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Философско-психологическая проблема бессознательного

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?AOA?AO

Oeeinionei-ineoieiae/aneay i?iaeaia aanniciaoaeueiiai.

NIAeA?AEAIEA

Aaaaeaiea. Iiiyoea aanniciaoaeueiiai.

Enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiay iinoaiiaea aii?ina. C. O?aeae e aanniciaoaeueiia.

No?oeoo?a aanniciaoaeueiiai. Caeeth/aiea.

Iiiyoea aanniciaoaeueiiai.

Ia?yaeo n niciaoaeueiuie oi?iaie io?aaeaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe aeey
/aeiaaea oa?aeoa?iu e oaeea, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony eae au ca ii?iaii
niciaiey, ia aeinoeaatho iaaeeaaeauae noaiaie eioaineaiinoe eee
iai?yaeaiiinoe, /oiau ia?aoeoue ia naay aieiaiea. Oa?ieiu
“aanniciaoaeueiia”, “iiaeniciaoaeueiia”, “iainiciaiiia” /anoi
ano?a/athony a iao/iie e ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a, a oaeaea a
iauaeaiiie aeecie.

Iiiyoea ineoe/aneiai cia/eoaeueii oe?a iiiyoey niciaiey, eioi?ia
iaeaaeaao ia iiaeaeathueieny i?aeoe/aneiio o/aoo a?aaeaoeeyie o?iaiae,
ia/eiay io aunoae nooiaie yniinoe, aeioiaeyuae aei oaeeaeoaeueiie neeu
i?ici?eeainoe e aeoaeiu iiieiaiey nooe aauae, e eii/ay iieoniciaoaeueiui
ninoiyieai (22).

Niciaiea ioithaeue ia en/a?iuaaao anae ineoeee. Nouanoaotho oaeaea
iainiciaaaaiua ineoe/aneea oaiiiaiu, ii?aaeaeaiiue eeann eioi?uo
i?aaenoaaeai iiiyoeai aanniciaoaeueiiai.

Ineoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny a oieona niciaiey,
eiiaaea ia aeinoeaaao o?iaiy niciaiey (aeiniciaoaeueiia eee
i?aaeniciaoaeueiia ninoiyiea) eee iioneaaony ieaea ii?iaa niciaiey
(iiaeniciaoaeueiia).

Niaieoiiinoue ineoe/aneeo yaeaiee, ninoiyiee e aeaenoaee, ia
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a niciaiee /aeiaaea, eaaeaueo aia noa?u aai ?acoia,
aacio/aoiuo e ia iiaeaeathueony, ii e?aeiae ia?a a aeaiiue iiiaio,
eiio?ieth, ioaaouaaaony iiiyoeai aanniciaoaeueiiai.

Ciia iaeneiaeueii yniiai niciaiey a ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
n?aaieoaeueii iaaaeeea. Ca iae eaeao iieina i?inoi yaiiai niciaiey, a
iioii – ieieiaeueiiai niciaiey, ca eioi?ie neaaeoao oaea
iainiciaiiia. Iineaaeiaa aunooiaao oi eae onoaiiaea (einoeieo,
aea/aiea), oi eae iuouaiea (aini?eyoea, i?aaenoaaeaiea e iuoeaiea), oi
eae niiiaiaoeeci, oi eae eiooeoeey, oi eae aeiiioe/aneia ninoiyiea eee
niiaeaeaiea, ninoiyiea aooaeoa eee iaaiaiyaiinoe.

E aanniciaoaeueiui yaeaieyo ioiinyo e iiae?aaeaiea, e oai?/aneia
aaeioiiaaiea, nii?iaiaeaeathuaany aiacaiiui “ica?aieai”, iiaie eaeaae,
?iaeaeathuaeny eae au io eaeiai-oi oie/ea ecioo?e (neo/ae iaiiaaiiiai
?aoaiey caaea/, aeieai ia iiaeaeaaaaoeony niciaoaeueiui oneeeyi,
iai?iecaieueiua ainiiieiaiey i oii, /oi eacaeinue i?i/ii caauoui e
i?i/aa).

Aanniciaoaeueiia – ia ienoeea, a ?aaeueiinoue aeooiaiie aeecie. N
oece/aneie oi/ee c?aiey aanniciaoaeueiua i?ioeannu auiieiytho naiaai
?iaea io?aieoaeueioth ooieoeeth: iie ?aca?oaeatho iica io iinoiyiiiai
iai?yaeaiey niciaiey oai, aaea a yoii iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

Aeey aieaa /aoeiai auyaeaiey ianoa i?iaeaiu aanniciaoaeueiiai a
no?oeoo?a ciaiey aaaeii niioianoe oaiiiaiu aanniciaoaeueiiai n oaeeie
?aaeueiinoyie, eioi?ua iaicia/athony eaoaai?eyie “aeayoaeueiinoue”,
“io?aaeaiea”, “iauaiea”, “ee/iinoue”, “ioiioaiea” (23).

Aano?aeoiay noaia no?iaiey aeayoaeueiinoe, niaeanii eioi?ie auaeaeytho
nianoaaiii aeayoaeueiinoue, aeaenoaey e ?aaeecothuea eo iia?aoeee,
iiaeao neoaeeoue iaeiei ec iniiaaiee eeanneoeeaoeee oaiiiaiia
iainiciaaaaiie ineoe/aneie aeecie /aeiaaea, auaeaeythuae ianoi
iainiciaaaaiuo ineoe/aneeo yaeaiee a no?oeoo?a aeayoaeueiinoe.
Eiinoeooe?othuei i?eciaeii aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony iioea, o.a. iaeioi?ue
iauaeo, a eioi?ii ii?aaeia/eaaaony iio?aaiinoue (2).

Oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi iioea iiaeao auoue iainiciaiiui, oaeaea
iainiciaiiui iiaeao auoue ineoe/aneia io?aaeaiea naiiai iio?aaiinoiiai
ninoiyiey. Iniiaiui i?eciaeii aeaenoaey yaeyaony iaee/ea niciaoaeueiiai
i?aaeainoeuaiey aoaeoueo ?acoeueoaoia, o.a. oeaee. Iaeiaei e?iia oaeiai
iniciaiiiai i?aaeainoeuaiey iiaeii auaeaeeoue e iainiciaiiua
i?aaeainoeuaiey, e eo /eneo ioiinyony iaeioi?ua aeaeu onoaiiaie. Oaeei
ia?acii, ia?yaeo n iniciaiiuie e iainiciaiiuie iioeaaie neaaeoao
auaeaeyoue iniciaiiua e iainiciaiiua i?aaeainoeuaiey aoaeoueo
?acoeueoaoia, o.a. oeaee e onoaiiaee. Iia?aoeee a /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe oaeaea eiatho aeaiyeoth i?e?iaeo: iaeie yaeythony
i?iaeoeoii o?ainoi?iaoeee niciaoaeueiuo aeaenoaee e, a neo/aa
cao?oaeiaiee, iiaoo aiiaue aica?auaoueny a niciaiea, ae?oaea
oi?ie?othony ii oeio “i?eeaaeeaaiey” e neooaoeee e aiiaua ieeiaaea ia
iiiaaeatho a niciaiea, iie ooieoeeiie?otho eae iainiciaaaaiua
aaoiiaoeciu.

Nouanoaiaaiea ea/anoaaiii ?acii?iaeiuo oaiiiaiia aanniciaoaeueiiai
eneeth/atho aiciiaeiinoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey auaiaeia, iieo/aiiuo i?e
enneaaeiaaiee iaeiiai ec oaiiiaiia aanniciaoaeueiiai ia anth iaeanoue
aanniciaoaeueiiai. Iniciaiiua e iainiciaiiua ineoe/aneea yaeaiey
ia?acotho aeaa oi?iu io?aaeaiey aiaoiaai ie?a e niioaaonoaaiii aeaa
oi?iu oi?aaeaiey, ineoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe (iniciaiiay
e iainiciaiiay ?aaoeyoeey).

I?e enneaaeiaaiee /anoiuo oi?i ineoe/aneiai io?aaeaiey ?aaeueiinoe iu
noaeeeaaainy n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iuouaiee, a eioi?uo
/aeiaae ioaeaao naaa io/ao, e iuouaiee, a eioi?uo ii ia ioaeaao naaa
io/aoa.

Aiaeiae/ioth aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth iiaeii i?iaanoe e i?eiaieoaeueii e
aini?eyoeth aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiuo iauaeoia.

A iaeanoe ineoieiaee iao/iiai oai?/anoaa aeaaii auee iienaiu oaeou,
iieacuaathuea, /oi iiiaea oaiiiaiu oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia iinyo
iniciaiiiai oa?aeoa?a. I?e enneaaeiaaiee yiioeeiiaeueiuo i?ioeannia
auaeaeythony oaiiiaiu, eiaaea /aeiaae iiaeao eiinoaoe?iaaoue naiue oaeo
iiyaeaiey yiioeeiiaeueiiai ia?aaeeaaiey, ii ia iiaeao oeacaoue iauaeo,
aucuaathuee yoe ia?aaeeaaiey, e neo/ae, eiaaea aeaaea naiue oaeo
ia?aaeeaaiey inoaaony ne?uouo io noauaeoa (aooaeoeaiua neaaeu, eee
“eiiieaenu”) e auaeaeythony eeoue a oneiaeyo niaoeeaeueii
i?aaieciaaiiiai yenia?eiaioa (iai?eia?, annioeeaoeaiiai) (24).

I?e aiaeeca iauaiey, eioi?ia naaiaeiy “iiaeii” i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue
aeayoaeueiinoe, oaeaea aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue eco/aiey
iainiciaaaaiuo ineoe/aneeo yaeaiee. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue eeanne/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey aeinoiaa?iinoe naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee, a ?a/aaie
eiiioieeaoeee anaaaea i?enoonoaotho iainiciaiiua eiiiiiaiou.

