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Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth

IANO

Eaoaae?a iniia yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

Ae I E E A Ae

ii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

nooaeaioee YION-II-4

Eoeaoiaie Ieueae

ii oaia : * EN*ACIAO EE *AEIAAE EAE AEAe *

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

eaoaae?u iniia yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee :

Oaaei?ia A(A(

Iineaa ( 1996 a(

Ieai aeieeaaea:

— IAE?I: 1 Ni? caiaoaai iiae e?iaaoue – no? 2

2 Iiaeao( iu oaea auie?aai ? – no? 4

3 *Aieeaa? ia auianao aeaieo*- no? 6

4 * Inaiaiea * — aia caeiia ! – no? 7

5 Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea e AII – no? 9

— IEE?I: 6 * Aaciieaiay aania *- no? 10

— CAEETH*AIEA – no? 13

— Niinee e nienie eeoa?aoo?u – no? 14

EN*ACIAO EE *AEIAAE EAE AEAe (

Aia?aua iu iiiyee( /oi /aeiaa/anoai niiniaii ?ac?ooeoue naii naay(
aiaeece?oy iineaaenoaey aiciiaeiiai yaea?iiai eiioeeeoa( En/acea oa?ica(
e ana acaeioioee n iaeaa/aieai( Iaaeaeo oai( yia?aey ac?uaa anao
oa?iiyaea?iuo ca?yaeia iaiueoa yia?aee( au?aaaouaaaiie yia?aaoe/aneeie
onoaiiaeaie ie?a anaai eeoue ca aiae( Aaeaaiaeii ia?aiauathony e
i?aia?acothony aeaaioneea iannu aauanoaa( ia?ooathony ia?iiiua o/anoee
aeaanoaaiiie iiaa?oiinoe nooe( en/acatho aeaeu ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo(
ia?anoaao ?aaeeiaeoeaiue oii( Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea iaiyaony
no?aieoaeueii( a noa?ua noa?aioeiu ana aua aeaaeatho iaoeie oiaie( oioy
aeaaii oaea ia?aoee a ?ac?yae iaaa?iie eioi?iaoeee( Iu aa?ei( /oi
niiniaiu nicaeaoue oaeoth nioeeaeueioth nenoaio( i?e eioi?ie
/aeiaa/anoai iiaeao ia ia?aie/eaaoue naith /eneaiiinoue e i?e yoii
oeo/oaoue naie aeeciaiiue o?iaaiue( nio?aiyy ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo(

(((*oi iinaao /aeiaae( oi e iiaeiao(

Iineaiea e aaeaoai na(Aiinoiea Iaaea(VI(7

Ni? caiaoaai iiae e?iaaoue

Aei neo ii? ana oneeey ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu i?aaei?eieiathony a
?aieao iauai?eiyoie ia?aaeeaiu i * iai?aaeeueiii * aaaeaiee oicyenoaa e
aiciiaeiinoe *oaoiieiae/aneiai * ?aoaiey aicieeathueo i?iaeai(

Aeaaiay ioeaea iiiaeo enneaaeiaaoaeae aeaiiie i?iaeaiu a oii( /oi iie
enoiaeyo ec i?aaeiieiaeaiey( aoaeoi aeaoi?iaoeey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
anoue iaeee * aeaaeeee * i?ioeann(oioy i?e?iaea iau/ii aeaiiino?e?oao
iaee/ea ii?iaia( ca i?aaeaeaie eioi?uo – iaaaeueiua i?ioeannu
?ac?ooaiey( Ia eaeii aea yoaia iaoiaeeiny iu naaiaeiy : yoi ia/aei iooe(
i?aaee?eceniia ninoiyiea eee oaea eaoano?ioa ?

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ia yeieiaecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa auee cao?a/aiu
ia?iiiua n?aaenoaa( ii aeaeaaiiai ?acoeueoaoa aeiaeoueny ia oaeaeinue :
aeiaaeueiua eciaiaiey i?iaeieaeathony( e oaiiu eo ia?anoatho; neooaoeey
a 1996 aiaeo ooaea( /ai auea a 1986-i( Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao eee i oii(
/oi cao?a/aiiuo oneeee e n?aaenoa iaaeinoaoi/ii( eee i iaaa?iinoe
aua?aiiiai iiaeoiaea( eee i oii e ae?oaii aianoa(

