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Имре Лакатос. Методология программ научных исследований

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Niaea?aeaiea

I?aaeeneiaea
2

1. O?e oeia oaeueneoeeaoeeiiecia 3

2. I?ia?aiiu iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee 5

3. Oi?iaeeci a iaoea
18

4. Aeayoaeueiinoue o/aiiai a ?aaiethoeeiiiua

e iaae?aaiethoeeiiiua ia?eiaeu iaoee 23

Nienie eniieuecoaiuo enoi/ieeia 26

I?aaeeneiaea

Ei?a Eaeaoin (1922-1974), ?iaeeeny a Aaia?ee, aeenna?oaoeeth ii
oeeinioneei aii?inai iaoaiaoeee aioiaee a Iineianeii oieaa?neoaoa. Ca
aeenneaeaioneea acaeyaeu a eiioea 40-o aiaeia i?iaae aeaa aiaea a
oth?ueia. Iinea aaiaa?neeo niauoee 1956 a. yiea?e?iaae, ?aaioae a
Eiiaeiineie oeiea yeiiiieee e iieeoe/aneeo iaoe, aaea noae iaeaieaa
y?eei n?aaee iineaaeiaaoaeae Iiiia?a. Eaeaoina iacuaaee “?uoea?ai
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe”, iineieueeo ii ionoaeaae i?eioeeiu e?eoe/aneiai
?aoeeiiaeecia e iieaaae, /oi aieueoeinoai i?ioeannia a iaoea aeiioneaao
?aoeeiiaeueiia iauyniaiea. Eaeaoin ienae iaaieueoea, ii i/aiue aieea ii
niaea?aeaieth ?aaiou. N aai acaeyaeaie iiaeii iiciaeiieoueny ii
auoaaeoei ia ?onneii ycuea eieaai “Aeieacaoaeuenoaa e ii?iaa?aeaiey”
(I., 1967) e “Oaeueneoeeaoeey e iaoiaeieiaey iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo
i?ia?aii” (I., 1995) [1].

Ii iaeei ec iaeaieaa aeoaieeo e iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo e?eoeeia eiioeaioeee
niaiu ia?aaeeai Eoia, e aunooiaao i?ioea ii/oe oaieiae/aneiai niunea
iao/iie ia?aaeeaiu, auneacaiiie Eoiii. Eaeaoin ?ac?aaioae oaeaea iaeio
ec eo/oeo iiaeaeae oeeinioee iaoee — iaoiaeieiaeth
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii.

1. O?e oeia oaeueneoeeaoeeiiecia

Iaoea, ii iiaieth Eaeaoina, anoue e aeieaeia auoue ni?aaiiaaieai
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii, niia?ie/athueo iaaeaeo niaie. Eiaiii yoa
eaeay oa?aeoa?ecoao oae iacuaaaiue ooii/aiiue iaoiaeieiae/aneee
oaeueneoeeaoeeiieci, ?acaeaaaiue Eaeaoinii a ?onea eiioeaioeee Iiiia?a.
Eaeaoin iuoaaony niya/eoue iaeaieaa ino?ua oaeu oeeinioee iaoee Iiiia?a.
Ii auaeaeyao o?e noaaeee a ?acaeoee acaeyaeia Iiiia?a: Iiiia?0 –
oaeueneoeeaoeeiieci aeiaiaoe/aneee, Iiiia?1 – iaeaiue
oaeueneoeeaoeeiieci, Iiiia?2 – iaoiaeieiae/aneee oaeueneoeeaoeeiieci.
Iineaaeiee ia?eiae ia/eiaaony a 50-a aiaeu e naycai n ?ac?aaioeie
ii?iaoeaiie eiioeaioeee ?inoa e ?acaeoey ciaiee ia iniiaa ananoi?iiiaai
e?eoeoeecia [2]. Ia?aue aeaeeo iaoeo eae i?ioeann, ?acia/aiiue i?i/iuie
eiino?oeoeeyie e iaiia?aoeiuie oaeueneoeeaoeeyie (iiaeiaiua eaeae
i?iiaaaiaee?iaae A. Aea?). Ana aea Iiiia? iieacae ioeai/iinoue oaeie
iiceoeee, eai yiie?e/aneay aaca iaoee iaonoie/eaa e iaii?aaeaeaiia, a
iioiio e ?a/e ia iiaeao auoue i oeene?iaaiiuo i?ioieieueiuo
i?aaeeiaeaieyo e ia ia?aniao?eaaaiuo a i?eioeeia ii?iaa?aeaieyo.

Oi, /oi iaoe ii?iaa?aeaiey oaeaea iiaoo auoue ioeai/iuie,
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho eae eiaeea, oae e enoi?ey iaoee.

Iaoiaeieiae/aneee oaeueneoeeaoeeiieci eni?aaeyao ioeaeo aeiaiaoeeia,
iieacuaay cuaeinoue yiie?e/aneie aacu iaoee e i?aaeeaaaaiuo ath n?aaenoa
eiio?iey aeiioac (yoi iieacaii Iiiia?ii a «Eiaeea iao/iiai ioe?uoey»).
Oai ia iaiaa, i?iaeieaeaao Eaeaoin, e iaoiaeieiae/aneee
oaeueneoeeaoeeiieci iaaeinoaoi/ai. Ea?oeia iao/iiai ciaiey,
i?aaenoaaeaiiay eae na?ey aeoyeae iaaeaeo oai?eae e oaeoaie, ia nianai
aa?ia. A ai?ueaa iaaeaeo oai?aoe/aneei e oaeoe/aneei, iieaaaao Eaeaoin,
eae ieieioi o?e o/anoieea: oaeou e aeaa niia?ie/athuea oai?ee.
Noaiiaeony iiiyoii, /oi oai?ey ioaeeaaao naie aae ia oiaaea, eiaaea
iauyaeyaony i?ioeai?a/auee ae oaeo, a eiaaea i naaa cayaeyao oai?ey,
eioi?ay eo/oa i?aaeuaeouae. Oae, iuethoiiianeay iaoaieea noaea oaeoii
i?ioeiai oieueei iinea iiyaeaiey oai?ee Yeiooaeia [3].

No?aiynue eaeei-oi ia?acii niya/eoue e?aeiinoe iaoiaeieiae/aneiai
oaeueneoeeaoeeiiecia, E. Eaeaoin auaeaeioe eiioeaioeeth
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii eae ineaaeythuee iaoaieci
yaiethoeeiienoneie yienoaiieiaee.

2. I?ia?aiiu iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee

E. Eaeaoin iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyao ia oai?eyi, eae oaeiaui, a aaaeao
?a/ue ia enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aiiao. Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay
i?ia?aiia yaeyaony no?oeoo?ii-aeeiaie/aneie aaeeieoeae aai iiaeaee
iaoee. *oiau iiiyoue, /oi oaeia i?ia?aiia iao/iiai iienea, aniiiiei i
iaoaieoeecia Aeaea?oa eee Iuethoiia, ia yaiethoeeiiiie oai?ee Aea?aeia
eee i eiia?ieeainoaa. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiay niaia oai?ee, auoaeathueo ec
iaeiiai yae?a, i?ienoiaeeo a ?aieao i?ia?aiiu n iaii?iaa?aeeiie
iaoiaeieiaeae, iieacuaathuae naith oeaiiinoue, ieiaeioai?iinoue e
i?ia?anneaiinoue a n?aaiaiee n ae?oaie i?ia?aiiie. Iaeieaaaaiay
aeaoneeie aieaciyie, oai?ey aeey naiaai ?acaeoey, noaiiaeaiey e
oe?aieaiey ioaeaeaaony ai a?aiaie.

Oaeei ia?acii, enoi?ey iaoee i?aaenoaao, ii Eaeaoino, eae enoi?ey
eiieo?aioeee enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii. Oaeie iiaeoiae auaeaeaaao ia
ia?aue ieai acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie yienoaiieiaeyie e
enoi?eia?aoeae iaoee, a oaeaea iiiaio yaiethoeee iao/iiai iienea [3].

