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ieienoa?noai naeueneiai oicyenoaa e i?iaeiaieuenoaey

AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO II CAIEAONO?IENOAO

Eaoaae?a nioeeaeueiuo e aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe

?AOA?AO

nooaeaioa 31-I a?oiiu 3 eo?na

oaeoeueoaoa “Eaaeano?a e i?aaa”

ia oaio: ” A?ssAeOUEE IE?III?ssAeIE ”

I?iaa?ee:
Ino?ianeee A.A.

IINEAA – 1996

Ieai ?aaiou: 1. Iiiyoea ie?iii?yaeea.

2. Aniaeou aeeyiey iiaeaee iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u

ia oi?io ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa, oi?io

i?aaeaiey e iieeoe/aneee ?aaeei e eo
ia?aoiay naycue.

3. Ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa ie?iii?yaeea.

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea…………………………………………3

I iiaeaeyo iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u…….4

Eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u………..5

Oioaeeoa?ii-aaoi?eoa?iay iiaeaeue iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u…………..11

?aeeaeiciue aniaeo iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u………………………………..20

Eioaa?e?iaaiiay iiaeaeue iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u aoaeouaai -a?yaeouee
ie?iii?yaeie
(i?iaiic)…………………………………………………24

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
…………………………..26

Aaaaeaiea a oaio.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?acaeouo no?aiao, ni noaaeeueiie yeiiiieeie e
onoie/eaie iieeoe/aneie nenoaiie, eae, ai?i/ai e ?acaeaathueony no?aiao,
iaia?oaeeeny iiauoaiiue eioa?an e ieaie?iaaieth ?acaeoey iniiaiuo noa?
aeayoaeueiinoe eae ioaeaeueiuo no?ai, oae e eo a?oii (?aciua
eiiaeiaoeee oaaea?aoeaiiai e eiioaaea?aoeaiiai ono?ienoaa). Yoi aucaaii
ana aieaa oaeoaeythueieny aiaoieie eioaa?aoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie, e
naycaii n iauaaeeiaieai yeiiiie/aneie, aaeeiie iieeoe/aneie, a oaeaea
aiaiiie noa? aeoeaiinoe.

Yoe i?ioeannu, iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuea a ianoiyuai a?aiaie
(Aa?iiaeneia Niiauanoai – eae iieacaoaeue aaeeiiai
i?ino?ainoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai iauaaeeiaiey; IAOI – iieeoeei-aiaiiue
nithc, nicaeaiiue aeey niaianoiiai iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe ?yaea no?ai,
aoiaeyueo a yoio nithc), canoaaeytho caaeoiaoueny i aoaeouai: a?yaeao
ee iauaaeeiaiea no?ai n ?aciuie iieeoe/aneeie eoeueoo?aie e nenoaiaie a
iaeii iae?iainoaea?noai n aaeeiie iieeoe/aneie nenoaiie e
eioaa?e?iaaiiuie i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey eee aea ie?iaia niiauanoai
ia?aie/eony oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoueth n aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuie
iieeoe/aneeie i?ino?ainoaaie? A iiaeao auoue i?ioeannu ?aniaaea
ioaeaeueiuo noia?aea?aeaa (Niaaoneee Nithc, Eaiaaea) oeaio?iaaaeiie
neeie auciaoo ioaaoioth ?aaeoeeth ?aniaaea ae?oaeo no?ai n aiaeiae/iie
oi?iie ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa? Ia yoe aii?inu n aaniethoiie
oi/iinoueth iaaiciiaeii ioaaoeoue, eai iaeeoei aeaoeoeeo eioi?iaoeee, ii
ana aea aiciiaeia iiiuoea i?iaiica n oie eee eiie noaiaiueth
aa?iyoiinoe. Aeooaeueiinoue aoaeouaai “ie?iii?yaeea” auoaeaao ec
iniciaiey oiai, /oi iauanoai aeaeaao naia aoaeouaa naii a ianoiyuai,
eniieuecoy iiuo i?ioeiai, o.i. aiciiaeiinoue a?yaeouae eaoano?iou (eae
yoi auei a Aa?iaiee a 30-o aa., eiaaea ia auai?ao a ia?eaiaio
aieueoeinoai iieo/eea Iaoeeiiae-Nioeeaeenoneay ia?oey Aa?iaiee, eeaea?ii
e eaeaeiui aaeioiiaeoaeai eioi?ie aue Aaeieueo Aeoea?) cia/eoaeueii
nieaeaaony, eiaaea iauanoai eni?aaeyao naie ioeaee a ianoiyuai e ia
inoaaeyao oaina ia eo aic?iaeaeaiea a aoaeouai.

Iiiyoea “A?yaeouee ie?iii?yaeie” iiiaia?aiii e aiei: ia?yaeo, n
eacaeinue au, i/aaeaeiui aii?inii “eaeiai aoaeouaa iieeoe/aneia
ono?ienoai ie?a?”, aicieeatho, ii ia?a iniciaiey oaiu, aoi?inoaiaiiua –
eiaao ee oa??eoi?eaeueiue aniaeo ianoi eee iao? Eae oaycuaaaony
iiia?oe/aneay oi?ia i?aaeaiey n ?anioaeeeaineie, eioi?ay noaiiaeony ana
aieaa iiioey?iae o ?acaeaathueony e aiiaue aicieeathueo no?ai? Eaeiai
aeeyiea iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u ia ?acaeoea oie eee eiie no?aiu a
aoaeouai? Ec anao auoai?eaaaeaiiuo aii?inia, aaaeiaeoei, ia iie acaeyae,
yaeyaony aii?in i iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?a e aa aeeyiee ia ?acaeoea
eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie no?aiu, iiyoiio i?aaenoaaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui aieaa
aeaoaeueiia ?anniio?aiiia yoiai aii?ina aeey oiai, /oiau auynieoue,
eaeia aea “ie?iii?yaeie” a ianoiyuai n oai, /oiau neacaoue, eaeei ii
aoaeao a aoaeouai.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy n?aaee iiiaiia?acey iieeoe/aneeo eoeueoo? e
oa/aiee, ii?aaeaeythueo (aoaeo/e aeiieiaioie a eiie?aoiie no?aia)
?acaeoea e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aaaeiaeoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo einoeoooia,
auaeaeythony aeaa iniiaiua, aaceniua iieeoe/aneea eoeueoo?u:
i?aiaeaaeathuay eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay e, onooiathuay ae a naiae
iiioey?iinoe – oioaeeoa?ii-aaoi?eoa?iay.

I iiaeaeyo iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u.

I?inoay eiinoaoaoeey oaeoa nouanoaiaaiey oiai eee eiiai eiiieaena
yeaiaioia, eioi?ua iiaeii auei au iauaaeeieoue a eaoaai?eth iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u, naia ii naaa ia nieiaao aii?in i oii, eae yoe yeaiaiou
?aaeecothony a eiie?aoiii iieeoe/aneii i?ioeanna, iiaaaeaiee ?acee/iuo
a?oii e neiaa ianaeaiey. Aeaei a oii, /oi iaeie e oa aea iieeoe/aneea
onoaiiaee, oeaeinoii-ii?iaoeaiua i?eaioaoeee e eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneea
i?eioeeiu o ?aciuo ethaeae e nioeeaeueiuo a?oii a eiie?aoiii
iieeoe/aneii iiaaaeaiee i?iyaeythony ii ?aciiio. Yoi iniaaiii aaaeii
o/anoue i?e ioeaiea e oa?aeoa?enoeea iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u ?aciuo no?ai
e ia?iaeia. Iaiaoiaeeii enoiaeeoue ec oaeoa nouanoaiaaiey iiiaeo
?aaeiiaeueiuo e iaoeeiiaeueiuo aa?eaoeee iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u.
Neaaeai, iaeuecy aiai?eoue i aaeeiie aeey Aa?iiu e Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea,
Caiaaeiiai iieooa?ey e Aeaeueiaainoi/iiai ?aaeiia e o.ae. iiaeaee
iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u.

Ii ana aea eaaeaeie iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie nenoaia niioaaonoaoao
iniaay, nianoaaiiay aaceniay iiaeaeue (eee iiaeaee) iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u, eioi?ay a eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie no?aia i?iyaeyaony a
iaoeeiiaeueii-niaoeeoe/aneeo oi?iao. Eae i?aaeei, aaaeiaeoea yeaiaiou
eaaeaeie aaciaie iiaeaee oa?aeoa?ecothony oieaa?naeueiinoueth e
ii?aaeaeythony iauaie?iaicc?ai/aneeie onoaiiaeaie e i?eaioaoeeyie
ethaeae iacaaeneii io eo iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. A yoii ea/anoaa a iaiauaiiie, aano?aae?iaaiiie oi?ia
iie ninoaaeytho nenoaiiia?acothuea eiiiiiaiou iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u e
?acaeaeythony aieueoeinoaii ianaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo no?ai.

Aianoa n oai yoe eiiiiiaiou a eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie no?aia, eae
aiai?eeinue auoa, i?iyaeythony a niaoeeoe/anee iaoeeiiaeueiuo oi?iao.
Yoi anoanoaaiii, iineieueeo a oi?ie?iaaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey,
naiie iaoeeiiaeueiie eaeaioe/iinoe o/anoaotho eae oieaa?naeenoneea, oae
e noaoai iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iua yeaiaiou. Eae ioia/ae ecaanoiue
aia?eeaineee iieeoieia N. Eiyi, “ie iaeia iieeoe/aneay nenoaia ie a
iaeiie no?aia ia aoaeao noaaeeueiie, anee iia ia ?iaeaeaia a naiie yoie
no?aia, ia aa ii/aa eae ?acoeueoao ?acaeoey nianoaaiiie iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u”. Oae, iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneea, iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iua,
aaia?aoe/aneea, ?aeeaeiciua e eiua iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey e yaiethoeee
eaaeaeie iaoeee e iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey, anoanoaaiii, iaeiaeeee
naie aeoaieee ioia/aoie ia niaea?aeaiea e oi?io aa iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u.

Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?aaeiieaaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue auaeaeaiey
niioaaonoaothueo iiaeaeae iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u. Neiioiiaoe/ii, /oi
oaea ia?aua aaoi?u, ia?aoeaoeany e aeaiiie i?iaeaiaoeea, i?aaeeiaeeee
nianoaaiioth oeiieiaecaoeeth iieeoe/aneeo eoeueoo?. O/eouaay eae
iiceoeaiua, oae e ia ai anai i?eaieaiua aeiaiaeu e a?aoiaiou anao
iacaaiiuo iiaeoiaeia, i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui noi?ioee?iaaoue
nianoaaiiua iiaeaee iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u:
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneoth, aaoi?eoa?ioth e oioaeeoa?ioth. Iaaeaeo
ieie ?aniieaaaaony oeaeue niaeo? anaaiciiaeiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo eee eiuo
aa?eaioia e ?aciiaeaeiinoae iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u.

Eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u.

Iniiaiua oaeoi?u e yoaiu oi?ie?iaaiey e yaiethoeee
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie iiaeaee iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u a oeaeii
niaiaaeatho n aaaeiaeoeie aaoaie oi?ie?iaaiey e yaiethoeee
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa e i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa. Aieaa oiai, ana yoe
o?e eiiiiiaioa a niaieoiiinoe ninoaaeytho ao?aeoacii-eeaa?aeueioth
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneoth nenoaio. Iia naycaia n ooaa?aeaeaieai e
eaaeoeiecaoeeae a i?ioeanna eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey iiaie, ii
n?aaiaieth ni n?aaeiaaaeiaueai, nenoaiu ie?iiiieiaiey, aaea naiaiaeiue
eiaeeaeae i?eciaaony a ea/anoaa naiinoiyoaeueiie aaeeieoeu nioeeaeueiiai
aeaenoaey. Aaaeiaeoea ia?aiao?u yoiai ie?iiiieiaiey auee
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu auoa. Caeanue ioiaoei eeoue oi, /oi aaaeiaeoei
eiiiiiaioii noi?ie?iaaaoaeny ia aai iniiaa iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u noaea
eaeay ieth?aeecia, eioi?ay ninoaaeyao nouiinoioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo eae
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa, oae e i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa. Iaiaoiaeeii
iaiiiieoue oaeaea i oii, /oi naiaiaea i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea eae iiiaeo
oeaio?ia aeanoe, o?aaiiaaoeaathueo anaaeanoea ainoaea?noaa, oae e
i?aaeaea anaai aiciiaeiinoue yeiiiie/aneiai auai?a , /oi, a naith
i/a?aaeue, iaeiaa?iyoii aac aeueoa?iaoeaiuo enoi/ieeia iieo/aiey
n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey. Anee a oioaeeoa?iuo e aaoi?eoa?iuo nenoaiao
ainoaea?noai aeiieie?oao iaae iauanoaii, oi a
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie nenoaia, iaiai?io, iauanoai aeiieie?oao iaae
ainoaea?noaii e aai einoeoooaie. Ananoi?iiia ?acaeoia a?aaeaeaineia
iauanoai, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?aaeiieaaaao ?acaeooth iieeoe/aneoth
aeaiie?aoeth, i?aaiaia e ieth?aeenoe/aneia ainoaea?noai.

