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Френсис Бекон

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O?yinen Ayeii ?iaeeeny 22 yiaa?y 15661 a. a Eiiaeiia, a Ei?e-Oaoca
ia No?aiaea, a naiuea iaeiiai ec aunoeo naiiaieeia aeecaaaoeineiai
ae?iaa, ny?a Ieeieana Ayeiia.

Aaniie 1573 a. iaeue/eea iinueatho o/eoueny a O?eieoe eieeaaeae a
Eaia?eaeae. ?aoi?iaoeey a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ineaaeea caaeneiinoue io
oea?eae e iiiaoaneeo i?aeaiia aeaoo iniiaiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo oeaio?ia
iaoee e ia?aciaaiey Aiaeee. Ienoi?ae e Eaia?eaeae i?eia?aoaee naaoneee
oa?aeoa?, e caeanue iao/aeanue iieiae?aeue, aeaeathuay a aoaeouai
iieo/eoue eaeea-ieaoaeue ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieaeiinoe. AEaeay
iiaeaioiaeoue nuia e ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa, Ieeiean Ayeii ioi?aaeyao
oanoiaaeoeaoeeaoiaai thiioo a Ia?eae, aaea ii i?eiauaaony e ninoaao
aiaeeeneiai iinieuenoaa. Ii aio nia?oue iooea a oaa?aea 1579 a.
canoaaeyao Ayeiia aica?aoeoueny a Aiaeeth, eae ieaaeoee nui ii iieo/aao
ne?iiiia ianeaaenoai e oaia?ue auioaeaeai na?ue?cii caaeoiaoueny i nai?i
aoaeouai iieiaeaiee. Ayeii iinooiaao a th?eaee/aneoth ei?ii?aoeeth
A?aen-Eie, a 15866 a. Ayeii noaiiaeoueny noa?oeiie.

Iaaeaeo oai th?eni?oaeaioeey auea aeaeaei ia aeaaiui i?aaeiaoii
eioa?ania oe?ieiia?aciaaiiiai e /anoiethaeaiai iieiaeiai th?enoa. A 1597
a. auoee a naao i?iecaaaeaiey, i?eianoea Ayeiio eeoa?aoo?ioth
ecaanoiinoue, – oiiee iaaieueoeo ynna ia ?aeeaeiciua, ii?aeueiua e
iieeoe/aneea oaiu. Eiua ia?niaeoeau ioe?uei ia?aae iei i?aaeaiea sseiaa
I Notha?oa, Ayeiia aeaeotho caaieai ?uoea?y, ii iacia/aaony ooaoiui
ei?ieaaneei aaeaieaoii, a 1607 a. iieo/aao iino aaia?ae-nieenoi?a, a au?
/a?ac iyoue eao – aeieaeiinoue aaia?ae-aooi?ey – aunoaai th?eneiinoeueoa
ei?iiu.

Yoe aea aiaea iciaiaiiaaeenue e iiaeu?iii aai
oeeinionei-eeoa?aoo?iiai oai?/anoaa. A 1605 a. Ayeii ioaeeeoao o?aeoao
“I cia/aiee e oniaoa ciaiey, aiaeanoaaiiiai e /aeiaa/aneiai”, a eioi?ii
iainiiaae aaeeeoth ?ieue iaoe aeey aeecie ethaeae e iaa?inae eaeath eo
eeanneoeeaoeee. Ia?aeeaeueii oei iaaeoiuaaiea e ?acaeaeia “Aaeeeiai
Ainnoaiiaeaiey”. A 1609 a. auoae aai nai?iee i?eaeiaeueiuo oieeiaaiee
aioe/iuo ieoia “I ioae?inoe ae?aaieo”. A 1612 a. ei auee caeii/aiu
“Iienaiea eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ie?a” e “Oai?ey iaaa”.