“Iaeioi?ua oeeiniou, — ieoao E. Eaeaoin, — noieue icaai/aiu ?aoaieai
naieo yienoaiieiae/aneeo e eiae/aneeo i?iaeai, /oi oae e ia aeinoeaatho
oiai o?iaiy, ia eioi?ii eo au iiaea caeioa?aniaaoue ?aaeueiay enoi?ey
iaoee. Anee aeaenoaeoaeueiay enoi?ey ia niioaaonoaoao eo noaiaea?oai,
iie, aiciiaeii, n io/ayiiie niaeinoueth i?aaeeiaeao ia/aoue caiiai ana
aeaei iaoee”.

Eae n/eoaao E. Eaeaoin, anyeay iaoiaeieiae/aneay eiioeaioeey aeieaeia
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eae enoi?eia?aoe/aneay. Iaeaieaa aeoaieay aa ioeaiea
iiaeao auoue aeaia /a?ac e?eoeeo oie ?aoeeiiaeueiie ?aeiino?oeoeee
enoi?ee iaoee, eioi?oth iia i?aaeeaaaao [4].

A yoii ioee/ea iiceoeee Eaeaoina io oai?ee Eoia e Iiiia?a. Eaeaoin
oi?aeaao Iiiia?a a iaenoi?e/iinoe («Enoi?ey iaoee e aa ?aoeeiiaeueiua
?aeiino?oeoeee»), a aai i?eioeeia oaeueneoeoee?oaiinoe ii aeaeeo
eiae/aneoth aeaoniuneaiiinoue, eneaaeathuoth enoi?eth e
i?eniinaaeeaathuoth iineaaeithth e naiae oai?ee ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ieoao Eaeaoin a ?aaioa «Oaeueneoeeaoeey e
iaoiaeieiaey i?ia?aii iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey» (1970), niaeanii oai?ee
Eoia, iao/iay ?aaiethoeey e??aoeeiiaeueia, a iae iiaeii oaeaeaoue eeoue
iaoa?eae i?eniiniaeaiey e ineoieiaee oieiu. A ienoe/aneii ia?auaiee io
iaeiie ia?aaeeaiu e ae?oaie, ii Eoio, iao ?aoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaee, e
iioiio Eoi iinoiyiii iiiaaeaao a noa?o nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee ioe?uoey.
Iao/iua iooaoeee ia/eiatho iioiaeeoue ia ?aciiaeaeiinoue ?aeeaeiciiai
ia?auaiey. Oai ia iaiaa nai Eaeaoin inoaaony aioo?e i?iaeaiaoeee e
aoiinoa?u iiiia?ianeiai oaeueneoeeaoeeiiecia. Aeeyiea Eoia oaeaea
niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii (aicueiai, e i?eia?o, eaeae «aeiaiaoe/aneie
ooieoeee» iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey e «i?ia?anna /a?ac ?aaiethoeee»). Ana
aea aai a?aoiaiou /aua naiaiaeiu io i?aae?annoaeeia [3].

E. Eaeaoin ?acaeaaao naith, aeiaieueii aeeceoth e eoiianeie,
eiioeaioeeth iaoiaeieiaee iao/iiai iiciaiey, eioi?oth ii iacuaaao
iaoiaeieiaeae iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii. Iia i?eiaiyaony ei ia
oieueei aeey o?aeoiaee iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey iaoee, ii e aeey ioeaiee
?acee/iuo eiieo?e?othueo eiaee iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey.

Niaeanii E. Eaeaoino, ?acaeoea iaoee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiieo?aioeeth
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii, eiaaea iaeia enneaaeiaaoaeueneay
i?ia?aiia auoaniyao ae?oaoth [4].

Nouiinoue iao/iie ?aaiethoeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi n?aaieaaoue n
yiie?eae ioaeii ia iaeio eciee?iaaiioth oai?eth, ii na?eth niaiythueony
oai?ee, naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie aaeeiuie iniiaiiieaaathueie i?eioeeiaie.
Oaeoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oai?ee ii e iacaae
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiie.

Iiyoiio ooiaeaiaioaeueiie aaeeieoeae ioeaiee i?ioeanna ?acaeoay iaoee
yaeyaony ia oai?ey, a enneaaeiaaoaeueneay i?ia?aiia.

Yoa i?ia?aiia eiaao neaaeothuoth no?oeoo?o. Iia aeeth/aao a naay
“aeanoeia yae?i “, a eioi?ia aoiaeyo iaii?iaa?aaaiua aeey noi?iiieeia
i?ia?aiiu, ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iieiaeaiey (iaoaeueneoeoee?oaiua aeiioacu).
Oi anoue yoi oi, /oi yaeyaony iauei aeey anao aa oai?ee. Yoi iaoaoeceea
i?ia?aiiu: iaeaieaa iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?aaeueiinoe, eioi?oth
iienuaatho aoiaeyuea a i?ia?aiio oai?ee; iniiaiua caeiiu acaeiiaeaenoaey
yeaiaioia yoie ?aaeueiinoe; aeaaiua iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu,
naycaiiua n yoie i?ia?aiiie. Iai?eia?, aeanoeei yae?ii iuethoiiianeie
i?ia?aiiu a iaoaieea auei i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi ?aaeueiinoue ninoieo
ec /anoeoe aauanoaa, eioi?ua aeaeaeoony a aaniethoiii i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie a niioaaonoaee n o?aiy ecaanoiuie iuethoiiianeeie caeiiaie e
acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo niaie niaeanii caeiio anaie?iiai oyaioaiey.
?aaioathuea a ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ia?aiia o/aiua i?eieiatho aa iaoaoeceeo,
n/eoay aa aaeaeaaoiie e iai?iaeaiaoe/iie. Ii a i?eioeeia iiaoo
nouanoaiaaoue e eiua iaoaoeceee, ii?aaeaeythuea aeueoa?iaoeaiua
enneaaeiaaoaeueneea i?ia?aiiu. Oae, a XVII a. ia?yaeo n iuethoiiianeie
nouanoaiaaea ea?oaceaineay i?ia?aiia a iaoaieea, iaoaoece/aneea
i?eioeeiu eioi?ie nouanoaaiii ioee/aeenue io iuethoiiianeeo.

Oaeei ia?acii ii yae?o iiaeii noaeeoue i oa?aeoa?a anae i?ia?aiiu.

A i?ia?aiio aoiaeeo iaaaoeaiay ya?enoeea , eioi?oth ninoaaeyao
niaieoiiinoue aniiiiaaoaeueiuo aeiioac, eioi?ua i?aaeio?aiytho aa yae?i
io oaeueneoeeaoeee, io ii?iaa?aathueo oaeoia [1]. Any
ecia?aoaoaeueiinoue iai?aaeaia ia aai a?oeeoeyoeeth e ?ac?aaioeo
iiaeaea?aeeaathueo yae?i aeiioac (oae iacuaaaiue «caueoiue iiyn»). Yoio
“caueoiue iiyn” i?ia?aiiu i?eieeaao ia naay iaiiue e?eoe/aneeo
a?aoiaioia. Eieueoei aniiiiaaoaeueiuo aeiioac i?ecaaii naea?aeeaaoue
aoaee eiio?iee?othueo i?ia e any/anee caueuaoue e eiinieeaee?iaaoue
yae?i. Oi anoue yoi naiaai ?iaea iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?aaeea, iaeioi?ua ec
eioi?uo oeacuaatho, eaeeo iooae neaaeoao ecaaaaoue [3].

Iiceoeaiay ya?enoeea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie no?aoaaeth auai?a
ia?aii/a?aaeiuo i?iaeai e caaea/, eioi?ua aeieaeiu ?aoaoue o/aiua.
Iaee/ea iiceoeaiie ya?enoeee iicaieyao ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy eaii?e?iaaoue
e?eoeeo e aiiiaeee e caieiaoueny eiino?oeoeaiuie enneaaeiaaieyie.
Iaeaaeay oaeie no?aoaaeae, o/aiua ai?aaa cayaeyoue, /oi iie aua
aeiaa?oony aei iaiiiyoiuo e iioaioeeaeueii ii?iaa?aathueo i?ia?aiio
oaeoia e /oi eo nouanoaiaaiea ia yaeyaony iiaiaeii aeey ioeaca io
i?ia?aiiu [1].