Yoi au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi, ianiio?y ia ?acee/ey – ii?ie nouanoaaiiua –
ii oe?ieiio niaeo?o eaeae e eiioeaioeee iauanoaaiiiai e
ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai ono?ienoaa, aieueoeinoai iieeoe/anee
aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey no?ai Caiaaea ?acaeaeyao eaeae eiinoeoooeeiiaeecia,
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia, naiaiaeu aa?ieniiaaaeaiey, naiaiaeu neiaa e ia/aoe e
o.ae. Niaethaeaiea e ?aaeecaoeey yoeo i?eioeeiia nicaeaaaee i?aaeiinueee
aeey i?eciaiey eaaeaeie ec i?ioeaiai?noaothueo noi?ii “caeiiiinoe”
nouanoaiaaiey ?aciiia?aciuo eiioeeeoothueo ae?oa n ae?oaii eioa?ania,
a?oiie?iaie, ia?oee e o.ae.

Eaeay i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa oanii naycaia n ae?oaeie ia iaiaa aaaeiuie
eaeayie ia?oee e auai?iinoe eae eino?oiaioia ?aaeecaoeee ?aciiia?aciuo
eioa?ania. Yoe eaeae, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?aaeiieaaatho niaethaeaiea e
i?aaeoaeuenoaii, e iiiiceoeeae “i?aaee ea?u”, nooue eioi?uo ninoieo a
iauai?eiyoii niaeanee ia ie?ioth ia?aaea/o aeanoe iaeiie (iiaaaeaeaiiie)
ia?oee ae?oaie (iiaaaeeaoae) ia?oee a oiaea ecae?aoaeueiiai i?ioeanna.
Aaaeii o/anoue, /oi eiaiii /a?ac einoeooo auai?ia, eiaiii /a?ac
ecae?aoaeueiue i?ioeann iieeoe/aneay eoeueoo?a a iaeaieueoae noaiaie
aicaeaenoaoao ia iieeoe/aneia iiaaaeaiea. Oa?aeoa?ii ia oieueei e ia
noieueei aiciiaeii aieaa iieiia o/anoea iann a i?eiyoee iieeoe/aneeo
?aoaiee, neieueei ioe?uoay eiieo?aioeey n oeaeueth caaiaaaiey oao eee
eiuo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo iinoia e eiio?ieue iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth oao,
eoi iaoiaeeony o aeanoe.

Aeo o/anoey a auai?ao oaea nai ii naaa oaaee/eaaao aa?o a?aaeaeai a
caeiiiinoue e ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Aeey iiiaeo ec ieo nai
oaeo o/anoey a aieiniaaiee eiaao /ooue ee ia ?eooaeueiia cia/aiea. Eae
ia aac iniiaaiey ioia/aao iieeoieia A. Aeicao?a, aeeyiea o/anoey a
ecae?aoaeueiii i?ioeanna aiaeiae/ii aeeyieth i?aaieciaaiiie ?aeeaee ia
ioaeaeueiuo eiaeeaeaeia, eioi?ua iiae/eiythony i?eioeeio ioi?aaeaiey
aa?u a aua?aiiie eie oea?eae. Caeanue nai oaeo ioi?aaeaiey aa?u aaaeiaa
auai?a oea?eae, a eioi?ie yoio aeo inouanoaeyaony.

Aua ni a?aiai A?enoioaey n/eoaaony, /oi aeaiie?aoe/aneea nenoaiu
nio?aiytho aeecianiiniaiinoue e yooaeoeaii ooieoeeiie?otho a neeo
aeoeaiiai o/anoey a?aaeaeai a aeaeao iauanoaa, iaania/aiey aunieiai
o?iaiy eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee iauanoaaiiuo aeae e oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiiai /oanoaa a?aaeaeaineie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. *oi eanaaony
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaee ia?eaiaioneie aeaiie?aoee, anaiauaai aieiniaaiey,
ieth?aeecia ia?oee e iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, i?aaenoaaeythueo ?aciiai
?iaea caeioa?aniaaiiua a?oiiu, oi i/aaeaeii, /oi ie iaeii i?aaeoaeuenoai
ia iiaeao caaiaaaoue aeanoue aac niaeaney e aeia?ie aiee aieueoeinoaa
ecae?aoaeae. Caeanue ninoiyiea oiia iauanoaa, nioeeaeueii
ineoieiae/aneee eeeiao, iauanoaaiiia iiaiea eiatho iaiaeiaaaeiia
cia/aiea.

Eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue aeeth/aao i?eioeei “niaeanea ia
niaeaoaoueny” n iiaieyie e iiceoeeyie ae?oaeo /eaiia eee a?oii iauanoaa.
A oaeii neo/aa i?e ?aoaiee neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eiuo i?iaeai a eaeaaea
ioaa?aaaony aieaaia iaaycuaaiea iiceoeee iaeiie /anoe iauanoaa ae?oaie
aai /anoe. Aaea iao naiaiaeu ianiaeaney, oai iao e ia iiaeao auoue
aeaiie?aoee, iacaaeneii io oiai, eae iia iacuaaaony – “ia?iaeiie”,
“eeaa?aeueiie”, “ao?aeoaciie”, “nioeeaeenoe/aneie” e o.ae. Ia?auaao ia
naay aieiaiea ioia/aiiay auoa ?anuaieaiiinoue iiceoeee cia/eoaeueiie
/anoe ethaeae, n iaeiie noi?iiu eae ee/iinoae, /eaiia a?aaeaeaineiai
iauanoaa, n ae?oaie noi?iiu. eae a?aaeaeai ainoaea?noaa, /eaiia
iieeoe/aneiai niiauanoaa.

I ?anuaieaiiinoe iieeoe/aneie e iauanoaaiiie noa? naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, a
/anoiinoe, iaaethaeathueeny o iiiaeo aiaee/ai, aia?eeaioeaa, o?aioeocia
e o.ae. ?ac?ua iaaeaeo oai, eae iie aaaeoo naay a iianaaeiaaiie, oae
neacaoue, ie?neie aeecie, e eo eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneeie iiceoeeyie.
Ca/anooth ee/iua aeonu, i?aaeii/oaiey, neiiaoee e aioeiaoee ethaeae ai
acaeiiioiioaieyo iaaeaeo niaie iiaoo, ii?ie nouanoaaiii, ia niaiaaeaoue
n eo eaeaeiuie e ia?oeeii-iieeoe/aneeie iiceoeeyie. Caeanue iao oie
oioaeueiinoe ee/iinoe, eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ia aeey oioaeeoa?iiai iauanoaa,
aaea, eae i?aaeei, iieeoe/aneea, eaeaieiae/aneea, oeeinioneea e i?inoi
aeeciaiiua iiceoeee ethaeae eae au neeou a eioaa?aeueiii aaeeinoaa, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai ee/iua neiiaoee e aioeiaoee ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeythony
iieeoe/aneeie e eaeaieiae/aneeie onoaiiaeaie e i?aaeii/oaieyie. A
no?aiao n onoie/eauie eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneeie o?aaeeoeeyie
ia?aaeee neo/ae, eiaaea ethaee, aoaeo/e ae?ocueyie a iianaaeiaaiie
aeecie eee aeeceeie ?iaenoaaiieeaie, iiaoo i?eiaaeeaaeaoue e ?acee/iui,
ca/anooth eiieo?e?othuei e aeaaea a?aaeaeothuei ae?oa n ae?oaii
iieeoe/aneei ia?oeyi eee eaaa?yi. Iai ia anaaaea iiiyoiu oaeea,
iai?eia?, yaeaiey, eae ae?oaeaa i?aaenoaaeoaey eaaiai eeaa?aeecia e
eaeaieiaa i?aaiai ?aaeeeaeecia a NOA, i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue ioaea e aeaiu
eee iooea e nuia e ?aciui ia?oeyi, iiaaaeaiea aiaeeeneee ia?eaiaioa?eaa,
eioi?ua /ooue ee ia a?oeiiaoioth aea?oony ia nanneyo ia?eaiaioa, a aia
aai noai yaeythony ae?ocueyie.

Eneeth/ay iiiiiieeth ia aeanoue ni noi?iiu eaeiai-eeai iaeiiai eeoea,
nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu, ia?oee e o.ae., eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay
iiaeaeue iinooee?oao eaeath naiiai oe?ieiai auai?a ai anao noa?ao
iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iniiaiiieaaathuaa cia/aiea n aeaiiie oi/ee c?aiey
eiaao naiaiaea yeiiiie/aneiai auai?a. Caeanue a ea/anoaa ?acoiathueony,
naiii/aaeaeiuo iinooeaoia i?eieiathony eaeae /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe,
naiaiaeiiai ?uiea, naiaiaeiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iaeaieaa ?ueyiua
i?eaa?aeaioeu yoeo eaeae ?anniao?eaatho eiaeeaeaeoaeeci e naiaiaeioth
eiieo?aioeeth a oneiaeyo naiaiaeiiai ?uiea a ea/anoaa anoanoaaiiuo
caeiiia, ia iiaeaeanoiuo aeaenoaeyi ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae e iauanoaaiiuo
einoeoooia, iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e ainoaea?noaa. N/eoaaony , /oi
naiaiaea, ?aaainoai, eiieo?aioeey e eiaeeaeaeoaeeci a oneiaeyo
naii?aaoee?othuaainy ?uiea a ?aieao a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa niiniaiu
iaania/eoue nioeeaeueioth aa?iiieth e i?ia?ann.

A eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie iiaeaee aaaeiia ianoi caieiaao i?iaeaia
niioiioaiey naiaiaeu, ?aaainoaa e ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Caeanue iaaethaeaaony
iiiaeanoai i?ioeai?a/ee, ?acee/ee, iooaieia, ia?aoiaeiuo nooiaiae io
ioe?iaaiiie aiieiaee ia?aaainoaa aei i?eciaiey nioeeaeueiiai ?aaainoaa,
io i?eaa?aeaiiinoe eeaa?oa?enonee o?aeooaiie eaeaa aia?oe/aneie naiaiaeu
aei i?eciaiey a oao eee eiuo noa?ao aeanoeeo ia?aie/aiee ia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth naiaiaeo ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noa. A oeaeii ca/anooth
i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony ?aaainoao aiciiaeiinoae, n eioi?ui
ioiaeaeanoaeyaony ni?aaaaeeeainoue, ia?aae nioeeaeueiui ?aaainoaii,
?aaainoao noa?oiauo oneiaee ia?aae ?aaainoaii ?acoeueoaoia.

Ii aianoa n oai a aeacao iineoaey eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie iiaeaee
iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u i?aai, i?aaiaay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
aa?aio naiaiaeu ioaeaeueiiai eiaeeaeaea a auai?a ii nianoaaiiiio
oniio?aieth ii?aeueii-yoe/aneeo oeaiiinoae, noa?u eo aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii
aai iiaieth, caeii i?ecaai aa?aioe?iaaoue naiaiaeo ee/iinoe,
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue nianoaaiiinoe, aeeeeua, /anoiie aeecie, aeooiaioth
naiaiaeo. A iauanoaa aeieaeai ainiiaenoaiaaoue caeii, a ia ethaee,
ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa ninoiyo a ?aaoee?iaaiee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
a?aaeaeaiaie ia iniiaa caeiia. Aeey iaai naiii/aaeaeiie enoeiie
yaeythony i?aai o/anoey a iieeoe/aneii i?ioeanna, niaethaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee ea?u iaaeaeo iieeoe/aneeie ia?oeyie, ?aciiai ?iaea
caeioa?aniaaiiuie a?oiiaie, ?ioaoeey aeanoe a i?ioeanna anaiaueo auai?ia
ia anao o?iaiyo aeanoe, ae?oaea ii?iu e i?eioeeiu ia?eaiaioa?ecia e
ieth?aeenoe/aneie aeaiie?aoee.

Neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi a ?acaeouo no?aiao Caiaaea n?aaeiee a?aaeaeaiei a
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie i?e ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo eeoue nii?aaee/anee
nii?eeanaaony n ainoaea?noaii, ca/anooth eiay eeoue aanueia niooiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i iieeoe/aneeo niauoeyo, i?ienoiaeyueo a “ei?eaei?ao
aeanoe” e “noieeoeao”, ca i?aaeaeaie naiae iaueiu, aea?aaie, ai?iaeea.
Aieaa oiai, aeey iaai ainoaea?noai ia/oi ioaeaeaiiia, /oaeaeia,
aiaoaoaeuenoai eioi?iai a /anoiua aeaea iaaeaeaoaeueii e aa?aioe?iaaii
iau/aai, o?aaeeoeeae e caeiiii. Iai?eia?, cia/eoaeueiie /anoe
aia?eeaioeaa i?enoue iaaeiaa?ea e aeaaea iai?eyciaiiia ioiioaiea e
ainoaea?noao, ainoaea?noaaiiui einoeoooai e ioiaeaeanoaeyaiie eie
iieeoeea aiiaua. Iauaecaanoai aua oio oaeo, /oi aia?eeaioeu ioaeatho
i?aaeii/oaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaai ooaoia ia?aae oaaea?aeueiui
i?aaeoaeuenoaii, i?aaiai ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey ia?aae i?aaeoaeuenoaaie
ooaoia, naiuea, iaueia e eiaeeaeaeo ia?aae iauanoaii a oeaeii.

Aeey cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ianaeaiey no?ai Caiaaea oa?aeoa?ii
aiaeaaeaioaiia ioiioaiea e ainoaea?noao e naycaiiui n iei einoeoooai. N
iaeiie noi?iiu, a eo aeacao ainoaea?noai – yoi enoi/iee e aa?aio caeiia
e ii?aee, aac neeueiiai ainoaea?noaa iauanoai iiaeao ieacaoueny ai
aeanoe aia?oee. Caeanue iaia?oaeeaaaony neeiiiinoue e iiceoeaiiio,
ca/anooth aeaaea aaoi?eoa?iiio ioiioaieth e ainoaea?noao. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, a eo aeacao /?acia?ii ?acaeooia ainoaea?noai iiaeao ieacaoueny
eino?oiaioii iiaeaaeaiey e ia?ooaiey i?aa ee/iinoe. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
auai?a iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeii e iauanoaii cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ethaeae ,
i?eaea?aeeaaaony eiina?aaoeaiuo aicc?aiee, ia ia?aia ianoi noaaeo
iauanoai. Ii eo iiaieth , yoi iineaaeiaa, aoaeo/e cia/eoaeueii oe?a
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, enoi?e/anee, yoie/anee e eiae/anee auoa ioaeaeueiiai
eiaeeaeaea. I?aaa ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea iinyo iaeiia?aiaiii e
anoanoaaiiue, e nioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa?: anoanoaaiiue, iioiio /oi
i?eiaaeeaaeao /aeiaaeo, nicaeaiiiio naiei aiaii a ea/anoaa iaiouaieaiiai
yeaiaioa aaeeeiai ieaia i?e?iaeu, a nioeeaeueiue, iioiio /oi /aeiaae
iiaeao ?aaeeciaaoue yoe i?aaa eeoue a i?aaieciaaiiii iauanoaa.
I?aaeoaeuenoai aea yaeyaony iieeoe/aneei i?oaeeai iauanoaa, i?ecaaiiui
iaania/eaaoue e caueuaoue i?aaa /aeiaaea. Aeey iaeaieaa eiina?aaoeaiie
/anoe aeaiiie eaoaai?ee ethaeae aeanoue – yoi i?aaeiinueea anao naiaiae.
I?eaeaaay ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea caeiio e ii?yaeeo, aaoi?eoaoo e
aeenoeeieeia, iie neeiiiu auneacuaaoueny ca ainnoaiiaeaiea aaoi?eoaoa e
i?anoeaea aeanoe e i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iie oaaaeaeaiu a oii, /oi nia?aiaiiia
iauanoai ioaeaeaaony a iiaeiiaaiee e iineooaiee, e aeey aeinoeaeaiey
yoeo oeaeae ainoaea?noai ai?aaa i?eieiaoue niioaaonoaothuea ia?u.

Ana yoi, anoanoaaiii, oneiaeiyao auyaeaiea iieeoe/aneeo i?aaeii/oaiee
iniiaiuo eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey, iniaaiii yoi eanaaony ainoaea?noaa e
aaaeiaeoeo ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo einoeoooia. iieeoeea
aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua i?ioeannu.
Aeinoeaeaiea yniinoe a yoii aii?ina cao?oaeiyaony oaeaea oai, /oi
caeanue i?ioeai?a/ey, oae neacaoue, a ai?eciioaeueiii ?ac?aca
niaiauathony n i?ioeai?a/eyie ii aa?oeeaeueiie eeiee iaaeaeo
eaeaieiae/aneei e i?aeoe/aneei, oai?aoe/aneei e iauaeaiiui o?iaiyie
niciaiey.

A eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie iiaeaee iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u
iieeoe/aneiio ieth?aeecio niioaaonoaoao ?aeeaeiciue e eaeaieiae/aneee
ieth?aeeci. Caeanue e ?aeeaey, e eaeaieiaey, eioi?ua i?e anao eo
?acee/eyo yienoaiieiae/aneiai, nouiinoiiai e eiioeaiooaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a
a iaoiaeieiae/aneii ieaia i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeiiii?yaeeiaua yaeaiey,
ioaeaeaiu io ainoaea?noaa. Ia?eaiaioneay aeaiie?aoey n aa
yoii-eoeueoo?iui, nioeeaeueiui, nioeeieoeueoo?iui e eiuie oi?iaie
ieth?aeecia ia i?eaieao ie ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee, ie
ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeaieiaee. Caeanue eaeaieiaey, ?aaii eae e ?aeeaey,
ioaeaeaia io ainoaea?noaa, oioy, eae i?aaenoaaeyaony, iao eaeeo-eeai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, ocaeiieaathueo yoi iieiaeaiea. I?eciaa
ieth?aeeci eioa?ania e ia?oee, ?aeeaeiciuo, yoii-eoeueoo?iuo,
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e eiuo ?acee/ee, iaeuecy ia i?eciaoue
ieth?aeeci eaeaieiaee eee eaeaieiae/aneeo oa/aiee a eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie
no?aia, iiceoeee eioi?uo ii ?yaeo aaaeiaeoeo aii?inia niaiaaeatho.
Iniaaiii yoi eanaaony nenoaiiia?acothueo aniaeoia. Oaeia iieiaeaiea
aauae e nicaeaao iniiao “aaeeinoaa a iiiaiia?acee” , eiinainona ii
iniiaiiieaaathuei aii?inai ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai ono?ienoaa.

I?e anao ?acee/eyo e i?ioeai?a/eyo auei au ioeai/ii i?aaenoaaeyoue
aeaei oaeei ia?acii, aoaeoi a eaaeaeie iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?a
nouanoaotho /aoei ?aca?aie/aiiua, o?iioaeueii i?ioeainoiyuea ae?oa
ae?oao oa/aiey, iaaeaeo eioi?uie eae au i?ieaaaao iai?aiaeieeiay noaia.
Aeaei a oii, /oi ai anao aeaaiuo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oeyo eiaeono?eaeueii
?acaeouo no?ai eae iineoaeyo niioaaonoaothueo iieeoe/aneeo eoeueoo?
i?enoonoaoao ni/aoaiea nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo, eeaa?aeueiuo e
eiina?aaoeaiuo yeaiaioia. A aeaiiie nayce ia iiaeao ia ia?aoeoue
aieiaiea oio oaeo, /oi naii niaea?aeaiea, aeeaaeuaaaiia a iiiyoea
“i?aaua” e “eaaua”, “eiina?aaoeci” e “eeaa?aeeci”, “?aaeeeaeeci”,
eioi?ua iieo/eee oiaeaeaiea a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneii eaeneeiia Caiaaea
a 19-20 aa., eo o?aeoiaea e oieeiaaiea e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie i?aoa?iaee
nouanoaaiiua, a a iaeioi?uo aniaeoao ?aaeeeaeueiua eciaiaiey. Iai?eia?,
oaea iioa?ye oaaaeeoaeueiinoue i?eioeei, niaeanii eioi?iio
eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneea oeaiiinoe aeanoei i?eaycuaaeenue e i?aaiio,
eiina?aaoeaiiio oeaiao eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneiai niaeo?a, a eieeaeoeaenoneea
– e aai eaaiio oeaiao.

Ana ia?a/eneaiiua eiiiiiaiou (ia?a/aiue eo, anoanoaaiii iiaeii
aeiiieieoue) a niaieoiiinoe ninoaaeytho iniiaioth iiaeaeue
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u – iaiauaiiue e
aano?aae?iaaiiue eaeaaeueiue oei, eioi?ue i?iyaeyaony a eaaeaeie
eiie?aoiie no?aia eee ?aaeiia, a eiie?aoiuo iaoeeiiaeueii-enoi?e/aneeo e
iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo oi?iao.

Anee aaciaay iiaeaeue eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie eoeueoo?u n oaie eee
eiuie iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iuie iiaeeoeeaoeeyie i?i/ii ooaa?aeeeanue a
iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e Naaa?iie Aia?eee, oi yoiai
ia neaaeaoue i ?aaeiia THaeiie Aa?iiu. A no?aiao yoiai ?aaeiia i?ioeannu
aa ooaa?aeaeaiey i?iaeaaee (a a ?yaea no?ai yoe i?ioeannu
i?iaeieaeathony e iiiuia) aei?iao n nouanoaaiiuie o?oaeiinoyie. Yoi
iauyniyaony i?aaeaea anaai iniaaiiinoyie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aaeiia, a oaeaea oie iniaie ?ieueth,
eioi?oth caeanue i?iaeieaeatho ea?aoue o?aaeeoeee, iau/ae, oeaiiinoe,
oianeaaeiaaiiua io iiiaiaaeiaie e /?acau/aeii aiaaoie enoi?ee.
Caiicaeaeue e ia?aaiiia?iue, ?anoyioaoeeny ia iiiaea aeanyoeeaoey
i?ioeann ooaa?aeaeaiey a THaeiie Aa?iia eaieoaeenoe/aneie oi?iu
i?iecaiaenoaa, neeueiua iiceoeee iiia?oee, a?enoie?aoee, oea?eae a
iieeoe/aneie aeecie, onoie/eainoue o?aaeeoeeiiiuo, ii i?aeiouanoao
eiina?aaoeaiuo, oeaiiinoae a iauanoaaiiii niciaiee iaoneiaeee iniaoth
i?ioeai?a/eainoue e ?anoyiooinoue i?ioeanna ooaa?aeaeaiey ao?aeoaciuo
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo no?oeoo? e niioaaonoaothueo ia?eaiaioneeo oi?i
iieeoe/aneie aeecie.

Aieioue aei 80-o aa. thaeii-aa?iiaeneee eaieoaeeci, ii nooe aeaea, ia
niia aeinoe/ue naiae eoeueoo?iie e eaeaeiie aaaaiiiee. Caeanue
nio?aiytho aieueooth cia/eiinoue aioeeaieoaeenoe/aneea ii naiae nooe
onoaiiaee e i?eaioaoeee, “ia ?aaiuo” n ao?aeoacii-eeaa?aeueiie oeaeie
oeaiiinoae nouanoaoao ae?oaay, aeiao?aeoaciay nioeeieoeueoo?iay e
eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneay o?aaeeoeey. Iaeiaei, oio i/aaeaeiue oaeo, /oi aanue
iaai? oeaiiinoae, onoaiiaie, i?eaioaoeee e o.ae., ninoaaeythueo
iieeoe/aneoth eoeueoo?o thaeii-aa?iiaeneeo no?ai, n ia?aoiaeii eo –
nia/aea Eoaeee iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu, a caoai ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
70-o aa. Eniaiee, Ii?ooaaeee e A?aoeee – ia iooue iieeoe/aneie
aeaiie?aoee e ao?aeoaciiai ia?eaiaioa?ecia ia iia en/aciooue aanneaaeii
e ia ieacaoue aeeyiea (ii?ie nouanoaaiiia) ia eiioeao?aoeeth e nouiinoue
eae iiaie ia?oeeii-iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu, oae e naiie iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u.

Aaoi?eoa?ii-oioaeeoa?iay iiaeaeue iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u.

Ai anao ioaeeeaoeeyo iineaaeiaai a?aiaie a aieueoae eee iaiueoae
noaiaie au?aaeaii no?aieaiea i?iynieoue ?ac?ua iaaeaeo oaiiiaiii
oioaeeoa?ecia e iauyniythueie aai noaiaie. Niaoeeaeueii eiioeaio?e?oao
aieiaiea ia yoie i?iaeaia Aiaea?nii. I?aaenoaaeyaony eiae/iui iiaeieoe
e ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu iooai ?acee/aiey ioaeaeueiuo noi?ii eee aniaeoia
oioaeeoa?iiai oaiiiaia. Yoi iio?aaoao aaaaeaiey iaeioi?uo
oa?ieiieiae/aneeo ?acee/aiee, niune eioi?uo noaiao aiieia ynai
oieueei a iineaaeothuai eceiaeaiee.

