoe n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth neaaeoao aa
nouanoaiaaiea. Iiyoiio auoea aiaa (eee noano) iiaeao auoue aeieacaii,
o.a nouanoaiaaiea aiaa i.a. auaaaeaii ec iiiyoey i nouiinoe aiaa
(i?e?iaeu). Auoea noano. iaeiia?aiaiii e iaiaoiaeeii e naiaiaeii o.e. ia
nou. ieeaeie i?e/eiu, eio. iiaoaeaeaea au noano e aeaenoaeth,e?iia aa
nianoa. nouiinoe. Aaeeie/iay aauue ia neaaeoao ec noano eae ec naiae
aeeae. i?e/eiu. Iia iiaeao neaaeiaaoue oieueei ec ae?. eiia/iie aaue.
Iiyoiio anyeay aae. aauue ia iaeaaeaao naiaiaeie.

Io noano. neaaeoao ioee/aoue ie? eii. aauae, eee niaie. iiaeonia.
Iiaeon yoi oi, /oi nou. ia naii ii naaa , a a ae?oaii. Noano – aaeeia,
aa nouiinoue eneeth/aao anyeia iiiaeanoai. Iiaeonia aea aaneiia/iia
iiiaeanoai. Iie ioiinyony e noano eae aan/eneaiiua oi/ee, eaaeauea ia
i?yiie ioiinyony e naiie i?yiie.

I?e?. nou. naia ii naaa, iacaaeneii io oia e aia oia. Aaneiia/iue oi
iia au iinoeaaoue aane noano. ai anao aa aeaeao e aniaeoao. Ii iao oi ia
aaneiia/ai. Iiyoiio ii iinoeaaao nou. noanoaioeee eae aaneiia/ioth eeoue
a 2 aniaeoao: eae i?ioyaeaiea e eae iuoeaiea. ( ao?eaoou noanoaioeee).

*ae eae i?aaeiao iiciaiey, ia ninoaae ieeaeiai eneeth/aiey. *ae. anoue
nouanoai, eio. iiaeono i?ioyaeaey – oaeo, niioa iiaeon iuoeaiey – aeooa.
A ethaii neo/aa /aeiaae – /anoue i?e?iaeu.

Aioo?eae Aeeueaaeuei Eaeaieoe (1646 – 1716) Caeii/ee Eaeioeeaneee
oieaa?neoao eae th?eno. ?aaioae i?eaeai?iui enoi?eia?aoii e aeeieiiaoii.

Noa?aeny niaaeeieoue oaieth n i?aeoeeie. Ioe?ue iacaaeneii io Iuethoiia
aeeooa? e eioaa?. en/e/eaiea, ecia?ae n/aoioth iaoeio (iiaea aeaaea
ei?ie au/eneyoue). Ecia?aoae e no?iee iaeueieoeu Ianinu. Aii?inu oaoieee
e oaoiieiaee ii noaaee a naycue n i?eioeei aii?inaie iaoee.

?acaeaaao o/aiea i auoee a oi?ia o/aiey i noanoaioeee. Aeaea?o naae
iaoa?eaeueiinoue e i?ioyaeaieth. E. iieaaae, /oi ec i?ioyaeaiey iiaoo
auoue auaaaeaiu eeuue aaiiao?, ii ia oec na-aa oae: eo aeaeaeaiea,
aeaenoaea , nii?ioeaeaiea… Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeiieaaaoue a noano
oaeea na-aa, ec eio iiaee au auoue auaaaeaiu iniiaiua oec oa?-ee oae.

Oi, /oi aaue iaeaaeatho nianoa. aeaenoaeai i?eaiaeeo E. e auaiaeo, /oi
aaue a nouiinoe neeu. Ethaay aauue – noanoaioeey, neaaeia. /enei noano.
aaneiia/ii. Eaaeaeay noano. eee neea anoue aaeeieoea auoey eee iiiaaea.
Iiiaaea – aeooiaiay aaeeieoea auoey, aeooiaiue aoii.

*enei yaeyaony aiaoiei au?aaeaieai aeooiaiie nouiinoe iiiaaeu, au? aa
ianneaiinoe, ia?aie/aiiinoe. Iaeiaei ianneaiinoue – i?iecaiaeiue iiiaio
iiiaaeu. Ia?ae/iua ea/anoaa eio – naiinoiyoaeueiinoue,
naiiaeayoaeueiinoue. Aeaaiae?y iii. iaoa?ey iae. niiniaiinoueth aa/iiai
naiiaeaeaeaiey.

Eaaeaeay iii iaeiia?aiaiii – oi?ia e iaoa?ey, eai ethaia iao oaei
iaeaaeaao iiaae oi?iie. Oi?ia – iaiaoa?eaeueia e i?aaenoaaeyao
oeaeaniia?acii aeaenoaothuoth neeo, a oaei – yoi iaoai. neea. Iiyoiio
i?e?. iaeuecy iauyniyoue oieueei c-iaie iaoaieee, iaiaoiaeeii aaanoe
iiiyoea i oeaee. Iiiaaea anoue n?aco e iniiaaiea anao naieo aeaenoaee e
eo oeaeue.

Eae noanoaioeee iiiaaeu iacaaeneiu ae?oa io ae?oaa. Iaaeaeo ieei iao
oec acaeiiaeaenoaey. Iaeiaei, aoaeo/e iacaaeneiu, iii. ia eciee?iaaiu: a
eaaeaeie iiiaaea io?aaeaaony aanue ie?iaie no?ie, any niaie. iiiaae.
Iiyoiio E. iacua i. “aeeaui ca?eaeii” anaeaiiie.

O.e. aeaenoaey i. – yoi oaeaniua aeou, oi iie iiae/eiythony i?e?iaea
oaea e o?aaotho iao. iauyniaiey, o.a. iauyni. /a?ac “aeaenoaothuea
i?e/eiu”. A o.e. aeaenoaey yoe anoue aeaenoaey ?acaeaathuaeny iiiaaeu,
oi iie iiae/eiythony i?e?iaea aeooe, o?aaotho iauyni. i?e iiiiue
oeaeaniia?aciinoe, o.a “eiia/iua”(oeaeaaua) i?e/eiu.

Iiiyoea ?acaeoey o E. i/aiue oe?iei. A i?e?iaea ana iao. a ?acaeoee.
?acaeoea anoue eeoue eciaiaiea ia?aiia/. oi?i iooai aaneiia/ii iaeuo
eciaiaiee (iao ie i?ienoiaeaeaiey ie oie/oiaeaiey). Io?eoeaao aici
nea/eia eee ?ac?uaia iai?a?uaiinoe a ?acaeoee.

Aeaeae neea ?acaeoey. A iii. i?ieno iai?a?. eciaiaiea, auoaeathuaa ec
aa aioo?. i?eioeeia. Aaneii ?aciiia?acea iiiaioia, ?ane?uaathueony a
?acaeoee iiiaaeu, oaeony a iae ia iaoa?eaeueii, a eeoue eaeaaeueii, o.a.
eae i?aaenoaaeaiea.

O.i. neea, eaae. a iniiaa ?acaeoey anao iiiaae anoue neea
i?aaenoaaeaiey – ia?oeaioeee. I?aaenoaaeaiea ia ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n
niciaieai. Niciaiea i?enoua eeoue nouanoao, iaaeaeaiiiio niin.
naiiniciaiey – aiia?oeaioee – /aeiaaeo.

O.e. niiniaiinoue i?aaenoaae. i?enoua anai iii, E. aeaeaao auaiae i
oii, /oi i?e?. iaeooaaeaia. Iii.E. ia oieueei iiaeiaea aoiia, ii e
iiaeiaea iee?ii?aaiecia – yoi “naeaoay anaeaiiay”.

A oai? ?acaeoey E aeaao noaio ia?aoiaea iai?a. ie?a a i?aaie/aneee. Iii
i?aaenoaaeytho ?ace. nooiaie ?acaeoey, ii?aaeaeyaiua ?ace. a niiniaiinoe
i?aaenoaaeaiey. Ia iecoae nooiaie noiyo iii, iaeaaeathuea oaiiui
i?aaenoaaeaieai (ia ioee/aao i?aaenoaaeyaiiai ie io naay, ie io anaai
inoaeueiiai). Caoai iii n niooiui i?aaenoaaeaieai (ioee/atho io anaai
inoaeueiiai , ii ia io naay). Auno. nooiaia – io/aoeeaia i?aaenoaaeaiea.

Oeaio? iiiyoea oai?ee E. – iiiyoea i “iaeuo iaoeaioeeyo”, o.a i aaneii
iaeuo ?aciinoyo iaaeaeo nooiaiyie ?acaea niciaiey. Ionthaea E. auaiaeeo,
/oi anyeia ianoiyuaa nino iii. anaaaea: 1. /?aaaoi aoaeoue e 2.
ia?aiaiaii anai aa i?ioeui. Aoae. iii. caeeth/aii oieueei a iae naiie, e
?acaeoea iiaeao ninoiyoue oieueei a iineaaeia. ?acaa?ouaaiee aa ia/.
ninoiyiey.

13.OEEINIONEEA ACAEssAeU AeAE.AA?EEE E Ae.THIA.

Aiaeey, eiiaoe 17 ia/ 18 a. Eaeao i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey ao?ae iauanoaa a
cai Aa?iia. ?ani?ino?aiythony eaeae i?inayuaiey. A oeaio?a aii?. oee.
i?inayuaiey noiye aii?. ia ioiio. ciaiey e aa?a, ia ioiio. iiaiai
anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai ie?iaicc?aiey e naa?oanoanoa. niauoeyi, i eio
aiai?eei nayu ienaiea. Eni?ey aiaeeeneiai i?inayuaiey ieacaeanue a cia/.
ia?a enoi?eae?acaeoey ?aeeaeiciiai naithiaeiiuneey, a eaeaeiie oi?iie
yoiai naiaiaeiiune. noae aeaeci.

Aeaeciii iacua acaeyae ia ?aeeaeth eae ia aa?o, eio ia?aie/eaaaony
eeoue i?eciaieai aiaa a ea/anoaa ia?aii?e/eiu, ia?aioie/ea, ioeacuaaynue
ioanao ino iieiaeaaiee ?aeeaee, EIO. ?ANNIAO?EAATHONss EAE
I?IOEAI?A*AUEA ?ACOIO.

Aoee.ioiioaiee aeaenou eieaaaeenue iaaeaeo iaiineaaeia. iaoa?eaeeciii e
eaeaaeeciii.

Aeaeii Oieaiae. Ioaa?aaao iaiiaeaeaeiinoue Nieiicianeie noanoaioeee.
Ie? eae oeaeia aa/ai, ii iinoiyiii eciaiyaony. AEeciue e aeaeaeaiea
oa?aeoa?ecotho ia oieueei ioaeaeueiua aaue, ii e noanoaioeeth.
“aeaeaeaiea anoue nouanoaaiiia na-ai iaoa?ee.., noieue aea iaioaeaeeiia
io aa i?e?iaeu , neieue iaioaeaeeiu io iaa iai?iieoeaaiinoue e
i?ioyaeaiea.” Iaoa?ey eaaeeo a iniiaa iuoeaiey.

Aeaeci e ?aeeaeiciia naiaiaeiiuneea i?aaenoaaeyee na?ueacioth
iianoiinoue aeey eaeaieiaee oaiae. iauanoaa. Eiaiii a yoi a?aiy ia/eiaao
?aaioaoue eaeaeiue ai?aoe i?ioea i?inayuaiey Aeae. Aa?eee

Aeaei?ae Aa?eee (1684 – 1753)- noauaeoeaiue eaeaeeeci. ?iaeeeny a
E?eaiaeee, aeai?yiei. Ieii/ee Aeoaeeineee oieaa?neoao. N 1734 ii 1752 a
A. aue aieneiiii.

A. ioa?anuaaao iaoa?eaeeno. enoiaeiue ioieo o. Eieea e iauyaeyao
iuouaiey aaeeinoaaiiie aini?eieiaaiie /ae. ?aaeueiinoueth. Eiee
no?aieeny auynieoue iaoiae, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai iu i?eoiaeei e eaeayi
i iaoa?ee e i?ino?ainoaa. Yoio iaoiae anoue ii E. – aano?aeoeey. A.
iuoaaony anaie aeinooiiuie n?aaenoaaie aeieacaoue , /oi oi /ae. ia
niiniaai e ia?aciaaieth iien. E aano?aeoeee. Iauay aano? eaeay
i?ioyaeaiey, eee i?ino?ainoaa iaaiciiaeia. Iia aano?aeia e aioo?aiia
i?ioeai?a/eaa. Oi aea naiia e n aano?. iaoa?ee. Aeie-ao yoiai A iinayoee
“O?aeoao i ia/aeao /aeia ciaiey” , “O?e ?acaiai?a iaaeaeo Aeeanii e
Oeeiionii”, aaea ii ia ne?uaaao, /oi aai aeaaiay oeaeue- ai?ueaa i?ioea
iaoa?eaeecia e anao aai i?iyaeaiee a iaoea.

Ii A., a iniiaa iiiyoey i iao.(e i i?ino?ainoaa) eaaeeo aeiiouaiea,
aoaeoi iu iiaeai ioaeaeaynue io /anoiuo na-a aauae, aini?eieiaaiuo
iin?aaenoaii iuouaiee, ia?aciauaaoue ioaea/aiioth eaeath ia iauai aeey
ieo aau. noano?aoa. Ii yoi iaaiciiaeii. O ian iao /oano. aini?eyoey
iaoa?ee eae oaeiaie. Iu aini?ei. eeoue ioaeaeueiua aaue e eaaeaeia ec
yoeo aini?eyoee anoue noiia ioaeaeueiuo iuouaiee eee “eaeae”. “iu aeaeei
ioaeaeueiua oeaaoa, a ia ie?aoaioth iaoa?eth”…

Ia iiaeao auoue e iauae ioaea/aiie eaeae i iaoa?ee e i?ino?ainoaa.
Neiai noaiiaeony iauei ia iioiio, /oi iii anoue ciae ioae. iauae eaeae,
a iioiio, /oi iii niiniaii auoue ciaeii iiiaeo /anoiuo eaeae. Oi /ae.
iiaeao ia?aciauaaoue iauoth eaeath i aaue, ii ia iauoth ioaea/. eaeath.
Ioae. eaeay iao ia iiaeao i?eaaaeoue e na-aai aauae ie iaeiiai naienoaa
naa?o oao, eio. ioe?uaathony a ieo a iuouaiee.

O/aiea yoi- noauaeo. eaeaaeeci. I?eciaaony nou. eeoue /aeia. niciaiey,
a eio. A. ?acee/aao eaeae e aeooe. Eaeae – yoi aini?eieiaaiua iaie
noauaeo ea/anoaa. Aeooe – aini?eieiathuea, aeayoaeueiua iaiaoa?eaeueiua
noauaeou aeoo. aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eaeae- ianneaiu; yoi eeoue ninoiyiey. Aeooe aea aeoeaiu. A. iuoaaony
aeieacaoue, /oi aaue aicieeatho aeaaiaea?y aini?eyoeth e en/acatho,
eiaaea i?ae?au. aini?eyoea.

A. iooaaony ecaaaeaoue nieeinecia, o.a. auaiaea i oii, /oi nou. eeoue
iaeei aini?eieiathuee noauaeo. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi noauaeo nou. a ie?a
ia iaeei. Aauue , eio. ia?anoae aini?eieiaoue iaeei noauaeo iiaeao auoue
aini?eiyoa ae?oaeie. Ii aeaaea anee au ana noauaeou en/acee, aaue ia
i?aa?aoeeenue au a ie/oi. Iie i?iaeieaeeee au nou. eae noiia eaeae a oia
Aiaa. Aia ia iiaeao en/aciooue. Iiyoiio ia iiae en/aciooue e aanue
nioai?. ei ie?.Aia aeeaaeuaaao a niciaiea ioaeaeueiuo noauaeoia
niaea?aeaiea iuouaiee. – Yoi oaea oaa ii iai?. e iauaeo eaeaaeecio.

Aeaaeae THi. (1711 – 1776) Nui iaaiaaoiai Oioeaiaeneiai iiiaueea. THi –
neaioee, aaiinoee. Ieii/ee Yaeeiao?aneee oieaa?neoao. Iinea iiacaeee ai
O?. ecaeae “O?aeoao i /ae. i?e?iaea”, “Iiuou i?aanoaaiiua e
iieeoe/aneea”. A 1963 THi niiaa ai O?.. Ii aue ciaeii n O?.
i?inaaoeoaeyie (Aeaeaiaa?, Aaeueaaoeee, Aeeae?i…)

Caaea/a ciaiey auoue ?oeiaiaenoaii aeey i?aeo i?eaioaoeee. I?e yoii
aaeeinoa. i?aaeiaoii aeinoia ciaiey n/eoaao iauaeou iaoaiaoeee. Ana ae?.
iauaeou enneaaeia. eanathony oieueei oaeoia, eio ia iiaoo auoue
aeieacaiu eiae/anee, a auaiaeyony eneeth/. ec iiuoa.

Iiuo iaeiaei iiieiaaony eaeaaeenoe/anee. Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue – iioie
aia/aoeaiee. I?e/eiu, ii?aaeae. yoe aia/aoeaiey – iaiiciaaaaiu. Iu ia
iiaeai aeaaea ciaoue nou. ee aaoiee ie?. Nou aia/aoeaiey iaoeo /oanoa
(iuou) e aia/aoe. aioo?aiieo aeayoaeueiinoae aeooe (?aoeaenee) Io yoeo 2
aeaeia ia?aii. iuou caaenyo eaeae iaiyoe e aiia?aae. Ie iaeia eaeay ia
iiaeao auoue ia?aciaaia aac i?aaeoanoa. ae aia/aoeaiey.

Ioiioaiea iaaeaeo i?e/eiie e aeaenoaeai ia iiaeao auoue auaaaeaii ie
eiooeoeaii ie iooai aeie-aa. Aiciiaeii i?e/eiiay naycue e nou.
Aiciiaeii, /oi ec 2 niauoee, neaae. iaeii ca ae?. , i?aaeuae niauoea
aeaenoaeoaeueii i?e/eia, a iineaae. – neaaenoaea. Ii oae yoi eee ia oae
– onoaiiaeoue iaaiciiaeii. I?e/. naycue anee e nou – iaiiciaaaaia.
Iaeiaei ethaee neeiiiu aeaeaoue caeeth/aiey io iaaethae. a i?ioeii
aeaenoaee e iiaeiaiui aea aeaenoaeyi yoeo iauaeoia a aoae. (ca aaniie
neaaeoao eaoi) Iie aeaenoaotho enoiaey ec oaa?aiiinoe, /oi oa aea iine
aoaeao e aoaeouai.

Ii/aio ethaee aeaenoa iiaeiaiui ia?acii? yoi ?-o i?eau/ee. Iaeiaei
aeaenoaea i?eau/ee ieeiaaea ia iiaeao i?aa?aoeoue iaoa iaeeaeaiea
ecaanoiiai ii?yaeea a aeinoiaa?iinoue enoeiiiai ciaiey. – neaioeoeeci.

Iioie iaoeo aia/oeaiee ana aea ia oaioe/ai. Aia/aoeaiey ia ?aaiioeaiiu
e yoiai aiieia aeinoaoi/ii aeey i?eaioaoeee a ie?a.

A iioieiaee(o/ i auoee) THi io?eoeaao nou eaoaai?ee noanoaioeee e
naiaeeo eaeath noano. e eaeaa niaieoiiinoe ioaeaeueiuo ea/anoa.

A o. ?aeeaee ii ia?aie/eaaaony aaeeinoaaiiui aeiiouaieai, aoaeoi
i?e/eiu ii?yaeea ai Anaeaiiie eiathoii?aaeaeaiioth aiaeiaeth n /ae
?acoiii. Ioaa?aaaoanyeia aiaineiaea. ?aeeaey ia iiaeao auoue iniiaie
ii?aee.

14. O?AIOeOCNEEE IAOA?EAEECI 18a I I?E?IAeA, IAUANOAA, *AEIAAEA.

O?. iaoa?eaeenou 18 a. – Eaiao?e, Aaeueaaoeee, Aeeae?i, Aieueaao –
ianoo naie eaeae a oe?ieea e?oae ai?. iauanoaa. Aieueoia aeeyiea ia
noaiiaeaiea iao. ai o?. ieacaei ?aca. oee a Aiaeee a 17a.(Oieaiae,
Oeiaeaeue, Oaoonaa?e). Oaeaea ia?iiiia aeeyiea ieac. o. Eieea, iniaaiii
i iiuoiii i?ienoiaeaeaiee ciaiey. Ae?. aaaeiui enoi/ieeii iaoa?eae.
eaeae auee aeey ieo iaoaienoe/aneee iaoa?. oeceee Aeaea?oa, o/aiea
Nieiicu i i?e?iaea, noa/oaioeee… Ioe?uoey Iuethoiia, Yeea?a, Eaieana,
Eaoaacuea, Athooiia e ae?. anoaoaieniuoaoaeae ia?acotho
anoanoaaiiiiao/ioth iniiao oee. iaiauaiee o?.iaoa?eaeenoia 18a.

I?e?iaea. Ca/eiaoaeue o? iao. – AEoeueai Io?a aea Eaiao?e.(1709 – 1751)
a iauae oi?ia auneacae ii/oe ana eaeae, eio. auee caoai ?acaeou
Aaeueaaoeeai, Aeeae?i, Aieueaaoii.

Eaiao?e aeieacuaae, /oi oi?ia iaioaeaeeia io iaoa?ee e /oi iao. aycaia
n aeaeaeaieai. Noanoaioeey a eiia/iii n/aoa naiaeeony e iaoa?ee, a i?e?.
eioi?ie ei?aieoueny ia oieueei niin e aeaeaeaieth, ii e anaiauay
iioaioeeaeueiay niin e /oanoaeoaeueiinoe eee e iuouaieth.

Oeacuaae ia iaoa?. oa?aeoa? iaeooaaeaiiinoe aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaea. Ana
iaoe iuouaiey iaoneiaeaiu naycueth /oanoaa /a?ac iin?aaenoai ia?aia n
iaoa?eaeueiui a-aii iicaa.

E. eeoue iaiaoee ?yae iniiaiuo eaeae, ii ia aeae eo ianoiyoaeueiiai
nenoaiao. ?acaeoey. Iaeaieaa nenoaiaoe/aneei au?aceoaeai o. o/aiee o?.
iao. noae Iieue Ai?e Aeeo?eo Aieueaao. (1723 – !789) Naiia e?oiiia aai
i?iecaaaeaiea – “Nenoaia i?e?iaeu”, a iaienaiee eioi?ie i?eiyee oae aea
iaeio o/anoea Aeeae?i, Iyaeii.

A iniiaa yoiai o?aeoaoa iuneue i naiaeeiinoe anao yae. i?e?iaeu e ?ace
oi?iai aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo /anoeoe. a naiae niaieoiiinoe
ia?acothueo aa/ioth ianioai?aioth i?e?iaeo. Iniiao anao i?ioe. i?e?iaeu
ninoaaeyao iaoa?ey n i?enouei ae na-aii aeaeaeaiey. Iao. i?ioeannu –
yae. no?iai iaiaoiaeeiuie, neo/aeiinoue e oeaeaniia?aciinoue
eneeth/aaony. O/aiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia /aeiaaea.

Ec aeaenoaey e i?ioeaiae. anao nouanoa iieo/aaony ?yae aeaeaeaiee,
iiae/eiaiiuo iinoiyiiui e iaeciaiiui caeiiai. ?acee/athony 2 ?iaea
aeaeaeaiey: 1.aeaeae. iann, aeaaiaea?y eio. oaea ia?aiinyony n
iaeiiaiianoa ia ae?oaia; 2. aioo?aiaa e ne?uoia aeaeaeaiea, caaenyuaa io
naienoaaiiie oaeo yia?aee.

A. aeieacuaaao oieaa?naeueiinoue aeaeae. a i?e?iaea. Nouiinoue i?e?. a
oii/oiau aeaenoaiaaoue. I?e? iieo/eea naia aeaeae io naay naiie (ieeaeeo
ia?aioie/eia), eai i?e? anoue aaeeeia oeaeia aia eio. ie/oi ia iiaeao
nou. Aeaeae. anoue iaiaoiae. niinia nou. iaoa?ee

Caeiiu i?e/eiiie nayce oaeaea oieaa?naeueiu, eae oieaa?n na-ai
aeaeaeaiey a i?e?iaea. Iaae anaie naycyie i?e/ei a i?e?. ainiiaenoaoao
no?iaeaeoay iaiaoiaeeiinoue. Neo/aeiinoue io?eoeaaony. A aeo?a iuee
iiaeiyoii aao?ii, iao ie iaeiie iieaeoeu iuee, eio ?aniieiaeaia
neo/aeii, eio ia eiaao ii?. i?e/eiu. Ec anaiauaai aeaoa?ieiecia
auaiaeeony e io?eoeaiea ii?yaeea e aanii?yaeea a i?e?iaea. Eaeae ii? e
aanii? noauaeoeaiu e i?aaenoaaeytho eeoue iaoo ioeaieo neooaoeee.

O/aiea i i?e?. iieo/eei ?acaeoea a ?aaioao Aeaie Aeeae?i (1713 – 1784).
I?ioae iooue io yoe/aneiai eaeaaeecia e aeaecia aei iaoa?eaeecia a
o/aiee i auoee, ineoieiaee, oai?. iiciaiey. Iaoa?eaeeno. ni/eiaiey :
“Ieaiyiiee ?aii”. “?acaiai? Aeaeaiaa?a n Aeeae?i”, “Nii Aeaeaiaa?a”.

Aian a o/aiea i i?e?iaea yeaiaiou aeeaeaeoeee. Ii aai iunee ana
eciaiyaony, en/acaao, oieueei oeaeia inoaaony. Ie? aani?a?uaii
ca?iaeaeaaony e oie?aao.

Iniaia aieiaiea Ae. i?eaeaeaea i?iaeaia iao. enoieeiaaiey iuouaiee. Eae
iao aeaeae iao /anoeoe iiaeao ii?iaeaeaoue niaoeeo niaea?aeaiea
iuouaiee? Anoue 2 ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in. 1.Iuou iiyaeyaony ia ii?.
noaaeee ?acaeoey iao eae ia/oi ea/anoaaiii iiaia 2. niiniaiinoue,
aiaeiae/iay iuou. i?enoua anae iaoa?ee. Ae. aue noi?iiieeii 2 iunee.

Ae. iaiaoee oai?eth i ineo ooieoeeyo. Iaoe /oanoaa – eeaaeoe ii
eioi?ui /anoi oaea?uyao ie? ian i?e?iaea e eio naie /anoi ii naaa
oaea?ytho. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi a /aei aae caeeth/aao a naiae
i?aaiecaoeee ia/oi aaoiiaaoe/aneia. Yoio aaoiiaoeci ia eeoai
iaeooaaeaiinoe e i?aaeiieaaaao eaaeauoth a iniiaa anae iao niiniaiinoue
iuouaiey.

I?eciaiea nou. iacaaeneiiai io nici ai ie?a, a oaeaea i?eci niiniaiinoe
iuou. io?aaeaoue naienoaa ai aauae ia icia/aao iaeiaei aoaeoi iuou anue
ca?e eiiee i?aaeiaoia. Ii Ae. iaaeaeo aieueoeinoaia iuou e eo i?e/eiaie
ia aieueoa noiaenoaa, /ai iaaeaeo naieie i?aaenoaaeaieyie e eo
iacaaieyie. Ae. ?acee/aao a aauao ia?ae/iua ea/anoaa (nou a naieo aauao
e iacaa. io niciaiey) e aoi?e/iua (caeeth/athueany a ioiioaiee i?aaeiaoa
e ae? aauai eee e iei naiei)

*aeiaae e iauanoai. A o/aiee i iauanoaa ionoaeaatho aeaoa?ieieci, o.a.
o/aiea i i?e/eiiie iaoneiaeaiiinoe anao /ae. aeaenoaee. Iaeiaei /ae ia
iiaeao auoue inaiaiaeaeai io ioaaonoaaiinoe ca ana niaa?oaaiia ei ii
ioiio. e iauanoao. Iaiao /aeiaa/aneeo aeaenoaee ieneieiei ia eneeth/aao
aiciiaeiinoe aiaiaiey e i?aaiia?iinoe iaeacaiey. Iauanoai iaeacuaaaao ca
i?anooie o.e. iie a?aaeiu. E?iia oiai yoi niinia i?aaeioa?. i?anooieaiee
a aoae. E oiio aea ieeaeia oniio?aiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaa?o /ae
aeaenoaee ia oie/oiaeaao /ae /oanoa, e noaei auoue, ia oie/oiae.
naiiaeayoaeueiinoe, o.e. /oanoaa anue aeaaiua iiaoaeeoaee e aeaenoaeth.

O/aiea i i?aanoaaiiinoe aeieaeii auoue iniiaaii ia iiuoa. *ae aeaeaeei
no?aieaeai e oaeiaieuenoaeth e ioa?auaieai e no?aaeaieth. Ii oae eae /ae
niiniaain?aaieaaoue oaeia. e auae?aoue iaeaieueoea, a oaeaea niiniaai
noaaeoue oeaee oi aeey iaai aiciiaeiu i?aaeea e iiiyoey i aeaenoaeyo,
eaae a iniiaa i?aanoaaiiinoee.

I?aaeii/oaiey cane oinoaaiiua oaeiaieuenoaey eae aieaa i?i/iua,
eeoaeueiua e aieaa caaenyuea io naiiai /aeiaaea.

Ioaeaeaynue a iiiiue ae?oaeo /ae aeieaeai a naith i/a?aaeue aeaeaoue
iieaciia aeey ae?. Oae ia?acoaony iauee eioa?an, io eio caaeneo /anoiue
eioa?an. I?aaeeueii iiiyoue ee/iue eioa?an iaiaoiaeeii aaaeao e
i?aanoaaiiinoe.

A neeo iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a iu aeieaeiu aeaeaoue oi, /oi iu aeaeaai,
/oiau iie aeey ian aeaeaee. I?e yoii auoaeathuea ec iau. aeiaiai?a
eiatho neeo ii ioiio. ei anyeiio /ae.

Ia nou oaeiai ia?aca i?aaeaiey, eio. aiieia au oaeiaeaoai?ye
o?aaiaaieyi ?acoia. N?aaenoai ecaaaeaiey io iaaeinoaoeia I?inaaoeoaee
aeaeyo a i?inaauaiee. iauanoaa. Aaeueaaoeee n/eoaao oeaeueth ainieo
ia?aaeaeeo ia?aiia/aeueiiai naiiauoiiai neeaaea ee/iinoe. Aieueaao –
aeaeeo a /aeiaaea nouanoai ec eio ainieoaieai iaeii naeaeaoue ana, /oi
oaiaeii.

Aeieacuaatho iacaa. yoeee io ?aeeaee e aiciiaeiinoue nou
aunieii?aanoaaiiiai iauanoaa aoaenoia.

Aeaeae neea /aeia aeaenoaee – yaieci, eee ee/iue eioa?an. Iniiaaieai
i?aanoaaiiinoe neoaeeo iiuo, i?aanoaaiiiai /oanoaa ia nou. Eiaaea
eaaeaony /oi ethaee no?aiyony e aeia?o , a iniiaa yoiai eaaeeo i?aa
iiiyoue e. eioa?an.

E?eoa?ee i?aanoaaiiinoe e oia – iieueca. Yoi ioiineony e e iauanoao a
oeaeii. Oio eioi i?eiineo iieueco – /anoiue niaeue aeia?iaeaoaeueiue.
Aeia?iaeaoaeue anoue aeaeaiea iauaai aeaaa.

Oae eae aeeyiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia iauanoai i/aiue aaeeei, oi aii?in
i ain no?ia – aaaeai. ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie iaone. i?aaeaea anaai
iieeo no?iai. Aaeueaaoeee – oieueei a aeaiie?aoe/aneii i?aaeaiee aeanoue
eiaao a aeaeo iieueco anaai iauanoaa, a eaaeaeue a?aaeaeaiei neoaeeo
naiae aeayoaeueiinoueth iauei oeaeyi.

15.OAI?Ess IICIAIEss E YOEEA E.EAIOA. (E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia.
aaaaeaiea)

Eiiaioee Eaio ?iaeeeny a 1724a a Eaieenaa?aa. Caeanue aea o/eeny, noae
?aeoi?ii oieaa?neoaoa , ienae naie o?oaeu e oia? a 1804. Ii aue ia
oieueei oee, ii oaeaea e?oiiui o/aiui a iae anoanoaiciaiey. I?aiiaeaaae.

Oee ?acaeoea E. aeaeeony ia 2 ia?eiaea. A ia?a. ia?eiae (aei ia/. 70-o
aa) iuoaeny ?aoaoue o i?iae – i auoee, oee i?e?iaeu, ?aeeaee, yoeee,
eiaeee enoiaey ec oaaaeaeaiey, /oi o. i.a. ?ac?aaioaia e iainiiaaia eae
oiic?eoaeueiay iaoea. (aac ia?au e iiuoiui aeaiiui)

Ai 2-e ia? (e?eoe/aneee) iuoaao ny no?iai ioaeaeeoue yaeaiey io aauae a
naaa. Iineaaeiea ia iiaoo auoue aeaiu a iiuoa. Aaue iaiiciaaaaiu. Iu
iici. eeoue yaeaiey eee oio niinia, eio. yoe aaue a naaa aeaenoaotho ia
ian. Yoi o/aiea – aaiinoeoeeci. Eaio iacuaae aai “e?eoeeie ?acoia”. Yoi
o/aiea ia?aie/eaaao ?acoi, iineieueeo iii ioeacuaaao aio a iiciaiee
nouiinoe aauae. ?acaeaay yoo e?eoeeo Eaio iuoaeny 1. auynieoue enoi/ieee
?acee/iiai aeaea ciaiee – iao/iiai e oeeinioneiai 2. auynieoue ia /ai
iniiauaaaony aeinoiaa?iinoue ciaiee. 3. enneaaeiaaoue oi?iu e eaoaai?ee
iao/iiai iuoeaiey…

O/aiea “E?eo oee” noi?ie?iaaeinue e ia/aeo 80-o aa. Iii eceiaeaii a
o?aeo. “ E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia” – 81, “E?eoeea i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia” –
88 e “E?eoeea niiniaiinoe noaeaeaiey” – 90. (oai? iiciaiey, yoeea e
ynoaoeea (o/aiea i oeaeaniia?. a i?e?iaea) niioaaonoaaiii)

Iiciaiea ia/eiaaony n oiai, /oi “aaue a naaa” aicae. ia iaoe i?aaiu
/oanoa e aucua iuouaiey. Yoi eiia/ii iaoa?eaeeci. Ii aeaeueoa E. –
eaeaaeeno. Eaeaaeeci ninoieo a oaaaeaeaiee, /oi ie iuouoiae iaoae
/oanoaaiiinoe, ie iiiyoey e noaeae. iaoaai ?annoaeea, ie iiiyoey ?acoia
ia iiaoo aeaoue iai oai?ao. ciaiey i “aauao a naaa” (aan). Aeinoiaa?iia
ciaiea nou – yoi iaoaiaoeea e anoanoaiciaiea. Enoeiu yoeo iaoe anaiauea
e iaiaoiaeeiua. Ii yoi ia anoue ciaiea i aan, a oieueei i naienoaao
aau. e eio. i?eeiaeeiu oi?iu iaoaai niciaiey: iuou, iiiyoey. Aan
i?eioeeieaeueii iaiiciaaaaiu.