Oaeueneoeeaoeee, o.a. oai?aoe/aneie e?eoeea e yiie?e/aneiio
ii?iaa?aeaieth, iiaeaa?aaaony eeoue aeiioacu “caueoiiai iiyna”. Ii
iauaio niaeaoaieth iiaeaa?aaoue oaeueneoeeaoeee aeanoeia yae?i
cai?auaaony. Oeaio? oyaeanoe a iaoiaeieiaee enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii
Eaeaoina ia?aiineony c ii?iaa?aeaiey iiiaeanoaa eiieo?e?othueo aeiioac
ia oaeueneoeeaoeeth, a aianoa n oai ia i?iaa?eo e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea
eiieo?e?othueo i?ia?aii. I?e yoii yeeieiaoeey ioaeaeueiuo aeiioac
caueoiiai iiyna inoaaeyao aeanoeia yae?i i?ia?aiiu a oeaeinoe e
nio?aiiinoe.

Ii oa?aeoa?enoeea Eaeaoina, enneaaeiaaoaeueneea i?ia?aiiu yaeyaony
aaee/aeoeie iao/iuie aeinoeaeaieyie e eo iiaeii ioeaieaaoue ia iniiaa
i?ia?anneaiiai eee ?aa?anneaiiai naeaeaa i?iaeai. O.a.
enneaaeiaaoaeueneay i?ia?aiia iiaeao ?acaeaaoueny i?ia?anneaii e
?aa?anneaii. I?ia?aiia i?ia?anne?oao, iiea iaee/ea aeanoeiai yae?a
iicaieyao oi?ioee?iaaoue ana iiaua e iiaua aeiioacu “caueoiiai neiy”.
Eiaaea i?iaeooee?iaaiea oaeeo aeiioac ineaaaaaao e ieacuaaaony
iaaiciiaeiui iauynieoue iiaua, a oai aieaa aaeaioe?iaaoue aiiiaeueiua
oaeou, ianooiaao ?aa?anneaiay noaaeey ?acaeoey [2]. O.a. a ia?aii neo/aa
aa oai?aoe/aneia ?acaeoea i?eaiaeeo e i?aaeneacaieth iiauo oaeoia. Ai
aoi?ii i?ia?aiia eeoue iauyniyao iiaua oaeou, i?aaeneacaiiua
eiieo?e?othuae i?ia?aiiie eeai ioe?uoua neo/aeii. Enneaaeiaaoaeueneay
i?ia?aiia eniuouaaao oai aieueoea o?oaeiinoe, /ai aieueoa i?ia?anne?oao
aa eiieo?aio, e iaiai?io anee enneaaeiaaoaeueneay i?ia?aiia iauyniyao
aieueoa, iaaeaee eiieo?e?othuay, oi iia auoaniyao iineaaeithth ec
iai?ioa niiauanoaa. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi i?aaeneacuaaaiua iaeiie
i?ia?aiiie oaeou anaaaea yaeythony aiiiaeeyie aeey ae?oaie.

Eiaiii iiyoiio ?acaeoea eiie enneaaeiaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiu (iai?eia?,
Iuethoiia) i?ioaeaao a «ii?a aiiiaeee» eee, eae o Ai?a, i?ienoiaeeo ia
ianaycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie iniiaaieyo. Eiaaea iineaaeothuea iiaeeoeeaoeee
«caueoiiai iiyna» ia i?eaiaeyo e i?aaeneacaieth iiauo oaeoia, i?ia?aiia
iieacuaaao naay eae ?aa?anneaiay.

E. Eaeaoin iiae/a?eeaaao aieueooth onoie/eainoue enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
i?ia?aiiu [4].

“Ie eiae/aneia aeieacaoaeuenoai i?ioeai?a/eainoe, ie aa?aeeeo o/aiuo ia
yenia?eiaioaeueii iaia?oaeaiiie aiiiaeee ia iiaoo iaeiei oaea?ii
oie/oiaeeoue enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth i?ia?aiio”.

O.a. a ioee/ee io aeiioac Iiiia?a, ii?aaeaaiuo e?eoeeie eee
yenia?eiaioii “iania?oue”, “i?ia?aiiu” Eaeaoina ia oieueei aeieai
aeeaoo, ii e oie?atho aeieaie e io/eoaeueiie nia?oueth, oae eae caueoiue
iiyn i?eiineony a aea?oao ?aaee nio?aiaiey yae?a.

Enneaaeiaaoaeueneay i?ia?aiia eiaao oniao, anee iia oniaoii ?ac?aoaao
i?iaeaiu, e iia i?iaaeeaaaony a neo/aa, anee ia niiniaia ?aoeoue yoe
i?iaeaiu.

A ?aieao oniaoii ?acaeaathuaeny i?ia?aiiu oaeaaony ?ac?aaaouaaoue ana
aieaa niaa?oaiiua oai?ee’, eioi?ua iauyniytho ana aieueoa e aieueoa
oaeoia. Eiaiii iiyoiio o/aiua neeiiiu e onoie/eaie iiceoeaiie ?aaioa a
?aieao iiaeiaiuo i?ia?aii e aeiioneatho ii?aaeaeaiiue aeiaiaoeci a
ioiioaiee e eo iniiaiiieaaathuei i?eioeeiai. Iaeiaei yoi ia iiaeao
i?iaeieaeaoueny aaneiia/ii. Ni a?aiaiai ya?enoe/aneay neea i?ia?aiiu
ia/eiaao ineaaaaaoue, e ia?aae o/aiuie aicieeaao aii?in i oii, noieo ee
i?iaeieaeaoue ?aaioaoue a aa ?aieao.

Eaeaoin n/eoaao, /oi o/aiua iiaoo ?aoeeiiaeueii ioeaieaaoue aiciiaeiinoe
i?ia?aiiu e ?aoaoue aii?in i i?iaeieaeaiee eee ioeaca io o/anoey a iae
(a ioee/ea io Eoia, aeey eioi?iai oaeia ?aoaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
e??aoeeiiaeueiue aeo aa?u). Aeey yoiai ii i?aaeeaaaao neaaeothuee
e?eoa?ee ?aoeeiiaeueiie ioeaiee “i?ia?anna” e “au?iaeaeaiey” i?ia?aiiu.

I?ia?aiia, ninoiyuay ec iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe oai?ee O1, O2 … On-1, On
i?ia?anne?oao, anee:

• On iauyniyao ana oaeou, eioi?ua oniaoii iauyniyea On-1 ;

• On ioaaouaaao aieueooth yiie?e/aneoth iaeanoue, /ai i?aaeoanoaothuay
oai?ey On-1 ;

• /anoue i?aaeneacaiee ec yoiai aeiiieieoaeueiiai yiie?e/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey On iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony.

O.a. a i?ia?anneaii ?acaeaathuaeny i?ia?aiia eaaeaeay neaaeothuay oai?ey
aeieaeia oniaoii i?aaeneacuaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua oaeou.

Anee aea iiaua oai?ee ia a ninoiyiee oniaoii i?aaeneacuaaoue iiaua
oaeou, oi i?ia?aiia yaeyaony “noaaie?othuae”, eee “au?iaeaeathuaeny”.
Iau/ii oaeay i?ia?aiia eeoue caaeiei /eneii enoieeiauaaao oaeou, eioi?ua
auee ioe?uou ae?oaeie, aieaa oniaoiuie i?ia?aiiaie.

Ia iniiaa yoiai e?eoa?ey o/aiua iiaoo onoaiiaeoue, i?ia?anne?oao eee iao
eo i?ia?aiia. Anee iia i?ia?anne?oao, oi ?aoeeiiaeueii aoaeao
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny aa, anee aea iia au?iaeaeaaony, oi ?aoeeiiaeueiui
iiaaaeaieai o/aiiai aoaeao iiiuoea ?ac?aaioaoue iiaoth i?ia?aiio eee aea
ia?aoiae ia iiceoeee oaea nouanoaothuae e i?ia?anne?othuae
aeueoa?iaoeaiie i?ia?aiiu [1]. Ii i?e yoii Eaeaoin aiai?eo, /oi «iaeuecy
naa?ouaaoue aiiaue aicieeooth enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth i?ia?aiio eeoue
iioiio, /oi iia ia noiaea iaeieaoue aieaa neeueioth
i?ia?aiio-niia?ieoeo… Iiea iiaay i?ia?aiia ia aoaeao ?aeiino?oe?iaaia
?aoeeiiaeueiui ia?acii eae i?ia?anneaiia naiiaeaeaeaiea i?iaeaiu, a
oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie iia ioaeaeaaony a iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu
aieaa neeueiie e ooaa?aeeaoaeny i?ia?aiiu-niia?ieoeu» [3].