O?yinen Ayeii yaeeny ?iaeiia/aeueieeii yiie?ecia. Eae e aieueoeinoai
iuneeoaeae aai yiioe, ii, n/eoay caaea/ae oeeinioee nicaeaiea iiaiai
iaoiaea iao/iiai iiciaiey, ia?ainiuneeaaao i?aaeiao e caaea/e iaoee, eae
a? iiieiaee a n?aaeiea aaea. Ayeii, ?anniao?eaaaoee iiciaiea i?e?iaeu e
eniieueciaaiea iieo/aiiiai ciaiey eae iniiao nioeeaeueiiai aeaaiiieo/ey,
iiiuoaaoeeny i?aaenoaaeoue “iiao/aiiia” iauanoai a ?aaioa “Iiaay
Aoeaioeaea”, ianoaeaaao ia oii, /oi aic?iaeaeaoue neaaeoao ia oa eee
eiua o/aiey ae?aaieo, a aeoo niaeiai iienea, i?enouee eo nicaeaoaeyi e
iniaaiii i?iyaeaoeeny a oai?/anoaa aeinie?aoeeia. Iauay caaea/a anao
iaoe – oaaee/aiea aeanoe /aeiaaea iaae i?e?iaeie. Ioaeii aic?iaeeoue nai
anoanoaaiiue ?acoi, i?e?iaeiue naao eioi?iai – i?iieoeaoaeueiinoue –
caoaiiai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy caaeoaeaeaieyie-eaeieaie. ?acoi, i/euaiiue io
caaeoaeaeaiee, iie?aynue ia niaoeeaeueii i?iaiaeeiua yenia?eiaiou,
eniieuecoy ?ac?aaaouaaaiua ei i?aaeea eiaeoeoeaiiai (io /anoiiai e
iauaio) auaiaea, niiniaai aeaoue iieioth e iieacioth i?aeoe/anee ea?oeio
ie?a.

Iaoea – n?aaenoai, a ia oeaeue naia ii naaa; a? ienney a oii,
/oiau iiciaoue i?e/eiioth naycue i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee ?aaee eniieueciaaiey
yoeo yaeaiee aeey aeaaa ethaeae. “…?a/ue eae?o, – aiai?ee Ayeii, eiay a
aeaeo iacia/aiea iaoee, – ia oieueei i nica?oeaoaeueiii aeaaa, ii
iienoeia i aeinoiyiee e n/anouea /aeiaa/aneii e i any/aneii iiaouanoaa a
i?aeoeea. Eai /aeiaae, neoaa e enoieeiaaoaeue i?e?iaeu, noieueei
niaa?oaao e iiieiaao, neieueei ioaaoee a ii?yaeea i?e?iaeu aeaeii e
?aciuoeaieai; e nauoa yoiai ii ia ciaao e ia iiaeao. Ieeaeea neeu ia
iiaoo ?aci?aaoue eee ?acae?iaeoue oeaiue i?e/ei; e i?e?iaea iiaaaeaeaao
oieueei iiae/eiaieai ae. Eoae, aeaa /aeiaa/aneeo no?aieaiey – e ciaieth
e iiaouanoao – iienoeia niaiaaeatho a iaeiii e oii aea…” Ayeiio
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ciaiaieoue aoi?eci:”Ciaiea – neea”, a eioi?ii io?aceeanue
i?aeoe/aneay iai?aaeaiiinoue iiaie iaoee.

A oe?ieii niunea neiaa oeeinioey, ii Ayeiio, yoi nenoaia anao
iiuoii-?aoeeiiaeueiuo iiciaiee, aeinooiiuo ?acoio eae iniaie niiniaiinoe
/aeiaaea (ae?oaie niiniaiinoe – iaiyoe – niioaaonoaoao enoi?ey,
aiia?aaeaieth – iiycey). A oceii niunea neiaa oeeinioey – o/aiea i
aeaeao ciaiey e eo niioiioaiee, o/aiea i iaoiaea (i?aaiiia) iiciaiey.

A ayeiiianeii no?aieaiee ia?aoeoue aci? iaoee e caiea, e iiciaieth
i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee, eioi?ua iai ioe?uaatho /oanoaa, neacaeanue eae iauay
aeooiaiay aoiinoa?a ia?iaeaeathuaainy eaieoaeecia, oae e, a /anoiinoe,
i?ioanoaioeci. Ayeii /?oei ioee/aao ?aeeaeth io oeeinioee. Ia?aay
iieieony ia naa?ouanoanoaaiiii ioe?iaaiee, aoi?ay – ia aeaiiuo i?aaiao
/oanoa. A oeeinioee aeaaea iniiaiua ia/aea iiaeaa?aathony ianoaeaeaieth
e i?iaa?ea, oiaaea eae a ?aeeaee iniiaiua ia/aea onoaiaaeeaathony
aaoi?eoaoii. Aianoa n oai Ayeii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aiciiaeia anoanoaaiiay
oaieiaey, niioaaonoaothuay anoanoaaiiie ?aeeaee, iineieueeo
onoaiaaeeaaaiay iiciaieai naycue i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee oeacuaaao ia
nouanoaiaaiea aiaeanoaa.