Nianoaaiii ineoieiae/aneia eco/aiea ee/iinoe a nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee ia iiaeao, anoanoaaiii, eaii?e?iaaoue oio oaeo, /oi iauaeoeaii
neeaaeuaathueany iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie ia
iaycaoaeueii io?aaeathony eie ia o?iaia niciaiey. Yoio oaeo aue auyaeai
E. Ia?enii i?e aiaeeca oiaa?iiai oaoeoecia, i?e aiaeeca ee/iinoae eae
ia?niieoeoee?iaaiiuo au?aaeaiee nioeeaeueii cia/eiuo /a?o (3; o.1,
n.88). Nouiinoue /aeiaaea, iiieiaaiay eae niaieoiiinoue iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, io iaai naiiai iiaeao auoue ne?uoa. Anee iu eniieuecoai
oe?ieia ii?aaeaeaiea ee/iinoe, aeaiiia a naia a?aiy N.E. ?oaeiooaeiii
(21), oi a niaea?aeaiea iiiyoey “aioo?aiiea oneiaey” iu aeieaeiu
aeeth/eoue e iainiciaaaaiua ineoe/aneea yaeaiey.

I?eiaieoaeueii e eaoaai?ee “ioiioaiea” ioaeii aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue
“ioiioaiea” e “niciaoaeueiia ioiioaiea”. “*aeiaae anoue ee/iinoue, –
ienae N.E. ?oaeiooaei, – a neeo oiai, /oi ii niciaoaeueii ii?aaeaeyao
naia ioiioaiea e ie?oaeathuaio” (21, 34). I/aaeaeii, /oi aaaeii
o/eouaaoue ?acee/ey iaaeaeo niciaoaeueii ii?aaeaeaiiuie ioiioaieyie e
ioiioaieyie, eioi?ua niciaoaeueii au? ia ii?aaeaeaiu.

Oaeei ia?acii, nenoaia ciaiee i ee/iinoe ia iiaeao ?acaeaaoueny aac
eioaineaiiai eco/aiey e iainiciaaaaiuo yaeaiee, e yoei i?aaeaea anaai
ii?aaeaeyaony cia/aiea eo enneaaeiaaiee.

A eeoa?aoo?a iu iaoiaeei neaaeothuea aeaa i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iuo
oieeiaaiey oa?ieia “aanniciaoaeueiia”. I?eiaaeeaaeao iie A. ?i?aoa?o,
ecaanoiiio aano?eeneiio oeeinioo e ineoieiao, e E.N. Auaioneiio.

A. ?i?aoa?: “Ia nouanoaoao iainiciaaaaiie ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eae
i?iiaaeooi/iiai caaia iaaeaeo iicaiauie i?ioeannaie e aeoeaiinoueth
niciaiey. Nouanoaotho oieueei ?aciua noaiaie yniinoe niciaiey… A
iicao… iai?a?uaii ?acua?uaathony i?ioeannu aicaoaeaeaiey, eioi?uo iu
niaa?oaiii ia caia/aai. Yoe i?ioeannu iainiciaaaaiua a oi/iii niunea
yoiai neiaa, ii yoi ia iainiciaaaaiua ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu
(iainiciaaaaiua iunee, no?aieaiey e o.i.), a iainiciaaaaiua i?ioeannu
ia?aiiai aicaoaeaeaiey, o.a. i?aaie/aneea yeaeo?ioeie/aneea i?iyaeaiey.
Iaiaoiaeeii ynii iiieiaoue yoi ?acaeoea, /oiau ecaaaeaoue
iaaei?acoiaiee”.

Iaoa iiceoeey nei?aa ioaa/aao oiio iiieiaieth ianoa e ?iee
aanniciaoaeueiiai, eaeia i?aaeiieaaaao E.N. Auaioneee: “Aanniciaoaeueiia
ia ioaeaeaii io niciaiey eaeie-oi iai?ioiaeeiie noaiie. I?ioeannu,
ia/eiathueany a iai, /anoi eiatho naia i?iaeieaeaiea a niciaiee e
iaiai?io, iiiaia niciaoaeueiia auoaniyaony iaie a iiaeniciaoaeueioth
noa?o. Nouanoaoao iinoiyiiay, ie ia ieiooo ia i?ae?auathuayny aeeaay
aeeiaie/aneay naycue iaaeaeo iaaeie noa?aie iaoaai niciaiey.
Aanniciaoaeueiia aeeyao ia iaoe iinooiee, iaia?oaeeaaaony a iaoai
iiaaaeaiee e ii yoei neaaeai e i?iyaeaieyi iu o/einy ?aniiciaaaoue
aanniciaoaeueiia e eco/aoue aai (3).

Enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiay iinoaiiaea aii?ina

Iaeiei ec aieueoeo aii?inia, enoi?ey eioi?uo iniaaiii oanii naycaia n
ai?ueaie iiaiee, yaeyaony aii?in i aanniciaoaeueiii. Yoi iaeii ec naiuo
noa?uo iiiyoee. Eiaaony ia?iiiue ieano yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?eaea,
iaeiieaiiiai /aeiaa/anoaii a oa/aiea ouny/aeaoee e eiathuaai
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ioiioaiea e ?anniio?aieth i?iaeaiu aanniciaoaeueiiai.
Yoi ?acoeueoao ?ac?aaioaiiuo a oeeinionei-?aeeaeiciuo o/aieyo niiniaia
i?iieeiiaaiey a aeoaeiu aanniciaoaeueiiai, acaeiiaeaenoaey n iei. Yoio
“yenia?eiaio” ia oieueei i?iaiaeeeny, ii e naiaia?acii iaiauaeny aaeaie.
Iaeiei ec i?iyaeaiee yoiai iaiauaiey yaeyaony aoaeaeeeneay ineoieiaey.

I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi aoaeaeeeneay ineoieiaey ai iiiaii iie?aaony ia
iaaethaeaiey e yenia?eiaio. N nia?aiaiiuie iienaoaeueiuie iaoeaie aa
naeeaeaao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ouaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiay nenoaia
eeanneoeeaoeee niciaiey, e a /anoiinoe oao, eioi?ua aicieeatho i?e
iaaeeoaoeeyo, e oi?ioi ?acaeoay oa?ieiieiaey.

Ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu, yoi iai?aaeaiea iunee aicieeei a eiie ia?aaeeaia
– ?acei ioee/iie io ia?aaeeaiu nia?aiaiiie iaoee e eiaiii a yoii niunea
iii ia iiaeao auoue iacaaii iao/iui (15).

Iauay eaeay i aanniciaoaeueiii ano?a/aaony aua a ae?aaiaeiaeeeneii
o/aiee Iioaiaeaeaee, a eioi?ii aanniciaoaeueiii o?aeoiaaeinue eae aunoee
o?iaaiue iiciaiey, eae eiooeoeey e aeaaea eae aeaeaeouay neea Anaeaiiie.

Iii ainoiaeeo e aeaiiiee Nie?aoa, ooaa?aeaeaaoaai, /oi ii iinoiyiii
i?eneooeaaaony e naiaio aioo?aiiaio aieino, eae e naiaai ?iaea aaeaieth
niaanoe e iai?a?aeaaiiio aaoi?eoaoo.

I?iaeaia aanniciaoaeueiiai iaoea io?aaeaiea a o/aiee Ieaoiia i iiciaiee
eae ainiiieiaiee, oanii naycaiiii i eaeaae i iaee/ee a aeooa ne?uouo,
iainiciaiiuo ciaiee, i eioi?uo nai noauaeo iiaeao aeaaea nianai ie/aai
ia iiaeic?aaaoue. Ieaoii iieaaae, /oi /aeiaae ia eneae au oiai, /oi aio
aua ia ecaanoii, anee au ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ia eiae aai aanniciaoaeueii
a naiae aeooa (3).

Aaaonoei aiaeece?iaae aanniciaoaeueiia a “Eniiaaaee”, aaea ii n?aaieaaao
noa?o ainiiieiaiee n iaiaic?eiui, ne?uoui io niciaiey aioo?aiiei
iiiauaieai. Oi, /oi iaoiaeeony ca i?aaeaeaie iaic?eiiai aeey noauaeoa a
noa?a aai aeooaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ninoaaeyao iainiciaiiia (22).

Eiia inaauaiea aii?in i aanniciaoaeueiii i?eia?ae a eiioeaioeee
Aeaea?oa, eioi?ue enoiaeee ec oiaeaeanoaa ineoeee e niciaiey. Ionthaea
eaeay i oii, /oi ca i?aaeaeaie niciaiey i?ioaeatho eeoue /enoi
oeceieiae/aneea, a ia ineoieiae/aneea i?ioeannu (29).

Nieiica ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ethaee iniciatho naie aeaeaiey, ii ia i?e/eiu,
eioi?ua eo ii?aaeaeytho. Naii nouanoaiaaiea aanniciaoaeueiuo iioeaaoeee
ninoaaeyao /aeiaa/aneia a?aiy. Aeinoeaeaiea aea naiaiaeu iniiaaii ia
iniciaiee /aeiaaeii ?aaeueiinoe aioo?e e aia naay (22).

A enoi?ee oeeinioneie e ineoieiae/aneie iunee aia?aua eeoue Eaeaieoeo
oaeaeinue aiieia io/aoeeai noi?ioee?iaaoue eiioeaioeeth
aanniciaoaeueiiai eae iecoae oi?iu aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eaeaieoe
iieaaae, /oi ana yaeaiey niciaiey aicieeatho a aanniciaoaeueiie aeecie e
/oi a aiae?noaothuai ninoiyiee ia?yaeo n iaeaieaa y?ei aunooiathueie
niciaoaeueiuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie nouanoaotho eae au niyuea eee oaanoea
i?aaenoaaeaiey – iaeua ia?oeaioeee. Ii Eaeaieoeo, a oia iao ie/aai, /oi
oaea ia ae?aiaei au a aeaea i?aaenoaaeaiey a oaiiie aeooa.