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaaiay oeaiiinoue i?ia?aiiu — aa niiniaiinoue iiiieiyoue
ciaiey, i?aaeneacuaaoue iiaua oaeou. I?ioeai?a/ey aea e o?oaeiinoe a
iauyniaiey eaeeo-eeai yaeaiee — eae n/eoaao E. Eaeaoin, — ia aeeytho
nouanoaaiii ia ioiioaiea e iae o/aiuo.

A aaiiao?ee Aaeeeaea ia i?ioyaeaiee aeaoo ouny/ eao ia oaeaaaeinue
?aoeoue i?iaeaio iyoiai iinooeaoa.

Iiiaea aeanyoeeaoey ia aanueia i?ioeai?a/eaie iniiaa ?acaeaaeenue
en/eneaiea aaneiia/ii iaeuo, oai?ey aa?iyoiinoae, oai?ey iiiaeanoa.

Ecaanoii, /oi Iuethoii ia iia ia iniiaaiee iaoaieee iauynieoue
noaaeeueiinoue Nieia/iie nenoaiu e ooaa?aeaeae, /oi Aia eni?aaeyao
ioeeiiaiey a aeaeaeaiee ieaiao, aucaaiiua ?acee/iiai ?iaea aiciouaieyie.

Ianiio?y ia oi /oi oaeia iauyniaiea aiiaua ieeiai ia oaeiaeaoai?yei,
e?iia, iiaeao auoue, naiiai Iuethoiia, eioi?ue aue, eae ecaanoii, i/aiue
?aeeaeiciui /aeiaaeii (ii n/eoae, /oi aai enneaaeiaaiey a oaieiaee ia
iaiaa cia/eiu, /ai a iaoaiaoeea e iaoaieea), iaaaniay iaoaieea a oeaeii
oniaoii ?acaeaaeanue. Yoo i?iaeaio oaeaeinue ?aoeoue Eaieano oieueei a
ia/aea XIX a.

Aua iaeei eeanne/aneee i?eia?.

Aea?aei ia iia iauynieoue oae iacuaaaiiai “eioia?a Aeaeaieeina”, e oai
ia iaiaa aai oai?ey oniaoii ?acaeaaeanue. Ecaanoii, /oi aea?aeiianeay
oai?ey aace?oaony ia o?ao oaeoi?ao: eciai/eainoe, ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e
ioai?a. O ethaiai i?aaiecia eiaaony eciai/eainoue, inouanoaeythuayny
iaiai?aaeaiiui ia?acii. A neeo yoiai eciai/eainoue oieueei a iaaieueoii
eiee/anoaa neo/aaa iiaeao auoue aeaaii?eyoiie aeey i?eniiniaeaiey
aeaiiiai i?aaiecia e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Eaeay-oi eciai/eainoue ia
ianeaaeoaony, eaeay-oi ianeaaeoaony. Yaiethoeeiiiia cia/aiea eiaao
ianeaaeoaiay eciai/eainoue. Ii Aea?aeio, aieueooth aiciiaeiinoue aeey
aoaeouaai eiatho oa i?aaieciu, eioi?ua ianeaaeotho oaeiai ?iaea
eciaiaiey, eioi?ua aeatho ei aieueooth aiciiaeiinoue aeey i?eniiniaeaiey
e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Oaeea i?aaieciu eo/oa auaeeaatho e noaiiayony
iniiaie aeey iiaiai oaaa yaiethoeee.

Aeey Aea?aeia caeiiu ianeaaeiaaiey — oi, eae ianeaaeoaony eciai/eainoue,
— eiaee ?aoathuaa cia/aiea. A naiae eiioeaioeee ianeaaeiaaiey ii
enoiaeee ec oie eaeae, /oi ianeaaenoaaiiinoue inouanoaeyaony iai?a?uaiui
ia?acii.

I?aaenoaaei naaa, /oi aaeue /aeiaae iiiae ia Ao?eeaineee eiioeiaio.
I?eciaee aaeiai, a oii /enea e “aaeecia”, aoaeoo, ii Aea?aeio,
ia?aaeaaaoueny neaaeothuei ia?acii. Anee ii aeaieony ia iaa?eoyiea, oi o
eo aeaoae aoaeao iieiaeia e?iae “aaeie”. Iineieueeo ia eiioeiaioa aaeue
iaeei, oi aai aeaoe aoaeoo anooiaoue a a?ae n iaa?aie. Ii a oaeii neo/aa
aeiey “aaeeciu” aoaeao aneiioioe/anee oauaaoue e a eiioea eiioeia
en/aciao. Yaiethoeeiiiiai cia/aiey iia eiaoue ia iiaeao.

Oaeiai ?iaea niia?aaeaiey auneacae Aeaeaieein. Ii ia?aoee aieiaiea ia
oi, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiua ea/anoaa, eioi?ua niinianoaotho i?eniiniaeaieth
i?aaiecia e n?aaea, ano?a/athony e?aeia ?aaeei. E neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?aaieci, eioi?ue aoaeao eiaoue yoe ea/anoaa, caaaaeiii ano?aoeony n
i?aaieciii, eioi?ue yoe ea/anoaa ia aoaeao eiaoue, e a iineaaeothueo
iieieaieyo iieiaeeoaeueiue i?eciae ?annaaony. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii ia
iiaeao eiaoue yaiethoeeiiiiai cia/aiey.

Aea?aei ieeae ia iia ni?aaeoueny n yoie caaea/ae. Ia neo/aeii yoi
?annoaeaeaiea iieo/eei iacaaiea “eioia?a Aeaeaieeina”. O aea?aeiianeie
oai?ee auee aua e ae?oaea o?oaeiinoe. E oioy e o/aieth Aea?aeia ia
?aciuo yoaiao ioiineeenue ii-?aciiio, ii aea?aeieci ieeiaaea ia oie?ae,
anaaaea o iaai auee iineaaeiaaoaee. Eae ecaanoii, nia?aiaiiay
yaiethoeeiiiay eiioeaioeey — neioaoe/aneay oai?ey yaiethoeee —
aace?oaony ia eaeayo Aea?aeia, niaaeeiaiiuo, i?aaaea, n iaiaeaeaaneie
eiioeaioeeae aeene?aoiuo iineoaeae ianeaaenoaaiiinoe, eioi?ay e
eeeaeaee?oao “eioia? Aeaeaieeina”.

A ?aieao eiioeaioeee E. Eaeaoina noaiiaeony iniaaiii i/aaeaeiie
aaaeiinoue oai?ee e naycaiiie n iae enneaaeiaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiu aeey
aeayoaeueiinoe o/aiiai. Aia aa o/aiue i?inoi ia a ninoiyiee ?aaioaoue.
Aeaaiui enoi/ieeii ?acaeoey iaoee yaeyaony ia acaeiiaeaenoaea oai?ee e
yiie?e/aneeo aeaiiuo, a eiieo?aioeey enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii a
aeaea eo/oaai iienaiey e iauyniaiey iaaethaeaaiuo yaeaiee e, aeaaiia,
i?aaeneacaiey iiauo oaeoia.

Iiyoiio, eco/ay caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey iaoee, iaiaoiaeeii iniaia
aieiaiea oaeaeyoue oi?ie?iaaieth, ?acaeoeth e acaeiiaeaenoaeth
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii.

E. Eaeaoin iieacuaaao, /oi aeinoaoi/ii aiaaooth iao/ioth i?ia?aiio
anaaaea iiaeii caueoeoue io ethaiai aa aeaeeiiai ianiioaaonoaey n
yiie?e/aneeie aeaiiuie.