A i?ioanoaioecia, ia/eiay n naieo aai iniiaaoaeae – Ethoa?a e
Eaeueaeia, aeoeaio noaaeony ia iaaiciiaeiinoue n iiiiuueth ?acoia
iinoeaiooue oi, /oi ioiineony e noa?a aiaeanoaaiiiai, iineieueeo
o?ainoeaiaeaioiue aia ninoaaeyao i?aaeiao aa?u, a ia ciaiey. ?acaaaeaiea
aa?u e ciaiey, oa?aeoa?iia aeey i?ioanoaioecia a oeaeii, i?eaaei e
niciaoaeueiiio no?aieaieth ia?aie/eoue noa?o i?eiaiaiey ?acoia ie?ii
“caiiuo aauae”. Iiae yoei iiieiaeinue i?aaeaea anaai i?aeoe/anee
i?eaioe?iaaiiia iiciaiea i?e?iaeu.

I?aaeinoaaea aeaei nianaiey aeooe “iaeiie aa?a”, Ethoa? oai naiui
auoieeioe ?acoi ia iii?eua ie?neie i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe –
?aianea, oicyenoaa, iieeoeee. Ionthaea oaaaeaiea e ethaiio o?oaeo – eae
e?anoueyineiio, oae e ?aianeaiiiio, eae e aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eieiaoaey, oae i e aeayoaeueiinoe caieaeiia. Ionthaea aea
auoaeaao e i?eciaiea iniaie oeaiiinoe anao oaoie/aneeo e iao/iuo
ecia?aoaiee e oniaa?oainoaiaaiee, eioi?ua niinianoaotho iaeaa/aieth
o?oaea e noeioee?otho iaoa?eaeueiue i?ia?ann. Iniaaiii y?ei an? yoi
aeaeii eiaiii o Ayeiia. Ii i?eaioe?oao iaoeo ia iiene naieo ioe?uoee ia
a eieaao, a a iiea, a ianoa?neie, o eocia/iuo ai?iia. Ciaiea, ia
i?eiinyuaa i?aeoe/aneeo ieiaeia, Ayeii n/eoaao iaioaeiie ?ineioueth.

Ii aeey oiai /oiau iaeaaeaoue i?e?iaeie e iinoaaeoue a? ia neoaeao
/aeiaaeo, iaiaoiaeeii, ii oaaaeaeaieth aiaeeeneiai oeeinioa, a ei?ia
eciaieoue iao/iua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey. A n?aaeiea aaea, aea e a
aioe/iinoe, iaoea, aiai?eo Ayeii, iieueciaaeanue aeaaiui ia?acii
aeaaeoeoeaiui iaoiaeii, ia?acoeii eioi?iai yaeyaony neeeiaenoeea
A?enoioaey. N iiiiuueth aeaaeoeoeaiiai iaoiaea iuneue aeaeaeaony io
i/aaeaeiuo iieiaeaiee (aeneii) e /anoiui auaiaeai. Oaeie iaoiae, ii
Ayeiio, ia yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoeaiui, ii iaei iiaeoiaeeo aeey iiciaiey
i?e?iaeu. Anyeia iiciaiea e anyeia ecia?aoaiea aeieaeiu iie?aoueny ia
iiuo, oi anoue aeieaeiu aeaeaaoueny io eco/aiey aaeeie/iuo oaeoia e
iauei iieiaeaieyi. A oaeie iaoiae iineo iacaaiea eiaeoeoeaiiai.
Eiaeoeoeey (/oi a ia?aaiaea cia/eo “iaaaaeaiea”) auea iienaia
A?enoioaeai, ii iineaaeiee ia i?eaeaaae ae oaeiai oieaa?naeueiiai
cia/aiey eae Ayeii.

I?inoaeoei neo/aai eiaeoeoeaiiai iaoiaea yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiay
iieiay eiaeoeoeey, eiaaea ia?a/eneythony ana i?aaeiaou aeaiiiai eeanna e
iaia?oaeeaaaony i?enouaa ei naienoai. Iaeiaei a iaoea ?ieue iieiie
eiaeoeoeee ia i/aiue aaeeea. Ai?acaei /aua i?eoiaeeony i?eaaaaoue e
iaiieiie eiaeoeoeee, eiaaea ia iniiaa iaaethaeaiey eiia/iiai /enea
oaeoia aeaeaaony iauee auaiae ioiineoaeueii anaai eeanna aeaiiuo
yaeaiee. A iniiaa iaiieiie eiaeoeoeee eaaeeo caeeth/aiea ii aiaeiaee; a
iii anaaaea iineo eeoue aa?iyoiue oa?aeoa?, ii ia iaeaaeaao no?iaie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth. Iuoaynue naeaeaoue iaoiae iaiieiie eiaeoeoeee ii
aiciiaeiinoe aieaa no?iaei e oai naiui nicaeaoue “enoeiioth
eiaeoeoeeth”, Ayeii n/eoaao iaiaoiaeeiui eneaoue ia oieueei oaeou,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea ii?aaeae?iiue auaiae, ii e oaeou, ii?iaa?aathuea aai.