Aanniciaoaeueiuie auaatho a?iaeaeaiiua eaeae, i?eia?aoaiiua e
auoaniaiiua ec niciaiey eaeae, oae iacuaaaiua iaeua ia?aaeeaaiey,
eioi?ua ia iniciathony ec-ca naiae iacia/eoaeueiinoe. Ii iuoaeny
“ainiieieoue i?iaae, eiaaea niciaiea ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaao oaeoa
nouanoaiaaiey ineoeee a noauaeoa” (26).

“Aeinoieii aieiaiey oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ineoeea, ia?aoaaeoay a
aanniciaoaeueiia, aeey Eaeaieoea ia yaeyaony /ai-oi “aeoaeiiui”, eae
iicaea o O?aeaea, a i?inoi i?iaeieaeaao naia nouanoaiaaiea a aeaea
ineaaeaiiiai niciaoaeueiiai eee iaeiai aini?eyoey” (26). E aua aieaa
?aoeoaeueii: “Eaeaieoe, ianiiiaiii, i?aaeeueii oeacae, /oi niciaiea e
ineoeea ia eaeaioe/iu e aeey ainiieiaiey i?iaaea iaaeaeo ieie ii aaae
iiiyoea “iaeia aini?eyoea” (26).

Anee iu aniiiiei oaia?ue oacen i nouanoaiaaiee “?aciuo noaiaiae yniinoe
niciaiey”, eioi?oth aeiioneaao e A.?i?aoa?, oi noaiao ynii, /oi ia?aae
iaie noieeay, oaea iiiaiaaeiaay o?aaeeoeey a ioiioaiee e i?iaeaia
aanniciaoaeueiiai, ioaa?aathuay aai nouanoaiaaiea eae ii?aaeaeaiiie
ineoe/aneie ?aaeee e niaeaoathuayny ia aai “aeiione” a ineoieiaeth ?acaa
oieueei a ea/anoaa iaeiaai oua?aiiai, ?aaeooee?iaaiiiai “iaeiai”
niciaiey.

Eaio naycuaae iiiyoey aanniciaoaeueiiai n /oanoaaiiui iiciaieai, n
eiooeoeeae. Ii oeacuaae ia iaee/ea noa?u aini?eyoee e /oanoa, eioi?ua ia
iniciathony, oioy e iiaeii i?eeoe e auaiaeo ia eo nouanoaiaaiee.
Aanniciaoaeueiia – yoi oaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey a /aeiaaea, /enei eioi?uo
aaca?aie/ii (22).

?aoeoaeueiue oaa aue naeaeai E.THiaii, ?acaeaoei i?aaenoaaeaiea i
eieeaeoeaiii aanniciaoaeueiii, oioy eiioeaioeey E.THiaa ieacaeanue aia
noieaiaie aei?iae nia?aiaiiie iaoee (15).

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue i?eioeeiai ?aoeeiiaeecia i?aaenoaaeoaee oai?ee
?iiaioecia, oaeea eae Oiiaiaaoa?, Ieoeoa, Y.Aa?oiai auaeaeioee naith
eiioeaioeeth aanniciaoaeueiiai, ?anniao?eaay aai eae aieth a i?e?iaea,
enoi/iee aeecie, noeoeeiia aeeciaiiia ia/aei, eioi?iio i?ioeainoieo
aaniiiiuiia niciaiea. Oae, iai?eia?, Aa?oiai ooaa?aeaeae, /oi “aeeciue
ie?a – ia ?acoiiue, ii oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue i?ioeann, a eioi?ii niciaiea –
eeoue i?oaeea neaiie ie?iaie aiee eae aeaeaeouae neeu ?acaeoey (22).

Oaeea ineoieiae, eae Aa?aa?o, Oaoia?, Aoiaeo, O.Aeaeain e ae?oaea,
iieiaeeee ia/aei ineoieiae/aneiio enneaaeiaaieth i?iaeaiu
aanniciaoaeueiiai. Oae, iai?eia?, A.Aoiaeo iuoaeny onoaiiaeoue naycue
caeiiia eiae/aneiai ?acaeoey iunee a aanniciaoaeueiuie yaeaieyie. Ii
ooaa?aeaeae nouanoaiaaiea ia oieueei iniciaaaaiiai, ii e iainiciaaaaiiai
iuoeaiey. I?iaiaeee ?acee/ea iaaeaeo oieonii niciaiey, aaea iauaeo ynii
iniciaaony e inoaeueiui iieai niciaiey, aaea ii eee iniciaaony iaynii,
eee nianai ia iniciaaony. A?aieoeu iaaeaeo yoeie ioieoaie ioiineoaeueiu
e iiaeaeaeiu (29)

E.I.Na/aiia i?yii aunooiee i?ioea eiioeaioeee, ioiaeanoaeyaoeo
ineoe/aneia e niciaoaeueiia (32).

E.I.Iaaeia ioia/ae, /oi “iu ioee/ii ciaai, aei eaeie noaiaie aeooaaiay,
ineoe/aneay aeeciue iano?i neeaaeuaaaony ec niciaoaeueiiai e
aanniciaoaeueiiai (1). ssaeaiey aanniciaoaeueiiai Iaaeia naycuaae n
?aaioie oao o/anoeia iicaa, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho ieieiaeueiie
aicaoaeeiinoueth. Aanniciaoaeueiiio i?enoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeye
E.N.Noaieneaaneee, n/eoay, /oi iii ea?aao nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a
i?ioeanna oai?/anoaa (8).

A niaaoneie ineoieiaee i?iaeaia aanniciaoaeueiiai ?ac?aaaouaaeanue
aeaaiui ia?acii oeieie Ae.E.Ociaaeca a A?ocee (25, 26, 27, 32, 33).

Aanniciaoaeueiia e o?aeaeeci.

Ia iaiaoiaeeiinoe enneaaeiaaiey noa?u aanniciaoaeueiiai, aai ianoa e
?iee a iiaaaeaiee /aeiaaea, iiaeaeoe, aieueoa anao ianoaeaae aano?eeneee
ineoeao? C.O?aeae. Eioa?an e ?aaioai O?aeaea, aeeneonnee aie?oa aai
eaeae oi ooeoatho, oi ?acai?athony n iiaie neeie,

1) Iaeie ioaa?aatho nenoaio aai acaeyaeia, n/eoatho, /oi iia ia
ioee/aaony eiae/aneie no?ieiinoueth e iao/iie aeieacaoaeueiinoueth.

2) Ae?oaea, iai?ioea, iuoathony i?aaenoaaeoue aai iaeiei ec aeanoeoaeae
aeoi nia?aiaiiie yiioe. Oaeiau e?aeiinoe.

A ioee/ea io oeacaiiuo e?aeiinoae, iai?eia? E.I.Iaaeia ii eiiio iiaeioae
e o/aieth O?aeaea, ii ienae: “Eiaaea y aeoiath nae/an i O?aeaea e i
naaa, iia i?aaenoaaeyaony aeaa ia?oee ai?ii?aai/eo, ia/aee eiiaoue
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue ooiiaeue a iiaeioaa aieueoie ai?u – /aeiaa/aneie
ineoeee. ?acieoea ninoieo, iaeiaei, a oii, /oi O?aeae acye iaiiiai aiec
e ca?ueny a aeaa?yo aanniciaoaeueiiai, a iu aeia?aeenue oaea aei naaoa
(28).

Oai?aoe/aneeie enoi/ieeaie O?aeaeianeie eiioeaioeee aanniciaoaeueiiai
yaeythony nouanoaiaaaoea a XIX a. o/aiey i ineoeea, i aeiiioe/aneii
aiooaiee, i neiaieeea niiaeaeaiee, i ieoieiaee, i a?iaeaeaiiii
ineoe/aneii ianeaaeee, i naenieiaee, i oeeinioee e ineoieiaee
aanniciaoaeueiiai e ae?.

O?aeae ?ac?aaioae yiie?e/aneee iaoiae ineoiaiaeeca. Ii iniiaai ia
iaaethaeaiee e naiiiaaethaeaiee, ia eco/aiee iiaeniciaoaeueiuo ninoiyiee
ineoeee iooai ?anoeo?iaee oiai, eae iie i?iyaeythony: a neiaieao,
niiaeaeaieyo, naiaiaeiuo annioeeaoeeyo, oaioaceyo, iaiieaeao e iieneao,
ca?eniaeao, neiioiiaoe/aneeo aeaenoaeyo, iaa?ioe/aneeo neiioiiao e o.i.

O?aeae nicaeae naith noaio no?oeoo?u ineoeee. Ii ?acaeaeee aa ia 3
iniiaiuo ieanoa:

1) Naiue ieaeiee ieano e naiue iiuiue oae iacuaaaiia “Iii” iaoiaeeony ca
i?aaeaeaie niciaiey: oai o?aiyony i?ioeue iiuo, ?aciiai ?iaea
aeieiae/aneea eiioeueneaiua aea/aiey e no?anoe, iainiciaiiua yiioeee.

2) Ia yoii ianneaiii ooiaeaiaioa aanniciaoaeueiiai aicaeaeaaaony
n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoie yoaae niciaoaeueiiai – oiai, n /ai /aeiaae
aeooaeueii eiaao aeaei e /ai iinoiyiii iia?e?oao. Yoi aai “ss”.

3) E iaeiiaoe, o?aoee e iineaaeiee yoaae /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa –
“naa?o-ss”, ia/oi iaoiaeyuaany iaae “ss”.

Oi, /oi au?aaioaii enoi?eae /aeiaa/anoaa e nouanoaothuaa a nenoaia
iaoee, ii?aee, eneonnoaa, eoeueoo?u. Yoi eaeaaeu iauanoaa, nioeeaeueiua
ii?iu, nenoaia anaaiciiaeiuo cai?aoia e i?aaee. Eiuie neiaaie, ana oi,
/oi /aeiaae onaaeaaao e n /ai ii auioaeaeai n/eoaoueny. Aeaaiui no?aaeai
“ss” yaeyaony i?aanoaaiiay noa?a ee/iinoe – “naa?o-ss”. A ioaao ia
a?aoiaiua iainiciaiiua iiaoaeaeaiey iii oa?caao “ss” oi?aeaie, /oanoaii
aeiu.