Iiaeii iiiuoaoueny auaeaeeoue iaeee oioaeeoa?iue i?eioeei iaeaieaa
oieaa?naeueiia e aano?aeoiia au?aaeaiea i?e?iaeu oioaeeoa?iiai oaiiiaia.
Neaaeothuae, aieaa aiaaoie e eiie?aoece?iaaiiie, ii nio?aiythuae
oieaa?naeueiinoue aano?aeoiie noaiie iia au auoue eaeaaeueiue oei
eee, oi/iaa oeiu, eioi?ua oaeiaii iacuaaoue oioaeeoa?iinoueth, o.a.
iaai?ii nouiinoiuo /a?o, naienoa, i?eciaeia oioaeeoa?iiai oaiiiaia a aai
?acee/iuo i?iyaeaieyo. Oioaeeoa?eciii aea iiaea auoue iacaaia aieaa
eee iaiaa niciaoaeueii ooaa?aeaeaaiay nenoaia ?aaeecaoeee oie eee eiie
oioaeeoieaeiinoe.

Ana yoe oa?ieiieiae/aneea ?acee/aiey naycaiu n oai, /oi oioaeeoa?iue
oaiiiai iau/ii ?anniao?eaaaony aeaiyei. I?aaei?eieiathony iiiuoee
ioiaeaeanoaeoue aai iiae eiaiai oioaeeoa?ecia n O?aoei ?aeoii,
iai?eia?, eee n NNN? ia?eiaea noaeeiueiu e i?e yoii o?aeoiaaoue
eacaeinue au ana oio aea oioaeeoa?eci eae eaeaaeueiue oei, iaai?
oi?iaeueiuo i?eciaeia, eioi?ua i?iyaeythony a oaiiiaiao eeoue /anoe/ii e
n ?acee/iie eioaineaiinoueth.

A ia?aii neo/aa oieeaeueiinoue enoiaeiiai oaiiiaia ia iicaieyao
i?eciaoue oioaeeoa?eciii ieeaeie eiie oaiiiai, eioi?ue noieue aea
oieeaeai e naiaia?acai. Ii yoi aua iieaaaeu. Iiiaeanoai yaii
iaoioaeeoa?iuo /a?o oaiiiaia ieaaeoony iaiauynieiu e eo i?eaeaony eae
au ia caia/aoue.

Ai aoi?ii aea neo/aa iu iai?ioea aac o?oaea iaeaeai aieueoaa eee
iaiueoaa au?aaeaiea /a?o eaeaaeueiiai oeia oioaeeoa?ecia a ia-?iiiii
eiee/anoaa iieeoe/aneeo oaiiiaiia, iaeiaei aeaaea naiia iieiia
niaiaaeaiea ?aaeueiuo e eaeaaeueiuo /a?o caaaaeiii aoaeao ioee/aoueny
/anoe/iinoueth, iiiaeanoaii ioeeiiaiee e ionoio. Eaaeaeue ?aaeueiue
oaiiiai ieaaeaony eeoue iiiuoeie n aieueoae eee iaiueoae iieiioie
i?iyaeoue /a?ou eaeaaeueiiai oeia. A ?acoeueoaoa ie iaeei oaiiiai iu ia
niiaeai i?eciaoue aiieia oioaeeoa?iui, /oi eaaeaony iaaeinoaoeii a
n?aaiaiee n ia?aui neo/aai, o.e. oai oioy au iaeei oaiiiai caaaaeiii
iauyaeyaony oioaeeoa?iui.

Iaeioi?ue ?aeyoeaeci a o?aeoiaea oioaeeoa?ecia eiiiaine?oaony
ioeaieie i?eaeeaeaiey eee ioaeaeaiey io eaeaaeueiiai oeia eae
ioaeaeueiuo iieeoe/aneeo nenoai, oae e eo ninoiyiee. Oeaeaniia?acii
?acee/aoue oioaeeoa?eci eae yaeaiea, a eioi?ii n iaiueoae eee aieueoae
iieiioie i?iyaeythony /a?ou eaeaaeueiiai oeia eee oioaeeoa?iinoe.

Nouanoaotho naiua ?acee/iua noaeaeaiey ioiineoaeueii i?e?iaeu
oioaeeoa?ecia. Eo aeiaieueii niaea?aeaoaeueiue iaci? niaea?aeeony a
noaouea TH.E. Ea?eoeeiai “Eiioeaioeey oioaeeoa?ecia: o?iee iiiaieaoieo
aeeneonnee ia Caiaaea”//Enoi?ey NNN?, 6, 1990, N.172-190.
Iaeaii-iaoo?aeenoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea i?aaeaea anaai oeaaeeaaao
iaeaieaa a?inathueany a aeaca aiaoiea i?eiaou oioaeeoa?ecia, ii a oi
aea a?aiy io?aaeaao e iaeioi?ua nouanoaaiiua iiiaiou – iaiiieiaiea ie
oioaeeoa?iie ee/iinoueth, ie nenoaiie eiuo a?aoiaioia e?iia ianeeey
e ?aaainoaa anao a oioaeueiie iaaaciianiinoe.

Ae?oaia, /ooue aieaa eciu?aiiia iiieiaiea caeeth/aaony a
eioa?i?aoaoeee oioaeeoa?ecia eae cae?uoie nenoaiu aeanoeeo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo naycae, eae nioeeaeueiie iaaaiaoeiu, a eioi?ie
eaaeaeue /aeiaae noaiiaeony aeioeeii (Ieueoaineee a “Iieena”). Caeanue
oaea iaeeoei oioaeueiia iiaeiuaiea ee/iinoe ?ieueth, ooieoeeae.

Aua iaeii iiieiaiea oioaeeoa?ecia naycaii n aai ?anniio?aieai a
ea/anoaa nenoaiu anai?iieeathuaai eiio?iey e ano?a/iiai, aeia?iaieueiiai
naiieiio?iey /eaiia oioaeeoa?iiai oeaeiai. Iiaeiaiue oioaeeoa?iue
eiio?ieue e naiieiio?ieue eeai i?eieiaaony eae naiii/aaeaeiay
aeaiiinoue, eeai iauyniyaony eca?auaiiie e/eee iaecaaaeiie enoi?e/anee
oi?iie iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, iiaeaaeaiiie ieoieiae/aneei
ioiaeaeanoaeaieai /anoe e oeaeiai, niaea?aeaiey e oi?iu, oeaeae e
n?aaenoa, ianiiniaiinoueth ?acee/eoue /anoiia e iauaa aeaai, iino?ieoue
?aoeeiiaeueiua oi?iu iieeoe/aneiai iiin?aaeiaaiey e o/anoey.

O anao yoeo o?ao eioa?i?aoaoeee anoue ia/oi iauaa –
iaeii?iaeiinoue, aiiiaaiiinoue i?aaiecaoeee: neiieaiea eaeaioe/iuo
ethaeae-aoiiia, eioi?ua ia ciatho ie/aai, e?iia i?yiiai ianeeey, aeeaoo
a aiaanianeie ooiiee “aieiu anao i?ioea anao”; iaai? ?ieae-ooieoeee,
eioi?ua iaeeiaeiai aaaeiu e iineoaee eioi?uo iaeeiaeiai iaaaaeiu; ieou,
ii?iaeaeathuea “iai?ioie/anoai” niuneia e ea?oeio ie?a, aaea oea?eo
anaiauaa ioiaeaeanoaeaiea, aaea ee/iia e ?iaeiaia ia?an/eaiaiu e
neeou. Oaeei ia?acii iauei i?eioeeiii oioaeeoa?ecia iiaeii i?eciaoue
aiiiaaiiinoue aai ninoaaa, no?oeoo?u e i?aaiecaoeee (nenoaiu).

Auyaeaiea iauaai oioaeeoa?iiai i?eioeeia ioithaeue ia ?aaiicia/ii
nicaeaieth eaeaaeueiiai oeia. Iaeiiai eeoue i?eioeeia aeey yoiai
iaaeinoaoi/ii. O?aaoaony aua ooi/ieoue – eaeie iaoa?eae e eaeei ia?acii
yoio i?eioeei i?aaiecoao. Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi i?eioaeeoaeueiia
iaaycuaaiea aiiiaaiiinoe ?aciui ieanoai iieeoe/aneie ?aaeueiinoe,
aiaae?aiea oioaeeoa?iiai i?eioeeia aeaao aanueia naiaia?aciua, caiaoii
ioee/athueany ae?oa io ae?oaa eaeaaeueiua oeiu. Aiiiaaiece?oaony ee
oieueei ?aaeei i?aaeaiey? Eee oioaeeoa?iue i?eioeei i?iiecuaaao anth
no?oeoo?o ainoaea?noaa? A /oi anee ii iaaycai anae iieeoe/aneie
nenoaia? *oi iieo/eony, anee aiiiaaiiinoue aoaeao iaaycuaaoueny ia
oieueei iieeoeea, ii anaio /aeiaa/aneiio ie?o, anae nioeeaeueiie
nenoaia, aeeth/athuae yeiiiieeo, eoeueoo?o e ana i?i/ea noa?u
/aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee?

A ia?aii neo/aa iu aoaeai eiaoue eaeaaeueiue oei oioaeeoa?iiai
?aaeeia – aaeieieno?aoeaiia ?aaoee?iaaiea, a oeaeii iaieioi
ioa?aeoa?eciaaiiia A. Iiiiaui iiae iacaaieai
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu, ii ia aiieia aaeaeaaoii ioianaiiia
e niaaoneie ?aaeueiinoe.

Ai aoi?ii neo/aa aicieeaao eaeaaeueiue oei oioaeeoa?iiai
ainoaea?noaa.

A o?aoueai neo/aa ia?aae iaie eaeaaeueiue oei
ia?oee-ainoaea?noaa, o.a. aiieia aiiiaaieciaaiiie iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu.
Iaeiiaoe, a /aoaa?oii neo/aa aicieeaao eee iia au aicieeiooue
eaeaaeueiue oei noia?oioaeeoa?ecia eee oioaeueiiai oioaeeoa?ecia.

Ioeoaea aea aa?aony yoa aiiiaaiiinoue? ?ieiaia ee iia i?ieeyouea
iaeioi?uo ia?iaeia, eae yoi aa?oony ooaa?aeaeaoue, iai?eia?, “eeaaaoieee
?innee”? Eee yoi ienoe/anee i?i?uaathuaany oi caeanue, oi oai
aoenoai “ae?aaiaai ?iaeeiiai oaina”? ?eneio ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
i?e/eiu aieaa i?icae/aneea.

I?aaeaea anaai aeaeaei ia aannii?ii, /oi oioaeeoa?ecaoeey
ianaaeaeaaony iieeoe/anee e a iieeoe/aneie noa?a, /oi yoi ianaaeaeaiea
eaeao eae au naa?oo aiec – ?aaeei, ainoaea?noai, iieeoe/aneay
nenoaia, anaiauee /aeiaa/aneee ie?. Nei?aa iaiai?io -aiiiaaiecaoeeae
/?aaaou iaiieeoe/aneea noa?u, i?aaeaea anaai nioeeaeueiua niiauanoaa.
Iaaea?ii ianniaeaeiinoue i?aaeaea anaai naycuaaao n oioaeeoa?eciii Oaiia
A?aiaeo.

A oneiaeyo oi?ne?iaaiiie iiaea?iecaoeee aicieeaao eneooaiea i?inoi
ioa?ineoue noa?ua, “ioaeeaoea” iieeoe/aneea no?oeoo?u e caiaieoue eo
iiauie. A ?acoeueoaoa iiaua no?oeoo?u ianoo eae au aeaieioth iaa?oceo:
inouanoaeytho oa ooieoeee, e eioi?ui iie i?aaeiacia/aiu, e oa, eioi?ua
inouanoaeyeenue ?ac?ooaiiuie no?oeoo?aie, ii i eioi?uo nenoaia “iiiieo”.
Iieo/aaony naiaia?aciia yaeaiea aeaaeeooa?aioeeaoeee.

Aeaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua e iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua iieeoe/aneea
no?oeoo?u nia?aiaiiinoe ioee/athony iaiaeuie /a?oaie noiaenoaa. Iaeia
ec aaaeiaeoeo – i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue e aeenooieoeeyi, o.a.
?ac?ooeoaeueiui eee ii iaiueoae ia?a eiio?i?iaeoeoeaiui i?iyaeaieyi
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae niioaaonoaothueo no?oeoo?. N?aaee
aeenooieoeee iiaea?iecaoeee iaeaieaa y?ei e ?ac?ooeoaeueii i?iyaeeenue
oioaeeoa?iua oaiaeaioeee.

