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IEIENOA?NOAI IAUAAI E I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI

IA?ACIAAIEss ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

EAIA?IANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

?AOA?AO

II AeENOeEIEEIA “INEOIEIAEss EE*IINOE”

OAIA: Eeethcee aini?eyoey, eee anaaaea ee iu aeaeei oi,

/oi aeaeei.

Auiieieee nooaeaiou a?oiiu Y-962:

Eaiaoueaa A.I.

Eociaoeia A.N.

sseoiei A.A.

I?iaa?eea: Aa?oaaneay A.ss.

Eaia?iai 1997

Niaea?aeaiea.

Aaaaeaiea.
3

Eeethcee c?aiey.
4

1. Eeethcee, naycaiiua n iniaaiiinoyie no?iaiey aeaca.

2. “Oeaeia” e “/anoue”.

3. Ia?aioeaiea aa?oeeaeueiuo eeiee.

4. I?aoaaee/aiea ino?uo oaeia.

5. Iaiythueeny ?aeueao e ia?niaeoeaa.

6. “Oeao?a” e “oii”.

7. Ii?o?aoiua eeethcee.

8. Eeethcee i?e aeaeaeaiee iauaeoa.

9. Eeethcee oeaaoiaiai c?aiey.

10. Eeethcee aini?eyoey ?acia?a.

11. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aaaaeaiea.

Aini?eyoea – yoi io?aaeaiea i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee a niaieoiiinoe eo
naienoa e /anoae i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii aicaeaenoaee eo ia i?aaiu /oanoa.
Iii aeeth/aao a naay i?ioeue iiuo /aeiaaea a aeaea i?aaenoaaeaiee e
ciaiee.

?anniio?ei ea?athuaai ia eoaeaeea uaiea. Ii eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth oi?io,
?acia?u e ie?aneo; a eaaeaeue iiiaio a?aiaie ii caieiaao a i?ino?ainoaa
ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi, iaoiaeyuaany io ian ia ii?aaeaeaiiii ?annoiyiee e a
ii?aaeaeaiiii iai?aaeaiee; iu aeaeei aai oi aeaeaeoueiny, oi
iaiiaeaeaeiui; ii auaeyaeeo eae ieioiia oaei, o.a. eae iauaeo, o
eioi?iai iiaeii iio?iaaoue oieueei iiaa?oiinoue, a ioee/ea, neaaeai, io
aiaeu eee iaaa. Ie?anea uaiea yaeyaony naienoaii iiaa?oiinoe aai oaea,
o.a. aai iiaa?oiinoue eiaao oeaao. Anee ii noaeeeaaaony n iaaieueoei
i?aaeiaoii, o ian nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi uaiie yaeyaony i?e/eiie
aai aeaeaeaiey. Ana yoi aini?eieiaaony iaie i?e iiiiue c?aiey. Ii iu
oaeaea neuoei aai eae, e yoio caoe eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth aunioo,
a?iieinoue e oaia? e enoiaeeo ec ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe i?ino?ainoaa,
oaeoe/anee ec oiai ianoa, a eioi?ii iu aeaeei uaiea. Iu aini?eieiaai aai
a niaieoiiinoe naienoa, a ec iaoaai i?ioeiai iiuoa iu ciaai, /oi ia?aae
iaie – uaiie. Aini?eieiaaiua ea/anoaa, oaeea, eae oeaao, ?acia? e o.i.
inoathony iinoiyiiuie e ia caaenyo io oiai /oi, iai?eia?, ecia?aaeaiea
ia nao/aoea aeac iinoiyiii iaiyaony. Oae, iai ia eaaeaony, /oi a oaie
uaiie iaiyao naith ie?aneo eee /oi aai ?acia?u oaaee/eaathony eee
oiaiueoathony a caaeneiinoe io oiai, i?eaeeaeaaony eee oaeaeyaony ii io
ian.

Yoi iiaeii iauynieoue oai, /oi i?ioeann aini?eyoey i?ioaeaao a nayce n
ae?oaeie ineoieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie ee/iinoe: iuoeaieai (iu iniciaai
oi, /oi ia?aae iaie iaoiaeeony), ?a/ueth (iu iiaeai iniciaoue, /oi
ia?aae iaie oieueei eiaaea aini?eieiaaiiio ia?ac iu iiaeai aai iacaaoue:
uaiie), /oanoaaie (ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii ioiineiny e oiio, /oi
aini?eieiaai), aieae (a oie eee eiie oi?ia i?iecaieueii i?aaiecoai
i?ioeann aini?eyoey). Ana yoi aaaeao ia nianai aaeaeaaoiiio aini?eyoeth,
e eneaaeaieth aini?eieiaaiiai iauaeoa, a oii /enea aaaeao e e
eneaaeaieth c?eoaeueiiai ia?aca, e iiyaeaieth oae iacuaaaiuo eeethcee
c?aiey.

Eeethcee c?aiey.

Neieueei ?ac aea?aai i?eieiaeinue ca i?iaeieaeaiea aei?iae, a oaiue io
neaeu – ca iiai?io? No?aoiaua eiiiaiee ?aniieaaatho noaoenoeeie,
aeieacuaathuae, /oi io c?eoaeueiiai ia?aca aei ?aaeueiinoe – oeaeay
i?iianoue…

?iaea aea ey Oae.