O/aiea i ciaiee. Iie?aaony ia oai?eth noaeaeaiey. Ciaiea anaaaea au?aae
a oi?ia noaeaeaiey, a eio iuneeony anycue iaaeaeo aeaoiy iiiyoeyei –
noauaeoaie e i?aaeeeaoaie noaeaeaiey. Nou 2 aeaea yoie nayce. A iaeieo
noaeaeaieyo i?aaeeeao ia aeaao iiaiai ciaiey i i?aaei n?aaieoaeueii n
oai ciaieai, eio oaea iuneeony a noauaeoa. Yoi aiaeeoe/aneea oaeaeaiey.
I?eia?: ana oaea eiatho i?ioyaeaiey (i?aaeeeao – eiatho i?io)

Anee i?aaeeeao ia auaiaeeony ec noauaeoa, a niaaeeiyaony n noa., oi yoi
neoaoe/aneea noaeaeaiey. I?: iaeioi?ua oaea oyaeaeu. Anoue 2 eeanna neio
noaeaeaiee. 1. naycue i?aaeeeaoa n n. iuneeony iioiio, /oi
iaia?oaeeaaaony a iiuoa (iae eaaaaee /a?iu) – aiinoa?ei?iua 2.yoa naycue
ia iiaeao iniia ia iiuoa.Iia iuneeony eae naycue, i?aaeoanoa iiuoo e
iacaaenyu io iaai – ai?ei?iua noaeaeaiey.( ana, /oi neo/aaony eiaao
i?e/eio). Ai?. noaeaeaieyi E. i?eaeaao a. cia/aiea. Aii?in i ai?ei?i.
neio noaeaeaieyo ii noaaeo a neaae oi?ia: 1. eae aici oaeea noaeaeaiey a
iaoai 2.eae aici iie a oai?ao anoanoaiciaiee 3.aiciiaeiu ee iie a
iaoaoeceea. ?aoaiea yoeo aii?. ii naycuaaao n enneaaeia. 3 iniiaiuo
niiniaiinoae iiciaiey: /oanoaaiiinoe, ?annoaeea, ?acoia.

*oanoaaiiia iiciaiea. Aii?in i aici ai?. neio noaeaeaiee a iaoai E
?anni a o/aiee i oi?iao /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey.. Ii E ye-ou iaoai ciaiey
– ia iiiyoey, a iaaeyaeiua i?aaenoaaeaiey. A noaeae. iaoai neioac
noauaeoa n i?aaeee iniiauaaaony eeai ia /oanoa nica?oeaiee i?ino?ainoaa,
eeai a?aiaie. I?ino?ainoai – ai?ei?iay oi?ia aiaoiaai /oanoa nica?oeaiey
(a?aiy – aioo?aiiaai), /oi e i?eaeaao nica?oe. i?ino?. eo aaconeiaioth
anaiauiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

O.i. o E i?ino? e a?aiy ia?anoatho auoue oi?iaie nou aauae. Iie
noaiiayony ai?ei?iuie oi?iaie iaoae /oanoaaiiinoe.

Ai?ei?iua oi?iu ?annoaeea. Oneiaeai aici ai?. neio noaeae a oai?ao
anoanoaiciaiee yae eaoaai?ee. Yoi iacaaeneiua io iinoaaeyaiiai iiuoii
niaea?aeaiey iiiyoey ?annoaeea, iiae eio ?annoaeie iiaeaiaeeo anyeia
niaea?ae, iieo/aaiia ec iiuoa. O.a. eaoaai?e ia oi?iu auoey, a iiiyoey
?annoaeea. Yoi oieueei oi?iu, iiae eio ?annoaeie iiaeaiaeeo
aeinoaaeyaiue /oanoaaiiinoueth iaoa?eae. Eaoaai?ee ai?ei?iu. Ii E ie
iuou ie iiiyoey naie ia aeatho ciaiey. Iuou aac iiiyoee- neaiu, a
iiiyoey aac iuou – ionou. Ciaiea anoue neioac iuou n iiiyoeyie.
Aicieeaao aii?in: eaeei ia? ?aciiia?acea /oanoa nica?oeaiee i?aa?
iin?aaenoaii ai?ei?iuo oi?i a aaeeinoai? Oneiaeai oaeiai aaeeinoaa
ninoieo a aaeeinoaa naiiniciaiey.

Ia yoeo iniiaao ?ac?aaioae ioaao ia aii?in i aiciiaeiinoe oai?ao
anoanoaiciaiey. A iniiaa anao noaeae anoanoa iaoe eaaeao iauea e
iaiaoiaeeiua caeiiu. Iao/iui ciaieai i?aaei e yaeaiey iaoe iiaoo auoue
i?e oneiaee, anee ?annoaeie iuneeo i?aaeiaou e yae eae iiae/eiaiiua 3
caeiiai: 1 nio?aiaiey noanoaioeee 2.i?e/eiiinoe e 3.acaeiiaeaenoaey
noanoaioeee. Yoe cae. i?eiaaeeaaeao ia naiie i?e?iaea a oieueei iaoaio
?acoio. Iaoa niciaiea naii no?ieo i?aaeiao ia a oii niunea, /oi iii
ii?iaeaeaao aai eee aeaao aio auoea, a a oii, /oi iii i?eaeaao
iiciaaaaiiio i?aaei oo oi?io, iiae eio ii oieueei e iiaeao iiciaaaoueny
– oi?io anaiauaai e iaiaoiae ciaiey. O.a. ia oi?iu iaoaai oia
niia?acothony n aau i?e?, a iai?ioea, aaue i?e? – n oi?iaie oia.

Ionthaea auaiae , /oi aaue naie ii naaa iaiiciaaaaiu. Ie oi?iu
/oanoaaiiinoe, ie eaoaai?ee ?annoaeea, ie yoe 3 caeiia ia ninoaae
ii?aaeaeaiey naieo aauae a naaa. I?e?iaea eae i?aaeiao anaiauaai e iaiao
ciaiey no?ieony naiei niciaieai.

Yoeea. I?ioeai?a/ea iaiaoiaeeiinoe e naiaiaeu – ia ianoiyuaa: /ae
iinooiaao iaiaoiaeeii a iaeiii ioiioaiee e naiaiaeii a ae?oaii.
Iaiaoiaeeii, oae eae /ae anoue yaeaiea n?aaee ae? yae i?e? e a yoii
ioiio iiae/eiai iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Ii /ae oaeaea e i?aanoaaiiia nou,
noauaeo i?aanoaaiiiai niciaiey. Eae i?aanoa nou /ae i?eiaaeeaaeeo e ie?o
oiiiinoeaaaiuo aan. E a yoii ea/anoaa ii naiaiaeai. I?aanoa. caeii E
iiieiaao eae aaconeiaiia i?aaeienaiea eee “eaoaai?e/aneee eiia?aoea.”

C-i yoio o?aaoao, /iau eaaeaeue iinooiae oae, /oiau i?aaeei aai ee/iiai
iiaaaeaiey iiaei noaoue i?aa aeey anao. Iinooiie i.a. ii?aeueiui oieueei
anee ii niaa?o ec oaaaeaey e i?aano c-io.

E no?aieeny ineaaeoue caaeneiinoue yoeee io aa?u. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
ia i?aanoaaiiinoue iniiaaia ia ?aeeaee, a iaiai?io. Iiuo iieac, /oi
iaaeaeo ii? eee aii? iiaaaeaieai /ae e aai n/anoueai ia nou
iaiaoiaeeiiai niioaaonoaey. I?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeoii? iiaaae /ae e
?acoeueoaoii yoiai iiaaaeaiey a yiie? aeecie ia ie?eony n iaoei
i?aanoaaiiui niciaieai, eio o?aaoao ni?aaaaeeeaiai niioaaonoaey. Ia
iaoiaey aai a ie?a yaeaee, i? niciaiea auioaeaeaii aa?eoue, aoaeoi niioa
inou a ie?a “oiiiinoeaaaiii”. Nou iiiyoee eae naiaiaea, aannia?oea e aia
iauyni ii E. aa?ie a “oiiiinoea” ie?. Eo auoea ia anoue enoeia,
aeieacoaiay oai?aoe/anee, ii anoue iaiao iinooeao eee o?aaiaaiea
“i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia”.

16. OEEINIOEss AAAAEss. (OEE. I?AAA EEE OAIIIAIIEIAEss AeOOA)

Auaeathueiny i?aaenoaaeoaeai iai ee oee yaeyaony Aai?a Aeeueaaeuei
O?eae?eo Aaaaeue. ?iaeeeny a Ooooaa?oa a 1770a a naiuea e?oiiiai
/eiiaieea. Eco/ae oee e oaeaieiaeth a Othaeiaaineii oi. Iinea aai
ieii/aiey iaeio a?aiy ?aaioae aeii o/eoaeai. A 1801 a caoeoee
aeieoi?neoth e noae i?io Eaineiai oi. Ia?aui auaeathueiny o?oaeii A yae
ai “oaiiiaiieiaey aeooa” (1806) A 1818 a A aue i?eaeaoai a Aa?eeineee
oi, aaea ii ?aaioae i?io e aeaaea ?aeoi?ii.

Oiaeaeanoai auoey e iuoeaiey – enoiaeiue ioieo o/aiey Aaaaey.

Ia iauaeoeaii eaeaaeeno iniiaa ii ?acaee o/aiea i cae e eaoaai?eyo
aeeaeaeoeee, aia?aua a nenoaiaoece?iaaiiii aeaea ?ac?aaioae ini
i?eioeeiu aeeaeaeo eiaeee e iiaeaa?a e?eoeea iaoao niinia iuoeaiey,
ainiiaenoaiaaaoee eae a eaeaaeen oae e iao oa/aieyo oee. Eaioianeie aaue
“naiie ii naaa” ii i?ioeaiiinoaaee aeeae i?eioeei : nouiinoue
i?iyaeyaony, yaeaiea nouanoaaiii. Aaaaeue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi eaoaai?ee
nooue iauaeoeaiua oi?iu aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a iniiaa eio eaaeeo ie?iaie
?acoi, aan eaeay eee ie? aeoo. Yoi – aeayoaeueiia ia/aei, aeaaoaa
eiioeuen e aicieeiiaaieth e ?acaeoeth ie?a. Aeayoaeueiinoue aan eaeae
caeeth/aaony a iuoeaiee. Oeaeue – a naiiiiciaiee. A i?ioe naiiiiciaiey
?acoi ie?a i?ioiaeeo 3 yoaia : i?aauaaiea naiiiiciathuae aan eaeae a aa
nianoaaiiii eiia, a noeoee /enoiai iuoeaiey ( eiaeea, a eio eaeay
?ane?uaaao naia niaea?aeaiea a nenoaia eaoaai?ee e caeiiia aeeaeaeoeee);
?acaeoea eaeae a oi?ia eiiauoey a aeaea yaeaiee i?e?iaeu (?acaea ia
naia i?e?iaea, a eeoue eaoaai?ee); ?acaeoea eaeae a iuoeaiee e a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa (enoi?ey aeooa). Ia yoii iineaaeiai yoaia aan eaeay
aica?auaaony e naiie naaa e iinoeaaao naay a oi?ia /aeia niciaiey e
naiiniciaiey.

Oee acaeyaeu A. i?iieeiooe eaeaae ?acaeoey. Ii n/eoae, /oi iaaiciiaeii
iiiyoue yaeaiea, ia oyniea anaai iooe, eio iii niaa?oeei a naiai
?acaeoee, /oi ?acaeoea i?ieno ia ii caieiooiio e?oao, a iinooiaoaeueii
io iecoeo oi?i e aunoei, /oi a yoii i?ioe niaa?oaaony ia?aoiae io eiee/
eciaiaiee a ea/anoaaiiua, /oi enoi/ieeii ?acaeoey yaeythony
i?ioeai?a/ey: i?ioeai? aeaeaeao ie?ii, iii anoue ei?aiue anyeiai
aeaeaeaiey e aeeciaiiinoe, ninoaayao i?eioeei anyeiai naiiaeaeaeaiey. A
oee nenoaia A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue i?aaenoaaeaia eae oeaiue aeeaeaeo
ia?aoiaeia.

Iaeiaei aaa oee i?iieeiooa aeoaieei i?ioeai?a/eai. *oi aea yoi ca
i?ioeai?a/ea? Iaoiae, ?ac?aa A., iai?aaeai ia aaneiia/iinoue iiciaiey.
Iineieeueeo aea iauaeoeaiie iniiaie aai yae aan aeoo, a oeaeueth –
naiiiiciaiea yoiai aan aeooa, iinoieueeo iicaiea eiia/ii, ia?aie/aii. Oi
anoue nenoaia iiciaiey, i?ieaey oeeee iiciaaao nooiaiae, caaa?oeony
iineaaeae nooiaiueth – naiiiiciaiea, ?aaeecaoeeae eioi?iai yae naia oee
Aaaaey. O.i., i?ioeai? iaoiaeii e nenoaiie A. anoue i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo
eiia/iui e aaneiia/iui. Aeaiiia i?ioeai? o A. ioithaeue ia aeeaeaeoe/ii,
eai ia yae enoi/ieeii aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey.

17. AIO?IIIEIAE*ANEEE IAOA?EAEECI E.OAA?AAOA.

Iineaaeiei aaeeeei i?aaenoaa eeann iai oee aue E.Oaa?aao (1804 –
1872). Aai auaeathuayny caneoaa a oii, /oi ii iiaeaa?a e?eoeea eae.
Eaioa e Aaaaey e i?iaeieaeee o?aaeeoeee iaoa?. O. – aieinoaothuee
iaoa?eaeeno.

O ?iaeeeny a naiuea th?enoa. Iinooiee a aiaineianeee oae.
Aaeaeaeueaa?aneiai oiea. Iaeiaei /a?ac aiae iieeaeaao aai. Ia?aacae a
Aa?eei, aaea neooaao eaeoee Aaaaey a oiea.

N 1828 a. i?aiiaeaao a oiea. ii aai oaieueiytho ca io?eoeaiea ee/iiai
aannia?oey a ?aaioa “iunee i nia?oe e aannia?oee”

N 1830a O. aaaeao oaaeeiaiioth aeeciue a aea?aaia e ioaeeeoao naie
?aaiou. E1839a. ii oaea ieii/aoaeueii ii?uaaao n eaeaaeeciii A 1841a
auoiaeeo ae. o?oae – ”Nouiinoue o?enoeainoaa” . Caoai ii ioaeeeoao
“I?aaeaa? oacenu e ?aoi?ia oee”, “Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oee. aoaeouaai”.

Inoaeaeay eaeaaeeno ieeiaaiea iuoeaiey eae aiai?e?iaeiie e naa?o/ae
nouiinoe, O i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi aii?in ia ioiio auoey e iuoe anoue
aii?in i nouiinoe /aeiaaea, eai iuneeo eioue /ae. Neaaeia
oee.,iineieueeo iia ?ao aii?in ia ioiio iuoe e auoeth, aeieaeia auoue
aio?iiieiaeae, o.a. o/aieai i /ae, a nouanoaiaaiee, a aeayo eioi?iai
yoio aii?in iaoiaeeo naia oaeoe/aneia, ?aaeueiia ?aoaiea.

Iaoee ane?uaatho ia?ac?uaioth naycue iuoeaiey n iao i?ioeannaie a /ae
i?aaiecia, n /oanoa aini?eyoeyie eoae. *ae iaioaeaeei io i?e?iaeu;
iuoeaiea anoue iaiaoiaeeiia au?aaeaiea i?enouae aio aeie, oeceieia.
aeayoaeueiinoe. O.ooaa?aeaeaao: “Iia oee i?aa?auaao /ae, aeeth/ay e
i?e?iaeo, eae aacen /ae, a aaeeinoaaiiue, oieaa?n e aunoee i?aaeiao oee,
i?aa?auay, neaaeiaao, aio?iiieiaeth, a oii /enea e oeceieiaeth, a
oieaa?n iaoeo.” Aio?iiieiaey O oeacua ia aai no?aieaiea ?ac?aaioaoue
iaoa? neno acaeyaeia. O aic?aaeae i?ioea oa?aeo naiaai o/aiey eae iaoa?,
a iniaaiiinoe ec ca aoeueaa?iuo iaoa?eaeenoia (iuneue – yoi a-ai ,
auaeaeyaiia iicaii).

Nouanoaaiiui niaea?aeaieai e iacia/. aio?iiieia. i?eioeeia yaeyaony ii
O. iao/iia enoieeiaaiea iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, a eio ii aeaeeo
io?aaeaiea nouiinoe /ae. Yoa nouiinoue ii O i?aaeaea anaai /oanoaaiiay
aeeciue oia e na?aeoea, iiiaiia?acea ia?aaeea eiaeeaeaea. ?a/ue eaeao
neaaeia i oii, /oiau ?annniao?eaaoue ?ace oi?iu iau niciaiey (e
?aeeaeth) n oi/ee c?aiey caee. a iae aeeciaiiiai niaea?aeaiey. Caeanue
ii eaeao aeaeueoa i?aaeoanoa iaoa?eaeenoia, eio ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi
?aeeaey eeoaia ?aaeueiiai niaea?aeaiey. O naiaeeo naa?oanoanoa e
anoanoaaiiiio, ia?aaeueiia e ?aaeueiiio – a yoii ini /a?oa aai aio?iiie
iaoiaea.

Iniiaie aio?iiie O yaeyaony iao o/aiea i i?e?iaea. I?e? yae
aaeeinoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoueth, a /ae aa aunoei i?iaeoeoii. A /ae e
aeaaiaea?y aio i?e? iuouaao naay, nica?oeaao naay, iuneeo i naaa.

Iiiaiia?acea yae i?e?iaeu ia iiaeao auoue naaaeaii e iauae,
iaeii?iaeiie ia?aiiaoa?ee. I?e?iaea aa/ia. Aicieeiiaaiea e oie/oiaeaiea
ioiinyony oiueei e ioaeaeueiui yaeaieyi. I?e? aaneiia/ia a i?ino?ainoaa.

“O i?e? iao ie ia/aea ia eiioee. ana a iae iaoiaeeony ai
acaeiiaeaenoaee; ana ioiineoaeueii. Ana iaeiia?aiaii yae aeaenoaeai e
i?e/eiie, ana a iae ananoi?iiia e acaeiii…” Iaeiaei yoa aeoaiei
aeeaeaeoe/iay aeiaaaeea ia iaoiaeeo aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey o O.

O. ionoaeaaao iieiaeaiea i ia?ac?uaiie nayce iaoa?ee e aeaeaeaiey.
Iaeiaei ia oeacuaaao ia ea/anoaaiiia iiiaiia?acea oi?i aeaeae. iaoa?ee,
ia eo acaeiiia?aoiae. O aiai?eo e i ?acaeoee, ii iiieiaao aa
iaoaoece/ii.

Iuoaaony i?aiaeieaoue iaoaienoeeci. Ii aiai?eo i ianaiaeeiinoe aunoeo
oi?i nou iaoa?ee e iecoei. Ineo aeou nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io eo
oeceieiae/. iniiau. Aaeeinoai noauaeo n iauaeoeaiui, ineo n oece/aneei
ia ono?aiyao aioo?aiiaai ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ieie.

Iiiaiia?acea /ae iuou. Niioa iiiaiia? ea/anoa i?e?iaeu., iii
iaoneiaeaii ei e i?eioeeieaeueii iaaiciiaeii aac iaai. Iiyoiio iaeuecy
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue niaea?ae /ae iuou ea/anoaaiiie ii?aaeaeaiiinoe
/oano-aini?eieiaaiuo yaeaiee. Oai ia iaiaa O iiieiaiea noauaeoa e
iauaeoa iineo aio?iiieia. oa?-oa?.

Oeaeaniia?aciinoue a aeea e ?ano ie?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia ?-o
?aaeecaoeee aioo?aiia i?enouae yae oeaee, a neaaenoaea aaeeinoaa iao
ie?a. O.i ii ia io?eoeaao iauaeo oeaeaniia?aciinoe a aeea i?e?iaea, ii
i?aa oeacuaaao ia aa ioiineoaeueiinoue.

O.i o. o/aiea i i?e?iaea a oeaeii ia auoiaeeo ca ?aiee iaoao
iaoa?eaeecia. Yoi neacuaaaony, iai?eia?, a O. ii?aaeae i?e?iaeu: “ss
iiieiath iiae i?e? niaieoiiinoue anao /oanoa nee, aauae e nouanoa, eio
/aeiaae ioee/aao io naay, eae ia/aeiaa/aneia… Eee , aa?y neiai
i?aeoe/anee, i?e? anoue ana oi, /oi aeey /ae – iacaaeneii io naa?ouano
aiooaiee oaenoe/aneie aa?u – i?aaenoaaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii,
/oanoaaiii, eae iniiaa e i?aaeiao aai aeecie. I?e? anoue anao,
yeaeo?e/anoai, iaaiaoeci, aicaeoo, aiaea, iaiiue, caiey, aeeaioiia,
?anoaiea, /aeiaae, iineieueeo ii yae nouanoaii, iai?iecaieueii e
aanniciaoaeueii aeaenoaothuei, – iiae neiaii i?e? y ia ?acoiath ie/aai
aieaa, ie/aai ienoe/aneiai, ie/aai ooiaiiiai, ie/aai oaieiae/aneiai”.

Oai? iiciaiey – nainoaeeci. ?aaeueiue ie? anue /oanoaaiii aini?eiei.
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eeoue aeaaiaea?y /oanoa
aini?eyoeyi aiciiaeii aai iiciaiea. *oanoa aini?eyoea, iaiin? ii naiae
i?e?iaea i.a. oaeaea e iiin?aaeiaaiiui, o.a. aeaaaoue einaaiiua
naeaeaoaeuenoaa ioiineoaeueii oiai,/oi iu ia aeaeei, ia neuoei, ia
inycaai… I?aaiia /oanoa, eio iaeaaeaao /ae aiieia aeinoaoi/ii aeey
iiciaiey ethauo yaeaiee. *oanoa aini?eyoey a neeo naiae iaiin?aaenoa
nayce n aauaie ieeiaaea ian ia iaiaiuaatho.

Iaeiaei ii ia aeeth/aao a naia ?anniio?aiea i?aeoe/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue.

O i?eciaao aaaeioth iiciaa ooieoeeth oai?ao iuoeaiey e aai niiniaiinoe
aeinoe/ue aieaa aeoaieiai iiciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Caae iuoeaiey –
niae?aoue, n?aaieaaoue ?acee/aoue, eeanneoeoee?iaaoue /oanoa aeaiiua,
iniciaaaoue, iiieiaoue, iaia?oaeeaaoue eo ne?uoia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia
yaeythuaany niaea?aeaiea. “*oanoaaie iu /eoaai eieao i?e?iaeu, ii
iiieiaai aa ia /oanoaaie”. Iuoeaiea iineo iiin?aaeiaaiiue oa?-oa?,
iiyoiio oi, i /ai iu iuneei, ia anaaaea yae iauaeoii iaiin?aaenoa
aini?eyoey. Eae aea onoaiaae enoeiiinoue iaoeo iiiyoee, eo niioa
?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe? Iooai niiinoaae. iiiyoee, oai? auaiaeia n
/oanoaaiiuie aeaiiuie.

O.i /oanoaaiiia nica?oeaiea – anoue e?eoa?ee enoeiiinoe iuoeaiey. A
iauai O ia iiieiaao neiaei aeeaeaeo nayce iaaeaeo /oanoa io?aae ie?a e
iuoeaieai, aai ia eioa?anoao i?iae eaoaai?ee e eiaeee. Aeoa eaeay Aaaaey
i aeaeae oai? iuoeaiey io aano? e eiie?aoiiio, iaiciiaeiinoe,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiie?. iuoeaiey inoaeanue /oaeaeie aeeyO.

18. INIIAIUA IAI?AAEAIEss ?ONNEIE OEE. 19 – ia/. 20 a.

Oee. iuneue a ?. oi?ie?iaaeanue iiae aeeyieai iauaie?iaie oee. Iaeiaei
niaoeeo ? oee ai iiiaii neeaaeuaaeanue iiae aeeyieai nioeeaeueii
eoeoo?iuo i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeeaoeo ia ?one. O?enoeaiecaoeey ?. nua?aea
ia?iiioth ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee ?on. oee iunee.

Ia?aui ? iuneeoaeai ie? o?iaiy aue eiia/ii aea Eiiiiinia (1711 – 1765).
– aaieaeueiue o/aiue-yioeeeeiiaaeeno.

A.I. ?aaeeuaa (1749 – 1802). – ionoaeaae iaoa?eaeeno oee iiceoeee,
n/eoay, /oi “auoea aauae iacaaeneii io neeu iiciaiey i ieo e nouanoaoao
ii naaa”. Aia?aua a ?on. iunee neneoaiaoe/anee ?ac?aaaouaae i?iae
/aeiaaea.

Auaeathueiny ?on oee e nioeeaeueiui iuneeoaeai aue I.ss. *aiaeaaa
(1794-1856). Aai iauaoee eiioeaioeey – aeoaeenoe/aneay. Oec ie? iino?iai
ec aoiiia e iieaeoe, o.a. ye-oia iaoa?eaeueiuo, ec eio ia?acothony ana
oaea. Oaea nou a i?ino?, eio anoue iauaeoeaiay oi?ia ai ie?a, e ai
a?aiaie, eio noauaeoeaii. Aeaeae e acaeiiaeaenoaea ?anniao?eaaeinue ei a
aeooa iaoaienoeecia, eio, iaeiaei, ia?aie/eaaeny ie?ii oec yaeaiee.
Niciaiea /ae ia iiae/ei iao caeiiiia?iinoyi i?e?iaeu, a yae. ?-oii aiae
oai?aiey. Iiciaiea ii *. oiaea aeoaeenoe/ii: a iae anoanoaiciaiey
aeaenoaotho ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneea e yiie?. iaoiaeu, a a aeoo ie?a, iauaeou
eio iaeaaeatho naiaiaeie, aeaenoaoao ioe?iaaiea.

*aeiaae anoue iauaeoeaiia aaeeinoai 2 ie?ia – oec e aeooiaiiai, eae
nouanoai naiaiaeiia, eio a naiai enoi? auoeee iiae/eiaii aeeaeaeoeea
iaiaoiaeeiinoe e naiaiaeu. Ia iiieiaiee niioiioaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe e
naia ai iiiaii no?ieony e eiioeaioeey oee enoi?ee *, naycaiiay i?aaeaea
anaai n caaioie i noaeueaa ?innee. Caeanue aai acaeyaeu
yaiethoeeiie?iaaee. A ia/ ia?eiae ii n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui oioaeueiia
aaeeinoai ?iaea /aeiaa/aneiai (i?eiaieoaeueii e ? – aaeeiaiea ? n ae?
ia?iaeaie) Caoai acaeyaeu * a ioiioaiee noaeaa ? eciaieeenue. Ii noae
?anni ioi?aaiiinoue ? io ie? enoi? i?ioeanna eae i?aeiouanoai, eio
iicaieeo auno?i iaeaaeaoue aeinoeae cai oeeaeeecaoeee, ecaaaioa i?e yoii
i?enoueo ae ii?ieia.

Naiaia? iai?aaeaieai a ? oee yaeeenue aicc?aiey neaayiioeeia.
A.N.Oiiyeiaa (1804-1860) e E.A.Ee?aaaneiai (1806-1856). A oeaio?a eo
aieiaey iao noaeueau ? e aa ?ieue a ie? enoi? i?ioeanna. A naiiauoiinoe
enoi? i?ioeiai iie aeaeaee caeia ana/aeiaa/aneiai i?ecaaiey ?., oai
aieaa, /oi ii eo iiaieth, cai eoeueoo?a oaea caaa?oeea e?oa naiaai
?acaeoey e eeiieony e oiaaeeo, /oi au?aae a ii?iaeaeaiiii ath /oanoaa
iaiaiooie iaaeaaeaeu e aacio?aaeiie ionoiou. Neaayiio. ?acaeaaee
iniiaaiiia ia ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaenoaaeaieyo o/aiea i /ae e iauanoaa.
Oiiyeia – o/aiea ia eaa?oe/aneie no?oeoo?a aeooe e aa “oeaio?aeueiuo
neeao”. Ee?aaaneee – “aioo?aiiaa n?aaeioi/ea aeooa”. Aeinoeae
oeaeinoiinoe /ae e naycaiiia n yoei iaiiaeaiea iau aeecie iie aeaeaee a
eaeaa iaueiu, aeoo iniiaa eioi?ie – oea?eiaue. Ia?aiia/aei anaai nouaai
– aia. Enoi? i?ia?ann naycai n iouneaieai “aeoo niunea”. Nouiinoue ie?a
i.a. iiciaia eeoue neioacii anao aeooiaiuo ooieoeee /ae, oae iacuaaaiie
“?acoiiie C?y/anoueth” eee “aeeaiciaieai”, enoiaeiia ia/aei eio –
?aeeaey.

Iaoa?eaeenou A.A.Aaeeineee(1811-1848). A.E.Aa?oeai (1812-1870),
I.A.*a?iuoaaneee (1828-1889), I.A.Aeia?iethaia (1836-1861), Ae.E.Iena?aa
(1840-1868). Iie yaeyeenue ia oieueei oeein oai?aoeeaie, ii e
eaeaieiaaie ?. ?aa aeaiie?aoee. ? o i?ioee iio/eoaeueioth oeieo iai eean
oee e O? i?inaauaiey. Iinea aeoaieiai oaea/aiey aaaaeueyinoaii ? oee
iiaa?ioeanue a noi? iao-ia (ia aac iiiiue Oaa?a), no?aiynue iaeiaei
nio?aieoue aeeaeaeoe/iinoue. Iie iainiiaaee i?eioeei aaeeinoaa niciaiey
e auoey, ia?ae/iinoue iaoa? ii ioiio e niciaieth, eaeath i oii , /oi
nici anoue na-ai ia anae, a oieueei aunieii?aaiec iaoa?ee – iicaa.

A i?e?iaea, ii *a?iuoaaneiio, ia/aai eneaoue eaeae: a iae eeoue
?aciiioi?ieaiiay iaoa?ey n ?acii?iaeiuie ea/anoaaie, a ?-oa noieeiiaaiey
eio e ia/eiaaony aeeciue i?e?iaeu.

Iainiiaaee i?eioeei iinoiyiie yaiethoeee iauanoaaiiie enoi?ee. Aa?oeai:
i?e?iaea e /aeia enoi?ey aa/ii e iai?a?uaii eciaiythony, iie oa/aiea,
i?aeea, aeaeaeaiea, i?e/ai aeaeae i?ienoiaeeo iin?aaenoaii ai?ueau 2
i?ioeaiiie oaiaeaioeee: aicieeiiaaiey e ?ac?ooaiey. ?acaeoea eaeao /a?ac
i?ioeai?a/ey, ai?ueao iiaiai ni noa?ui, io?eoeaieai ioaeeaoaai
ia?iaeaeathueiny.

Naiiauoiui ? iuneeoaeai aue Eaa Oienoie(1828-1910). Iiaeaa?aay e?eoeea
iau-iieeo ono?ienoai ?, O oiiaae ia i?aanoaaiii-?aeeaeiciue i?ia?ann a
niciaiee /ae. Eaeath enoi? i?ia? ii naycuaae n ?aoaieai aii? i
iacia/aiee /ae e niunea aeecie, ioaao ia eio aeieaeia aeaoue nicaeaiiay
ei enoeiiay ?aeeaey. A iae ii i?eciaaae eeoue yoe/aneoth noi?iio,
io?eoeay aiaineianeea aniaeou. Ioeac io ethaie ai?ueau, iai?ioeaeaiea
ceo, i?iiiaaaeue anaiauae ethaae. “Oea?noai aiaeea aioo?e ian” – ii
iai?eaieeeiau/iia ?ae iiieiaiea aiaa. Anyeay aeanoue – ianeeea —
io?eoeaiea ain-aa. O.e. ii ioaa?aae ai?ueao oi oi?acaeiaiea ain aeieaeii
i?iecieoe iooai ioeaca eaaeaeiai io auiieiaiey iau e ain iaycaiiinoae.

O.I.Aeinoiaaneee. (1821-1881). A naieo iauanoa-iieeo eneaieyo ii
ia?aaeee ianeieueei ia?eiaeia. Oaeaeaeny eaeayie ooiie/aneiai
nioeeaeeciao (a e?oaeea Iao?aoaaoeaa). Caoai a aai acaeyaeao i?iecioae
ia?aeia, nayc n onaiaieai ?aeeaeicii-i?aanoa eaeae. Eniiaaaeuaae eaeae
ii/aaie/anoaa, ey eio oa?-ii ?aeea i?eaioe?iaaiiinoue oee iniuneaiey
noaeaa ?on enoi?ee. Any enoi?. /aeiaa/anoaa n yoie oi/ee c?aiey
i?aaenoaaeyeanue eae ai?ueaa ca oi?aeanoai o?enoeainoaa. ? ia?iae –
ienney, iineoaeue aunoae aeoo enoeiu.

Iaeiei ec auaeathueony ? oee. aue Ae. Nieiaueaa (1853-1900). Ia aai
acaeyaeu a. aeeyiea ieacaea o?eno eeoa?, eaeae iaiieaoiiecia, oainioee,
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ienoeoeecia, iai eean oee e io/anoe neaayiioeeia.
Iauanoaaiii-enoi? caaea/a o – nianaiea /aeia e /aeiaa/anoaa. Iaiaoiaeeii
iiaeaioiaeoue /ae e aini?eyoeth o?eno oeaiiinoae Oeaio? eaeay o/aiey –
eaeay iieiaeeoaeueiiai anaaaeeinoaa eee “anaaaeeiiai nouaai”. Yoi
anaaaeeinoai yaeyao niaie niaa?oaiiue neioac enoeiu, aeia?a e e?aniou.
Anaaaeeiia nouaa – noa?a aanie, aiaeanoaaiiiai – iaeaaeaao i?eciaeaie
aaconeiaiinoe e anaoeaeinoe. ?aaeueiue ie? – naiiii?aaeaeaiea eee
aiieiuaiea aaniethoai-nouaai., iin?aaeiee iaaeaeo ieie – Nioey
(ioae?inoue aiaeey). Iaoa?eaeueiue ie? iaoiaeeony a oaioe/aneii
ninoiyiee. *aeia yaeyaony oeaio?ii anaiauaai niciaiey i?e?iaeu. Aai
?ieue – ?ieue inaiaiaeeoaey e nianeoaey i?e?. *aeiaa/anoai – iin?aaeiee
iaaeaeo i?e? e aiaeaoaii. *ae aeieaeai eciaiyoue i?e? aei aa
iaeooioai?aiey. Ionthaea oeaeue ie? enoi?ee – aaeeinoai aiaa e
aiaaiaeanoaaiiiai ie?a, aicaeaaeyaiiai /aeiaa/anoaii. I?aanoaaiiue niune
ee/iinoe, yaeythuaeny nayc caaiii iaaeaeo aiae. e i?e?iaeiuie ie?aie,
?aaeecoaony a aeoa ethaae e ae? /aeiaaeo, e i?e?iaea, e aiao. Enoeiiue
i?aaeiao ethaae – Aa/iay AEainoaaiiinoue, eeiue ia?ac anaaaeeinoaa.

A iauanoaa eaeay “anaaaeeinoaa” ?ane?uaaaony eae aiai/aeiaa/aneee nithc
ethaeae, eae iaeay anaeaineay oea?eiaue, iauaaeeiythuay anao e
niinianoaothuay onoaiiaeaieth ia caiea oea?noaa aiaeueaai. Caeiaii
oaeiai anaaae yae iauaaeeiaiea eaoie e i?aaine oea?eaae.

A enoi?ee ? oee eaeaaeecia N ieacae a. aeeyiea ia oeaeoth ieayaeo
?aeeaeicii oee iuneeoaeae (I.A.Aa?aeyaa, A.N. e N.I. o?oaaoeeea,
I.A.Oei?aineee, N.E.O?aie…) eioi?ua ninoaaeee oa/aiea
aiaieneaoaeuenoaa ni naienoaaiiui aio e??aoeeiiaeeciii, ia?niiaeeciii e
ienoe/aneei iiieiaieai naiaiaeu e oai?/anoaa.

Iaeuecy ia oiiiyiuoue A.A Ieaoaiiaa

19. I?IAEAIA *AEIAAEA A OEE IA?ENECIA. IIIssOEA IO*OAEAeAIEss.

Io/oaeaeaiiue o?oae I ?anni a 4 aniaeoao.

1.?aai/ eniieuecoao iaoa?, acyoua o i?e?iaeu e iieo/aao a eoiaa ioaeiua
aeey aeecie i?aaeiaou, i?iaeoeou o?oaea. Ie eno iaoa?eae, ie i?iae aio
ia i?eiaaeeaaeao – iie aio /oaeea. *ai aieueoa ?. ?aaioaao, oai aieueoa
ie? i?aaei, ia i?eiaaee aio. I?e?iaea aeaeaaony aeey ?aa oieueei
n?aaenoaii o?oaea, a i?aaeiaou, eio nicaeathony a i?iecaiaenoaa –
n?aaenoaii aeecie, oec nouanoaiaaiey. ?aa iieiinoueth io ieo caaeneo.