E. Eaeaoin ?annoaeaeaao a oaeii noeea. Aeiionoei, /oi iu ia aaca
iaaaniie iaoaieee ?ann/eoaee o?aaeoi?ee aeaeaeaiey ieaiao. N iiiiuueth
oaeaneiia iu oeene?oai eo e aeaeei, /oi iie ioee/athony io ?an/aoiuo.
?acaa o/aiue neaaeao a yoii neo/aa, /oi caeiiu iaoaieee iaaa?iu?
Eiia/ii, iao. O iaai aeaaea iunee oaeie ia iiyaeony. Ii iaaa?iyea
neaaeao, /oi eeai iaoi/iu ecia?aiey, eeai iai?aaeeueiu ?an/aou. Ii,
iaeiiaoe, iiaeao aeiionoeoue iaee/ea ae?oaie ieaiaou, eioi?oth aua ia
iaaethaeaee, eioi?ay e aucuaaao ioeeiiaiea o?aaeoi?ee ieaiaou io
?an/aoiie (oae e auei ia naiii aeaea, eiaaea Eaaa?uea e Aaeaia ioe?uee
iiaoth ieaiaoo).

A aeiionoei, /oi a oii ianoa, aaea iie iaeeaeaee oaeaeaoue ieaiaoo, aa
au ia ieacaeinue. *oi iie neacaee au a yoii neo/aa? *oi iaoaieea
iaaa?ia? Iao, yoiai au ia neo/eeinue. Iie iaaa?iyea i?eaeoiaee au
eaeea-ieaoaeue ae?oaea iauyniaiey aeey yoie neooaoeee.

Yoa eaeae i/aiue aaaeiu. Iie iicaieytho iiiyoue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, eae
iao/iua eiioeaioeee i?aiaeieaaatho noiyuea ia eo iooe aa?uea?u, a n
ae?oaie — ii/aio anaaaea nouanoaotho aeueoa?iaoeaiua enneaaeiaaoaeueneea
i?ia?aiiu.

Iu ciaai, /oi aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea yeiooaeiianeay oai?ey
ioiineoaeueiinoe aioea a eiioaeno eoeueoo?u, aioeyeiooaeiianeea oai?ee
i?iaeieaeaee aeeoue.

A aniiiiei, eae ?acaeaaeanue aaiaoeea. Eaia?eenoneea eaeae aicaeaenoaey
aiaoiae n?aaeu ia i?aaieci caueuaeenue ianiio?y ia oi, /oi auea ianna
oaeoia, eioi?ua i?ioeai?a/eee yoiio.

Aeinoaoi/ii neeueiay a oai?aoe/aneii ioiioaiee eaeay anaaaea ieacuaaaony
aeinoaoi/ii aiaaoie aeey oiai, /oiau aa iiaeii) auei caueuaoue.

N oi/ee c?aiey E. Eaeaoina, iiaeii “?aoeeiiaeueii i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
?aa?anne?othuae i?ia?aiiu aei oao ii?, iiea aa ia iaaiieo eiieo?e?othuay
i?ia?aiia, e aeaaea iinea yoiai”. Anaaaea nouanoaoao iaaeaaeaea ia
a?aiaiiinoue iaoaea/. Iaeiaei i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aa?anne?othueo i?ia?aii
iaieioaii aoaeoo noaeeeaaoueny ni anaaic?anoathueie
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeie e yeiiiie/aneeie i?iaeaiaie.

Eiia/ii, ieeoi ia cai?auaao o/aiiio ?ac?aaaouaaoue oo i?ia?aiio, eioi?ay
aio i?aaeony. Iaeiaei iauanoai ia aoaeao ieacuaaoue aio iiaeaea?aeee.

“?aaeaeoi?u iao/iuo aeo?iaeia, — ieoao E. Eaeaoin, — noaioo
ioeacuaaoueny ioaeeeiaaoue eo noaouee, eioi?ua a iauai aoaeoo
niaea?aeaoue eeai oe?ieiaauaoaeueiua ia?aoi?ioee?iaee eo iiceoeee, eeai
eceiaeaiea eiio?i?eia?ia (eee aeaaea eiieo?e?othueo i?ia?aii)
iin?aaenoaii eeiaaenoe/aneeo ooeu?aiee ad hoc. I?aaiecaoeee,
noaneaee?othuea iaoeo, aoaeoo ioeacuaaoue ei a oeiaine?iaaiee…”

“ss ia ooaa?aeaeath, — caia/aao ii, — /oi oaeea ?aoaiey iaycaoaeueii
aoaeoo aannii?iuie. A iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo neaaeoao iie?aoueny ia cae?aaue
niune” [4].

A naieo ?aaioao Eaeaoin iieacuaaao, /oi a enoi?ee iaoee i/aiue ?aaeei
ano?a/athony ia?eiaeu, eiaaea aac?acaeaeueii ainiiaenoaoao iaeia
i?ia?aiia (ia?aaeeaia), eae yoi ooaa?aeaeae Eoi. Iau/ii a ethaie iao/iie
aeenoeeieeia nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii. O.i. enoi?ey ?acaeoey iaoee, ii
Eaeaoino, – yoi enoi?ey ai?ueau e niaiu eiieo?e?othueo
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii, eioi?ua ni?aaiothony ia iniiaa eo
ya?enoe/aneie neeu a iauyniaiee yiie?e/aneeo oaeoia, i?aaeaeaeaiee iooae
?acaeoey iaoee e i?eiyoee eiio?ia? i?ioea ineaaeaiey yoie neeu.
Eiieo?aioeey iaaeaeo ieie, acaeiiay e?eoeea, /a?aaeiaaiea ia?eiaeia
?anoeaaoa e oiaaeea i?ia?aii i?eaeatho ?acaeoeth iaoee oio ?aaeueiue
ae?aiaoeci iao/iiai iienea, eioi?ue ionoonoaoao a eoiianeie
iiiiia?aaeeaiaeueiie “ii?iaeueiie iaoea” [1].

O.a. ii nooe aeaea, caeanue E. Eaeaoin aini?iecaiaeeo a eiuo oa?ieiao,
a aieaa aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiii aeaea eoiianeoth eiioeaioeeth ?acaeoey
iaoee ia iniiaa ia?aaeeai. Iaeiaei i?e eioa?i?aoaoeee aeaeaeoueo i?e/ei
niaiu enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii, eiie?aoiuo iaoaieciia ?acaeoey iaoee
Eaeaoin ia ?acaeaeyao acaeyaeu Eoia. Ii aeaeeo a iaoea aioo?aiithth e
aiaoithth enoi?eth. Aioo?aiiyy enoi?ey iaoee aace?oaony ia aeaeaeaiee
eaeae, iaoiaeieiaee, iaoiaeee iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey, oi, /oi, ii neiaai
Eaeaoina, ninoaaeyao nianoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea iaoee. Aiaoiyy enoi?ey –
yoi oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee iaoee e ee/iinoiua oaeoi?u iao/iiai
enneaaeiaaiey. Eoi iiae/a?eeaae ia?iiiia cia/aiea yoeo “aiaoieo
oaeoi?ia”, Eaeaoin aea ioaeaao ei aoi?inoaiaiiia cia/aiea [7].

Iiea iaoea nei?aa iioiaea ia iiea aeoau enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii,
/ai ia nenoaio eciee?iaaiiuo ino?iaeia. «C?aeay iaoea ninoieo ec
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii, ia noieueei i?aaeainoeuathueo iiaua oaeou,
neieueei euoueo aniiiiaaoaeueiua oai?ee, a yoii, a ioee/ea io a?oaie
noaiu “i?iaa?ea-e-ioeaea”, aa ya?enoe/aneay neea». Neaainoue
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii ia?enecia e o?aeaeecia Eaeaoin aeaeae
eiaiii a iaaeiioeaiea ?iee aniiiiaaoaeueiuo aeiioac, eiaaea io?aaeaieth
iaeieo oaeoia ia niioonoaiaaei i?aaeainoeuaiea ae?oaeo iaiau/iuo oaeoia.