Iioe/aneea eeethcee, eee

Aeaaa?a iaaiciiaeiiai.

Ecaanoii, /oi iaoa c?aiea ianiaa?oaiii e eiiaaea iu aeaeei ia oi, /oi
nouanoaoao a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ii oio oaeo, /oi ia?iiiia aieueoeinoai
ethaeae iieo/atho eiiaaea iaeeiaeiaua ioeai/iua c?eoaeueiua aia/aoeaiey,
aiai?eo ia iauaeoeaiinoe iaoaai c?aiey e i oii, /oi iii, aeiiieiyaiia
iuoeaieai e i?aeoeeie, aeaao iai ioiineoaeueii oi/iua naaaeaiey i
i?aaeiaoao aiaoiaai ie?a. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oio oaeo, /oi ?aciua ethaee
a i?ioeanna c?eoaeueiiai aini?eyoey iaeaaeatho ?acee/iie niiniaiinoueth
ioeaaoueny, eiiaaea aeaeyo a i?aaeiaoao oi, /aai ae?oaea ia caia/atho,
aiai?eo i noauaeoeaiinoe iaoeo c?eoaeueiuo iuouaiee e ia eo
ioiineoaeueiinoe.

Aiai?y a iauai i i?e/eiao c?eoaeueiuo eeethcee (ioeaie, iaiaiia),
neaaeoao, ai-ia?auo, oeacaoue, /oi eiiaaea iie iiyaeythony aneaaenoaea
niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiuo, iniauo oneiaee iaaethaeaiey, iai?eia?:
iaaethaeaiea iaeiei aeacii, iaaethaeaiea i?e iaiiaeaeaeiuo inyo aeac,
iaaethaeaiea /a?ac uaeue e o.i. Oaeea eeethcee en/acatho i?e ono?aiaiee
iaiau/iuo oneiaee iaaethaeaiey.

Ai-aoi?uo, iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai eeethcee c?aiey aicieeaao ia ec-ca
iioe/aneiai niaa?oainoaa aeaca, a ec-ca eiaeiiai noaeaeaiey i aeaeeiii,
iiyoiio iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi iaiai caeanue aicieeaao i?e iniuneeaaiee
c?eoaeueiiai ia?aca. Oaeea eeethcee en/acatho i?e eciaiaiee oneiaee
iaaethaeaiey, i?e auiieiaiee i?inoaeoeo n?aaieoaeueiuo ecia?aiee, i?e
eneeth/aiee iaeioi?uo oaeoi?ia, iaoathueo i?aaeeueiiio aini?eyoeth.

Iaeiiaoe, ecaanoai ?yae eeethcee, iaoneiaeaiiuo e iioe/aneei
ianiaa?oainoaii aeaca, iaeioi?uie iniauie naienoaaie ?acee/iuo
aiaeecaoi?ia, o/anoaothueo a c?eoaeueiii i?ioeanna (nao/aoea, ?aoeaenu
ia?aia).

E eeethceyi c?aiey ia ioiinyony iioe/aneea oieonu e caaaaei/iua
i?eaeaeaiey, nicaeaaaaiua i?e iiiiue ca?eae, i?iaeoeeiiiuo aiia?aoia e
ae?oaeo oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa, a oaeaea eioa?aniua iioe/aneea yaeaiey,
eiiaaea iaaethaeaaiua a i?e?iaea (ie?aaee, naaa?iua neyiey). Iiyaeaiea
iineaaeieo iaoneiaeaii iioe/aneeie naienoaaie caiiie aoiinoa?u. Ai anao
yoeo neo/ayo iao aeac ioeaaaony iioiio, /oi aai oiuoeaiii iaiaiuaatho
eee i?e iiiiue oaoie/aneeo i?eniiniaeaiee, eee ca n/ao iniaiai ninoiyiey
N?aaeu iaaeaeo aeacii e iauaeoii iaaethaeaiey. Oaeaea ia yaeythony
eeethceyie aini?eyoey iaiaiu c?aiey, aicieeathuea o iaeioi?uo ethaeae a
noia?eao e oaiiioa, eiaaea iaaeinoaoi/iia inaauaiea cao?oaeiyao ?aaioo
aeac e nicaeaao iniaia iano?iaiea e eneaaeaiey iuouaiee a ?acoeueoaoa
aeeci?oeinoe, aeaeueiici?einoe, aeaeueoiiecia e ae?oaeo aeaoaeoia
c?eoaeueiiai aiia?aoa, ia oa?aeoa?iuo aeey aieueoeinoaa ethaeae.

1.Eeethcee, naycaiiua n iniaaiiinoyie no?iaiey aeaca.

Cae?uoue eaaue aeac e iiniio?aoue i?aaui ia oeao?o, ecia?aaeaiioth
neaaa, aea?aea ?enoiie ia ?annoiyiee 15-20 ni. io aeaca. I?e iaeioi?ii
iieiaeaiee ?enoiea ioiineoaeueii aeaca ecia?aaeaiea i?aaie oeao?u
ia?anoaao auoue aeaeeiui.