2. I?ioeann o?oaea aeey ? i?eioaeeoaeai. Ii oaeie o?oae – yoi ia
oaeiaeaoai? iio?aaiinoe a o?oaea, a oieueei n?aaenoai aeey oaeiaeaoai?
ae? iio?aaiinoae. Oieueei aia o?oaea ?. ?anii?yaeaaony niaie – o.a.
naiaiaeai. O.i ii naiaiaeai oieueei inou. aeeciaiiua ooieoeee, iauea o
/ae n aeeaioiuie. A o?oae – oi?ia aeayo, niaoeeo aeey /ae, aeey ?aa
i?aaenoaaeyaony oieaeaieai a naaa /aeiaaea.

3. O?oae iiaeiaaieueiue ioieiaao o /ae aai “?iaeiaoth” aeeciue. ?iae
/aeia. aeeaao a i?e?iaea. AEeciue /ae ia?ac?uaii naycaia n i?e?. Yoa
naycue – aeayoaeueiue eiioaeo n i?e?, a eio aeaaiia – o?oae,
i?iecaiaenoai: ”…i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeeciue e anoue ?iaeiaay aeeciue”.
Ii aeey ?aa o?oae – eeoue n?aaenoai aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey nianoaaiiie
aeecie, a ia ?iaea. ? ioiineony e i?e? e i?iecaiaenoao ia eae naia
/aeiaae, a eae ?aai/ee, o.a io/oaeaeaiii. Yoi e cia/eo,/oi o ?aa
ioia?aiu e ?iaeiaay aeeciue e /ae nouiinoue.

4.Iiaeiaaieueiue o?oae ii?iaeaeaao io/aaeae iaaeaeo ethaeueie. ?aa
/oaeaeu ae?oa ae?oao, iineieueeo iie eiieo?e?otho ca aici o?oaeeoueny.

Ia oieueei ?. ii e ana ethaee yaeythony io/oaeaeaiiuie. Ioiio iaaeaeo
ethaeueie oiaea io/oaeaeaiiua e ?acee/ey oieueei a aeaeao e o?iaiyo io/.
I oeacuaaao ia nou ia?ae/iuo e aoi?e/iuo o?iaiae io/. Ii/aio aea /ae
noaiiaeony io/oaeaeaiiui?

Io/ o?oae ?aaiicia/ai nou /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. * nianoa – iniiaa
yeii aeecie. Ia /anoiinianoaaie/aneie yeiiiieea aea?aeeony any enoi?ey.
Yoi cia/eo, /oi yeiiii enoi?ey – eeth/ e iiieiaieth /aeia aeecie eae
oaeiaie. “?aeeaey, naiuey, ain-ai, i?aai, ii?aeue, iaoea, eneonnoai…
nooue eeoue iniaua aeaeu i?iecaiaenoaa e iiae/eiythony aai anaiauaio
caeiio”. AEeciue ethaeae a one io/oaeaeaiey eaea/eo eo, aeaeaao
“/anoe/iuie eiaeeaeaeaie” eee ia?acaeouie, iaaei/aeia nouanoaaie.
“*aoniay nianoa naeaeaea ian ianoieueei aeoiuie e iaeiinoi?iiieie, /oi
eaeie-ieaoaeue i?aaeao yae iaoei eeoue eiaaea iu iaeaaeaai ei… eiaaea
iu ei iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaaeaai, aaeei aai, iueai – oiio?aaeyai…
Iiyoiio ia ianoi anao oec e aeooiaiuo /oanoa noaei i?inoia io/oaeaeaiea
anao yoeo /oanoa – /oanoai iaeaaeaiey”.

Ono?aiaiea io/oaeaeaiey. Oieaa?naeueiue /aeiaae. I?ioeann, ia?aoiue
io/aaeaeaieth, – i?enaiaiea /ae nianoaaiiie iiaeeeiiie nouiinoe. I
naycuaaao aai n iau i?aia?aciaaieyie, n inaiaiaeaeaieai eio a iniiaa
eiaao oie/oiaeaiea io/oaeae o?oaea. *oi aoaeao , anee /ae ia/iao
i?iecaiaeeoue eae /aeiaae, o.a. ia iiaeiaaieueii. A yoii neo/aa o?oae
noaiao n?aaenoaii naii?acaeoey /aeiaaea, a ?aaeecaoeeth /aeiaaeii naieo
eo/oeo noi?ii.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?enaiaiey /aeia nianoaaiiie nouiinoe, eee i?aa?au
o?oaea ec i?eioae a /aeiaa/aneee ?anniao? I ii oai aea ia?aiao?ai, /oi e
i?ioeann io/oaeaeaiey: 1. ii i?enaiaieth i?aaei o?oaea e aai ?acoeueoaoa
2. ii inaiaiaeaeaieth naiie aeayoaeueiinoe 3.i?ena /aeiaaeii o?oaea
iauae ?iaeiaie nouiino 4.aa?iiiecaoeee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeaie.

Caeanue I nicaeaao a?aiaeeicioth ii naiaio iaoino ea?oeio /aeia,
aeeaouaai a aaeeinoaa n i?e?iaeie, i?aia?acothuaai i?e? a niioaaonoaee n
aa caeiiaie. Aa?iiiey n aiaoiae i?e? inou a aeayoaeueiinoe, a eio
/aeiaae ?aaeecoao naie oeaee ia ii caeiiai ooeeeoa?iie iieuecu, a ii cae
e?aniou. Aioo?aiiyy i?e? /ae oaeaee i?aia?acoaony. Aianoi io/aaeaeaiiiai
iaaei/aeiaaea iiyaeyaony /aiaae, naii i?e?iaeiia ?acaeoea anoue
aa?iiie/iue ?-o anae enoi?ee /ae iauanoaa. A /aeiaaea ia/ioo
?aaeeciauaaoueny niiniaiinoe, iiea aua ?aaeecothueany ia o anao (iocue
ooi, ooaeiaeanoaaiii ?acaeoue aeac). – oai?/aneea niiniaiinoe.

Oieaa?naeueii ?acaeoue, aeea a aaeeinoaa e aa?iiiee n aiaoiae e
aioo?aiiae i?e?iaeie /ae – oaeia eaeaaeueiue oee ia?ac, ?enothueeny I a
ea/anoaa yae?a eiiioieno eaeaaea. Oie/oiaeaiea / nianoaaiiinoe
iaiaoiaeeii, ii iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey i?enaiaiey ethaeueie /aeia nouiinoe.

20. IICEOEAECI E AAI YAIETHOeEss.

Ai anoi?ie iie 19a iiceoeaeci noaiiaeony iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiui oa/aieai
cai oee. I. iauyaee aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii enoeiiiai ciaiey
eiie?aoiua, /anoiua iaoee e aunooiee i?ioea o. eae iaoaoeceee, ii ca o.
eae iniaoth iaoeo. Iiae iaoao. iie iiieiaei oiic?eoaeueioth o. auoey
(iioieiaeth,aiinaieiaeth)

I – oee iiceoeaiiai ciaiey, ioaa?aathuay oai?ao niaeoeyoeee e oiic?aiey
eae n?aaenoaa iieo/ ciaiey.

Iie aiai?eee, /oi oieueei niaieoiiinoue iaoe aeaao i?aai aiai?eoue i
ie?a a oeaeii. O.i. anee o. iao/ia oi iia aeieaeia ?ani?iuaoue ny n
iiiuoeie noaeeoue i ie?a a oeaeii.

3 yoaia a yaiethoeee iiceoeaecia:

1.Nianoaaiii iiceoeaeci (30-70aa 19a) – Iathno Eiio, Aeae.No.Ieeue,
Niaina?

2. Yiie?eie?eoeoeeci (eiiaoe 19a) – Iao, Aaaia?eon.

3. Iaiiiceoeaeci (n na? 20o aa20) – Oeee, Ea?iai ,Iae?ic , Aeoaaiooaei,
A.?annae.

Iniiaaoaeue iic I.Eiio (1798-1857). aai ?aaioa: “Eo?n iiceoeaiie oeein”
Iniiaiua eaeae yoie ?aaiou:

1.Iiiuoea eeanneo iaoe. Eaa?oey iaoe aeieaeia auoue auno?iaia io
i?inoiai e neiaeiiio, i?e eio eiae/aneia i?iecaiaeeo enoi?e/aneia.
Iecoay nooiaiue – iaoea iaeaieaa aano?aeoiay e iaeaaeathuay iaeaieueoae
anaiauiinoueth (iaoaiaoeea, aeaeaa: ano?iiiiey, iaoaieea, oeceea, oeiey,
oeceieiaey, nioeeaeueiay oeceea – nioeeieiaey)

2.Iuoaeny ii?aaeaeeoue iaoeo ii aa i?aaeiaoo. Iaeiaei ii enoiaeee i?e
yoii ec eaioianeiai eaeaaeecia, i?aaeiieaaay, /oi iaoee eiatho aeaei n
iaoaoeceea n aauueth. Oae eae aaue iaeuecy iiciaoue, oi iaoao aeieaeia
auoue ioaa?aiooa.

3 Iuoaaony auyaeoue caeii 3 noaaeee ?acaeoey iiciaiey e niioaaonoa oeiu
ie?iaicc?aiey. a)Oaeaieiae/aneay eiaaea iiaaaeaiea /ae ii?aaeaeyaony
aoenoaii oaioacee, aa?ie a aiaia… a)Iaoaoece/aneay – aia noaiiaeony
noaunoaioeeae… a) Iiceoeaiay noaaeey – yoi noaaeey noaiiaeaiey
iao/iiai acaeyaae ia aaue. Ia/eiaaony n niaaeeiaiey iiuoa n aano?
iuoeaieai.

4.Iiceoeaiua iaoee – iiiuoea nicaeaiey iao/iie ?aeeaee. Aunoaa iiiyoea
yoie ?ae – /aeiaa/anoai eae oeaeia. I?ioeia, ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa
/aeiaa/anoaa iauaaeeiaiu ienoe/aneie naycueth. Ii nouanoao aaeeiia
/ae-ai ?acoeueoao, ii ia i?aaeiinueea enoi? i?ioeanna.

Aeaeii Notha?o Ieeeue (1806-1883) Iniiaaoaeue iiceoeaiie eiaeee e
iaoiaeieiaee iaoee. ?aaioa: “Neneoaia eiaeee neeeiaenoe/aneie e
eiaeoeoeaiie”. Eaeae Ieeey eiatho nioeeaeueioth ono?aieaiiinoue. Ii
iuoaaony ?ac?aaioaoue oaeoth oai? ciaiey, /oiau ciaiey auee au iao/iuie
(eae a anoanoa iaoeao). Nouanoaoao eiio?ano iaaeaeo ninoiyieai
anoanoaici e iauanoaiciaiey. Ia?aia a oeaaoouai ninoiyiee, ai aoi?ii –
oiioaiea ia ianoa, iaeie neno niaiythony ae?. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaieciaaoue iiiiuue nioeeieiaee ni noi? anoanoaiciaiey. Iaaei iaoiaeu
anoanoa i?eiaieoue a nioeeieiaee. Eaeea aea yoi iaoiaeu? Iniiaiie iaoiae
– oeceea. Oec.-yoi oai?ao ciaiea, eio iicaieyao eiio?iee?iaaoue
i?ioeannu, Iniaaiiinoue oec. – niaaeeiaiea iiuoa e oai?ee, eiaeoeoeee e
aeaaeoeoeee. ?acaeoay oec i?aaeiieaa 2 o?iaiy ciaiey: 1.Yiie?e/aneea
iaiauaiey 2.Iauyniythuay oai?ey. Iaaeaeo yoeie o?iaiyie nou no?iaay eia
naycue – Yiie? iaiauaiea anoue eia auaiae ec iauyni oai?ee. Iaiaoiaeeii
eoacaeiiiiaee?aieaiea.

Iaoiae nioe iaoee aeieaeai noaoue oi/iie eiieae iaoiaeia oec.

Aa?aa?o Niaina? (1820-1903) Ii iiaeiaii Eiioo iinoaaee caae nicaeaoue
neioaoe/aneoth oee aac naiie oee. Ii Ni yoi anyoee , ii aac iaoaoeceee.
(o.e. iaoao – yoi iiiyoea noaeeouei ie?a aauae, eio iaiiciaaaaiu).
Noa?aeiai aaeeinoaa ciaiee ethaeae yae eaeay yaiethoeee. I?ioeann yaie
icia/aao aic?anoaiea ii?aaeaeaiiinoe aeaea. Ni auaiaeee yaiethoeeth ec
caeiia nio?aiaiey e i?aa?auaiey yia?aee, a iineaaeiee ec cae niciaiey.,
o.a. ineo i?eau/ee /aeiaaea.

*ae eiaao aeaei ni nieioiui iioieii aia/aoeaiee – yoio iioie – iniiaa
caeiia nio?aiaiey.

Ii iuoaaony i?eiaieoue eaeath yaiethoeee i?e ?anniio? oai? iiciaiey:
Ii iieaaaao, /oi iaoa eeethcey a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeae anoue ?-o iaeiieaiiie
ianeaaenoaaiiinoe. Oi, /oi aeey aeaea aiinoa?ei?ii aeey eiaeeaeaea
ai?ei?ii. O.a a enoi? ?acaeoee iiuo i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiia iia ci., a
caoai yoi iiaia oneeeaaaony e ia?aaeaaony eae ai?ei?iia.

Yiie?eie?eoeoeeci – oai?ey e?eoeee iiuoa. Aeaaiia iacia/aiea yoie
e?eoeee – auyniaiea nouanoaa aeae. AA oeaeue – i/enoeoue iiuo io
iaoaoeceee. Iniiaaoaee Aaaia?eon e Iao n/eoaee ini caeiiii iiciaiey –
yeiiiieth iuoeaiey.

Iuoaeenue i/enoeoue iiieiaiea iiuoa io oaeeo iiiyoee eae iaoa?ey,
noanoaioeey, iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?e/eiiinoue e ae? ?annoaei/iuo iiiyoee. A
eoiaa yiie?eie?. auaeaeaaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i ie?a eae nia-oe
iaeo?aeueiuo ye-oia e ie/ueeo iuouaiee. Ie? – yoi iiuo, a no?oeoo?o
iiuoa ninoaae iuouaiey.

Naie ii naaa ye-ou ie?a iaeo?aeueiu (e iaoa?ee niciaieth), ?acee/ea eo
ooieoeeiiaeueii: iaeie e oa aea ye-ou ie?a ninoaae oec ?aaeueiinoue, e a
yoii neo/aa iie nayc oeaiueth oec i?e/eiiinoe. Ineoieia ye-ou naycaiu
oeaiueth iiaiiie/aneie i?e/eiiinoe e i?iyae a oii, /oi iu iac iaiyoueth.

O.i. Y. enoiaeeo ec oaiiiaiieiae/aneiai iiieiaiey ineo e oece/aneiai
iiieiaiey oiai, /oi iaiino?aaenoaaiii aeaii iaoaio niciaieth, ii ia
o/eouaaao aaiacen naiiai niciaiey.

– noauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci.

Iaiiiceoeaeci. eee eiae/aneee yiie?eci – ?annae, Aeoaaiooaei, Oeee,
Ea?iai, O?aie, Iae?ao. Ae eaeaeiui enoi/ieeii ii. aue iaoeci. Ii anee
iaoenou ionoaeaaee “aeieiai -yeiiiie/aneoth” oai?eth iiciaiey e aeaeaee
a iaoea iaoiae oii?yaei/eaaiey iuouaiee(yeaiaioia), oi ii auaeaeioee
iiaia iiieiaiea iao/iiai iiciaiey, eae eia eiino?oeoeee ia iniiaa
/oanoaaiiuo niaea?aeaiee.(/oanoa aeaiiuo). Ecaiiyee ec o. iaoaoeceeo.
Oee eiaao i?aai ia nou ia eae iuoeaiea i ie?a, a eae “eiae/aneee aiaeec
ycuea.”

Iiceoeaenou n/eoaee iniiaiie aii? oee a oaeaea ae? ei?aiiua aii? oee
ia?ac?aoeiuie ec-ca neaainoe /ae ?acoia, iaoenou – /oi ini aii?in o.
nieiaaony e ?ac?aoaaony o/aieai i iaeo? yeaiaioao, ii.- cayaeytho, /oi e
ini aii?in o. e aiiaua i?iae, n/eoaaoeany ?aiaa oee, – yoi iieiua
i?iaeaiu, eio ioaeii ioa?ineoue eae eeoaiiua iao/iiai niunea.

Ana iaoa ciaiea i ie?a aeatho oieueei eiie?aoiua iaoee. Oee ia iiaeao
auneacaoue i ie?a ie iaeiiai iia iieiaeaiey, ia iiae nicaeaoue ieeaeie
ea?oeiu ie?a. Aa caaea/a – eia aiaeec e i?iyniaiea iieiae iaoee, a eio
au?aaeathony ciaiey i ie?a.

Naaaeaieth oee e eia aiaeeco ii iaycai A ?annaeo, eio ainiieueciaaeny
i?e yoii aeinoeae iaoai eiaeee. Iiiuoaaoeue aeaoue no?iaea ii?aaeae
iaoai iiiyoee ii i?eoae e uaiaeo , /oi any iaoai i.a naaaeaia e eiaeea.
Aeaeaa ? i?eaeae aieaa oe? cia/aiea iaoiaeo eia aiaeeca e iauyaee, /oi
“eiaeea – yoi nouiinoue oee”. Aeoaaiooaei ?acaee yoo eaeath, oeacaa, /oi
oee ninoieo a eia aiaeeca ycuea.

Ioiaeaeanoaeyy anth oee n eia aiaeecii yc, ii eneeth/atho ec noa?u oee
ii/oe any o. i?iaeaiaoeeo e oai naiui i?aeo eeeaeaee?otho oee.

Iaeiie ec aaaei caaea/ yae ioaeaeaiea i?aaeeiae eioi?ua eiatho niune,
io oao eio eeoaiu aai n iao/iie oi/ee c?, e o.i i/enoeoue iaoeo io
aanniune i?aaeeiaeaiee. Ii ?acee/atho 3 oeia iniune i?aaeeiaeaiee
1.auneacuaaiey ia yiie? oaeoao (anee aiai?yo i oaeoao e ie i /ai aieaa)
2. i?aaeeiae, niaea?aeauea eia neaaenoaey yoeo auneacuaaiee e
iino?iaiiua a niioa n eia i?aaeeaie (iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu e aune i yiie?
oaeoao) 3. i?aaeeiaeaiey eiaeee e iaoai ( ia niaea?aeao aune i oaeoao,
ia aeatho iiaiai ciaiey i ie?a, iaiaiaeeiu aeey oi?iaeueiiai i?aia?ac
oaea eiathuaainy ciaiey)

*oiau auynieoue eiaao ee i?aaee niune iaiaoiaeei niaoe iaoiae –
aa?eoeeaoeey Nooue a n?aaiaiee i?aaeeiae n aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth,
oeacaiee eiie?aoi oneiaee, i?e eio iii enoeiii eee eiaeii. Iaoiae
i?iaa?ee aua e onoaiaaeeaaao niune i?aaeeiaeaiey “cia/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey
caee a iaoiaea aai i?iaa?ee” Oaeoe/aneay enoeia ninoieo a niioa
auneacuaaiey oaeoo. I?aaeeiaeaiey aea oeia “aeooa /ae aannnia?oia”
aanniuneaiu o.e. ia iiaoo auoue i?iaa?aiu.

Iiae oaeoaie ii iiieiatho iuouaiey, ia?aaeeaaiey/, neiaii nino
niciaiey. Ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii, /oi ?ica, a?iiao eio y aaeuoath,
iaoa?eaeueia, ?aaii eae ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi iia eeoue ieiae iiaai
aiia?aaeaiey – iaeeiaeiai eeoaiu niunea. Aoaeo ee y n/eoaoue aa iao eee
eaeaaeueiie yoi ia iiaeeyao ia oaeo , /oi y /oanoaoth aa a?iiao e iia ia
noaiao io yoiai iaoiooue eo/oa eee ooaea”. Cia/eo a i?ioe aa?eoeeaoeee
iiaeii n?aaieoue i?aaeeiaeaiea oieueei n /oanoaaiiuie niaea?aeaieyie e
aeaiiuie iuouaiee eee i?aaeeaaiee. Ieacaeinue ,/oi ie iaeei iao/iue
caeii, ie iaeii iauaa ooaa?aeaeaiea oeia “ana ethaee nia?oiu” ia i.a.
aa?eoeoee?iaaiu, oae eae aa? anaaaea ioiineony e eiie?. yiie? oaeoo. A
neeo noauaeaoeaecia aa?eo enoeiu iieiae iaoee ieacaeenue a caaeneiinoe
io ioeaiee eaaeaeiai noauaeoa, i?iecaiae aa?eo. Iiyoiio auei
i?aaeeiaeaii n/eoaoue i?aaeeiae aa?eoeoee?iaaiiui, anee ianeieueei
aaoi?eoaoiuo enneaaeia niaeaniu n/eoaoue aai oaeiaui. O.a e?eoa?ee
enoeiu – niaeanea enneaaeiaaoaeae.

Caoai auei i?aaeeiaeaii aeey auyni enoeiiinoe i?aaee. n?aaieaaoue aai n
ae?oa i?aaeeiaeaieyei. Iiieiaiea enoeiu eae niioa oaeoai ia/aei
onooiaoue ianoi acaeyaeo ia enoeio eae ia niaeianiaaiiinoue
i?aaeeiaeaiey n nenoaiie ae? i?aaeeiaeaiee., /oi ia ia iniiaie ciaiey

21. OEEINIOEss YECENOAIOeEAEENOIA. (Eaith. “Ieo e Neceoa. Ynna ia
aano?aea”, Na?o?. “Yecenoaioeeaeeci – yoi aoiaieci”).

Yecenoaioeeaeeci – Oeeinioey nouanoaiaaiey. E??aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay oee.
Iaeaieaa e?oiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee: I. Oaeaeaaaa?, E ssnia?n, A.Ia?naeue,
AE.I.Na?o?, A.Eaith, I.Aaaaiueyii.

A Aa?i y. noae neeaaeuaaoueny iinea 1 ie? aieiu (ianoaiiaea iceiaeaiey
e oiuiey) Iia aieia – O?aioeey a?aiai ieoiaoeee e iinea 2 ie? aieiu.

Y. iinoaaeee aiiin i niunea aeecie, i noaeueaa /ae, i auai?a e ee/iie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Enoiaeiue ioieo oee. Y. – eciee?iaaiiue, iaeeiieee eiaeeaeae, ana
eioa?anu eioi?iai nin?aaeioi/aiu ia iai aea naiii, ia aai nianoaaiiii
iaiaaeaaeiii e a?aiiii nouanoaiaaiee. Yecenoaioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu – yoi
oaeea i?iae, eioi?ua aicieeatho ec naiiai oaeoa nou /aeiaaea. Aeey Y
eiaao cia/aiea oieueei aai nianoaaiiia nou e aai aeaeaeaiea e iaauoeth.

Y iauyae i?aaeiaoii o. – auoea. “Nia?aiaiiay oee, eae e a i?ioeua
a?aiaia caiyoa auoeai”- (Na?o?). Iie ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iiiyoea auoey
yae iaii?aaeaeeiui., e /oi ieeaeie eia aiaeec aai iaaiciiaeai. Iiyoiio
o. ia i.a. iaoeie i auoee e aeieaeia eneaoue eiuo, iaiao/iuo,
e??aoeeiiaeueiuo iooae aeey i?iieeiiaaiey a iaai.

Oioy auoea aauae niaa?o iaiiiyoii, ii anoue 1 aeae auoey ioee/ii iai
ciaeiiue – yoi iaoa nianoaaiiia auoea. Caeanue oi e ioe?uaaaony aeinooi
e auoeth eae oaeiaiio, ii eaeao /a?ac iaoa nouanoaiaaiea. Ii yoi nou.
ia/oi aioo?aiiaa e iaau?aceiia a iiiyoeyo: “nou anoue oi, /oi ieeiaaea
ai noaiiaeony iauaeoii”, eai iu ieeiaaea ia iiaeai acaeyiooue ia naay ni
noi?iiu.

Y – yoi oee, aaeeinoaaiiue i?aaeiao eio – /aeiaa/aneia nou-a, oi/iaa
i?aaeeaaiea nou-y. N?aaee anao niiniaia auoey nouanoaiaaiey Y euoo
oaeie, a eio nou ?ane?ueinue au iaeaieaa iieii – yoi no?ao. No?ao – yoi
enoiaeiia ia?aaeeaaiea, eaaeauaa a iniiaa anaai nou-y. A eii/iii n/aoa
yoi no?ao ia?aae nia?oueth.

Aeey Na?o?a ana aaue, e?iia /aeiaaea anoue”auoea a naaa”, a /ae. nou.
anoue “auoea aeey naay” eee ie/oi. Iineieueeo anyeia auoea aici ec auoey
e ia iiaeao i?aa? a ie/oi, oi aeeo /ae nou-y, iiieiaaiiai eae
ia?aaeeaaiea, ia iiaeao iaeoenue oaeiai auuoey, ec eio iii iiaei au
aicieeiooue e eoaea oeoe. Cia/eo auoea /ae anoue ie/oi. Iniciaaay naia
ie/iaeanoai /ae eniuouaaao no?ao “/aeiaae anoue aai no?ao”.

ssnia?n iieaaaao, /oi /ae nou ?ane?uaaaony eeoue a “iia?aie/iuo
neooaoeee” – no?aaeaiea, ai?ueaa, nia?oue.

Naiaiaea. *aeia nai naiaiaeii auae?aao naith nouiinoue, ii noaiiaeony
oai, eai ii naay naeaeaao. *ae – yoi iinoiyiiay aiciiaeiinoue, caiunae
, i?iaeo. Ii naiaiaeii auae?aao naay e ianao iieioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
naie auai?. Naiaiaea ninoaaeyao naii /ae. nouanoaiaaiea, /ae e anoue
naiaiaea.

Iaeiaei naia iiieiaaony eie eae ia/oi iaecuynieiia, ia iiaeaeathuany
au?aae a iiiyoeyo, e??aoeeiiaeueiia. Naia iie iuneyo eae naia aia
iauanoaa. Yoi aioo? ninoiyiea, iano?iaiiinoue, ia?aaeeaaiea eiaeeaeaea.
Naiaiaea i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Oaeay naiaiaea, i?ioeaiiino
iaiaoiaeeiinoe e io?aoaiiay io iauanoaa, – anoue ionoie oi?iaeueiue
i?eioeei. Naiaiaea – yoi naiaiaea auai?a ioiioaiey e ie?oae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. ?aa iiaeao auoue naiaiaeiui, niioaaonoaaiii
naiiii?aaeaeyy ioiioaiea e naiaio auoeth. Naiaiaea noaiiaeony
iaioa?aoeiui ?ieii. “*aeiaae inoaeaeai auoue naiaiaeiui” naiaiaea anoue
io/eoaeueiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

Oa?aeo /a?oie /ae nou yaeyaony oi, /oi ii ia nai auae?aao oneiaey
naiaai nou, ii caa?ioai a ie? e iiaeaeanoai noaeueaa. Io /aeiaaea ia
caaeneo a?aiy aai ?iaeaeaiey e nia?oe. Yoi i?eaiaeeo eo e iunee, /oi
iiieii /ae nou-y nou iioonoi?iiiyy ?aaeueiinoue, eio iiieiaaony eae
niinia nou /ae, ninoiyuee a icaai/aiiinoe /ae, iai?aaeaiiie eoaea-oi aia
aai. Ai ie? i?aaenoaaeyao n?aaeo, ie? caaiou /ae, ie?oaeathuee /ae nou-a
e iaoiaeyueeny a ia?ac?uaiie nayce n iei. I?ino?ainoai e a?aiy anoue
niiniau /ae nou-y. A?aiy – yoi ia?aaeeaaiea nou-ai naiae ia?aie/aiiinoe,
a?aiaiiinoe. I?aaenoaae i a?aiaie aei iiaai ?iaeaeaiey e iinea nia?oe –
i?iecaieueiay yeno?aiieyoeey. Aiai?eoue i oii, /oi aoaeao iinea iiae
nia?oe aanniuneaii.

Ee/iinoue e iauanoai Iauanoai – anaiauay aacee/iay neea, iiaeaaeythuay
e ?ac?oo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, ioieiathuay o /ae aai auoea., iaaycua
ee/iinoe o?aoa?aoiua aeonu, i?aau,acaeyaeu… *aeiaae, i?aneaaeoaiue
no?aoii nia?oe, euao i?eaaaeeua a iauanoaa. ?anoai?yynue a iai ii
ooaoaao naay oai, /oi ethaee nia?oiu. Ii aeeciue a iauanoaa ia enoeiia.
A aeoaeia /ae ne?uoi enoeiiia, iaeeiieia nou-a. Eaaeaeue oie?aao a
iaeeii/eo.

22. OEEINIONEAss AA?IAIAAOEEA.

Iaoea i iiieiaiee, enoieeiauaaiee oaenoia. A.A. Aaaeaia? Nicaeae
oai?eth iiieiaiey. I.?eea? aiaeece?iaae ycue a oe? eiioaenoa nioe aeecie
e eoeueoo?u, i?eiaiyao aa?iai aeey enneaaeiaaiey eeo-?u.

Eneonnoai e oai?ey enoieeiaaiey, eiathuaai oeaeueth auyaeoue niune
oaenoa, enoiaey ec aai iauaeoeaiuo (a?ai cia/aiey neia e eo enoi?
iaoneiaeaiiua aa?eaoeee) e noauaeoeaiuo (iaia?aiey aaoi?ia) iniiaaiee.
Aicieeaao a ia?eiae yeeeiecia a nayce n caaea/aie iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey
e ecaeaiey eeanne/aneeo oaenoia e ?acaeaaaony aeaeaa a ?aieao oieeiaaiey
“Nayu ienaiey”. A 19a ia/eiaaony ?acaeoea oae iacua naiaiaeiie A., ia
ia?aie/aiiie i?aaeiaoii, a?aieoeaie niunea oaenoa. O Aeeeueoae A.
i?aa?auaaony a niaoeeoe/aneee iaoiae iau iaoe, i?ecaaiiue iaania/eoue
iiieiaiea iau niauoee, enoiaey ec noauaeoeaiuo iaia?aiee enoi?e/aneeo
aeayoaeae. I?e yoii iiieiaiea i?ioeaiiinoaae iauyniaieth a
anoanoaiciaiee, naycuaaaiiio n aano?aae?iaaieai e onoaiiaeaieai iauaai,
caeiia. A 20a A. iinoaiaii ioi?ieyaony a iaeio ec iniiaiuo
iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?ioeaaeo? oee, nia/aea a ?aieao yecenoaioeeaeecia,
caoai nianoaaiii a oee A. Oae o Aaaeaia?a A. i?eia?aoaao ooieoeee
iioieiaee, iineieueeo “auoea, eio iiaeao auoue iiiyoi, anoue ycue”,
nioeeaeueiiae oeeinioee, iineieueeo iiieiaiea anoue oi?ia nou iau aeecie
e “e?eoeee eaeaieiaee”. ?acoeueoaoii ieacuaaaony caiueaiea oee a e?oao
ycuea, /oi ?iaeieo A. n iaiiiceoeaenoneei aiaeecii ycuea. A ?aieao
O?aieoo?oneie oeieu (TH.Oaaa?ian) A. eae e?eoeea eaeaieiaee aeieaeia
?ane?uoue ia aiaeeca ycuea “ n?aaenoai iniiaenoaa e nioe aeanoe”,
neoaeauaa ii?aaaeaieth ioiioaiee i?aaieciaaiiiai ianeeey. O Oaaa?iana A.
aunooiaao iaeiei ec eiinieeaeaoeee ?acee/iuo oa/aiee nia?ai ao?ae
oeeinioee. A. i?ioeaaeo?u i.a. eniieueciaaiu a enoi?, th?eae e ae?
iaoeao, eiathueo aeaei n aiaeecii iauaeoeae?iaaiiuo ?ac. niciaoaeueiie
/aeia aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aeeeoae – A. – yoi naycothuaa caaii iaaeaeo oee e enoi? iaoeaie.

23 – 28 ionoonoaotho.

29. NOAIIAEAIEA E ?ACAEOEA OEE EAOAAI?EE “IAOA?Ess”.

Iaoa?ey – ooiaeaiaioaeueiay enoiaeiay eaoaai?ey oee., io oiai eee eiiai
aa iiieiaiey caaeneo ?aoaiea i?aeo anao ae?oaeo o i?iaeai. Io eao
materia – aauanoai Yoi aauanoa cia/aiea oaea?aeeaaeinue aei 20a., eiaaea
i?iecioea ?aaie a oeceea.

Ia?aie nooiaiueth a iniciaiee iaoa?eaeueiinoe ie?a aue noeo
iaoa?eaeeci. Ia/aeii oi?i iiiyoey iaoa?ee yaeeny ia?aoiae io ea/anoa
?aciiia?acey nou aauae e iiiyoeth aaeeiie, iauaiethuae yoi ea/
?aciiia?acea iniiau ie?a – ia?aiiaoa?ee. Yoi aano?aae?iaaiea neiaeii.
Iiyoiio nia/aea ana ea/ ?aciiia? ie?aauaiaeeeinue ec eaeiai-eeai iaeiiai
oiaea ea/anoa ii?aaeaeaiiiai, yiie? aini?eieiaaiiai ye-oa. (iaiiue,
aiaea…) Ii oaea Aeaiie?eo caiaoee, /oi n iii. iaeiiai ea/ ii?aaeae.
a-aa iaaiciiaeii iauynieoue i?ienoiaeae ae?oaiai, oae eae ii ia
niaea?aeeo i?eioeeia naiaai i?aa?auaiey. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iunee
i?eaaei e aoiienoeea.

Aoiiu oiaea enoieeiauaaeenue eae aauanoai, eae ee?ie/e anaai
nouanoaothuaai. Oae ca?iaeeeanue aeene?aoiay ea?oeia ie?a. Iia auea
i/aiue ieiaeioai?iie aeey oee e iaoee a oeaeii. N yoie oai?eae naycaiu
iiiaea ioe?uoey a oeceea (oyaeanoue, oai? oaieiou, nio?aiaiea a-aa…).
Iaoaieea Iuethoiia iicaieyea iauyniyoue aieueooth /anoue yae e niauoee
ie?a ia iniiaa acaeiiaeaenoaey aoiiia. Eacaeinue aua /ooue-/ooue e oec.
ea?oeia ie?a iieo/eo iieioth caaa?oaiiinoue. A Ee?aio: “?acaa inoaeinue
aua /oi-ieaoaeue ioe?uaaoue?”

Iaeiaei aue ioe?uo yeaeo?ii, yaea?iue ?aniaae e i?aa?auaea aoiiia. Aoii
ieacaeny aiana ia iaeue/aeoae /anoeoeae a-aa. Ioe?uoea yeaeo?iiaai
iieae e yaea?iuo nee oiaea aianee naith eaioo. Iiea – i?eioeeieaeueii
ioee/iia io a-aa ninoiyiea iaoa?ee.

Ia?aiia/aeueii iiea iiieiaeinue eae ie?oae eaeie-ieaoaeue i?aaeiao
i?ino?ainoai, aeey eaaeaeie oi/ee eio iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aaee/eio e
iai?aae neeu acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo aeaiiui iauaeoii e ae?oaei. (iiea –
ao?eaoo a-aa) Ii caoai auei aeieacaii, /oi iiea ia oieueei ao?eaoo
iauaeoa, ii e naiinoiyo ?aaeueiinoue, o.a. iia aeae iaoa?ee, iniiaiui
naienoaii eio. yaeyaony iai?a?uaiinoue.

Ana yoi i?eaaei e oee e?eceno – “Iaoa?ey en/acea” Yoio e?ecen naycai n
oo?aoie i?aaenoaae i iaoa?ee eae i aauanoaa. Eciaiaiea iannu yeaeo? i?e
eciai oneiaee iiey eee nei?inoe, yaea?iua ?aaeoeee – i?aa?auaiea a-aa a
yia?aeth. Oaean…

Iaaiciiaeiinoue /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaoue iauaeou iee?iie?a canoaaeea
ia?aoeoueny e iaoai iiaeaeyi. Iaeioi?ua i?aaeaee i?e yoii iaoa?eth
caaaaieth = eaeaaeeci. E yoiio i?eaaei e oi, /oi iaoa?eaeeci
o?aaeeoeeiiii aue naycai n iaoaie/anee-aauanoaaiiui iiieiaieai iaoa?ee.

