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Философские взгляды Чернышевского

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TOC \o “1-3” 1. Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc375476544 PAGEREF
_Toc375476544 2

2. Acaeyaeu *a?iuoaaneiai ia oeeinioeth Aaaaey. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc375476545 PAGEREF _Toc375476545 3

3. Ia?aoiae e iaoa?eaeecio Oaea?aaoa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc375476546
PAGEREF _Toc375476546 6

4. Acaeyaeu ia oai?eth iiciaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc375476547 PAGEREF
_Toc375476547 8

5. E?eoeea eaeaaeenoia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc375476548 PAGEREF
_Toc375476548 13

6. Oai?ey ?acoiiiai yaiecia GOTOBUTTON _Toc375476549 PAGEREF
_Toc375476549 15

Aaaaeaiea

?onneee ia?iae e ?onneia inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea aeaee ie?o
aeanoyuoth ieayaeo ?aaiethoeeiiiuo aeaiie?aoia, iuneeoaeae-
iaoa?eaeenoia – Aaeeineiai, Aa?oeaia , *a?iuoaaneiai , Aeia?iethaiaa e
ae?oaeo.

A ?yaeo neaaiuo aeayoaeae ?onneiai ?aaiethoeeiiii- aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey Ieeieae Aaa?eeiae/ *a?iuoaaneee (1828- 1889) ii i?aao
caieiaao iaeii ec ia?auo iano.

Aeayoaeueiinoue *a?iuoaaneiai ioee/aeanue iaiau/iie iiiaia?aiiinoueth.
Yoi aue aieinoaothuee oeeinio- iaoa?eaeeno e aeeaeaeoee, ii aue oaeaea
i?eaeiaeueiui enoi?eeii, nioeeieiaii, e?oiiaeoei yeiiiienoii, e?eoeeii,
auaeathueiny iiaaoi?ii a ynoaoeea e eeoa?aoo?a. Ii aiieioee a naaa
eo/oea /a?ou ?onneiai ia?iaea- yniue oi , noieeee oa?aeoa?, iiao/aa
no?aieaiea e naiaiaea. Aai aeeciue – i?eia? aaeeeiai a?aaeaeaineiai
ioaeanoaa, aaccaaaoiiai neoaeaiey ia?iaeo.

Anth naith aeeciue *a?iuoaaneee ioaeae ai?ueaa ca inaiaiaeaeaiea ia?iaea
io oaiaeaeueii- e?aiinoie/aneiai ?aanoaa, ca ?aaiethoeeiiii-
aeaiie?aoe/aneia i?aia?aciaaiea ?innee. Ii iinayoee naith aeeciue oiio,
/oi iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue neiaaie Aa?oeaia, neacaiiuie i
aeaeaa?enoao, “?acaoaeeoue e iiaie aeecie iieiaeia iieieaiea e i/enoeoue
aeaoae, ?iaeaeaiiuo a n?aaea iaea/anoaa e ?aaieaiey”.

N ni/eiaieyie *a?iuoaaneiai oeeinioneay iuneue a ?innee cia/eoaeueii
?anoe?eea noa?o naiaai aeeyiey, ia?aeaey ec ia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa o/aiuo
ia no?aieoeu ?ani?ino?aiaiiiai aeo?iaea , cayaeyy i naaa a
“Nia?aiaiieea” eaaeaeie noaoueae *a?iuoaaneiai, aeaaea aiana ia
iinayuaiiie niaoeeaeueiui oeeinioneei aii?inai. Niaoeeaeueii i oeeinioee
*a?iuoaaneee ienae i/aiue iaei, ii ath i?iieeiooa any aai iao/iay e
ioaeeoeenoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Aeoaieee e niaoeeaeueiue eioa?an e oeeinioee aiciee aua o thiioe
*a?iuoaaneiai ia oieaa?neoaoneie neaiuea , oioy a naiii oieaa?neoaoa
oeeinioey auea iiaeueiie, aiieiie iaoeie. Aniiiiei, /oi naith
eaiaeeaeaoneoth aeenna?oaoeeth *a?iuoaaneee oioae ienaoue i oeeinioneie
nenoaia Eaeaieoea , ii ia niia aa iaienaoue oae eae aeey oeeinioee
oiaaea auei “a?aiy iaoaeiaiia”.