Neaiia iyoii. Iaee/ea neaiiai iyoia ia nao/aoie iaiei/ea aeaca aia?aua
ioe?ue a 1668 a. ecaanoiue o?aioeocneee oecee Y.Ia?eioo. Aeaei a oii,
/oi nao/aoay iaiei/ea aeaca a oii ianoa, aaea a aeac aoiaeeo c?eoaeueiue
ia?a, ia eiaao naaoi/oanoaeoaeueiuo ieii/aiee ia?aiuo aieieii. Iiyoiio
ecia?aaeaiey i?aaeiaoia, i?eoiaeyoeony ia yoi ianoi nao/aoee, ia
ia?aaeathony a iica e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia aini?eieiathony. Neaiia
iyoii, eacaeinue au, aeieaeii iaoaoue iai aeaeaoue aanue i?aaeiao, ii a
iau/iuo oneiaeyo iu yoiai ia caia/aai. Ai-ia?auo, iioiio /oi
ecia?aaeaiey i?aaeiaoia, i?eoiaeyueany ia neaiia iyoii a iaeiii aeaco, a
ae?oaii i?iaeoe?othony ia ia neaiia iyoii; ai-aoi?uo, iioiio, /oi
auiaaeathuea /anoe i?aaeiaoa iaaieueii caiaiythony ia?acaie ninaaeieo
/anoae eee oiia ie?oaeathueie yoio i?aaeiao (ia ?enoiea en/acathuay
oeao?a caiaiyaony aaeui oiiii).

E??aaeeaoeey. ssaeaiea e??aaeeaoeee (ii-eaouie – iai?aaeeueiia
eceo/aiea) ninoieo a oii, /oi naaoeua i?aaeiaou ia oaiiii oiia eaaeoony
aieaa oaaee/aiiuie i?ioea naieo ianoiyueo ?acia?ia e eae au caoaaouaatho
/anoue oaiiiai oiia. Eiaaea iu ?anniao?eaaai naaoeoth iiaa?oiinoue ia
oaiiii oiia, aneaaenoaea ianiaa?oainoaa o?onoaeeea eae au ?acaeaeaathony
a?aieoeu yoie iiaa?oiinoe, e yoa iiaa?oiinoue eaaeaony iai aieueoa naieo
enoeiiuo aaiiao?e/aneeo ?acia?ia. Ia ?enoiea ca n/ao y?einoe oeaaoia
aaeue eaaae?ao eaaeaony cia/eoaeueii aieueoei ioiineoaeueii /a?iiai
eaaae?aoa ia aaeii oiia.

2. ”Oeaeia” e “/anoue”.

I/aiue iiiaea ioeai/iua c?eoaeueiua aia/aoeaiey iaoneiaeaiu oai, /oi iu
aini?eieiaaiua iaie oeao?u e eo /anoe ia ioaeaeueii, a anaaaea a
iaeioi?ii niioiioaiee n ie?oaeathueie eo ae?oaeie oeao?aie, iaeioi?ui
oiiii eee ianoaiiaeie. E yoiio ?acaeaeo ioiineony, iiaeaeoe, naiia
aieueoia eiee/anoai c?eoaeueiuo eeethcee, ano?a/athueony a i?aeoeea. Ana
iie iiaoo auoue ?acaeaeaiu ia iyoue a?oii.

Ai-ia?auo, n?aaieaay aeaa oeao?u, ec eioi?uo iaeia aeaenoaeoaeueia
iaiueoa ae?oaie, iu ioeai/ii aini?eieiaai ana /anoe iaiueoae oeao?u
iaiueoeie, a ana /anoe aieueoie – aieueoeie (“oeaeia aieueoa – aieueoa e
aai /anoe”). Yoi oi?ioi aeaeii, neaaeai, ia i?eia?a n eeiaeeie: eaaue
io?acie ia iae eaaeaony iai aieueoa aeeeiiaa i?aaiai, oioy ia naiii
aeaea iie ?aaiu. Yoi iaoneaaeeaaaony ineoieiae/aneei aniaeoii
aini?eyoey. Ia aeaoo ae?oaeo ?enoieao i?aaua oeao?u aieueoa eaauo
(oeao?u a oeaeii), iaeiaei ioia/aiiua aoeaaie /anoe yoeo oeao? ?aaiu
ioia/aiiui aoeaaie /anoyi eaauo oeao?, oioy iie e eaaeoony cia/eoaeueii
e?oiiaa. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi naienoaa oeao?u iu ioeai/ii
ia?aiinei ia a? /anoe.

Ai-aoi?uo, ano?a/athony neo/ae eeethcee oiai aea ?iaea n oie oieueei
?acieoeae, /oi noaeaeaiea i c?eoaeueiii ia?aca eaeao a ia?aoiii
iai?aaeaiee: ia io “oeaeiai” e “/anoe”, a io “/anoe” e “oeaeiio”. Ia
?enoiea aeeaiao? e?oaa eaaeaony aieueoa ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo eeieyie AB e
CD; ia naiii aeaea ii ?aaai yoiio ?annoiyieth.

A-o?aoueeo, i?e aini?eyoee oeao? a oeaeii e ioaeaeueiuo eo /anoae
(eeiee, oaeu, ioaeaeueiua aeaoaee) c?eoaeueiua eeethcee iiaoo eiaoue
ianoi aneaaenoaea oae iacuaaaiiai iauaineoieiae/aneiai caeiia eiio?anoa,
o.a. ianoaiiaee, ie?oaeaiey yoeo /anoae e eo acaeiinayce n ae?oaeie
/anoyie oeao?u. Aio i?eia?: ia ?enoiea neaaa e?oa, i?eiueathuee aeeaea e
noi?iiai ino?iai oaea, eaaeaony aieueoa, /ai ae?oaie, oiaaea eae eo
?acia?u iaeeiaeiau. Ia ae?oaii ?enoiea aioo?aiiee e?oa neaaa eaaeaony
aieueoa i?aaiai aioo?aiiaai e?oaa. Yoi iauyniyaony ia eiio?anoii y?einoe
eee oeaaoiaii eiio?anoa, eioi?ue caeanue ie/oiaeii iae eee aiana
ionoonoaoao, a a iniaaiiinoyo aini?eyoey oeao?u e oiia.