Aue yoio ie? aeoaieie oueiie ieooai./ Aea aoaeao naao!\ E aio yaeeny
Iuethoii.\ Ii naoaia iaaeieai aeaeae ?aaaioa.\ I?eoae Yeiooaei – e noaei
ana eae ?aiueoa\

Aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeeno iiiyoea iaoa?ee. Iaiaoiaeeii auei inaiaiaeeoue
eaoaai?eth iaoa?ee io aa aoaeoi au ia?ac?uaiie nayce n iiiyoeai a-aa.
Eaiei caia/ae, /oi en/acea ia iaoa?ey, a iaoaoec i?aaenoaaeaiea i iae.
Aaeeinoaaiiia naienoai iaoa?ee – “auoue iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoueth,
nouanoaiaaoue aia iaoaai niciaiey.” Ei?i/a “iaoa?ey anoue oee eaoaai?ey
aeey iaicia/aiey iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, eio aeaia /ae-eo a iuouaieyo
aa, eio eiie?oaony, oioia?aoe?oaony, ioia?aaeaaony iaoeie iuouaieyie
(eae iaiin?aaenoaaiii oae e iiin?aaeiaaii), nouanoaoy iacaaeneii io ieo”
– Aieueaao.

No?iaiea iaoa?ee – oece/ aii?in. A aii? ia ioiio iaoaai iiciaiey e ie?o
– yoi oee i?iaeaia. Iiyoiio iaeuecy aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiey oeaio? eaoaai?ee
oai?ee iiciaiey eae oiueei /a?ac aa niioianaiea n ae?, noieue aea oe?
eaoaai?eae – niciaieai e ii?aaeaeaieai oiai, /oi ec ieo aa?aony ca
ia?ae/iia. I?e/ai i?ioeaiiie iao e nici eiaao aanie cia/aiea oieueei a
i?aaeaeao i/aiue ia?aie/ iaeanoe: eneeth/eoaeueii a i?aaeaeao iniiaiiai
aiinaieia aii?ina i oii, /oi i?eciaoue i?aae/iui. Ca yoeie i?aaeaeaie
ioiineoaeueiinoue aeaiiiai i?ioeaiiieiaeaiey ianiiiaiia”.

30. OEE EAOAAI?Ess AeAEAEAIEss. EIIOeAIOeEss AA ?ACAEOEss A I?E?IAeA E
IAUANOAA. IIIssOEA I?IA?ANNA.

A ie?a ana iaoiaeeony a aeaeaeaiee, io aoiiia aei anaeaiiie. Ana
i?aauaaao a aa/iii no?aieaiee e eiiio ninoiyieth, e ia ii
i?eioaeaeaieth, a ii nianoaaiiie i?e?iaea. Iineieueeo aeaeae anoue
nouiinoiue ao?eaoo iaoa?ee, oi iii, oaeaea eae e naia iaoa?ey,
ianioai?eii e iaoie/oiaeeii. Aeaeaeaiea – yoi niinia nou iaoa?ee. Aeaeae
caeeth/aii a naiie i?e?iaea iaoa?ee. Iaeie oi?iu aeaeae i?aa?au a
ae?oaea e ie iaeei aeae ia aa?aony ieieoaea.

Aeaeaeaiea anoue aaeeinoai eciai/eainoe e onoie/eainoe, aaniieienoaa e
iieiy. A iioiea ia i?ae?au aeaeaeaiey anaaaea i?enoonoaotho aeene?aoiua
iiiaiou iieiy., i?iyaeythueany i?aaeaea anaai a nio?aiaiee aioo?aiiae
i?e?iaeu eaaeaeiai aeaiiiai aeaeaeaiey, a aeaea ?aaiiaaney aeaeaeaiee e
eo ioiineoaeueii onoie/eaie oi?iu, o.a. ioiineoaeueiiai iieiy. Iieie,
o.i., nou eae oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaeae a eaeie-eeai onoie/eaie oi?ia. Eaae
au ia eciaiyeny i?aaeiao, ii iiea ii nou, ii nio?aiyao naith
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue. ?aea inoaaony ?aeie.

Aaniethoiue iieie iaaiciiaeai.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei ea/anoaaiii ?acee/iuo oi?i aeaeae iaoa?ee: iaoai,
oece/aneay, oei, aeieiae/aneay, nioeeaeueiay… Ea/anoaaiiia
?aciiia?acea iaeiiai o?iaiy ia i.a. iauyniaii ea/ ?aciiia?aceai
ae?oaiai. Oi/iia iienaiea aeaeae /anoeoe aicaeooa ia iiaeao iauynieoue
niune /ae ?a/e. Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo e iauea
caeiiiia?iinoe, naienoaaiiua anei o?iaiyi, a oaeaea eo acaeiiaeaenoaea.
Yoa naycue au?aae a oii, /oi aunoaa aeeth/aao iecoaa. (AeIE – oei
niaaeeiaiea) Iaeiaei aunoea oi?iu ia aeeth/aiu a iecoea. (iao aeecie a
oei niaaeeiaieyo)

I?ineaaeeaaiea naycae iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie oi?iaie aeaeae iaoa?ee
iicaieyao nicaeaoue ea?oeio eo ?acaeoey ai anaeaiiie. Ia aai ?aciuo
yoaiao aicieeatho ana iiaua o?iaie i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee e niioa ei oi?iu
aeaeaeaiey, i?e/ai iiyaeaiea eaaeaeie iiaie oi?iu naycaii n ninioiyieai
Anaeaiiie eae oeaeiai. N?aco iinea A. Ac?uaa ia auei ie aoiiia ie niioa
ei oi?i aeaeaeaiey. Oei e oec oi?iu aeaeaeaiey aicieeee ia ii?aae o?iaia
?acaeoey Anaeaiiie. Oaeaea ia ii? yoaia eini yaiethoeee noi?ie?iaaeenue
ieaiaoiua nenoaiu, aicieeee oneiaey aeey aicieeiia aeecie,o.a aeie oi?iu
aeaeaeaiey. A yoii niunea aeeciue iaaei ?aniao?eaaoue eae einie/aneia
yaeaiea. A naith i/a?aaeue oieueei i?ieaey aeeoeo yoai yaiethoeee, aeea
i?e?iaea niiaea ii?iaeeoue nioeeaeueii i?aaieciaaiioth iaoa?eth., e
oiaaea aicieeea nioeeaeueiay oi?ia aeaeae.

Nia? iaoea iieacuaaao, /oi iaoa ano?iiiie/aneay anaeaiiay, ie?, a eio
iu aeeaai, ii-aeaeeiiio, yae oieueei iaeiei ec aiciiaeiuo ie?ia. I?e/ai
oaea a iniaaiiinoyo acaeiiae. yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe caeiaeaiu ii?
i?aaeiinueee, aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaa?ouaaiey aieaa neiaeiuo oi?i
aeaeaeaiey. (ie?iaua eiinoaiou)

A nia?ai einiieiaee oeacaiiua eaeae aoiaeyo a niaea?aeaiea oae
iacuaaaiiai aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia, niaeaniieio iao ie? ono?iai oaeei
ia?acii, /oi aeiioneaao aiciiaeiinoue iiyae /aeiaaea eae caeiiiia?iiai
eoiaa yaiethoeee iaoa?ee. Ii aiciiaeiu e ae? ie?u, n ae?oaeie ie?
eiinoaioaie. Yoe ie?u aiciiaeii aaaeiu, ionou e aeiioneatho oieueei
iecoea oi?iu aeaeae iaoa?ee, a aiciiaeii e iaiai?io. A yoii niunea
/aeiaae e /ae iauanoai i?aaenoatho eae oaeay oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee,
eio iaoneiaeaia naienoaaie oeaeiai iaoae Anaeaiiie, ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie einiina.

Ie?iaia ?acaeoea yaeyao niaie caeeiiia?iue iinooiaoaeueiue i?ioeann,
i?ioeai?a/ey eioi?iai i?aaenoaaeytho niaie enoi/iee, aeaeae neeo iau
i?ia?anna.Anaie?iay enoi?ey iinoiyiii auaeaeaaea i?iae i?ioeai?a/ee iau
i?ia?anna, e eaaeaeay aa yiioa naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea i eaoaeeeciao,
i?a?ai?ioao e aianoa n oai iia yaeyao niaie iaiaoiaeeiue i?ioeann aeaeae
/aeiaa/anoaa io iaeieo oi?i naiae nioe i?aaiecaoeee e ae?oaei, aieaa
niaa?oaiiui.

E?eoa?ee i?ia?anna – iauanoaaiii enoi?e/aneay i?aeoeea, a eio
auaeaeythony aeaa aa iniiaiuo aeaea: i?iecaiaenoaaiiay e
nioeeaeueii-i?aia?acothuay. ssae?ii yoie i?aeoeee aunooiaao ?acaeoea
i?iecaiae nee eae aunoaai e?eoa?ey iau i?ia?anna. Aeaaiia a i?ieca neeao
– yoi /aeiaae Yoei iauyniyaony oi, /oi a aeaiiii e?eoa?ee aiieiuathony
e aeinoeaeaiey iaoee, i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey, e nioeeaeueii-iieeo
ninoiyiea iauanoaa, e o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey, e ia?ac aeecie aieioue aei
ie?iaicc?aiey, eio iiin?aaeiaaii aeeytho ia yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aio ii/aio “?acaeoea i?iecaiae nee /aeiaa/anoaa icia/aao
i?aaeaea anaai ?acaeoea aiaaonoaa /ae i?e?iaeu eae naiioeaeue”.
Aeaenoaeoaeueiui yae?ii iau i?ia?anna aunooiatho niinia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iiaeeeiii i?ia?anneaiiai anoue e?eoa?ee, au?aaioaiiue
naiie enoi?eae /aeiaa/anoaa. E?eoa?ee yoio, au?aaeaiiue neiaii aoiaieci,
iaicia/aao eae niaoeeo naienoaa /ae i?e?iaeu oae e ioeaieo yoeo naienoa
eae aunoaai ia/aea iau aeecie. I?ia?anneaii oi, /oi niinianoaoao
aicauoaieth aoiaiecia.

31. I?IENOIAEAeAIEA E NOUIINOUe NICIAIEss.

Naiua ia?uaua i?aaenoaaeaiey i niciaiee aicieeee a ae?aaiinoe. Oiaaea
aea aicieeee e i?aaenoaae i aeooa e auee iinoaaeaiu aii?inu: /oi
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeooa? eae iia niioiineony n i?aaeiaoiui ie?ii? N
oao ii? i?iaeieae nii?u i nouiinoe nici e aiciiaeiinoe aai iiciaiey.
Iaeie enoiaeeee ec iiciaaaaiinoe, ae?oaea /oi iiiuoee iiiyoue niciaiea
ouaoii oaeaea eae iiiuoea ec ieia oaeaeaoue naay eaeouei ii oeeoea.

Eaeaaeeci – niciaiea ia?ae/ii. Aeoaeeci – niciaiea e iaoa?ey iacaaeneiu
ae?oa io ae?oaa.

Iaoa?eaeeci – iaoa?ey ia?ae/ia e enoi?e/anee e aiinaieiae/anee. Iia
iineoaeue e i?e/eiaaai aicieeiiaaiey. niciaiea – i?iecaiaeiia io
iaoa?ee. Niciaiea aycaii ia ni anae iaoa?eae, a oieueei n /anoueth iicaa
e oieueei a ii?aae ia?eiaeu a?aiaie. I?e/ai iuneeo ia iica, a /ae. i?e
iiiiue iicaa.

Niciiea – yoi aunoay, naienoaaiiay oieueei /aeiaaeo e naycaiiay n
?a/ueth ooieoeey iicaa, caeeth/athuayny a iaiauaiiii e
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiii io?aaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Niciaiea iiaeii aaniethoii i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue iaoa?ee oieueei a ?aieao
iniiaiiai aii?ina, ca ieie – iao. Ca yoeie i?aaeaeaie i?ioeaiiinoaae
ioiineoaeueii., eai niciaiea ia anoue naiinoiyoaeueiay noanoaioeey, a
iaeii ec naienoa iaoa?ee e , neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?ac?uaii naycaii n
iaoa?eae. Aanie i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea iao e nici aaaeao e oiio, /oi nici
aunooiaao eae iaeay naiino noanoaioeey, nou ia?yaeo n iaoa?eae. Niciaiea
anoue iaeii ec naienoa aeaeae iaoa?ee, anoue iniaia naienoai aunieii?a
iaoa?ee. Yoi icia/aao, /oi iaaeaeo nici e iaoa?eae nou e ?acee/ea, e
naycue, e aaeeinoai.

?acee/ea – niciaiea ia anoue naia iaoa?ey, a eaeii ec aa naienoa.
Ninoaaeythuea niaea?aeaiea niciaiey ia?acu aiaoieo iauaeoia ioee/iu ii
oi?ia io yoeo iauaeoia, eae eaeaaeueiua eo eiiee.

Aaeeinoai e naycue – Ineo yaeaiey e iica oanii aycaiu eae naienoai e
iao noano?ao, eio yoi naienoai i?eiaaeeaaeeo e aac eio iii ia nou. N
ae? noi?iiu aicieeathuea a nici ineo ia?acu noiaeiu ii niaea?aeaieth n
aucuaathueie eo iaoa? iauaeoaie.

Nouiinoueth nici yaeyaony aai eaeaaeueiinoue,eio au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi
ninoaae nici ia?acu ia iaeaaeatho ie naienoaaie io?aaeaaiuo a iai
i?aaeiaoia, ie naienoaaie ia?aiuo i?ioeannia, ia iniiaa eio iie
aicieeee.

Eaeaaeueiia aunooiaao eae iiiaio i?aeoe/aneiai ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e
ie?o, ioiioaiey, iiin?aaeiaaiiiai oi?iaie, nicaeaiiuie i?aaeoanoaothueei
iieieaieyie – i?aaeaea anaai niiniaaiinoueth io?aaeaoue a iaoa? oi?iao
ycuea, ciaeia, e i?aa?auaoue eo iin?aaenoaii aeayoaeueiinoe a ?aaeueiua
i?aaeiaou.

Eaeaaeueiia ia yae /ai-oi naiinoiyoaeueiui ii ioiioaieth e nici a
oeaeii: iii oa?aeoa?ecoao nouiinoue niciaiey a ioiioaiee e iaoa?ee. A
yoii ieaia eaeaaeueiia iicaieyao aeoaaea iniuneeoue aoi?e/iinoue aunoae
oi?iu io?aaeaiey. Oaeia iiieiaieaeiaao niune oieueei i?e eco/aiee
niioiio iaoa?ee e nici, ioiio niciaiey e iao ie?o.

Eaeaaeueiia e iaoa? ia ?acaeaeaiu ia?ioiaeeiie a?aiueth, Eaeaaeueiia
anoue ie /oi eiia, eae iaoa?eaeueiia, i?a?naaeaiiia a /ae aieiao e
i?aia?aciaaiiia a ae. Oaeia i?aia? iaoa?eaeueiiai a eaeaaeueiia
i?iecaiaeeo iica.

Niciaiea nou ia anaaaea. Iii aicieeei a oiaea enoi? ?acaeoey iaoa?ee,
oneiaeiaiey aa oi?i, eae naienoai aunieii?aaiec iaoa? nenoai.

Iaoa?ee i?enoua naienoai, noiaeiia n nici – io?aaeaiea. Io?aaeaieai
iaeaae ana iao ia?aciaaiey. Iii yae iiiaioii ethaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey.
Io?aae – yoi eciaiaiea iaeiiai yaeaiey iiae aicaeaenoaeai ae?oaiai. A
iaaeeaie i?e?iaea ?ani?inoa?aiaiu eciii?oiua io?aaeaiey – ioia/aoee ,
neaaeu…

Eae naienoai aeea i?aaieciia aunooiaao ?acae?aaeeiinoue. Aeaeueiaeoee
yoai ?acaeoey oi?i io?aaeaiey iinea ?acae?aaeeiinoe naycai n
aicieeiiaaieai /oanoaeoaeueiinoe, o.a. niiniaiinoe eiaoue iuouaiey,
io?aaeathuea naienoaa i?aaeiaoia, aicaeaenoaothueo ia i?aaieci. Iuou
ninoaaeytho ia/ oi?io ineoeee.

Ineoeea – yoi niiniaiinoue ae nouanoa nicaeaaaoue /oanoaaiiua e
iaiauaiua ia?acu aiaoiae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e ?aaae?iaaoue ia ieo
niia?acii naiei iio?aaiinoyi.

Iiae ineoeeie /ae iiieiaaony any niaieoiiinoue yaeaiee e ninoiyiee aai
aioo?aiiaai ie?a.Niciaiea yaeyaony /anoueth ineoeee. Ineoeea ioaaouaaao
ia oieueei niciaoaeueiua, ii e iiaeniciaoaeueiua e aanniciaoaeueiua
i?ioeannu.

32. I?IAEAIA I?IOEAI?A*Ess A OEEINIOEE E EIAEEA.

Iaeiei ec ei?aiiuo aii? ie?iaicc?aiey e iau iaoiaeieiaee yae aii?in i
oii, neaaeoao ee eneaoue enoi/iee aeaeae e ?acaeo ie?a aia aai eee a iai
naiii. Yoio enoi/iee iaoeae a iai naiiii, a ii?iaeaeaaiuo ei
i?ioeai?a/eyo, /oi au? a caeiia aaeeinoaa e ai?ueau i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae.
eio aeaneo, /oi ?acaeoea iauaeo ?aaeueiinoe e ana oi?iu /ae
aeayoaeueiinoe inou /a?ac ?acaeaiaiea aaeeiiai ia i?ioeaiiie
ninoaaeythuea, e acaeiiae yoeo i?ioeaiiie oa?aeoa?ecoao ii?aae nenoaio
eae ia/oi aaeeiia, a n ae? noi?iiu – ninoaaeyao aioo?aiiee eiioeuen aa
eciaiaiey, ?acaeoey.

I?ioeai?a/ea – yoi ii?aaeaeaiiue oei acaeiiaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo e
i?ioeai?a/eauo noi?ii, naienoa, oaiaeaioeee a ninoaaa oie eee eiie
nenoaiu eee iaaeaeo nenoaiaie, i?ioeann noieeiiiaaiey i?ioeaiiie
no?aieaiee e nee. I?aaeaeueiue neo/ae i?ioeai?a/ey – eiioeeeo.

Aaniethoii oiaeaeanoaaiiuo aauae ia auaaao: iie ?acee/iu eae aioo?e
naay oae e iaaeaeo niaie. ?acee/ea anoue ioiioaiea iaoiaeaeanoaaiiinoe,
aiaeeiaeiainoe iauaeoa e a naiiii naaa e n ae?. ?acee/ea eiaaao naie
noaiaie: iii ia ianou e nouanoaaiiui. I?aaeaeueiue neo/ae nou ?acee/ey –
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue. Oaea/iie iiaeaeueth i?ioeaii iiaeao neoaeeoue
iaaieo n aai 2 iiethnaie. (aai iiaeii aeaeeoue neieueei oaiaeii)

I?ioeaii oa?aeoa?ecothony eae acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiua e acaeiiaeaenoa
noi?iiu aeeaeaeo i?ioeai?a/ey. Iie i?ioeainoiyo ae?oa ae?oao a ?aieao
aaeeiiai acaeiiioiioaiey : iaee/ea iaeiie i?aaeiieaaaao auoea ae?oaie.
I?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue anoue ia i?inoi eiia, a “naia eiia” – Aaaaeue.

Aeeae i?eioeei i?ioea io?aaeaao aeaienoaaiiua ioiioaiey aioo?e oeaeiai:
aaeeinoai i?io e eo ai?ueao. Ana iieii iioeai?a/ee e aeeaao a ieo.

I?ioeaii, ia ia?acothuea aaeeinoaa, ia yae aeeaeaeoe/aneeie, eo iaeuecy
n/eoaoue aeaeae neeie ?acaeoey nenoaiu. Iai?eia? /a?iia e aaeia,
aaneiia/iia e en/acathua iaeia… iie ia yae /anoyie oeaeiai e ia
niaeeiioeuena e ?acaeoeth. I?ioeaii iiaoo i?eoiaeeoue a noieeiiiaaaiea
eeoue iinoieueeo iineieueeo iie ia?acotho aaeeiiaoeaeia a eio iaeei
iiiaio oaeaea iaiao eae e ae?oaie. I?e yoii naie i?ioeaii e eo
aaeeinoai, au?aae onoie/eainoue iauaeoa, – ioiineoaeueiu, ai?thaa aea,
au?aae aaneiia/iinoue i?ioe ?acaeoey,- aaniethoia.

I?ioeai? aoeaaeueii icia/aao ?aceia ?anniaeaniaaiea a ?a/e,
auneacuaaieyo i eaeii-oi i?aaeiaoa. A oiaea ?annoaeae iiaoo iiyaeyoueny
ia?u noaeaeaiee, i?ioeai? ae?oa ae?oao. Iaa yoe ooaa?aeaeaiey ia iiaoo
auoue enoeiu. Iaeiia? ooaa?aeaeaiea e oiai e ae?oaiai ?anniao?ea a
eiaeea eae iaiaoiaeeii-eiaeiia. Cai?ao i?ioeai?, ia/eiay n aioe/iinoe,
n/eo iaeiei ec i?eioeeiia eia noaeaeaiey. Oaeea i?ioeai? n/eoathony
ia?ooaieai i?aaee ?annoaeaeaiey. Eo iiyae – neaiae eia ioeaee a
?annoaeae, eiaeii i?eiyoie iinueee eee… Auaiae i?ioeai?a/ey
aeiioneaaony eeoue aeey aniiiia oeaeae, a /anoiinoe a aeie io i?ioeaiiai
a iaoaiaoeea.

Iaeiaei ?aaeueiue i?ioeann ?acae oao/iiai ciaiey naycai n yoaiaie
i?aiaeie aiciee i?ioeai?a/ee. “Aeey ianoiyuaai oai?aoeea ie/aai ia i.a.
eioa?aniaa, /ai oaeie oaeo, eio anooiaao a i?ioeai? n iauai?eiyoie
oai?eae: aaaeue caeanue nianoaaiii e ia/eiaaony aai ?aaioa.” – I.Ieaie.

Niaoeeo oi?iie nou aeeae i?ioea a iiciaiee yae aioeiiiee, eio neoaeao
oi?iie oai? aini?ecaaaeaiey i?ioeai? a iao/iuo oaieyo. Iaia?oae
aioeiiiee e eo ?aoaiea – oa?aeo /a?oa aeeae iuoeaiey. Iineieueeo aioei
/anoi auneacuaathony a oi?ia i?ioeai? auneacuaaiee, cai?auaaiuo oi?i
eiaeeie, oi a yoii /anoi oniao?eaatho aioaaiieci aeeae e oi?i eiaeee.
Eiaeea e aeeae aeaenoaotho niaianoii. A eae aea eiao i?ioeai?? A i?ioe
iiciaiey iie aunoo ia eae ciaiea ?acoeueoao. (Ai? e aai i?eioeei
aeiiieieoaeueiinoe- iu ia ai?aaa i?eienuaaoue oec ?aaeueiinoe ie
aieiiaua ie ei?ione naienoaa). Aioeiiiey -ino?ay oi?ia iinoaiiaee
i?iaeaiu, o?aaothuae naiaai ?aoaiey. Oaeea eia i?ioeai? anoue
aeaoeaaoaueiay neea iao/iiai iiciaiey.

“ana nouanoaaiiua eaeae a iaoea ?iaeeeenue a ae?aiao eiioeeeoa iaaeaeoe
?aaeueiinoueth e iaoeie iiiuoeaie aa iiiyoue” – Yeiooaei. Aeeae i?ioeai?
a iunee – yoi ia i?ioeai? naiiio naaa, ia ionoonoaea eiaeee, a acaeiiae
i?ioeaiiie iiceoeee, oi/ae c?aiey, acaeyaeia, iiiyoee. ?aeiiaiae
oi?iaeueiie eiaeee iiiiaatho iiiyoue ?aaeeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey. A aeeae
?a/ue eaeao i iioeai?a/eyo a naiii iauaeoa e ia io?aaeaiee yoeo
i?ioeai?a/ee a iuoeaiee, aaea iie niciao oeene?othony e ?aoathony.

Aeeae – ia iaoiae iaa?aiiaeaeaiey i?ioeai?. Aac niaethae i?aaee oi?i
eiaeee aeeae i?aa?aoeeanue au a nionoeeo.Aeaei aeeae – auyaeaiea e
?ac?ao i?ioeai?a/ee

Iniiaiua oeiu i?ioeai?a/ee. Oa?aeoa? i?ioeai? caaeneo io niaoeeoeee
i?ioeaiiie noi?ii e io oneiaee a eio inouanoaeyaony eo acaeiiae. E yoi
acaeiiae anoue ioiioaiea eee ianiaianoeiuo e a?aaeaeaaiuo eee
aeiiieiythueo e iaiaau ae?oa ae?oaa iiiaioia e oaiaeaoeee. Ionthaea
iiiaiia? i?ioeai?. ?acee/atho aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea, iniiaiua e iainiiai,
aioaaiienoe/aneea e iaaioaaiieno i?ioeai?a/ey.

Acaeiiae i?ioeaiiie noi?ii aioo?e aeaiie nenoaiu (iai?ei aioo?e aeaiiai
aeaea aeeaioiuo eee i?aaiecia) oa?aeoa?ecoao aioo?aiiaa i?ioeai?a/ea,
au?aae ninoiyiea neno eae ii?aae oeaeinoiinoe. Eaaeaeay neno nou a
?aieao aieaa neiaeiuo nenoai. Oiaaea i/aaeaeii, /oi aiaoiaa i?ioeai?
yaeyao niaie acaeiiae i?ioeaiiie, ioiinyueony e ?aciui nenoaiai.(iaaeaeo
i?aaieciii e n?aaeie, i?e?iaeie e iauanoaii). ssnii, /oi iiiyoey
aiaoiaai e aioo? i?ioeai?a/ey ioiineoaeueiu.

Eiaiii aioo? i?ioeai? i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?aoathu ?ieue a ?acaeoee nenoaiu.
Aiaoi i?ioeai? iiaoo iineoaeeoue oie/eii, ii i?aaeaea /ai noaoue
enoeiiie neeie ?acaeoey iii aeieaeii ia?aeoe ai aioo? no?-?o iauaeoa.
(aaeaioaoeey i?aaiecia e ai n?aaea (ai i?io), aeieaeai au?aa iiaia ea/,
eio anooiaao a aioo? i?io n enoiaeiuie ea/) O.i. aiaoiaa anaaaea
aeaenoaoao /a?ac aioo?aiaa

A ?yaeo aioo? i?io aoaeaeythony iniiaiua (aeaaiua) e iainiiaiua
i?ioeai?a/ey. Iniiaiia – yoi nouiinoiia i?ioeai?: iiiinayc n aeoaeiiuie,
eaaeaueeie a iniiaaiee yoie neno oi?iaie acaeiiae i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae,
ninoaae aa no?oeoo?o. (iauanoai- i?io iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii e
iio?aaeaieai. Ioaeii i?iecaiaeeoue /oiau aeeoue, ii i?ieca ii?iaeaeaao
iia iio?aaiinoe)

Aioaaiienoe/aneoa i?ioeai?a/ey – acaeiiae iaaeaeo iai?eie?eii
a?aaeaeaaiuie neeaie. Aioo?e yenieoaoaoi?neeo oi?iaoeee, ao/ nia?ai
eiia?eaeecia. O?ainiaoe ei?ii?aoeee – iaoeeii -ainoae oi?iie iauanoaa.
Eiia? – ?acaea no?aiu. Aieia e ie?.

Iaaioaaiieno i?ioeai?a/ey. Acaeiiae iaaeaeo nioe a?oiiaie, eioa?anu eio
niaiaaeatho.

33. I?E*EIA E NEAAeNOAEA. AeAOA?IEIECI, EIAeAOA?IAIECI, OAEAIEIAEss.

Iiiyoea i?e/eiu e neaaenoaey aicieeatho ia nouea i?eioeeiia anaiauae
nayce e ?acaeoey. N oi/ee c?aiey i?eioeeia anaiau nayce i?e/eiiinoue
ii?aae eae iaeei ec aeaeia ayce, a eiaii aaiaoe/aneay naycue yaeaee, a
eio iaeii i?e ii? oneiaeyo ii?iaeaeaao ae?oaia. N oi/ee c? i?eioeeia
?acaeoey i?e/eiiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony oae: anyeia eciaiaiea e oai aieaa
?acaeoea, o.a. eciaiaiea a noi?iio iiyae iiaiai ea/anoaa, eiaao naith
i?e/ e neaaenoaea. I?e/eiiua ioiio i?enoonoaotho i?e etha i?ioe
eciaiaiey.

I?aie/aiea ia i?ei i?eioeeia i?e/eiiine iaeeaaeuaathony i?eioeeiii
anaiauae ayce. E ia eiathuei i?e/ – neaaenoa naycae ioiinyony oaeea
aeaeo naycae eae i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiua ei?aeyoeee, ooieoeeiiaeueiua
caaeneiinoe, ioiioaiey neiiao?ee… Iaeiaei etha yaeaiea eiaao naie
i?e/ e neaaenoaey, ia n iaeiei oae n ae?oaei.

Iaeiie ec oa?aeoa? i?e/eiiinoe yaeyaony aa naycue n eaoaa a?aiaie.
A?aiy – oi?ia nou iaoa?ee, a eio iaeaieaa anoanoaaiii ?aaeec
i?e/eiii-neaaenoa nayce. Aei neo ii? i?e/-ne naycue acyoay a aniaeoa
a?ai iiieiaaony ii ?aciiio. Iaeie n/eo , /oi i?e/eia anaaaea i?aaeoanoa.
neaaenoaeth. Eaeia-oi a?aiy i? e ne ninouanoaotho, a iioii i?e/ oaanaao
a ne i?aa?auaaony a iiaoth aaee/eio. Ae? ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi eioaaaeu
/anoe/ii iaeeaaeuaathony, o?aouee, /oi i?en e ne no?iai iaeiia?aiaiu.
*aoaa?oua iai?yo, /oi aanniune aiai?eoue i i?e/, eio nouanoa e cia/eo
aeaenoaoao, anee aa ne aua ia anooieei a noa?o auoey. ?acaa i.a.
iaaeaenoaothuaa i?e/eia?

Ii iii i? e ne ?aaii eniieuecothony aeey oa? iaeiia?aiaiii i?ioae
niauoee, yaeaiee i?eiue ae?oa e ae?oao ai a?ai, e yae, ey eio neaaenoaea
ca?iaeaeaaony a iaae?ao i?e/eiu. Eiiaaea iie ?acaeaeaiu aai eioa?aaeii e
naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie /a?ac oeaiue i?ii caaiueaa. Neaaenoaea iiae eiaoue
ianeieiei i?e/ei, iaeie ec eio yae iaiaoiae, ae?oaea – neo/aeiuie.

Nou /a?oie i?e/eiiinoe yae iai?a?uaiinoue aa aeaenoaey i?-ne naycae. Ia
i.a. ie ia?aie i?e/ ie iineaaeiaai ne.

Anai oeiai aaiaiiuo ioiio naienoaaiia aeeeoaeueiinoue. A?aiy
aeeeoaeueii, iaia?aoeii e anneiao?e/ii, annei e i?e/eiii- ne ioiio.

I?e/eiiinoue iaeuecy ?anni oieueei eae iaeiiiai? aeaenoaea i?e/ ia
neaaenoaea, o.e. iia yae aioo? niaea?aeaieai nayce e acaeiiae yaeaiee.
Neaaenoa ?ani?inoai naia aeeyea ia oieueei aia?aae (eae iia i?e/eia), ii
e iacaae, ia i?iecaiae aai i?e/eio, aeaeieciaiyy aa neeu, iniaaiii
eiaaea i?e/ naycue ia iaiiaaiia , a i?ioyaeaiia. Yoi ?anoyiooia ai a?ai
acaeiiae i?e/ e neaaenoaey iac i?eioeeiii ia?aoiie nayce. Ii aeaenoaoao
anthaeo, iniaaiii a naiii?aaiec nenoaiao., aaea i?ieno aini?eyoea,
o?aiaiea , ia?a?aaioea e eniieuecia eioi?iaoeee. Aac ia? nayce iaiuneaiu
onoie/eainoue, oi?aaeaea e iinooi aeaeae nenoaiu.

Eoae, ana i?-ne i?ioeannu a ie?a aucaaiu ia iaeiinoi? aeaenoaeai, a
iniiaua ii e?aeiae ia?a ia ioiio iaaeaeo 2 acaeiiae i?aaeiaoaie, e a
yoii niunea i?e/eiiinoue aeieaeia ?anni ia i?inoi eae aeae nayce, a e
eae oei acaeiiaeaenoaey.

Nou ianeieueei oeiia eeanneo i?-ne ioiioaiee, iino?iaiiuo ii ?aciui
iniiaaieyi. I?aaeaea anaai yoi eean ii aioo?aiaio niaea?aeaieth
i?ioeannia i?e/eiaiey. Aioo? iao i?e/eiaiey naycai n ia?aiinii iaoa?ee,
yia?aee e eioi?iaoee. A yoii oeia eean i?e/ei auaeaeytho iaoa?eaeueiua e
eaeaaeueiua, eioi?iaoe e yia?aaoe/aneea i?e/eiu, eio oiaea aeaeyony ia
oec, oei, aeieia, ineoieia, nioeeaeueua i?e/eiu.

Ii yoiio i?eciaeo ?acee/ i?e/eio e oneiaea niauoey. I?e/ – oi, /i
i?aaeaao naith neeiaoth iioaioeeth, o.a. a-ai, yia?aeth, eioi?i, a
oneiaea – niaie ianoiyoaeuenoa i?e/eiiiai niauoey.(ia o/anoa a ia?aiina
…)

2-e oei eeanneo. no?ieony ia iniiaa niiniaia i?iyaeaiey i?e/eiiie
nayce, eio iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeeiaie/aneea (iaeiicia/iua) e
noaoenoe/aneea (aa?iyoiinoiua). (Eaaio iaoaieea, eioi?i acaeiiaeaenoaey)

Auaeaeythony oaeaei i?e/eiu iauea, niaoeeoe/aneea e aeaaiua; iauaeo e
noauaeoeaiua, iaiin?aaenoaaiua e iiin?aaeiaaiiua; anaiauea , iniaaiiua e
aaeeie/iua.

Aeaoa?ieieci e eiaeaoaieieci. Aeaoa?ieieci – iaoiaeieia i?eioeei,
niaeanii eioi?iio ec oaeoa, /oi a ie?a ana acaeiinaycaii e i?e/
iaoneiaeaii, neaaeoao aici iiciaiey e i?aaeneacaiey niauoee, eiathueo
eae iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeae, oae e aa?iyoiinoioth i?e?iaeo. Iaoaie/aneee
aeaoa?ieieci – iaeiicia/iay i?e/ iaoneiaeaiiinoue=> aanie no?iaia
i?aaeneacaiea.

Eiaeaoa?ieieci – iaoiaeieia iiceoeey, a eio io?eoeaaony eae
iauaeoeaiinoue i?e/ naycae, oae e oeaiiinoue i?e/eiuo iauyniaiee a
iaoea. A.?eeea?o: “I?e/eiiia iauyni aeaenoaeoaeueii eeoue a i?aaeaeao
iaoe i i?e? e iai?eiaieii e iaoeai i aeooa, o.a. iaoeai iauanoaaiui”.
*ae aiey (eee a oaeaieiaee – aiey aiaeanoaaiiay) ?anniao?eaaaony
aeaoa?ieieciii eae aaoiiiiiay neea, naia a naieo i?iyaeaeyo io anyeie
i?e/eiiinoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, o.a ie/ai ia iaoneiaeaiay. Eiaeaoa?i
o?aeootho i?eioeei iauaeoeai iaiaoiaeeiinoe eae oaoaeeci.

No?ieiay i?aaiecaoeey anaai nouaai. Oaeaieiaey – ii?aaeaeyaony
ecia/aeueiui oeaeaaui ono?aieaieyi i?e?iaeu. Noeoeeii aeaenoa i?e/eia
?anni eae aeaenoaothuay a i?aaeiaia?aiii eca?aiiii iai?aaeaiee, o.a eae
oeaeue. Oeaeue noaaeony oai?oeii. Aaeia: “aea?aauey caeaiu iioiio, /oi
cae oeaao iieacai aeey aeac. Aia nicaeae aueia oae eae aia aoeueai
iieacai aeey /ae; ineia aeey n?aaiaiey, a naiiai /ae, /oiau ii ae aia
aoeueai e ia aue ineii”

Anoanoaaiiue ioai? – aio enoeiiay i?e/eia niaa?oainoaa i?aai ie?a,
i?e/eia iauaeoeaiie oeaeaniia?aciinoe i?e?iaeu.