Eiaiii io “Iii”, n/eoaao O?aeae, aa?ao naia ia/aei ana, /oi eiaioaony
ineoe/aneei. Eiaiii yoa noa?a, iiae/eiaiiay i?eioeeio ianeaaeaeaiey,
ieacuaaao, n oi/ee c?aiey O?aeaea, ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia iiaaaeaiea
/aeiaaea. Ii?aaeaeyao aai iunee e /oanoaa, a /a?ac ieo e aeaenoaey (22).

O?aeaeeci i?iaicaeaoaao iiuue einoeieoia, aea/aiee. O?aeae; ?acee/ae
naenoaeueiua aea/aiey e aea/aiey nia?oe: anee iaeia noi?iia
aanniciaoaeueiiai iai?aaeaia ia ooaa?aeaeaiea aeecie, oi aoi?ay
i?eaioe?iaaia ia ?ac?ooaiea e nia?oue.

*aeiaae ii i?e?iaea naiae aioenioeeaeai: ii iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii
no?aieaiee e oaeiaeaoai?aieth naieo aeaeaiee, aea/aiee. A iauanoai
ninoaaeyao a?aaeaeaaiia ie?oaeaiea. Iii i?ecaaii iai?aaeyoue,
eiio?iee?iaaoue e iiaeaaeyoue /aeiaa/aneea noeioeu e einoeieou,
ia?aie/eoue eee iieiinoueth eeoeoue /aeiaaea oaeiaeaoai?aiey aai
no?anoae. Aoaeo/e iiaeaaeaiiuie e caaiaiiuie a iiaeniciaiea, aea/aiey
i?aa?auathony a no?aieaiey, eioi?ua eiatho oaea eoeueoo?ioth oeaiiinoue.
O?aeae iacaae yoi noaeeiaoeeae (6). Iai?eia?, ainiiaenoaothueie iioeaaie
iiaaaeaiey, ii O?aeaeo, yaeythony naenoaeueiua iioeau, a yoii neo/aa
eeoue /a?ac iaoaea/e a ethaae aiciiaeia oai?/aneay o?ainoi?iaoeey.

Iao/iiai aieiaiey a oai?ee O?aeaea caneoaeeaaao aeaaiui ia?acii
eiioeaioeey auoaniaiey – iniaiai caueoiiai iaoaiecia in6eoeee.
E.I.Iaaeia iaeaieaa iaeia?eoaeueii ioiineeny eiaiii e yoie aeiioaca. *oi
aea oaeia auoaniaiea? N oeceieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey – yoi i?ioeann
oi?iiaeaiey aicaoaeeiuo i/aaia, a n ineoieiae/aneie – iaoaieci
naea?aeeaaiey e iiaeaaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo aea/aiee, iiaoaeaeaiee, iuneae
e /oanoa. Aanniciaoaeueiia e anoue oa iniaay ineoe/aneay iaeanoue, ana
yeaiaiou eioi?ie i?aauaatho a auoaniaiiii ninoiyiee, ia iaoiaeyo auoiaea
a ioe?uoii iiaaaeaiee.

Ii eaeae, ecaiaiiua ec noa?u niciaiey, ia oa?ytho naieo aeeiaie/aneeo
nee; iie i?iaeieaeatho aeoeaii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia noa?o niciaiey,
eiatho naie niaoeeoe/aneee yia?aaoe/aneee ca?yae.

Anee auoaniaiiia aea/aiea ia iiaeao i?aiaeieaoue nii?ioeaeaiey ?acoia,
oi no?aieony i?ia?aoueny e naaoo iaoiaeiuie e iooyie, a caianee?iaaiiie
oi?ia. Yoi naiaai ?iaea aeeaeeinoue iiae aieueoei aeaaeaieai: iai?aiaiii
aaea-oi i?i?aaony e ecieueaony ia?oaeo.

Auoaniaiea, ii O?aeaeo, ia aaaeao “aani?e/eiiie” ai?ueau n eaeayie e
aooaeoaie aiiaua, a auiieiyao aaaeiua aeeciaiiua ooieoeee:

– aeieiae/aneoth – io?aiyao “ss” io iai?eyoiuo ainiiieiaiee;

– nioeeaeueioth – iiaeaaeyao iai?eaieaiua aea/aiey.

I?ioeann auoaniaiey iaaethaeaaony oaea a ?aiiai aeaonoaa, eiaaea
oi?ie?othony ia?aua i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaaeicaieaiiii. Eae iauanoaaiii
?acaeoia nouanoai /aeiaae ciaao e /oanoaoao, /oi ii?aaeaeaiiua
iiaoaeaeaiey aeieaeiu naea?aeeaaoueny, iiaeaaeyoueny, iaoiaeeoueny iiae
eiio?ieai ?acoia (9).

Iniai aieaciaiiua, ianiaianoeiua n ii?iaie aeaiiiai iauanoaa e ee/iiai,
iiaoaeaeaiey auoaniythony oaeei iooai ec niciaiey a noa?o
aanniciaoaeueiiai, caauaathony. Niciaiea ia eneeth/aao e ia ioaa?aaao
yoe ineoe/aneea yaeaiey, iii eo naea?aeeaaao, iiaeaaeyao, ia?aiineo eo
ia eiua, ?acoiiua oi?iu iiaaaeaiey.

O?aeae n/eoae, /oi ia oieueei oa?aeoa? ee/iinoe e aa iiaaaeaiea, ii e
eneonnoai, iaoea e eoeueoo?a a oeaeii ii?aaeaeythony aea/aieyie.
Eneonnoai, ii O?aeaeo, iaeia ec oi?i noaeeiaoeee iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiiai
/oanoaa ianeaaeaeaiey, ia?aeeth/aiey aai ec naenoaeueiae noa?u a noa?o
ynoaoe/aneoth.

O?aeae iiae/a?eeaae aac?acaeaeueiia ainiiaenoai aanniciaoaeueiiai iaae
niciaoaeueiui e eiinoaoe?iaae eeoue6 aioaaiienoe/aneea acaeiiioiioaiey
iaaeaeo ieie (9, 16).

O?aeae e aai iineaaeiaaoaee ia i?inoi i?eaeaaaee e i?eaeatho (iniaaiii
iaio?aeaeeci a NOA) aieueoia cia/aiea aanniciaoaeueiui i?ioeannai a
aeooaaiie aeecie /aeiaaea, eaeea yoe i?ioeannu aeaenoaeoaeueii eiatho, a
aeia?o?ioe?iaaee ?ieue aanniciaoaeueiiai aiiaua, naenoaeueiuo aea/aiee a
iniaaiiinoe (16).

O?aeae ianoieueei oaeaeny i?iaeaiie aanniciaoaeueiiai, /oi neeiiai aue
naanoe e iaio anth ineoeeo: “Ana aeooaaiua i?ioeannu ii nouanoao
aanniciaoaeueiu… niciaoaeueiua i?ioeannu yaeythony oieueei
ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?iyaeaieyie anae iaoae aeooaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe (30).

C.O?aeae aunooiee a ea/anoaa nicaeaoaey oi?ioae ee, ieioie ee, ii
iainii?eii i?eaeiaeueiie iiceoeee, caianoeaoae i?inoia
eieeaeoeeiie?iaaiea ia?aaeienaeueiuo oaeoia e eo ecoieaiiia nica?oeaiea.
Yoi yaeeinue, eiia/ii, iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?e/ei, iaania/eaoeo
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneiio iai?aaeaieth oaeie ooiiue oniao (16).

Auei au ioeaeie ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi O?aeae aia?aua iinoaaee i?iaeaio
aanniciaoaeueiiai. Yoa i?iaeaia auea iinoaaeaia caaeieai aei iaai. Ii a
ioiioaiee oai?aoecaoeee aanniciaoaeueiiai, a ioiioaiee ia?aoiaea io
aeiaieueii iooaiiie oaiiiaiieiaee yoie i?iaeaiu e iiiuoeai aa
aiaeeoe/aneiai ?ane?uoey n ia?eiaea ?aaio O?aeaea ia/aeanue iiaeeeiii
iiaay y?a.

Ia?aia, ianeieueei iiaeii noaeeoue ii eeoa?aoo?a, iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
niaauaiea, nicaaiiia niaoeeaeueii aeey ianoaeaeaiey i?iaeaiu
aanniciaoaeueiiai (ai anai aa iauaia, a ia oieueei, eae yoi ia ?ac
i?aaei?eieiaeinue ?aiaa, ?acee/iuo niaoeeaeueiuo aa aniaeoia),
ninoiyeinue aieaa 70 eao iacaae, a 1910a. a Ainoiia, NOA.

A yoio ia?eiae i/aiue oe?iei auei ?ani?ino?aiaii i?aaenoaaeaiea i
aanniciaoaeueiii, eae i oaeoi?a, o/ao eioi?iai iaiaoiaeei i?e aiaeeca
naiuo ?acee/iuo aii?inia iiaaaeaiey, ianeaaenoaaiiinoe, i?e?iaeu
yiioeee, i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa, acaeiiioiioaiey ethaeae a aieueoeo e
iaeuo a?oiiao, iauae enoi?ee e enoi?ee eoeueoo?u (3).