A-/aoaa?ouo, ecaanoiu eeethcee, i?e/eia eioi?uo e?iaony a oiiaeiaeaiee
(anneieeyoeee) iaeiie /anoe oeao?u ae?oaie. Ia i?eaiaeeiii ?enoiea
i?yiay eanaoaeueiay ei anai e?oaeeai ?aciuo ?aaeeonia eaaeaony e?eaie,
oae eae iu iaaieueii oiiaeiaeyai a? aa?oiae e?eaieeiaeiie a?aieoea.
(Eeethcey N.Oiiiniia).

Iaeiiaoe, neaaeoao oeacaoue ia iineaaeithth a?oiio eeethcee, naycaiiuo
ni c?eoaeueiui aini?eyoeai oeaeiai e /anoe, i?e/eia eioi?uo e?iaony a
ianiiniaiinoe c?eoaeueiiai aiia?aoa eiiaaea auaeaeeoue /anoue ec oeaeiai
ec-ca neiaeiinoe ianoaiiaee. Iai?eia?, a aanii?yaeea eeiee iaeiiai
oeaaoa, y?einoe e oieueiu ia n?aco iiaeii auaeaeeoue (?aniiciaoue)
eaeoth-oi ii?aaeaeaiioth oeao?o.

3. Ia?aioeaiea aa?oeeaeueiuo eeiee.

A neeo enoi?e/anee iaeiieaiiiai iiuoa, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aeaaiaea?y
?aniieiaeaieth eeiee, niaaeeiythuae aeaca /aeiaaea a ai?eciioaeueiie
ieineinoe, n ae?oaie, /aeiaae iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth oi/iaa
ii?aaeaeeoue ia aeac ai?eciioaeueiua ?annoiyiey, /ai aunioo i?aaeiaoia.
Iiyoiio aieueoeinoai ethaeae iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth i?aoaaee/eaaoue
aa?oeeaeueiua i?ioyaeaiiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n ai?eciioaeueiuie, e yoi
oaeaea i?eaiaeeo e eeethceyi c?aiey. Anee i?aaeeiaeeoue ?yaeo eeoe
ia/a?oeoue aa?oeeaeueioth e ai?eciioaeueioth eeiee iaeeiaeiaie aeeeiu,
oi a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia/a?/aiiua aa?oeeaeueiua eeiee aoaeoo ei?i/a
ai?eciioaeueiuo. I?e aeaeaiee ia aeac aa?oeeaeueiie eeiee iiiieai iau/ii
na?aaeeia ieacuaaaony neeoeii auniei (yoi ynii aeaeii ec i?eaiaeeiiai
?enoiea).

Aa?oeeaeueiua ia?aeeaeueiua eeiee i?e cia/eoaeueiie eo aeeeia iau/ii
eaaeoony a aa?oiae /anoe neaaea ?anoiaeyueieny, a ai?eciioaeueiua –
noiaeyueieny.

E ?anniao?eaaaiie a?oiia eeethcee ioiinyony oaeaea eeethcee
caiieiaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa. Caiieiaiiia i?ino?ainoai, ii eioi?iio aeac
neieueceo ai?eciioaeueii, oaeeeiyaony (niio?eoa ?enoiie) Oae, iai?eia?,
ia ii?a ana ?annoiyiey eaaeoony iaiueoeie, oae eae aani?aaeaeueiue
i?inoi? ii?y yaeyaony i?ino?ainoaii iaiiae?acaeaeaiiui. Caeaiey,
oe?aoaiiua oeao?aie e i?iaiaioaie, eaaeoony iai aieueoa naiae
aeaenoaeoaeueiie aaee/eiu.

Ia ae?oaii ?enoiea iai eaaeaony, /oi i?aaay oeao?a oaea e auoa (acaeyae
neieueceo ii aa?oeeaee) eaaie oeao?u. Ia naiii aeaea iaa yoe oeao?u –
i?aaeeueiua caoo?eoiaaiiua eaaae?aou n ?aaiuie noi?iiaie. Cia/eo,
caiieiaiiia i?ino?ainoai iai anaaaea eaaeaony oe?a iacaiieiaiiiai e ii
ai?eciioaee e ii aa?oeeaee? Iaeiaei yoi ia anaaaea oae, e iiiaia a yoii
caaeneo io iai?aaeaiey, ii eioi?iio neieueceo iao acaeyae, no?aiynue
aini?eiyoue oeao?o.