*a?iuoaaneee ia/ae naia oai?aoe/aneia ia?aciaaiea , eiaaea oeeinioey a
?innee iieo/eea neeueiue oie/ie e naiaio ?acaeoeth a ecaanoiuo
oeeinioneeo ?aaioao Aa?oeaia “Ienueia ia eco/aiee i?e?iaeu” e a
eeoa?aoo?ii – e?eoe/aneeo noaoueyo Aaeeineiai.

*a?iuoaaneee – oeeinio oae oai aea iooai, eaeei ?aiueoa oee aai
i?aaeoanoaaiieee – Aaeeineee e Aa?oeai.

Oeeinioey aeey *a?iuoaaneiai auea ia ioaea/aiiie oai?eae, a i?oaeeai
eciaiaiey ?inneeneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iaoa?eaeeci *a?iuoaaneiai e aai
aeeaeaeoeea neoaeeee oai?aoe/aneei iainiiaaieai iieeoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu
?aaiethoeeiiiie aeaiie?aoee.

Acaeyaeu *a?iuoaaneiai ia oeeinioeth Aaaaey.

Aua a Na?aoiaa, /eoay a “Ioa/anoaaiiuo caieneao” ni/eiaiey Aaeeineiai e
Aa?oeaia, *a?iuoaaneee ociaaae i oeeinioee Aaaaey. Ii a iiaeeeiieea,
naiinoiyoaeueii, ii noae eco/aoue yoo oeeinioeth oaea a naie
oieaa?neoaoneee ia?eiae.

A eiioea 1848 aiaea *a?iuoaaneee caienuaaao a naie aeiaaiee, /oi
“?aoeoaeueii i?eiaaeeaaeeo Aaaaeth”. Ii aua iieaaaao, /oi “ana eaeao e
eaeaa”, “ana ec eaeae”, /oi “eaeay ?acaeaaaony naia ec naay, i?iecaiaeeo
ana e ec eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoae aica?auaaony naia e naaa”.

A aaaaeaaneie oeeinioee, i?aaeaea anaai, i?eaeaeaea *a?iuoaaneiai
aeeaeaeoeea, ec eioi?ie ii aeaeae ?aaiethoeeiiii – aeaiie?aoe/aneea
auaiaeu. Ioaeaaay aeieaeiia iaoiaeo Aaaaey, *a?iuoaaneee aianoa n oai
inoaeaeae aai eiina?aaoeci.

Iinea iciaeiieaiey n ?onneeie eceiaeaieyie aaaaeaaneie nenoaiu a ?aaioao
Aaeeineiai e Aa?oeaia, ii ia?aoeeny iaiin?aaenoaaiii e ni/eiaieyi
Aaaaey. “A iiaeeeiieea – ieoao *a?iuoaaneee, – Aaaaeue iii?aaeeny aio
ai?acaei iaiueoa, iaaeaee iaeeaeae ii ii ?onneei eceiaeaieyi. I?e/eia
ninoiyea a oii, /oi ?onneea iineaaeiaaoaee Aaaaey eceaaaee aai nenoaio
a aeooa eaaie noi?iiu Aaaaeaaneie oeieu. A iiaeeeiieea Aaaaeue
ieacuaaeny iioiae ia oeeinioia XVII aaea e aeaaea ia noieanoeeia, /ai ia
oiai Aaaaey, eaeei yaeyeny ii a ?onneeo eceiaeaieyo. *oaiea auei
ooiieoaeueii ii naiae yaiie aaniieaciinoe aeey noi?ie?iaaiey iao/iiai
ia?aca iuneae”.

A 1849 aiaeo ia no?aieoeao aeiaaieea, *a?iuoaaneee e?eoeeoao Aaaaey:
“No?iaeo auaiaeia ia aeaeo aua, – caienuaaao *a?iuoaaneee a aeiaaiee, –
a iunee aieueoae /anoueth ia ?aceea, a oia?aiiua, ia aeuoao
iiaiaaaaeaieyie”.