Ia Ainoiineii niaauaiee ia i?ienoiaeee iaiin?aaenoaaiiue nii? n
ineoiaiaeecii. Aai i?aaiecaoi?u i?aneaaeiaaee ia noieueei e?eoe/aneoth,
neieueei eiino?oeoeaioth oeaeue: iiaeuoiaeeoue iiceoeee, n eioi?uo
iiaeii auei au iniuneeoue aanniciaoaeueiia, aai ?ieue e ooieoeee, ia
i?eaaaay i?e yoii ie a eaeie oi?ia e i?aaenoaaeaieyi e iinooeaoai
ineoiaiaeeca. O?oaeu yoiai niaauaiey, a eioi?ua auee aeeth/aiu ?aaiou
oaeeo e?oiiaeoeo aaoi?eoaoia oiai a?aiaie, eae I.AEaia, O.?eai,
O.A?aioaii, I.I?ein e ae?., nicaeaee aia/aoeythuoth ea?oeio iaiau/aeiie
iano?iou e i?ioeai?a/eainoe iiaiee, i?aiaeaaeaaoeo a oa aiaeu ii iiaiaeo
i?iyaeaiee aanniciaoaeueiiai. Iaeiia?aiaiii iieacaee, /oi a oeaio?a
nii?ia inoaaaeenue ana oa aea aii?inu, eioi?ua auee iinoaaeaiu a aua
aieaa ?aiiee ia?eiae, ii e neieueei-ieaoaeue oaa?aiiiio ?aoaieth eioi?uo
o/anoieee Ainoiineiai neiiiceoia auee ioithaeue ia iaiiiai aeeaea, /ai
eo i?aaeoanoaaiieee – aeaeiaeoea ineoieiae e eeeieoeenou XIX aaea. A
enoi?ee ?acaeoey i?aaenoaaeaiee i aanniciaoaeueiii Ainoiineee neiiiceoi
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i/aiue iio/eoaeueiue yieciae. Yoi auea iineaaeiyy
iiiuoea caoi?iiceoue oaea iiaeieiaaoeeny aae iiioey?iinoe ineoiaiaeeca,
iaeiaei, ca?aiaa auea ia?a/aia ia iaoniao (3).

Oi?ioi ecaanoia enoi?ey ioiioaiee niaaoneie ineoieiaee e eaeayi
ineoiaiaeeca (32).

Iinea aeiaieueii iaeeaeaiiie ia?aiia/aeueiie, eae e?eoe/aneie, oae e
iaeia?ythuae, – ?aaeoeee ia yoe eaeae, inoaaeaoae a niaaoneie eeoa?aoo?a
20-o aiaeia caiaoiue neaae, aeeaeia iaaeaeo niaaoneeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie
e noi?iiieeaie ineoiaiaeeca noae iinoaiaiii oaanaoue.

Aeaaea noieeia nio?aiaiea eioa?ana e i?iaeaiaoeea aanniciaoaeueiiai,
eioi?ia n naiiai aa ia/aea oa?aeoa?eciaaei a?oceineoth ineoieiae/aneoth
oeieo Ae.E.Ociaaeca, ia niiaei inoaiiaeoue i?ioeann.

I?e/eiie caeanue yaeeinue, iaaa?iia, iinoaiaiiia i?aia?aciaaiea oai?ee
ineoiaiaeeca ec ioiineoaeueii oceie eeeieei-ineoieiae/aneie eiioeaioeee
a oi?ia eioi?ie iia aunooieea ia ca?a naiaai nouanoaiaaiey, a aeieo?eio
oe?ieiai oeeinioneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ieaia, ie?aoaiioth, n iaeiie
noi?iiu; a aeieiaece?othuea, a n ae?oaie – a eaeaaeenoe/aneea oiia. Aeoo
ineoiaiaeeca eae nenoaiu nioeeaeueiuo, ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo iaiauaiee,
oa?aeoa?iay aeey iaai i/aiue naiaia?aciay iaoiaeieiaey iiciaiey
ieacaeanue ianoieueei /oaeaeie eaeaieiae/aneei onoaiiaeai niaaoneie
ineoieiaee, noeeth e o?aaeeoeeyi iniuneaiey i?e?iaeu /aeiaaea, eioi?uo
i?eaea?aeeaathony niaaoneea enneaaeiaaoaee, /oi iaoiaeeoue iaycaoaeueiue
enoiaeiue “ieieioi iauiinoe” oieeiaaiey, aac eioi?iai ieeaeie aeeaeia
iaiuneei, noaei iaaiciiaeiui.

Eiaiii a yoii ei?ie iie/aiey, eioi?ia caueuaei n ia/aea 30-o aei
na?aaeeiu 50-o a.a. iaiai iiaiee, cao/aaoee a aieaa ?aiiee ia?eiae. A
1955 a. ia no?aieoeao aeo?iaea “Aii?inu ineoieiaee” auea ia/aoa
aeeneonney ii iiaiaeo oai?ee onoaiiaee, a eioi?ie cao?aaeaaeanue, a
/anoiinoe, e i?iaeaiu aanniciaoaeueiiai. I?e iiaeuoiaeeaaiee yoie
aeeneonnee auei iiae/a?eiooi, /oi e?aeia iaei ?ac?aaioai aii?in i
aanniciaoaeueiii e aeey oiai, /oiau caiyoue i?aaeeueioth iiceoeeth e a
yoii aii?ina, neaaeiaaei ia oeeiiyoueny io eco/aiey aai, a aieioioth
caiyoueny ei (3).

N eiioea aea 50-o aiaeia – a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii eieoeeaoeaa AI
NNN?, i?aaieciaaaoae a 1958a. niaoeeaeueioth eiioa?aioeeth, iinayuaiioth
i?iaeaia ioiioaiey e ineoiaiaeeco, – aeeaeia aue aiiaue aiciaiiaeai, a a
1962 a. ia Ananithciii niaauaiee ii oeeinioee aii?inai oeceieiaee aunoae
ia?aiie aeayoaeueiinoe e ineoieiaee aua aieaa oaeoaeai (32).

Ia i?ioyaeaiee C0-50 a.a. ?acaeoea eaeae ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie oeieu
niaa?oeeinue a iieiii io?uaa io neiaeiie yaiethoeee i?aaenoaaeaiee i
aanniciaoaeueiii, i?ienoiaeeaoae a yoio ia?eiae a Niaaoneii Nithca e
naycaiiie enoiaeii n eiaiai E.I.Iaaeiaa, a ianeieueei iicaea n eiaiai
Ae.E.Ociaaeca e aai oeieu.

Aiciaiiaeaieth aeeaeiaa niaaoneeo enneaaeiaaoaeae n o/aiuie,
i?eaea?aeeaathueieny a oie eee eiie noaiaie ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie
i?eaioaoeee, niinianoaiaaee o?e i?e/eiu:

1) aicieeiiaaiea a ?aieao niaaoneie ineoieiaee i?eaeiaeueiiai
eiioeaiooaeueiiai iiaeoiaea e i?iaeaia aanniciaoaeueiiai, e oaea oai
naiui i?eciaiea niaaoneie ineoieiaeae ?aaeueiinoe yoie i?iaeaiu;

2) neiaeiia iicaeiaa ?acaeoea ineoiaiaeeoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ai
iiiaii eo i?aia?aciaaaoaa, iicaieeaoaa ei i?iieeaoue a iaeanoe, e
eioi?ui i?oiaeienaeueiue o?aeaeeci ioiioaiey ia eiae, noaaeoue e ?aoaoue
i?iaeaiu, eioi?uie o?aeaeeci enoiaeii ia caieiaeny;

3) auyaeaiea aanueia oe?ieiai e?oaa iaeanoae ciaiey, oi?iiceiuo a naiai
?acaeoee ionoonoaeai ?ac?aaioaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?e?iaea e
caeiiiia?iinoyo iainiciaaaaiie ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eiaaea Ociaaeca ?acaeaaao oe?ieoth eaeath ineoieiae/aneie onoaiiaee, ii
ioaa?aaao e ii?iaa?aaao O?aeaea, ii naii yoi ii?iaa?aeaiea icia/aao
ii?aaeaeaiiue ioeeee ia eaeae O?aeaea e eo ia?a?aaioeo. A yoii
i?iyaeyaony iaono?aieiay aeeaeaeoeea anoanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey aieueoeo
eaeae, eioi?oth iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue a naiuo ?aciuo iaeanoyo ciaiey, eai
ie iaeia ec iiaeiaiuo eaeae ia nicaeaaony aac iii?u ia ianeaaeea
i?ioeiai, ia o?oaeu e ia/ou i?aaeoanoaothueo iieieaiee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu
auoue aini?eiyou e eciaiaiu, /oiau aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue aunooieoue ia
ia?aaeiee ieai iainiiaaieyi aieaa aunieiai ii?yaeea.

Aanniciaoaeueiia a iiieiaiee Ociaaeca aunooiaao eae nenoaia eaoaai?ee
aieaa iauaai ii?yaeea, /ai aanniciaoaeueiia a iiieiaiee O?aeaea. Yoi
?acee/ea a noaiaie iaiauaiiinoe iiiyoee, eioi?uie iia?e?oao eaaeaeay ec
yoeo eiioeaioeee – ?acee/ea, eiathuaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiue i?eioeeieaeueiue
oa?aeoa?, – a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeyao eae eo acaeiiioiioaiea,
oae e nicaeaaaaiua eie aiciiaeiinoe aiaeeca e iauee noeeue.

Ia neo/aeii eiaiii a Oaeeene a 1979 a. aue i?aaieciaai II
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue neiiiceoi ii i?iaeaia aanniciaoaeueiiai, ia eioi?ii
iaicia/eeenue iiaua ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey oai?ee onoaiiaee n
eniieueciaaieai anaai oiai ?aoeeiiaeueiiai, /oi niaea?aeeony a iaae?ao
aeoaeiiie ineoieiaee (18).