Aeey oeo/oaiey ninoiyiey n?aaeu o?aaothony iienoeia aeaaioneea noiiu(
Iai?eia?( /oiau a NOA( eioi?ua ai?acaei aieueoa ae?oaeo iinoaaeytho a
aoiinoa?o oaeaeeneiai aaca( nie?aoeoue aai aua?inu ia 50%( caiauay
oaieueiua yeaeo?inoaioeee ia aoiiiua( iio?aaoaony( ii e?aeiae ia?a( 50
o?ie aeieea?ia( I?e yoii a oa/aiea 38 eao eaaeaeua 2(5 aeiy iaaei aoaeao
onoaiaaeeaaoue iaeei ?aaeoi?( Iiaen/eoaii( /oi a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia aeey
eiio?iey e i/enoee eiaeono?eaeueiuo iooiaeia a 1992 aiaeo o?aaiaaeinue
120 ie?ae aeieea?ia( a a NOA a 1994 a( — 200 ie?ae( Cao?aou yaii ia
?aaeueiua( Ii aeaaea ia a yoii aeaei( Eneonnoaaiiia iiaeaea?aeaiea
noaoeeiia?iiai ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia eaeii-oi eieaeueiii
o/anoea – yoi aeiiieieoaeueiia iio?aaeaiea yia?aee( a cia/eo oooaeoaiea
a inoaeueiie /anoe aeinoa?u( Ana ia?u( i?eieiaaiua naaiaeiy a iaeanoe
yeieiaee(– ia aieaa /ai caiaoaiea ni?a iiae e?iaaoue(

Ieeaeiai ae?oaiai enoi/ieea( e?iia aeinoa?u e aa ?ano?nia( aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey aeecie ia nouanoaoao( Nae/an iaoa oicyenoai aioo?e
aeinoa?u i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniaoth nenoaio neioaca e ?aceiaeaiey
aauanoaa( i?e/ai /aeiaae acye ia naay ooieoeee oieueei neioaca (
i?iecaiaenoai )( a ooieoeee ?aceiaeaiey i?aaeinoaaee i?e?iaea( oiiaay ia
aa anneieee?othuoth aieinoue( Ii cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?iecaiaeeiuo
aauanoa /oaeaea i?e?iaea e ia iiaeaeaaony ?aceiaeaieth( e oiio aea
anneieee?othuay aieinoue aeinoa?u( ianiiiaiii en/a?iaia(

Aua iaeei noa?aioei( iaoathuee iai ?aaeueii ioeaieoue naia iieiaeaiea :
iooiaeu iaoae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe – yoi oi( /oi iu( a?oai aiai?y(
aua?anuaaai ia naaeeo( A ?annayiea oaieiaie yia?aee ethaui i?iiuoeaiiui(
o?ainii?oiui eee eiiioiaeueiui iauaeoii ? A aiaea( eioi?ay
eniieuecoaony i?aeoe/anee a ethaie oaoiieiaee ? A( naiia aeaaiia(
ethaie i?iecaaaeaiiue eiia/iue i?iaeoeo ? aaaeue yoi ia aieaa /ai
ioeiaeaiiue iooiae( Ana ioi?aaeony ia naaeeo( /a?ac aeaiue eee /a?ac
ianeieueei aaeia(

*aeiaae eae aeieiae/aneee aeae – eiinoiaio ( Ii iio?aaeyao i?iaeoeoeeth
aeiou (niaieoiiinoue anao ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo)( a aai oaoiieiaee – yoi
eino?oiaio( n iiiiuueth eioi?iai /aeiaaeo oaeaaony iio?aaeyoue
cia/eoaeueii aieueoa i?iaeoeoeee aeiou( /ai aio ?ac?aoaii anoanoaaiiuie
caeiiaie( E oai naiui ia?ooaao aaeain a i?e?iaea(

Iiaeao iu oaea auie?aai ?

Onoaiiaeaii( /oi iniiaiie i?eioeei( oa?aeoa?ecothuee onoie/eainoue
aeinoa?u( ninoieo a neaaeothuai : nei?inoue /enoiai iiaeiuaiey oaea?iaea
aeioie i?iii?oeeiiaeueia i?e?inoo oaea?iaea a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea( N
ia/aea i?ioeiai noieaoey aeioa nooe ia?anoaea iiaeiuaoue ecauoie
oaea?iaea a aoiinoa?a( Aieaa oiai( iia naia ia/aea aai aua?anuaaoue(
oaaee/eaay( a ia oiaiueoay eciaiaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ?acoeueoaoa
i?iiuoeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe( o(a( aeioa e ie?oaeathuay n?aaea iioa?yee
onoie/eainoue(

Aeinoa?a( ii-aeaeeiiio( iiaeao eiiiaine?iaaoue ethaua aiciouaiey(
i?iecaiaeeiua /aeiaaeii( anee iio?aaeaiea ia?ae/iie aeieiae/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee (oioineioac) ia i?aainoiaeeo 1 % (nia?aiaiiay aeiey
iio?aaeaiey /aeiaaeii – 10 %)( I?e yoii ia eiaao cia/aiey(
yenieoaoe?oaony ee 1 % nooe( ia eioi?ie iieiinoueth eneaaeaia aeioa( eee
10 % nooe( aaea eneaaeaiea aeiou ?aaiyaony 10 %(