Oaeei ia?acii, anoanoaiciaiea aeieaeii iieueciaaoueny aeaoiy
n?aaenoaaie: ia?a/eneaieai e eneeth/aieai, i?e/?i aeaaiia ciaiea eiatho
eiaiii eneeth/aiey. Aeieaeiu auoue nia?aiu ii aiciiaeiinoe ana neo/ae,
aaea i?enoonoaoao aeaiiia yaeaiea, a caoai ana, aaea iii ionoonoaoao.
Anee oaeanony iaeoe eaeie-eeai i?eciae, eioi?ue anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaao
aeaiiia yaeaiea e eioi?ue ionoonoaoao, eiaaea yoiai yaeaiey iao, oi yoio
i?eciae iiaeii n/eoaoue “oi?iie”, eee “i?e?iaeie”, aeaiiiai yaeaiey. N
iiiiuueth naiaai iaoiaea Ayeii, iai?eia?, iao?e, /oi “oi?iie” oaieiou
yaeyaony aeaeaeaiea iaeue/aeoeo /anoeoe oaea.

Oai?/anoai Ayeii ieacaei neeueiia aeeyiea ia oo iauoth aeooiaioth
aoiinoa?o, a eioi?ie oi?ie?iaaeenue iaoea e oeeinioey XVII aaea,
iniaaiii a Aiaeee. Ia neo/aeii ayeiiianeee i?ecua ia?aoeoueny e iiuoo e
yenia?eiaioo noae eicoiaii aeey iniiaaoaeae Eiiaeiineiai
anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai iauanoaa, eoaea aioee oai?oeu iiaie iaoee – ?.
Aieeue, ?. Aoe, E. Iuethoii e ae?.

Iaeiaei iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi aiaeeeneee oeeinio naeaeae
/?acia?iue aeoeaio ia yiie?e/aneeo iaoiaeao enneaaeiaaiey, iaaeiioeaiea
i?e yoii ?ieue ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ia/aea a iiciaiee, e i?aaeaea anaai –
iaoaiaoeee. Iiyoiio ?acaeoea iiaiai anoanoaiciaiey a XVII aaea iioei ia
nianai ii oiio iooe, eioi?ue aio i?aaeia/a?oae Ayeii. Eiaeoeoeaiue
iaoiae, eae au ouaoaeueii ii ie aue io?aaioai, an? aea a eiia/iii n/?oa
ia iiaeao aeaoue anaiauaai e iaiaoiaeeiiai ciaiey, e eioi?iio no?aieony
iaoea. E oioy ayeiiianeee i?ecua ia?aoeoueny e iiuoo aue oneuoai e
iiaeaea?aeai – i?aaeaea anaai aai niioa/anoaaiieeaie, iaeiaei
yenia?eiaioaeueii-iaoaiaoe/aneia anoanoaiciaiea ioaeaeaeinue a
?ac?aaioea iniaiai oeia yenia?eiaioa, eioi?ue iia au neoaeeoue iniiaie
aeey i?eiaiaiey iaoaiaoeee e iiciaieth i?e?iaeu.

Anoue oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue, iaeeiaeiai i?enouay eae yiie?ecio, oae
e ?aoeeiiaeecio, i?aaenoaaeoaeai eioi?iai yaeyeny i?aaeaea anaai ?.
Aeaea?o (1596-1650). A? iiaeii iaicia/eoue eae iioieiaeci, ?iaeiyuee
oeeinioeth XVII aaea – i?e anae a? niaoeeoeea – n i?e?iaeie
/aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey aiiaua. Oioy a oeaio?a aieiaiey iiaie oeeinioee
noiyo i?iaeaiu oai?ee iiciaiey, iaeiaei aieueoeinoai iuneeoaeae
iieaaatho, /oi /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi a ninoiyiee iiciaoue auoea, /oi iaoea
e niioaaonoaaiii oeeinioey, iineieueeo iia yaeyaony iao/iie, ?ane?uaaao
aeaenoaeoaeueiia no?iaiea ie?a, caeiiiia?iinoe i?e?iaeu.

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