Ia yoii neiiiceoia auee i?aaenoaaeaiu ii/oe ana nouanoaothuea a
niaaoneie e ca?oaaaeiie ineoieiaee oi/ee c?aiey ia aanniciaoaeueiia
ineoieiae/aneia: eae oa, eioi?ua iuoathony iainiiaaoue caeiiiinoue
aanniciaoaeueiiai ineoe/aneiai a ineoieiaee, oae e ?aaeeeaeueii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua ei.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaei eoi io?eoeaao nouanoaiaaiea ineoeee aia niciaiey,
?aaeueiinoue iainiciaaaaiie ineoeee. Enneaaeoy ineoe/aneea yaeaiey, ia
aiciiaeii ia?aie/eoueny aiaeecii oieueei eo iniciaaaaiuo eiiiiiaioia.
I?iaeaia niioiioaiey iniciaaaaiiai e iainiciaaaaiiai yaeyaony a
ineoieiaee iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo. Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi oaeay ioeaiea
cia/aiey i?iaeaiu iainiciaaaaiiai i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi ineoe/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, i?ioaeathuay a oneiaeyo aa iainiciaiey noauaeoii ,
iaeaaeaao ?yaeii niaoeeoe/aneeo ea/anoa, eioi?ua ii?aaaeuaatho aa
?anniio?aiea eae aeayoaeueiinoe ini6iai aeaea, eae aeayoaeueiinoe
ea/anoaaiii naiaia?aciie.

I?iaeaia iainiciaaaaiinoe – yoi i?e oe?ieii aa ?anniio?aiee i?aaeaea
anaai i?iaeaia oi?i e iaoaieciia iainiciaaaaiinoe. Iiae iainiciaaaaiui
iiae?acoiaaaaony iaoe?iue e aeiaieueii aii?oiue eeann ninoiyiee e
i?ioeannia, aanueia ?acee/iuo ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o e i?ienoiaeaeaieth.

Yoi ?aciiai ?iaea ?aoeaeoi?iua aaoiiaoeciu e aeaenoaey, auiieiyaiua eae
iinoaiaiii ia?aciaaaoayny “i?eau/ea” e aeaenoaey, auiieiyaiua a oneiaeyo
neooaoeeiiiiai ioaea/aiey aieiaiey “ia ae?oaia”. Iiyoiio
“iainiciaaaaiia” – yoi nai?iia iiiyoea, eiiaeiia?ao ninoiyiee.

Eiaaea aiai?eony i aanniciaoaeueiii, eiaaony a aeaeo ii?aaeaeaiioth
?aciiaeaeiinoue iainiciaaaaiuo i?ioeannia, eiathueo e naith
niaoeeoe/aneoth oaiiiaiieiaeth, e naie niaoeeoe/aneea ioiioaiey e aiieia
iniciaaaaiui i?ioeannai, ea?athuei naith niaoeeoe/aneoth ?ieue a
aeeiaiee ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia. Anee ioiaeaeanoaeyaony i?aaenoaaeaiea i
aanniciaoaeueiii n i?aaenoaaeaieai i iainiciaaaaiii aiiaua, oi aiciiaeii
aeiioneaaony ioeaea niaoaiey i?ioeannia, iainiciaaaaiinoue eioi?uo eiaao
neo/aeiue, aiaoia iaoneiaeaiiue, i?aoiaeyuee oa?aeoa? (5).

?aciiaeaeiinoue iainiciaaaaiiai – ineoieiae/aneay onoaiiaea, aunooiaao a
aeaiyeii ea/anoaa: eae yiie?e/aneay ?aaeueiinoue, iiaeeaaeauay
iao/iiio aiaeeco, e eae iauynieoaeueiia iiiyoea.

Onoaiiaea, aaconeiaii, yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae eaoaai?eae ineoieiaee, ii
eaoaai?eae ioithaeue ia auoaniythuae eee caiauathuae ae?oaea i?iyaeaiey
iainiciaaaaiinoe, a auiieiythuae naith niaoeeoe/aneoth ?ieue a ea/anoaa
oaeoi?a, ne?uoiai eee yaii aeaoa?ieie?othuaai eaaeaeia i?iyaeaiea
iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea.

A ?anoe?aiiii iiieiaiee onoaiiaea noaiiaeony ooiaeaiaioaeueiui
naiiia?acothuei ia/aeii /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee, iaania/eaathuei naio
aiciiaeiinoue aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ai anai iiiaiia?acee e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie oieaa?naeueiinoe. Aeeth/ea a iiiyoeeiue aiia?ao oai?ee
onoaiiaee oaeea eaoaai?ee, eae auoaniaiea, neiaieeeo, ineoieiae/aneoth
caueoo, iiaeii no?ieoue oieaa?naeueioth oai?eth onoaiiaee n iienoeia
iaiaic?eiuie ai?eciioaie i?eiaiaiey (4, 5, 9, 10, 18, 25, 26, 27, 32,
33).

Ineoioeceieiae/aneea aniaeou aanniciaoaeueiiai oe?iei enneaaeothony a
nia?aiaiiie iaoea a nayce n aiaeecii nia e aeiiioe/aneeo ninoiyiee,
ei?eiauo e iiaeei?eiauo ia?aciaaiee, yaeaiee aaoiiaoecia a o?oaeiaie e
nii?oeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe e o.i. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ia?acothony
aiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey eeaa?iaoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee e iaoiaeia
iiaeaee?iaaiey aanniciaoaeueiiai (1, 4). I?e anai yoii oeaeinoiie oai?ee
iauyniythuae iaoaieci e no?oeoo?o aanniciaoaeueiiai aei ianoiyuaai
a?aiaie iino?ieoue ia oaeaeinue.

No?oeoo?a aanniciaoaeueiiai

Aanniciaoaeueiia ia aii?oii, iii eiaao no?oeoo?o, iaeaaeaao naienoaii
oeaeinoiinoe.

1. Iuouaiey. Iu iuouaai ana, /oi aicaeaenoaoao ia ian. Ii aeaeaei ia ana
noaiiaeony i?e yoii oaeoii niciaiey. Aiciiaeii ia?aciaaiea oneiaiuo
?aoeaenia ia ?acee/iua ?acae?aaeaiey aioo?aiieo i?aaiia, eioi?ua
aeioiaeyo aei ei?u aieiaiiai iicaa, ii ia i?aa?auathony a iuouaiea eae
oaeiaia, ieacuaay, iaeiaei, aeeyiea ia iiaaaeaiea i?aaiecia. Nouanoaotho
iiaeniciaoaeueiua iuouaiey. Iieo/ay iaeiia?aiaiii iiiaeanoai
aia/aoeaiee, ethaee eaaei oioneatho ec aeaeo iaeioi?ua ec ieo
Ia?aaeaeaaynue ii oeeoea, iu aeaeei ia?iiiia /enei niauoee, neuoei
iiiaeanoai caoeia, eioi?ua i?eaioe?otho ian a iioiea oee/iiai
aeaeaeaiey. Ii iu oeene?oai ia ieo aieiaiea eeoue a neo/aa eaeiai-oi
cao?oaeiaiey eee iaiau/iinoe. Aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai yaeaiee, naienoa e
ioiioaiee, nouanoaoy iauaeoeaii e iinoiyiii “iiciey” iai aeaca, ia
iniciathony iaie. Anee au ia eaaeaeia aicaeaenoaea /aeiaae aeieaeai aue
?aaae?iaaoue iniciaiii, ii ia ni?aaeeny au n iiaeiaiie caaea/ae, o.e.
aue au ia a ninoiyiee iaiiaaiii ia?aeeth/aoueny n iaeiiai aicaeaenoaey
ia ae?oaia eee aea?aeaoue a oieona naiaai aieiaiey i?aeoe/anee
aan/eneaiiua ?acae?aaeeoaee. E n/anoueth iu iaeaaeaai niiniaiinoueth
ioeeth/aoueny io iaeieo aicaeaenoaee e nin?aaeioi/eaaoueny ia ae?oaeo,
aiana ia caia/ay o?aoueeo (22, 29, 31).

2. Aaoiiaoeci. Aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea a iau/iuo oneiaeyo yaeyaony
niciaoaeueiie. Aianoa n oai ioaeaeueiua aa yeaiaiou inouanoaeythony
aanniciaoaeueii eee iiaeniciaoaeueii, aaoiiaoece?iaaiii. I?inuiaynue
oo?ii, iu iaoeiaeueii i?iecaiaeei aeeeiiue ?yae aeaenoaee – iaeaaaainy,
oiuaaainy, aaeei, iueai /ae e ae?. A aeecie o /aeiaaea oi?ie?othony
neiaeiua i?eau/ee iaauee e oiaiey, a eioi?uo niciaiea iaeiia?aiaiii e
i?enoonoaoao e ionoonoaoao, inoaaaynue eae au iaeo?aeueiui. Ethaia
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia aeaenoaea iineo iainiciaiiue oa?aeoa?, oioy ia anyeia
iainiciaiiia aeaenoaea yaeyaony aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui.

Niciaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue eiaeeaeaea aiciiaeia eeoue i?e oneiaee,
eiaaea iaeneiaeueiia /enei aa yeaiaioia inouanoaeyaony aaoiiaoe/anee.
Iieiinoueth nin?aaeioi/eoue aieiaiea ia niaea?aeaiee, iai?eia?, a onoiie
?a/e iiaeao eeoue oio, o eioi?iai au?aaioaeny aaoiiaoeci naiiai
i?ioeanna i?iecianaiey ?a/e. Aeey oiai, /oiau oai?/anee eniieiyoue
iocueo, iaaei eiaoue oi?ioea iaauee ea?u ia iocueaeueiuo .eino?oiaioao.
Eco/aiea ?acee/iuo aeaeia aaoiiaoecia iieacaei, /oi ii aeaeae io i?inoie
iaoeiiia?aciinoe, iineieueeo aio i?enoua niiniaiinoue ia?ano?aeaaoueny
“ia oiaeo”. Aianoa n oai a ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eiathony o?iaie
iaia?aaiaeeiua a iaeanoue aaoiiaoecia. Iai?eia?, iaeuecy naanoe e
aaoiiaoecio aanue i?ioeann ea?u ia eaeii-eeai iocueaeueiii eino?oiaioa.

Aaoiiaoecaoeey ?acee/iuo ooieoeee ninoaaeyao nouanoaaiioth e
iaiaoiaeeioth iniaaiiinoue iiiaeo ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia (i?ioeann
iuoeaiey, aini?eyoey, ?a/e; caiiieiaiey, i?aeoe/aneeo iia?aoeee e i?.).

