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Гипотеза как форма развития биологического знания

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NAIEO – IAOA?AO?ANEEE

AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE

AA?A?IUE

OIEAA?NEOAO

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EAOAAe?A OEEINIOEE

? A O A ? A O

ia oaio Aeiioaca eae oi?ia ?acaeoey

aeieiae/aneiai ciaiey

Eniieieoaeue: anie?aio i/iie oi?iu

iao/aiey

Oaaaeia A. A.

NAIEO – IAOA?AO?A

1996 aiae

NIAeA?AEAIEA. no?aieoea

1. AAAAeAIEA 3

2. AEAAA 1 . Aeiioaca. 5

2. 1. Iainiiaaiiinoue e i?iaa?yaiinoue aeiioac 11

2. 2. Ooieoeee aeiioac a iao/iii enneaaeiaaiee 13

3. AEAAA 2 . Aeiioaca ia i?eia?a aeieiae/aneiai

iiciaiey. 15

4. Caeeth/aiea. 25

5. Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u. 26

AAAAeAIEA

Iniiaiua iiiaiou a noaiiaeaiee iao/iie eaeae – yoi i?iaeaia, aeiioaca e
caeii. I?e yoii yoe yeaiaiou oai?ee acaeiinaycaiiu iaaeaeo niaie,
aaeeiu e aaiaoe/anee acaeiiiaoneiaeaiu. Oae, i?iaeaia iiaeao aicieeaoue
e aeaenoaeoaeueii aicieeaao oieueei a eiioaenoa iao/iiai ciaiey; aoaeo/e
noi?ioee?iaaiiie, i?iaeaia i?eaiaeeo e iino?iaieth aeiioacu; iaeiiaoe,,
caeii o?aeooaony eae iniaiai ?iaea aeiioaca, oaeiaeaoai?ythuay iaeioi?ui
aeiiieieoaeueiui oi?iaeueiui, iaoiaeieiae/aneei e aiinaieiae/aneei
o?aaiaaieyi. Acyoay a oeaeii, oeaii/ea “i?iaeaia – aeiioaca –
caeii”ia?acotho nenoaio,eioi?oth iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae iao/ioth
eaeath: i?iaeaia – yoi enoiee eaeae, aeiioaca – aa i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia
ioi?ieaiea, caeii – caeii/aiiay e i?iaa?aiiay iiuoii oi?ioee?iaea [ 4,
n. 3 ].

Ana, auoaneacaiiia iiaeii ioianoe e aeiaiaeai i?e auai?a oaiu
?aoa?aoa- aeiioaca eae oi?ia ?acaeoey aeieiae/aneiai ciaiey. Yoa oaia
i/aiue aeecea iia eae /aeiaaeo caieiathuaiony eco/aieai, aeieiae/aneei
iiciaieai, acaeiinaycae a i?e?iaea iaaeaeo i?aaieciaie .

A ?aoa?aoa ?anniao?eaaaony naii iiiyoea aeiioacu, eiae/aneay e
aiinaieiae/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey , iainiiaaiiinoue e i?iaa?yaiinoue
aeiioac, ooieoeee aeiioac a iao/iii enneaaeiaaiee.

Ai aoi?ie aeaaa i?eaiaeeony i?eia?, ?anniio?aiiuo auoa ii?aaeaeaiee.
Aeey i?eia?a iu aua?aee yaiethoeeiiioth oai?eth aicieeiiaaiey aeecie ec
oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee , noaouey i eioi?ie auea ieia/aoaia a aeo?iaea “
Enoiee “ iaoea aunoeo ecia?aiee. Ecaeaoaee yoiai aeo?iaea –
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia iauanoai niciaiey E?eoiu. Eiaaea iia a ?oee iiiae yoio
aeo?iae, e, y aai i?i/eoae io ei?ee aei ei?ee, ii neeueii iaiy
caeioa?aniaae canoaaea aai eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa eeethno?aoeeiiiiai
i?eia?a i?e ?anniio?aiee auoa iacaaiiie oaiu. E niioaaonoaaiii
i?aaenoaaeyy aai ia noae iaoeo oaaaeaaiuo i?aiiaeaaaoaeae.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii aeey ia?aie aeaau iineoaeeea iiiia?aoey aaoi?a –
Ea?iiae/a A. I. “ I?iaeaia, aeiioaca, caeii” ,1980 aiaea ecaeaiey. Ia
iie acaeyae, iia iieiieiinoueth inaauaao ii?aaeaeaiea aeiioacu a
acaeiinayce n i?iaeaiie e caeiiii, oae eae iie aaeeiu. A iae
?anniao?eaathony oieueei yiie?e/aneea iaoee a oe?ieii niunea yoiai
neiaa, eae i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oi?iaeueiui aeenoeeieeiai e enneaaeothuea
caeiiiia?iinoe ?aaeueiiai ie?a.

Aeieiaey – yoi iaoea, ioiinyuayny e anoanoaaiiui, o. a. eco/athuei
caeiiu i?e?iaeu. Anee ia?aoeoueny e eeanneeai oeeinioee, iai?eia?, o
Yiaaeuena anoue oaeia au?aaeaiea: /oi aeiioaca, oi?ia ?acaeoey
iuneyuaai anoanoaiciaiey [ 10, n.555 ].

Enoiaey ec anaai auoa neacaiiiai, ia?aeaeai e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
?anniio?aieth niaea?aeaiey oaiu ?aoa?aoa.

AEAAA. 2 . A E I I O A C A.

Iaeioi?ui ethaeyi aii?in i oii,ioeoaea aicieeea aeeciue,eaaeaony
aaneiia/ii aeaeaeei io eo iianaaeiaaiuo i?iaeai. Aeey ieo aeeneonnee
o/aiuo ia yoo oaio – ia aaaeii, ianoaeaeathony a yoeo aeeneonneyo
eiae/iua eaeae iie?athueany ia i?iaa?aiiua iao/iua oaeou ,eee ooiaiiua
iaaeoiaiiua aeiioacu,iniiaaiiua ia niiieoaeueiuo aeaiiuo e iao/iuo
i?aae?annoaeeao,- yoi ?acaiai?u ethaeae,caieioaoeony a aaoia ec neiiiaie
einoe [ 3., n. 29].

AEeciue noaaeo ia?aae iaie i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua iai iaiaoiaeeii
?aoaoue.Iinea oiai eae i?iaeaia eee i?iaeaiiue eiiieaen noi?ioee?iaaiu
e enneaaeiaaiu,oi anoue i?iaiaeece?iaaiu eaeao i?ioeann iienea ?aoaiey.
Iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu ?ac?aoathony ia?auaieai e ?aaeueiiio ie?o,iieneii
iiauo oaeoia iin?aaenoaii i?ioeaaeo? iaaethaeaiey, ecia?aiey e o .i
.Ae?oaea aea i?iaeaiu iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu oieueei iooai iino?iaiey
iaeioi?uo iiauo oai?ee, iiaiai noauaeoeaiiai ia?aca iauaeoeaiiai
ie?a.Iau/ii eaaeaony i/aaeaeiui, /oi yiie?e/aneea i?iaeaiu e naycuiiue n
ieie i?ioeann iaeiieaiey yiie?e/aneiai iaoa?eaea aeieaeiu
i?aaeoanoaiaaoue eiioeaiooaeueiui i?iaeaiai, caeeth/athueiny a ia?aaioea
iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo oaie eee eiuie eiae/aneeie iaoiaeaie.Iiyoiio aeaaea a
oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ioia/aaony ooiaeaiaioaeueiay ?ieue i?iaeaiu eae
enoiaeiiai ioieoa iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey, o?aaeeoeeiiii neaaeothuei
yoaiii a ?anniio?aiee i?ioeanna iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony eiaiii
aiaeec n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia iieo/aiey iao/iuo oaeoia.

Iaeiaei a ?aaeueiie iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe anyeee i?ioeann nai?a
yiie?e/aneiai iaoa?eaea ia yaeyaony enoiaeiui, iineieueeo aio
i?aaeoanoaotho aeiioacu, a naie yiie?e/aneea aeaiiua eioa?i?aoe?othuay n
iiiiuueth oai?ee.A i?aaeaeueiii neo/aa yoi iiaoo auoue aeaaea aeiioacu e
oai?ee ioiineoaeueii ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?eiyouo n?aaenoa iaaethaeaiey e
yenia?eiaioa, oioy a iauai neo/aa, aaconeiaii, oai?aoe/aneay
iaa?oaeaiiinoue iaaethaeaiey i?aauoaao yoio ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue; /oiau
oaaaeeoueny a yoii, aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue i oii, ianeieueei oanii
naycaiu yenia?eiaio e oai?ey a nia?aiaiiie aeieiaee eee aaiaoeea.Iao/iay
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue oaeiaa, /oi ie iaeia ec i?iaeai ia ?aoaaony
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?auaieai e iiuoo,- iineaaeiee anaaaea iiin?aaeiaai
i?aaeoanoaothueie aio eaeayie, oai?eyie e iiiyoeeiui aiia?aoii. Iiyoiio
aieaa aaeaeaaoiui naiiio i?ioeanno enneaaeiaaiey e aai anoanoaaiiiio
aeaeaeaieth aoaeao ia?auaiea ia e yiie?e/aneei aeaiiui e niiniaai eo
iieo/aiey, a e eco/aieth e aiaeeco iao/iuo eaeae, eioi?ua i?iaa?ythony
iiuoii- a eiaiii, e aeiioacai e caeiiai, a oaeaea oai?eyi eae nenoaiai
caeiiia .Oieueei iinea oaeiai aiaeeca iao/iuo eaeae i?aaiia?ii ia?auaiea
e iiuoo eae e eiia/iie einoaioeee iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey, e eioi?ie
iao/iua eaeae i?iaa?ythony e n iiiiuueth eioi?ie iie iainiiauaathony.

Ia?aui iauaeoii aiaeeca ia yoii iooe yaeyaony aeiioaca.

Oi, /oi Caiey eiaao oa?iia?acioth oi?io,-yoi, eiia/ii, oaeo. Oai ia
iaiaa, yoi iaiaaethaeaaiue oaeo: ieeoi iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia iaaethaeae
iaoae ieaiaou a oeaeii, e aeaaea einiiiaaou aeaeyo ia anth ieaiaoo, a
oieueei aa /anoue. E caeeth/aieth i oa?iia?aciinoe Caiee ethaee i?eoee,
caiaoea ,/oi i?e eoiiuo caoiaieyo Caiey ioa?anuaaao oaiue, eiathuoth
oi?io e?oaa. Ia iuneue i noa?e/iinoe caiiie iiaa?oiinoe iaaiaeee e
anaaeiaaiue iiuo ii?aieaaaoaeae: ecaanoii, /oi eiaaea aaeaee
iieacuaaaony ei?aaeue, oi nia/aea ec-ca ai?eciioa iiyaeythony aa?oiea
eiioeu iao/ e eeoue caoai ?aniieiaeaiiua ieaea ?ae e i?i/ea aeaoaee
noaeia. Iauynieoue oaeea iaaethaeaiey oaeaaony eeoue i?eiya
i?aaeeiaeaiea i oii, /oi Caiey eiaao oi?io oa?a. Iicaea yoi
i?aaeiieiaeaiea auei iainiiaaii iacaaeneiuie iaaethaeaieyie ecia?aieyie,
a /anoiinoe, e?oainaaoiuie iooaoanoaeyie e ano?iiiie/aneeie ioe?uoeyie.
Oaeei ia?acii, ooaa?aeaeaiea i oa?iia?aciinoe Caiee yaeyaony a i?eioeeia
i?aaeiieiaeaieai eee – aeiioacie [ 4., n. 62 ].