Iaoaieci( eniieuecoaiue aeioie aeey noaaeeecaoeee naay naiie e
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu(– eiieo?aioeey( ( Oae /oi ?uii/iay yeiiiieea –
ioithaeue ia auaeoiea o/aiuo( a i?eioeei( caeiaeaiiue a naiie i?e?iaea(
) Iiea yoio iaoaieci eniieueciaaeny a ?aieao anoanoaaiiuo iioieia
yia?aee( ana auei a ii?yaeea( Ii eiaaea /aeiaae nicaeae iiaue(
aeiiieieoaeueiue iioie( ana aieueoay /anoue i?iaeoeoeee aeiou noaea
iio?aaeyoueny a eioa?anao oieueei iaeiiai aeaea – homo sapiens – a oua?a
inoaeueiui(

Any enoi?ey aeinoa?u iieacuaaao( /oi iia ?acaeaaeanue a iai?aaeaiee ana
aieueoae onoie/eainoe( Ii-aeaeeiiio( aeioa eiaao iaoaieciu auoaniaiey
oao aeaeia( eioi?ua ia?ooatho yoo onoie/eainoue( A?yae ee /aeiaae
yaeyaony eneeth/aieai(((

Ia ia/aeinue ee oaea auoaniaiea ?

I ?aniaaea aaiiia /aeiaaea naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aeaiiua i ?inoa
aaiaoe/aneeo caaieaaaiee( i?aaeaea anaai( ineoe/aneeo e a?iaeaeaiiuo
ia?ooaiee( Aiciiaeii( eiaiii n yoei naycaii ?ani?ino?aiaiea aeeiaieecia
e ia?eiiaiee( nieaeaiea eiioiiiai noaoona i?aaiecia /aeiaaea(
aicieeiiaaiea iiauo aieaciae( Aa?iyoii( oi( /oi iau/ii iacuaatho
*yeieiae/aneeie* caaieaaaieyie e iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycuaatho n
caa?yciaieyie n?aaeu( anaai eeoue aa?oooea aenaa?aa( Aeoaeiiua
iaoaieciu( aaaeouea e ?aniaaeo aaiiia /aeiaaea( iaiiiai aieaa iianiua(
ii iiea iaaeaeeiua e iaiuooeiua(

A eiioea OO aaea /aeiaa/anoai noieeioeinue n iaaeinoaoeii ia
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo eee oaoiieiae/aneeo ?ano?nia( eae yoi i?eiyoi
n/eoaoue( a yeieiae/aneiai ?ano?na( iaania/eaathuaai noaaeeueiinoue
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu( ?ano?na oicyenoaaiiie aieinoe aeinoa?u( ?acaeoua
no?aiu( ca eneeth/aieai Eaiaaeu( aeaaii ?ac?ooeee naie anoanoaaiiua
yeinenoaiu( eioi?ua( ia?yaeo n i?iiuoeaiiinoueth e o?ainii?oii( neoaeao
enoi/ieeaie caa?yciaiey( aicieeathuaai a ?acoeueoaoa eo ?ac?ooaiey(
Iineaaeiaa iau/ii ia ?anniao?eaaaony e ia o/eouaaaony i?e ianoaeaeaiee
aicieeathueo i?iaeai(

Aieaa oiai( ia o/eouaaaony yoio oaeoi? e i?e caeeth/aiee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo niaeaoaiee(

eanathueony ieaou ca oa eee eiua ia?ooaiey i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu( A aaaeue
ainoaea?noaa( iieiinoueth ia?ooeaoea n?aaeo naiaai iaeoaiey(
aeeau-caei?iau e ia en/acee n eeoea Caiee( Ii/aio ? Oieueei iioiio( /oi
i?iecaiaeeiua eie aiciouaiey /anoe/ii ( oaea ia iieiinoueth )
anneieee?othony ieaaiii e oaie o/anoeaie nooe( aaea nio?aieeenue
anoanoaaiiua niiauanoaa i?aaieciia( Yoe oa??eoi?ee neoaeao noieii
ia?ieeiauo aacia e ae?oaeo caa?ycieoaeae( A iie nio?aieeenue oieueei a
?innee( Eaiaaea( Aano?aeee( A?aceeee( Eeoaa e Aeaee?a( Aio e iieo/aaony(
/oi ana inoaeueiua aeeaoo ca n/ao yoeo no?ai( ca n/ao eo yeieiae/aneiai
?ano?na(

I?e/ai iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiu a yoii niunea oa??eoi?ee A?aceeee( n ia?iiiui
eoneii o?iie/aneiai eana a Aiaciiee( e ?innee( n aa naiui aieueoei a
ie?a ianneaii eania e aaoeaiaeia ( aieio e ia?aoaeaaeiaiiuo caiaeue )(

* Aieeaa? ia auianao aeaieo *

Oi( /oi oeaio?aeeciaaiiia oi?aaeaiea ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii ia
iaania/eaaao yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe( ?inneyiai iauyniyoue ia iaaei(
A aio oi( /oi ?uii/iay yeiiiieea ii ioiioaieth e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea
aaaeao naay ia eo/oa( iiiaea aua ia iniciaee( Iaaeaeo oai( i?eia? NOA(
aaea anoanoaaiiay i?e?iaea ?ac?ooaeanue ai?acaei auno?aa( /ai a Aa?iia(
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia yoii( A ia/aea OO aaea ie?oaeathuay n?aaea
Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia auea oaea ?ac?ooaia( Anee eneeth/eoue Aeyneo( oi
iao?iiooie nio?aieeinue oieueei ii?yaeea 4 % oa??eoi?ee(