4. I?aoaaee/aiea ino?uo oaeia.

Iiiaea eeethcee iauyniythony niiniaiinoueth iaoaai c?aiey
i?aoaaee/eaaoue aeaeeiua iaie ia ieineeo oeao?ao ino?ua oaeu. Aiciiaeii,
yoiai ?iaea eeethcee iiyaeythony ec-ca yaeaiey e??aaeeaoeee, oae eae
?anoe?yaony aeaeeiia iaie naaoeia i?ino?ainoai ieiei oaiiuo eeiee,
ia?aie/eaathueo ino?ue oaie. Aiciiaeii oaeaea, ino?ue oaie oaaee/eaaaony
ii i?e/eia iauaineoieiae/aneiai eiio?anoa, oae /anoi ino?ua oaeu eaaeao
?yaeii n ooiuie, e aeeyiea ieacuaaao ianoaiiaea. Aieueoia cia/aiea yoeo
eeethcee eiaao iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey aeac e eo iiaeaeaeiinoue aiiaua.
Anee eiaaony eceii eeiee, oi iao aeac a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue “noaaouaaao”
ino?ue oaie, oae eae inue iiey c?aiey ia?aiauaaony nia/aea ii
e?ao/aeoaio iai?aaeaieth e eeoue caoai ianeaaeoao noi?iiu ooiuo oaeia.

Ino?ua oaeu anaaaea eaaeoony aieueoeie, /ai anoue ia naiii aeaea, e
iiyoiio iiyaeythony ii?aaeaeaiiua eneaaeaiey a enoeiiii niioiioaiee
/anoae aeaeeiie oeao?u. Ia ?enoiea ia?aeeaeueiua i?yiua eeiee
aneaaenoaea aeeyiey oiia eaaeoony iaia?aeeaeueiuie e eciaioouie.

Eiiaaea eciaiaiea iai?aaeaiey eeiee e eneaaeaiea oi?iu oeao?u
i?ienoiaeeo oaeaea ec-ca oiai, /oi aeac neaaeeo ca iai?aaeaieyie ae?oaeo
eeiee, iaoiaeyueony a iiea c?aiey. Oaeei ia?acii, aiciiaeiu neo/ae
ni/aoaiey i?e/ei, aucuaathueo eeethceth c?aiey, iai?eia? i?aoaaee/aiea
ino?uo oaeia e ineoieiae/aneee eiio?ano, eee iaeiiai ec yoeo
ianoiyoaeuenoa, e oiai, /oi acaeyae neieueceo ii ie?oaeathuei a? eeieyi
oiia. Ia i?eaiaeeiii ?enoiea i?yiieeiaeiua noi?iiu eaaae?aoa eaaeoony
ene?eaeaiiuie, a aanue eaaae?ao – aeaoi?ie?iaaiiui.

5. Iaiythueeny ?aeueao e ia?niaeoeaa.

Eioa?aniua c?eoaeueiua eeethcee eiatho ianoi i?e oneiaeyo aeaeeiiai iaie
?aeueaoa eee aeoaeiu ?enoiea. Aicieeiiaaiea yoeo eeethcee naycaii ni
niiniaiinoueth aeaca aeaeaoue i?aaeiaou ia ?aciuo ?annoiyieyo, ni
niiniaiinoueth aini?eieiaoue i?ino?ainoai ii y?einoe i?aaeiaoia, ii eo
oaiyi e ii /eneo i?iiaaeooi/iuo iauaeoia. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yoe
eeethcee aicieeatho e a i?ioeanna iniuneeaaiey aeaeeiiai. Iica,
aini?eieiay i?aaeiao, eneaaeaao aeaeeiia iaie ?aeueaoiia ecia?aaeaiea.
I?eia?ii oiio neoaeeo i?eaiaeeiue ?enoiie: eoa oi eaaeaony aeaeeiui
naa?oo, oi naieo; ?ane?uoay eieaa oi eaaeaony ecia?aaeaiiie ei?aoeii e
iai, oi ei?aoeii io ian. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo eae ii iaoaio aeaeaieth, oae e
iai?iecaieueii e eiiaaea aeaaea iaia?aei? iaoaio aeaeaieth.

Iu /anoi aeaeei noiaeyueany aaeaee ia?aeeaeueiua eeiee (iieioii
aeaeaciie aei?iae, oinna e o.i.). Yoi yaeaiea iacuaaaony ia?niaeoeaie.
*oiau ecia?aceoue ia ?enoiea iaeioi?oth /anoue i?ino?ainoaa,
caiieiaiioth i?aaeiaoaie, oae, /oiau ?enoiie i?iecaiaeee aia/aoeaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iaiaoiaeeii oiaoue iieueciaaoueny caeiiaie
ia?niaeoeau. Ana eeiee ia yoii ?enoiea, eaeouea a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
ia?aeeaeueii iiaa?oiinoe, aeieaeiu auoue ecia?aaeaiu noiaeyueieny a
iaeioi?ie oi/ea ai?eciioa, iacuaaaiie “oi/eie noiaea”. Eeiee aea,
eaeouea iiae ?aciuie oaeaie, aeieaeiu noiaeeony ii oo eee ae?oaoth
noi?iio “oi/ee noiaea” oai aeaeueoa io iaa, /ai iiae aieueoei oaeii e
eeiee i?yiiai c?aiey iie i?ioiaeyo. Ec yoeo oi/ae iniaaiii
caia/aoaeueiie yaeyaony oi/ea, aaea noiaeyony eeiee, eaeouea iiae oaeii
45 a?aaeonia e eeiee i?yiiai c?aiey; yoa oi/ea iacuaaaony “oi/eie
ioaeaeaiey”. Iia caia/aoaeueia oai, /oi anee iai?ioea ia? iiianoeoue
aeac ia ?annoiyiee ?aaiii ?annoiyieth io “oi/ee noiaea” aei “oi/ee
ioaeaeaiey”, oi ?enoiie i?iecaiaeeo aia/aoeaiea iauaiiinoe.
Ia?niaeoeaiia aini?eyoea i?ino?ainoaa, au?aaioaiiia iiiaiaaeiaie
yaiethoeeae c?aiey, /aeiaae ia?aiineo e ia ?anniao?eaaaiua ei ea?oeiu e
oioia?aoee, ia eioi?uo ecia?aaeaiu ?aciioaeaeaiiua i?aaeiaou. Ia ?enoiea
ei?eaei? eaaeaony iauaiiui eiaiii aeaaiaea?y ia?niaeoeaa: ei?eaei? ia
iai ooiaeeo aaeoaue, a iie ninoieo ec i?yiioaieueieeia.