Iaoaieciu ineoe/aneie aaoiiaoecaoeee ecaaaeytho niciaiea io iinoiyiiiai
iaaethaeaiey e iaioaeiiai eiio?iey iaae eaaeaeui o?aaiaioii aeaenoaey.

A aanniciaoaeueiuo aeaenoaeyo iaoa niciaiea i?enoonoaoao, ii iii ia
i?iyaeyao i?enoaeueiinoe naiaai aieiaiey ca anaie aeaoaeyie aeaenoaey, a
neaaeeo eeoue ca iauae ea?oeiie.

Aianoa n oai niciaiea inouanoaeyy eae au noiia?iia iaaethaeaiea, a
ethaia iaiiaaiea iiaeao acyoue iiae eiio?ieue aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia
aeaenoaea (inoaiiaeoue aai, onei?eoue eee caiaaeeeoue) (8, 21, 22, 13).

3. Eiioeuen. Aanniciaoaeueiia i?iyaeyaony a oae iacuaaaiuo eiioeueneaiuo
aeaenoaeyo eiaaea /aeiaae ia aeaao naaa io/aoa a iineaaenoaeyo naieo
iinooieia (22).

4. Eioi?iaoeey. Aanniciaoaeueiia iaoiaeeo naia i?iyaeaiea e a
eioi?iaoeee. Iia iaeaieeaaaony a oa/aiea anae aeecie a ea/anoaa iiuoa e
inaaeaao a iaiyoe.

Ec anae noiiu eiathueony ciaiee, a aeaiiue iiiaio a oieona niciaiey
naaoeony eeoue iaaieueoay eo aeiey. I iaeioi?uo o?aiyueony a iicao
naaaeaieyo ethaee aeaaea e ia iiaeic?aaatho (23, 24).

5. Onoaiiaea. Ea?aeeiaeueiie oi?iie i?iyaeaiey aanniciaoaeueiiai
yaeyaony onoaiiaea – ineoe/aneee oaiiiai, iai?aaeythuee oa/aiea iuneae e
/oanoa ee/iinoe. Onoaiiaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaeinoiia ninoiyiea
/aeiaaea, au?aaeathuaa ii?aaeaeaiiinoue ineoe/aneie aeecie,
iai?aaeaiiinoue a eaeii-eeai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe, iauaa
i?aae?aniieiaeaiea e aeaenoaeth, onoie/eaoth i?eaioaoeeth ii ioiioaieth
e ii?aaeaeaiiui iauaeoai.

Onoie/eaay i?eaioaoeey e iauaeoo nio?aiyaony, iineieueeo iaeeaeaiey
ii?aaaeuaathony.

a) /aeiaae, i/aaeaeii, ia?anoae au inoa?aaaoueny aieea, anee au i?e
eaaeaeie ano?a/a n iei, aiee, eaneiai aeeye oainoii o aai iia.

a) anee o /aeiaaea ieioay ?aiooaoeey, oi aeaaea naiua iaaeiiua aai
iinooiee aucuaatho iiaeic?aiea.

Eiiaaea onoaiiaea i?eieiaao iaaeaeee, /?acau/aeii onoie/eaue, aieaciaiii
iaayc/eaue oa?aeoa?, eiaioaiue oeenaoeeae (/aeiaae iiaeao eniuouaaoue
iai?aiaeieeiue no?ao ia?aae iuoueth, iniciaaay anth iaeaiinoue yoiai
/oanoaa) (22, 25, 27).

6. Aiia?aaeaiea: ineoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, ninoiyuay a nicaeaiee
i?aaenoaaeaiee e iuneaiiuo neooaoeee, ieeiaaea a oeaeii ia
aini?eieiaaoeony /aeiaaeii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Aiia?aaeaiea iniiaaii
ia iia?e?iaaiee eiie?aoiuie /oanoaaiiuie ia?acaie eee iaaeyaeiuie
iiaeaeyie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ii i?e yoii eiaao /a?ou iiin?aaeiaaiiiai,
iaiauaiiiai iiciaiey, iauaaeeiythuaai aai n iuoeaieai. Oa?aeoa?iue aeey
aiia?aaeaiey iooiae io ?aaeueiinoe iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue aai eae
i?ioeann i?aia?acothuaai io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Aeaaiay Ooieoeey aiia?aaeaiey ninoieo a eaeaaeueiii i?aaenoaaeaiee
?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe aei oiai, eae ii aoaeao aeinoeaioo ?aaeueii,
i?aaeainoeuaiee oiai, /aai aua ia nouanoaoao. N yoei naycaia
niiniaiinoue aeaeaoue ioe?uoey, iaoiaeeoue iiaua iooe, niiniau ?aoaiey
aicieeathueo ia?aae /aeiaaeii caaea/. Aeiaaaeea, eiooeoeey, aaaeouay e
ioe?uoeth, iaaiciiaeia aac aiia?aaeaiey.

?acee/atho ainnicaeathuaa e oai?/aneia aiia?aaeaiea. Ainnicaeathuaa
aiia?aaeaiea caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee ia?acia iauaeoia, ?aiaa ia
aini?eieiaaoeony a niioaaonoaee n eo iienaieai eee ecia?aaeaieai.

Oai?/aneia aiia?aaeaiea ninoieo a naiinoiyoaeueiii nicaeaiee iiauo
ia?acia, aiieiuaaiuo a i?eaeiaeueiua i?iaeoeoa iao/iie, oaoie/aneie e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iii yaeyaony iaeiei ec ineoieiae/aneeo
oaeoi?ia, iauaaeeiythueo iaoeo e eneonnoai, oai?aoe/aneia e ynoaoe/aneia
iiciaiea.

Iniaue aeae oai?/aneiai aiia?aaeaiey – ia/oa – nicaeaiea ia?acia
aeaeaaiiai aoaeouaai, ia aiieiuaaiuo iaiin?aaenoaaiii a oa eee eiua
i?iaeoeou aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aeayoaeueiinoue aiia?aaeaiey iiaeao eiaoue ?acee/ioth noaiaiue
i?iecaieueiinoe, io niiioaiiuo aeaoneeo oaioacee aei aeeeoaeueiuo
oeaeaono?aieaiiuo iieneia ecia?aoaoaey (12, 13, 19, 29).

E iai?iecaieueiie aeayoaeueiinoe aiia?aaeaiey ioiinyony niiaeaeaiey.
Iaeiaei, iie iiaoo aeaoa?ieie?iaaoueny caaeaiiie a ninoiyiee
aiae?noaiaaiey oeaeueth; oaeiau ecaanoiua i?eia?u ?aoaiey iao/iio caaea/
ai nia.

Aiaaoaeoae noa?ie aanniciaoaeueiie aeooaaiie aeecie yaeyaony eeethci?iue
ie? niiaeaeaiee. A iai ea?oeiu ?aaeueiinoe, eae i?aaeei, ?aci?aaiu, ia
noeaieaiu caaiueyie eiaeee, n oeeinionei-ineoieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey
nii aunooiaao eae a?aiaiiay iioa?y /aeiaaeii /oanoaa naiaai nianoaaiiiai
auoey e ie?a. Ineoieiae/aneie oeaeueth nia yaeyaony ioaeuo. Iaeioi?ia
ethaee iaeaaeatho niiniaiinoueth iao/aoueny ai nia. I?e/ai oaeoth
niiniaiinoue iiaeii ?acaeaaoue iooai naiiaiooaiey e aiooaiey a ninoiyiee
aiae?noaiaaiey, a oaeaea n iiiiuueth aeiiioe/aneiai aiooaiey. Yoi
yaeaiea eiaioaony aeiiiiaaeeae. N aa iiiiuueth iaiaeiie?aoii iuoaeenue
iao/aoue ethaeae, iai?eia?, eiino?aiiui ycueai (7, 10, 11).

7. Eiooeoeey: niiniaiinoue iinoeaeaiey enoeiu iooai i?yiiai aa
oniio?aiey aac iniiaaiey n iiiiuueth aeieacaoaeuenoaa. I?ioeann iao/iiai
iiciaiey, a oaeaea ?acee/iua oi?iu ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai inaiaiey ie?a ia
anaaaea inouanoaeyaony a ?acaa?iooii, eiae/anee e oaeoe/anee
aeieacaoaeueiii aeaea. Ia?aaeei /aeiaae noaaouaaao iuneueth neiaeioth
neooaoeeth (iai?eia?, ai a?aiy aini?eyoey n?aaeaiey, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
aeeaaiica, i?e onoaiiaeaiee aeiiaiinoe eee iaaeiiaiinoe iaaeiyaiiai e
o.i.).

?ieue eiooeoeee iniaaiii aaeeea oai, aaea iaiaoiaeei auoiae ca i?aaeaeu
i?eaiia iiciaiey aeey i?iieeiiaaiey a iaaaaeiiia.

Ii eiooeoeey ia anoue ia/oi ia?acoiiia eee naa?o?acoiiia, a i?ioeanna
eiooeoeaiiai iiciaiey ia iniciathony ana oa i?eciaee, ii eioi?ui
inouanoaeyaony auaiae e oa i?eaiu, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ii aeaeaaony.

Eiooeoeey ia ninoaaeyao iniaiai iooe iiciaiey, aaaeouaai a iaoiae
iuouaiee, i?aaenoaaeaiee e iuoeaiey. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
naiaia?aciue oei iuoeaiey eiaaea ioaeaeueiua caaiuey i?ioeanna iuoeaiey
i?iiinyony a niciaiee aieaa eee iaiaa aanniciaoaeueii, a i?aaeaeueii
ynii iniciaaony eiaiii eoia iunee – enoeia.