Eiaiii ?uii/iay yeiiiieea iaania/eaaao iaeneiaeueioth nei?inoue e
yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia( a cia/eo( e nei?aeoaa
?ac?ooaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu( E ?acaeoua no?aiu aeieaeiu acyoue ia
naay iniiaioth aeieth aeiu ca neiaeeaoothny neooaoeeth( AYN( NOA(
Eaiaaea e ssiiiey i?iecaiaeyo aieaa 2/3 ie?iaiai aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa(
iaania/eaatho 2/3 ie?iaie oi?aiaee( yaeythony e?oiiaeoeie iio?aaeoaeyie
?ano?nia( iniaaiii yia?aaoe/aneeo( e i?iecaiaeyo 3/4 iannu aeiaaeueiuo
caa?ycieoaeae(

15 % ianaeaiey Caiee( aeeaouea a yoeo no?aiao ( * cieioie ieeeea?ae * )(
iio?aaeytho 1/3 oaeia?aiee( 1/2 i?iecaiaeeiie a ie?a yia?aee( 2/3 anao
iaoaeeia( iieiaeio i?iaeiaieuenoaey e aieaa 2/3 aeaeiaie ae?aaaneiu(

E oai ia iaiaa( ?uii/iay yeiiiieea i?iaeieaeaao i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino( oioy oaeay no?aoaaey aaaeao a yeieiae/aneee ooiee(

Iaaeaeo oai( 23 % ianaeaiey ieaiaou ioiinyony e eaoaai?ee aaniethoii
aaaeiuo( n?aaee ieo 400 iei ia eiatho aeiia( Aaniethoiia /enei
iaacaeieaiiuo ethaeae a ie?a iinoiyiii ?anoao( *oiau oioue eae-oi
iii?aaeoue eo iieiaeaiea( iaaei ia ii?yaeie oaaee/eoue aeiau/o nu?uey(
i?iecaiaenoai iooiaeia( aeinoaaeo naaaeae aiaeu( I ?aaeueiinoe ?aoaiey
yoie caaea/e auneacaeny Iaoaoia Aaiaee( eiaaea aai ni?ineee( aeinoeaiao
ee Eiaeey( aeiaeaoayny iacaaeneiinoe( o?iaiy aeecie Aaeeeia?eoaiee( Ii
ioaaoee : * A?eoaiee iio?aaiaaeenue ?ano?nu iieiaeiu ieaiaou( /oiau
aeinoe/ue naiaai i?ioeaaoaiey( Neieueei iio?aaoaony ieaiao aeey no?aiu(
iiaeiaiie Eiaeee ? *(

Aaeeeee iuneeoaeue aue i?aa : anoue ana iniiaaiey iieaaaoue( /oi iaeiie
Caiea n iiaeiaiie caaea/ae ia ni?aaeoueny( A ?aciuoeaiey i oii( /oi
Eiaeey – ia aaeeinoaaiiay no?aia ia ieaiaoa( y inoaaeyth aai(

* Inaiaiea * — aia caeiia !

Oeaiiinoue iao?iiooie i?e?iaeu a oneiaeyo yeieiae/aneiai e?ecena
no?aieoaeueii aic?anoaao( A iaaeaeaeii aoaeouai iia ia iiiai ii?yaeeia
i?aauneo ana ae?oaea oeaiiinoe( Aio oiaaea ?inney( anee iia inoaaeo
ia?ac?ooaiiie /anoue naieo oa??eoi?ee( aoaeao aiaa/a anao ae?oaeo no?ai
ie?a(

A iaoa neiaeiia a?aiy iai ie a eiai neo/aa iaeuecy iiaeaeaoueny
eneooaieth iieo/eoue nethieiooioth auaiaeo( iaiaoiaeeii nio?aieoue naie
anoanoaaiiue ooiaeaiaioaeueiue iioaioeeae( A?yae ee inaiaiea iiauo
oa??eoi?ee iiauneo aeaaininoiyiea ia?iaea( nei?aa( iii oieueei naeaeaao
aua aiaa/a nianai iaaieueooth a?oiio ethaeae( Neaaeoao oaeaea iiiieoue(
/oi ia auaaao iaeioeaiiuo o/anoeia iainaiaiiie i?e?iaeu( Ana iie ea?atho
ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue a noaaeeecaoeee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu( aa i/enoea e
ainnoaiiaeaiee(

Neiai * inaiaiea * aeieaeii auoue eneeth/aii ec eaeneeiia e aeiionoeiuo
ii?aeueiuo ii?i oae aea( eae neiaa * aieia *( * a?aaaae *( * oaeenoai *(
Iaaei i?eiyoue caeiiu( a eioi?uo i?ecuau e aeaenoaey( aaaeouea e
aeaeueiaeoaio inaiaieth Naaa?a( Neae?e( Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea(
?anoeaieaaeenue au eae iaeie ec naiuo na?ueaciuo i?anooieaiee i?ioea
ia?iaeia ?innee(