I?e?iaea oioaeeoa?ecia eae iaaycuaaiey iieeoe/aneiio ?aaeeio,
ainoaea?noao eee anae iieeoe/aneie nenoaia i?eioaeeoaeueiie
aiiiaaiiinoe naycaia n iaeiicia/iie o?aeoiaeie e oai naiui n
eca?auaieai ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe oaeiai i?ioeanna, eae ianniaecaoeey.
Oi?ne?iaaiiia nicaeaiea iaeii?iaeiie iaoeeiiaeueiie (yoie/aneia
ainoaea?noai iaoeeiiae-nioeeaeenoia) eee nioeeaeueiie (i?ieaoa?neia
ainoaea?noai eiiioienoia) iannu io?uaaao oioaeeoa?ecoaiia
a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai io aai ei?iae e enoieia, ia?aaeienaeueiui
ia?acii naeeaeaao n iaeaieaa a?oae/iuie iiaeaeyie iaueiiie,
ia?aiauoiie aiiiaaiiinoe, i?iaioee?oao aeoeaecaoeeth i?ioiiieeoe/aneeo
n?aaenoa i?aaiecaoeee, i?aaeaea anaai i?yiiai i?eioaeeoaeueiiai
ianeeey. Oaeei ia?acii neaaeoao ?acee/aoue oioaeeoa?eci eae nenoaio
iaaycaiiie aiiiaaiiinoe, aiaae?aiiie a oiaea oi?ne?iaaiiie
iiaea?iecaoeee, e oioaeeoieaeiinoe eae ecia/aeueioth aiiiaaiiinoue
i?ioiiieeoe/aneeo ia?aciaaiee yiioe a?oaeee.

Oioaeeoa?eci iiaeao auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaai eae yaeaiea nia?aiaiiinoe
(iiaea?iinoe), iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiia n io/oaeaeaieai a ee/iinoiii
ieaia e n iianniaeaieai – a iieeoe/aneii. Aunieay, a eaeaaea
i?aaeaeueiay noaiaiue iianniaeaiey iauanoaa e io/oaeaeaiey ee/iinoe
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aai nouiinoiua i?eciaee. Oaiaeaioeee
iianniaeaiey, ieaaee?iaaiey noaeoeueoo?iuo, nineiaiuo,
ei?ii?aoeaiuo, ?aaeiiaeueiuo, ianoiuo e i?i/eo ?acee/ee aiieia
ii?aaeaeaiii i?iyaeeanue oaea a oiaea nicaeaiey iaoeee-ainoaea?noa e
ioaa/athueo ei anaiaueo a?aaeaeaineeo iauanoa, eiaaea aeey
iaania/aiey oeaeinoiinoe yoeo aeaaioneeo aeey naiaai a?aiaie
ia?aciaaiee iio?aaiaaeenue niaoeeaeueiua ne?aiu a aeaea
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuo ii?i ycuea, eoeueoo?u, i?aaa e o.i., a oaeaea a aeaea
iiaie iauaiaoeeiiaeueiie iauiinoe – iannu ?aaiii?aaiuo a?aaeaeai,
ia?aciaaiiie yiaineie?iaaiiuie aoiiaie-eiaeeaeaeaie. Iaaei auei
auoue, eiia/ii, Aiaanii, /oiau ?acaeyaeaoue a niauoeyo aiaeeeneie
?aaiethoeee e i?aaeoanoaothueo ae aeanyoeeaoee aoiiecaoeeth eiaeeaeaeia
e aicieeiiaaiea Eaaeaoaia, aaaeiinoue yoeo i?aaeiinueie aeey
nicaeaiey nia?aiaiiie iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu n iaeiie noi?iiu, eo
?ac?ooeoaeueiinoue e oa?ico iaa?iooueny “aieiie anao i?ioea anao” n
ae?oaie noi?iiu. Ionthaea aiaanianeee eiia?aoea iinoiyiiuo e
aaneiia/iuo oneeee ii iaocaeaieth oaina, iaonoaiiiai iieeoe/aneiai
aeaaiono?ienoaa ia?aae eeoeii aa/iie oa?icu oioaeeoa?ecaoeee a
eciuneaiiie ei oi?ia oioaeueiie “aieiu anao i?ioea anao”.

Aua yanoaaiiae oioaeeoa?iua oaiaeaioeee iaicia/eeenue a aiaeu
Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee (yeiaeineee oa??i?) e
iino?aaiethoeeiiiiai aiiaia?oenoneiai ?aaeeia (ianniaecaoeey, nicaeaiea
iiaeeeciaaiiiai iauanoaa e o.i.). Aiieia io/aoeeai iaeioi?ua
oioaeeoa?iua oaiaeaioeee i?iyaeeenue a aenia?eianeie Aa?iaiee. Iaeiaei
iaeaieaa y?eia au?aaeaiea yoe oaiaeaioeee iaoee a iuiaoiai noieaoee,
eiaaea ianniaia iauanoai e ianniaua iauanoaaiiua aeaeaeaiey, ianniaua
ieoeiae e n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, na?eeiia i?iecaiaenoai e
noaiaea?oece?iaaiiia iio?aaeaiea, anaiauaa ia?aciaaiea e ianniaay
eoeueoo?a oi?ie?otho “iaeiiia?iiai /aeiaaea” e noieue aea iaeiicia/iua
noa?aioeiu iiaaaeaiey.

A ioee/ea io oioaeeoa?ecia ia?aiauoiay oioaeeoieaeiinoue
naycaia i?aaeaea anaai n i?ioiiieeoe/aneeie ia?aciaaieyie oeia
ieaiaie, ninaaeneie iaueiu eee eaaceainoaea?noaaiiuo aaoie?aoe/aneeo
(naiiaea?aeaaiuo) no?oeoo?, oi?iaeueii aini?iecaiaeyueo iaueiiua
ioiioaiey a aea?aeaaiuo ianooaaao i?e aaconeiaiii iiae/eiaiee e
aeaniioa-naiiaea?aeoea, e iineaaeiaai i?aaenoaaeoaey naiiaea?aeaaiiai
ia?iaea-aienea aaeeiiio ?iaeiaiio yiino. ss?eea i?eia?u oaeiai
oioaeeoieaeiiai naiiaea?aeaaey – aa?aceeneia aienei-iaueia *eiaec-oaia
eee aa?ie/aneay yeniainey ?aiiaai eneaia.

Iauae iniiaie e oioaeeoa?ecia, e oioaeeoieaeiinoe yaeyaony ia
oieueei aiiiaaiiinoue, ii e e?aeia ineaaeaiiay einoeoooeeiiaeecaoeey.

Einoeooou ia aeaiu eae ia/oi aa/iia e iaeciaiiia. Ia aeaea
i?eoiaeeony noaeeeaaoueny n aieueoae eee iaiueoae au?aaeaiiinoueth,
i?iyaeaieai oiai eee eiiai einoeoooa. Einoeooou aiiaue ieacuaathony
naycaiu n i?ioeannii, ii ia yoio ?ac ia a ianooaaiie ia?niaeoeaa
anae iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu, a a naiae nianoaaiiie. Eaaeaeue einoeooo,
eieue nei?i ii iiin?aaeoao, iaicia/aao eae naia, “noaaouaaao” oi eee
eiia aeaenoaea, ?ieue, eae au aoyaeaaaony a /a?aaeo aeaenoaee.
Iau/ii iiin?aaeiaaiiua einoeoooaie aeaenoaey aeaeaei ia a ?aaiie, a
oai aieaa ia a iieiie ia?a i?iyaeytho naith einoeoooeeiiaeueioth
nouiinoue. Aeaeaei ia eaaeaeia, iai?eia?, aeaenoaea ioaeaeueiiai
aeaiooaoa a iaeii ia?eaiaioa, a oai aieaa ca aai i?aaeaeaie, a
aeinoaoi/iie ia?a ioaa/aao eiiieaeno i?eioeeiia e ii?i ia?eaiaioa?ecia.
Iai?ioea, i/aaeaeii, /oi iiiaeanoai aai aeaenoaee eeoue a i/aiue iaeie
noaiaie einoeoooeeiiaeueii iiin?aaeiaaiu. O?iaaiue oaeie
iiin?aaeiaaiiinoe iiaeao ia?anoaoue eee oiaiueoaoueny. Einoeooo eae au
?anoai?yaony a i?ioeanna einoeoooeeiiaeecaoeee eae ia?anoathuai
cae?aieaiee aeaenoaee e ?ieae eee a i?ioeanna aeaeinoeoooeeiiaeecaoeee
eae oiaiueoathuainy cae?aieaiee ooieoeee e ?ieae. Neaaeai, iaeee
i?aceaeaio ia/eiaao aeaenoaeyie, aiieia ioaa/athueie einoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa, ii iinoaiaiii ia/eiaao i?eaeaaaoue ei oa?aeoa?
naiiaieueiiai “oicyeie/aiuey a naiae eaaea” e eii/aao i?yiui
naiiaeo?noaii. Yoi oaea yaiay aeaeinoeoooeeiiaeecaoeey i?aceaeaionoaa,
naiaai ?iaea iieeoe/aneia naiioaeenoai, naiieiie/iaio.

?ac?ooaiea iineaaeothueo oi?i aaaeao e aeaeinoeoooeeiiaeecaoeee,
i?aiaeaaeaieth iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo, niiioaiiuo aeaenoaee, aeiiieeoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee. Nioeeaeueiia i?eyoaeuenoai ieacuaaaony aaaeiaa
oi?iaeueiie iieeoe/aneie oii?yaei/aiiinoe, aeeyiea aaniiaa aeanoe. A
i?eaaaeaiiii i?eia?a i?aceaeaioa, noaaoaai aeeeoaoi?ii-naiiaeo?ii,
einoeoooeeiiaeece?iaaiiua iieeoe/aneea aeaenoaey ana aieueoa e aieueoa
auoaniythony iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie e niiioaiiuie ii?uaaie, io?aaeathueie
noeoeeioth aieth e ainiiaenoao aeaiiiai /aeiaaea e aai “a?oiiu
naa?noieeia” (i?inoaeoae nioeeaeueiie iauiinoe). Ca neiaeaie, yoi
oaea ae?oaay i?iaeaia, inoaaony aii?in, eiio e ii/aio a aeaiiii
neo/aa auaiaeii eniieueciaaoue e onoaoaeyoue aeaeinoeoooeeiiaeecaoeeth
i?aceaeaionoaa. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue oieueei, /oi einoeoooeeiiaeecaoeey e
aeaeinoeoooeeiiaeecaoeey i?e anai eo aeeciaiiii cia/aiee aeey
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aiaea/aiiiai iieeoe/aneiai aeeeoaoi?a eiatho e iauaa
nenoaiiia cia/aiea aeey anaai iieeoe/aneiai oeaeiai.

Oe?ieay e oaeoaeythuayny aeaeinoeoooeeiiaeecaoeey aucuaaao
aiiieth, o.a. oaeia ninoiyiea aieueoeinoaa iieeoe/aneeo aeeeoaoi?ia,
eiaaea iie iineaaeiaaoaeueii eee iai?iecaieueii oeeiiythony io
auiieiaiey ecaanoiuo ei einoeoooeeiiaeece?iaaiiuo i?aaee e ii?i.

Aiiiey oaeoe/anee ?aaiicia/ia y?icee iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu,
iiae?uao iieeoe/aneeo ia/ae e ioiioaiee, aiciaeaaeaieth aeiiieeoe/aneeo,
/enoi nioeeaeueiuo eiia?aoeaia iiaaaeaiey. Iieeoe/aneia niiauanoai ana
aieueoa aeaa?aaee?oao a iaeoth aii?oioth iauiinoue, a eo/oai neo/aa
aeaaioneee aiaeia “a?oiiu naa?noieeia” eee “iaeie a?oiiu”, a a
ooaeoai – iiaeiaea “ciiu” eee aeaaea aiaanianeie “aieiu anao i?ioea
anao”.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu aeiiieeoe/aneea ii i?e?iaea iaiin?aaenoaaiiua
oceinioeeaeueiua aeaenoaey e ioiioaiey yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiie
i?aaeiinueeie ia?aciaaiey nianoaaiii iieeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee e
ioiioaiee, a cia/eo e einoeoooia. Eeth/aaia cia/aiea a yoii neo/aa
i?eia?aoaao nioeeaeecaoeey, aeeth/aiea eiaeeaeaeia a e?oa naieo
(nioeeaeueiia niiauanoai). Nioeeaeecaoeey, iaeiaei, i?ienoiaeeo oaea
a naiuo i?inouo iauiinoyo. Iia ?ani?ino?aiyaony, eiia/ii, e ia aieaa
neiaeiua iauiinoe, iai?eia?, ia iieeoe/aneea niiauanoaa. A yoii
neo/aa i?e?iaea nioeeaeecaoeee nouanoaaiii eciaiyaony. ?a/ue eaeao oaea
ia i?inoi ia eioaa?aoeee a iaeoth iauiinoue, ii e ia ii?aaeaeaiee naiaai
ianoa a iae, ia ioiioaiee ia oieueei e oeaeiio, ii e e ioaeaeueiui
einoeoooai. A yoii neo/aa neaaeoao aiai?eoue i iieeoe/aneie
nioeeaeecaoeee eae i niaa?oaiii naiaia?aciii oaiiiaia, nouanoaaiii
ioee/iii io i?inoie nioeeaeecaoeee.