Iiaeiaiay eaaeeoeeaoeey noieue i/aaeaeiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey aace?oaony ia
neaaeothuai iiieiaiee aeiioacu: iaeioi?ia ooaa?aeaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie aeiioaco oiaaea e oieueei oiaaea ,eiaaea iii, ai-ia?auo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eee iiin?aaeiaaii ioiineony e iiea eee a i?eioeeia
iaaethaeaaiui oaeoai e, ai-aoi?uo iiaeao auoue ooi/iaii e eni?aaeaii i?e
iaee/ee iiaiai ciaiey.

A yoii ii?aaeaeaiee iiae oaeoaie iiieiathony ?aaeueiua niauoey, a ia
iienuaathuea eo noaeaeaiey. Iineaaeiea eaaeeoeoee?othony eae
yiie?e/aneea aeaiiua, eee aeaiiua iaaethaeaiey ,anee, eiia/ii ,yoe
aeaiiua niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii iieo/aiu ,iineieueeo, neaaeai
,noaeaeaiea iienuaathuaa ?aaeueiia a i?ioeii niauoea, ia iiaeao auoue
ioianaii e yiie?e/aneei aeaiiui .A nayce n yoei ecaanoioth aeeneonneth i
oii, neaaeoao ee iiieiaoue oaeo iioieiae/anee eee aiinaieiae/anee, iu
i?inoi iaoiaeei, i?eieiay ?acee/iua oa?ieiu aeey o?aeoiaee oaeoia a
?acee/iuo niuneao. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi aeiioacu auoai?eaaaeaiiui
ii?aaeaeaieai i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony ia oaeoai ,a yiie?e/aneei aeaiiui.

A i?eiyoie oa?ieiieiaee ?acee/ea iaaeaeo oaeoii e aeiioacie ia yaeyaony
?acee/eai a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai iauaai ?iaea, e eiaiii iiyoiio ia neaaeoao
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue oaeou e aeiioacu .Aeiioacu-yoi noaeaeaiey ,e, eae
oaeiaua, iie i?ioeaiiieiaeiu noaeaeaieyi n ae?oaeie i?eciaeaie, a
eiaiii aaeeie/iui noaeaeaieyi iiuoa yiie?e/aneei aeaiiui. Aeaiiua e
aeiioacu ?acee/athony oai ,/oi iineaaeiea no?iyony ia iniiaa ia?auo e
aianoa n oai ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth e niuneo auoiaeyo ca i?aaeaeu
yiie?e/aneeo aeaiiuo .Ae?oaeie neiaaie, aeiioaca anaaaea iaeaaeaao
aieueoei niaea?aeaieai e aieueoie eiae/aneie neeie ,/ai oa aeaiiua, ia
eioi?uo iia iniiaaia.Aaeeie/iua noaeaeaiey i oaeoao a i?eioeeia oaeaea
iiaoo iiaeeaaeaoue eni?aaeaieth, eae e aeiioaca. Iiyoiio iie ioee/athony
io aeiioac eeoue ii ia?aiio, a ia ii aoi?iio i?eciaeo a ii?aaeaeaiee
aeiioacu-a ioee/ea io aeiioac, aeaiiua anaaaea ioiinyony e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaaethaeaaiiio a iiuoa .Auaatho aeiioacu, eioi?ua
ioiinyony eeoue e aeaiiiio a iiuoa ,ia i?aainoiaey aai ii naiaio
niaea?aeaieth.Iaeiaei a yoeo neo/ayo aeiioacu ioiinyony o iiuoo
iiin?aaeiaaii, /a?ac aeaiiua yaeyynue eo eiia/iui iaiauaieai.

E?iia oeacaiey ia ?acee/ea e i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aeaiiuo e aeiioacu
iaiaoiaeeii neacaoue ianeieueei neia ia eo ioiioaiee ae?oa e ae?oao.
Iineieueeo aeiioaca ia ioiineony e aaeeie/iui noaeaeaieyi iiuoa ,a
anaaaea i?aainoiaeeo eo ii niaea?aeaieth, aa iaeuecy iainiiaaoue enoiaey
oieueei ec aeaiiuo .Yiie?e/aneea aeaiiua iiaoo eeoue ii?iaa?aaoue
aeiioaco ,ii ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaoue aa .Yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea i niioiioaiee
aeiioac e aeaiiuo, iieo/eaoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a nia?aiaiiie iaoiaeieiaee
iaoee, naycaii ni aoi?ui i?eciaeii a i?eaiaeeiii auoa ii?aaeaeaiee
aeiioacu: aeiioaca aeieaeia auoue oaeie, /oiau iiaeii auei eni?aaeoue
eee ooi/ieoue i?e iaee/ee iiauo aeaiiuo .Anyeia noaeaeaiea
oaeiaeaoai?ythuaa ia?aiio i?eciaeo ,o.a. ioiinyuaany e iaiaaethaeaaiiio
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ,ii ia oaeiaeaoai?ythuaa aoi?iio i?eciaeo, n/eoaaony
aeiioacie .

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, a aiinaieiae/aneii ieaia aeiioacu
i?aaeoanoaotho ethaie aeayoaeueiinoe ii nai?o aeaiiuo .Ai-ia?auo
iieo/aiea yiie?e/aneiai iaoa?eaea iniuneaiii oieueei a oii neo/aa ,anee
iii inouanoaeyaony n oeaeueth iiaeoaa?aeeoue eee ii?iaa?aiooue aeiioaco,
e n yoie oi/ee c?aiey nai? aeaiiuo noaiiaeony aanniuneaiiui anee iao
?oeiaiaeyuae aeiioacu. Ai-aoi?uo, nai? aeaiiuo n oeaeueth iiaeoaa?aeeoue
eee ii?iaa?aiooue iaeioi?oth aeiioaco anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaaony
i?eiyoeai oeaeiai ?yaea ae?oaeo aeiioac, oaeeo iai?eia?, eae
nouanoaiaaiea iaaethaeaaiiai i?aaeiaoa, eni?aaiinoue i?eai?ia e o .ae .

Ca/anooth ooieoeee aeiioacu a ?annoaeaeaieyo i iaoea iaaeiioeaieaathony
a neeo iauaeaiiiai oiio?aaeaiey yoiai oa?ieia aeey iaicia/aiey
iaiainiiaaiiuo e ie/ai ia ii?aaaeaiiuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee, a ioee/ea io
“oaa?aeuo “iao/iuo caeeth/aiee. Yoi i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea aeiioac iao/iui
auaiaeai ,e?iia oiai, niaea?aeeo aua iaeii ioeai/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea: ia
aaniethoiinoe e iaeciaiiinoe ?acoeueoaoia iao/iiai iienea. Ia naiii
aeaea iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia o/aiea ia ioiineoaeueiinoe enoeiu e
aiinaieiae/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea aeiioacu eae iniaie oi?iu iiciaiey e
iuoeaiey ane?uaatho oio oaeo, /oi iiiaea iao/iua ?acoeueoaou
,aini?eieiathueany iauaeaiiui iuoeaieai eae iaiin?aaenoaaiiua e oaa?aei
onoaiiaeaiiua noaeaeaiey oaeoa, yaeythony eeoue iiin?aaeiaaiiuie
auaiaeaie, a neaaeiaaoaeueii iinyo aeiioaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

Ceiai “ oai?ey “ eniieuecoaony a iaoea e a iauaeaiiii niciaiee a naiuo
?acee/iuo cia/aieyo. A aieaa oceii e niaoeeaeueiii niunea oai?ey – yoi
oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee iao/iiai ciaiey [ 7., c. 46 ].

Niaa?oaiii ii?aceoaeueia ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue aeiioac a iaoae iauaeaiiie
aeecie: aeaaea a oii neo/aa, eiaaea iu ia caaeoiuaaainy yaiui ia?acii
iaae niiniaii iaoeo aeaenoaee ,iu ia naiii aeaea aeaenoaoai ia iniiaa
ia?iiiiai iiiaeanoaa iayaii i?eieiaaiuo aeiioac. Ethaay aeayoaeueiinoue,
iineieueeo iia ?acoiia e iineieueeo iia inouanoaeyaony a ie?a
acaeiinaycaiiuo i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee, aeeth/aao a naay ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai aeiiouaiee, auoiaeyueo ca i?aaeaeu iaiin?aaenoaaiii
iaaethaeaaiuo oaeoia. A eaaeaeue iiiaio a?aiaie ?acoiiay aeayoaeueiinoue
inouanoaeyaony a eiia/iii o?aaiaioa eiia/iiai ie?a, i?e/ai aeaaea
i?aaeiaou iaoae aeayoaeueiinoe ia aeaiu iai ai anai eo iiiaiia?acee,
Ionthaea aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeiioaoe/aneie ?aeiino?oeoeee
ianoiyoaeuenoa aeayoaeueiinoe, eai a i?ioeaiii neo/aa iie ia iiaoo auoue
iiiyoue e aeayoaeueiinoue oa?yao iniuneaiiue oa?aeoa? .Neaaeiaaoaeueii
ec iaaiciiaeiinoe aaniethoiiai e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ciaiey ie?a
aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeiioaoe/aneie aai ?aeiino?oeoeee,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaaaeaiey aeiioac i oii, /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia
iaaethaeaaony.

Aeiioacu, a i?eioeeia iaono?aieiua ec anyeiai ?acoiiiai iiaaaeaiey,
i?eia?aoatho aua aieaa ooiaeaiaioaeueioth ?ieue a iaoea eae
aeayoaeueiinoe ii io?aaeaieth e iiciaieth ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe .Oio oaeo ,/oi aieueoeinoai iao/iuo aeiioac
oi?ioee?oaony a oi?ia eaoaai?e/aneeo ooaa?aeaeaiee, ia aeieaeai
aaiaeeoue a caaeoaeaeaiea i?e iaoaiao/iuo ?annoaeaeaieyo. Eiaaea
,iai?eia?, aeieia aiai?eo ,/oi aeeciue iiyaeeanue ia iaoae ieaiaoa ieiei
2 ie?ae. eao iacaae, eeai /oi ia?auie aeeauie i?aaieciaie auee eeoae
,eee /oi ?anoaiey neioace?otho oaeaaiaei?iae ec aeaoieene oaea?iaea e
aiaeu ,eee /oi eenei?iae niaa?oaiii iaiaoiaeei aeey aeecie, eeai /oi ana
ieaeiieoathuea iaeaaeatho iinoiyiiie oaiia?aoo?ie oaea, – ia naiii aeaea
ii oi?ioee?oao ia noaeaeaiea oaeoa eee yiie?e/aneea aeaiiua ,a aeiioacu
aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iiiaeanoaa yiie?e/aneeo aeaiiuo iieo/atho
iniuneaiioth eioa?i?aoaoeeth. Ana oaeiai ?iaea ooaa?aeaeaiey ioiinyony e
iaiaaethaeaaiui oaeoai e eniieuecothony aeey iauyniaiey iaeiieaiiiai a
aeieiaee yiie?e/aneiai iaoa?eaea.

Eiiaaea aeiioaoe/aneee oa?aeoa? noaeaeaiee iaia?oaeeaaaony a eo
eiae/aneie oi?ia . Oae ,eaaeaeia oneiaiia noaeaeaiea aeaea anee “p, oi
q” i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeiioaco, iineieueeo yaeyaony eiae/aneie
eiino?oeoeeae ec aeaoo noaeaeaiee, eioi?ua iiaoo ioiineoueny ,ii ia
iaycaoaeueii, e iaaethaeaaiui oaeoai . Oneiaiinoue- yaeyaony
aeinoaoi/iui i?eciaeii aeiioaoe/iinoe.