Iaiaoiaeeii i?aiaeieaoue neiae?ii ?aca?aaeaiey i?e?iaeu( eioi?ue aue
i?enou i?aeoe/anee anai ?acaeoui no?aiai e iiaoi?yaony n ono?aoathuei
iinoiyinoaii a no?aiao( no?aieoaeueii aoiaeyueo a /enei * ia?aaeiauo *(
E a neiaa * ia?aaeiauo * iu noaaei eaau/ee( iioiio( /oi aia?aae yoe
no?aiu auoiaeyo ia ?acaaeeiao nianoaaiiie i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu(

Iineieueeo ii?ia onoie/eainoe /aeiaa/anoai oaea ia?aoaaioei( a eaeii oi
niunea iai iaaei aa?iooueny iacaae( Ii yoi aiana ia icia/aao( /oi yoi
i?ecua e ?aa?anno( I?ia?ann yaeyaony aeieiae/aneie iniaaiiinoueth
/aeiaaea( naycaiiie n oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aai iicaa e ineoeee( Iiyoiio
i?ia?ann n yeiiiie/aneei ?inoii eee aac iaai aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoue
/aeiaaea anaaaea( Naaiaeiy ana aieueoa o/aiuo i?eoiaeyo e eaeaa ?acaeoey
aac yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa(

Ia?ooaiiay aeioa ainnoaiaaeeaaaony ia n?aco iinea i?ae?auaiey
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe( Anoanoaaiiua niiauanoaa oi?ie?othony nioie
eao( iaeiaei niiniaiinoue e ?aaoeyoeee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu(
ii-aeaeeiiio( ainnoaiaaeeaaaony ai?acaei auno?aa – a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo
aeanyoeeaoee( Oae /oi( aeaaea i?e nio?aiaiee yia?aiiio?aaeaiey(
iiaeaea?aeeaathuaai aeeciue nia?aiaiiiai ianaeaiey( iiaeii inoaiiaeoue
aeiaaeueiia ?ac?ooaiea( anee nie?aoeoue inaiaiiua ieiuaaee nooe nia/aea
i?eia?ii aei 40 %( a caoai aei 20 % ( aac o/aoa Aioa?eoeaeu )(

I?ia?aiia yoa aiieia auiieieia( anee aaanoe e?oiiue iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
iaeia( n?aaieiue n aaee/eiie AII ( a nai AII iu cao?iiai /ooue iicaea
)( aeey ainoaea?noa( ia aeaeathueo eee ianiiniaiuo nie?aoeoue inaiaiiua
ieiuaaee( A ainoaea?noaai( eiathuei eee aioiaui iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeiue
i?ioeaio aeaanoaaiiie i?e?iaeu( neaaeoao auiea/eaaoue e?oiiua aeioaoeee(

Eiia/ii( i?e yoii iaecaaaeiui noaiao nie?auaiea ianaeaiey Caiee(
/eneaiiinoue eioi?iai ia aeieaeii i?aauoaoue 1-2 ie?ae /aeiaae( Yoio
i?ioeann ia iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai auoue aieaciaiiui( aaaeue aai aiieia
iiaeii ?anoyiooue ia ianeieueei noieaoee( *aeiaae iaycai iaania/eoue
onoie/eainoue ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu( niaiea noa?aioeiu( oeaee yeiiiieee(
oa?aeoa? iiaaaeaiey(yoeeo( Anee ii ia noiaao yoiai naeaeaoue( oi aeioa(
eniieuecoy naie iiuiua caueoiua iaoaieciu( naeaeaao yoi naia( nei?aa
anaai( ?ac?ooea /anoue naiie naay aianoa n /aeiaa/anoaii( A anee /aeiaae
en/aciao eae aeae( oi ii oaea aieueoa ieeiaaea ia iiyaeony aiiaue:
iaeaiioieiaey iieacuaaao( /oi en/acioaoee aeae ia aic?iaeaeaaony(((

Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea e AII

Iai ecaanoii( /oi aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo ( AII )( iniiaiie
iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa( i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?uii/ioth
noieiinoue anao eiia/iuo oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?iecaaaeaiiuo ca 1 aiae. Ii
iiiyoiui i?e/eiai( i?iiaaeooi/iua oiaa?u( iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua naeaeee e
i?iaeaaee iiaea?aeaiiuo oiaa?ia i?e iiaen/aoa AII eneeth/athony( Iaei
eoi nae/an ana?ueac caaeoiuaaaony i nouanoaiaaiee oaeaea iaaeaeaoaeueiuo
* aaeiauo iaoeeiiaeueiuo iiai/iuo i?iaeoeoia *( eioi?ua nii?iaiaeaeatho
eae naii i?iecaiaenoai( oae e ?ino AII( Yoi ana – caa?yciaiey e aiaeu( e
aicaeooa( aaoiiiaeeueiua naaeee( ooi( ia?aianaeaiea( e yoi aeaeaei ia
aanue nienie anaaiciiaeiuo aeaeia caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu(
Ecaea?aeee( naycaiiua n caa?yciaieai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu( ieacuaatho
iaaeaaii?eyoiia aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiie/aneia aeaaininoiyiea( e yoi
i/aaeaeii( I?ienoiaeeo oae( /oi AII caauoaao o?iaaiue iaoaai
iaoa?eaeueiiai aeaaininoiyiey( oae eae a?iniaua ecaea?aeee( naycaiiua n
aai i?iecaiaenoaii( a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ec iauaia niaieoiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia au/eoathony( Ii e?iiee noaeueau( /ai aieueoa iauai AII(
oai aieueoa caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e ianooaau eneaaeaiey AII(
Eae au?aceeny yeiiiieno Eaiiao A( Aaoeaeeia a naiae eieaa *
Yeieiae/aneee e?ecen *( * eiia/iui i?iaeoeoii yeiiiie/aneie aeecie
yaeyaony ioni? *( Aieueoa AII – aieueoa ioni?a( a neaaeiaaoaeueii(
aieueoa caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu( Oaeoe/anee aea( a niioaaonoaee
n nouanoaothueie i?eioeeiaie aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa( eiaaea
i?iecaiaeeoaeue caa?yciyao( iai?eia?( ?aeo e ainoaea?noai cao?a/eaaao
iaiaeua n?aaenoaa( /oiau aa i/enoeoue( anee cao?a/eaaao )( ?anoiaeu ia
i/enoeo i?eaaaeythony e iauaio AII( a oi a?aiy eae noieiinoue naiiai
caa?yciaiey ia au/eoaaony !!!

* Aaciieaiay aania *

?anoouaa aaniieienoai iauanoaaiiinoe ii iiaiaeo oiai( ia ia?ooaao ee
i?iiuoeaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue a ?acaeouo ainoaea?noaao ie?oaeathuoth
i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo( ana?ueac i?iyaeeinue eeoue a 60-o aiaeao( A naiae
eieaa *Aaciieaiay aania* ?ae/ae Ea?nii* ioe?uoi ?anneacaea ia oua?aa(
iaiineiii aiaea( ii/aa e aicaeooo ii?aaeaeaiiuie io?aneyie i?iiuoeaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe( Aicieeee a?oiiu aaeeoaeueiinoe( oaeea( eae
*Nuea??a-eeaa* e *Ae?ocuey Caiee*( a icaai/aiiua caeiiiaeaoaee noaee
auaeaeaaoue ?acee/iua ia?u ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu( I?eia?ii
iiaeao yaeyoueny iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo caeiiia NOA( ?aaoee?othueo
aeayoaeueiinoue a noa?a ia?eaoeiaa( * Caeii i iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeea a
iaeanoe ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu *( o/?aaeaeaiiue a 1969 aiaeo e aeeth/athuee
a naay oaeea iniiaiua iieiaeaiey( eae onoaiiaeaiea ii?i iaoeeiiaeueiie
iieeoeee a iaeanoe ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e o/?aaeaeaiea Niaaoa ii
i?iaeaiai ea/anoaa n?aaeu( i?aia?aciaaiiiai a 1970 a( a Oi?aaeaiea ii
io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu( Eciaiaiey a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea neacuaathony
e ia oiaa?ao( eioi?ua oe?iu i?iecaiaeyo e i?aaeeaaatho ?uieo( A naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu ana aieueoa e aieueoa noa?athony i?eieiaoue ai
aieiaiea oio oaeo( /oi ethaee ?acee/athony ii naiaio ioiioaieth e ie?o
i?e?iaeu( Iaeioi?ua /oanoaotho naay ai aeanoe i?e?iaeu( ae?oaea – a
aa?iiiee n iae( a o?aouee noa?athony iiae/eieoue aa naaa( Ioia/aaony
aeieaia?aiaiiay oaiaeaioeey iiae/eiaiey i?e?iaeu /aeiaaeii n iiiiuueth
iaoee e oaoieee e aai aa?a a eciaeeea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia( Ii aaaeue a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy ethaee ana /aua noaee iniciaaaoue o?oieinoue i?e?iaeu e
ia?aie/aiiinoue aa ?ano?nia( noaee iniciaaaoue( /oi /aeiaa/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeao iiaoaeoue i?e?iaeo eee aea iaianoe ae a?aae(
Eoae( ethaiaue e i?e?iaea aaaeao e ?inoo iiioey?iinoe iooaoanoaee a
aeeeuo oo?aiiao( iaoaai oo?ecia( aiaeiuo i?iaoeie e ?uaiie eiaee( Aecian
iacaiaaeeeoaeueii ioaaoee ia ana yoi auioneii oo?enoneiai nia?yaeaiey(
iaeaoie e i?i/eo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae aeey ethaeoaeae ioaeuoa ia i?e?iaea(
I?aaiecaoi?u iiacaeie i?aaeeaaatho ana aieueoa ia?o?ooia ii ianoai(
eioi?uo aua ia einioeanue /aeiaa/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue( I?iecaiaeeoaee
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey noieeioeenue n ?anoe?aiiui ?uieii *iaoo?aeueiuo*
i?iaeoeoia( oaeeo( eae iaoo?aeueiua ecaeaeey ec oeaaiuo ceaeia(
iaoo?aeueiia ii?iaeaiia( i?iaeoeou aeey ea/aaiiai ieoaiey( ?aeeaia
ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia aeaaony ia anoanoaaiiii aeey ieo i?e?iaeiii oiia( Ii
aa?iainy e iaiin?aaenoaaiiui i?iaeaiai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu(