I?aaeeiaeaiiua aeiaiaeu ia icia/atho, /oi ieaeiei,
aeiiieeoe/aneei neiai iiaeii auei au i?aiaa?a/ue. Yoi auei au iaeaiie
e iai?inoeoaeueiie ioeaeie. Aeiiieeoe/aneay noeoey ia oieueei ia
ioa?anuaaaony, ii iieiinoueth nio?aiyaony, i?iieeay ai ana ii?u
iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu. Iia, eiia/ii, ianeieueei o?ainoi?ie?oaony,
?aoeeiiaeecoaony e “oeeaeeecoaony” i?e yoii. Aieaa oiai nioeeaeueiay
noeoey nouanoaaiii aicaeaenoaoao ia oeaeinoiinoue iieeoe/aneie
nenoaiu. Eiie?aoiua i?eia?u ane?uou a iienaiee Ea?eii Oieooii
cia/aiey iiiiceoeee naie//oaeie a iieeoeea, oioy yoa iiiiceoeey
iaeaaeaao ianiiiaiiie aeiiieeoe/aneie i?e?iaeie.

Aiyciue aiiiee n iaeiie noi?iiu e aeaaeaiea neeoeii aunieeo o?aaiaaiee
e iieeoe/aneie ee/iinoe n ae?oaie ii?iaeaeatho ?acee/iua iaa?icu a
iieeoeea, iaeaieaa oeie/iui n?aaee eioi?uo yaeyaony “aaanoai io
naiaiaeu”(Y.O?iii). Oaoeci e ae?oaea oi?iu oioaeeoa?ecia aeatho iaiaei
i?eia?ia iiaeiaiiai aaanoaa io naiaiaeu. I?ioeann ecea/aiey io
iiaeiaiuo iieeoe/aneeo iaa?icia naycai n ?acaeoeai ee/iinoiiai ia/aea a
iieeoeea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu ?acaeoea nia?aiaiiie ee/iinoe
iaaiciiaeii aac eniieueciaaiey iioaioeeaea iieeoe/aneiai o/anoey.
Ieeaeay yeiiiie/aneay eciu?aiiinoue eee eoeueoo?iay ooii/aiiinoue ia
a ninoiyiee naaiaeiy eiiiaine?iaaoue iaaeinoaoie niiniaiinoe naiaiaeii
iia?e?iaaoue iieeoe/aneeie ii?iaie e ?ieyie, yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue
iieeoe/aneea i?aaa e naiaiaeu. Yoe niiniaiinoe yaeythony iai?eiaiiie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea.

E a neeo oianeaaeiaaiiie o?aaeeoeee, e a neeo naieo nouiinoiuo
naienoa ainoaea?noai e a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai n naiiai ia/aea yiioe
iiaea?ia ?acei iaicia/eee i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue naieo ono?aieaiee,
iaaeaeo ieie i?iyaeyeinue ioe?uoia e yaiia i?ioeai?a/ea.

Oaea aieueoa aeaoo noieaoee iieeoe/aneay iuneue aueaony iaae i?iaeaiie
?ac?aoaiey yoiai i?ioeai?a/ey. I?aaeeaaaeenue ieii/aoaeueiua e
aaneiii?iienniua niiniau aa ?aoaiey: iainoaea?noaeaiea iauanoaa
(yoaoeci, ainoaea?noaaiiue nioeeaeeci) eee, iai?ioea, iaiauanoaeaiea
ainoaea?noaa (e?aeiee yaaeeoa?eci, aia?oeci, ia?enenoneia “ioie?aiea
ainoaea?noaa”). I?e iieiie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe naieo eaeaeiuo o?aaeeoeee
e i?aanoaaiiuo ono?aieaiee iaa yoe oaiaeaioeee noiaeeeenue a ioeaca io
i?eciaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe ?acuaaeeiaiey-aaeeinoaa ainoaea?noaa e
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa. A eiia/iii n/aoa iaa e?aeiinoe, iaa
oaiaeaioeee nioeenue a ooaa?aeaeaiee anaaiciiaeiuo aa?nee oioaeeoa?ecia.

Ai?acaei aieaa eiae/iui e ia?niaeoeaiui i?aaenoaaeyaony
i?eciaiea anoanoaaiiinoe e ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe ?acuaaeeiaiey-aaeeinoaa
ainoaea?noaa e a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey
i?iaeaia caeeth/aaony ia a oii, /oiau ?ac?aoeoue i?ioeai?a/ea iooai
oie/oiaeaiey iaeiie ec aai noi?ii (oeie/iue aeey i?eieoeaiie,
neeiaie iieeoeee ia?ac iuoeaiey), a a oii, /oiau ?aaoee?iaaoue yoi
i?ioeai?a/ea, eniieueciaaoue aai eae iieeoe/aneee eino?oiaio.
Aeey yoiai i?aaeeaaaeenue e eniieueciaaeenue ?acee/iua iooe:
aaaaeaiea iin?aaeie/athueo einoeoooia, a /anoiinoe, i?iiaaeooi/iuo
ainoaea?noaaiii-iauanoaaiiuo nenoai (aic?iaeaeaiiua ia iiaie iniiaa
ei?ii?aoeee, i?ionithcu, ianoiua iaueiu, ia?oeeiua nenoaiu e o.i.).

Aiciiaeai, eiia/ii, e o?aoee iiaeoiae: oi?ne?iaaiiia
i?aa?auaiea aaaaiiiee a aaniethoiia ainiiaenoai. Yoi aeaeaaony,
iai?eia?, iooai ioiaeaeanoaeaiey eioa?ania ?aai/aai eeanna n
iaoeeiiaeueiuie eioa?anaie, eee iooai eiino?oe?iaaiey iaeiai
oaioiiiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai eioa?ana e aai ia?oee
(iaoeeiiae-nioeeaeeci e i?i/ea aa?nee oaoecia). Oae aicieeaao
iaeiiia?oeeiay nenoaia eae /enoay e aaconeiaiay
aaaaiiiey-ainiiaenoai.

Ioa/anoaaiiue oioaeeoa?eci aeae, aa?iyoii, iaeii ec iaeaieaa
io/aoeeauo e y?eeo i?iyaeaiee iineaaeiaaoaeueiie niaiu ?acee/iuo oeiia
oioaeeoa?iinoe. A iaiaeie noaiaie yoi naycaii n oai, /oi
iiaea?iecaoeey auea a aunoae noaiaie oi?ne?iaaiiie, iaeiiaieie e
iiaa?oiinoiie, a oaeaea oai, /oi nio?aieeenue cia/eoaeueiua inaaeee
oioaeeoieaeiinoe ia oieueei aieco (e?anoueyineay iaueia), ii e iaaa?oo
(ia?acaeaeaiiinoue aeanoe), a oaeaea ai anae iieeoe/aneie nenoaia
(naiiaea?aeaaiue i?eioeei).

I?aiaeieaiea oioaeeoa?iuo aeenooieoeee iiaea?iecaoeee i?aaeaea
anaai i?aaeiieaaaao ainnoaiiaeaiea e iaeneiaeueiia iaiaauaiea
iioaioeeaea ?aciiia?acey iieeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee, ?ieae, einoeoooia e a
oeaeii neiaiee/aneeo oi?i iiin?aaeiaaiey. Yoio i?ioeann e yaeyaony
aeaiie?aoecaoeeae. Iacaaiea, aa?iyoii, ia naiia oaea/iia, o.e. iii
iaaieueii aeoeaioe?oao aieiaiea ia eiiieaena iieeoe/aneeo yaeaiee,
naycaiiuo n i?yiui, ieieiaeueii iiin?aaeiaaiiui o/anoeai anae
niaieoiiinoe a?aaeaeai (iannu, ia?aciaaiiie ii ia?acoeo aeiiieeoe/aneie
nioeeaeueiie iauiinoe, ?iaea) a i?eiyoee iieeoe/aneeo ii naiae
i?e?iaea ?aoaiee. A yoi eae ?ac oi, ia /ai ia?aceoe?oao oioaeeoa?eci.

Aeaiie?aoecaoeey aea e nia?aiaiiay aeaiie?aoey ii naiae nooe
anoue niaaeeiaiea anao aiciiaeiuo e oae eee eia/a eniuoaiiuo oi?i
iieeoe/aneiai iiin?aaeiaaiey aeaenoaee e oi?i i?aaiecaoeee. Yoo
eaeath ianeieueei ia?aaeienaeueii caino?ee O.*a?/eeeue, aunooiay a
a?eoaineii ia?eaiaioa 11 iiya?y 1947 aiaea. “Aeaiie?aoey, – neacae ii,
– naiay ieioay oi?ia i?aaeaiey, anee ia n/eoaoue ana inoaeueiua,
eioi?ua a?aiy io a?aiaie iiaeaa?aaeenue i?iaa?ea”. Aeaiie?aoey ieioa
naiae anayaeiinoueth (ieth?aeeciii, oiea?aioiinoueth). Yoi aea/ao
iiiaeanoai iaecaaaeiuo ecaea?aeae, iai?eia?, iai?eia? iiiaie?aoiia
aeoaee?iaaiea ooieoeee, i?i?aaioea iiiaeanoaa aeueoa?iaoea e o.i. A
?acoeueoaoa nenoaia ii ii?aaeaeaieth ia iiaeao auoue aeinoaoi/ii
yooaeoeaiie aeey oiai, neaaeai, /oiau “aeiaiaoue e ia?aaiaoue” eee
“inouanoaeoue ?aaeeeaeueioth ?aoi?io”, ca ia?o eao aoenioa no?aio a
?aiee eaieoaeecia ia?acoea E.Ia?ena. Aeey yooaeoeaiiai ?aoaiey oaeeo
caaea/ eae ?ac e aiaeeony oioaeeoa?eci. Ii eee iiaeiaiua “iaeiicia/iua”
nenoaiu, i?aoaiaeothuea ia iaeneiaeueioth yooaeoeaiinoue, eae ?ac e
iiaeaa?aathony, ii iunee *a?/eeey, i?iaa?ea. Iia iau/ii iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
yooaeoeaiinoue “iaeiicia/iie” nenoaiu, ii ooo aea iieacuaaao
?ac?ooeoaeueiinoue, a oi e i?inoi aanniuneaiiinoue iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae
– ia?aaiiyy, oaaaay a eaeie-oi ooiee, caaiaauaay iiaia “aeeciaiiia
i?ino?ainoai”, aaeaa ia eeoeeenue oiai, /oi auei, no?aiynue e
“naiaiaeiiio ?uieo”, ?eneoai oi?ne?iaaoue oioaeueioth
aeaci?aaiecaoeeth. N oi/ee c?aiey *a?/eeey eo/oa ia eneooaoue noaeueao
iiaiiae ca iaauaaeuie e naa?oyooaeoeaiuie oi?iaie i?aaeaiey, a
oaeiaieuenoaiaaoueny “ooaeoei” – niaoaieai oiai, /oi ?aaioaao e
iicaieyao ionoue iaaeeaiii, ii aa?ii ?aoaoue i?aeoe/aneea caaea/e.

Ec auoai?eaaaeaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiaeu eae i iaaoaiii aeeyiee
oioaeeoa?ecia ia ?acaeoea e ?ino iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, oae e i aai
auaiaeao, ii n?aaiaieth n eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie iiaeaeueth
iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u, a aniaeoa oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey (oioy e
oioaeueiiai) no?aiie. Oae, i/aaeaeii aic?inoaa eiee/anoai i?anooieaiee
iinea iooiaea ?innee io oioaeueiie iieeoeee e aeaiie?aoe/aneei
i?eioeeiai oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii e ioeoeeaeueiui i?aaicaeaoaieai
eeaa?aeueiuo naiaiae. Ii i?e eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie iiaeaee
iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u, iaeeoei yaiue ?ino i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
aeaaininoiyiey ianaeaiey, i?e ioia/aiiii auoa ?inoa o?iaiy i?anooiiinoe.
Oae eaeay aea iiaeaeue i?aaeii/oeoaeueiae aeey aoaeouaai? Anee iiaeii
auei au niaianoeoue eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneoth iiaeaeue iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u, n aa aeaaaie e i?aeiouanoaaie, n oioaeeoa?ii-aaoi?eoa?iie
iiaeaeueth, eiiiaine?iaaa oai naiui ?ino i?anooiiiai yeaiaioa, oiaaea
aiciiaeii e aicieeea au oa naiay iiaeaeue aoaeouaai, eaeaae e aaca aeey
aoaeouaai ie?iii?yaeea, iaania/eaathuay onoie/eaia ?acaeoea ie?iaiai
niiauanoaa aac ?acuaaeeiythueo aai eiioeeeoothueo nee.