Iaeiaei ,a iauai neo/aa oneiaiinoue ia yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui i?eciaeii
aeiioacu, iineieueeo aiciiaeiu aeiioacu, oi?ioee?oaiua ia a oneiaiuo
noaeaeaieyo, eae ,iai?eia?,” AEo/ea aieiaeia'”.Iiaeii i?eaanoe e ae?oaea
i?eia?u iaoneiaiuo noaeaeaiee ,iaeaaeathueo ae?oaie eiae/aneie oi?iie
,ii yaeythueony aeiioacaie:” Ia Ia?na ,aa?iyoii, nouanoaoao aeeciue
“;”Ai Anaeaiiie eiaaony aaneiia/iia eiee/anoai ieaiaoiuo nenoai
“;”?aaeeiaeoeaiue oaea?iae eiaaony a eaaeaeii aeeaii i?aaiecia”. Ec
i?eaaaeaiiuo i?eia?ia iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuee iauee auaiae: aiaeeca
eiae/aneie oi?iu noaeaeaiey iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aai
aiinaieiae/aneiai e iaoiaeieiae/aneiai noaoona.

Ethaay aeiioaca, oae aea ,eae e i?iaeaia ,ia yaeyaony
aani?aaeiinuei/iie, i?e/ai i?aaeiinueee aeiioacu i?iyaeythony a aa
nianoaaiiie oi?ioee?iaea. I?aaeiinueee ,aoiaeyuea a ethaia iao/iia
enneaaeiaaiea, yaeythony aeiiouaieyie a eiae/aneii niunea yoiai neiaa, o
.a. iinueeaie, ec eioi?uo aeaeathony auaiaeu. Aeiiouaiey auaiaea
ioee/athony io aeiioac oai ,/oi aeey ieo aac?acee/ii, i?eiaaeeaaeao ee
iie iaoaiaoe/aneei eee niaea?aeaoaeueiui iaoeai; aeiioaca aea ,ii
ii?aaeaeaieth auneacuaaao ia/oi i ie?a, o .a. ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo
iaoaiaoeea eae oi?iaeueiie ,a ia yiie?e/aneie aeenoeeieeia. Neaaeoao
,iiaeaeoe,ioiaoeoue ,/oi nai oa?iei “aeiioaca” ainoiaeeo yoeiieiae/anee
e iiiyoeth iinueee eee aeiiouaiey auaiaea; iaeiaei a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii
oiio?aaeyaony ,eae iieacuaaao i?eaaaeaiiia auoa ii?aaeaeaiea, eia/a .Ia
anyeia aeiiouaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeiioaco, e ia anyeay aeiioaca
iiaeao oaeoe/anee eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa aeiiouaiey aeey
iineaaeothueo auaiaeia.

I?aaeiinueee aeiioac iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia iauea e niaoeeaeueiua a
caaeneiinoe io eo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe oie iaoea, a eioi?ie oi?ioee?oaony
aeiioaca .Iaueie i?aaeiinueeaie iacuaathony ooaa?aeaeaiey ,eioi?ua
noi?ioee?iaaiu ia a iiiyoeyo naiie iao/iie aeenoeeieeiu ,ii a iaeioi?uo
aieaa iaueo iiiyoeyo .

Caeeth/ay iauoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeiioacu, oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue /oi
?ani?ino?aiaiiia iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea e yoie, ii au?aaeaieth Yiaaeuena
,oi?ia ?acaeoey iuneyuaai anoanoaiciaiey [10, n. 555], eiaao naie
enoi?e/aneea ei?ie ,iai?eia? ,oae oe?iei ecaanoiiai ec?a/aiey Iuethoiia
:”Aeiioac aea y ia eciuoeyth” . Aianoa n oai niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i nouanoaiaaiee iaiaaethaeaaiiai” ie?iaiai yoe?a “,eae
,ai?i/ai ,e iiiaea ae?oaea, aeaaea ieacaaoeany a iineaaenoaee enoeiiuie,
ooaa?aeaeaiey naiiai Iuethoiia ,auee aeiioacaie.

Ethaia i?aaeuyaeaiiia iiiaeanoai yiie?e/aneeo aeaiiuo, ioiinyueony e
iaeioi?ui oaeoai ,iiaeao auoue ioaa/aii niaea?aeaieai ia?iiiiai
eiee/anoaa ?aciiia?aciuo aeiioac, iineieueeo aeaiiua ieeiaaea
iaeiicia/iui ia?acii ia ii?aaeaeytho eioai?aoe?othuae aeiioacu .Aeey
oiai, /oiau ioaeaeeoue iaeaieaa i?aaaeiiiaeiaiua ec auaeaeaaaiuo
aeiioac, ia eo oi?ioee?iaeo iaeeaaeuaathony iaeioi?ua ia?aie/aiey. Aia
?aiie iaoee ,eiaaea ia noaaeony oeaeue enoeiiiai ioia?aaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ,ioai? i?aaeeaaaaiuo aeiioac, aeey iineaaeothuaai
?anniio?aiey, iiaeao eaeoe ii oaeei ia?aiao?ai ,eae niioaaonoaea
aaoi?eoaoo i?inoioa eee i?aeoe/iinoue auneacaiiiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey .A
iaoea aea ia oi?ioee?iaeo aeiioac, ianoaeaeaiea eioi?uo ia i?aaeiao eo
i?eiyoey eee ioaa?aeaiey, iiaeao auoue i?aaeeiaeaii, iaeeaaeuaaaony o?e
iniiaiuo ia?aie/aiey. Ai-ia?auo aeiioaca aeieaeia auoue neioaene/anee
i?aaeeueii iino?iaiiui e naiaioe/anee iniuneaiiui ooaa?aeaeaieai ,aioo?e
iaeioi?iai iao/iiai eiioaenoa .Ai-aoi?uo ,aeiioaca aeieaeia auoue aei
iaeioi?ie noaiaie iainiiaaiiie i?aaeoanoaothuei ciaieai eee ,a neo/aa
iieiie aa i?eaeiaeueiinoe, ii e?aeiae ia?a ia i?ioeai?a/eoue iaee/iiio
ciaieth .Iaeiiaoe ,a-oa?oueeo,aeiioaca aeieaeia auoue ia oieueei a
i?eioeeia i?iaa?yaiie i?e eciaiaiee ciaiey, ii e yiie?e/anee i?iaa?yaiie
iaee/iuie iaoiaeaie, o .a .iia aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth
iao/iiai eino?oiaioa?ey.

I?eaaaeaiiua ia?aie/aiey yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiuie e aeinoaoi/iuie aeey
eaaeeoeeaoeee aeiioacu eae iao/iie, iacaaeneii io oiai ,ieaaeaony ee iia
aiineaaenoaee enoeiiie eee eiaeiie .Aieaa oiai ,aaaaeaiiua oneiaey
iao/iinoe aeiioacu iacaaeneiu ae?oa io ae?oaa. Oae,iai?eia? ,oneiaea
neioaene/aneie i?aaeeueiinoe yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui aeey naiaioe/aneie
iniuneaiiinoe-anyeia iai?aaeeueii iino?iaiiia au?aaeaiea ycuea a
i?eioeeia ia iiaeao auoue eioa?i?aoe?iaaii aeinoaoi/iui ia?acii. A naith
i/a?aaeue ,iniuneaiiinoue yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai iaee/ey nayce
ooaa?aeaeaiey n i?aaeoanoaothuei iao/iui ciaieai -aanniuneaiiia
auneacuaaiea ia iiaeao auoue ie iainiiaaii ,ia ii?iaa?aiooi ae?oaei
ciaieai eee ooaa?aeaeaieai .A oaeie aea noaiaie iniuneaiiinoue yaeyaony
e iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai yiie?e/aneie i?iaa?yaiinoe- aeinoaoi/ii
ii?aciuneeoue i oii, eae iiaeii iainiiaaoue a iaee/iii ciaiee ecaanoiue
i?eia? neioaene/anee i?aaeeueiiai ,ia iniuneaiiiai auneacuaaiey”Aeieay
eocae?a aieaeaiaoea aie?aiea”,/oiau oaaaeeoueny a yoii. Aeaeaa, ii
e?aeiae ia?a /anoe/iay iainiiaaiiinoue i?aaeoanoaothuei ciaieai
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaeaea iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea yiie?e/aneie
i?iaa?yaiinoe, oioy au iioiio ,/oi yiie?e/aneay i?iaa?ea a iaoea
i?aaeiieaaaao i?aaeoanoaothuaa iao/iia ciaiea ,eniieueciaaiiia i?e
iino?ieea i?eai?ia e ae?oaiai eino?oiaioa?ey .Oaeei ia?acii, ana
oeacaiiua e?eoa?ee iao/iinoe aeiioacu auno?iaiu a ?yae ii eo neea
:neioaene/aneay i?aaeeueiinoue, naiaioe/aneay iniuneaiiinoue, naycue n
i?aaeoanoaothuei ciaieai ,yiie?e/aneay i?iaa?yaiinoue. Iiyoiio e?aoei
iiaeii auei neacaoue ,/oi iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai i?e oi?ioee?iaea
aeiioacu yaeyaony aa yiie?e/aneay i?iaa?yaiinoue;ana inoaeueiua e?eoa?ee
caeeth/aeenue au a yoio iineaaeiee [ 6, n. 35 ].

Oieueei ni/aoaiea iiuoa n i?aaeoanoaothuei ciaieai iicaieyao iiiyoue
iiaeeeiiue iaoaieci aicieeiiaaiey e oi?ioee?iaaiey aeiioac eae aiieia
?aoeeiiaeueiiai i?ioeanna .Aeey oi?ioee?iaaiey aeiioac ca/anooth ia
oaaoaao ia iiuoiuo aeaiiuo, a oai?aoe/aneeo noai .Niae?aiea aeaiiuo
“aneaioth”, aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai i?eiaiaiey oaea eiathueony ciaiee,
aeey nenoaiaoecaoeee iaaethaeaaiuo yaeaiee ,ia iiaeao i?eaanoe e
oi?ioee?iaaieth aeiioacu. Yoi iieiaeaiea aauae iaaeyaeii iaia?oaeeaaao
cia/aiea oai?aoe/aneiai ciaiey a i?ioeanna aai naii?acaeoey e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey. Aeey oiai, /oiau ociaoue /oi -oi iiaia i ie?a,
iaiaoiaeeii i iai /oi-oi i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ciaoue, i?e/ai n aeinoaoi/iie
noaiaiueth iaaeaaeiinoe.

IAINIIAAIIINOUe E I?IAA?ssAIINOUe AEIIOAC

Iao/iay eaeay ,aeaaea anee iia enoeiiay ,ia aicieeaao ia ionoii ianoa.
Aeey oiai, /oiau aeiioaca auea i?eiyoa e ?anniio?aieth ,iia aeieaeia
auoue eae-oi naycaia n eiathueieny aei aa iiyaeaiey ciaieai, e oieueei
a yoii neo/aa iia iiaeao auoue i?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiey e aeaeueiaeoae
i?iaa?ee. Aannii?ii ,/oi oaeia iainiiaaiea aeiioacu a i?aaeoanoaothuai
ciaiee ia yaeyaony ieii/aoaeueiui ,e aeey iaeieo e oao aea aeiioac /anoi
iaoiaeyony ?aciua iainiiaaiey. Iaeiaei yoio oaeo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii
,/oi iainiiaaiiinoue aeiioacu yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai aa
i?eaieaiinoe-ionoonoaea iainiiaaiey aeene?aaeeoe?oao aeiioaco
ianoieueei, /oi iia ia iiaeao auoue i?aaeiaoii aeaeueiaeoaai
ianoaeaeaiey.