Iaeiaei niciaoaeueiay oeaeue yae iaeiei ec ao?eaooia a noa?a /aeia
aeayoaeueiinoe. A iaoea /anoi ieiaiyaony oeaeaaie iiaeoiae, o.a.
iiae/eiaiea i?ioeanna eneaaeiaaiey aai oeaeaaie, eiia/iie noaaeee.

34.EAOAAI?EE NOUIINOUe E ssAEAIEA.

?acaeoea iiciaiey anoue aeaeae iunee io iiaa?oiinoiiai ei ana aieaa
aeoaieiio, ne?uoiio – e nouiinoe. Nouiinoue aea iaeaae iiaeeeiiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth oieueei aneaaenoaee ii?aae oi?i naiaai
naiiiaia?oaeaiey.(eenouey, oeaaou au?aae ai aiaoiai aeaea nouiinoue
?anoaiey) ssaeaiea, eae i?aaeei, au?aaeaao eeoue iaeoth a?aiue nouiinoe,
iaeei ec aa aniaeoia.

Nouiinoue anoue ia/oi nie?iaaiiia, aeoaeiiia, i?aauaathuaa a aauao, eo
aioo? naycyo e oi?aaeythuaa eie, iniiaaiea anao oi?i eo aiaoiaai
i?iyaeaiey. A iiiyoee nouiinoe caeeth/aii aaeeinoai anao aeoaeiiuo,
caeiiiia?ii nayc yeaiaioia niaea?ae iauaeoa a eo i?ioeai?a/eyo,
i?e/eiii-ne ioiioaieyo, a eo ca?iaeaeaee, ?acaeoee e oaiaeaioeeyo e
aoaeouaio. E a yoii neo/aa iia anue ia/oi aioo?aiiaa, iaeee
i?aaiecothuee i?eioeei. Iiiyoea nouiinoe o.i. niioiineoaeueii n iii
niaea?aeaiea, au?aaeay iaeiaei ia ana niaea?ae, a oieueei aeaaiia,
iniiaiia a iai. Nouiinoue niioiin e n eaoaai?eae ea/anoaa, eio au?aaeaao
iaeiaei eeoue eaeie-oi aniaeo aa. Iiiyoea nouiinoe naycaii e n iiiyoeai
caeiia, ii cae e nou ia niaiaaeatho: iu ciaai cae a?aaeoaoeee, ia aaaeay
aa oec nouiinoe.

Nouiinoue aioo?e naay aeeiaie/ia e iiaeaa?aeaia i?eioeeio ?acaeoey.
Ane?uoue nouiinoue /aai-eeai – cia/eo i?iieeiooue a aeoaeiu aaue, a aa
iniiaiua naienoaa, auyaeoue i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaey e i?eioeeiu ?acaeoey.
I?e yoii nouiinoue iaeaaeaao ?aciie noaiaiueth aeoaeiu. Iia eiaao anie
noaiaie eee ii?yaeee. E iiciaiea aeaeaeaony io nouiinoe iaeiiai ii?yaeea
e noui ae?oaiai, aieaa aeoaieiai. Ii?yaeie nouiinoae ooiaeeo a
aaneiia/iinoue. Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi nouiinoue anaoaea eiie?aoia,
iao nouiinoeaiaua.

Nouiinoue ia?anoi?aeeia n oi?iaie naiaai i?iyaeaiey. ssaeaiea yoi
i?iyae nouiinoe: anee nou ia/oi iauaa, oi yaeaiea – aaeee/iia, au?aae
eaeie-oi iiiaio nouiinoe, anee nouiinoue anoue ia/oi aeoaeiiia, oi yae –
aiaoiaa, aieaa aiaaoia e e?ani/iia…ssaeaiea anoue oi, eae noui
i?iyaeyao naay aiaia: ai acaeiiae ni anai eiui, ao/ e n iaoeie i?aaiaie
/.

ssae -yoi iaiin?aaenoaaiii aini?eiei naienoaa iauaeoa, oi eee eiia
aeaeaiea eio caaeneo io no?iaiey e aeaenoaey i?aaiia /oanoa, a nouiinoue
– oi ea/anoaaiiia naiaa?acea i?aaeiaoa, ii?aaeae aai oa?aeoa?iia eeoei,
eio iiaeao ne?uaaoueny ca aai iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaaethae i?iyaeaieyie
(cae oeaao o?aau – yaeaiea.Nouiinoue – oec naienoaa io?aaeaoue naao)

E nou e ya nou iauaeoeaii, yoi ao?eaoou iauaeoa. Ii ya anoue ooieoeey,
caaenyuay io iauaeoa e aai aeaiiinoe noauaeoo, a nou anoue nianoaaiii
iauaeoeaiia ea/ iauaeoa.

Aeeaeaeoeea nouiinoe e yae – i?ioeann ia iaeiicia/ii i?inoie, o.a. a
iai iao oaeie nayce: iaeia nouiinoue iaeii yae. Naii yae aeinoaoi/ii
iaiaeiicia/ii e ia anaaaea ne?uaaao ca niaie enoeiioth nouiinoue. Aiieia
?aaeueiie ieacuaaaony aeey oee i?iae eaaeeiinoe, aeaeeiinoe.

Iu iiaeai aeaeaoue ie?aae a ionouia, iaeiaei ia aai ianoa ie/aai ao,
o.a. oi,/oi iu aeaeei eeoue eaaeouaany. Iaeiaei n ae? noi?iiu ie?aae –
yaeaiea i?e?iaeu, a ia c?eoaeueiue oaioii ii?iaeae iaiaiii i?aaiia
/oanoa, iu iiaeai aai noioiai?. Neaaeia aeaeeiinoue anoue nouiinoue a
iaeiii ec naieo i?iyaeaiee. Oaiiiai “auoue-eacaoueny” au?aaeaao i?aaeaea
anaai oaeo ianiioa nouiinoe e aa ai i?iyaeaiey.

Eoae, anee yaeaea iaia?oaeeaaao nouiinoue, oi aeaeeiinoue, eae i?aaeei,
cae?uaaao aa, e caaea/a ?acoia caee a oii, /oiau i?iieeiooue neaicue
iie?ia aeaeeiinoe e caaeyiooue a enoeiiia eeoei nouiinoe.

Aeaeae iiciaiey anoue anaaaea aeaeae io aiaoiaai e aioo?aiiaio.
Eaoaai?ey aiaoiaai ?ane?uaaao naienoaa i?aaeiaoa eae oeaeiai, e ia
oieueei i?aaei naiiai ii noaa, ii e niiniaa aai acaeiiae n ie?oae
n?aaeie. Eao aioo?aiiaai ?ane?uaaao no?iaiea i?aaeiaoa e auyaeyaony
aeaaiaea?y oai?ao i?ioeaaeo?ai iiciaiey, naycaiiui n aeiiouaieai
eaeaaeeciaaiiuo iauaeoia.

A enoi?ee iiciaiey i?iae aiao e aioo? iiae/an niueaeanue n i?iae
nouiinoe e yaeaiey. Ii i/aaeaeii, /oi iieiiai ioiaeaeanoaeaiey caeanue
iao. A naiii aeaea aeaaea anee iu iiciaai aioo? no?iaiea iauaeoa… iu
ia niiaeai neacaoue, /oi iiciaee aai nouiinoue. Aaaeue iineaaeyy
i?aaeiieaaaao ciaiea eaeeo-oi i?eioeeiia naiaai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e
?acaeoey, iia eneeth/aao iaee/ey a iae neo/aeiiai, ianouanoaaiiiai.
Aioo?aiiaa iiaeao niaea?aeaoue e neo/ e ianou. ssaeaiea eae i?aaeei
ie/aai ia aiai?eo iai i naycyo iauaeoa n ae?oaeie, aiaoiaa aea
i?aaeiieaa ?anniio?aea iauaeoa eiaiii ni noi?iiu aai naycae, oae, /oi
aiaoiaa noaiiaeony aeey iauaeoa nouanoaaiiui, a yoii niunea aiaoiaa
?ane?uaaao iai nouanoaaiiua nayce iauaeoa, o.a. iaia?oaeeaaao eaeie-oi
aniaeo nouiinoe aai.

35. IAUAA E AAeEIE*IIA.

Ana aaue e niauoey ie?a ?acee/iu iaaeaeo niaie, aaeeie/iu a naiai
auoee. A “eaiea” aaeeie/iiai o/anoaoao ianiaoiia iiiaeanoai iaiiaoi?eiuo
oneiaee, ianna neo/aeiinoae. Aaeeie/iia anoue iauaeo acyoue a naiai
ioee/ee io ae? iauaeoia a eo iaiiaoi?eiie niaoeeoeea. A ea/ aaeeie/iiai
iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny ia oieueei ioaeaeueiue i?aaeiao, ii e oeaeue eo
eeann, anee ii aa?aony eae ia/oi iaeii, a oaeaea ioaeaeueiia naienoai
eee i?eciae i?aaeiaoa, anee ii aa?aony a naiae eiaeeaeae iaiiaoi?eiinoe.

Aaeeie/iia nooue eaoaai?ey, au?aae ioiineoaeueioth iainiaeaiiinoue,
aeene?aoiinoue, ioa?aie/aiiinoue ae?oa io ae?oaa a i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie iauaeoia, n i?enoueie ei niaoeeo iniaaiiinoyie, ninoaaeythueie
eo iaiiaoi?eioth ea/anoaaiioth e eiee/anoa ii?aaeaeaiiinoue.

Iaeiaei aaneii ?aciiia?acea – yoi eeoue iaeia noi?iia auoey. Ae?
noi?iia caee a iauiinoe aauae, eo no?oeoo?, naienoa, ioiioaiee. Iao 2o
aanie ?acee/iuo aauae. Ana ethaee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiu, ii ana iie iaeaae
/ai-oi iauei, /oi au?aae a iiiyoee ”*aeiaae”. Iauaa – yoi aaeeiia ai
iiiaii. Ieeaeay aeayoaeueiinoue, ieeaeay iaoea ia auee au aici, anee au
ia nou aiciiaeiinoe auaeaeeoue a aauao ia/oi iauaa. Eae noiaenoai
i?eciaeia ii? aauae iauaa aeinooiii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth.
Aoaeo/e caeiiiia?iinoueth iii au?aae a oi?ia iiiyoee e oai?ee Caeiiu
oi?ie? ia iniiaa iauaai e aeeth/aao a naay yoi iiiyoea. Oioy iauaa e
iiiiaaao iai i?eaeeceoueny e nouiinoe, oai ia iaiaa iaeuecy niaoeaaoue
aai n naiie nouiinoueth. Ieaoii : “*ae – aeaoiiaia nou, eeoaiiia
ia?ueaa”(oooea), ia /oi aio i?eianee iueiaiioth eo?eoeo. Caeanue
iaua?aii eiaeiia ooaa?aeaeaiea naiaeeaoaa iauea naienoaa ethaeae e eo
nouiinoe. E?iia oiai iauaa niioiineony ia ni anae nouiinoueth eae n
iaeei nenoaiii i?aaieciaaiiui oeaeui, a eeoue n eaeei-eeai ao?eaooii
yoiai oeaeiai.

Iii/aio aea iauaa i?eaycaii e aaeeie/iiio? Aea iioiio, /oi a neeo
aeene?aoiinoe ie?a iauaa ia aeaii iai eia/a, eae /a?ac aaeeie/iia. Iauaa
ia nou ioaeaeueii, iii nou eae caeii ?iaeaeaiey e aeecie aaeeie/iiai.
Iii niaea?aeeo a naaa caeiiiia?iinoue i?ioaeaiey i?ioeannia a etha
aaeeie/iii yaeaiee aeaiiiai eeanna Aeaenoaea caeiiiia?iinoe, aiiieiiay
aeanoue iauaai au?aae oieueei a aaeeie/iii e /a?ac aaeeie/iia. O.i., eae
aaeeie/iia iaaiciiaeii aac iauaai, oae e iauaa iaaici aac aaeeie/iiai,
eio neoaeeo i?aaeiinueeie e noano?aoii iauaai.

Anee i?eciaoue, /oi iauaa i?iyae a eia/a eae a aaeeie/iii e /a?ac iaai,
oi yoi cia/eei au, /oi ana nou aaeeie/iinoe ia?acee/eiu. Iaeiaei iao
aanie oiaeaeanoa aauae. Oaeia ?acee/ea aaeeie/iinoae oeene?oaony
eaoaai?eae iniaaiiiai. Iniaaiiia icia/aao ia?o e niinia iauaaeeiaiey
iauaai e aaeeie/iiai a iaeiii yaeaiee.

Iaoea eiaao aeaei i?aaeaea anaai n iaiauaieyie e iia?e?oao iaueei
iiiyoeyie, /oi aeaao ae aici onoaiaaeeaaoue cae. Ii aeey oniaoiie i?aeo
aeayoaeueiinoe iaaei ciaoue ia oieueei iauaa, ii a iieiie ia?a
o/eouaaoue aaeeie/iia e iniaaiiia. Ia nou ieeaeeo oaaeiiia i?eaiaeiuo
aacaea iaeiicia/ii aac o/aoa eiaeeaeae iniaaiiinoae: iniaaiiia aiaa/a
iauaai. (aieaciue)

A iiciaiee iiaeiieaeoe 2 iooyie: iooai ioaea/aiey io aaeee/iiai,
neo/aeiiai e ia?acia iaueo iiiyoee, oai?ee, io?aae nouanoaaiiia, e,
iaiai?io, /a?ac iaoiaeaeaiea iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iuo aaeeie/iuo niauoee,
eio i?e anae oieeaeueiinoe eae au iaiin?aaenoaaiii yaeytho niaie iauaa,
caeiiiia?iia.(enoi?ey)

36. NEO*AEIINOUe E IAIAOIAeEIINOUe.

Inoi?e/anee eaoaai?ee iaiaoiae e neo/ aicieeee eae neaaenoaea
?aciuoeaiey i /ae noaeueaa, aiaeanoaaiiii i?iaeaeaiee, naiaiaea aiee, i
i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoe eee noeoeeiinoe anaai /ae auoey. Inaiaiaeeeenue io
oaeiai yoe/aneiai oieeiaaiey i?aaeaea anaai n oniaoaie iaoee, a
/anoiinoe oai? aa?iyoiinoae.

Nouanoaiaaee ?aciia iiieiaiea iaiao e neo/. Iaeie aiai?yo “/aio auoue,
oiai ia ieiiaaoue”, o.a. a aeecie ana i?aaeii?aaeaeaii eee noaeueaie
(aioe/iinoue), eee aiaii (o?enoeainoai), eee anae nenoaiie aoaeiiae
yaeaiee. N iiceoeee aeaoa?ieiecia (Aeaiie?eo) neo/aeiinoue o?aeooaony
eae /enoi noauaeo iiiyoea, i?e iiiiue eio iu iaicia/aai oi, i?e/eiu /aai
iiea aua ia ciaai. Eae oieueei iu ociaai i?e/eio yae, iii ia?anoaao
auoue neo/. Iaeiaei oa neo/, i?e/eia eio iiciaia, ia ia?anoaao io yoiai
auoue neo/, iaee/ea i?e/eiu iaiaycaoaeueii naycaii n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.
Ana niauoey oae eee eia/a i?e/eiii iaoneiaeaiu, ii yoi a cia/eo, /oi
neo/ iao. Iaeaieaaa y?ei aeaoa?ieieci noi?ioee?iaai o Eaieanna –
aiciiaeii a iaeiie iao oi?ioea au?aceoue ana ia?aiao?u, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
iaiiaaiiia nino anao /anoae i?e?iaeu e anao nee, ana i?ioeua ninoiyiey
ie?a e i?aaeneacaoue ethaua niauoey ia ana a?yaeouea a?aiaia.

Ae?oaea n/eoatho, /oi ana ia naaoa – aeaei neo/ay e ioaeii aaa?eoue aio
naith noaeueao.Oae aicieeea eiaeiay aeueoa?iaoeaa – eee a ie?a
ainiiaenoaoao neo/aeiinoue, eee iao ieeaeie neo/aeiinoe, oieueei
iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

*oi aea oaeia neo/aeiinoue? Neo/aeiinoue – yoi oaeie oei nayce, eio
iaoneiaeai ianouanoaaiiuie, aiaoieie, i?eaoiaeyueie aeey aeaiiiai
yaeaiey i?e/eiaie. Ne – yoi noauaeoeaii iaiaeeae, iauaeoeaii
i?eaoiaeyuea yaeaiey, oi,/oi a aeaiiuo one i.a., a iiaeao e ia auoue.

Ne i.a. aiaoiae e aioo?aiae. Aiaoiyy ne iaoiaeeony ca i?aaeaeaie aeanoe
aeaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iia ii?aaeae i?eaoiaeyueie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie.
*ae ianooiee ia ei?eo e oiae. (iaaeaiea ia auoaeaao ec eiaeee iinooieia
oiaaoaai)

Aioo? ne auoaeatho ec naiie i?e?iaeu iauaeoa. Ne ?anni eae aio?, anee
neooaoeey ?iaeae ne yaeaiey iienuaaaony ecioo?e eaeiai-oi iaeiiai
i?e/eiiiai ?yaea, a niaie aeaenoaea ae? i?e/ iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae
iienua iin?aaenoaiiiiiyoey iauaeo oneiaey inou iniiaiiai i?e/eiiai
?yaea.

Auaeaeythony ne noauaeoeaiua, naycaiiua n iaee/eai o /ae naiaiaeu aiee,
eiaaea ii niaa?o iinooiie aii?aee iauaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoe, e neo/
iauaeoeaiua.

Eoae neo/aeiia – yoi aiciiaeiia i?e niioa oneiaeyo. Iii i?ioeainoieo
caeiiiia?iiio aee iaiaoiaeeiiio i?e niioa oneiaeyo. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue –
yoi caeiiiia?iue oei nayce yaeaiee, ii?aaeaeyaiue eo onoie/eaie
aioo?aiae iniiaie e niaieoiiinoueth nou oneiaee eo aicieeiiaaiey,
nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey.

Iaiao i.a. aiaoiae e aioo?aiae, o.a. ii?iaeaeaiiie nianoaaiiie i?e?
iauaeoa eeenoa/aieai aiaoieo ianoiyoaeuenoa. Iaiaoiae i.a. aeeiaie/aneie
e noaoenoe/aneie.

Iaiao e ne aunooi eae niioiineo eaoaai?ee, a eio au?aaeaaony o
iniuneaiea oa?aeo acaeiicaaeneiinoe yaeaiee, noaiaie
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiinoe eo aicieeiia e nou. Iaiaoiaeeiia i?ieeaaeuaaao naaa
aei?iao neaicue neo/aeiia. Ii/aio aea iaiaoiae iiaeao i?iyae oieueei
/a?ac neo/aeiia? Iioaio /oi iia ?aaeecoaony oieueei /a?ac aeeie/iia.
Neo/ ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia oiae iaiaoi i?ioeanna. Aieaa oiai, neo/ a
oiaea ?acaeoey iiaoo i?aa?auaoueny a iaiaoiaeeiinoue. Oae caeiiii.
i?eciaee iaeiiai aeie aeaea iiyaeeenue eae neo/ ioeeiiaiea io i?eciaeia
ae? aeaea.

Iniiaiay oeaeue iiciaiey – auyaeoue caeiiiia?iia. Ii, /oiau aai iiiyoue
iaiaoiae auyaeoue ii?aae ii?yaeie. A aeey yoiai iaaei i?iaiaeec oa
eiie?aoiua oi?iu neo/, a eio i?iyaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiia. A aio i?aaeneac
iau niauoee, iai?eia?, i?aaeiieaa o/aue e oiai e ae?oaiai. A enoi?ee,
eae e a iiaaae ethaeae , iaiaei e??aoeeiiaeueiiai. Aeaeae enoi?ee a
neeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io noauaeo oaeoi?ia.

A enoi?ee iauanoaa a aieueoae ia?a, /ai a i?e?iaea, i?iyae neo/ae, eai
ooo aeaenoaotho ethaee, iiaoaeaeaaiua eaeayie, aieae e no?anoyie. Eiaeea
enoi?ee, aeaenoaea a ae iaiaoiaeeiinoe eae ?acoeueoe?othuay naia
aeayoaeueiinoe iiiae ethaeae auea iacaaia Aaaaeai oeo?inoueth enoi?
?acoia. Aia neo/aeiinoe enoi?ey auea au oaoaeueiie. Iaeiaei e
aaniethoece?iaaoue aiethioa?eci ia iaaei.

Aiethioa?eci – aaniethoec aioo? aniaeo naiaiaeu, aeiaiaey aai aei
i?iecaiea. Oaoaeeci – ?anni eaaeaeue /ae iinooiie eae iaioa?aoeioth
?aaeecaoeeth ecia/aeueiiai i?aaeii?aaeaeaiey, eneeth/ naia auai?.
Iaeiaei anee au /ae aeaenoaiaae oieueei iiae aeeyieai ai nee, oi aai
iinoeaea au o/anue “ao?eaeaiiaa inea” (2 ioaiee naia). Oaeay o?aeoiaea
naiaiaeo aiee, oi/iaa ianaiaiaeu, oieaeaao /ae aeinoieinoai n 1 noi?iiu
, a n ae? nieiaao n iaai anyeoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue e ia iicaieyao ii
aeinoieinoao ioeaieoue aai caneoae.

Caeiiii oiae enoi? niauoee ?aaeec ia iiieii, a iin?aaenoaii aiee
ethaeae, eo nici aeaenoaee. *oi aea oaeia naia aiee? Naia aiee – yoi
niiniaiinoue /ae i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey e niaa?oaoue iinooiee a niioa ni
naieei eioa?anaie, oeaeyie, ioeaieaie e eaeaaeaie, au?aaeathuayny a aai
ecae?aoaeueiie aeayoaeueinoe, iniiaaiiie ia iiciaiiuo ei iauaeoeaiuo
naienoaao e ioiioai aauae, caeiiii naycae yaeaiee e niauoee iauaeoeaiiai
ie?a. O.i. eaaeaeia aeaenoaea /ae anoue nieaa naia e iaiaoiae. =>
Naiaiaea ee/iinoe, iauanoaa caee ia a aiia?aae iacaaenei io iauaeo
oaeiiia, a a niiniaiinoe auae?aoue, i?eieiaoue ?aoaey.

Naia aiee anoue iaiaoiae oneiaea ethaie oeaeaiai?aae aeayoaeueiinoe,
noauaeoo eio iaiouaieaii i?enoua /oanoai ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Ioaaonoa
i?aaeiieaaaao n 1 noi?iiu iniciaiea aeieaeiiai, a n ae? – aici naia
auai?a iooae aai ?aaeecaoeee.

Naiaiaea anoue niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneee niinia auoey: “Ia?a naiaiaeu
aoiaeeo a iiiyoea /aeiaaea”. Ia?a naia eae oai?/aneiai naiiaiieiuaiey
/ae ii?aaeae o?iaiai ?acaeoey i?iecaiae nee e iau ioiioaiee, a oaeaea
noai iiciaiey e iaeaaeaiey i?e?iaeiuie e nioe caeiiaie. E anee iauai /ae
naiaiaeu yae ia?ie iau i?ia?anna, oi nai i?ia?ann caaeneo io noai
naiaiaeu, eio ethaee ?aniieaa a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe. Ee/iinoue, eae
oaeiaay, iaeaae ?aaeueiinoueth naiae naia, au?aaeathuaeny a naiaiaea
auai?a ec niaieoiiinoe aici, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ae iauanoaii.

Eae aea naiaiaea niioiineony n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth? N iaeiie noi? naia
i?enoonoaoao a iaiaoiae, o.a. iaiaoiae ?aaeecoaony oieueei /a?ac
naiaiaeo, a aeaea aaneii oeaie auai?a a aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, eio,
iaeiaaeaeu ia/aaoenue, i?eaaea e aeaiiiio iau ninoiyieth. Yoi icia/aao,
/oi a enoi? i?ioeanna iaiaoiae ia oieueei niciaaony, ii e nicaeaaony. N
ae? noi?iiu iaiaoiae niaea?aeeoueny a naia a aeaea iauaeoeaii aeaiuo
enoi? ianoiyoaeuenoa, iauae oneiaee aeayo ethaeae. A iauai naiaiaea anue
iniciaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

Aeey oiai /oiau auyaeaiea caeiiii e neo/, naia e iaiaoiaeeiiai a oeaeyo
i?iaiice?ia aoaeouaai auei iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeaeaii e eiie?aoiie
i?aeoeea e naiaiaeii io noauaeo ioeaiie, iaiaoi eniieueciaaoue e oaeoth
/?acau/aeii aaaeioth ia?o eaoaai?ee aeeaeaeoeee eae aiciiaeiinoue e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, o.e. iaiaoiaeeiioue, neo/aeiinoue e naiaiaea yae
?acee/iuie niiniaaie i?aa?au aiciiaeiiai a aeaenoaeoaeueiia, eai /ae
inou naith naiaiaeo a ia?o naieo aiciiaeiinoae.

37. EAOAAI?Ess CAEII. CAEIIU I?E?IAeU, IAUANOAA E IICIAIEss.

Ana a yoii ie?a iiae/eiaii caeiiiia?iinoyi. A?aoc ec aeaeoaey ia
au?inoao, oioue ou aai o?anie.

Aaeaie /aeiaae iiaeia/ae ii?aae ii?yaeie ie?icaeaiey e iiaoi?yaiinoue
yaeaiee, /oi iaoaeeeaaei ia iuneue i nou /aai-oi caeiiiia?iiai. Iiiyoea
caeiia – i?iaeoeo c?aeiai iuoeaiey: iii noi?ie?iaaeinue ia iicaeiae
noaaeee ?acaeoey /ae iauanoaa, a ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey iaoee eae neno
ciaiey.

Caeii anoue nouanoaaiiue, onoie/eaue, ?aaoey?iue e iaiaoiaeeiue oei
nayce iaaeaeo yaeaieyie, acyoue a naiae iaiauaiiie oi?ia e
nei??aeoe?iaaiiue ioiineoaeueii oeiieiae/anee eeanneoeoee?iaaiiuo
oneiaee naiaai i?iyaeaiey.

Aoaeo/e ii naiae oi?ia i?iaeoeoaie /ae ciaiee, ii naiaio aioo? niaea?ae
caeiiu au?aaeatho iauaeo i?ioeannu aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iiciaiea cae e
anoue iniiaiay caae. iaoee.

Iiiyoea cae iaoiaeeony a oaniie nayce n aeaoa?ieieciii, ii ia
oiaeaeanoaaiii aio.. Anee aeaoa?i aiai?eo i anaiauae iaoneiae yaeaiee,
oi iii caeiia au?aaeaao ea/ onoie/eainoue iiaoi?ythueony naycae,
?anniao?eaay eo ia n oi/ee c?ai eiinoaoaoeee e i?e/eiiiai iiieiaiey, ii
n oi/ee c? eo iauaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoe e ea/ ?aaoey?iine. Caeii aunooiaao
ia?ie onoie/eainoe aeaoa?ieiaoeee, e?iia oiai ii yae ia?ie
i?aaeneacoaiinoe nayce. Iiyoiio cae eae u?aaeaiea aeaenoaey iauaeo
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeao ?anni a ea/anoaa iniaiai aeaea aeaoa?ieiaoeee: eae
aeaoa?iei aoaeouei a ioee/ee io i?e/eiie aeaoa?i i?ioeui e nenoaiiie
aeaoa?i ianoiyuei.

Iaeiaei ia ana oi?ioee?iaee cae eiatho i?e/eiioth oi?io. A iiaeaae
aieueoeinoaa ne cae oi?ioee?othony a aeaea eaeie-eoai ooieoe caaeneiinoe
eee eeanneo niioiioaiey, o.a a eii n/aoa caeii ii oi?ia oyaioaao e
nenoaiiie ei??ae, a ia aaiaoe/aneie i?e/eiiinoe. Iaeiaei yoi ia cia/eo
/oi i?e/eiiinoue ionoonoaoao a oao naycyo, io?aaeaieai eio yae
ei??aeyoeaiua oi?ioee?iaee caeiiia. Iaeeoei i?ioeai?a/ea: n iaeiie
noi?iiu, niaea?ae eaoaai?ee cae oi?ie?iaaeinue a aaeeinoaa n i?eioeeiii
i?e/eiiinoe, a n ae? – oi?ioee?ia caeiiia anaaaea inou a aeaea ?ace
?iaea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo niioaaonoaee aac anyeiai i?e/eiiiai iainiiaaiey.
Yoi ii?iaeeei iiiai/ene nii?u i nouiinoe eao caeiia.

Niaeanii ?aeea-eaeaaeeno acaeyaeai, a ie?a ana oa/ao ii nicaeaiiui
Aiaii iooyi, eio oi?aaeytho anai auiieiyy aieth anaauoiaai. Aia
oi?aaeyao ie?ii /a?ac caeiiu, “iiaeiaii yiueeo, aea?aeauaio a ?oeao
aiaeaee anao niauoee Anaeaiie”. Niaeanii noauaeo eaeaaeecio caeiiu
aicieeatho eeoue ec-ca ethaae /ae e ii?yaeeo.

Iaeiaei a neeo oiai, /oi ie? anoue naiioi?aae nenoaia, caeiiu a iae yae
aaaioo?aiiei naiii?iyaeaieai.

N oi/ee c?aiey noa?u aeaenoaey cae aeaeyony ia iauea, oieaa?naeueiua
(cae nio? yia?aee) e /anoiua, aeaenoa eeoue a ia?ai iaeanoe (cae iau
?acaeoey).

Ii naiaio aioo? niaea?aeaieth cae aeaeyony ia caeiiu no?iaiey ( a
iniiaiii cae, au?aae iaiaoiaeeiua ei??aeyoeaiua nayce a nenoaiac), cae
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ( i?e/eiiay e nenoaiiay aeaoa?ieiaoeey) e cae ?acaeoey
( iae i?e/eiiie aeaoa?iei) A neeo aeeae iaiaoiae e neo/aeiinoe cae
?acaeoey aunooi eae oaiaeaioeee, eio i?ieeaaeuaatho naaa iooue neaicue
oain neo/aeiinoae.

Ii oi?ia naiaai i?iyaeaiey cae aeaeyony ia aeeiaie/aneea e noaoenoe/.
Oae ethaie a?io eaiaiue aa?iaony a caieth a neeo aeeiai cae, a eie- ai
i/eia ia a?io einoyo iai?aaeneacoaii, aeaenoaoao noao caeiiiia?iinoue.

Iaiaoiae ?acee/aoue oaiaeaioee e noao aa?iyoiinoue: oaiaeaioe io?aaeaao
iooue i?iyaeaiey iaeiicia/iuo aeeiaie/aneeo caeiiia, a noao c.
i?aaeiieaaatho aeueoa?iao aa?iyoiinoue eiie?aoiiai niauoey. Iau/ii a
neo/aa aeeiaie/aneiai, oioy au e a oi?ia oaiaeaioeee, i?iyaeaiey aiai?yo
i caeiia, a neo/ noao i?iyaeaiey – i caeiiiia?iinoe. Iaeiaei e oi e ae?
yaeythony ?acee/iuie au?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Ii caeiiiia?iinoue a ioe io
caeiia io?aaeaao ia aeanoei aeaoa?iei oa?aeoa? iauaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoe, a
eeoue oo eee eioth noaiaiue aa?iyoiinoe aa i?iyaeaiey. No?iai i?aaiecia
iiae/eiyaony caeiiai, iaeiaei iaeaaeaao e iannie eiaeeaeae ea/anoa, eio
n oi/ee c?aiey iauaai cae anoue neo/aeiinoe, /a?ac eio e i?iyae caeii.
Caeii eae iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eiie?aoiii, aeaenoaoy iiin?aaeiaaii /a?ac
neo/aeiia, aunooiaao aeey yoiai eiie?aoiiai eae caeiiiia?iinoue. Eiuie
neiaaie caeiiiia?iinoue – yoi oi?na eiie?aoiiai i?iyaeaiey caeiia.

A ie?a aeaenoaotho caeiiu , a ia neaiie ?ie. Yoi iniaaiii aa?ii aeey
nioeeaeueiuo caeiiia, o.e. cae iau ?acaeoey ia iiaoo inou aac
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, iaeaae. aeinoaoi/ii aunieie noaiaiueth
oai?/aneie naiaiaeu.

Eoae ana a ie?a iao ai acaeiiie nayce, eio ii?iaeaeaao aeoeaiue
eiioeuen e aai naii?acaeoeth. Aac nayce iaaiciiaeii naiiaeaeae iaoa?ee,
aac naiiaeaeae iaaiciiaeii ?acaeoea. ?aacaeoea iaoneiaeaii ?acee/iuie
aeaeaie nayce. Aunoei i?iyaeaieai neioaca i?eioeeiia anaiauae nayce e
?acaeoey yae eaoaai?ey caeiia, eaoaa ia oieueei iauyniythuay i?ioaaeoaa,
ii e /anoe/ii i?iaiice?othuay aoaeouaa.

38. IIIssOEA I?AEOEEE A OEEINIOEE.

Iniiaiie oi?iie i?iyaeaiey aeecie /ae. yaeyaony aeayoaeueiinoue –
/oanoaaiii i?aaeiaoiay, i?aeoa/aneay, e aeooiaiay, oai?aoe/aneay. *ae –
aeoeaiia nouanoai. Ii aeoeaii aicaeaenoaoao ia ie?oae aai aaue, i?eaeaao
ei oi?io e na-aa, iaiaoiae aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey aai iauanoa e ee/iuo
iio?aaiinoae. Eiaiii a i?aia?acia ie?a /aeia i?eaeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiinouenaiaio auoeth.

I?aeoeea – yoi iaoa?eaeueiay, /oanoaiii i?aaeiaoiay oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae, eiathuay naiei niaea?aeaieai inaiaiea e
i?aia?acia i?e? e nioeeaeueiuo iauaeoia e ninoaaeythuay anaiauoth
iniiao, aeaeae neeo ?acaeoey /aeia iauanoaa e iiciaiey. Iiae i? i?aaeaea
anaai ?acoiatho ia oieueei e ia noieueei aeayo ioaeaeueiiai /ae,
neieueei niaieoiioth aeayo, iiuo anaai /aeiaa/anoaa a aai
enoi??acaeoee.. Eaeii niaea?ae oae e ii oi?ia i?aeoeea iineo iau
oa?aeoa?. Nia? i?aeoeea anoue ?-o anaie?iie enoi?ee. I?aeoeea aeeth/aao
a naay oaeea iiiaiou eae oeaeue, iio?aaiinoue, iioea, ioaeaeueiua
aeaenoaey, aeaeaeaiey, aeou, i?aaeiao, ia eio iai?aaeaia
aeayoaeueiinoue, n?aaenoaa aeinoeae oeaee e ?-o aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iau i?aeoeea iaoiaeeony a aeeaeaeo aaeeinoaa n iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, n oai?eae. Ii ioiio e iiciaieth iia auiiei. o?iyeoth
?ieue. Ai-ia?auo, yae enoi/ieeii, iniiaie iiciaiey/, aai aeaeae neeie,
aeaao aio iaiaoiae oaeoe/aneee iaoa?eae. Ai-aoi?uo, i?aeo yae niiniaii
i?eeiaeaiey ciaiee, e a yoii niunea iia oeaeue iiciaiey. Eiia/iie
oeaeueth iiciai yaeythony iaciaiey naie ii naaa, a i?aeo i?aia?aciaaiea
aeaenoaeo aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iaoa? e aeooiaiuo iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa.
A-o?aoueeo, i?aeo neoaeeo e?eoa?eai enoeiiinoe ?ac iiciaiey.