AeAOEOeEO IAEIOI?UO AEAeIA NU?Uess( Aiaea e aicaeoo iiaoo iieacaoueny
iaen/a?iaaiuie aeaeaie i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia( ii iaeioi?ua a?oiiu
caueoieeia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aeaeyo a ia?niaeoeaa oa?ico e aeey ieo(
Yoe a?oiiu aunooiatho ca cai?auaiea i?iaeaaee iaeioi?uo i?aia?aoia a
ay?icieueiie oiaeiaea( iineieueeo iie iiaoo iaianoe iioaioeeaeueiue
a?aae neith iciia a aoiinoa?a( A n aiaeie a ?yaea ?aeiiia ie?a i?iaeaiu
aicieeee oaea naaiaeiy(

Eniieueciaaiea aiciaiiaeyaiuo ?ano?nia( oaeeo( eae ean e
i?iaeiaieuenoaea( o?aaoao aieiaiey( *oiau naa?a/ue ii/ao e iaania/eoue
aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai eaniiaoa?eaeia aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ni?ina a
aoaeouai( oe?iu( caieiathueany eani?ac?aaioeaie aeieaeiu
ainnoaiaaeeaaoue ianaaeaeaiey ia au?oaeaiiuo ieiuaaeyo( Niaaaeaiea
i?iaeiaieuenoaeai iiaeao noaoue e?oiiie i?iaeaiie( iineieueeo ?acia?u
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee ia?aie/aiu e ana aieueoa caiaeue
ioaiaeeony iiae aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai e aeey eiiia?/aneiai
eniieueciaaiey(

Na?ueaciay i?iaeaia aicieeaao a nayce n enoiuaieai oaeeo
iaaiciaiiaeyaiuo ?ano?nia( eae iaooue( eaiaiiue oaieue e ae?oaea
iieaciua eneiiaaiua(

Naaiaeiy( eaaeaony( oaea iuouaaony iaoaaoea ieaoeiu( cieioa( oeeiea e
naeioea((( E eiioeo noieaoey aeaaea i?e ?inoa oeai aeaoeoeeoiuie iiaoo
noaoue na?aa?i( ieiai e o?ai( I?e nio?aiaiee iuiaoieo o?iaiae
iio?aaeaiey e 2025 a( iiaoo enoiueoueny caianu e ae?oaeo iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo(**

Aeaaea i?e iaee/ee enoiaeiiai nu?uey aeayoaeueiinoue oe?i(
eniieuecothueo aeaoeoeeoiua iieaciua eneiiaaiua( iiaeao ineiaeieoueny e
iio?aaiaaoue ai?acaei aieueoeo ?anoiaeia( A ia?aeiaeeoue yoe ecaea?aeee
ia iea/e iio?aaeoaey aoaeao( aa?iyoii( iaeaaei( Oe?iu( caieiathueany
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeie e ecuneaoaeueneeie ?aaioaie( iiaoo /anoe/ii
niyoue ino?ioo i?iaeaiu( ioe?ua iiaua oeaiiua enoi/ieee nu?uey e nicaeaa
iiaua iaoa?eaeu(

ACAeI?IAEAIEA YIA?AEE( Naiay na?ueaciay i?iaeaia iaania/aiey
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey a aoaeouai aicieeea a nayce n iaeiei ec
iaaiciaiiaeyaiuo aeaeia i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia — iaooueth( Yeiiiieea
aaaeoueo i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai ie?a ai iiiaii caaeneo io iinoaaie
iaooe( e aei oao ii?( iiea ia aoaeoo iaeaeaiu yeiiiie/anee auaiaeiua
caiaieoaee yoiai yia?aiiineoaey( iaooue aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoue ea?aoue
aeiieie?othuoth ?ieue a ie?iaie iieeoeea e yeiiiieea( Aunieay noieiinoue
iaooe (iiaenei/eaoay n 2(23 aeiee( ca aa??aeue a 1970 a( aei 34(00
aeiee( ca aa??aeue a 1982 a() ii?iaeeea eeoi?aaei/iua iienee
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo yia?aiiineoaeae( Niiaa noae iiioey?iui eaiaiiue oaieue(
aaaeoony enneaaeiaaiey ii ecuneaieth i?aeoe/aneeo iooae eniieueciaaiey
nieia/iie( yaea?iie( aao?iaie e i?i/eo aeaeia yia?aee( Oieueei a iaeanoe
eniieueciaaiey nieia/iie yia?aee nioie oe?i i?aaeeaaatho iai?oaeiaaiea
aeey iaia?aaa aeeeuo iiiauaiee e i?i/eo oeaeae( ***