E ana aea aeaiiua iiaeaee ieaaeoony ia iieiuie, anee ia inaaoeoue ?ieue
?aeeaee e aa aeeyiea ia iauanoaaiiia iieeoe/aneia niciaiea a ?aieao eae
ioaeaeueiie iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie oi?iaoeee, oae e ie?iaie a oeaeii.

?aeeaeiciue aniaeo iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u.

Iieacaoaeueii, /oi ia?aaeei oi?ie?iaaiea oie eee eiie iaoeee, aa
anooieaiea ia iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneoth a?aio iainiiauaathony nnueeaie
ia iaeia aiaeanoaaiiia i?iaeaeaiea. A iieneao a?aoiaioia /anoi
ia?auathony a Aeaeee, iniaaiii aaea aiai?eony, /oi aia ia oieueei i?aaeo
ie?ii, ii e ecae?aao ec n?aaeu anao ia?iaeia oieueei iaeei, iaaeaeyy aai
naiae aeaaiaeaoueth. E?aeiea oi?iu yoiai ieoa ioaiaeyo ae?oaei ia?iaeai
e no?aiai eeoue ?ieue oiia, ia eioi?ii ?acai?a/eaaaony enoi?ey oiai eee
eiiai aiaieca?aiiiai ia?iaea. Enoi?ey aeaao iiiai i?eia?ia,
naeaeaoeuenoaothueo i oii, /oi eaeay aaee/ey e aiaieca?aiiinoe auea
i?enoua /ooue ee ia eaaeaeiio aaeeeiio ia?iaeo, iniaaiii a ia?eiae aai
ainoiaeaeaiey.

Iieacaoue yoi iiaeii ia i?eia?a ?onneiai e aia?eeaineiai ia?iaeia. Oae,
aaoi? “Neacaiey i eiycueyo Aeaaeeie?neeo”, aiai?y i i?eainoaaiiinoe
ie?iauo iiia?oee ae?aaiaeoeo oea?noa aei ?eineie eiia?ee, auaiaeee
iniiau nia?aiaiiie aio aeanoe io ?eineiai eiia?aoi?a Aaaonoa. Niaeanii
yoiio neacaieth , ?onue yaeyaony caeiiiie ianeaaeieoeae anao ae?aaieo
ie?iauo iiia?oee. Anoanoaaiii, ?th?ee, iieiaeeaoee ia/aei aeeianoee
?th?eeia, i?aaeaoeo ?onueth aei ainoiaeaeaiey ia i?anoie aeeianoee
?iiaiiauo, aaaeao naie ?iae io naieo ?eineeo eiia?aoi?ia. Iinoaiaiii
noi?ie?iaaeanue eaeay Iineau eae o?aoueaai ?eia – ianeaaeieoeu ?eia e
Eiinoaioeiiiiey, noieeoeu Ainoi/iie ?eineie eiia?ee.

Iieacaoaeueii, /oi ia?yaeo n neiaieaie naiiaea?aeaaey e ia?iaeiinoe a
oi?ie?iaaiee e oe?aieaiee ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa e caaiaaaiee ei iiauo
caiaeue, no?ai e ia?iaeia aaaeioth ?ieue nua?aea i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue.
Iia aeaaaea ?onneei aeooiaioth iii?o, /oiau i?ioeainoiyoue
ionoeueiaineiio Aioieo e eaoiee/aneiio Caiaaeo, eioi?ua ia oao eee eiuo
enoi?e/aneeo yoaiao i?aaenoaaeyee oa?ico eo ?aeeaeiciiio e
ainoaea?noaaiiiio nouanoaiaaieth. A oeaeii, oioy i?eioeeiu aa?u e ia
i?aiaeaaeaee iaae iieeoe/aneeie, ?aeeaey /anoi eniieueciaaeanue aeey
iainiiaaiey aeanoe e i?eoycaiee nia/aea ?onneeo eiycae, a caoai e
iineianeeo oea?ae.

I?iiaaaiaee?oy a?iaaeeicioth eiioeaioeeth, ?anniao?eaaaooth Iineao eae
“iiaue Aa/iue ai?iae, ianeaaeieoeo ?eia e Eiinoaioeiiiiey”, oea?eiaiay
ea?a?oey iinoiyiii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaea oea?ae ia eo nayuaiiii aeieaa
i?aa?aoeoue Iineiaeth a “iiaoth o?enoeaineoth eiia?eth”, i?e yoii
neieueei-ieaoaeue /aoei ia iaicia/ay aa a?aieoeu. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue,
/oi yoa aeieo?eia nua?aea iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue a yeniainee e
ooaa?aeaeaiee iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiie ?inneeneie eiia?ee ia aane?aeieo
i?inoi?ao An?aceeneiai eiioeiaioa. Iiyoiio iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi a
oi?ie?iaaiee eaeae i aaee/ee ?innee, aa ianooaaiinoe, iao?eioecia e
i?aaeaiiinoe ioa/anoao – ?one-iaoooea, iniaii iooe ?innee e o.ae.,
ninoaaeythueo aaaeiaeoea eiiiiiaiou iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey ?inneyi,
iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue nua?aea e i?aaineaaiay aa?a. A yoie nayce iaeuecy
ia oiiiyiooue, /oi iiiaea ao?eaoou e neiaieu i?aaineaaiie oea?eae noaee
iaeiia?aiaiii e neiaieaie ?inneeneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Caeanue iiaeii
oiiiyiooue, iai?eia?, o?ai Aaneeey Aeaaeaiiiai, aicauoathueeny ia
aeaaiie ieiuaaee no?aiu ?yaeii n E?aieai, aea e o?aiu a naiii E?aiea,
aci?aaiiue aieueoeaeeaie o?ai O?enoa Nianeoaey, Enaaeeaaneee niai?,
Iioeio Ionouiue. Neiioiiaoe/ii, /oi oea?eiaue aicaiaeeea a ?aia nayouo
auaeathueony aeayoaeae, eioi?ua a no?iaii niunea ia yaeyeenue aa
neoaeeoaeyie. ?a/ue eaeao, iai?eia?, i ?aaiiaiinoieueiuo Ee?eeea e
Iaoiaeee, na. Aeaaeeie?a, Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneii e ae?.

*oi eanaaony NOA, oi n naiiai ia/aea oi?ie?iaaiey aia?eeaineiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai niciaiey aaaeiaeoei aai eiiiiiaioii noaei oaaaeaeaiea a
iniaii iooe ?acaeoey Aia?eee e aa ?iee a ie?iaie enoi?ee. Eacaeinue, /oi
naia i?e?iaea e ie?iaicc?aiea yiioe i?aaeiacia/eee aiaeeeneea eieiiee a
Naaa?iie Aia?eea aeey “aaeeeiai yenia?eiaioa”. Iiaeiaii aieaa ?aiiei
ooiieyi, a aiia?aaeaiee aa?iiaeoeaa 17-18-ai aa. Aia?eea
i?aaenoaaeyeanue neaci/iui in?iaii, ioaeaeaiiui io inoaeueiiai ie?a
ii?yie e ieaaiaie.

Enoi?eee e aeooiaiua aiaeaee nia/aea eieiiee, a caoai iacaaeneiiai
aia?eeaineiai ainoaea?noaa i?aaenoaaeyee aeaei oaeei ia?acii, /oi
aia?eeaioeu n naiiai ia/aea i?aneaaeiaaee ynioth e iniciaiioth oeaeue –
i?aoai?eoue a aeeciue eaeath aiaeanoaaiiiai i?iaeaeaiey, iino?ieoue ia
aia?eeaineie caiea aiaeanoaaiiue “a?aae ia oieia” a i?eia? anai ae?oaei
ia?iaeai ie?a. A eiia/iii n/aoa auea noi?ioee?iaaia a?aiaeeiciay
?aeeaeiciay oeeinioey enoi?ee e i?ia?anna, niaeanii eioi?ie Aia?eea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aunoee yoai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa e iineaaeithth
eo/ooth iaaeaaeaeo anao ethaeae. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi, iainiiauaay
eneeth/eoaeueiia ianoi Aia?eee a ie?iaie enoi?ee, aaoi? Aeaeea?aoeee
iacaaeneiinoe NOA, o?aoee i?aceaeaio Aia?eee O. Aeaeaooa?nii a 1785 a.
i?aaeeaaae ecia?aceoue ia ainoaea?noaaiiii aa?aa no?aiu acyoue ec Aeaeee
ia?ac nuiia Ec?aeey, eaeoueo ca eo/ii nieioea. Ii/oe ana
iooeu-iniiaaoaee Aia?eee auee aeoaiei oaaaeaeaiu a oii, /oi ae oaioiaaia
iniaay noaeueaa, iniaay, aiaeanoaaiiay ienney.

Iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee i?yii naycuaatho n ?aeeaeae ?anioaeeeaineea e
aeaiie?aoe/aneea einoeooou Aia?eee. Eae ooaa?aeaeae aua ecaanoiue
o?aioeocneee iauanoaaiiue aeayoaeue e enoi?ee A. aea Oieaeeue, enoeiiie
oeieie ?anioaeeeaineeo aeia?iaeaoaeae a Aia?eea auea oea?eiaue. Ii aai
neiaai, ?aeeaey i?aaenoaaeyea niaie ia?aue ec aia?eeaineeo iieeoe/aneeo
einoeoooia. Iia auea ?anioaeeeaineie e aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aeeaeae,
eioi?ay aeeth/aea ia oieueei ?anioaeeeaineea oeaiiinoe, ii e aeaaaea
ia?aua o?iee ioiineoaeueii oiai, eae o/anoaiaaoue a iauaaenoaaiiie
aeecie. Ii neiaai Oieaeey, i?aau a aieueoae noaiaie, /ai caeiiu, eee
oece/aneea ianoiyoaeuenoaa, niinianoaiaaee oniaoo aia?eeaineie
aeaiie?aoee, a i?aau ei?aiyony a ?aeeaee.

Ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea oio oaeo, /oi ?aeeaeiciue e nioeeieoeueoo?iue
o?aaeeoeeiiaeeci /anoi eaeoo ?oea ia ?oeo n nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneei e
eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneei eiina?aaoeciii. ?aeeaey anaaaea neoaeeea enoi/ieeii
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oeaiiinoae. A eiioea eiioeia ?aeeaey oanii naycaia n
eoeueoo?iie o?aaeeoeeae eae /anoue ia?aca aeecie a oeaeii. Eiaaea yoio
ia?ac aeecie iiaeaa?aaaony iianiinoe, aai ?aeeaeiciua e ii?aeueiua
eiiiiiaiou ieacuaathony iii?iuie ioieoaie caueou nouanoaothuae nenoaiu e
i?eau/iiai ia?aca aeecie. Iiyoiio aiieia iauynieia iaaethaeathuayny o
ioaeaeueiuo eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey neeiiiinoue naoiaaoue a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
neooaoeeyo ia oiaaeie oaeeo o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oeaiiinoae, eae caeii e
ii?yaeie, aeenoeeieeia, naea?aeaiiinoue, eiinainon, iao?eioeci e o.ae. A
nayce n eceiaeaiiui ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea oio oaeo, /oi
eiioanneiiaeueiue oaeoi? ca/anooth ia?aaaoeaae a i?ioeii e a iaeioi?uo
no?aiao i?iaeieaeaao ia?aaaoeaaoue e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
nioeeaeueii-eeanniaua i?eaa?aeaiiinoe. Eiaiii aeeyiea eea?eeaeecia e
eiioanneiiaeecia ia iauanoaaiiia niciaiea e, niioaaonoaaiii,
iieeoe/aneoth eoeueoo?o iaoneiaeei aicieeiiaaiea ai iiiaeo no?aiao
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu eea?eeaeueiuo ia?oee ?aciuo i?eaioaoeee, ?ieue e
cia/aiea eioi?uo iaeuecy ioeaieoue iaeiicia/ii.

Auee e anoue eiina?aaoeaiua e aeaaea ?aaeoeeiiiua eiioanneiiaeueiua
ia?oee e i?aaiecaoeee, ii auee e anoue e oaeea, eioi?ua aunooiaee n
iiceoeee nioeeaeueiiai ?aoi?iecia (iai?eia?, nioeeaeueiia o?enoeainoai).
A iaoe aeie o?enoeaineay ie?anea iiiiaea OAeN – a O?A, OAeI – a Eoaeee
e aiaeiae/iui ia?oeyi a ae?oaeo no?aiao i?eaea/ue ia naith noi?iio
iiiaeo aa?othueo. A ieo, ia?yaeo n eiina?aaoeaiuie, anoue e
oeaio?enoneea e eeaa?aeueiua o?aeoeee, aunooiathuea ca ?aoi?iu
(iai?eia?, oae iacuaaaiua “nioeeaeueiua eiieoaou” a OAeN).