6. “Oeao?a” e “oii”.

Caeanue iu ?anniio?ei ?yae eeethcee c?aiey, iaoneiaeaiiuo aeeyieai
eiio?anoa y?einoe, o.a. ioiioaiey ?aciinoe y?einoae iauaeoa e oiia e
y?einoe oiia. Ai-ia?auo, ia aieaa oaiiii oiia iu aeaeei oeao?u aieaa
naaoeuie e, iaiai?io, ia naaoeii – aieaa oaiiuie. Ai-aoi?uo, i?e
aini?eyoee oeao?u e oiia iu neeiiiu aeaeaoue i?aaeaea anaai iyoia
iaiueoae ieiuaaee, a oaeaea iyoia aieaa y?eea “aunooiathuea”, i?e/ai
/aua anaai oii iai eaaeaony eaaeauei aeaeueoa io ian, ca oeao?ie. *ai
aieueoa eiio?ano y?einoe, oai eo/oa caiaoai iauaeo e oai io/aoeeaaa
aeaeiu aai eiioo? e oi?ia. Ia ?enoiea aieueoeinoai aeaeeo a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue aaco, a caoai aeaa neeoyoa.

Iaeiiaoe, anoue oaeaea yaeaiea “ioiaaeaiey e oiio” iaeioi?uo /anoae
oeao?. Oae, anee i?yiioaieueiue i?aaeiao, ie?aoaiiue /a?iie e?aneie, eae
iieacaii ia ?enoiea neaaa, iaaethaeaoue n iaeioi?iai aieueoiai
?annoiyiey ia aaeii oiia, oi ii aoaeao auaeyaeaoue i?eaeeceoaeueii
oaeei, eaeei ecia?aaeai ni?aaa. A yoii neo/aa aaeua iyoia ia i?aaeiaoa,
oiieea eeiee aai eiioo?a e ?aceea ia?aoiaeu io oeao?u e oiio ia oaeao
ioiaaeoo e oiio, e oi?ia i?aaeiaoa aoaeao eacaoueny eneaaeaiiie. Aeac
i/aiue /anoi oaiiia iyoii i?eieiaao ca oaiue io ae?oaeo ?yaeii noiyueo
i?aaeiaoia. Ia yoii i?eioeeia iniiaaia eaiooeyaeiay ie?anea i?aaeiaoia
iyoiaie ?aciuo oeaaoia a oeaeyo aiaiiie ianee?iaee. Oaeay aea ie?anea
“eaiooeyae” iaaethaeaaony a ie?a aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee, neoaeeo aeey ieo
caueoiie ie?aneie.

7. Ii?o?aoiua eeethcee.

Iiiaei i?eoiaeeeinue aeaeaoue oae iacuaaaiua caaaaei/iua, eae au aeeaua,
ii?o?aou, eioi?ua anaaaea niio?yo ia ian, neaaey ca iaoeie
ia?aaeaeaeaieyie e ia?auay aeaca ooaea, eoaea iu ia?aoiaeei. Yoi
iauyniyaony oai, /oi c?a/ee aeac ia ii?o?aoa iiiauaiu a na?aaeeia
?ac?aca aeac. Eiaiii oaeeie iu aeaeei aeaca, niio?yuea ia ian, eiaaea
aea aeaca niio?yo a noi?iio, ieii ian, oi c?a/ie e any ?aaeoaeiay
iaiei/ea eaaeoony iai iaoiaeyueieny ia ia na?aaeeia aeaca, a niauaiiuie
a aie. Eiaaea iu iooiaeei a noi?iio io ii?o?aoa, c?a/ee, eiia/ii, naiaai
iieiaeaiey ia iaiytho – inoathony iin?aaee aeac, a oae eae ana eeoei iu
i?iaeieaeaai aeaeaoue a i?aaeiai iieiaeaiee ii ioiioaieth e iai, oi iai
e eaaeaony, /oi ii?o?ao iiaa?ioe aieiao e neaaeeo ca iaie.

8. Eeethcee i?e aeaeaeaiee iauaeoa.

I?e aeaeaeaiee iauaeoa iaaethaeaiey ano?a/aaony oaeaea ?yae c?eoaeueiuo
eeethcee, eioi?ua iaoneiaeaiu iaeioi?uie naienoaaie iaoaai c?eoaeueiiai
aiia?aoa. Iai?eia?, anee e?oa n ie?aoaiiui naeoi?ii i?eaanoe ai
a?auaiea, oi aanue e?oa iai eaaeaony ie?aoaiiui. Yoi iiaeii iauynieoue
niiniaiinoueth iaoaai aeaca a oa/aiea aeieae naeoiaeu oaea?aeeaaoue
c?eoaeueiia aia/aoeaiea, oioy aeaeeiue i?aaeiao oaea en/ac ec aeaea.