Iniiaiuie aeaeaie i?aeo yae iaoa?eaeueii-i?ieca aeayo ethaeae e
nioeeaeueii-i?aia?acothuay aeayoaeueiinoue iann. (nioeeaeueiay,
aeooiaiay, iieeoe/aneay noa?u). Anoanoaaiiiiao/iue yenia?eiaio – yoi
iniaue aeae i?aeoeee. I. oai?ey e i?aeo ninoaae oaeia aaeeinoai
i?ioeaiiie, a eio i?aeoeea ecia/aeueii i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?ao. ?ieue. Ii
oai?ey ia ia?aie/eaaaony i?inoui iaiauaieai i?aeoeee, a ia?a?aa
yiie?e/aneee iaoa?eae e oai naiui ioe?uaaao iiaua ia?niaeoeau aeey
?acaea i?aeoeee. Ii ioiio e iae oai?ey ea?aao i?ia?aie?othuoth ?ieue.
Anee i?aeo i?aaeoanoaoao oai? a ieaia i?ienoiaeaeaiey iiciaiey, oi ia
o?iaia oaea ?acaeoiai i. iuoeaiey a cia/ noaiaie aic?anoaao
aiciiaeiinoue e iaiaoiae aioo?eoai?aoe/aneiai, niaea?aeaoaeueiiai
iia?e?iaaiey eaeaaeueiuie iiaeaeyie aauae, eo naienoa e ioiioaee, ia
ia?auaynue iaiin?aaenoaaiii e i?aeoeea., /oi ioe?uaaao iooue auoiaeo
oai?ao iuoeaiey ec iiae aeanoe iaiin?aaenoa iiuoa.

Enoi?ey iiciaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi aneaae ca i?eiaiaieai
eaeiai-eeai ioe?uoey ia/eiaaony ao?iia ?acaeoea niioa iaeanoe oai?ee.
Anoanoa e iauanoa iaoee, auoiaey ia a?aio i?aeo i?eiaiaiey, nicaeatho
iaoaieci ia?aoiie nayce iaaeaeo oai?eae e i?aeoeeie. Yoio iao iicaieyao
inou acaeiiei??aeoe?iaeo oai?ao e i?aeo aeayoaeueiine, eio e
iaania/eaaao i?aeoeea aa ooieoeeth auoue e?eoa?eai enoeiu. Oaniia
acaeiioaycuaaiea oai? e i?aeo, /aoeinoue aeaenoaey iao ia?aoiie nayce
iniaaiii iuooeiu ia nia?ai yoaia ?acaeoey iauanoaa.

Iii i?aeoeee a enoi?ee oee o?aeoiaaeinue ii ?aciiio. Eaeaaeeci
o?aeoiaae aa eae aeayoaeueiinoue aeooa. Aaaaeue – i?aeo anoue aieaaay
aeayoaeueiinoue eaeae”. Noauaeo eaeaaeenou iiiei iiae i?.
aeayoaeueiinoue iaoneiaeaiioth aieae, eiooeoeeae eee iiaenici ia/aeii.,
iai?eia? “?aeeaeiciue iiuo”.

Iineieueeo i?aeo aeayoaeueiinoue iineo iniciaiiue oa?-?, iinoieueeo
aeoo ia/aei, aaconeiaii, ninoaae aa iaiaoiaeeiue iiiaio. E iaeuecy
?ac?uaaoue aaeeioth oeaeinoioth aeayoaeueiinoue ia 2 eiinoane e oai
aieaa i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue eo.

39. OEEINIONEEA EIIOeAIOeEE ENOEIU.

Iau/ii enoeio ii?aaeaeytho eae niioa ciaiey iauaeoo. Enoeia – yoi
aaeaeaaoiay eioi?i i iauaeoa, iieo/aaiay iin?aaenoaii iai /oanoaaiiiai
eee eioaeaeooaeueiiai iinoeaeaiey eeai niiauaiey i iai e oa?aeoa?ecoaiay
n oi/ee c?aiey aa aeinoiaa?iinoe. O.i. enoeia nou eae noauaeoeaiay
?aaeueiinoue a aa eioi?i e oeaiiinoiii aniaeoao. Oeaiiinoue ciaiey
ii?aaeae ia?ie aai enoeiiinoe. Enoeia anoue naienoaiciaiey, a ia iauaeoa
iiciaiey.

Ciaiea anoue io?aaeaiea e nou a aeaea /oanoaaiiiai eee iiiyoeeiiai
ia?aca. Ia?ac iiaeao auoue ia oieueei io?aae iaee/iiai auoey, ii oaeaea
e i?ioeiai. A aoaeouaa – iiaeao ee iii auoue i?aaei io?aaeaey? Iiaeii ee
ioeaieoue eae enoeiioth eaeath, aunooiathuoth a aeaea caiunea? Aeaeeii
iao. ?acoiaaony caiunae no?ieony ia iniiaaiee ciaiee. E a yoii niunea ii
iie?aaony ia enoeiiia. Iaeiaei caiunae ioeaieaaaony a oa?ieiao
oeaeaniia?aciinoe e ?aaeecoaiinoe, a ia oa?i enoeiiinoe eee eiaeiinoe.

O.i. enoeio ii?aaeaeytho eae aaeaeaaoiia io?aaeaiea iauaeoa iiciathuei
noauaeoii, aini?iecaiaeyuae ?aaeueiinoue oaeie, eaeay iia anoue naia ii
naaa, aia e iacaaeneii io niciaiey. Enoeia anoue aaeaeaaoiia io?aaeaiea
?aaeueiinoe a aeeiaieea aa ?acaey. Yoi i?eaeaao ae inia oeaiiinoue,
naycaiioth n i?iaiinoe/aneei ecia?aieai. Enoeiua ciaiey aeatho ethaeyi
aiciiaeiinoue ?acoiii i?aaieciauaaoue naie i?aeo aeaenoaey a ianoiyuai e
i?aaeaeaeaoue aoaeouaa.

Ii /aeiaa/anoai ?aaeei aeinoeaaao enoeiu eia/a, eae /a?ac e?aeiinoe e
caaeoaeaeaiey. Caaeoaeaeaiea – yoi niaea?aeaiea niciaiey, a
niioaaonoaothuaa ?aaeueiinoe, ii i?eieiaaiia ca enoeiiia. Caaeoaeaeaiey
oiaea io?aaeatho, i?aaaea iaeiinoi?iiia, iauaeoeai aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue,
eiatho ?aaeueiue enoi/ee. A ethaii auiunea niaea?aeaony ieoe
?aaeueiinoe. Caaeoaeaeaiey iaoneiaeaiu e ioiineoaeueiie naiaiaeie auai?a
iooae iiciaiey, neiaeiinoueth ?aoaaiuo i?iaea, no?aieaieai e ?aaeec
caiuneia a neooaoeee iaiieiie eioi?iaoeee.

Eoae caaeoaeaeaiey eiatho e aiinaieia e ineoieiae/aneea, e nioe
iniiaaiey. Ii eo neaaeoao ioee/aoue io eaee eae
i?aanoaaiii-ineoieiae/aneiai oaiiiaia. Eiaeue – yoi eneaaeaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai ninoiyiey aeae, eiathuaa oeaeueth aaanoe eiai-oi a
iaiai. Eiaeueth i.a eae eciuoeaiea i oii /aai ia auei, oae e
niciaoaeueiia nie?uoea oiai, /oi auei. Enoi/ieeii eaee i.a. e eiae/anee
iai?aaeeueiia iuoeaea.

Iao/iia iiciaiea ii naiae nooe iaaiciiaeii aac noieeiia ?acee/iuo
iiaiee, oaaaeaeaiee, oaeaea eae iaaiciiaeii e aac ioeaie. Ioeaee
ia?aaeei niaa?oathony a oiaea iaaethaeaiey, ecia?aiey, ?an/aoia,
noaeaeaiee, ioeaiie. Aei oao ii? iiea /ae no?aieony aia?aae ii
aeoaeaeaao,” – aiai?ee Aaoa.

Ai?acaei neiaeiaa ana a iauanoa ioeao a /anoiinoe a enoi?ee. Ooo e
aeinooiiinoue enoi/ieeia e eo aeinoiaa?iinoue e iieeoeea.

Enoeia enoi?e/ia. Iiiyoea eiia/iie eee iaeciaiiie enoeiu – anaai eeoue
i?ec?ae. Ethaie iauaeo iiciaiey – iaen/a?iaai, ii iaiyaony, iaeaae
iiiaeanoaii naienoa e naycai aaneii /eneii naycae n ie?oae ie?ii.
Eaaeaeay nooiaiue iiciaiey ia?aie/aia o?iaiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa,
iaoee… Iao/iua ciaiey iiyoiio inyo ioiineoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Ioiineo
ciaiee caee a eo iaiieiioa e aa?iyoiinoiii oa?aeoa?a. Enoeia iiyoiio
ioiineoaeueia, eai iia io?aae iauaeo ia iieiinoueth, ia en/a?iuaathuei
ia?acii. Ioiineoaeueiay enoeia anoue ia?aie/aii-aa?iia ciaiea i
/ai-eeai.

E aaniethoiui enoeiai ioiinyony aeinoiaa?ii onoaiiaeaiiua oaeou, aeaou
niauoee, ?iaeaeaiey , nia?oe eoae. Aan enoeia – yoi oaeia niaea?aeaiea
ciaiey, eio ia ii?iaa?aaaony iineaaeothuei ?acaeoeai iaoee, a
iaiaauaaony e iinoiyiii iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony aeeciueth.

Oa?iei aaniethoiia i?eiai e e e ethaie ioiineo enoeia: iineieueeo iia
iauaeoeaia, oi a ea/ iiiaioa niaea?aeeo ia/oi aaniethoiia. E a yoii
niunea ethaay enoeia aaniethoii-ioiineoaeueia. ?acaeoea etha enoeiu
anoue ia?aueaaiea iiiaioia aaniethoiiai. Iiau i oai?ee yae aieaa iieiuie
e aeoaieeie ii n?aai n i?aaeuaeoueie. Ii iia enoeiu ia na?anuaatho iiae
ioein enoi?ee noa?ua, a aeiiieiytho, eiie?aoece?otho eee aeeth/atho eo a
naay eae iiiaiou aieaa iaueo e aeoa enoei. (Oai? ioiineo Yeiooaeia e
Iuethoiiianeay iaoaieea).

Eiie?aoiinoue – yoi naienoai enoeiu, iniiaaiia ia ciaiee ?aaeueiuo
naycae, acaeiiaeaenoaey anao noi?ii iauaeoa, aeaaiuo, nou naienoa,
oaiaeaoeee aai ?acaeoey. Oae enoeiinoue eee eiaeiinoue oao eee eiuo
noaeaeaiee ia i.a. onoaiiaeaa anee ia ecaanoiu oneiaey ianoa, a?aiae…,
a eio iie no?ioee?iaaiu. Noaeaeaiea, aa?ii io?aae iauaeo a aeaiuo
oneiaeyo, noaiiaeony eiaeiui ii ioiio e oiio aea iauaeoo a eiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao.(eeiaiea aiaeu i?e100 a?aae).

Eaaeaeue iauaeo ia?yaeo n iaueie /a?oaie iaaeaeai e eiaeeaeae
iniaaiiinoyie. A neeo yoiai ia?yaeo n iaiauaiui iaiaoiaeei e eiie?aoiue
iiaeoiae e iauaeoo: iao aano? enoeiu, iia anaaaea eiie?aoia. Enoeiiu ee
e i?eia?o i?eioeeiu eean iaoaieee? Aea, ii a ii?aae i?aaeaeao. E oae
aeey etha enoeiu.

*oi aeaao ethaeyi aa?aioeth enoeiinoe ciaiey? Aeaea?o, Nieiica,
Eaeaieoe – e?eo enoeiu yniinoue e io/aoeeainoue iuoeaiey. I?eia?:
eaaae?ao eiaao 4 noi?iiu. Iaeiaei yniinoue e i/aaeaeiinoue – noauaeo
ninoiyiey niciaiey e iie ioaeaeathony a iii?a ia /oi-oi aieaa i?i/iia.

Auaeaeaaeny e oaeie e?eo enoeiu, eae iauaciai/eiinoue: enoeii oi, /oi
niioa iiaieth aieueoeinoaa. Iaeiaei aniiiiei Eiia?ieea. Ii iaeei aue
i?aa, a inoaeueiua – iao.

Nou e i?aaiaoe/aneee e?eoa?ee enoeiu: enoeiiua eaeae – yoi oa eio
oi?ioi ?aaioatho.( iieaciua) *oi eo/oa ?aaioaao ia ian, aaaeao ian, /oi
eo/oa anaai iiaeoiaeeo e eaaeaeie /anoe aeecie e niaaeeieii ni anae
niaieoiiinoueth iaoaai iiuoa. Anee i?aaenoaae i aiaa aoaeoo
oaeiaeaoai?youe yoei e?eoa?eyi – oi iie enoeiiua.

E?eo enoeiu caee a i?aeoeea. Eiaiii a i?aeoeea aeieaeai /ae aeieacaoue
enoeiinoue, o.a. aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naiaai iuoeaiey. Iaeei ec
i?eioeeiia i iuoeaiey aeaneo: iaeia iieiae yae enoeiiui, anee aiciiaeii
aeieacaoue, i?eiaieii ee iii a oie eee eiie eiie?aoiie neooaoeee. Yoio
i?eioeei au?aae a oa?ieiii ?aaeecoaiinoue. Iin?aaenoaii ?aaeecaoeee
eaeae a i?aeo aeaenoaee ciaiea niecia?yaony, niiinoaaeyaony ni naiei
iauaeoii, auyaeyy oai naiui ianoiyuoth ia?o iauaeoeaiinoe, enoeiiinoe
naiaai niaeaaeaiey.

A ea/ e?eoa?ey enoeiu i?aeoeea ?aa ia oieueei eae i?aaeiaoiay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Iia aunooiaao e a iiin?aaeiaaiie oi?ia – eae eiaeea,
caeaeeaoayny a ai?ieea i?aeoeee. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi eiaeea – yoi
iiin?aaeiaaiay iaeoeae. Iao ?acoi aeenoeeieeie?oaony eiaeeie aauae,
aini?iecaaaeaiiie a eiaeea i?aeo aeaenoaee e anae nenoaia aeoo
eoeueoo?u.

Iaeuecy caauaaoue, /oi i?aeoeea ia iiaeao iieiinoueth iiaeoaa?aeeoue
eee ii?iaa?aiooue eaeia au oi ie auei i?aaenaaeaiea, ciaiea. “ Aoii
iaaeaeei” – oae n/eoaeinue iiiai aaeia e i?aeoeea iiaeoaa?aeaeaea yoi.
I?aeoeea o?aieo iie/aiea ioiineoaeueii oiai, /oi iaoiaeeony ca
i?aaeaeaie aa enoi?e/anee ia?aie/aiiuo aiciiaeiinoae. Iaeiaei iia
iinoiyii ?acaeaaaony, niaa?oainoaoaony. A i?ioeanna ?acaeoey enoeiiiai
ciaiey, oaaee/aey aai iauaia iaoea e i?aeoeea ana aieueoa aunooiatho a
ia?acaeaeueiii aaeeinoaa.

40. *OANOAAIIIA IICIAIEA E AAI OI?IU. NAINOAEECI.

Eae inou i?ioeann iiciaiey? Ec eaeeo yoaiia ii ninoieo? Eaeiaa eo
no?oeoo?a?

Aieueoeinoai oee nenoai iiaiai a?aiaie auaeaeyee 2 iniiaiuo yoaia:
*oanoaaiiia e ?aoeeiiaeueiia. Eo ?ieue e cia/aiea a iioe iiciaiey
ii?aaeaeyeenue?aciuie oee ii ?aciiio. ?aoeeiiaeenou (Aeaea?o, Nieiica,
Eaeaieoe, eaio, aaaaeue) i?eienuaaee ?aoathuaa cia/aiea ?aoe iiciaieth,
ia io?eoeay e cia/ /oanoa iiciaiey a ea/ iaoaiecia nayce ?acoia n ai
ie?ii. Noi?iiieee yiie?ecia n/eoaee /oanoa iiciaiea aeaaiui e aeaaea
aaeeinoaaiui enoi/ieeii ciaiee(Aiaan, Eiee).

* iiciaiea yae ia/aeueiui yoaiii iiciaiey. Ai-ia?auo a enoi? ieaia:
?acaeaeaiea oec e oinoaaiiiai o?oaea e auaeae iineaaeiaai a ioaeaeueiue
aeae aeayoaeueiinoe – n?aai iicaeiee yoai enoi?ee. Ai-aoi?uo, oaeay
aeayo. yaeyaony ia/aeueiie a oii niunea, /oi ia aa iniiaa inou eiioaeo
/ae n ie?ii iao iauaeoia. Iia i?aaeiinueea aac eio ae? oi?iu iiciaa
aeayoaeueiinoe ia iiaoo nou.

Aeey iiciaiey iauaeoia aeaiiiai oeia iaiaoiae ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiia
/oanoa, ia?aiie nenoaiu, iicaa, aeaaiaea?y /aio aicieeaao iuou,
aini?eyoea iao iauaeoia. oaeay oi?ia aeayoaeueiinoe iacua /oanoa
aeayoaeueiinoueth eee /oanoa iiciaieai. Iaiaoiaeeii iiae/a?eiooue
caaeneiinoue /oanoa iiciaiey io iaiin?aaenoaaiiie /oanoua- i?aeo
aeayoaeueiinoe e, ai-aoi?uo, oeaeinoiinoue /oanoaaiiiai inaiaiey iao
iauaeoa. Iaeiaei iiaeii auaeaeeoue e ioaeaeueua, ooieoeeiie? a ?aieao
yoie oeaeinoiinoe yeaiaiou / iici.

Iuouaiey iiaeao ?anni eae i?inoaeoee e enoiaeiue yeaiaio /oanoa
iiciaiey. Onoaiiaeaii , /oi n oi/ee c?aiey “eioi?i niiniaiinoe” ia
ia?aii ianoa noiyo c?aiea e inycaiea, a caoai neoo, aeon, iaiiyiea.
Iuouaiea yae noauaeoeaiui, eaeaaeueiui ia?acii i?aaeiaoa, oae eae
io?aaeaao, i?aeiieyao aicaeaenoaea i?aaei /a?ac i?ecio /ae niciaiey.
Iai?eia? aieue io iaeiaa ( a iaia iao aiee). Iuou ia i?inoi oeene?oao
aicaeaenoaea iauaeoia, nou iacaaeneii io /ae, ia /ae i?aaieci.

A iuou. ia/eiaao io?aaeaoueny naycue iuouathuaai noauaeoa n ie?oae
ie?ii n eio i?aeoe/anee acaeiiaeaenoaoao noauaeo. Iuou o.i. noieo o
enoieia io?aaeaiey e oeene?iaaiey iauaeoeaiie neno ioiioaiee, a eio
?aaeueii anooiaao e ?aaeueii aeeth/ai /ae. Iuou caaenyo e io ninoiyiey
i?aaiia /oanoa e anaai i?aaiecia. Ii, ianiio?y ia yoo aeaieioth
caaeneiiioue iuou e io iauaeoa e io noauaeoa, a i?ioeanna i?aeoe/
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey niciaiey o /ae au?aaioaeanue niiniaiinoue ioeaieaaoue
e iianaaeiaaii eniieueciaaoue iauaeo eioi?iaoeeth, iinoaaeyaioth iuou.
Aaniethoece?iaaiea noauaeoeaiinoe a iuouaieyo aaaeao e noauaeo
eaeaaeecio.

Oioy iu i?e iiiiue ?ace i?aaiia /oanoa iuou i?ino?ainoa oi?io, oeaao,
aeon, caiao, a oi aea a?aiy aeaenoaoao /oanoa niiniaiinoue
neioace?iaaiey iuouaiee, i?aa?auaiey eo a aini?eyoea, iaeaaeathuaa
iniaui naienoaii: aeaaiaea?y aini?eyoeth i?aaeiao aeaaony niciaieth
eiaiii a naiae oeaeinoii-i?aaeiaoiie oi?ia, o.a. a aeaea iauaeoeaiie,
iacaaeneiie io niciaiey oeaeinoiinoe. Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y aeeth/aieth a
aini?eyoea ioaeaeueiia iuou i?eia?aoaao ea/anoai noauaeoeaiiai ia?aca
iauaeo ie?a.

Aini?eyoea- oeaeinoiue ia?ac iao i?aaeiaoa, aeaiiiai iin?aaenoaii
iaaethaeaiey. Aini? ia anoue iaoai noiia iuouaiee. Aini?eyoea nou eae
oi?ia oaeiai aeoeaiiai neioaca ?aciiia? i?iyaeaiee i?aaeiaoa, eio
ia?ac?uaii naycaia n ae?oaeie aeoaie iiciaa e i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe (iiuoii), i?aaeoanoa aeaiiiio eiie? iaaethaeaieth.
Iai?eia?, oioue iu iiaeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii iuou oieueei /anoue aeiia, ii
iaoa aini?eyoea neioace?oao a oeaeinoiue ia?ac aeiia e oa /anoe, eio a
aeaiiue iiiaio iu ia iuouaai. Aeaaiaea?y iiiaie? ?aaioa iaoaieciia
aini?eyoey iu a iaoai niciaiee, a iaoae iaiyoe iiaeai oaea?aeeaaoue
oeaeinoiue ia?ac i?aaeiaoa e oiaaea, eiaaea i?aaeiao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia
aeai iai. A yoii neo/aa ooieoeeiie?oao aua aieaa neiaeiay oi?ia /oanoa
iiciaiey – i?aaenoaaeaiea.

Yiioeee – eiiieaeniay oi?ia /aeia /oanoaaiiinoe. Yiioeee, iiaeiaii anai
ae? oi?iai /onoaaiiinoe, n iaeiie noi? caeeth/atho a naaa aniaeou iauaeo
io?aaeaiey ?aaeueiuo naycae, a eio aeeth/ai /aeiaae, n ae? noi?iiu, iie
oeene?otho iauaeo ioiioaiea /ae e ie?o. Yiioeee anaaaea aee a naay
iiiaio ioeaiee yaeaiey.

*oaona iiciaiea n naiiai ia/aea eiaao niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneee, o.a.
nioe-enoi? oa?aeoa?. Eiia/ii , a /oanoa iiciaiee /ae eiaao ianoi
iaiin?aaenoa acaeiiaeaenoaea ai i?aaeiaoa e i?aaiia /oanoa. Iaeiaei iu
ia iiaeai iaia?oaeeoue a ?aaeueiie iiciaa aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoa /oanoa
iiciaiey a niaa?oaiii iainiae, oae neacaoue /enoii aeaea. – aia iauaiey
n ae? ethaeueie, aia aeeyiey oiai ie?a eoeueoo?u, a eio aeeth/ai
/aeiaae. I?ioe /oanoa aini?eyoey i/aiue neiaeiu. Iu niio?ei ia i?aaeiao
e iaoa aeaeaiea naycaii n iaoei ioiioaieai e yoiio i?aaeiaoo, iu aini?ei
aai eae e?aneaue eee aacia?aciue, iieaciue eee a?aaeiue… Eiaaea iu
aeaeei /aeiaaea, aini?eieiaai aai aeaenoaey e iinooiee eee iaaethaeaai
iau niauoey, iaoaieci aini?eyoey aua aieueoa oneiaeiyaony “E?anioa”.
“ni?aaaaeeaeeainoue”, I?ia?anneaiinoue” e iiiaea ae? iiiyoey, naycaiiua
n ieie ioiioaiey e onoaiiaee aeeth/athony a i?ioeann iaaethaeaiey,
aini?eyoey oaeeo iauaeoia.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiia /oanoa – iaiaoiaeeiay i?aaeiinueea iiciaiey,
aac iaa iaaiciiaeii. Iiea ana ooieoeeiie?oao ii?iaeueii, iu iiaeai ia
caia/aoue eo ?iee. Ii eo ?ieue noai i/aaeaeiie i?e eo iia?aaeaeaiee.
I?eia?u, eiaaea ethaee io i?e? eeoaiiua aiciiaeiinoe neuoaoue eee
aeaeaoue, niiniaiu auoue aiieia iieiioeaiiuie ethaeueie, ?acaea a naaa
niiniaiinoe iiciaiey e ?aoe iuoeaiey aiai?yo i aioo?aiiae iiue /ae
?acoia. A aio eiaeeaeaeu, au?inoea ni caa?yie – i?aeoe/anee oa?ytho
niiniaiinoue e iiciaieth. Yoi icia/aao, /oi /aeia /oanoaaiii -i?aeo
aeayoaeueiinoue e ia?ac?uaii niaaeeiaiiia n iath /oanoaaiie iiciaiea ii
naiie nouiinoe yaeythony nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneeie yaeaieyie.

A /aeia /oano aini?eyoee anoue aua 1 aaaeiue yeaiaio, eio i?enou
oieueei /aeiaaeo. *ae niiniaai iaoeyaeii i?aaenoaaeoue ia oieueei oi,
/oi aeaeae nianoa aeacaie, aaeaa ee ia aieueoay /anoue aai iiuoa
aeeth/aao ia?acu, eio ii/a?iioou ec iienaiee. O.a. eiaeea iiuo /ae i.a.
aei ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie caiaiai ?acoeueoaoaie iiuoa ?yaea aai
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. A iao aae a nayce n ?acaeoeai n?aaenoa i eioi?i. yoa
niiniaiinoue /ae, iieueciaaoueny /oanoa iiuoii ae? ethaeae noaea ii/oe
iaia?aie/aiiie. Caeanue oaeaea noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiui oieaa?naeueiia
cia/aiea ycuea n aai aiciiaeiinoueth i?aaeaaaoue eiie?aoiua ia?acu i?e
iiiiue neia.

Cia/aiea ycuea a iiciaiee ia?iiii. sscue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
?acoeueoao aeeoioeyoeee, iaiauaiey i?aaeoanoaothuaai /ae iiuoa. “ Anyeia
neiai – oaea iaiauaao”. Aeaiiue oaeo nou ia?acii aeeyao ia
niaoeeoe/anee-/aeia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiia /oanoa. A oi aea a?aiy ii
aeiiiino?e?oao ianinoiyoaeueiinoue i?aaenoaae iaoaoece/aneiai iao-ia i
/oanoa iiuoa eae niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueiii e iainiaeaiiii yoaia, o?iaa
iiciaa aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.

Eiee: n naiiai ia/aea iu eiaai ia iaeiie noi?iia aaue, a ia ae? –
/aeiaaea, niaa?oaiii eeoaiiiai ciaiey. Aaue i?e? aicaeaenoaotho ia aai
i?aaiu /oanoa e aucua a i?aaiecia ioaaoioth ?aaeoeeth – nia/aea a aeaea
naiinoiyoaeueii nou iuouaiee. Iineaaeothuaa eiiaeie?iaaiea ?aciiia? iuou
aeaao /ae aini?eyoea i?aaeiaoa a oeaeii. (eiiaeiaoeey aaeiai oeaaoa,
neaaeeinoe e iniaie oi?iu /anoe/ae i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth
oeaeinoiiai aini?eyoey naoa?a) Iiiaie?aoii aini?eieiay i?aaei, /aeia
cae?aieyao aini?eyoea a iaiyoe, ii iiaeao i?eiiieiaoue aini?eyoea e
ia?ac a ionoonoaee i?aaeiaoa – oae aicieeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea. O.a
iuou, aini?eyoey, i?aaenoaaeaiey i?aaenoatho a aeaea niaa?oaiii
iacaaeneiuo, iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?eiueaaueo ae?oa e ae?oao ?aaeueiuo
yoaiia iiciaa aeayoaeueiinoe. Iuoeaiea eeoue iaaeno?aeaaaony iaae ?ac e
oi?iaie /oanoa iiciaiey.

41. ?AOeEIIAEUeIAss (EIAE*ANEAss) NOOIAIUe IICIAIEss. ?AOeEIIAEECI E
E??AOeEIIAEECI.

*oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea /ae eiie?aoiuo niauoee, oaeoia caaeneo io
niaea?aeaiey iiiyoee, a oaeaea io oiai a eaeie ia?a niae iiiyoee inaiaii
aeaiiui /ae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii ?a/ue eaeao i caa-oe /oanoa iiuoa e
aini?eyoey io ycuea, io iiiyoeeiiai aiia?, eniieuecoaiiai /ae a aai
i?aeo aeayoaueiinoe. Iaeiaei yoa caa ia yae iaeiinoi?iiiae.

Iiiyoea yae ?ac-oii enoi? iiuoa /aeiaa/anoaa. Onaiaiea eiie? ethaeueie
oaea nou iiiyoee, ?ieue yoeo iiiyoee a eo nici e aeayoaeueiinoe – ana
yoi caa. io iaiin? eiioaeoa ethaeae n iauaeo ?aaeueiinoueth. A oiaea
oaeeo eiio iiiyoey iiiaie? i?iaa?ythony, iaiaauathony, aeiiieiythony iia
niuneii.

O.i. /oanoa e ?aoe iuoeaiea iaoeaeyony a ia?ac?uaiii aaeeinoaa e
acaeiiaeaenoaee. A eo neiaeiii acaeiiae iaia?oaeeaaaony 2 oeia
aeayoaeueiinoe: 1.i?aeo aeayoaeueiinoue a oe?ieii niunea. 2. aeayo ,
niaoeeaeueii iai?aae ia nicaeaiea ciaiee, ia i?iaeooee?iaaiea iiiyoee,
o.a. oai?aoe/aneay aeayo eae iniaue aeae oinoaaiiiai o?oaea.

A oeaea oec aicaeaenoaey ia eiie?aoiua i?aaeiaou e yae. /ae-ai
i?eia?aoaao iiiai/eneaiiua ciaiey ia ioiioaieyo. (iaaeaeo ?ace oeiaie
iao iauaeoia e i?ioeannia, iaaeaeo ?ace naienoaaie iauaeoia). Iineieueeo
ciaiea iai?aaeaii ia auyaeaiea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo naienoaaie i?aaeiaoia,
iaaeaeo naieie i?aaei e i?ioeannaie, aeaiiua ioiioaiey noaiiayony
iauaeoaie iiciaiey. I?ioeannu a oiaea eio iinoaiaiii e iineaaeiaaoaeueii
ia?acothony iiiyoey, io?aae iauea naienoaa i?aaeiaoia e yae ie? ie?a,
ecia?ythony noieaoeyie. I?aaeaea /ai ciaiea oao eee eiuo naycae ia?aoao
iaiau oi?io e aeaaiaea?y yoiio i?eia?aoao iiiyo au?aaeaiea, aeieaeiu
ieeeeaa?aeu ?ac inou i?ioeannu niiinoaaeaiey, n?aaiaiey, iuneaiiiai
?anna/aiey e oec aeaeieciaiaiey iauaeoia. Aeieaeiu inoaoueny a noi?iia
ana ianou iiiaiou aeaiiie nayce. Ciaiea aeieaeii i?eia?anoe iaiau oi?io
e a oii niunea, /oi iii aeieaeii i?eia?anoe iauaeo cia/aiea aeey
iiiaeanoaa ethaeae.

Eiaaea neiai aunooiaao a aaeeinoaa n aieaa eee iaiaa iieiui ciaieai
iaueo naienoa iauaeoa, eo ioee/ey io ae? iauaeoia, iii eae ?ac e
aunooiaao a oi?ia iiiyoey. Iiiyoey- yoi oaeea aiieiuaiiua a neiaao
i?iaeoeoua nioeeaeueii-enoi? i?ioe iiciaiey, eio auaeaeytho e oeene?otho
iauea nouanoaaiiuanaienoaa, ioiioaiey i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee. Anee au a
oiaea enoi?ee ia au?aaioaeenue oaeea iiiyoey, oi eaaeaeue /ae a eaaeaeii
iieieaiee auioaeaeai aue au aiiaue e aiiaue iienuaaoue eaaeaeoth eiie?
aauue, oaeo , yaeaiea.

Ia?aoei aieiaiea ia aeaenoaey, eio eiatho ianoi a i?ioe. ia?aciaoaiey
/oanoa iiiyoee. Acaeiinaycaiiua aeaenoaey ioaea/aiey, n?aaiaiey e
niiinoaae, auaeaeaiea oiai iauaai na-aa, eio i?enoua iaiaic? iiiaeanoao
i?aaeiaoia e oeaeui eeannai i?aaei, a oee eiaioaony aano?aae?iaaieai, a
?-ou aano?aae?iaaiey – aano?aeoeeyie. Aano?aae?iaaiea anoue i?aa?auaiea
ioiioaiee a iauaeo iiciaiey. Ooo nou 2 aaaeiuo iiiaioa: I?e aano? /ae
enoiaeeo ec iauaeo, aeaenoaeo naienoa iauaeoia e yaeaiee e ec eo
?aaeueiuo ioiio ae?oa e ae?oao, oeene?oaony eo aeaenoaeoaeueiia,
iacaaeneii io nici nouanoaothuaa aaeeinoai.. Ii i?e yoii aeayoaeueiinoue
ioaea/aiey e iauaaeei naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aeoeaiinoe /ae iiciaiey, i
aicieeiia iniaiai oeia aeayoaeueiinoe, iniaiai oeia iiciaiey, iai?aae ia
oeene?iaaiea ioiioaiee.

Iauyniaiea e iiieiaiea.

Oai? iiciaiey ?acee/aao no?oeoo?iua iauyniaiey, ioaa/ ia aii?in, eae
ono?iai iauaeo; ooieoeeiiaeueiua iauyni – eae aeaenoaoao e
ooieoeeiie?oao iauaeo; i?e/eiiua – ii/aio aicieeei aeaiiia yaeaiea,
ii/aio eiaiii aeaiiue iaai? oaeoia i?eaae e oaeiio-oi neaaenoaeth. I?e
yoii a i?ioe iauyni iu eniieuecoai oaea eiathueany ciaiey aeey iauyni
ae?oaeo. Ia?aoiae io aieaa iaueo ciaiee e aieaa eiie?aoiui e
yiie?e/aneei e ninoaaeyao i?ioeaaeo?o iauyniaiey. Ciaiey, eio neoaeao
iniiaaieai aeey iauyni iacuaathony iauyniythueie. Ciaiey, eio eie
iainiiauaathony – iauyniyaiuie. A ea/anoaa iauyniythuaai iiaoo
aunooiaoue eae cae oae e ioaeaeueiua oaeou.

*oi aea aeaao iai i?ioeann iauyniaiey. Ii, ai-ia?auo, onoaiaaeeaaao
aieaa aeoaieea e i?i/iua nayce iaaeaeo ?ace nenoaiaie ciaiee. Ai-aoi?uo,
iicaeyao inou i?aaeaeaeaiea e i?aaeneacaiea aoaeoueo neooaoeee e
i?ioeannia.

*ai aea ioee/ iiieiaiea io iauyniaiey? Ia anao yoaiao /ae
aeayoaeueiinoe iu noaeeeaaainy n /ai0oi iaecaanoiui, ciaiea i /ai o ian
ionoonoaoao. A aeaiiuo ne iu aiai?ei i oii, /oi aeaiia yaeaiea
iaiiiyoii, /oi iu i iai ie/aai ia ciaai. Iu iiaeai ia iiieiaoue oaenou
ec-ca iaciaiey ycuea, iniaaiiinoae eoeueoo?u. Ec iaiaoiae ?aoaoue
iiaeiaiua i?iaeaiu aicieeea Aa?iaiaaoeea ( O.Oeaea?iaoa?, A.Aeeeueoae,
A.Aaaeaia?, Y.Aaooe, I.?eea?…) – iaoea i iiieiaiee. *oiau iiiyoue
ienueiaiiue eee onoiue oaeno iaaei iiieiaoue cia/aea eaaeaeiai neiaa,
i?aaeeiaeaey eee io?uaea, eio ei i?eaeaaaee aaoi?u, Ii n ae? noi?iiu,
/oiau iiiyoue yoe aeaoaee e /anoe, iaiaoiae iiieiaoue niune e cia/aiea
niaea?aeauaai eo eiioaenoa. Yoa neooaoeey iieo/eea iaca –
“aa?iaiaaoe/aneee e?oa”

Iiieiaiea – yoi ia aaeeie/iue aeo, a aeeyoaeueiue e neiaei i?ioeann. Iu
iinoiyiii ia?aoiaeei io iaeiiai o?iay iiieiaiey e ae?oaiio. I?e yoii
inou oaeea i?ioeaaeo?u eae Eioa?i?aoaoeey- i?aaiia/aeueiia i?eienuaaiea
eioi?iaoeee niunea e cia/aiey; ?aeioa?i?aoaoeey – ooi/iaiea e eciaiaiea
niunea e cia/aiey; eiaa?aaioeey – iauaaeeiaiea, neeyiea i?aaeaea
?ac?iciaiuo niuneia e cia/aiee; Aeeaa?aaioeey – ?acuaaeeiaea aaeeiiai
niunea ia ioaeaeueiua iiaeniuneu; eiiaa?ney – ea/anoaaiiia
aeaeieciaiaiea niunea e cia/aiey, eo ?aaeeeaeueiia i?aia?aciaaiea.