Noaiaiue iainiiaaiiinoe aeiioacu iiaeao aa?uee?iaaoueny io aa
oai?aoe/aneiai auaaaeaiey ec iaee/iiai ciaiey aei niioaaonoaey ia
?acoeueoaoai ,ii iauaio aeooo nia?aiaiiie iaoee .Oaeiai ?iaea
niioaaonoaea aeiioacu iao/iiio ciaieth auiieiyao ?ieue naiaia?aciie
iayiie?e/aneie i?iaa?ee aeiioacu. ?anniao?eaay yoio aii?in I. Aoiaa
auaeaeyao o?e aeaea iayiie?e/aneie iainiiaaiiinoe i?aaeiieiaeaiey:
iaoaoai?aoe/aneee ,eioa?oai?aoe/aneee e oeeinioneee .Iiae
iaoaoai?aoe/aneie i?iaa?eie ii iiieiaao enneaaeiaaiea aeiioacu
,eiathuaa oeaeueth auynieoue, yaeyaony ee iia aioo?aiia
iai?ioeai?a/eaie, eiaao ee oaeooaeueiia niaea?aeaiea ,aeiioneaao e
yiie?e/aneoth i?iaa?eo oioy au a i?eioeeia. Eioa?oai?aoe/aneay i?iaa?ea
i?ecaaia auyaeoue ianiaianoeiinoue aeaiiie aeiioacu n ae?oaeie ,?aiaa
i?eiyouie iao/iuie oai?eyie. Iaeiiaoe ,oeeinioneay i?iaa?ea
“i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enneaaeiaaiea iaoaoece/aneeo e yienoaiieiae/aneeo
aeinoieinoa eeth/aauo iiiyoee e i?aaeiieiaeaiee oai?ee a naaoa oie eee
eiie oeeinioee” [ 1,n.300]. Ana iiaeiaiiai ?iaea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua
?anniio?aiey aeiioacu naycaiu n oai, /oi iia ia aeieaeia auoue eiaeiie
ioiineoaeueii ?aiaa i?eiyoiai ciaiey.

A naaoa eiathueony i?eia?ia ec aeecie iiaeii naeaeaoue aeaa aaaeiuo
auaiaea. Ai-ia?auo, e?eoa?ee nayce n iaee/iui ciaieai iineo
aeaienoaaiiue oa?aeoa?, yaeyaony aioo?aiia i?ioeai?a/eaui n oi/ee c?aiey
iao/iiai i?ia?anna: n iaeiie noi?iiu ii i?aaeio?aiyao io niaa?oaiii
aacoiiuo eaeae, iaania/eaay iaeiia?aiaiii i?aainoaaiiinoue,a n ae?oaie-
iiaeao aucaaoue i?e iaii?aaaeaiiii i?aoaaee/aiee aai ?iee noaaiaoeeth
iaoee ,aeaeay iaaiciiaeiie iao/ioth ?aaiethoeeth .Ai-aoi?uo ,noieue aea
aioo?aiia i?ioeai?a/eaui e aeaienoaaiiui yaeyaony e e?eoa?ee
niioaaonoaey yiie?e/aneei aeaiiui: n iaeiie noi?iiu ii i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea eneiiinoe e i?aaeio?aiyao io niaeoeyoeee, n
ae?oaie noi?iiu ,n aai iiiiuueth iiaeii ii?aaaeaoue ie/ai ia
iainiiaaiiua e ii?aaeaeaiii eiaeiua aeiioacu. E?eoa?ee iainiiaaiiinoe e
niioaaonoaey yiie?e/aneei aeaiiui, ?anniao?eaaaiua ioaeaeueii ae?oa io
ae?oaa, aeieaeiu i?eiaiyoueny n aiueoie inoi?iaeiinoueth ,anee oioyo
ecaaaeaoue aeiaiaoe/aneiai io?eoeaiey enoeiu eee aeiaiaoe/aneiai
ianoaeaaiey ia eaee. Iaeaieaa i?aaeeueiui aoaeao o/ao iaieo e?eoa?eaa
,niaianoiia ia?auaiea e e iainiiaaiiinoe, e e yiie?e/aneie i?iaa?ea.

Ethaia noaeaeaiea iauaeoeaii iaeaaeaao aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiui enoeiiinoiui
cia/aieai iacaaeneii io oiai ,ciaai ee iu yoi enoeiiinoiia cia/aiea , –
e a yoii niune eeanne/aneiai ii?aaeaeaiey enoeiu eae niioaaonoaey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iaeiaei ooo aea aicieeaao aii?in i oii, eae iiaeii
onoaiiaeoue enoeiiinoiia cia/aiea noaeaeaiey ,o .a.aii?in i e?eoa?ee
enoeiu .Ii?aaeaeeoue iiiyoea enoeiu e aeaoue aai e?eoa?ee-yoi ?aciua
oeeinioneea caaea/e .Oaeiai e?eoa?ey,aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia nouanoaoao , ii
yoi aiana ia nieiaao aii?ina i e?eoa?ee enoeiu a neeo i?eioeeieaeueiie
ioiineoaeueiinoe ciaiey. A. E. Eaiei ii yoiio iiaiaeo ienae neaaeothuaa:
“…E?eoa?ee i?aeoeee ieeiaaea ia iiaeao ii naiie nooe aeaea
iiaeoaa?aeeoue eee ii?iaa?aiooue iieiinoueth eaeiai au oi ie auei
/aeiaa/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey”[ 5, n. 145-146]. Oaeei ia?acii e?eoa?ee
enoeiu -iauanoaaiiay i?aeoeea-ioiineoaeai a oie aea ia?a, a eaeie
ioiineoaeueia i?aeoeea [9, n. 127].

OOIEOeEE AEIIOAC A IAO*III ENNEAAeIAAIEE.

Aeiioacu i?enoonoaotho ia anao noaaeeyo iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey
iacaaeneii io aai oa?aeoa?a – ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai eee
i?eeeaaeiiai,iaeiaei iaeaieaa au?aaeaii eo i?eiaiaiea a neaaeothueo
neo/ayo:1)iaiauaiea e noiie?iaaiea ?acoeueoaoia i?iaaaeaiiuo
iaaethaeaiee e yenia?eiaioia,2)eioa?i?aoaoeey iieo/aiiuo
iaiauaiee,3)iainiiaaiea iaeioi?uo ?aiaa aaaaeaiiuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee e
4)ieaie?iaaiea yenia?eiaioia aeey iieo/aiey iiauo aeaiiuo eee i?iaa?ea
iaeioi?uo aeiiouaiee.Aeiioacu ianoieueei ?ani?ino?aiaiu a iaoea,/oi
o/aiua eiiaaea aeaaea ia caia/atho aeiioaoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a ciaiey e
iieaaatho,/oi aiciiaeiu enneaaeiaaiey aac i?aaeiinueie a aeaea
aeiioac.Iaeiaei yoi iiaiea yaii ioeai/ii.Eae aiai?eeinue
auoa,enneaaeiaaiea ninoieo a iinoaiiaea,oi?ioee?iaaiee e ?aoaiee
i?iaeaiu,a eaaeaeay i?iaeaia aicieeaao oieueei aioo?e iaeioi?iai
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ciaiey,niaea?aeauaai aeiioacu,e aeaaea i?aaeiinueea
i?iaeaiu eiaao aeiioaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

?anniio?ei iniiaiua ooieoeee aeiioac a iaoea.Ai-ia?auo,aeiioacu
i?eiaiythony aeey iaiauaiey iiuoa,noiie?iaaiey e i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueiiai
?anoe?aiey iaee/iuo yiie?e/aneeo aeaiiuo.Iaeaieaa ecaanoiui aeaeii oaeeo
iaiauathueo iaee/iue iiuo aeiioac yaeyaony ia?aiin naienoa ?yaea
yeaiaioia iaeioi?iai eeanna ia aanue ?anniao?eaaaiue eeann n iiiiuueth
iaoiaeia eeanne/aneie yioia?aoeaiie eiaeoeoeee.Ae?oaei i?eia?ii aeiioac
yoiai eeanna iiaoo auoue oae iacuaaaiua “yiie?e/aneea
e?eaua”,naycuaathuea ?yaeu aeaiiuo iaaethaeaiee,i?aaenoaaeaiiuo oi/eaie
ia eii?aeeiaoiie ieineinoe.Ii nooe aeaea,aeaaea i?aaenoaaeaiea
eiee/anoaaiiuo aeaiiuo ia eii?aeeiaoiie ieineinoe oi/eaie yaeyaony a
ecaanoiie ia?a aeiioaoe/aneei,iineieueeo anaaaea aeiionoeiu ioeaee
ecia?aiey eee oi/iinoue eo ia?aie/aia aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiui i?aaeaeii.

Ai-aoi?uo,aeiioacu iiaoo auoue iinueeaie aeaaeoeoeaiiai
auaiaea,o.a.i?iecaieueiuie i?aaeiieiaeaieyie aeiioaoeei-aeaaeoeoeaiie
noaiu,?aai/eie aeiioacaie eee oi?iuathueie aeiiouaieyie,i?eieiaaiuie
aeaaea i?e niiiaiee a eo enoeiiinoe.

A-o?aoueeo,aeiioacu i?eiaiythony aeey i?eaioe?iaee
enneaaeiaaiey,i?eaeaiey aio iai?aaeaiiiai oa?aeoa?a.Oaeoth ooieoeeth
auiieiytho /anoe/ii (yiie?e/anee eee oai?aoe/anee)iainiiaaiiua
aeiioacu,eioi?ua yaeythony iaeiia?aiaiii e iauaeoii
enneaaeiaaiey.Auiieiyy yoo ooieoeeth,aeiioaca aunooiaao eeai a oi?ia
?aai/ae,eeai a oi?ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo e iaoi/iuo iieiaeaiee
i?ia?aiiiiai oa?aeoa?a,iai?eia?”AEeaua i?aaieciu iiaeii neioace?iaaoue
i?e aini?iecaaaeaiee oece/aneeo oneiaee iaoae ieaiaou,eiaaoeo ianoi 2
ie?ae.eao iacaae”e o.i.

A-/aoaa?ouo,aeiioacu eniieuecothony aeey eioa?i?aoaoeee yiie?e/aneeo
aeaiiuo eee ae?oaeo aeiioac.Ana ?ai?acaioaoeaiua aeiioacu yaeythony
eioa?i?aoe?othueie,iineieueeo iicaieytho iauynieoue ?aiaa iieo/aiiua
oaiiiaiieiae/aneea aeiioacu.

A-iyouo,aeiioacu iiaeii i?eiaiyoue aeey caueou ae?oaeo aeiioac ia?aae
eeoeii iiauo iiuoiuo aeaiiuo eee auyaeaiiiai i?ioeai?a/ey n oaea
eiaaoeiny ?aiaa ciaieai.Oae,O.Aa?aae (1628)aaae i?aaeiieiaeaiea i
oee?eoeyoeee e?iae,eioi?ia i?ioeai?a/eei iiuoiui aeaiiui i ?acee/ee
aaiiciie e a?oa?eaeueiie e?iae ii ninoaao;/oiau caueoeoue enoiaeiia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea io yoiai iiuoiiai ii?iaa?aeaiey,ii aaae caueoioth
aeiioaco i caieiooinoe a?oa?eaeueiiai e?iaiia?auaiey iaaeaeeiuie
eaieeey?aie,eioi?ua e auee iicaea ioe?uou.