?INO CAA?ssCIAIEss N?AAeU( I?iiuoeaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue ii/oe anaaaea
iaiineo a?aae ninoiyieth i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu( Iiaeoiaeoa ia oaeaeaiee
iooiaeia oeie/aneeo e yaea?iuo i?iecaiaenoa( ia iianiii o?iaia
niaea?aeaiey ?oooe a aiaeao ii?ae e ieaaiia( i niaea?aeaiee AeAeO e
ae?oaeo oeie/aneeo caa?ycieoaeae a ii/aa e i?iaeoeoao ieoaiey( a oaeaea
i cani?aiee n?aaeu aooueeaie( ecaeaeeyie ec ieanoiann e i?i/eie
oiaeiai/iuie iaoa?eaeaie( ia iiaeaeathueieny aeioeie/aneiio
?aceiaeaieth(

Icaai/aiiinoue iauanoaaiiinoe ioe?uaaao ia?aae /ooei ?aaae?othueie ia
ianoaiiaeo oe?iaie oi?iooth ia?eaoeiaiaoth aiciiaeiinoue( Nicaeaaony
aieee ?uiie n?aaenoa ii ai?ueaa n caa?yciaieai( oaeeo( eae ne?oaaa?u e
aa?aaaou( ?aaioathuea ii oaoiieiaee ?aoee?eoeyoeee enoiaeiuo iaoa?eaeia(
Ia/eiathony iienee aeueoa?iaoeaiuo niiniaia i?iecaiaenoaa e oiaeiaee
oiaa?ia aac iaianaiey a?aaea ie?oaeathuae n?aaea(****

?AOEOAEUeIIA AIAOAOAEUeNOAI AINOAeA?NOAA A I?IOeANN ?AOeEIIAEUeIIAI
ENIIEUeCIAAIEss E AINI?IECAIAeNOAA I?E?IAeIUO ?ANO?NIA( ?oeiaiaenoai
neoaeaie ia?eaoeiaa aeieaeii aea?aeaoue a iiea c?aiey ana yoe i?iaeaiu(
/oiau eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeayoaeueiinoe
oe?iu i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu( ia iaiiny i?e yoii a?aaea ie?oaeathuae n?aaea(
A yoii niunea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue iaaa?iyea ieaaeaony
iiae neeueiui eiio?ieai eae ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia( oae e
ni noi?iiu aeeyoaeueiuo a?oii iauanoaaiiinoe( Aianoi oiai( /oiau
i?ioeaeoueny anai oi?iai ?aaoee?iaaiey( aecian aeieaeai o/anoaiaaoue a
iieneao i?eaieaiuo ?aoaiee noiyueo ia?aae no?aiie i?iaeai niaaaeaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie e yia?aeae(

*aeiaae iaycai iaania/eoue onoie/eainoue ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu( niaiea
noa?aioeiu( oeaee yeiiiieee( oa?aeoa? iiaaaeaiey(yoeeo( Anee ii ia
noiaao yoiai naeaeaoue( oi aeioa( eniieuecoy naie iiuiua caueoiua
iaoaieciu( naeaeaao yoi naia( nei?aa anaai( ?ac?ooea /anoue naiie naay
aianoa n /aeiaa/anoaii( A anee /aeiaae en/aciao eae aeae( oi ii oaea
aieueoa ieeiaaea ia iiyaeony aiiaue: iaeaiioieiaey iieacuaaao( /oi
en/acioaoee aeae ia aic?iaeaeaaony(((

Niinee:

* — ni(: Rachel Carson( * Silent Spring * Boston( * Houghton Mifflin *(
1962

** — * First Annual Report of the Council on
Environmental Quality *( Washington( D(C(( * Government Printing Office
*( 1970( p(158

*** — * The coming Boom in Solar Energy * ( — Business
Week( October 9( 1978( p(88-104

**** — ci(: Karl E( Henion II( * Ecological Marketing
*( Columbus( Ohio( * Grid *( 1976

Cienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1 Eyiiaaee ?(Iaeeiiiaee( Noyiee E(A?th * Yeiiiieen *( oii 1( Iineaa(
Ecaeaoaeuenoai *?anioaeeea*( 1995

2 * Iaaaiieen *( ? 2( 1996( noaouey aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe Aeeoi?a
Aeaieeiaa-Aeaieeueyia e aeieoi?a aaia?aoe/aneeo iaoe Eeia Einaaa

3 Oeeei Eioea? * Iniiau ia?eaoeiaa *( Iineaa( Ecaeaoaeuenoai * I?ia?ann
*( 1991

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