Iiieiaiea, neaaeiaaoaeueii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aaeec iiiaeo
i?ioeaaeo?, iaania/eaathueo i?aia?aciaaiea eioi?i i?e ia?aoiaea io
iaciaiey e ciaieth.

I?ioeann iiiei ninoieo ia ieueei a onaiaiee oaea au?aaioaiiuo ae?oaeie
ethaeueie eee yiioaie ciaiee, ii i a eiino?oe?iaaiee ia iniiaa ?yaae
neiaeiuo i?aia?aciaaiee i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo ciaiee, ia nouanoaiaaaoeo
?aiaa.

E??aoeeiiaeeci – oee o/aiea, ianoaeaathuaa ia ia?aie/aiiuo
aiciiaeiinoyo ?acoia, iuoeaiey e i?eciathuaa ini ?iaeii iiciaiey
eiooeoeeth, /oanoai, einoeieo…N/eoaao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue oaioe/iie,
eeoaiiie caeiiiia?iinoae, iiae/ei ea?a neonay, neaiie aiea. (e??. a
/anoiinoe yae yecenoaioeeaeeci)

?aoeeiiaeeci – O/aiea a oai? iiciaiey, niaeanii eio anaiauiinoue e
iaiaoiaeeiinoue – eiae/aneea i?eciaee anaiauaai ciaiey – ia iiaoo auoue
auaaaeaiu ec iiuoa e aai iaiauaiee. Iie iiaoo auoue ii/a?iioou ec naiiai
oia eeai ec iiiyoee, i?enoueo oio io ?iaeaeaiey (Aeaea?o), eeai ec
iiiyoee, nou oieueei a aeaea caaeaoeia, i?aae?aniieiaeaiee oia. Iiuo
noeioee?oao ec i?iyaeaiea. (Nieiica, Eaeaieoe, Eaio, Aaaaeue, Oeooa,
Oaeeeia.)

42. OI?IU E IAOIAeU IAO*IIAI ENNEAAeIAAIEss.

Yiie?e/aneia e oai?aoe/aneia. A iaoea ?ace yiie? e oai?ao o?iaie
enneaaeiaaiey. Yoi ?acee/aiea eiaao naiei iniiaaieai 1. – iaoiaeia
iiciaa aeoeaiinoe;2. – oa?aeoa? aeinoeaaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Yiie?
enneaaeiaaiea i?aaeiieaaaao au?aaioeo i?ia?aiiu enneaaeiaaiee, i?aaiec
iaaethaeaiey e yenia?eiaioia, iienaiea e iaiauaiea yenia? aeaiiuo, eo
eeanneoeeaoeeth, ia?ae/iia iaiauaiea. Neiaii aeey yiie? iiciaiey
oa?aeoa?ia oaeoioeene?othuay aeoeaiinoue. Oai?ao iiciaiea – yoi
nouiinoiia iiciaiea, inouanoaeyaiia ia o?iaa aano?aeoeee aunieeo
ii?yaeeia. Caeanue i?oaeeai aunooiatho iiiyoey, eaoaai?ee, caeiiu,
aeiioacu… Enoi?e/anee yiie? iiciaiea i?aaeoanoaoao oai?ao, ii oieueei
yoei iooai iaeuecy aeinoeaiooue iieiiai e enoeiiai ciaiey.

Yiie? enneaaeiaaiea, auyaeyao ana iiaua aeaiua iaaethae e yenia?ei,
noaaeo ia?aae oai?ao iuoeaieai iiaua caaea/e, noeioee?oao aai e
aeaeueiaeoaio niaa?oainoaiaaieth. Iaeiaei e iaiaauathuaany oai?ao ciaiea
noaaeo ia?aae iaaethaeaeai e yenia?ei ana aieaa neiaeiua caaea/e.

Anyeia iaaethaeaiea ia/ei ia ni nai?a oaeoia, a n iiiuoee ?aoaiey
eaeie-oi caaea/e, a iniiaa eio anaaaea eaaeeo ecaanoiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea,
aeiaaaeea, iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu.

Iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu e eneaaeia i?ia?aiia. Ethaee no?aiyony iiciaoue oi,
/aai iie ia ciatho. I?iaeaia – yoi aii?in, n eio iu ia?auaainy e naiie
i?e?iaea, e aeecie , e i?aeoeea e oai?ee. Iinoaaeoue i?iaeaio ii?ie ia
iaiaa o?oaeii, /ai iaeoe aa ?aoaiea: i?aaeeueiay iinoaiiaea i?iae a
ecaanoiie ia?a iai?aaeyao iieneiaoth aeoeaiinoue iunee, aa
ono?aieaiiinoue. Eiaaea o/aiue noaaeo i?iaeaio e iuoaaony ?aoeoue aa ,
ii iaecaaaeii ?ac?aaaouaaao e enneaaeia i?ia?aiio, noi?ieo ieai naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii ii enoiaeeo ec i?aaeiieaaaaiiai ioaaoa ia naie
aii?in. yoio i?aaeiieaa ioaao aunooiaao a aeaea aeiioacu.

Iaaethaeaea e yenia?eiaio. Iaaethaeaiea – yoi i?aaeiaia?aiiia,
iai?aaeaiiia aini?eyoea, eiathuaa oeaeueth auyaeaiea nou naienoa e
ioiioaiee iauaeoa iiciaiey. Iii i.a. iaiin?aaenoa e iiin?aaeiaaiui
i?eai?aie. Iaaethaeaiea i?eia?aoaao iao/iia cia/aiea, eiaaea iii a niioa
n enneaaeia i?iaaiie iicaieyao ioia?aceoue iauaeou n iaea oi/iinoueth e
iiaeao auoue iiiaie?aoii iiaoi?aii i?e aa?uee?iaaiee oneiaee.

Ii /ae ia iiaeao ia?aie/eoueny ?ieueth oieueei iaueethaeaoaey:
iaaethaeaiea oieueei oeene?oao oi, /oi aeaao naia aeeciue, a
enneaaeiaaiea o?aaoao yenia?eiaioa, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iauaeo eee
aini?iecaiaeeony eneonnoaaiii, eee noaaeony a ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
caaeaiua oneiaey, ioaa/athuea oeaeyi ennneaaeiaaiey. A oiaea yenia?
enneaaeiaaoaeue aeoeaii aiaoeaaaony a enneaae i?ioeann.

A i?ioeanna i iiciaiey i?eiaiyaony e iuneaiiue yenia?eiaio, eiaaea o/ a
oia iia?e?oao ii?aae ia?acaie, iuneaiii noaaeo iauaeo a ii?aae oneiaey.

Yenia? aeonoi?iiai. N iaeiie noi? ii niiniaai iiaeoaaaeeoue eee
ii?iaa?aiooue aeiioaco, a n ae? – niaea?aeeo aiciiaeiinoue auyaeaiey
iaiaeeaeaiiuo iiauo aeaiiuo.

O.i. yenia?ei aeayoaeueiinoue iaeaae neiaeiie no?oeoo?ie: oai?ao iniiau
yen – iao/iua oai?ee, aeiioacu; iao iniiaa – i?eai?u; iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
inou yenia?; yenia?ei iaaethaeaea; eiee/ e ea/ aiaeec ?ac yenia?ei, eo
oai?ao iaiauaiea.

Iaiaoiae oneiaeai i enneaaeiaaiey yae onoaiiaeaiea oaeoia. Oaeo, io
factum – naeaeaiiia, niaa?oeaoaany. Oaeo – yoi yaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai
eee aeooiaiiai ie?a, noaaoaa oaeinoiaa?aiiui aeinoiyieai iaoaai
niciaiey, caoeene?iaaiiinoue eaeiai-eeai i?aaeiaoa, yaeaiey, naienoaa
eee ioiioaiey. “Oaeou – yoi aicaeoo o/aiiai”, – aiai?ee Iaaeia. Naiia
oa?aeoa?iia aeey iao/iiai oaeoa – aai aeinoiaa?iinoue. Oaeo aeieaeai
auoue iniuneai, iainiiaai. Oaeou anaaaea ieacuaathony iiin?aaeiaaiiuie
iaoei iiieiaieai, eioa?i?aoaoeeae. Iai?eia? naeae iieacaiey.Ethaee
aiai?yo ia iaeiii e oii aea, ii eae ii ?aciiio. O.i. i/aaeaeiinoue
ioithaeue ia yaeyaony iieiie aa?aioeae ?aaeueiie aeinoiaa?iinoe oaeoa.

Oaeou naie ii naaa ia ninoaaeytho iaoee. Oaeou aeieaeiu auoue
iiaeaa?aioou ioai?o, eeanneo, iaiauaieth e iauyniaieth, oiaaea iie
aeeth/aony a oeaiue iaoee. Oaeo niaea?aeeo iaiaei neo/aeiiai. Iiyoiio
iniiaie aeey i aiaeeca yae ia i?inoi aaee oaeo, a iiiaeanoai oaeoia,
io?aaeathueo iniiaioth oaiaeaioeeth. Oieueei ai acaeiiie nayce e
oeaeueiinoe oaeou iiaoo neoaeeoue iniiaaieai aeey oai?ao iaiauaey. Ec
niioaaonoaaiii iiaeia? oaeoia iiaeii iino?ieoue ethaoth oai?eth.

Iienaiea, e iauyniaiea. A oiaea iaaethae e yenia?ei inouanoaeyaony
iienaiea, i?ioieiee?iaaiea. Iniiaiia i. o?aaiaaiea e iienaieth – aai
aeinoiaa?iinoue, oi/iinoue aini?iecaaaeaiey aeaiiuo iaaethaeaiee e
yenia?eiaioa.

Iauyniaiea – yoi iuneeo iia?aoeey, i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia auyaeaiea
i?e/eiiie caaeneiinoe iauaeoa enneaaeia, iinoeaeaea caeiiiia?iinoae aai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey e, iaeiiaoe, ?ane?uoea aai nouiinoe.
Iauynieoue – cia/eo iniuneeoue iauaeo a naaoa oaea nouanoaothueo,
enoi?e/anee iaeiieaiiuo ciaiee, ii?aae i?eioeeiia, caeiiia, eaoaai?ee.

Aeiioaca. Ie iaeia i oai?ey ia ?iaeeeanue a aioiaii aeaea. Nia/aea iia
nou eae aeiioaca. I?e yoii naia aei aicieeaao ia n?aco, iia i?ioiaeeo
ii?aae noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey. Nia/aea yoi i?aaeiieiaeaea, aeiaaaeea,
auoaeathuay ec iaaethae iiauo oaeoia. Iia iiaeao iiaeaa?aaoueny
eciaiaieyi, iiaeeoeeaoeeyi… A ?-oa oi?ie? naia aeiioaca eae iaeaiea
aa?iyoiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea. Aeiioaca anoue i?aaeiieiaeaea, enoiaeyuaa ec
oaeoia, oiicaeeth/aiea, iuoathuaany i?iieeiooue a nouiinoue aua
iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aiiie iaeanoe ie?a.

Iainiiaaiea e aeieac aeiioacu i?iaiaeeony ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca
iaeiieaiiiai ciaiey, niiinoaaeaiey aai n oaea ecaanoiuie oaeoaie, n
onoaiiaeaiuie iiauie oaeoaie e oaie oaeoaie, eio iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu
a aoaeouai. Eia/a aiai?y, iainiia aeiioacu i?aaeiieaaaao aa ioeaieo n
oi/ee c?aiey yooaeoeaiinoe a iauyniaiee eiathueony oaeoia e i?aaeaeaeaee
iiauo.

Aei aunooiaao eae ii?aae iaiauaiea eiathuaainy ciaiey. Ii iia
i?eioeeieaeueii iineo aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa. Noaiaiue oeaiinoe aeiioacu
ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaiai aa aa?iyoiinoe. (O?aeae. ssae?i Caiee ec
ia?iaeaaea).

Oai?ee. Oai?ey – yoi aunoay, iainiiaaiiay, eiae/anee iai?ioeai?a/eaay
nenoaia iao/iiai ciaiey, aeathuay oeaeinoiue acaeyae ia nouanoaaiiua
naienoaa, caeiiiia?iinoe, ie/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua nayce, ii?aaeaeythuea
oa?aeoa? ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey ii?aae iaeanoe ?aaeueiinoe.

Oai?ey iiaeao iaiyoueny iooai aeeth/aiey a iaa iiauo eaeae e oaeoia.
Eiaaea a ?aieao aeaiiie oai?ee auyae i?ioeai?a/ea, ia?ac?aoeiia a aa
?aieao, oi aai ?ac?aoaiea aaaeao e iino?iaieth iiaie oai?ee.
Na?aeoeaaeio i oai?ee ninoaaeytho aoiaeyuea a iaa caeiiu. A oai?ee
auaeaeytho oaeea nou iiiaiou: enoiaeioth yiie?e/ iniiao (oaeou, aeaiiua
yenia?ei,); ?acee/iiai ?iaea aeiiouaiey, iinooeaou, aeneiiu; eiaeeo
oai?ee, aeiionoeiua a ?aieao oai? i?aaeea eia auaiaeia e aeie-a;
niaieoiiinoue auaaaeaiiuo ooaa?aeaeaee n eo aeieacaoaeuenoaaie; caeiiu
iaoe, a oaeaea i?aaeaeaeaiea.

?acee/atho iienaoaeueiua oa?ee, iaoaiaoece?iaaiiua, eioa?i?aoaoeeiiiua
e aeaaeoeoeaiua oai?ee.

Iiai?ioiuie ioieoaie a enoi?ee iaoee noaiiayony i ?aaiethoee. ?aa a
iaoea au?aaeathony a ea/anoa eciaiaiee aa enoiaeiuo i?eioeeiia,
iiiyoee, eaoaai?ee, caeiiia, oai?ee., o.a. a niaia iao/iie ia?aaeeaiu.
Iiae ia?aaeeaiie iiieiatho: au?aaioaiiua e i?eiyoua a aeaiiii iao/iii
niiauanoaa ii?iu, ia?acoeu yiie? e oai?ao iuoeaiey, i?eia?aooea oa?aeoa?
oaaaeaeaee; niinia auai?a iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey e iauyniaiey ii?aae
nenoaiu oaeoia a oi?ia aeinoaoi/ii iainiiaaiiuo i?eioeeiia e caeiiia,
ia?ac eiae/anee iai?ioeai?a/eaoth oai?eth.

43. IAUANOAI. INIIAIUA OEE EIIOeAIOeEE ?ACAEOEss IAUANOAA.

Iauanoai iiaeii aiaeece?iaaoue ii-?aciiio. ?on iuneeoaeue
A.A.Aiaaeaiia(1873-1928), iai?eia?, ?anniao?eaae iauanoai ni noi?iiu
i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey. “Anyeay /ae aeayoaeueiinoue yae i?aaiecaoeeae
eee aeaci?aaiecaoeeae. Yoi cia/eo: anyeoth /ae aeayoaeueiinoue – oao,
iauanoa, ooaeiaeanoa – iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae iaeee iaoa?eae
i?aaiecaoeeiiiii iiuoa e enneaaeiaaoue n i?aaiec oi/ee c?aiey” A iniiaa
nioe oee iiaoo eaaeaoue ?acee/iua iiaeoiaeu, oiaiaea niioa iieo/athony e
?acee/iua iiaeaee. ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua ec ieo.

A 17-18 aa. oe? ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea iaoo?aeenoe/aneay eiioeaioeey
oieeiaaiey iau aeecie. Yoa eiioeaioeey o?aaoao iauyni nioe yaeaiee
eneeth/eoaeueii aeaenoaeai i?e? caeiiiia?iinoe: oece/, aaia?ao,
aeieiae/…

Oa?eue Oo?uea (o?aioe nioeeaeeno-ooiieno) – iuoaeny nicaeaoue nioe
iaoee ec caeiia anaie?iiai oyaioaiey Iuethoiia. Nioe oai?ey – anue
/anoue oai?ee anaie?iiai aaeeinoaa, iniiaaiiie a i?eioeeia i?eoyae ii
no?anoe, anaiauae caeiiiia?iinoe, iaoneaae i?e? neeiiiinoue /ae e
eaeiio-eeai aeaeo eieeaeoeaiiai o?oaea.

Aunoea oi?iu auoey iaoo?aeeci naiaeeo e iecoei. *aeiaae naiaeeony aei
o?iaiy eneeth/ i?e?iaeiiai nou-aa. I?e yoii /aeia iiaaaeaiea aeanoei
aeeth/aaony a oeaiue i?e? i?e/ei e neaaenoaee, naiaiaea ia inoaaony
ianoa e eiioeaioeey nioe niauoee i?eieiaao oaoaeenoe/aneoth ie?aneo. A
nenoaia Aiaana Naiaiaea anaai-eeoue iiaeeoeeaoeey iaiaoiaeeiie i?e/eiu.
“Eaaeaeia aeia?iaieueiia aeaenoaea yae auioaeaeaiiui”, “ana aeaenoaey
iaiaoiaeeiu”.

Aua iaeiei iaaeinoaoeii iaoo? iiaeoiaea yae oi, /oi ii ?anni /ae-ea eae
iaeee nioeeaeueiue aoii, a iauanoai eae iaoaie/ aa?aaao oaeeo aoiiia,
caieioouo eneeth/ ia naieo eioa?anao.

Eiuie neiaaie iaoo?aeeci caia/aao a /ae oieueei i?e?iaeioth
noanoaioeeth. A ?-oa e /ae nayce ia?aoatho i?e? oa?aeoa?. Iauanoai
i?ecaaony, ii a ea/ oeaiaioe?othuaai ia/aea aa?aony eee iieueca
(i?inaaoeoaee 17-18aa), eee iieiaay ethaiaue (Oaa?aao). Iauanoai a
iaoo?ae oee oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae anaiauiinoue, naycothuay iiiaeanoai
eiaeeaeaeia eeoue i?e? ocaie. Ii a yoii neo/aa eaaeaeue aieai caueuaoue
naith i?e?iaeo aii?aee nou ii?aeueiui i?eioeeiai, eai iineaaeiea ia
auoaeatho ec i?e? /ae-ea. Oai? iainiiaaiea yoie eneeth/eo yaienoe/aneie
aeeci iiceoeee aeae iai oee Iaen Ooeia? a eieaa “Aaeeinoaaiiue e aai
nianoaaiiinoue”.

Eaeaaeeci iaiai?io neeoeii io?uaaao /ae io i?e?iaeu, i?aa?auay aeoo
noa?o iau aeecie a naiino noanoaioeeth. Ia i?aeoeea yoi icia/aao
neaaeiaaoue i?eioeeio “iiaiey i?aayo ie?ii”. Eaeaae a i?eioeeia ia
io?eoe iauaeoeaiiai oaeoi?a enoi?ee. Iaeiaei ?acaeoea iauanoaa
iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyaony aeaenoaeai ie?iaiai ?acoia eee aieaaay
aeoeaiinoue /aeiaaea. A ia?aii neo/aa a nioe oee aiineony oaoaeeci, a
ai aoi?ii – iainiiauaaaony /enoi noauaeoeaenoneia iiieiaiea enoi? oiaea.

A iaieio oee nenoaiao niaea?aeaeinue iieiae ia/aei a iiaeoiaea e /ae e
enoi?ee. Iii caee a iainiiaaiee naia noauaeoa, aai oai?/aneie
aeoeaiinoe.Eae au ie iiieiaeanue aeooiaiinoue, ieeoi ia iuneeo aa aac
i?aanoaaiiinoe, iineaaeiyy i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea naiaiaeu. Aeooiaii
i?aanoaaiiui iiaeao auoue oiueei naia /aeiaae.

A naaoa aeaiiie eiioeaioeee *aeiaae eae ii?aeueiia nouanoai ia
ioaeaeaaony ie a eaeeo i?eiaieao eee i?eioaeaeaiee, eai iiaeeeiii
i?aaoaiiue iioea ii?iaeaeaaony naia aieaecuyaeaieai ee/iinoe. Yoio iioea
caeeth/ a oii, /oiau /aeia auiieiee naie ii? aeiea, ia iaeeaeay
eiiiainaoeee ie a yoii , ie a eiii ie?a.

Aeaaiui iaaeinoaoeii eaeaae eiioeaioeee yae io?ua neiaa io aeaea,
oai?ee io i?aeoeee, eaeaaea io eioa?ana… A eiaaea neiaie ainiiaenoaoao
iaae auoeai (aoaeue yoi ia?ac naaoeiaoi aoaeouaai eee anaiiaouae
oaoieee), oeaeue iai?aiaiii iiaeiaiyaony n?aaenoaii, a ioae?inoue –
?annoaeeii.

Aeeae iaoa?eaeeci. Iau aeeciue – aunoay oi?ia aeaeae iaoa?ee. Oioue
iauanoai e yae aeeaie neno iii ea/anoaaiii ioee/ io ae? aeeauo nenoai,
aunooiaao e eae iauaeo e eae noauaeo iao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Aeeaeaeoeei – iaoa?eaeeno iiieiaiea enoi?ee ia/eiaaony n ?aoaiey
iniiaiiai aii?ina oee a i?eiaiaiee e iauanoao. “Niciaiea ethaeae caaeneo
io eo auoey”. Yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea auoaeaao ec i?inoiai oaeoa, /oi “ethaee
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeieaeiu anoue, ieoue, eiaoue aeeeeua e iaeaaaoueny,
i?aaeaea /ai auoue a ninoiyiee caieiaoueny iieeoeeie, iaoeie,
eneonnoaii, ?aeeaeae…” A aeey yoiai ioaeii o?oaeeoueny, i?iecaiaeeoue
iao aeaaa.

Eoae nouiinoue iao iiieiaiey enoi?ee inoieo a oii, /oi: 1.
i?iecaiaenoai e aneaae ca iei iaiai aai i?iaeoeoia ninoaae iniiao
anyeiai iau no?iy. 2. enoi? i?ioeann, iau auoea iinyo iauaeo oa?aeoa?
3. aeaaiie aeaeae neeie, i?aia?ac aeeciue iauanoaa, yaeythony ia?iaeiua
iannu. 4. n?aaenoaa aeey eciai nou iieiaeaiey aauae ioaeii ioe?uaaoue a
iaee/iuo iaoa? oaeoi?ao i?iecaiaenoaa.

Nioe caeiiu e eaoaai?ee. Iauaeoeaiay iniiaa e a?aieoeu /ae naiaiaeu.

A ioee/ee io i?e?iaeiie nioeeaeueiay caeiiiia?iinoue eiaao ?yae niaoeeo
/a?o: 1.Iau ioiioaiey i?eiei oi?io iau eioa?ania, iio?aaiinoae, oeaeae.
A yoi cia/eo /oi nioe caeiiu – cae ia oieueei iao, ii e aeooiaiie
aeayoaeueiine. 2.Iineieueeo iauanoai iaeiia? yaeyaony e iauaeoii e
noauaeoii, nioe cae – yoi cae /aeia aeayoaeueiinoe. Aac /ae aeayo,
eioi?ay aaiaoe/anee i?aae/ia, iao e ia i.a. nioe caeiiiia?iine. Enoi?ey
– yoi aeayoaeueiinoue i?aneaaeothuaai naie oeaee /aeiaaea. 3.Nioe
caeiiu ii oa? naiae aeayo – noaoenoe/aneea. 4. Niaoeeoeeie nioe caeiiia
yae eo enoi?e/iinoue. Aneaaenoaee oiai, /oi nioe yaiethoeey i?ioaeaao
aiea auno?uie oaiiaie, /ai yaie i?e?iaeu, iau ioiioaiey e oi?iu
eoeueoo?u aieaa iiaeaeaeiu /ai aaieia ia?eiaeu. Nioe i?aaeci i/aiue
aeeaie/ai, e aai cae iicaieytho oeiaeoue eeoue iauoth oaiaeaioeeth
?acaeoey, a yoi nicaeaao iaeoth aa?iyoiinoue onoaiiaeaey no?iaeo n?ieia
ianooieaiey niauoee.

Nioe caeiiu:

1. caeii ii?aaeaeythuae ?iee niiniaa ?iecaiaenoaa ii ioiio e ae? noa?ai
aeayoaeueiinoe.

2. caeii ii?aae ?iee yeiiii aacena ii ioiio e iaaeno?ieea

3.caeiiniioa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee o?iaith e oa?aeoa?o i?ieca nee.

4. caeii i?ia?anneaiie niaiu iau-yeiiii oi?iaoeee

5. caeii nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee

6.caeii aic?anoathuae ?iee ia? iann a enoi?ee

7. caeii ioiineoaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe iau niciaiey.

8. caeii aicauoaiey iio?aaiinoae.

Nou aieueoia eie-ai nioe caeiiia /anoiiai ii?yaeea, eio aeaenoaotho a
ii?aae noa?ao iauanoaa. Ii a etha neo/aa iacaaenii io ianooaaa aeaenoaey
nioe caeiiu io?aaeatho iaee/ea nioe iaiaoiaeeiinoe e iauaeo oiaea iau
aeecie.

Aeaenoaey nioe caeiiia eiie?aoece?othony oee eaoaai?eyie: nioe iaoa?ey,
nioe a?aiy, nioe i?ino?ainoai, nioe i?ioeai?a/ea, nioe io?eoeaiea, nioe
?aaiethoeey, iau auoea e iau niciaiea. Naiaiaea e iaiaoiaeeiinoue, aacen
e iaaeno?ieea, iau oi?iaoeey, niinia i?iecaiaenoaa…

E?eoaee iauaeoeaiinoe nioe aeecie caeeth/aaony a iaee/ee nioe
i?aainoaaiiinoe, oae eae eaaeaeia iieieaiea ia/eiaao n oie ?aaeueiie
iniiau, eio aio aeinoaeanue. “Ethaee a iatho naia a auai?a naieo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo neie, eio ia?acotho iniiao anae eo enoi?ee, oae eae
anyeay i?iecaiae neea anoue i?eia?aoaiiay neea, i?iaeoeo i?aaeoanoa
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oiaaea eiaao ee ianoi naiaaea a iauanoaa? A /ai aea iia au?aaeaaony,
anee nou nioe caeiiu, au?aaeathuea iauaeoeaiue, iaiaoiaeeiue oiae
enoi?ee? A i?e?iaea iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?ioeainoieo neo/aeiinoue. A iauanoaa
n ae niioiineony naiaiaea. Naiaiaea a?aaeaeaaiu ia caeiiu, a aaccaeiiea,
oain. E iaiaoiaeeiinoue e naiaiaea a ?aaiie noaiaie iauaeoeaiu, oioy eo
ooieoe iaa?ocea e ?acee/ia. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue io?aaeaao ia/oi onoie/eaia,
nio?aiythuaany, /oi au?aae a caeiiao nio?aiaiey. Naiaiaea aea io?aaeaao
?acaeoea, iiyaeaiea iiaiai, iiauo aiciiaeiinoae, ii ia aaca
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iaiaoiae au?aaeaao iaee/iia, a naiaiaea noaaouaaao
aoaeouaa, eaeei ie? aeieaeai eee iiaeao auoue.

Ie? enoi?ey – yoi i?ioeann aic?anoaiey noaiaie naiaiaeu, ii a eaaeaeue
enoi? ia?eiae iia eiaao naie a?aieoeu. Naiaiaea iiiaieeea, ii nouiinoue
aaeeia – iaee/ea ?aciiia?aciuo aiciiaeiinoae.

44. I?IAEAIU ACAEIIAeAENOAEss IAUANOAA E I?E?IAeU.

Aicieeiiaaiea iauanoaa. Enoi?ey /aei iauanoaa a ii?aae niunea yaeyao
ea?oeio aai eciaiythuaainy acaeiiae n i?e?iaeie. Iaeiaei iauanoai ia nou
ecia/aeueii. Enoi?ey aai aicieeiia ia ioaeaeeia io enoi?ee noaiiaeaiey
naiiai /aeiaaea. ssaeyynue /anoueth i?e? /aeiaae iinoaiaiii, a iioeanna
o?oaea e iauaiey oi?ie? eae nioeeaeueiia nouanoai. Yoio i?ioe eiaao
naiei ia/aeii auaeaeaiea /ae ec aeeaioiiai ie?a, oi?ie? o iaai
nioeeaeueiuo iiaoaeeo iioeaia aiiaaaeaiee. A neeo anooiaao ia?yaeo n
anoanoa e nioeeaeueiue ioai?. (i?eiaieoaeueii e niiauanoaai) Auaeeaaee
oa niiauanoaa eio iiae/eiyeenue ii?aae nioeeaeueii cia/eiui o?aaiaaieyi:
niei/aiiinoe acaeiiiiiiue… Yoi nioeeaeueii cia/eiia cae?aieyeinue
anoanoa ioai?ii e ia?aaea/ae iiuoa. A i?aia?acia ia?aiauoiiai noaaea a
/aeia iauanoai ana aieueooth ?ieue ea?aee nioe caeiiiia?iinoe ia oiia
aeaenoaey aeieiae/. Yoi inou a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a i?ioe o?oaea.

Aeey o?oaea oa?aeoa?ai eieeaeoeaii i?aaieciaaiiue, oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue
iau niinia aeayoaeueiinoe.

O?oae anoue i?ioeann, niaa?oathueeny iaaeaeo /ae e i?e?iaeie, i?ioeann,
a eio /aeiaae naiae nianoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth iiin?aaeoao,
?aaoee?oao e eiio?iee?oao iaiai a-anoa iaaeaeo niaie e i?e?iaeie. O.i.
o?oae – oa aeaaiay iao neea , eio aaea e aicieeiia e oi?ie?iaaieth
nianoaaiii /aeiaa/aneie aeecie – iauanoaa. Iaeiaei aa aeaenoaea auei au
iaaiciiaeiui aac oi?ie?iaaiey ycuea., eio yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei n?aaenoaii
inou o?oaeiaiai i?ioeanna.

I?e? N?aaea – anoanoaaiiia oneiaea aeecie iauanoaa. Enoi?ey Caiee e
enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa – yoi aeaa aeaau iaeiiai ?iiaia”-Aa?oeai. Iauanoai
yae /anoueth aieaa iaoe?iiai oeaeiai- i?e?iaeu. *ae aeeaao ia caiea a
i?aaeaeao oiieie aa iaiei/ee – aaia?ao N?aaeu. Iia anoue ciia iaeoaiey
/ae e noa?a i?eeiae aai nee. Aaia?ao naaea – yoi oa /anoue i?, eio?ay
ninoaae aiaoiaeeiia oneiaea aeecie iauanoaa, aoaeo/e aiaea/aiiie a
i?ioeann iau i?iecaiaenoaa. Aia aa iaoa aeeciue aaiciiaeia.

N naiiai aicieeiia /aeia iauanoai eciaiyei ie?oae i?e?iaeo e naii
iaiyeinue iiae aa aicaeaenoaeai. Aicaeaenoaea iau ia i?e?
iaoneaaeeaaaony ?acaeoeai iao i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoee e oaoieee, iau
iio?aaiinoae. I?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo ?anoe?aiea ?aiie aaia? N?aaeu,
iaeiieaiea iiauo naienoa, ana aieaa ioaeaeythueo aa io aeaanoaaiiiai
ninoiyiey. Anee eeoeoue nia?ai aaia? n?aaeo aa naienoa, nicaeaiiuo
o?oaeii iiiaeo iieieaiee, e iinoaaeoue nia? iauanoai a eno i?e?iaeiua
oneiaey, oi iii ia niiaeao nouanoaiaaoue.

A naith i/a?aaeue e aaia? n?aaea aeeyao ia ?acaeoea iauanoaa. N?aaiei
?acaeoea ia?iaeia naaa?a e thaa, o?iieeia. Aaia? N?aaea ieacuaaao
aeeyiea ia oicyenoaaiioth niaoeeaeecaoeeth no?ai e?aeiiia. Oae, anee a
one ooiae?u ianae caieiaaony ieaiaaiaenoaii, a a noao?iieeao –
?acaaaeaieai oeeo?oniauo. Aeeyiea aaia? N?aaeu ia iauanoai – yaeaiea
enoi?e/aneia: /ai aeoaaea a aeoaue aaeia, /ai neaaaa neeu iauanoaa, oai
aieueoa aai caa0oue io aaia? N?aaeu.

Ia?aie/eaaaony ee N?aaea aeecie iauanoaaeeoue aaia?ao n?aaeie? Iao.
ea/anoaaiii eiie anoanoa n?aaeie aai aeecie yae noa?a anaai aeeaiai –
aeinoa?a. A ?-oa aeeeo yaiethoeee aeino neiaeeeanue eae aeeiaie/aneay,
aioo?aiia aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiay ?aaiiaaniay nenoaia. Iia ?acaeaaaony
aianoa n yaiethoeeae Anaeaiiie e anaai aeeaiai.

Iiieii anaai aeeaiai aeinoa?a aeeth/aao a naay e /aeiaaea. I?e/ai aai
aeeyiea neeueii iaiyao aeinoa?o. N ?acaeoeai /aeiaa/anoaa inouanoaeyaony
ia?aoiae e iiaiio ea/anoaaiiiio ninoiyieth – iiinoa?a, i?aaenoaaeythuoth
niaie noa?o aeeaiai e ?acoiiiai. Iiinoa?a o.i. iiaay iniaay
?aaeueiinoue, naycaiiay n aieaa aeoaieeie e ananoi?iiieie oi?iaie
i?aia?ac aicaeaenoaey iauanoaa ia i?e?iaeo.

Yeieiaey. – iaoea, eco/athuay caeiiiia?iinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey aeeaiai n
aiaoieie oneiaeyie aai iaeoaiey n oeaeueth iiaeaeaaeaiey aeeiai
?aaiiaaney nenoaiu “iauanoai-i?e?iaea”.

?acaeoea /aeiaa/anoaa, aai i?iecaiae nee noieeioee /aeia n i?iae
ia?aie/aiiinoe i?e? ?ano?nia, aiciiaeiiai ia?oo aeeiai ?aaiiaaney
nenoaiu iau-i?e?. “Ia noieo iaieueuaoueny iiaaaeaie iaae i?e?iaeie. Ca
eaaeaeoth oaeoth iiaaaeo iia inoeo. Eaaeaeay ec yoeo iiaaae iaao i?aaaea
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oa iineaaenoaey, ia eio iu ?an/eouaaee, ii ai aoi? e
a o?aoueth i/a?aaeue nianai ae?oaea, iai?aaeaeaeaiua iineaaenoaey, eio
i/aiue /anoi oie/oiaeatho cia/aiea ia?auo.” Iu ana aithai n i?e?iaeie, a
iaaei ie?ii nouanoaiaaoue a iae.

*ae, i?aa?auay ana aieueooth /anoue i?e?iaeu a n?aaeo naiaai iaeoaiey,
?anoe?yao a?aieoeu naiae naiaiaeu ii ioiioaieth e i?e?iaea, /oi aeieaeii
iaino?youe a iai /oanoai ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca i?aiaiacothuaa aicaeaenoaea
ia iaa. Caeanue iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea iauaoee i?ioeei: “/ai iieiaa
naiaiaea, oai auoa ioaaonoaaiiinoue”.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeiaaeueiinoue yeieia i?iaeai o?aaoao io /ae eiiai
niiniaa iuoeaey, iiaie oi?iu naiiniciaiey – Yeieiae/aneiai niciaiey. Yoi
i?aaeaea anaai icia/aao, /oi /aeia aeieaeii iniciaoue naay eae aaeeiia
oeaeia a naiai ioiioaiee e i?e?iaea. Naiia ia?aia e aeaaiia oneiaea
nio?aiaiea ?aaiiaaney e aa?iiiee n i?e?iaeie – yoi ?acoiiia
ninouanoaiaaiea ethaeae ae?oa n ae?oaii. Iaiaoiaeeii niaaeeieoue oneeey
anao ethaeae, anaai /aeiaa/anoaa a ?aoaieyo yoeo i?iaeai. A nia?ai
iauanoaa iio?aaeaey ?aoaiea yeieia i?iaeai iaaiciiaeii…

45.YNOAOE*ANEIA NICIAIEA. ENEONNOAI EAE I?AAeIAO OEEINIONEIAI AIAEECA.