A caeeth/aiee auoa neacaiiiai,iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae,/oi aeiioacu
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaono?aieiue yeaiaio yiie?e/aneeo iaoe,iniaoth
oi?io ?acaeoey anoanoaiciaiey,o.a.aeiioaca- yaeyaony oi?iie ?acaeoey
aeieiae/aneiai ciaiey.

Iao/iia enneaaeiaaiea eae oaeiaia ninoieo a enneaaeiaaiee
i?iaeai,i?aaeiieaaathuai oi?ioee?iaaiea,?ac?aaioeo e i?iaa?eo
aeiioac.*ai aieaa niaeie yaeyaony aeiioaca,oai aieueoa iia iauyniyao e
aieueoa noaiaiue aa i?iaa?yaiinoe.Iaeiaei aianoa n oai,/oiau auoue
iao/iui,i?aaeiieiaeaiea aeieaeii auoue iainiiaaiiui e i?iaa?yaiui,/oi
eneeth/aao ec iaeanoe iaoee aeiioacu ad hoc e aeiioacu,aaiaeeiua oieueei
ia iniiaaiee eo oi?iaeueiie yeaaaioiinoe e i?inoiou.Caaea/ae a iao/iii
enneaaeiaaiee yaeyaony ia iiiuoea ecaaaaoue aiiaua oiio?aaeaiey
aeiioac,ii aaiaeeoue eo niciaoaeueii,oae eae ?acaeoea ciaiey a i?eioeeia
iaaiciiaeii aac i?aaeiieiaeaiee,auoiaeyueo ca ?aiee aeaiiiai iiuoa,a
/anoiinoe i?e ?acaeoee aeieiae/aneiai ciaiey [ 8, n. 76-97 ].

AEAAA 2. AEIIOACA IA I?EIA?A AEIEIAE*ANEIAI IICIAIEss.

O/aiua ia/aee ianoaeaeaoue aiciiaeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey aeecie ia Caiea
ec oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee iaiiiaei aieaa noieaoey iacaae.Iiae
iee?ineiiaie oiai a?aiaie aeeaay eeaoea eacaeanue anaai eeoue
iocu?ueeii,caiieiaiiui ?acee/iuie aauanoaaie.Iiyoiio Aea?aeio e aai
nia?aiaiieeai eaaei auei i?aaenoaaeoue naaa,/oi i?inoaeoea oi?iu aeecie
iiaee aicieeiooue ec neo/aeiie eiiaeiaoeee i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa a
ia?ae/iii “aoeueiia”.Ii n oao ii? eae o/aiua aeoaaea i?iieeee a oaeiu
aeeaie eeaoee,i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii,/oi aeeciue aicieeea ec
oeie/aneeo aauanoa,oaea ia eaaeaony oaeei eiae/iui.Iaeiaei,ianiio?y ia
yoi,aieueoeinoai nia?aiaiiuo o/aiuo ii-i?aaeiaio nayoi aa?eo a aeiaio
oeie/aneie yaiethoeee.

Aeioeie/aneea e iee?ineiie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iinoaiaiii auyaeyee ana
aieaa e aieaa neiaeiua i?ioeannu,i?ienoiaeyuea a e?ioa/iie
eeaoea,oaeea,iai?eia?,eae iaiaueiiaaiii oi/iay ?aaoeyoeey eeaoi/iiai
iaoaaieecia ioeeaeiiauie eeneioaie (AeIE e ?IE),eioi?ay inouanoaeyaony n
iiiiuueth iiiaeo ouny/ neiaeiaeoeo ?aaoeyoi?iuo aaeeia.A naaoa yoeo
aeaiiuo oaea aeaeaei ia oae i?inoi i?aaenoaaeoue naaa,eaeei ia?acii ana
yoi iiaei aicieeiooue a ?acoeueoaoa neo/aeiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iieaeoe .

Iienuaay neiaeiua aeioeie/aneea i?ioeannu, eaeouea a eeaoea,Aeae
.Oionii,iaeei ec ia?aiioe?uaaoaeae no?oeoo?u AeIE,ieoao a naiae eieaa “
Iieaeoey?iay aeieiaey aaia “:” Iu aeieaeiu naueiooueny n iuneueth i
oii,/oi no?oeoo?a aeeaie eeaoee ieeiaaea ia aoaeao iiiyoa iaie a oie aea
noaiaie,/oi e no?oeoo?a iieaeoeu aiaeu eee aetheicu.Iu ieeiaaea ia
niiaeai aeaaea ?anoeo?iaaoue no?oeoo?o anao aioo?eeeaoi/iuo
iae?iiieaeoe,ia aiai?y oaea i oii,/oiau ii?aaeaeeoue eo oi/iia
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea a eeaoea.Iiyoiio iaoaeeaeoaeueii,/oi iiiaea oeieee
iiia/aeo n yiooceaciii a?aeenue ca eco/aiea “aeecie”,ii i/aiue nei?i
inouaaee e oeoi aica?auaeenue a ie? /enoie oeiee” [ 3, n.30 ].

Iaeiaei,ianiio?y ia iaoa iinoiyiii oaeoaeythuaany iiieiaiea no?oeoo?iie
e ooieoeeiiaeueiie neiaeiinoe aeaaea naiuo i?inouo aeeauo
i?aaieciia,o/aiua i?iaeieaeatho no?ieoue oai?ee i oii ,/oi aeeciue
ca?iaeeeanue a ia?ae/iii oeie/aneii “aoeueiia” aac o/anoey aunoeo
i?aaiecothueo i?eioeeiia.Iie n/eoatho,/oi a i?ioeanna neo/aeiuo
oeie/aneeo acaeiiaeaenoaee i?inoua iieaeoeu iauaaeeieeenue a neiaeiua
i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey,eioi?ua noi?ie?iaaee ia?aua
naiiaini?iecaiaeyueany i?aaieciu.Yoio noeaia?ee auaeaaony ca
iaii?iaa?aeeii onoaiiaeaiioth enoeio e a yoii ea/anoaa oeao?e?oao ai
anao o/aaieeao,ia/eiay io oeieueiuo e eii/ay
oieaa?neoaoneeie.?aaeei,oaeaaeaeaiea e iao/ii-iiioey?iua ioaeeeaoeee aua
aieueoa oe?aieytho aa?o ethaeae a yoo oai?eth.

I?aaeaea /ai ?anniio?aoue iaoaienoe/aneea oai?ee i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie
e niciaiey,?anniio?ei o?e i?eia?a i?ioeannia,eaeoueo aioo?e aeeaie
eeaoee,eioi?ua iiiiaoo iai ioeaieoue neiaeiinoue aeaaea naiuo i?inouo
i?aaieciia.

?anniao?eaay yoe i?eia?u,aaaeii iiiieoue,/oi,a niioaaonoaee n
i?aaenoaaeaieyie nia?aiaiiie oeiee,ana iieaeoeu,o/anoaothuea a yoeo
i?ioeannao,i?aaenoaaeytho niaie anaai eeoue noaiee?ineiie/aneea /anoeoeu
iaoa?ee.Eo oaeeaeoaeueiay niiniaiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue ae?oa n
ae?oaii iaaiaeeo ia iuneue i oii , /oi iie iaeaaeatho oaeinoaaiiie
niiniaiinoueth e naiii?aaiecaoeee.Iaeiaei o/aiua aac eieaaaiee
ioaa?aatho yoo eaeath,ianoaeaay ia oii ,/oi iieaeoeu i?inoi
iiae/eiythony caeiiai oeceee.Ii oiaaea ioaeii ioaaoeoue ia aii?in i
oii,eaeei ia?acii iieaeoeu,acaeiiaeaenoaoy a niioaaonoaee n i?inouie
iaoaienoe/aneeie caeiiaie,niiaee iauaaeeieoueny e noi?ie?iaaoue
iaiinoeaeeii neiaeiua no?oeoo?u eeaoee.Aua o?oaeiaa ioaaoeoue ia
aii?in,eaeei ia?acii eeaoee,iiae/eiyynue oai aea naiui
caeiiai,yaiethoeeiie?otho a aunoea i?aaieciu.Iiyoiio,ianiio?y ia oi,/oi
aieueoeinoai anoanoaieniuoaoaeae i?iaeieaeaao i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
iaoaienoe/aneiai iauyniaiey,iaeuecy eneeth/eoue aiciiaeiinoue aeeyiey
ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia ia i?ioeann oeie/aneie yaiethoeee,aieioue aei o/anoey a
yoii i?ioeanna iaeiaai ?acoiiiai i?aaiecothuaai ia/aea.

A ea/anoaa ia?aiai i?eia?a ?anniio?ei no?iaiea caueoiie iaiei/ee
aaeoa?ee.Oi?ie?iaaiea caueoiie iaiei/ee ia/eiaaony n oiai,/oi eeaoea ec
i?inouo niaaeeiaiee a ianeieueei noaaeee niae?aao iieaeoey?iua
no?ieoaeueiua aeiee.Ia neaaeothuai yoaia eeaoea niaaeeiyao nia?aiiua
aeiee a neiaeiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, oae /oi iie ia?acotho
ai?eciioaeueiua e aa?oeeaeueiua neie,ec eioi?uo ninoieo aa ia?oaeiay
iaia?aia. Yoi iaiiieiaao oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann ia nia?aiaiiie
oaa?eea,aaea niaoeeaeueii neiino?oe?iaaiiua noaiee nia/aea ecaioiaeytho
ec nu?uey aeaoaee,a caoai ae?oaea aaoiiaou niae?atho eo a neiaeiue
aeaenoaothuee iaoaieci.

Aoi?ie i?eia? neiaeiuo aioo?eeeaoi/iuo i?ioeannia – neioac iaeiie ec
aee?iuo eeneio ,ninoiyuae ec /aou?iaaeoeaoe iieaeoey?iuo
eiiiiiaioia.AEe?iua eeneiou yaeythony iniiaiuie yia?aio?aieeeuai
eeaoee.*oiau neioace?iaaoue iaeueieoeiiaoth eeneioo,eeaoea niae?aao ec
aaeeiauo iieaeoe neiaeiue oee?eoey?iue iaoaieci,oae iacuaaaioth
“iieaeoey?ioth iaoeio “,a oeaio?a eioi?ie iaoiaeeony iieaeoey?iue
?u/aa.Yoio ?u/aa a?auaaony,i?ioiaey a naiai aeaeaeaiee /a?ac oanoue
“nai?i/iuo aa?aaaoia “.

Ca eaaeaeue iai?io ?u/aaa e iieaeoea aee?iie eeneiou aeiaaaeyaony aeaa
aeiea.Yoi inouanoaeytho oa?iaiou,aoiaeyuea a ninoaa “nai?i/iuo
aa?aaaoia”.(Oa?iaiou i?aaenoaaeytho niaie neiaeiua aaeeiaua
iieaeoeu,eaoaeece?othuea oeie/aneea i?ioeannu a eeaoea).Iinea naie
iai?ioia ana /aou?iaaeoeaoue aoiiiuo eiiiiiaioia iaeueieoeiiaie eeneiou
nia?aiu,e aioiaay iieaeoea ioniaaeeiyaony io ?u/aaa.

*oiau yoa iieaeoey?iay iaoeia ooieoeeiie?iaaea,ana aa ninoaaiua /anoe
aeieaeiu auoue ia ianoa.Neiaeiue iaoaieci iiaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue
oieueei a oii neo/aa,eiaaea ana aai aaaeiaeoea /anoe ia ianoa e a
eni?aaiinoe.Iai?eia?,o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa ?aaioo aaoiiiaeeueiiai
iioi?a aac oiieeaiiai ianina eee ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai aaea.Iiyoiio
i?aaenoaaeyaony e?aeia iaeiaa?iyoiui,/oiau iienaiiay auoa iieaeoey?iay
iaoeia iiaea aicieeiooue a i?ioeanna iinoaiaiiie,nooiai/aoie yaiethoeee.