Au?iaeeaoaeny iacuaaao Ei?a Eaeaoin enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth i?ia?aiio
ia?enecia. «Eaeie iiaue oaeo aue i?aaeneacai ia?eneciii, neaaeai,
ia/eiay n 1917 aiaea?» Aioeiao/iuie iacuaaao ii ecaanoiua i?aaeneacaiey
ia aaniethoiii iaieuaiee ?aai/aai eeanna, i a?yaeouae ?aaiethoeee a
iaeaieaa ?acaeouo eiaeono?eaeueiuo aea?aeaaao, ia ionoonoaee
i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo nioeeaeenoe/aneeie no?aiaie. Neaiaeaeueiue i?iaae
iiaeiaiuo i?i?i/anoa ia?enenou iauyniyee niiieoaeueiie «oai?eae
eiia?eaeecia» (aeey oiai /oiau naeaeaoue ?inneth «eieuaaeueth»
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee). Iaoeenue «iauyniaiey» e Aa?eeio 1953 a.,
e Aoaeaiaooo 1956-ai, e I?aaa 1968-ai, e ?onnei-eeoaeneiio eiioeeeoo.

Ia caiaoeoue: anee i?ia?aiia Iuethoiia i?eaaea e ioe?uoeth iiauo oaeoia,
oi Ia?eniaa oai?ey inoaeanue iicaaee oaeoia, aeaaay iauyniaiey aaeiaiieo
niauoeyi. A yoi, ioia/aao Eaeaoin, neiioiiu noaaiaoeee e au?iaeaeaiey. A
1979 a. e yoie i?iaeaia aa?ioeny Aeaeii Oi??ie a i/a?ea «Eae
iaoiaeieiaey i?ia?aii enneaaeiaaiey oeo/oaao iaoiaeieiaeth Iiiia?a».
Iaoea, iiae/a?eioe ii, ii nooe naiae aeeiaie/ia: eeai iia ?anoao e
inoaaony iaoeie, eeai inoaiaaeeaaaony e en/acaao eae iaoea. Ia?eneci
ia?anoae auoue iaoeie, eae oieueei ia?anoae ?anoe [3].

O.i. eiioeaioeey enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii E. Eaeaoina iiaeao, eae
yoi ii nai aeaiiino?e?oao, auoue i?eiaiaia e e naiie iaoiaeieiaee iaoee.

3. Oi?iaeeci a iaoea

E. Eaeaoin oaeaeyao aieiaiea i?iaeaia iao/iiai oi?iaeecia. Yoie
i?iaeaiu ii eanaaony a naiae eieaa “Aeieacaoaeuenoaa e ii?iaa?aeaiey” e
i?ineaaeeaaao aa ia iniiaa oeeinioee iaoaiaoeee, eae iaeaieaa aeeceiio
iai?aaeaieth oeeinioee iaoee.

Eieaa E. Eaeaoina yaeyaony eae au i?iaeieaeaieai eieae A. Iieuey –
“Iaoaiaoeea e aeiionoeiua ?annoaeaeaiey” (Eiiaeii, 1954). ?acia?aa
aii?inu, eanathueany aicieeiiaaiey aeiaaaeee e aa i?iaa?ee, Iieuey a
naiae eieaa inoaiiaeeny ia oaca aeieacaoaeuenoaa; enneaaeiaaieth yoie
oacu E. Eaeaoin e iinayoee yoo eieao [6].

E. Eaeaoin ieoao, /oi a enoi?ee iunee /anoi neo/aaony, i?e iiyaeaiee
iiaiai iiuiiai iaoiaea auno?i auaeaeaaaony ia aaainoeaio eco/aiea
caaea/, eioi?ua yoei iaoiaeii auoue ?aoaiu, a oi a?aiy eae ana
inoaeueiua eaii?e?othony, aeaaea caauaathony, a eco/aieai aai
i?aiaa?aaatho.

Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi eiaiii yoi eae aoaeoi i?iecioei a iaoai noieaoee a
iaeanoe oeeinioee iaoaiaoeee a ?acoeueoaoa aa no?aieoaeueiiai ?acaeoey.

I?aaeiao iaoaiaoeee ninoieo a oaeie aano?aeoeee iaoaiaoeee, eiaaea
iaoaiaoe/aneea oai?ee caiaiythony oi?iaeueiuie nenoaiaie,
aeieacaoaeuenoaa – iaeioi?uie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoyie oi?ioi ecaanoiuo
oi?ioe, ii?aaeaeaiey – “nie?auaiiuie au?aaeaieyie, eioi?ua “oai?aoe/anee
iaiaycaoaeueiu, ii caoi oeiia?aoe/anee oaeiaiu”.

Oaeay aano?aeoeey auea i?eaeoiaia Aeeueaa?oii, /oiau iieo/eoue iiuioth
oaoieeo enneaaeiaaiey caaea/ iaoiaeieiaee iaoaiaoeee. Ii a ianoa n oai
E. Eaeaoin ioia/aao, /oi nouanoaotho caaea/e, eioi?ua auiaaeatho ec
?aiie iaoaiaoe/aneie aano?aeoeee. A eo /enea iaoiaeyony ana caaea/e,
ioiinyueany e “niaea?aeaoaeueiie” iaoaiaoeea e aa ?acaeoeth, e ana
caaea/e, eanathueany neooaoeeiiiie eiaeee e ?aoaiey iaoaiaoe/aneeo
caaea/. Oa?iei “neooaoeeiiiay eiaeea” i?eiaaeeaaeeo Iiiia?o. Yoio oa?iei
iaicia/athuee eiaeeo i?iaeoeoeaioth, eiaeeo iaoaiaoe/aneiai oai?/anoaa.

Oeieo iaoaiaoe/aneie oeeinioee, eioi?ay no?aieoueny ioiaeaeanoaeoue
iaoaiaoeeo n aa iaoaiaoe/aneie aano?aeoeeae ( a oeeinioeth iaoaiaoeee –
n iaoaiaoaiaoeeie), E. Eaeaoin iacuaaao “oi?iaeenoneie” oeieie. Iaeia ec
naiuo io/aoeeauo oa?aeoa?enoee oi?iaeenoneie iiceoeee iaoiaeeony o
Ea?iaia. Ea?iai o?aaoao, /oiau:

a) oeeinioey auea caiaiaia eiaeeie iaoee…, ii

a) eiaeea iaoee i?aaenoaaeyao ia /oi eiia, eae eiae/aneee neioaenen
ycuea iaoee…,

a) iaoaiaoeea yaeyaony neioaenenii iaoaiaoe/aneiai ycuea.

O.a. oeeinioeth iaoaiaoeee neaaeoao caiaieoue iaoaiaoaiaoeeie.

Oi?iaeeci ii iiaieth E. Eaeaoina ioaeaeyao enoi?eth iaoaiaoeee io
oeeinioee iaoaiaoeee, nianoaaiii aiai?y enoi?ee iaoaiaoeee ia
nouanoaoao. Ethaie oi?iaeeno aeieaeai auoue niaeanai n caia/aieai
?annaea, /oi “Caeiiu iunee” Aoey (Boole, 1854) auee “ia?aie eieaie
eiaaea-eeai iaienaiiie ii iaoaiaoeea. Oi?iaeeci io?eoeaao noaoon
iaoaiaoeee aeey aieueoae /anoe oiai, /oi iau/ii iiieiaeinue eae
aoiaeyuaa a iaoaiaoeeo, e ie/aai ia iiaeao neacaoue ia aa “?acaeoee”.
“Ie iaeei ec “e?eoe/aneeo” ia?eiaeia iaoaiaoe/aneeo oai?ee iiaeao auoue
aeiiouai a oi?iaeenoe/aneia iaai, aaea iaoaiaoe/aneea oai?ee i?aauaatho
eae na?aoeiu, i/euaiiua io anao iyoai caiiie iaaeinoiaa?iinoe. Iaeiaei
oi?iaeenou iau/ii inoaaeytho ioe?uoui iaaieueoie /a?iue oiae aeey
iaaeoeo aiaaeia; anee aeey eaeeo-ieaoaeue “nianae iaoaiaoeee e /aai-oi
ae?oaiai” ieaaeaony aiciiaeiui iino?ieoue oi?iaeueiua nenoaiu, “eioi?ua
a iaeioi?ii niunea aeeth/atho eo”, oi iie iiaoo auoue oiaaea aeiiouaiu”.