Nouanoaoao eeethcey, eioi?oth iiaeii iacaaoue nie?aeueth Ieaoi, a anee
i?iua – yooaeo aie/ea. Anee aeene ni nie?aeueth (aie/ie) a?auaoue ii
/aniaie no?aeea, oi iinea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai oeene?iaaiey a? aeacii o
ian aicieeaao aia/aoeaiea noyaeaaiey anao aaoaae nie?aee e oeaio?o; i?e
a?auaiee nie?aee a ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee iu aeaeei ?anoiaeaeaiea nie?aeae
a ia?aoiii io oeaio?a e ia?eoa?ee. Anee iinea aeeeoaeueiiai
?anniao?eaaiey aeaeaeouaeny nie?aee acaeyiooue ia iaiiaeaeaeiua
i?aaeiaou, iu oaeaeei eo aeaeaeaiea a ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee. Oae,
iai?eia?, anee iinea aeeeoaeueiiai iaaethaeaiey ca ianoiinoueth ec ieia
aeaeaeouaainy iiacaea eee ca aiaeie ec ieia aeaeaeouaainy ia?ioiaea iu
ia?aaaaeai acaeyae ia iaiiaeaeaeiua i?aaeiaou aioo?e iiacaea eee
ia?ioiaea, oi iai iieaaeaony, /oi iie oiaea aeaeaeoony, ii a ia?aoiii
iai?aaeaiee. Yoe eeethcee naycaiu n iineaaeiaaoaeueiuie aeaeaeoueieny
ia?acaie.

Ia naienoaa iaoaai aeaca a oa/aiee 0,1 naeoiaeu “aeaeaoue” oi, /oi oaea
en/acei iniiaai eeiaiaoia?ao: i?e niaia 24-o eaae?ia a naeoiaeo e i?e
ia?ae?uoee ieia i?iaeoi?a a iiiaio niaiu eaae?a iniaui ye?aiii
(iaoth?aoi?ii) iao aeac ia caia/aao yoie niaiu e aini?eieiaao ia
aeaeaeaiea eaiou, a aieaa iaaeeaiiia aeaeaeaiea oeao?, i?iaeoe?oaiuo ia
ye?ai. Oaeaaeaeaiea oaeaea eniieuecoao caeii c?eoaeueiiai aia/aoeaiey. A
yoii neo/aa ia ethieianoee?othuai ye?aia yeaeo?iiii-eo/aaie o?oaee
i?eaiieea yeaeo?iiiue eo/, n i/aiue aieueoie nei?inoueth, eae au
“?enoao” ecia?aaeaiea aeaeeiie iaie ea?oeiu, aeaeaaynue ii
ai?eciioaeueiui no?ieai e io no?iee e no?iea niauaynue ii aa?oeeaee.
Aneaaenoaea aieueoie nei?inoe ia?aiauaiey yeaeo?iiiiai eo/a io aa?oiae
/anoe ye?aia no?i/eaie aei ieaeiae aai a?aieoeu, iu ia caia/aai yoiai
aeaeaeaiey, a aini?eieiaai ecia?aaeaiea a oeaeii.

9. Eeethcee oeaaoiaiai c?aiey.

Aaaeiaeoei naienoaii iaoaai aeaca yaeyaony aai niiniaiinoue ?acee/aoue
oeaaoa. Iaeii ec yaeaiee – yaeaiea niauaiey iaeneioia ioiineoaeueiie
aeaeiinoe i?e ia?aoiaea io aeiaaiiai c?aiey e noia?a/iiio – ninoieo a
oii, /oi i?e noia?a/iii c?aiee (i?e ieceeo inaauaiiinoyo) ia oieueei
iiieaeaaony /oanoaeoaeueiinoue aeaca e aini?eyoeth aiiaua, ii e /oi a
yoeo oneiaeyo aeac iaeaaeaao iiieaeaiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth e oeaaoai
aeeeiiiaieiiaiai o/anoea aeaeeiiai niaeo?a (e?aniua, i?aiaeaaua), ii
caoi iaeaaeaao iiauoaiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth e oeaaoai ei?ioeiaieiiaie
/anoe niaeo?a (neiea, oeieaoiaua). E?aniue iae e aaneeae ia ?enoiea i?e
aeiaaiii inaauaiee eaaeoony ii y?einoe aeeceeie ae?oa e ae?oao. A
noia?eao iae eaaeaony niaa?oaiii oaiiui, a aaneeae aieaa naaoeui.