Iao o?aoee i?eia? – ?aaioa oa?iaioa AeIE-ae?acu,ea?athuaai aaaeioth
?ieue a aini?iecaiaenoaa eeaoee.Yoio i?eia? oi?ioi eeethno?e?oao ana
o?oaeiinoe,n eioi?uie noaeeeaathony iaoaienoe/aneea oai?ee,eiaaea n eo
iiiiuueth iuoathony iauynieoue i?ienoiaeaeaiea
iaoaieciia,iaania/eaathueo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue eeaoee.A eeaoea
aaeoa?ee iieaeoea AeIE i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaoeaia?acioth aeaieioth
nie?aeue,eioi?ay a i?ioeanna ?aieeeaoeee ?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa
oeaii/ee.Ii ia?a oiai eae aeaieiay nie?aeue ?ane?o/eaaaony n iaeiiai
eiioea,aa i?ioeaiiieiaeiue eiiaoe,cae?o/eaaaony aua ooaea,ia?acoy
noia?nie?aeue.Iineieueeo iieaeoea AeIE oaea naa?iooa nioie ?ac,/oiau
iiianoeoueny a eeaoea ,noia?nie?aeecaoeey aeieaeia iaieioaii aucaaoue
ia?aieaoaiea ioaeaeueiuo aa /anoae. Oaeia ia?aieaoaiea AeIE aoaeao
i?aiyonoaiaaoue i?ioeanno aa ?aieeeaoeee,iiyoiio eeaoea aeoeae?oao
oa?iaio AeIE-ae?aco,eioi?ue nieiaao noia?nie?aeecaoeeth.I?ienoiaeeo yoi
neaaeothuei ia?acii: nia?aa oa?iaio ?ac?acaao iaeio ec oeaiae AeIE,caoai
a ia?aciaaaoeeny ?ac?ua i?ioaneeaaao i?ioeaiiieiaeioth oeaiue e niiaa
noeaaao ?ac?acaiiua eiioeu .Oae AeIE-ae?aca ?anieaoaao
oceu,ia?aciaaaoeany ia o?iiiniia.

?aciiii ni?ineoue :”Eaeei ia?acii aicieeea iieaeoea
AeIE-ae?acu?”Iiaeiaiay iieaeoea neeoeii neiaeia aeey oiai,/oiau
aicieeiooue iaeiei ?acii,a ?acoeueoaoa neo/aeiiai niaaeeiaiey
eiiiiiaioia a ia?ae/iii aoeueiia.Iiyoiio o/aiua,aa?iyoiaa
anaai,ioaaoyo,/oi oa?iaio aiciee a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee,iiyoaiii.Ii
oiaaea nicaeaaony caeieaeiaaiiue e?oa:aac AeIE-ae?acu eeaoee ia iiaoo
aeaeeoueny,a aac eeaoi/iiai aeaeaiey iaaiciiaeia yaiethoeey,iaiaoiaeeiay
aeey aicieeiiaaiey ae?acu.Oaeei ia?acii,i?ienoiaeaeaiea ae?acu inoaaony
iaeiie ec ia?ac?aoeiuo caaaaeie eeaoi/iie yaiethoeee.

Yoe i?eia?u iaaeyaeii iieacuaatho,ianeieueei neiaeiu no?oeoo?a e
iaoaieciu aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe eeaoee.Iai ia i?eoiaeeeinue aeaeaoue ie
iaeiiai neiaeiiai iaoaiecia,eioi?ue aue au iino?iai aac /a?oaaeae e
?ac?aaioie eiaeaia?a,iiyoiio aiieia eiae/ii auei au
i?aaeiieiaeeoue,/oi neiaeiue iaoaieci eeaoee oiaea aiciee a ?acoeueoaoa
niciaoaeueiiai aeoa oai?aiey.E niaeaeaieth,iiaeiaiua eiae/aneea
caeeth/aiey ia i?eieiathony a ?an/ao ie iaeiie ec i?eciaiiuo o/aiuie
oai?ee yaiethoeee aeecie.Noi?iiieee oeie/aneie yaiethoeee i?aaeii/eoatho
ecia?aoaoue aeueoa?iaoeaiua iauyniaiey,a eioi?uo oeao?e?otho oieueei
neaiie neo/ae e caeiiu oeceee.

Eae i?aaeei, noi?iiieee oai?ee oeie/aneie yaiethoeee iienuaatho aa oiae
neaaeothuei ia?acii:aieaa /aou?ao ieeeea?aeia eao iacaae iaeaea aaca e
iuee ia/aee eiiaeaine?iaaoue ia iiaa?oiinoe ae?aaiae Caiee,noi?ie?iaaa
ia?ae/ioth aoiinoa?o.A yoie aoiinoa?a iiae aicaeaenoaeai
oeueo?aoeieaoiauo eo/ae e yeaeo?e/aneeo ?ac?yaeia i?aeoe/anee n?aco
ia?aciaaeenue i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey,eioi?ua a oa/aiea iineaaeothueo
iieooi?a ieeeea?aeia eao iaeaieeaaeenue a ia?aiauoiii ieaaia.Yoe
i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey anooiaee a oeie/aneea ?aaeoeee ae?oa n ae?oaii
e a eiioea eiioeia ec ieo ia?aciaaeenue i?eieoeaiua iieeiaioeaeu ( aaeee
),iieeioeeaioeaeu ( AeIE e ?IE ),iieenaoa?eaeu e eeieaeu.Iiioey?iue
oieaa?neoaoneee o/aaiee oae iienuaaao caaa?oathuee yoai yoiai i?ioeanna
:” A yoie aiaaoie i?aaie/aneeie niaaeeiaieyie e iieeia?aie n?aaea (
ia?ae/iii i?aaie/aneii aoeueiia ) aa?iyoiaa anaai e ca?iaeeeenue ia?aua
aeeaua i?aaieciu “.

Aannii?ii,eio?eaothuaa e ii-naiaio iiyoe/iia iienaiea.Iaeiaei iiaeao ee
yoa niaeay aeiioaca auaea?aeaoue aeaaea naioth inoi?iaeioth e?eoeeo
?Iu oaea ianoaeaeaee oaeeaeoaeueioth neiaeiinoue naiuo i?inouo
i?aaieciia,iiyoiio ethaay aeiioaca,i?enuaathuay neaiui neeai i?e?iaeu
i?aaiecothuoth ?ieue a nai?ea neiaeiuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo nenoai ec
i?inouo iieaeoe,aeieaeia iauyniyoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiua iaoaieciu
i?ioiaeeaoeo i?ioeannia e i?eioeeiu,eaaeauea a eo iniiaa.

Eiiaaea aeioeieee a ea/anoaa iauyniaiey nnueathony ia i?ioeann
anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a,i?e eioi?ii a iiioeyoeee noiaeiuo i?aaieciia naiua
i?eniiniaeaiiua e oneiaeyi ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu iieo/atho i?aeiouanoaa
ia?aae ae?oaeie.Iaeiaei i?eioeei anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a ia iiaeoiaeeo aeey
iauyniaiey ca?iaeaeaiey ia?aiai aeeaiai i?aaiecia.Ioai? ia iiaeao
ia/aoueny aei oiai, eae aicieeiao naiiaini?iecaiaeyuayny
nenoaia,iineieueeo aac aini?iecaaaeaiey i?e?iaea ia ec /aai aoaeao
auae?aoue.Ii ,aeaaea anee au o/aiua iaia?oaeeee i?inoaeooth
naiiaini?iecaiaeyuothny nenoaio,iie aeieaeiu auee au eiie?aoii
oeacaoue,eaeea ea/anoaa aeaee ae naeaeoeaiua i?aeiouanoaa e ii/aio.*oiau
iauynieoue aicieeiiaaiea aieaa neiaeiuo nenoai, iaei i?inoi aciaoiooue
?oeie e i?iecianoe aieoaaiua neiaa :” anoanoaaiiue ioai? “.Anee iie ia
niiniaiu oeacaoue ea/anoaa yoie nenoaiu ,aeaaoea ae i?aeiouanoaa a
anoanoaaiiii ioai?a,cia/eo o ieo iao aeaaea ?aai/ae aeiioacu ,eioi?oth
iiaeii i?iaa?eoue,ia aiai?y oaea i aeieacaiiie oai?ee.

E niaeaeaieth,ie iaeia ec nia?aiaiiuo oai?ee ia ioaa/aao yoiio
e?eoa?eth.A 30-o aiaeao Iia?ei i?aaei?eiye ia?aoth na?ueacioth iiiuoeo
yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeeoue ca?iaeaeaiea aeecie a ia?ae/iii
aoeueiia.N oao ii? iiiaea o/aiua aeaeaee aiaeiae/iua iiiuoee,ii ie iaeia
ec ieo ia oaai/aeanue oniaoii.Ana i?aaeeiaeaiiua aei neo ii? iiaeaee
?anieua/aou,noaiaoe/iu e iaiieiu.Iu iieoai eeoue iaeioi?ua ec yoeo
iiiuoie.Aeaaiue ia?aoaiiue aii?in- eaeei ia?acii eia?oiay
iaoa?ey,iiae/eiyynue i?inoui oece/aneei caeiiai,iiaea nicaeaoue
oaeeaeoaeueii neiaeiue e oi/iue iieaeoey?iue iaoaieci eeaoee? Aeueaa?o
Eaieiaeaea? ieoao a naiai o/aaieea aeioeiee:”ssae?ii i?iaeaiu
aicieeiiaaiey aeecie yaeyaony aii?in i naiii?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee”.Iaeiaei
iiea o/aiui ia oaeaeinue i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue,/oi iaoa?ey,niiniaiay e
naiii?aaiecaoeee,e aeeciue iiaoo aicieeiooue aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa aunoae
i?aaiecothuae neeu eee ?acoia.

*aua anaai o/aiua nnueathony ia aeaa yenia?eiaioa,?acoeueoaou eioi?uo
auaeathony ca io/anoe oaeaaoothny aeaiiino?aoeeth aiciiaeiinoe
aicieeiiaaiey aeecie ec oeie/aneeo aauanoa.Iaeei ec ieo-
?aaioa,i?iaaaeaiiay N.Ieeea?ii,i?ioanni?ii aeioeiee Eaeeoi?ieeneiai
oieaa?neoaoa a Nai-Aeeaai.Ae?oaie- “yenia?eiaiou n
i?ioieeaoeaie”,i?iaaaeaiiua N.Oienii,aee?aeoi?ii Einoeoooa iieaeoey?iie
e eeaoi/iie yaiethoeee i?e Oieaa?neoaoa ooaoa Iaeyie a Ei?ae-Aaaean.

Ieeea? iiiuoaeny ainnicaeaoue oneiaey,eioi?ua,ii aai
iiaieth,nouanoaiaaee ia “ ca?a oai?aiey “,e iiniio?aoue,ia i?eaaaeao ee
yoi e aicieeiiaaieth i?eieoeaiuo oi?i aeecie ec iaoa?eaeueiuo
eiiiiiaioia.Ii caiieiee eieao ?acee/iuie aacaie,ec eioi?uo
i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii ninoiyea ae?aaiaeoay aoiinoa?a,e,i?iioneay /a?ac
aacu yeaeo?e/aneea ?ac?yaeu,iieo/ee ia noaieao ninoaea ei?e/iaaoth
niieyienooth ianno.Yoa ianna a /enea i?i/aai niaea?aeaea aieiieeneiou-
ninoaaiua /anoe aaeeiauo iieaeoe .