Iaiaeiaaaeiia ianoi a iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?a caieiaao eaeaieiaey. Yoi e
anoanoaaiii, iineieueeo i?iaeaiu eaeaieiaee o?oaeii ioaeaeeoue io
i?iaeai, eanathueony aaoi?eoaoa, aeanoe, aeanoiuo ioiioaiee e o.ae. Iia
i?ecaaia i?eaeaaaoue cia/eiinoue einoeoooeeiiaeueiui ioiioaieyi iaaeaeo
ethaeueie, iauyniyoue iieeoe/aneea ?aaeueiinoe a eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneeo
oneiaeyo. Iaeiaei a oe?ieii niunea neiaa eaeaieiaey, eae ioia/atho Ae.
Iyiieia e O. ?iaeinii, ia iiaeao iaycaoue /aeiaaea aeaenoaiaaaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii, eae yoi aeaeatho i?aaiaua ii?iu. Ia
i?eaa?aeaiiinoue eaeaieiaee, a /eainoai a ia?oee, eioi?ay aeaenoaoao
eiaiai eaeaieiaee, iaycuaaao aa i?eaa?aeaioeaa i?eieiaoue iieeoe/aneia
?aoaieai oaeei, eae iii anoue. A ioee/ea io ia?oee, a eaeaieiaee iao ie
?oeiaiaeeoaeae, ie iiae/eiaiiiuo, iia eiaao oieueei i?eaa?aeaioeaa. Aac
aeenoeeieeiu, naycuaathuae ia?oeth, noi?iiiee eaeaieiaee ?eneoo auoue
aiaea/aiiui a aa/iue nii? ioiineoaeueii oiai, /oi eiaiii eaeaieiaey
i?aaeienuaaao. Aeiaiaeu “i oiaa?euaaenoaa” e “a?aonoaa” naie ii naaa ia
iiaoo iiii/ue i?eaa?aeaioeai eaeaieiaee nicaeaoue iiaia iauanoai, ii iie
iiaoo i?eaeaoue eo ia?oeeiui i?aaeii/oaieyi, oneeeyi, aeayoaeueiinoe
ii?aaeaeaiioth cia/eiinoue. Eaeaieiaey iaania/eaaao eaoaai?eyie e
iiiyoeyie, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo iainiiauaathony eee ioaa?aathony oa eee
eiua iieeoe/aneea einoeooou, aeaenoaey, iieeoe/aneee eo?n e o.ae. Ii iia
ia iiaeao iiaeiaiyoue niaie iieeoe/aneoth eoeueoo?o eae oaeiaoth. A
oneiaeyo iaeiie iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u iiaoo ninouanoaiaaoue ianeieueei
eiioeeeoothueo ae?oa n ae?oaii eaeaieiae/aneeo e eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneeo
oa/aiee, oioy, eae yoi eiaao ianoi i?e oioaeeoa?ecia, auaatho
neooaoeee, eiaaea eaeaieiaey noaieony iieiinoueth iiaeiyoue iiae naay
iieeoe/aneoth eoeueoo?o.

Eioaa?e?iaaiiay iiaeaeue iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u aoaeouaai.

Auoa auee ?anniio?aiu iniiaiua /a?ou oeie/iuo iiaeaeae iieeoe/aneeo
eoeueoo?: eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie e oioaeeoa?ii-aaoi?eoa?iie.
Noiie?oy iniiaiua iieiaeaiea, niaea?aeaueany a eaaeaeie ec ieo iiaeii
naeaeaoue neaaeothueai auaiaeu: i?aiaeaaeathuae iiaeaeueth iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u a iauai eiee/anoaa nouanoaothueo no?ai* yaeyaony
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay, eiaaea eae ia aeieth
oioaeeoa?ii-aaoi?eoa?iie iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u iooiaeeo iacia/eoaeueiia
eiee/anoai no?ai. E eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneiio eaaa?th ioiinyony
oaeea no?aiu, eae Aia?eea, ?inney, O?aioeey, Ii?aaaey e ae?. Yoe no?aiu
oa?aeoa?ecoao iiuiay iieeoe/aneay aeanoue, iaee/ea nianoaaiiie a?iee,
niiniaiie ia aiaiiua aeaenoaey ia oieueei ai aioo?aiieo a?aieoeao, ii e
ca aa i?aaeaeaie, aeinoaoi/iue aeey iacaaeneiiai nouanoaiaaiey
niaieoiiue eioaeeaeooaeueiue iioaioeeae a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa e ae?.
Eaaeaeay ec yoeo no?ai aoiaeeo ii e?aeiae ia?a a iaeei ec nouanoaothueo
aiaiiuo eeai yeiiiie/aneeo nithcia. Oaeiau oa?aeoa?enoeee no?ai
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai eaaa?y, /oi aea iiaeii neacaoue i no?aiao
i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai iieeoe/aneiai eaaa?y? Eae yoi ia no?aiii, ii a
i?eioeeia iie oa?aeoa?ecothony oaie aea /a?oaie, /oi e ia?aua, n oie
eeoue ?acieoeae, /oi a ieo ainiiaenoaotho oioaeeoa?iua eee aaoi?eoa?iua
onoie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. No?aiu n oioaeeoa?ii-aaoi?eoaiie
iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?ie oaeaea aoiaeyo a yeiiiie/aneea eeai aiaiiua
nithcu, ca/anooth aeaaea a nithcu /enoi eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
eaaa?y, /oi a i?eioeeia ia aeeyao ia aioo?aiithth
oioaeeoa?ii-aaoi?eoa?ioth aoiinoa?o a yoeo no?aiao.

Ana auoaeceiaeaiiia iicaieyao iaiaoeoue iniiaiua /a?ou iiaeaee
iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u aoaeouaai. Ana aicieeathuea nithcu oeacuaatho ia
oi, /oi ai iiiaeo no?aiao acaeiiua eioaa?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu caoee oae
aeaeaei, /oi ii?ie o?oaeii ?acia?aoueny, aaea eii/aaony iaeia no?aia e
aaea ia/eiaaony ae?oaay. Yoi ia eanaaony eneeth/eoaeueii i?ic?a/iinoe
a?aieoe, ana yoi ioiineony oaeaea e e iniiaiui noa?ai aeayoaeueiinoe
ainoaea?noa – a iaeanoe yeiiiieee, iieeoeee, aiaiiie noa?a. Oae, a
ianoiyuai a?aiaie, aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eeieth a?aieoeu
Ethenaiao?aa n Aaeueaee a ?aieao aaeeiiai Aa?iiaeneiai Niiauanoaa, a a
aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai, n iiiaioii ia/aea oiaeaeaiey aaeeiie aa?iiaeneie
aaethou – ioaeaeeoue iaeii yeiiiie/aneia i?ino?ainoai niioaaonoaothuaai
ainoaea?noaa io ae?oaiai.

Aa?iiaeneia Niiauanoai – yoi nithc /enoi aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa,
iaeiaei, /oi aea iauaaeeiyao aai n NOA, ?aniieiaeaiiui ia aia?eeaineii
eiioeiaioa? Ioaao iaeei – IAOI; aiaiiue e iieeoe/aneee nithc no?ai
Naaa?i-Aoeaioe/aneiai aeiea. Oaeei ia?acii, iaeeoei aeaa nithca,
eaaeaeue ec eioi?ue ieeaeiai ioiioaiey ae?oa e ae?oao ia eiaao, ii i?e
yoii iauaaeeiyao a aeaa ?aca aieueoa no?ai, /ai eaaeaeue ec ieo ii
ioaeaeueiinoe. Iiaeiaiua i?ioeannu cao?aaeaatho ana aieueoaa /enei
no?ai, eioi?ua ia?acotho ana iiaua e iiaua nithcu ii ?acee/iui
iniiaaieyi, eaaeaeua ec yoeo no?ai aianoa, eeai ii ioaeaeueiinoe,
aoiaeyo a iauaaeeiaiey eiiai ?iaea, a oa a naith i/a?aaeue ioaaouaatho
no?aiu ec ae?oaeo aeieia. Ionthaea auoaeatho ana i?aaeiinueee oiai, /oi
a aoaeouai, ana no?aiu ianoieueei eioaa?e?othny a nenoaiu no?ai
aiaeiae/iuo nithcia, /oi aicieeiao iaeii iae?iainoaea?noai, eioi?ia oaea
e ainoaea?noaii iacuaaoueny ia iiaeao, eai ionoonoaotho oeie/iua
i?eciaee ainoaea?noaa – noaa?eieoao e aaeeiia oa??eoi?eaeueiia
ono?ienoai.

*oi aea eanaaony i?eaa?aeaiiinoe yoiai iae?iainoaea?noaa e oie eee eiie
iiaeaee iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u, oi aa?iyoiaa anaai iii ecaa?ao
eioaa?e?iaaiioth iiaeaeue iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u, niaiauathuae a naaa
aeaaa eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie iiaeaee n auaiaeaie
oioaeeoa?ii-aaoi?eoa?iie iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u.

A a?yaeouai iauaaeeiaiee no?ai, aiciiaeiui eiioeeeoiui yeaiaioii
i?iyaeo naay ?aeeaey e iniaaiii iianiu aoaeoo no?aiu n ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aeeaeae, o.a. no?aiu, aaea ainoaea?noai aa?ao ia naay ooieoeee
iiioey?ecaoeee e caueou ?aeeaeiciuo onoiaa, a oaeaea i?aai ea?aoue naieo
a?aaeaeai ca eo ia niaethaeaiea.

Oae, no?aiu n ionoeueiaineie ?aeeaeae oaea nae/an (iniaaiii no?aiu n
e?aeieie ionoeueiaineeie onoiyie) eaeoo ii iooe iainiaeaiey e
ioa?aie/aiey naay io ae?oaeo no?ai, ii?ie aeaaea iooai aiaiiuo aeaenoaee
(oaeeaaineia aeaeaeaiea a Aoaaienoaia). Eiaiii a oaeeo e ei iiaeiaiuo
neo/ayo, auaiaeu oioaeeoa?ii-aaoi?eoa?iie iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u eae ?ac
e ianoo. Neeueiay e iaiieaeaaeiay iieeoe/aneay aiey iiaeao canoaaeoue
oaeeoueny iai?eie?eiua ?aeeaeiciua oa/aiey a aaeeiii ie?iaii niiauanoaa.

Caeeth/aiea.

Eoae, iooe aeinoeaeaiey “a?yaeouaai ie?iii?yaeea” aeinoaoi/ii ynii auee
io?aaeaiu auoa: eneeth/eoaeueii iieeoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie, nio?aiythueie
iacaaeneiinoue e aaoiiiiiinoue ee/iinoe, eniieuecoy anoanoaaiiia
no?aieaiea ia?iaeia e niaianoiiio ie?iiio ninouanoaiaaieth a aaeeiii
ie?iaii i?ino?ainoaa. Oioy , i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii, iooue eioaa?aoeee
aoaeao aeiaieueii aeeeoaeai e oa?ieno ( aa?iyoiu aeaaea aieiu) , aaoi?
au?aaeaao iaaeaaeaeo ia eneeth/eoaeueii ie?ioth eioaa?aoeeth
ainoaea?noa, eae iieeoe/aneeo y/aae ie?iaiai niiauanoaa a aaeeiue
acaeiineaaeaiiue i?aaieci – iae?iainoaea?noai, noiyuaai ia no?aaea i?aa
e naiaiae eaaeaeiai naiaai /eaia, eai iiiyoea “a?aaeaeaiei”,
“eiino?aiaoe”, “eeoei aac a?aaeaeainoaa” caeanue oaea ia oianoii – ana
ianaeaiea ieaiaou e anoue aai o/anoieee.

P.S. Oioy aoaeouaa a eceiaeaiiie ?aaioa e i?aaenoaaeyaony yniui, aac
aeuiee ooiaia oaeinoaaiiinoe, inoaaei ana-oaee iaiiiai ianoa aeey
iaiaa?ia aai aaee/anoaa i?iaeaeaiey e neaaeai: aoaeouaa, aea eoi aai
?acaa?ao…

8 iiya?y 1996 a.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

?i?iica? A. Iieeoeea e ?aeeaey//NNN? – O?A: iaano?a/o ae?oa ae?oao. –
I., 1990;

Aaaa? I. Eca?. i?iecaaaeaiey. – I., 1990;

Iiaai?iaeoeaa I.E. Ia iauanoaaiiii eaeaaea. – Aa?eei, 1922;

Ath?ie?aoey, aaoi?eoa?eci e aoaeouaa aeaiie?aoee a ?innee (iaoa?eaeu
“e?oaeiai noiea”)//Aii?inu oeeinioee. – 1993. – ?2;

Aeaeeean I. Eeoei oioaeeoa?ecia. – I., 1992;

Oioaeeoa?eci: /oi yoi oaeia? – O. 1. – I., 1993;

Ino?ianeee A.A. Oaiaoe/aneea eaeoeee ii iieeoieiaee. – 1996.

* ?aaioa iaienaia ii ninoiyieth ia ia?aia iieoaiaeea 1996 aiaea (i?ei.
aaoi?a).

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