Eiiaaea i?e ?anniao?eaaiee oeaaoiuo iauaeoia iu oaeaea ano?a/aainy n
ioeaeaie c?aiey eee eeethceyie. Ai-ia?auo, eiiaaea i ianuuaiiinoe oeaaoa
iu ioeai/ii noaeei ii y?einoe oiia eee ii oeaaoo ie?oaeathueo aai
i?aaeiaoia. A yoii neo/aa aeaenoaotho oaeaea caeiiiia?iinoe eiio?anoa
y?einoae: oeaao naaoeaao ia oaiiii oiia e oaiiaao ia aaeii. Ai- aoi?uo,
nouanoaoao iiiyoea nianoaaiii oeaaoiauo eiio?anoia, eiaaea oeaao
iaaethaeaaiiai iaie iauaeoa eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io oiai, ia eaeii
oiia iu aai iaaethaeaai. Eeethcee yoiai ?iaea iai ano?a/athony a
neaaeothueo aeaeao. *a?iue e?oa ia ?enoiea eaaeaony neaaea e?aniiaaoui
ia caeaiii oiia, eiaaea iu i?ee?uaaai ?enoiie oiieie i?ic?a/iie aoiaaie,
oi eeethci?iue e?aniue oeaao noaiiaeony au? aieaa caiaoiui (noe?aaony
?aceinoue a?aieoe e oiaiueoaao ?acieoeo a y?einoe iiey e oiia e oai
oneeeaaao i?iyaeaiea yooaeoa). Aiaeiae/ii /a?iue e?oa ia e?aniii aoaeao
eacaoueny caeaiiaaoui, ia oeieaoiai-aieoaii oiia – caeaiiaaoi-aeaeoui e
ia aieoaii – iaaeii-e?aniui.

Ae?oaei aeaeii oeaaoiaie eeethcee yaeyaony oi, /oi iaeioi?ua oeaaoa
aini?eieiathony eae “aunooiathuea”, a ae?oaea eae “ionooiathuea”. Yoio
oaeo iaaeyaeii eeethno?e?oao i?eaiaeeiue ?enoiie. ?anniao?eaay eaaoth
oeao?o, iu neeiiiu aeoiaoue, /oi yoi ona/aiiay ie?aieaea, ia?auaiiay
aa?oeiie e iai. A aio ia eaaie iu nei?aa i?aaenoaaei naaa ooiiaeue n
auoiaeiui ioaa?noeai aaeaee. “Aunooiathueie” oeaaoaie iau/ii eaaeoony
oeaaoa e?anii-i?aiaeaai-aeaeoua (eee “oaieua”), a “ionooiathueie”
eaaeoony oeaaoa caeaii-neiea (eee “oieiaeiua”).

10. Eeethcee aini?eyoey ?acia?a.

Au? ai a?aiaia aioe/iinoe ethaeae i?eaiaeee a caiaoaoaeuenoai oio oaeo,
/oi ia ai?eciioa eoia e nieioea eaaeoony aieueoa, /ai eiaaea iie
iaoiaeyony auniei a iaaa. Yoio iaiai c?aiey iieo/ee iacaaiea eeethcee
eoiu. Aanue yooaeo ninoieo a oii, /oi iaee/ea caiee nicaeaao
aia/aoeaiea, /oi eoia o ai?eciioa iaoiaeeony aeaeueoa, /ai eoia a
caieoa, oae eae caiieiaiiia i?ino?ainoai iaaeaeo iaaethaeaoaeai e
ai?eciioii nicaeaao aia/aoeaiea aieueoae i?ioyaeaiiinoe, /ai iacaiyoia
i?ino?ainoai iaaeaeo iaaethaeaoaeai e iaaii iaae aieiaie. Iiyoiio iai
eaaeaony, /oi eoia ia ai?eciioa auaeyaeeo aieueoa, /ai acioaaeoay eoia.

Iu aiiaua i?eaueee, /oi ana oaeaeythueany e ai?eciioo i?aaeiaou
oiaiueoathony ia nao/aoea ii naiei eeiaeiui ?acia?ai: ethaee, iiacaea,
iaeaea, naiieaou… “Anee au iu oaeaeaee ay?iieai, iiaeiyaoeeny iaae
ai?eciioii ca aeaeueiae aea?aaiae, oaeiai aea ?acia?a, eae aeaeei aai
iaae aieiaie, ii iieacaeny au aieueoa naiie aea?aaie e, aa?iyoii,
i?aaenoaaeye au oaeanathuaa c?aeeua”, – ieoao ecaanoiue aiaeeeneee oecee
Oeeueyi A?yaa a eieaa “Ie? naaoa”. Oae e eoia: i?eaeeaeaynue e
ai?eciioo, iia aeieaeia auea au oiaiueoaoueny a ?acia?ao, eae naiieao,
yoiai aeanoii o?aaoao iiuo. A oae eae “aicea ai?eciioa” icia/aao aeey
iaoeo “aanniciaoaeueiuo oiicaeeth/aiee”, /oi eoia noaea aeaeueoa, /ai
eiaaea iaoiaeeeanue iaae aieiaie, iaaei /oi-oi aeaeaoue n oaeoii
oaeiaiai iinoiyinoaa oaeiaiai ?acia?a aeenea. Aio e iieo/aaony
ineoieiae/anee, /oi aeene noae e?oiiaa. Eia/a, oaeaeyynue, ii ieeae ia
iia au inoaaaoueny oiai aea oaeiaiai ?acia?a. E iu aeaeei eoio ia?iiiie!

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. A?oaiiiia E.Ae. Eeethcee c?aiey. I., 1961

2. Aeaieaeia A. Eae iu aeaeei oi, /oi aeaeei. Ecae. “Ciaiea”, I.,1987

3. ?ie E. Aaaaeaiea a c?eoaeueiia aini?eyoea. Eieaa ia?aay. I.,
“Iaaeaaiaeea”,1980

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