Eae ieoao E. Eaeaoin, i?e oaeeo oneiaeyo Iuethoiio i?eoeinue au
i?iaeaeaoue /aou?a aaea, iiea Iaaii, ?annae e Eoaei iiiiaee aio aeacoue
ia iaai, oi?iaeeciaaa aai en/eneaiey aaneiia/ii iaeuo. Aee?ae ieacaeny
aieaa n/anoeeaui: Oaa?oe nian aai aeooo aua i?e aai aeecie. Caeanue E.
Eaeaoin oiiieiaao ia?aaeienaeueiia cao?oaeiaiea iaoaiaoeea: ii
oi?iaeenoneei eee aeaaea ii aeaaeoeoeaenoneei noaiaea?oai ii ia yaeyaony
/anoiui iaoaiaoeeii. Aeue?aeiiia aiai?eo ia “aaniethoiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe
aeey eaaeaeiai iaoaiaoeea, eioi?ue caaioeony ia eioaeeaeooaeueiie
/anoiinoe, i?aaenoaaeyoue naie ?annoaeaeaiey a aeneiiaoe/aneie oi?ia”.

I?e nia?aiaiiii ainiiaenoaa oi?iaeecia E. Eaeaoin ia?ao?ace?oao Eaioa:
enoi?ey iaoaiaoeee, eeoeaoenue ?oeiaiaenoaa oeeinioee, naeaeaeanue
neaiie, oiaaea eae oeeinioey iaoaiaoeee, iiaa?ioaoenue nieiie e iaeaieaa
eio?eaothuei niauoeyi enoi?ee iaoaiaoeee, naeaeaeanue ionoie.

Ii iiaieth Eaeaoina “oi?iaeeci” i?aaeinoaaeyao e?aiinoue eiae/aneie
iiceoeaenoneie oeeinioee. Anee neaaeiaaoue eiae/aneiio iiceoeaecio, oi
ooaa?aeaeaiea eiaao niune oieueei, anee iii yaeyaony “oaaoieiae/aneei”
eee yiie?e/aneei. Oae eae niaea?aeaoaeueiay iaoaiaoeea ia yaeyaony ie
“oaaoieiae/aneie” ie yiie?e/aneie, oi iia aeieaeia auoue aanniuneaiiie,
iia – /enoue acaei?. Caeanue ii iooaeeeaaaony io Oth?eaooa, eioi?ue a
nii?a n Eiie ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iieiaeaiey Aaaeaey ia eiatho niunea. Eiie
n/eoaao, /oi yoe iieiaeaiey yaeythony “ai?ei?iuie enoeiaie”, ii ia
aiaeeoe/aneeie, oi iie ii?iaa?aatho aiaeeoe/aneoth oai?eth ai?ei?iinoe.
Eaeaoin ioiaoee, /oi ieeoi ec ieo ia caia/aao, /oi iniaue noaoon
iieiaeaiee Aaaeaey n yoie oi/ee c?aiey ninoieo a oii, /oi yoe oai?aiu
yaeythony oai?aiaie iaoi?iaeueiie niaea?aeaoaeueiie iaoaiaoeee e /oi a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iie iaa ianoaeaeatho noaoon iaoi?iaeueiie iaoaiaoeee
a /anoiii neo/aa. Oai?ee iaoi?iaeueiie iaoaiaoeee ii?aaeaeaiii yaeythony
aeiaaaeeaie, eioi?ua a?yae ee iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia ai?ei?iua e
aiinoa?ei?iua. O.i. aeiaiaou eiae/aneiai iiceoeaecia aeaaeueiu aeey
enoi?ee e oeeinioee iaoaiaoeee.

E. Eaeaoin a au?aaeaiee iaoiaeieiaey iaoee, oiio?aaeyao neiai
“iaoiaeieiaey” a niunea, aeeceii e “ya?enoeea” Iieuey e Aa?iaena e e
“eiaeea ioe?uoey” eee “neooaoeeiiiie eiaeea” Iiiia?a. Ecuyoea oa?ieia
“iaoiaeieiaey iaoaiaoeee” aeey eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa neiiieia
“iaoaiaoaiaoeee” eiaao oi?iaeenoe/aneee i?eaeon. Yoi iieacuaaao, /oi a
oi?iaeenoneie oeeinioee iaoaiaoeee iao ianoiyuaai ianoa aeey
iaoiaeieiaee eae eiaeee ioe?uoey. Oi?iaeenou n/eoatho, /oi iaoaiaoeea
oiaeaeanoaaiia oi?iaeeciaaiiie iaoaiaoeea.

Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi a oi?iaeeciaaiiie oai?ee iiaeii ioe?uoue aeaa
?yaea aauae:

1. iiaeii ioe?uoue ?aoaiea caaea/, eioi?ua iaoeia Oueth?eiaa (iia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiia/iue nienie i?aaee eee eiia/iia iienaiea
i?ioeaaeo?u a iaoai eiooeoeaiii iiieiaiee aeai?eoia [2]) i?e
iiaeoiaeyuae i?ia?aiia iiaeao ?aoeoue ca eiia/iia a?aiy. Ii ie iaeei
iaoaiaoee ia caeioa?aniaai a oii, /oi au neaaeeoue ca yoei neo/iui
iaoaie/aneei “iaoiaeii”, i?aaeienuaaaiue i?ioeaaeo?aie oaeiai ?aoaiey.

2. iiaeii iaeoe ?aoaiey caaea/ a?iaea: aoaeao ee oai?aiie eee iao
iaeioi?ay oi?ioea oai?ee, a eioi?ie ia onoaiiaeaiu aiciiaeiinoue
ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey, aaea iiaeii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny oieueei
“iaoiaeii” iaoi?aaeyaiie eiooeoeee e oaea/e.

Ii iiaieth E. Eaeaoina, aeey aeeaie iaoaiaoeee iai?eaiaeia yoa i?a/iay
aeueoa?iaoeaa iaoeiiiai ?aoeeiiaeecia e e??aoeeiiaeueiiai ioaaaeuaaiey
aneaioth. Enneaaeiaaoaeue iaoi?iaeueiie iaoaiaoeee aeaao oai?/aneei
iaoaiaoeeai aiaaooth neooaoeeiiioth eiaeeo, eioi?ay ia aoaeao ie
iaoaie/aneie, ie e??aoeeiiaeueiie, ii eioi?ay ieeae ia iiaeao iieo/eoue
i?eciaiey e iiiu?aiey oi?iaeenoneie oeeinioee.

Ii ana oaee ii i?eciaao, /oi enoi?ey iaoaiaoeee e eiaeea
iaoaiaoe/aneiai ioe?uoey, o.a. oeeiaaiac e iioiaaiac iaoaiaoe/aneie
iunee, ia iiaoo auoue ?acaeou aac e?eoeoeecia e ieii/aoaeueiiai ioeaca
io oi?iaeecia.

Oi?iaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey iaoaiaoeee eiaao i/aiue aeoaieea ei?ie. Iia
i?aaenoaaeyao iineaaeiaa caaii a aeeeiiie oeaie aeiaiaoe/aneeo oeeinioee
iaoaiaoeee. Aieaa aeaoo ouny/ eao eaeao nii? iaaeaeo aeiaiaoeeaie e
neaioeeaie. Aeiaiaoeee ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi neeie iaoaai /aeiaa/aneiai
eioaeeaeoa e /oanoa, eee oieueei iaeieo /oanoa, iu iiaeai aeinoe/ue
enoeiu e ociaoue, /oi iu aa aeinoeaee. Neaioeee, ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iu
niaa?oaiii ia iiaeai aeinoe/ue enoeiu, eee /oi aee aeaaea niiaeai aa
aeinoe/ue, oi ia niiaeai ciaoue, /oi iu aa aeinoeaee. A yoii nii?a
iaoaiaoeea auea ai?aeie e?aiinoueth aeiaiaoecia. Aieueoay /anoue
neaioeeia i?eia?eeanue n iai?enooiiinoueth yoie e?aiinoe aeiaianoneie
oai?ee iiciaiey. E. Eaeaoin ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi a?ineoue yoiio aucia –
aeaaii oaea noaei iaiaoiaeeiui [6].

Oaeei ia?acii oeaeue aeaiiie eieae E. Eaeaoina – aucia iaoaiaoe/aneiio
oi?iaeecio.