Ieeea? iauyaee naie ?acoeueoaou ia?iiiui aeinoeaeaieai, e i/aiue iiiaea
o/aiua e ianiaoeeaeenou iiaa?eee aio.Iaeiaei iiuo Ieeea?a,a
nouiinoe,ie/aai ia aeieacuaaao.A oii,/oi a aai yenia?eiaioao
ia?aciaaeenue aieiieeneiou,iao ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai:n iiiiuueth
iiaeiaiie oaoieee iiaeii neioace?iaaoue i?aeoe/anee ethaia i?inoia
i?aaie/aneia niaaeeiaiea,nouanoaothuaa a i?e?iaea.A.O?e,oeiee ec
Eaeeoi?ieeneiai oieaa?neoaoa,ia aii?in i oii,eaeea niaaeeiaiey,ii aai
iiaieth,aeieaeiu auee ia?aciaaoue a yenia?eiaioa Ieeea?a,ia
caaeoiuaaynue ioaaoee :” Aeeueooaei “.( “ Aeeueooaei “- iacaaiea
iaiaoeeiai eaoaeiaa anao ecaanoiuo i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee.)E?iia
oiai,aieiieeneiou- yoi n?aaieoaeueii i?inoua iieaeoeu,neoaeauea
no?ieoaeueiuie aeieaie aeey eoaea aieaa neiaeiuo aaeeiauo iieaeoe
eeaoee. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii,/oi n iiiiuueth yoie i?inoie oaoieee Ieeea?
iieo/ee i?inoua oeie/aneea aauanoaa,ii yoi ieeae ia aeieacuaaao,/oi oa
aea naiay i?inoay oaoieea iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e ia?aciaaieth neiaeiuo
eeaoi/iuo eiiiiiaioia e no?oeoo?.*oiau naaeaiiua a eo/o no?ieoaeueiua
iaoa?eaeu i?aa?aoeeenue a aioiaue aeii,ioaeii iaiaei iio?oaeeoueny.

Oeiee N.Oien oiaea iiiuoaeny i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue,eae ec oeie/aneeo
niaaeeiaiee iiaeao iinoaiaiii noi?ie?iaaoueny aeeaay eeaoea.Iaa?aaay
niane nooeo aieiieeneio aei 1400N iiiauay eo caoai a aiaeo,ii iieo/ee
iaeaiueeea eaiaeueee iaioeaeia,eioi?ua ii iioeienoe/ii iacaae
“i?ioieeaoeaie”.Iaeiaei i?ioieeaoee Oiena oiaea iaeuecy iacaaoue i/aiue
aia/aoeythueie.No?oeoo?ii iie i?aaenoaaeyee niaie anaai-iaanaai
iaeaiueeea,iieua,aeaeaia?aciua aeiaoeu,ianiiniaiua iiaeiuaoue e
o?ainoi?ie?iaaoue iieaeoeu ec ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.Iie ia i?iyaeyee
ieeaeie neeiiiinoe e i?aia?aciaaieth aeaaea iaiiiai a aieaa neiaeiua
no?oeoo?u, ia aiai?y oaea i eeaoeao. Aieaa oiai,Oien ia aeae ieeaeiai
?acoiiiai iauyniaiey,eaeei ia?acii aai i?ioieeaoee iiaee aicieeiooue a
aeiaeieiae/aneii ia?ae/iii aoeueiia.*oiau i?aaenoaaeoue naaa,ioeoaea a
i?e?iaea iiaee acyoueny nooea aieiieeneiou,?acia?aoua aei oaiia?aoo?u
1400 N ,ioaeii iaeaaeaoue i/aiue aiaaoui aiia?aaeaieai.Auei i?eaaaeaii
iiiai ae?oaeo yenia?eiaioia n aiaeiae/iuie ?acoeueoaoaie,ii ana iie
inoaaeee oa aea naiua aii?inu aac ioaaoa.

Iaiaoeeee o/aiue I.Yeaai aeae naia iauyniaiea oiio,eae ec eia?oiuo
oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee iiaoo noi?ie?iaaoueny naiiaini?iecaiaeyueany
eeaoee. Ii Yeaaio,a ia?ae/iii aoeueiia nouanoaiaaei ianeieueei aeaeia
iieaeoe ?IE,eioi?ua ?aieeoee?iaaeenue iacaaeneii.Neaaeai,?IE oeia A
i?iecaiaeeea ?IE oeia A,a ?IE oeia A i?iecaiaeeea ?IE oeia A.Yoe aeaa
oeeeea nouanoaiaaee iacaaeneii iaeei io ae?oaiai,ii a eaeie-oi
iiiaio,niaeanii Yeaaio,iieaeoea ?IE oeia A ia/aea neioace?iaaoue oa?iaio
O-A,eioi?ue noae eaoaeece?iaaoue ?aieeeaoeeth ?IE oeia A,a iieaeoea ?IE
oeia A ia/aea neioace?iaaoue oa?iaio O-A,eioi?ue eaoaeece?iaae
?aieeeaoeeth ?IE oeia A.N iiyaeaieai yoeo oa?iaioia ia?aciaaeny iiaue
oeeee A-A-A-A-A-A,oae iacuaaaiue aeia?oeeee.Yeaai i?aaeiieiaeee,/oi
aeia?oeeeeu iinoaiaiii oneiaeiyeenue,iiea ia i?aa?aoeeenue a aeeaua
eeaoee.

Iaeiaei e aeiioaca aeia?oeeeeia eiaao naie neaaua ianoa.Ai-ia?auo,yoa
aeiioaca iiae?acoiaaaao nouanoaiaaiea iaoaiecia neioaca neiaeiuo aaeeia
(oa?iaioia ) ia iniiaa eioi?iaoeee,caeiaeaiiie a ?IE .Yeaai ia niia
i?aaeeiaeeoue ieeaeie ?aai/ae iiaeaee nouanoaiaaiey oaeiai
iaoaiecia.Ai-aoi?uo,aeaaea anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue,/oi ooieoeeiie?othuee
aeia?oeeee aiciee,aeaeaei ia i/aaeaeii,/oi ii aoaeao niiniaai e
naii?acaeoeth.Ecaanoiue aeieia-yaiethoeeiieno Aeae.Nieo e?eoeeoao
iiaeaeue Yeaaia,oeacuaay ia oi,/oi aei oao ii?,iiea aeia?oeeee ia aoaeao
eciee?iaai io ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu /ai-oi a?iaea eeaoi/iie iaia?aiu,aai
eiiiiiaiou aoaeoo eiieo?e?iaaoue ae?oa n ae?oaii e,neaaeiaaoaeueii,nai
aeia?oeeee eae oeaeia ia niiaeao ?acaeaaoueny n iiiiuueth iooaoeee e
anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a.Anee aea iu i?eciaai iaiaoiaeeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey
iaia?aiu,oi aeieaeiu i?aaeeiaeeoue iaoaieci naiiaini?iecaaaeaiey
iaia?aiu a i?ioeanna ?aieeeaoeee yoiai oeeeea.Nieo ieoao:” I/aaeaeii,/oi
yoe ?aaiou { Yeaaia e aai nio?oaeieeia } nicaeatho aieueoa i?iaeai,/ai
?aoatho”.

E iaeiiaoe,aeia?oeeeeu- yoi aeaeaei ia eeaoee,eioi?ua iaeaaeatho aaeeiie
aaiaoe/aneie nenoaiie e niaaaeaiu neiaeiuie iieaeoey?iuie
aiia?aoaie.*oiau ia?aeoe io aeia?oeeeeia e aeeaie eeaoea,iaiaoiaeeiu
iiiaea ouny/e i?iiaaeooi/iuo nooiaiae .Yoi ana ?aaii /oi iuoaoueny n
iiiiuueth iaaieueoeo iiaeeoeeaoeee i?aa?aoeoue iaoaie/aneea /anu a
aeaeaaoaeue aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey,i?e/ai eaaeaeay neaaeothuay iiaeaeue
aeieaeia i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie oeo/oaiioth aa?neth i?aaeuaeouae e
inoaaaoueny aeaenoaothuei iaoaieciii.Aeaaea /aeiaae n naiui aoeiui
aiia?aaeaieai ia niiaeao naaa i?aaenoaaeoue ie/aai iiaeiaiiai.I?ecuaay
ia iiiiuue anoanoaaiiue ioai?, Yeaai ia ii?aaeaeyao eiie?aoiua
oaae,eioi?ua iiaoo i?aa?aoeoue aeia?oeeeeu a aeeaua eeaoee,iiyoiio aai
iauyniaiea- yoi nei?aa aiaeeyoeey e /oaeo , /ai iao/iay aeiioaca.

Eoae,iu oaaaeeeenue a oii,/oi iaoaieci eeaoee ioee/aaony iaiaueiiaaiiie
neiaeiinoueth e aunieie noaiaiueth i?aaiecaoeee,a oaeaea a oii,/oi ana
nia?aiaiiua oai?ee aicieeiiaaiey aeecie ec iaoa?ee ie/aai ia
iauyniytho.?aciiii ni?ineoue,ii/aio o/aiua oae i?eaycaiu e naiei
iiiuoeai iaeoe no?iai iaoaienoe/aneia iauyniaiea ca?iaeaeaiey
aeecie.Iaeia ec i?e/ei yoiai – eo oaaaeaeaiiinoue a aacioeai/iinoe
eca?aiiie eie no?aoaaee ?aaeoeoeeiiecia,niaeanii eioi?ie ana,/oi iu
aeaeei aie?oa naay,io aaeaeoee aei aaeoa?ee,aeieaeii iauyniyoueny ia
iniiaa i?inouo caeiiia oeceee.Ioaa?aay aiciiaeiinoue ae?oaiai iiaeoiaea
e iaoea,iie enoiaeyo ec oiai,/oi iaeaeoaa ioeeiiaiea io eca?aiiie eie
no?aoaaee iiae?uaaao naiua iniiau iaoee a oii aeaea,a eaeii iia ecaanoia
ei.

Iiiaea o/aiua,ia iaeaey i?aaaeiiiaeiaiiai iaoaienoe/aneiai iauyniaiey
aicieeiiaaiey eeaoee,iauyaeytho eiia/iie i?e/eiie aa iiyaeaiey “ neo/ae
“.Iaeiaei oaeie iiaeoiae oiaea eiaao na?ueaciua iaaeinoaoee.No?iai
aiai?y,oa?iei “ neo/aeiinoue “ i?eiaie oieueei e ii?aaeaeaiiui
noaoenoe/aneei iiaeaeyi,iienuaathuei iiaoi?ythueany niauoey.Neo/ae ia
iiaeao auoue “ i?e/eiie “ /aai au oi ie auei .*oi aea eanaaony
iaoaiaoe/aneie aa?iyoiinoe aicieeiiaaiey aeecie ec iaoa?ee,oi ii?yaeie
aa iao?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue,enoiaey ec oiai,/oi Caiey,ii aeaiiui
nia?aiaiiie iaoee,nouanoaoao ieiei /aou?ao n iieiaeiie ieeeea?aeia eao.