Ynoaoe/aneia niciaiea – yoi oio aeooiaiue ooiaeaiaio, eio iaania/eaaao
aa?iiie/iia aaeeinoai e aioo?aithth acaeiinaycaiiinoue ?acee/iuo
i?iyaeaiee aeoo aeecie /ae e iauanoaa a oeaeii. Neioaoe/aneay ooieoeey
ynoao oi?iu inaiaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?iyaeeanue oaea a oaiiiaia
ia?an/eaiaiiinoe aioe/iie eoeueoo?u a eioi?ie ia oieueei naie i?ieca
eneonnoaa, ii e iao/iua e ?aeeaeiciua e oee o?aeoaou ca/anooth
nicaeaaaeenue eae ooaeiae oaenou.

Iaiaoiaeeii ?acee/aoue aeaa ai iiiaii niaiaaeathueo, ii ia oiaeaeanoa
iiiyoey – ynoaoe/aneia niciaiea aiiaua e eneonnoai eae aunoaa, ii
/anoiia i?iyaeaiea yoiai niciaiey. Ynoao niciaiea eiaao ianoi a eaaeaeii
aeoa /aeia aeoeaiinoe. *ae ioeaieaaao n ynao iiceoeee ethaia naia
i?iyaeaiea, eaaeaeia i?ioeainoiyuaa aio iauaeo yaeaiea, ana, /oi
aiaeaeaaony a noa?o aai iiuoa. Eneonnoai aea – yoi i?ioanneiiaeueiay
noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, a eio ynoao niciaiea ec niioonoaothuaai ye-oa
i?aa?au a iniiaioth oeaeue.

A enoi?ee eoeueoo?u neiaeeeenue 2 eiioeaioeee yno niciaiey: ia?aay –
iioieiae/aneay- o?aeooao yno niciaiea eae io?aaeaiea iniauo i?eioeeiia
naiiai auoey, aoi?ay – aiinaieiae/aneay, neiaeeaoayny oaea a
iainiaeaoaeny ynoaoeea, eioa?i?aoe?oao aai a ea/anoaa ao?eaooa iaeiiai
oieueei /aeia niciaiey.

Iaa yoe eiioeaioeee – aicaaaeaiua a aanietho e?aeiinoe, a eio aniiiaii
i?enoonoaotho e ca?ia enoeiu. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ynoao ea/anoaa
ianoieueei “/aeiaa/iu” a naiae iniiaa, /oi eo iaeuecy ?anni eae
ia?aii?eioeeiu ie?a, nou iacaaeneii io /aeiaaea. Nouanoaiaaiea iauanoaa-
iaiaoiae oneiaea i?aa?au ynoao oeaiiinoe ec aiciiaeiiai a
aeaenoaeoaeueiia. N ae? noi?iiu ynoao ea/anoaa iiaoo i?iyaeoueny ia
oieueei a aeayoaeueiinoe naiiai /aeiaaea, aaaeue ynoao au?aceoaeueia e
i?e?iaea e nai /aeiaae, aea e ana i?iaeoeou /ae o?oaea. Ynoao eaoaaoi?ee
yae iauaeoeaiuie, iineieueeo iie io?aaeatho iauaeoeaioth i?e? naiiai
/aeiaaea, neeaaeuaathuothny a aai iiiaiia? acaeiiioiioaieyo n ie?ii.

Yoa aeaiyeay i?e?iaea ynoao niciaiey, ?aaii caaenyuay e io noauaeoa e
io iauaeoa ynoao nica?oeaiey, ioaeaeaaony a eioa?i?aoaoeee. A /ai
caaeneiinoue ynoao iuouaiey io iauaeoa nica?oeaiey? A oii, /oi yno iuou,
/oanoaaiiia ii naiae i?e?iaea, iaaiciiaeii aac aiaoaa noeioea –
iaecaaea, /ae eeoea, i?ieca eneonnoaa, anaaaea eiathuaa iaoa?eaeueii
caoeene? oi?io. Au?aceoaeueiinoue ai oi?iu o.i. anoue iaiaoiaeeiia
oneiaea ynoao aneaaeaeaiey. A /ai aea oiaaea caa-oue ynoao iuou io
naoauaeoa? A oii, /oi i?e ioeaiea au?aceoaeueiinoe aiaoiae oi?iu iauaeoa
noauaeo aeieaeai i?eeiaeeoue aeoo oneeea aeey oiai, /oiau ane?uoue
eaeaaeueii-niuneiaoth cia/eiinoue nica?oeaaiiai iauaeoa. Aioo?aiiyy
aeeciue i?aaeiaoa aeieaeia eae au i/aeiaa/eoueny. E oieueei a yoii
neo/aa, anee iaeeoei iaa oneiaey – e aaoiyy oi?ia iauaeoa, e aai
i/aeiaa/aiiue aeoo niune – iiaeao ninoiyoueny ynoaoe/aneia niauoea.

Iaaeaeo oai ia oieueei iaaeiao i/aeiaa/eaaaony ii e /aeiaae eae au
ii?aaeia/eaaaony a ynoao aeoa. Ane?uaay a iauaeoa aai aioo? niune /ae
oai naiui eae au iaea?yao i?e?iaeo /anoeoeae naiaai aeooa. *ae
nica?oeaao naay a nicaeaiiii ei ie?a. A iaeaieaa eiie?aoiii e iaaeyaeiii
aeaea yoi ii?aaeia/eaaiea /ae nouiinoe i?iyaeyaony a i?ioeanna o?oaea e
aicieeathuai i?e yoii ynoao ianeaaeaeaiee aai ?-oaie. Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y
o?oaeo aicieeeenue e ?acaeeenue ia caa /ae enoi?ee iocueaeueiia ooi,
/oanoa e?anioo oi?iu aeac- ei?i/a aiai?y oaeea /oanoaa, eio niiniaiu e
/aeia ianeaaeaeaieyi”.

O.i. iaaeaeo ynoao niciaieai e ?acaeoeai o?oae aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae
eiaaony aaiaoe/aneay naycue. Iaeiaei aa iaeuecy aaniethoece?iaaoue. Aeey
?acaeoiai iau nicaiey ynoaoe/aneia oai e ioee/aaony io i?aaiaoe/aneiai,
/oi i?aaeiieaaaaoaanei?unoiia ethaiaaiea, aeanoei a naycaiiia n
eaoaai?eae iieuecu. Ynoao ia?aaeeaaiea oeaiii naii ii naaa. Yoi ia
cia/eo eiia/ii, /oi i?ae?aniia e iieaciia ianiaianoeiu (a?oeoaeoo?iua
nii?oaeaiey)., yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi a ieeaeiai eiia?aoeaa,
canoaaeythuaai ian aeaeaoue e?anioo oieueei a iieaciii. Eia/a au ie
iocuea ie aeeaiienue ia auee au aeey ian i?ae?aniuie, ian ie?oaeeee au
iaeie nicaeaiiua aeecaeia?aie aaoiiiaeee e oaeiaiay oaoieea.

Ynoaoe/aneia, oaeei ia?acii, anoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaiiay /oanoaaiiay
au?aceoaeueiinoue aioo?aiae aeecie i?aaeiaoa, caia/aoeaaathuay a naaa
i?ioeann ii?aaeia/eaaiey /aeia nouiinoe e i/aeiaa/eaaiey i?e? ie?a,
eioi?ay aini?eieiaaony e ia?aaeeaaaony /ae-eii eae naiinoiyoaeueiay
aeecaiiay oeaiiinoue.

Aoaeo/e /oanoaaiii-i?aaeiaoiui auoeai, ynoao aianoa n oai ia yaeyaony
iaeiie oieueei aauanoaaiiie aeaiiinoueth. Ana aauanoa oa?aeoa?enoeee
ynoaoe/aneiai aunooiatho eae iineoaee niunea, a iioiio iii ia oieueei
i?aaeiaoii, ii e eaeaaeueii.

Eneonnoai e oeeinioey. Niioiioaiea eneonnoaa e oee enoi?e/anee
iaiyeinue. Aeey yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey ia auei ie/aai yiaoe?othuaai a oii,
/oi Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e iecuaae aeeaiienue enoeiiie oeeinioeae,
iineieueeo aeeaiienue ii aai neiaai naiienoiyoaeueii iaieiaao ia?aoth
enoeio. Aiaeia ienney i?eciaaaeano e ca iiyceae e ca a?oeoaeoo?ie.
Eneonnoai a yoo yiioo aiauaei a naay aanue ninoaa ooiaeaiaio iuneae i
ie?a, e iioiio iii oei ?oea ia ?oeo n oeeinioeae.

Aeey 19 a ia ia?aue ieai auaeaeioeinue i?iaeaia eaa?oe/aneiai no?iaiey
caeaiey aoiaieo iaoe. Oae ?iiaioeci , noaay eneonnoai auoa iaoee,
i?iaicaeaoaee aai aeaaainoai iaae oee, a Aaaaeue,iaiai?io, i?e anae
i?eciaaaaiie ei cia/eiinoe ynoao aai/ae caeaiea naiiiiciaiey aan eaeae
aai aunoae oi?iie – oeeinioeae.

Aii?in i niioiio eneonnoaa e oee aeaenoaeoaeueii i/aiue neiaeai,
Iaaeaeo yoeie aeaeaie /ae aeayoaeueiinoe i/aiue iiiai iauaai, ii iao
iieiiai aioo?aiiaai oiaeaeanoaa. Niaianoii i?ioeainoay ia nia?ai yoaa
?acaeoeoy eoeueoo?u iaoea aeaaiaea?y ionoonoaeth o ieo eiie?aoiiai
iauaeoa iicaiey, yoe oi?iu aeoo aeayoaeueiinoe ana aea i?ioeaiiinoaaeiu
n oi/ee c?aiey naieo iiciaa n?aaenoa, naiae eiia/iie oeaee e ycuea. Oee
a yoii ioiioaiee aeeaea e iaoea – iia oyaioaao e eiaeei-iiiyeeiiio
aiia?aoo, nenoaiaoe/iinoe… Eneonnoai aea i?eaioe?iaaii ia
ia?acii-neiaiee/aneea oi?iu iiciaiey e au?aaeaiey, eio ia i?aaeiieaaatho
naiae ?annoaei/iie aini?iecaiaeeiinoe.

Eneonnoai e oee, o.i., – yoi acaeiicaaeneiua, ii ?acee/iua oi?iu iau
niciaiey, eioi?ua, ianiio?y ia aeecinoue naieo niaea?aeaoaeueiuo
iaeanoae, naith iai?aaeaiiinoue ia i?aaeaeueii iauea aii?inu aeooa e
auoey, ioee/athony iaoiaeii iiciaiey e au?aaeaiey. Oee, a nouiinoe, i.a.
?anoai?aia a iiiyoeyo e iiaeaia a aacee/iie oi?ia. Eneonnoai aea ia
iiaeaeaaony oaeiio ?anoai?aieth e iaacee/eaaieth.

46. ?AEEAEss E OEEINIOEss.

Acaeiiioiio iaaeaeo ?aeeaeae e oee enoi?e/anee eciai/eau e
?aciiia?aciu. Anee iao eeiey oee i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao naay ?aeea
ie?iaicc?aieth, oi ?acee/iua iai?aae eaeaaeeno oee iaiaeiie?aoii
anooiaee a nithc n oaieiaeae, /oi au?aaeaaony a oi?ie?iaaiee ooii/aiiuo,
?aoeie?iaaiiuo oi?i ?aeeaee. Iaeaieaa oaniui yoio nithc ieacaeny a
o?aaeeoeeyo ainoi/iie eoeueoo?u, a eio ia anaaaea aeaaea i?ecaaony
?acee/ea iaaeaeo oee e ?ae eae ioaeaeueiuie oi?iaie iau niciaiey. Oae,
aoaeaeeci ia?aaeei o?aeooaony eae ?aeeaeiciay oeeinioey.

Iaeiaei e a Aa?ii eoeueoo?a acaeiiioiio iaaeaeo ?ae e oee
iaiaeiicia/iu. A aioe/iinoe ?ae i?aaenoaaeaiey aoiaeeee a ninoaa oee a
ea/anoaa aa iaiaoiae eiiiiiaioa, a n?aaeiea aaea, iai?ioea, neooaoeey
auea oaeiaa, /oi oaea ?aeeaey aeeth/aea a naay oee.

Aeaenoaeo ?an/eaiaiea oee e ?ae ia iainiaeaiiua oi?iu i?iecioei eeoue
ia ?oaaaea n?aaeiaaaeiauey e iiaiai a?aiaie. Oee, eae e ca?iaeeaoayny a
oi aea a?aiy iiaiaa?ii iaoea, a n?aco anooieea a eaeaieia eiieo?aioeeth
n ?ae, iaaeaeo ieie eae au auee ?acaeaeaiu noa?u aeeyiey. i?e nio?aiaiee
iaiaei aa?oiaiiai aaoi?eoaoa ?aeeaee. Auea ioeoeeaeueii i?eiyoa
eiioeaioeey 2 enoei. Iaeia io aiaa, a ae? io /aeiaaea. Oae aiciee aeaeci
– o/aiea i oii, /oi aia, nioai?ea iaoa?eth e onoaiiaea i?aanoaaiiua
aaniethou, a aeaeueiaeoai a aiaoeaaaony a niauoey ie?a, e iiyoiio /ae
iiaeao e aeieaeai iiciaaaoue i?e? e oeeinionee ?aciuoeyoue i eiie?aoiuo
aiieiuaieyo aaniethoa a enoi? ?aaeueiinoue aia caa-oe io aiaa.

Aiineaaenoaee oee iinoaiaiii i?eia?aea iiuiue iioaioeeae e noaea
?aaeueii i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia caiauaiea oeaio?aeueiiai ianoa ?aeeaeee.
Niaeanii iaenecio, ?aeeaey anoue inoaoi/iay oi?ia iau niciaiey, eio
aoaeao nio?aiyoueny aei oao ii?, iiea aneaaenoaee ?acaeoey nioe-yeiiii
no?oeoo? iauanoaa ninoi?iiu ae? oi?i iau niciaiey e i?aaeaea anaai ni
noi? naiie oee ia aoaeao i?aaeeiaeaa nenoaia oeaiinoae, iaiaoiaeeiay
aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauaeoeaiuo iio?aaiinoae aeooa, eaaeaueo a
iniiaaiee onoie/eauo ?aeea i?aaenoaaeaiee.

Cia/eo /anoue eaeaaeeno oa/aiee oee no?aieony e neioaco ?ae e oee.
Iiaeii auaeaeeoue 2 i?e/eiu oaeiai no?aieaiey: aiinaieiae/aneoth e
aeneieiae/aneoth.

Aiinaieia i?e/eiu aycaiu n o?oaeiinoyie enoieeiaaiey ooiaeaiaio
aeinoeaeaiee anoanoa iaoe eiioea 20a. Iaaea?ii iiiaea oeceee 20 a
neeiiyeenue e eaeaaeecio a iaia ?eineee iaiaeiie?aoii i?iiiaaaeuaae, /oi
aeinoeae nia?aiaiie oeceee i?yiiiieacuaatho nou aiaa. Nia?ai oaieiae
iiaeaa?aatho oaeno aeaeee ana iiaui oieeiaaieyi, /oiau naycaoue aa n
iao/iuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie.

Iaeiaei iniiaiie yaeyaony aeneieiae/aneay i?e/eia. E?ecenu iaoaai aaea
n aai 2 ie?iauie aieiaie, iianoiinoue yaea?iie aieiu, e enoiuaiey
?ano?nia, iai?aaeneacoaiua i?iyaeaiey ianniaie ineoieiaee, iioa?yaoae
oaa?aeoth nenoaio aeoo oeaiiinoae – ana yoi ia iiaei ia neacaoueny ia
oee eneaieyo. Ia iiaee?aieaiiue iiauie oeaiiinoyie oeac io ?aeeaee
aei?iai iaioaeny /aeiaa/anoao. *aeiaae ii/oanoaiaae naay iaeeiieei a
ie?icaeaiee, iioa?ye i?aanoa iniiao, iuooee naay ineoieiae/anee
iaaeaeaiiui a ie?iaicc?aee.

Eaeaaeeno oee 20a no?aieony ainiieieoue yoo yiioeeiiaeueii-aeooaaioth
ionoioo, ainnoaiiaeoue naienoaaiioth ?aeeaee onoie/eaia ineoieia
?aaiiaanea. Oaeiau oee aeecie (A.Aa?anii), yecenoaioeeaeeci
(I.Oaeaeaaa?, E.ssnia?n…), o/aiea I.Oaea?a aea Oa?aeaia – o? o/aiiai
oee e oaieiaa, no?aieaoaainy iniuneeoue /ae eae oeaeue yaie ?acaeoey
i?e?iaeu. Iieacaoaeai oio oaeo, /oi eiaii a 20 a. ia/aea ao?ii
?acaeaaoueny aeneieiaey – o/aiea i oeaiiinoyo. (I.Oaea?, I.Aaaa?), o.a.
oee iai?aaeaiea, niaoeeaeueii iinayu iainiiaaieth a ninoaaa oee ciaiey
aeooiaiuo aaniethoia e ii?i.

47. II?AEUe E I?AAI.

I?aainiciaiea anoue oa oi?ia iau niciaiey, a eio au?aaeathony ciaiea e
ioeaiea i?eiyouo a aeaiiii iauanoaa a ea/anoaa th? caeiiia ii?iaoeaia
nioe-yeiiii aeayoaeueiinoe ?ace noauaeoia i?aaa – eiaeeaeaea,
i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee… I?aainiciaiea caieiaao eae au i?iiaae
iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo iieeo e i?aanoaaiiui niciaieai: a ioee/ee io iieeo
nici iii iuneeo i?aaeaea anaai eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-ee/iinoiuie eaoaai?eyie
e ioiineony e ain-ao ia eae e noauaeoo iieeo aeanoe, a eae e ai
?aaeaiaioe?othuae neea, o?aaothuae aaconeiaiiai iiae/eiaiey. A ioee/ee
io i?aanoa ii?i a i?aainiciaiee iiiyoey aeieaeiiai e ni?aaaaeeeaiai
iuneyony eae aicaaaeaiiua ia o?iaaiue ain caeiia, ia?oo eioi?iai
nii?iaiaeaeaaony i?aaiauie naieoeeyie.

I?aainiciaiea aioo?aiia aeecei n ?aoeeiiaeueii-i?aanoa eaoaai?eyie. Yoi
eiaao naie enoi? i?e/eiu. Ia?aiia/aeueii caeiiu ?anniao?eaaeenue eae
i?aanoaaiay o?aaeeoeey. N ia?aciaaieai ain-aa i?aanoaaiiia e i?aaiaia
niciaiea aeeooa?aioee?iaaeenue. Aianoa n oai oaea a aioe/iinoe eaeae
?acoiiiai i?aaa i?i/ii naycuaaeanue n eaeaae ni?aaaaeeeaiai i?aaa,
iiyoiio i?aaiaay e i?aanoa oi?iu iau nici i?iaeieaeaee ?acaeaaoueny
ia?aeaeueii. Iie ieacuaaee acaeiiia aeeyea ae?oa ia ae?oaa.
I?aainiciaiea ia oieueei io?aaeaao aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, ii
iiaeao ianoe a naaa e yeaiaio e?eoeee nou th?eae nenoaiu, iiaeao
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue ae enoi?e/anee iaoneiaeaiiue oai?ao eaeaae nioe
ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Oae a n?aaeiaaaeiaii ie?iaicc? iau ia?aaainoai naieoeeie?iaaeinue
“aiaeanoaaiiui i?aaii”, a aeey ia?iaeaeathuaainy ao?aeoaciiai ie?iaicc?
eaeaae nioe ni?aaaaeeeainoe noae naycuaaoueny n anoanoaaiiui i?aaii,
niaeanii eioi?iio eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeieaeai iaoue ?aaiua n ae?oaeie
i?aaa.

TH?eae i?aai ii?aaeaeyao ia?o nioeeaeueiie naiaiaeu eiaeeaeaea,
aunooiaao a ea/ a?aieoeu yoie naiaiaeu, iieo/athuae aeaaiaea?y
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiio i?eciaieth ioeoeeaeueioth ai caueoo. Aianoa n oai
i?aai ?aaeaiaioe?oao e ii?iaoeaii-iaycaoaeueiua ye-ou nioe
aeayoaeueiinoe, /oi yae ia?aoiie noi?iiie ia?u nioe naiaiaeu.
Anoanoaaiii, /oi naii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?anni yoe ioiioaiey ni noi?iiu
ain-aa, a iau niciaiea a aai i?aaiaie iauaeaiii i?aeoe/aneie oi?ia
niio?eo ia yoo aea neooaoeeth ni noi?iiu ee/iinoe e aeaao ae oo eee
eioth ioeaieo a niioa n i?aanoaaiiui eaeaaeii nioe ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Ethaia caeiiiae i?aai, o.i. enoi?e/ii, iii nia/aea iiyae eae oai?ao
eaeaae, a caoai ooieoeeiie?oao a ea/ caeiia a niioa n aucaaaoeie aai
nioeeaeueii-enoi? i?e/eiaie.

Iaeiaei ia?yaeo n ia?aiaiiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?aainiciaiey a ai
niaea?aeeony e iaeioi?ay iinoiyiiay aaee/eia: anyeia iau niciaiea
iaycaoaeueii niaea?aeeo a naaa eaeath iauanoaa, a anyeay eaeay iau
aeieaeia aace?iaaoueny ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaiauo ioiioaieyo.
I?aainicaiea anaaaea anoue iiaeaea?aeea naiie eaeae ?aaeaiaioe?iaiiuo
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ee/iinoueth e ain-aii, eio i?eciathony iaiaoiaeeiuie
aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iauanoaa i?ioea nee aia?oee, eio ioaeii ciaoue e
niaethaeaoue, ii iaeuecy n/eoaoue aaniethoiuie, o.a. naiaiaeiuie io e?eo
ioeaiee. Aiey ain-aa naia ii naaa a yae eiia/iui iniiaaieai i?aaa.
Aii?in i eii iniiaaieyo i?aaa ioiineony e iaeanoe oeein oai?ao
iinooeaoia i iacia/aiee ain-aa, nouiinoe /aeiaaea, aai anoanoa i?aaao…

I?aanoaaiiia niciaiea e ii?aeue.

I?aanoaaiiia niciaiea – yoi iniiaiay oeaiiinoiay oi?ia iau niciaiey, a
eio iaoiaeyo io?aaeaiey iauai?eiyoua ii?iaoeau e ioeaee /ae
aeayoaeueiinoe. I?aanoa niciaiea io?aaeaao ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ee/iinoyie
e oa iiceoeee, n eio /aeiaae ioeaieaaao naia nianoaaiiia ss.
Oi?ie?iaaiea i?aanoa nici a eiia/iii n/aoa ii?aaeaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?aaoeyoeee iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee e niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae.

Ii?iu i?aanoa niciaiey e neeaaeuaathony e ooieoeeiie?otho a
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie i?aeoeea iiaaaeaiey ethaeae, a iioe eo iauaiey,
aoaeo/e io?aaeaieai e oae?aieaieai eo niaianoiiai aeeciaiiiai e enoi?
iiuoa. Iie caeaieythony i?eciaieai eo oeaiiinoe n oi/ee c?aiey anaiauaai
aeaaa aeey oiai eee eiiai eieeaeoeaa ia eiay i?e yoii th?eae neeu. Ia
ana iaeiaei a aeayo /ae ?aaoee?oaony i?aaiauie eee i?aanoa ii?iaie. Nou
noa?a iau ?aaoeyoeee iiaaaeaiey, eio ia iiaeao auoue ioianaia nianoaaiii
e i?aanoaaiiinoe. E iae ioiinyony iau/ae, ?eooaeu, o?aaeeoeee… Oaeei
ia?acii ii?iu i?aanoaaiiiai niciaiey ia?acotho nenoaio oaeeo nioe ii?i,
eio ?aaoee?otho iaaeee/iinoiia iauaiea e iiaaaeaiea ethaeae a oeaeyo
iaania/aiey aaeeinoaa ee/iuo e eieeaeoeaiuo eioa?ania.

Enoiee ?aanoa niciaiey ainoiaeyo e iau/ayi, cae?aieaoei oa iinooiee,
eio ii iiuoo iieieaiee ieacaeenue iieaciuie aeey nio?ai e ?acaeoey
iauanoaa e /ae. I?aanoa niciaiea iauanoaa i?iyaeyaony a ?acee/iiai ?iaea
nioeeaeueiuo cai?aoao, i?ecaaiiuo i?aaeioa?auaoue iaaeicaieaiiua n oi/ee
c?aiey iau eioa?ania nioe aeayiey. Iaeiaei i?aanoaaiia ia a iaiueoae
noaiaie au?aaeaaony eaoaai?eae aeieaeiiai, o.a. ia oieueei oiai, /oi
i?aanoa ee/iinoue aeieaeia ecaaaaoue, ii e oiai, /oi iaycaia aeaeaoue,
aeaeaeeaay aeieaii.

Iniaay aeaenoaaiiay neea i?aanoa ii?i eae ?ac e ninoieo a ionoonoaee eo
th?eae cae?aieaiiinoe. Oaeea i?aanoa eaoaai?ee eae niaanoue, /oanoai
nianoa aeinoieinoaa e /anoe io?aaeatho eiathuothny o eaaeaeiai /ae
aiciiaeiinoue naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeyoue e iai?aaeyoue naia iiaaaeaiea
aac iinoiyiiiai eiioi?iey nin noi?iiu iauanoaa a aeaea ?acee/iiai ?iaea
naieoeee.

Eae i?iyaeaiea iauanoa nouiinoe /ae, i?aanoaaiiinoue – oa
ooiaeaiaioaeueiay /a?oa, eio ii?aaeaeyao /aeia iaeee eae oaeiaie. Iia
neaaeiaaoaeueii anoue ?iaeiaie i?eciae /aeiaaea, aia eioi?iai
iaaiciiaeii auoea iauanoaa. E a yoii niunea i?aanoa niciaiea –
iaiaoiaeeiue oaeoi? i?ia?anna /ae. iauanoaa, aai aoiiaiecaoeee.

A nia? iaoea i?eiyoi ?acee/aoue 2 o?iaiy i?aanoa niciaiey:
iauaeaiii-i?aeoe/aneee e oai?aoe/aneee. Anee a ia-i?aeo o?iaia
io?aaeathony ?aaeueiua i?aau iauanoaa, oa aeaenoaothuea e oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiua iiiu e ioeaiee, eio iiaee?aieaiu nioe yeiiii no?-?ie
iauanoaa, oi ia oai?ao o?iaia oi?ie?oaony i?iaiice?oaiue iauanoaii
eaeaae, noa?a aano?aeoiiai aeieaeanoaiaaiey, eio ii iiiyoiui enoi?
i?e/eiai ieeiaaea ia niaiaaeaea n ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth.
Eaeaaeueii-oai?ao o?iaaiue i?aanoaaiiiai niciaiey /aua anaai iacuaatho
ii?aeueth. Nenoaiu ii? eiia?aoeaia eae niaieoiiinoe eiie?aoiuo, anaaaea
i?ieaiiinoaaeaiiuo ?aaeueiui i?aaai iai?a?aeaaiuo enoei enoi? eciai/eau.
Ii?aeue e?eoe/anee ioiineony e nouanoaoauaio, iaoiaeeo a iaee/iii ?inoee
i?iaiice?oaiiai eaeaaea e niinianoaoao aai ?aaeecaoeee a aeaeueiaeoae
nioe i?aeoeea.

Ii?aeueiue eaeaae – yoi ia?niaeoeaa iauanoaa, aeey oai?ao iainiiaaiey
eio iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue, ia eaeie aeaenoaeo noaaeee i?aanoaaiiiai
?acaeoey iii iaoiaeeony.

48. EE*IINOUe: IAUAss OA?AEOA?ENOEEA E OEIIEIAEss. NAIAIAeA E
IOAAONOAAIIINOUe.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy nou 2 eiioeaioeee ee/iinoe: ee/iinoue eae
ooieoeeiiaeueiay (?ieaaay) oa?aeoa?enoeea /ae e ee/iinoue eae aai
nouiinoiay oa?aeoa?enoeea.

Ia?aay eioeaioeey iie?aaony ia iiiyoea nioe ?iee /aeiaaea. Yoa
eiioeaioeey iaeiaei ia iicaieyao ?ane?uoue aioo?aiiee ie? /ae, oeene?oy
oieueei aai aiaoiaa iiaaaeaiea, eio ia anaaaea io?aaeaao nouiinoue /ae.

Nouiinoiay eiioeaioeey yae aieaa aeoaieie. Ee/iinoue –
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia au?aaeaiea iau ioiioaiee e ooieoeee ethaeae, noauaeo
iicaiey e i?aia?aciaaiey ie?a, i?aa e iaycaiinoae, yoe/aneeo,
ynoaoe/aneeo e anao eiuo nioe ii?i. Ee/iinoiua ea/ /ae a oaeii neo/aa
anoue i?iecaiaeiia io aai nioe ia?aca aeecie e naiiniciathuaai ?acoia.
Ee/iinoue iiyoiio anoue anaaaea iauanoaaiii ?acaeoue /aeiaae.

Ee/iinoue oi?ie? a i?ioeanna aeayoaeueiinoe, iauaiey. Eia/a aiai?y,
oi?ie? aa a nouiinoe anoue i?ioeann nioeeaeecaoeee eiaeeaeaea. Yoio
i?ioe o?aaoao io /ae i?iaeoeoeaiie aeoeaiinoe, au?aae. a iinoiyiiie
ei?aeoe?iaea naieo aeaenoaee, iiaaaeaiee, iinooieia. Yoi aucuaaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?acaeoey niiniaiinoe naiiioeaiee, /oi naycaii n
?acaeoeai naiiniciaiey. Naiiniciaiea e naiiioeaiea a niaieoiiinoe
ia?acotho oio iniiaiie noa?aeaiue ee/iinoe, aie?oa eio neeaaeuaaaony
iaiiaoi?eiay niaoeeoeea ee/iinoe.

Ee/ii/oue anoue niaie o?ao aa iniiaiuo ninoaaeythueo: aeiaaiaoe/aneeo
caaeaoeia, aicaeaenoaey nioe oaeoi?ia e aa ineoinioeeaeueiiai yae?a –
“ss”. Yoi ss ii?aaeaeyao oaaeoa? ineoeee /ae, noa?o iioeaaoeee, niinia
niioianaiey naieo eioa?ania n iauanoaaiuie, o?iaaiue i?eoycaiee, iniiao
oi?ie?iaaiey oaaaeaeaiee, oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee, ie?iaicc?aiey. Iii
aea yae iniiaie oi?ie? nioe /oanoa /aeiaaea: nianoa aeinoieinoaa,
aeieaa, ioaaonoaaiiinoe, niaanoe, ni?aaaaeeeainoe… Noauaeoeaii, aeey
eiaeeaeaea, ee/iinoue aunooiaao eae ia?ac aai ss – ii oi e neoaeeo
iniiaie aioo? naiiioeaiee e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi, eaeei eiaeeaeae
aeaeeo naay a ianoiyuai, aoaeouai, eaeei ii oioae au auoue. *aeiaae eae
ee/iinoue anoue i?ioeann, o?aaothuee iaonoaiiie aeooaaiie ?aaiou.

Aeaaiui ?acoeueoe?othuei naienoaii ee/iinoe yae ie?iaicc?aiea. *aeiaae
aii?ioaao naay: eoi y? ca/ai y? a /ai niune iiae aeecie? Oieueei
au?aaioaa oi eee eiia ie?iaicc?, ee/iinoue, naiiii?aaeaeyynue a aeecie,
iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue iniciaii, oeaeaiai?aaeaiii aeaenoaiaaoue,
?aaeecoy naith nouiinoue.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n oi?ie? ee/iinoe neeaaeuaaaony e oa?aeoa? ee/iinoe –
ineoieia noa?aeaiue /aeiaaea. “Oieueei a oa?aeoa?a eiaeeaeaeoi
i?eia?aoaao naith iinoiyiioth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue” – Aaaaeue.

Neiai oa?aeoa? eae i?aaeei icia/aao ia?o ee/iinoiie neeu, o.a. neeo
aiee. Ethaee n neeueiie aieae iaeaaeatho neeueiui oaaeoa?ii. I?eciaaony,
/oi aaeeeei oa?aeoa?ii iaeaaeaao oio, eoi naieie iinooieaie aeiaeaaaony
aaeeeeo oeaeae, niioaaonoaoy o?aaiaaieyi iauaeoeaiuo, ?acoiii
iainiiaaiiuo e nioeeaeueiicia/eiuo eaeaaeia. Anee aea oa?aeoa? /ae
?aciaieaaaony ia ionoua e iaeeea oeaee, oi ii ia?aoiaeeo a oi?yinoai.

Aac aiee iaaiciiaeiu ie i?aanoaaiiinoue, ie a?aaeaeainoaaiiinoue,
iaaiciiaeii aiiaua iauanoaaiiia naiiooaa?aeaeaiea /aeiaa/aneiai
eiaeeaeaea eae ee/iinoe.

Iniaui eiiiiiaioii ee/iinoe yae aa i?aanoaaiiinoue Nioe ianoiyoaeuenoaa
ia?aaeei i?eaiaeyo e oiio, /oi /ae, iinoaaaiue ia?aae auai?ii, a anaaaea
neaaeoao naiiio naaa, yoe/aneiio eiia?aoeao naiae ee/iinoe. E oieueei
aunieii?aanoa ee/iinoe eniuouaatho aeoaieia /oanoai o?aaecia io niciaiey
naiae “ia-ee/iinoe”, o.a ianiiniaiinoe niaa?oaoue oi, /oi aeeeooao
nie?iaaiiue niune “ss”.

O.i., ee/iinoue – ia?a oeaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, aac aioo?aiiae oeaeueiinoe
iao ee/iinoe.

A ee/iinoe aaaeii aeaeaoue ia oieueei aaeeiia e iauaa, ii e
oieeaeueiia, naiaia?aciia. Oieeaeueiinoue eaaeaeiai /aeia i?iyaeyaony
oaea ia aeieia o?iaia. Eaaeaeue /ae aeieiae/anee iaiiaoi?ei. Iaeiaei
iiaeeeiiue niune oieeaeueiinoe nayca ia nieueei n aiaoiei aeaeii /aeia,
neieueei n aai aioo?aiiei aeoo ie?ii. *oi aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ee/iinoiay oieeaeueiinoue? A eaaeaeie ee/iinoe anoue ia/oi oieeaeueiia,
/oi naycaii ai-ia?auo n ianeaaenoaaiiuie iniaaiiinoyie, a ai-aoi?uo n
oneiaeyie N?aaeu a eio iia au?aueaaaony. Iane iniaaiiinoe, oneiaey
N?aaeu e aeayoaeueiinoue ee/iinoe nicaeatho iaiiaoi?eiue ee/iinoiue iiuo
– ana yoi aianoa e oi?ie?oao nioe ineoieiae/aneoth oieeaeueiinoue
ee/iinoe. Ii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue a anoue i?inoi noiia yoeo aniaeoia,
iia anoue eo i?aaie/aneia aaeeinoai, ia?aceiaeeiia ia ninoaaeythuea.
“Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue – yoi iaaeaeeiinoue, aaeeinoai, oeaeinoiinoue,
aaneiia/iinoue; n aieiau aei iia, io ia?aiai aei iineaaeiaai aoiia,
ianeaicue, iianthaeo y eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia nouanoai”. O eaaeaeiai
eiie?aoiiai /ae anaaaea anoue /oi-ieaoaeue naia, oioy au iaiiaoi?eiay
ooiinoue, ia iicaieythuay aio ioeaieoue neooaoeeth e naay a iae.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue ia anoue aanietho. Iia ecia6iyaony e iaeiia?aiaiii
inoaaony iaeciaiiie ia i?ioyaeaieie aeecie /aeiaaea.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue e naiaiaea.

“Noaeueaa iai?aaeya oiai, eoi aa i?eieiaao, e oaueo oiai, eoi ae
nii?ioeaeyaony.” Aii?in i ioiioaieyo naia e iaioiaeeiinoe ecaa/ai.

Ethaee iaeaaeatho cia/ naiaiaee a ii?aaeaeaee oeaeae naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, n?aaenoa aeey aeinoeae yoie oeaee. Naiaiaea
neaaeiaaoaeueii ia aaniethoia e i?aoai?yaony a aeeciue eae inou
aiciiaeiinoe iooai auai?a ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee e ieaia aeaenoaee.

Ni aii?in 36 i naiaiaea e iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

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