Eiooeoeee auaaao aeinoaoi/ii aeey oniio?aiey enoeiu, ii aa
iaaeinoaoi/ii, /oiau oaaaeeoue a yoie enoeia ae?oaeo e naiiai naay. Aeey
yoiai iaiaoiaeeii aeieacaoaeuenoai. Yoi eae au naa?iooay eiaeea iunee.
Eiooeoeey oaeaea ioiineony e eiaeea, eae aiaoiyy ?a/ue e aioo?aiiae,
aaea i/aiue iiiai iiouaii e o?aaiaioa?ii.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo oneiaee oai?/anoaa yaeyaony oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay
oinoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue. Iaeneiaeueiia e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia
“iia?oaeaiea” a i?iaeaio” no?anoiia oaea/aiea ath. Eiaaea *.Aea?aeia
ni?ineee, eae ii i?eoae e naiaio ioe?uoeth caeiia anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a,
ii ioaaoee: “ss ana a?aiy aeoiae ia yoii” (22). Anee ianneaii aeaeaoue,
iiea ?aoaiea naii i?eaeao a aieiao, oi iii iiaeao ia i?eeoe ieeiaaea.
Oeiaeoue aaaeiinoue neo/aeiiai iaaethaeaiey iiaeao eeoue oio
enneaaeiaaoaeue, eioi?ue iiiai e niciaoaeueii aeoiaao i i?iaeaia (1, 8,
10, 13, 16, 21, 23).

Oaeei ia?acii, aanniciaoaeueiia – ia i?inoi ia/oi “cae?uoia” aeey
naiiniciaiey noauaeoa. Iii naiaiaeii io onoiyaoeony oaaeiiia, aieaa
aeaei a iai?aaeaieyo naiaai aeaeaeaiey, a niiniaao ia?aciaaiey
annioeeaoeaiuo naycae. A yoii e caeeth/aaony aai ya?enoe/aneay neea.

No?oeoo?iua yeaiaiou aanniciaoaeueiiai naycaiu eae iaaeaeo niaie, oae e
n niciaieai e aeaenoaeai. Iie ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia ieo e a naith
i/a?aaeue eniuouaatho eo aeeyiea ia naaa.

Oa?aeoa?iaeoae iniaaiiinoueth iainiciaaaaiie ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
yaeyaony oi, /oi ia aa iniiaa iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi oi, /oi ia iiaeao
auoue aeinoeaiooi i?e iii?a ia ?aoeeiiaeueiue, eiae/aneee, aa?aaeecoaiue
e iiyoiio iniciaaaaiue iiuo.

Yoi “iia?aaeaiea” aanniciaoaeueiui oaioe/iinoe niciaiey aicieeaao n
iniaie io/aoeeainoueth, eiaaea iu noaeeeaaainy n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
iniuneeaaiey iaeaieaa neiaeiuo noi?ii aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, yaeaiee,
niauoee, eioi?ua ianoieueei iiiaia?aiiu, ianoieueei iiiaieiiiiiaioiu e
iieeaeaoa?ieie?iaaiu, aiieiuathony a caiooaiiii ia?aieaoaiee, a naoyo
ianoieueei ?acii?iaeiuo acaeiinaycae e ioiioaiee, /oi iiiuoee auyaeaiey
eo i?e?iaeu ia iniiaa aiaeeoe/aneiai e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiaeoiaea, ia
iniiaa ?an/eaiaiey “aeiaaeueiiai”, oeaeinoiuo “eiioeieoiia” ia eo
aeene?aoiua ninoaaeythuea ionooiatho a aanneeee. E oiaaea iiaeao i?e
iaee/ee ii?aaeaeaiiuo ineoieiae/aneeo oneiaee i?iyaeoueny ieeiaaea ia
ia?anoathuay ian ii?aaeaoue iiuue “ia?an/eaiythuaai” iiciaiey.

“Ia?an/eaiythuaa, eiooeoeaiia, iie?athuaany ia iainiciaaaaioth
ineoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, i?aaenoaaeaii a iaoae aeooaaiie aeecie
eneeth/eoaeueii oe?iei. Iii aeaao i naaa ciaoue aeaaea i?e iaeaieaa
?aoeeiiaeece?iaaiiuo aiaeeoe/aneeo e eiae/aneeo aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo
oi?iao iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe (aeinoaoi/ii iaiiiieoue eeanne/aneea
nii?u i ?iee eiooeoeee a iaoaiaoeea). Ii iniaia “i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia”
ianoi aio ioaaaeaii, eiia/ii, a oai?/anoaa ooaeiaeanoaaiiii (3, 4, 8,
10, 13, 14).

I?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey oiai, /oi ia iniciaaony, caaeneo io aeoeaiinoe ia
a iaiueoae noaiaie, /ai aiciiaeiinoe e ooieoeee iineaaeiaai io ne?uouo
iniaaiiinoae aanniciaoaeueiiai.

Iiaeaiaey eoiae e aeaeay auaiaeu iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaiua iauea
iieiaeaiey aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey oai?ee aanniciaoaeueiiai:
aanniciaoaeueiia anoue ?aaeueiue ineoieiae/aneee oaiiiai;
ineoieiae/aneoth no?oeoo?o iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea iaeuecy iiiyoue ,
ioaeaeaynue io oaeoia aanniciaoaeueiiai; i?e iino?iaiee iao/iie oai?ee
aanniciaoaeueiiai iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue aeaiiua eiioeaioeee
ineoieiae/aneee onoaiiaee (3).Eeoa?aoo?a:

Aaeaia? AE. Enneaaeiaaiea ineoieiaee i?ioeanna ecia?aoaiey a iaeanoe
iaoaiaoeee, I., 1974.

Aannei O.A. 0 noaouea A.A.Iaeeiiaa e ss.A.Ae?iaaeeiie “Aa?iyoiinoiay
iiaeaeue aanniciaoaeueiiai”. Ineoieiae/aneee aeo?iae, 1985,o.6, ?1.
n137-139.

Aanniciaoaeueiia: I?e?iaea, ooieoeee, iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey. Iiae. ?aae.
A.N.I?aiaeoaeee, A.A.Oa?icey, O.A.Aannei. Oaeeene, o 1, 1978, 786n.; o
2, 1978, 686n.; o 3, 1978, 796n.

Aaeaeaaa E.O. Ineoieiaey onoaiiaee e eeaa?iaoeea. I., 1966, 230n.

Ai/a?eoaeee A.O. I?iaeaia aanniciaoaeueiiai a ineoieiaee. Oaeeene, 1961.

Aeooaeuen TH. O?aeae, aai oeiea e o/aiea. E., 1934.

Aieueia?o E.A. Niiaeaeaiey a iau/iii nia e aeiiica. E., 1966, 274n.

Auaioneee E.N. Ineoieiaey eneonnoaa. I., 1965, 569n.

A?eaieaaa A.A. Aanniciaoaeueiia e onoaiiaea. Aii?inu ineoieiaee, 1984,
?3, n.145-150.

Eaeaaaaeca A.E. Oai?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu aeoaeiiie ineoieiaee. Oaeeene,
1982.

Eanaoeei A.I. Oai?ey niiaeaeaiee: Iaeioi?ua caeiiiia?iinoe aicieeiiaaiey
e no?oeoo?u. E., 1967, 351n.

Ei?ooiiaa E.N. Aiia?aaeaiea e aai ?ieue a iiciaiee. I., 1979

Eaiioueaa A.I. Aeayoaeueiinoue, niciaiea, ee/iinoue. I., 1975, 304n.

Eiiia A.O. Ioaao i?ioanni?o O.A. Aanneio. Ineoieiae/aneee aeo?iae, 1982,
?6 n.152-153.

Iaeeiia A.A., Ae?iaaeeia AE.A. Aa?iyoiinoiay iiaeaeue aanniciaoaeueiiai.
Aanniciaoaeueiia eae i?iyaeaiea naiaioe/aneie anaeaiiie. Ineoieiae/aneee
aeo?iae, 1984, o.5, ?6, n.111-122.

Iayi Ineoieiaey e ineoeao?ey a NOA. I., 1983.

Iaaeia E.I. Iiei. nia?. ni/., o.3. ei.1, n.105.

I?aiaeoaeee A.N., Aannei O.A., Oioei I.A. Nouanoaoao ee aeeeaiia
“aanniciaoaeueiia eee onoaiiaea”? Aii?inu ineoieiaee, 1984, ?6,
n.95-101.

?icao E.I. Ineoieiaey Oaioacee. Ieine, 1977.

?ioiiaa?a A.N. ?aciua oi?iu ioiioaiee iaaeaeo niciaieai e
aanniciaoaeueiui. Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1978, ?2.

?oaeiooaei N.E. Auoea e niciaiea. I., 1957, 328n.

Nie?eei A.A. Niciaiea e naiiniciaiea. I.,: Iieeoecaeao, 1972, 303n.

Oeoiie?ia I.E. No?oeoo?a iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, I.,
1969, 304n.

Oeoiie?ia I.E. Oai?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey aanniciaoaeueiiai.
Aii?inu ineoieiaee, 1981, ?2, n.31-39.

Ociaaeca Ae.I. Ianoi aanniciaoaeueiiai e ineoieiaey onoaiiaee. O?oaeu,
o.6, Oaeeene, 1977.

Ociaaeca Ae.I. Ineoieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey. I., 1966.

Ociaaeca Ae.I. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua iniiau ineoieiaee onoaiiaee. Oaeeene,
1961.

Oyeen A. Iaaeia e O?aeae. I., 1959.

Oeeinioneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. I., 1983.

O?aeae C. Eaeoeee ii aaaaeaieth a ineoiaiaeec, o.1. I,, 1923, n.28.

*aniieiaa E. E. I?iaeaia naiiniciaiey a ineoieiaee. I., 1977, 145n.

*oi?oeoaeee O.I. I?iaeaia aanniciaoaeueiiai a niaaoneie ineoieiaee.
Oaeeene, 1966.

Oa?icey A. E i?iaeaia niciaiey e aanniciaoaeueiiai ineoe/aneiai.
Oaeeene, 1969.

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