Ia/iai n ?anniio?aiey aaeeia,eioi?ua ninoaaeytho iniiao aeeauo
i?aaieciia e auiieiytho iiiaea aaaeiua ooieoeee a eeaoea.Aaeee
neioace?othony a ?acoeueoaoa i/aiue neiaeiiai i?ioeanna.Aai iiaeii
n?aaieoue ni nai?i/iui eiiaaea?ii,ia eioi?ii niaoeeaeueiua iaoaieciu ec
aeaoaeae niae?atho aioiaia ecaeaeea.Iae?iiieaeoeu aaeeia niaea?aeao a
n?aaeiai 300 aieiieeneio,niaaeeiaiiuo a oeaii/ee.Aeaaea a oaeii i?inoii
iee?ii?aaiecia,eae aaeoa?ey E . coli ,eiaaony ieiei 2000 ?acee/iuo
aeaeia aaeea.A eeaoea ieaeiieoathueo eo a 800 ?ac aieueoa.No?oeoo?a
aaeeia caienaia a aaiaoe/aneii aiia?aoa eeaoee.Niaeanii
iaoaienoe/aneie iiaeaee,aei iiyaeaiey naiiaini?iecaiaeyuaeny
nenoaiu,niiniaiie auiieiyoue iniiaiua ooieoeee eeaoee e iieueciaaoueny
aaiaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeeae,anyeia acaeiiaeaenoaea aieiieeneio,aaaeouaa e
ia?aciaaieth aaeeiaie iieaeoeu,iineei neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?.

*oiau ii?aaeaeeoue aa?iyoiinoue aicieeiiaaiey aaeeia,iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?inoaeoae eeaoee,a ?acoeueoaoa neo/aeiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey aieiieeneio,ecaanoiue aiaeeeneee ano?iiii O.Oiee e
iaoaiaoee *.Aee?aianeiao ec Ea?aeeooneiai oieaa?neoaoa a Oyeuena
i?iecaaee neaaeothuea au/eneaiey.Eae oaea aiai?eeinue,a
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?inoaeoae aaeoa?ee o/anoaotho i?eia?ii 2000
?acee/iuo aaeeia,ninoiyueo a n?aaeiai ec 300 aieiieeneio.Ooieoeee e
naienoaa aaeea caaenyo io iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe,a eioi?ie aieiieeneiou
?aniieiaeaiu a aai oeaie.Iineieueeo a ninoaa aaeeia aoiaeeo 20 oeiia
aieiieeneio,aa?iyoiinoue ia?aciaaiey aaeea n caaeaiiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth aieiieeneio ?aaiyaony 1 : 20300 .

Ecaanoii,/oi nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiue aeeaiacii,a i?aaeaeao eioi?iai
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue 300 aieiieeneio iiaeao aa?uee?iaaoue aac caiaoiuo
eciaiaiee naienoa aaeea.Iiyoiio Oiee e Aee?aianeiao aaeeeiaeooii
oaaee/eee aa?iyoiinoue aicieeiiaaiey aaeea n caaeaiiuie naienoaaie aei
1020.I?eiya ai aieiaiea oi,/oi aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eeaoee
iaiaoiaeeii,ii e?aeiae ia?a,2000 aaeeia,iie ioeaieee aa?iyoiinoue
neo/aeiiai aicieeiiaaiey i?inoaeoee naiiaini?iecaiaeyuaeny nenoaiu
aaee/eiie 1 : 1040000.Aa?iyoiinoue yoiai niauoey ianoieueei
iaea,/oi,iaoiaeynue a cae?aaii oia,iaeuecy ?ann/eouaaoue ia oi,/oi iii
iiaei aicieeiooue ca oaeie n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeee ia?eiae a?aiaie,eae
ianeieueei ieeeea?aeia eao.

Aeiioaca neo/aeiiai aicieeiiaaiey aeecie ia ii aeooa iiiaei
o/aiui,ii,iineieueeo iie i?eaea?aeeaathony iaoaienoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea e
oaiiiaio aeecie,ei i?eoiaeeony ie?eoueny n iuneueth i oii,/oi aeeciue
aicieeea a ?acoeueoaoa neo/aeiiai niauoey,aa?iyoiinoue eioi?iai e?aeia
iaea.Iaeiei ec oaeeo o/aiuo yaeyaony Iiaaeaaneee eao?aao O.E?ee, iaeei
ec ia?aiioe?uaaoaeae no?oeoo?u AeIE .Ii ieoao : ”*anoiue
/aeiaae,aii?oaeaiiue anaie ciaieyie,eioi?uie iu ?aniieaaaai,auioaeaeai
i?eciaoue,/oi a ianoiyuee iiiaio ca?iaeaeaiea aeecie ia Caiea a eaeii-oi
niunea i?aaenoaaeyaony /oaeii – oae iiiai anaaiciiaeiuo oneiaee aeieaeii
auoue niaethaeaii aeey oiai,/oiau yoi neo/eeinue”.Yoe
o/aiua,aaconeiaii,i?aaeii/ee au iauynieoue aicieeiiaaiea aeecie ia
iniiaa caeiiia i?e?iaeu,ii,eae iu oaaaeeeenue,iiea ei yoi ia
oaeaeinue.Caaiaiiua a oaie,iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee aioiau i?eiyoue
ethaua,aeaaea naiua ?aaeeeaeueiua aeiioacu ( ?acoiaaony,ca eneeth/aieai
aeiioacu oai?/aneiai aeoa,eioi?ay aeaaea ei i?aaenoaaeyaony /a?an/o?
?aaeeeaeueiie).E?ee,iai?eia?,auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii,/oi
aaiaoe/aneee eiae aue i?eianai ia Caieth ?acoiiuie aeeauie nouanoaaie n
ae?oaeo ieaiao.Yoa aeiioaca iiaeao iauynieoue iiyaeaiea aeecie ia
Caiea,ii aii?in i oii,eae aicieeea aeeciue ai Anaeaiiie,inoaaony
ioe?uoui.

Oaeei ia?acii, oioy iiiaea ethaee aa?yo a oi,/oi nia?aiaiiay iaoea
?aniieaaaao iaii?iaa?aeeiuie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie iiyaeaiey ia Caiea
ia?auo aeeauo i?aaieciia a ?acoeueoaoa neo/aeiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey
oeie/aneeo aauanoa,i?e aieiaoaeueiii ?anniio?aiee noaiiaeony
i/aaeaeii,/oi neieueei-ieaoaeue na?ueaciie oai?ee oeie/aneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie iiea ia nouanoaoao.Aieaa oiai,iaoaiaoe/aneay
oai?ey aa?iyoiinoe eeoaao ian aiciiaeiinoe ainiieueciaaoueny aeaaea
oaeei oieaa?naeueiui iauyniaieai,eae:”Yoi i?iecioei neo/aeii “.

Enoiaey ec oiai,/oi aunieay eioi?iaoeeiiiay aieinoue aeeauo nenoai ia
aeiioneaao ieeaeeo iauyniaiee,aeaaea ioaeaeaiii iaiiieiathueo
iaoaienoe/aneea,iu i?aaeeaaaai iieiinoueth ioeacaoueny io iiiuoie
iaoaienoe/aneeo iauyniaiee.A noaouea “ Caaaaeea niciaiey” iu ianoaeaeaee
oaeie i?eioeeieaeueii iaoi?iuaaiue e iaiaoaienoe/aneee aniaeo
?aaeueiinoe,eae niciaiea.Ii iaoaio iiaieth,neiaeiua oi?iu aeeauo
i?aaieciia yaeythony ae?oaei iaoi?iuaaiui aniaeoii ?aaeueiinoe,eioi?ue
iaeuecy iauynieoue n iaoaienoe/aneeo iiceoeee.Iu n/eoaai,/oi ca yoeie
aeaoiy yaeaieyie noieo nicaeaaoee eo aunoee ?acoi.Yoio ?acoi yaeyaony
ecia/aeueiui enoi/ieeii iaaeaeaiiuo niciaieai aeeauo nouanoa e
eioi?iaoeee,i?aaiecothuae iaoa?eth a aeieiae/aneea no?oeoo?u.

CAEETH*AIEA .

A caeeth/aiee naeaeaai iaeioi?ua auaiaeu ia iniiaa anaai auoa neacaiiiai
e i?eaaaeaiiiai a i?eia?.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea aeiioacu cao/eo i?eia?ii oae: Aeiioaca –
yoi iao/ii iainiiaaiiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea, neoaeauaa aeey iauyniaiey
eaeiai-eeai oaeoa, yaeaiey, eioi?ua ia iniiaa i?aaeiaai ciaiey
iaiauynieiu. Aeiioaca aua ia enoeia, naienoaii enoeiiinoe iia a
i?aaenoaaeaiee auaeaeioaoaai aa enneaaeiaaoaey ia iaeaaeaao. Aeiioaca –
yoi i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii iiaia ciaiea ( aai enoeiiinoue eee eiaeiinoue
o?aaoaony aeieacaoue ),iieo/aiiia iooai yeno?aiieyoeee noa?iai ciaiey e
a oi aea a?aiy ii?uaathuaa n iei. Nio?aiyy ii?aaeaeaiioth
i?aainoaaiiinoue a ioiioaiee i?ioeiai ciaiey, aeiioaca aeieaeia
niaea?aeaoue i?eioeeieaeueii iiaia ciaiea.

Oaea a oii,/oi aeiioaca yaeyaony oi?iie ?acaeoey, aeaeaeaiey anyeiai
ciaiey, i?iyaeyaony aa aeeaeaeoe/aneay i?e?iaea: iia iaiaoiaeeiay oi?ia
ia?aoiaea io iaecaanoiiai e ecaanoiiio, nooiaiue i?aa?auaiey ia?aiai ai
aoi?ia,aa?iyoiiai ciaiey a aeinoiaa?iia, ioiineoaeueiiai a aaniethoiia.
Anee a iaoea iao aeiioac, oi yoi cia/eo, /oi a iae iao e i?iaeai, ia
?aoaiea eioi?uo iie iai?aaeaiu, noaei auoue a iae ciaiea ia ?acaeaaaony.

Eoae, iu aeaeei,/oi iao/iue iiene aeeth/aao a naay aeaa iiiaioa: 1)
iinoaiiaeo i?iaeaiu e 2) oi?ioee?iaeo aeiioacu. I?e aeaaii?eyoiii
enoiaea, i?e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee aeiioacu iiene caaa?oaaony ioe?uoeai.
Ioe?uoea ia?acoao o?aoueth, caaa?oathuoth noaaeeth iienea.

A ?acoeueoaoa ana yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao oi , /oi : Aeiioaca aunooiaao eae
oi?ia ?acaeoey aeieiae/aneiai ciaiey [ 2, n. 204-208 ].

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U

Aoiaa I. Eiooeoeey e iaoea .I.,1967.

Aeeaeaeoeea i?ioeanna iiciaiey. Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae i?io.Aeaenaaaa I.
I.,i?io. Ei?ooiiaa A . I ., Ecaeaoaeuenoai Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa.,
eieaa 3,1985 .

Enoiee. Iaoea aunoeo ecia?aiee.,Iineaa.,1994.

Ea?iiae/ A. I. I?iaeaia, aeiioaca, caeii. Iiaineae?ne.,1980.

Eaiei A. E. Iaoa?eaeeci e yiie?eie?eoeoeeci.,-Iiei. nia?aiea ni/eiaiee,
o.18.

Ia?eoeia E. I. Oai?ey eae iaoiae iao/iiai iiciaiey. Aii?inu oeeinioee.,
N. 3, 1985.

I?e?iaea e aeoo: ie? oeeinioneeo i?iaeai. Iiae iao/iie e iauae
?aaeaeoeeae Iaooiaa A. E., eieaa 2, Caieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1995.

Oai?aoe/aneia e yiie?e/aneia a nia?aiaiiii iao/iii iiciaiee.,
Ecaeaoaeuenoai “ Iaoea “, I.,1984.

*oaeeiia A. A. I?e?iaea iao/iie enoeiu. I., 1977.

Yiaaeuen O. Aeeaeaeoeea i?e?iaeu. -Ia?en E., Yiaaeuen O. Ni/., o. 20, n.
343-626.

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