4. Aeayoaeueiinoue o/aiiai a ?aaiethoeeiiiua

e iaae?aaiethoeeiiiua ia?eiaeu iaoee

A aii?ina aeayoaeueiinoe o/aiiai a ?aaiethoeeiiiua e iaae?aaiethoeeiiiua
ia?eiaeu Eaeaoin auneacuaaao oaeia iiieiaiea eoioeyoeaiuo ia?eiaeia,
eiaaea a eioa?i?aoaoeee iao/iuo oai?ee iu enoiaeei ec i?aaeiinueee, /oi
a oiaea ?aaiethoeee oai?ey aicieeaao ia a iieiinoueth caaa?oaiiie oi?ia
[5].

A ioee/ea io Eoia Eaeaoin ia n/eoaao, /oi aicieeoay a oiaea ?aaiethoeee
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay i?ia?aiia yaeyaony caaa?oaiiie e aiieia
ioi?ieaiiie. Iai?a?uaiinoue iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey a
iinea?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?eiae neeaaeuaaaony, ii neiaai Eaeaoina, ec aua
iayniie a ia/aea enneaaeiaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiu, niooii au?eniauaathuaeny
a ia?niaeoeaa.

I?ia?aiia aunooiaao eae i?iaeo aeaeueiaeoeo enneaaeiaaiee e eae i?iaeo
aa nianoaaiiiai ?acaeoey e ieii/aoaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey. Aei oao ii? iiea
i?iaeieaeaaony oaeia niaa?oainoaiaaiea iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
i?ia?aiiu, Eaeaoin aiai?eo i i?ia?anneaiii aa ?acaeoee. I?ia?anneaiia
?acaeoea caaa?oaaony a iaeioi?ii “ioieoa ianuuaiey”, iinea eioi?iai
ia/eiaaony ?aa?ann. Iieiaeeoaeueiay ya?enoeea i?ia?aiiu ii?aaeaeyao
i?iaeaiu, iiaeeaaeauea ?aoaieth, a oaeaea i?aaeneacuaaao aiiiaeee e
i?aa?auaao eo a iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea i?eia?u. Anee o Eoia aiiiaeee
yaeythony /ai-oi aiaoiei ii ioiioaieth e ia?aaeeaia e aicieeiiaaiea eo
aeey ia?aaeeaiu neo/aeii, oi a eiioeaioeee Eaeaoina aiiiaeee
i?aaeneacuaathony i?ia?aiiie e yaeythony aioo?aiieie aeey
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

I/aiue aaaeiui i?eciaeii i?ia?anneaiiai ?acaeoey i?ia?aiiu Eaeaoin
n/eoaao niiniaiinoue i?ia?aiiu i?aaeneacuaaoue yiie?e/aneea oaeou (a oii
/enea e oa, eioi?ua iiaoo aucaaoue aiiiaeeth). Eiaaea i?ia?aiia ia/eiaao
iauyniyoue oaeou caaeiei /eneii, yoi icia/aao ia/aei aa ?aa?anneaiiai
?acaeoey, iiuue i?ia?aiiu ia/eiaao ennyeaoue.

Aeaaea naiua i?ia?anneaiua enneaaeiaaoaeueneea i?ia?aiiu iiaoo
iauyniyoue naie eiio?i?eia?u, eee aiiiaeee, oieueei iinoaiaiii. ?aaioa
oai?aoeea ii?aaeaeyaony aeieain?i/iie i?ia?aiiie enneaaeiaaiee, eioi?ay
i?aaeneacuaaao e aiciiaeiua ii?iaa?aeaiey naiie i?ia?aiiu.

?acaeoea, niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ia?aiiu a iinea?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?eiae
yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai iao/iiai i?ia?anna.

Eaeaoin aniiieiaao Iuethoiia, i?ace?aaoaai oao ethaeae, eioi?ua,
iiaeiaii Aoeo, cano?aaaee ia ia?aie iaeaiie iiaeaee e ia eiaee
aeinoaoi/ii oii?noaa e niiniaiinoae ?acaeoue aa a enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth
i?ia?aiio, aeoiay, /oi ia?aay aa?ney oaea ia?acoao “ioe?uoea”.

Ii naiiio enoiaeiiio caiuneo Eaeaoina aeayoaeueiinoue o/aiiai a
iaae?aaiethoeeiiiua ia?eiaeu iineo oai?/aneee oa?aeoa? [5].

Eaeei ia?acii ?acaeaaaony, o?ainoi?ie?oaony, eciaiyaony,
niaa?oainoaoaony ia?aiia/aeueii auneacaiiay aeiaaaeea, Eaeaoin ?ane?ue a
naiae eieaa “Aeieacaoaeuenoaa e ii?iaa?aeaiey”.

Aeaaea a oiaea aeieacaoaeuenoaa, iainiiaaiey ciaiey, iieo/aiiiai a oiaea
iineaaeiae aieaa eee iaiaa cia/eoaeueiie ?aaiethoeee, yoi ciaiea
o?ainoi?ie?oaony, iineieueeo, iieaaaao Eaeaoin, “/aeiaae ieeiaaea ia
aeieacuaaao oiai, /oi ii iaia?aaaaony aeieacaoue”. E?iia oiai, oeaeueth
eiae/aneiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ooaa?aeaeaao Eaeaoin, yaeyaony ia
aeinoeaeaiea aaconeiaiie aa?u, a ii?iaeaeaiea niiiaiey.

Ii Eoio, ana iiaua e iiaua iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey ia?aaeeaiu, iieo/athueany a
oiaea ?aoaiey i/a?aaeiuo caaea/-aieiaieiiie, oe?aieytho aaconeiaioth
aa?o a ia?aaeeaio — aa?o, ia eioi?ie aea?aeeony any ii?iaeueiay
aeayoaeueiinoue /eaiia iao/iiai niiauanoaa.

O Eaeaoina i?ioeaaeo?a aeieacaoaeuenoaa enoeiiinoe ia?aiia/aeueiiai
aa?eaioa enneaaeiaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiu i?eaiaeeo ia e aa?a a iaa, a e
niiiaieth, ii?iaeaeaao iio?aaiinoue ia?ano?ieoue, oniaa?oainoaiaaoue,
naeaeaoue yaiuie ne?uoua a iae aiciiaeiinoe. A naiae eieaa Eaeaoin
aiaeece?oao, eaeei ia?acii inouanoaeyaony ?ino ciaiey /a?ac na?eth
aeieacaoaeuenoa e ii?iaa?aeaiee, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo eciaiythony naie
enoiaeiua i?aaeiinueee aeeneonnee e aeieacuaaaony ia oi, /oi
ia?aiia/aeueii i?aaeiieaaaeinue aeieacaoue.

O Eaeaoina a ioee/ea io Eoia ?aaiethoeeiiiay iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay
aeayoaeueiinoue ia yaeyaony i?yiie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth aeayoaeueiinoe
o/aiiai a iaae?aaiethoeeiiiua ia?eiaeu. Yoi naycaii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
n iiieiaieai iao/iie ?aaiethoeee [5].

Iineieueeo a oiaea ?aaiethoeee nicaeaaony eeoue ia?aiia/aeueiue i?iaeo
iiaie iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiu, oi ?aaioa ii aa
ieii/aoaeueiiio nicaeaieth ?ani?aaeaeyaony ia aanue iinea?aaiethoeeiiiue
ia?eiae.

Nienie eniieuecoaiuo enoi/ieeia

1. Aoaei A.Ae. e ae?. Oeeinioey. – I.; 1997. – 432n.

?aeeoia A.E. Oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu iaoee. – I.; 1977. – 270n.

Aeaeiaaiie ?aaea, Aea?ei Aioena?e. Caiaaeiay oeeinioey io enoieia aei
iaoeo aeiae. – E.; 1997.

4. Oeeinioey e iaoiaeieiaey iaoee. *anoue1. – I.; 1994. – 304n.

5. Oeeinioey e iaoiaeieiaey iaoee. *anoue2. – I.; 1994. – 200n.

Ei?a Eaeaoin. Aeieacaoaeuenoaa e ii?iaa?aeaiey. – I.; 1967. – 152n.

?aaeoaei A.A. Oeeinioey. Eo?n eaeoeee. – I.; 1995. – 304n.

AEanoeia

yae?i

Iaaaoeaiay ya?enoeea

Iiceoeaiay ya?enoeea

O1 – – – O2 – – – O3 – – – O4 – – –

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