Anei?a ae?oaay caienue a aeiaaieea: “Iniaaiii ie/aai ia aeaeo, oi
anoue, /oi a iiae?iaiinoyo aacaea, iia eaaeaony, ii ?aa ianoiyuaai
iieiaeaiey aauae, ianoiyuaai ono?ienoaa iauanoaa, oae /oi aeaaea ia
?aoaaony ioaa?aaoue nia?oiie eacie e i?i/., oae ee auaiaeu aai ?iaee,
eee a naiii aeaea iauaa ia/aei eae – oi ieioi iauyniyao iai, /oi e eae
aeieaeii auoue aianoi oiai, /oi oaia?ue anoue…”

*a?iuoaaneee aeaeae iaaeinoaoee aaaaeaaneie oeeinioee a oii, /oi:

Aaaaeue n/eoae oai?oeii i?e?iaeu, aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – aaniethoiue
aeoo, aaniethoioth eaeath, enoiaeee ec iaeiaai /enoiai noauaeoeaiiai
iuoeaiey.

O Aaaaey eaeay, ?acoi – aeaeaeouay neea ie?iaiai ?acaeoey,
niceaeaoaeue, oai?aoe aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Naia i?e?iaea o Aaaaey –
i?iyaeaiea eaeae, aa “eiiauoea”.

Eae iieeoee Aaaaeue aue, eiina?aaoeaai, n/eoae nia?aiaiiue oaiaeaeueii
– aaniethoenoneee no?ie Aa?iaiee iieeoe/aneei eaeaaeii, a eioi?ii
aaniethoiue aeoo iaoae naia aiieiuaiea.

*a?iuoaaneee iieaaae, /oi iiiaia auei aa?ii a oeeinioee Aaaaey eeoue “a
aeaea oaiiuo i?aae/oanoaee”, iaeiaei, iiaeaaeyaiuo eaeaaeenoe/aneei
ie?iaicc?aieai aaieaeueiiai oeeinioa.

*a?iuoaaneee iiae/a?eeaae aeaienoaaiiinoue aaaaeaaneie oeeinioee, aeaey
a yoii iaeei ec aa aaaeiaeoeo ii?ieia, ioia/ae i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo aa
neeueiuie i?eioeeiaie e oceeie auaiaeaie. Aiai?y i eieinnaeueiinoe aaiey
Aaaaey, iacuaay aai aaeeeei iuneeoaeai , *a?iuoaaneee e?eoeeoao aai,
oeacuaay, /oi enoeia o Aaaaey aunooiaao a naiuo iaueo, ioaea/aiiuo ,
iaii?aaeaeaiiuo i/a?oaieyo. Ii *a?iuoaaneee i?eciaao ca Aaaaeai caneoao
a eneaiee enoeiu- aa?oiaiie oeaee iuoeaiey. Eaeiaa au enoeia ia auea,
iia eo/oa anaai, /oi ia enoeiii. Aeiea iuneeoaey – ia ionooiaoue ie
ia?aae eaeeie ?acoeueoaoaie naieo ioe?uoee. Enoeia iaaei aea?oaiaaoue
?aoeoaeueii anai; iia- enoi/iee anao aeaa, eae caaeoaeaeaiea- enoi/iee
“anyeie iaaoau”. E *a?iuoaaneee oeacuaaao ia aaeeeoth oeeinioneoth
caneoao Aaaaey- aai aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae, “ecoieoaeueii neeueioth
aeeaeaeoeeo”.

A enoi?ee iiciaiey *a?iuoaaneee ioaiaeeo oeeinioee Aaaaey aieueoia ianoi
e aiai?eo i aa cia/aiee ia?aoiaea “io ioaea/aiiie iaoee e iaoea aeecie”.

*a?iuoaaneee oeacuaae, /oi aeey ?onneie iunee aaaaeaaneay oeeinioey
iineoaeeea ia?aoiaeii io aanieiaeiuo noieanoe/aneeo oinoaiaaiee e
“naaoeiio acaeyaeo ia eeoa?aoo?o e aeeciue”. Oeeinioey Aaaaey, ii
iiaieth *a?iuoaaneiai, ooaa?aeeea a iunee, /oi enoeia auoa e aei?iaea
anaai a ie?a, /oi eiaeue i?anooiia. Iia ooaa?aeeea no?aieaiea no?iai
enneaaeiaaoue iiiyoey e yaeaiey, anaeeea “aeoaieia niciaiea, /oi
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue aeinoieia aieiaoaeueiaeoaai eco/aiey”, eai enoeia-
ieiae e ?acoeueoao no?iaiai ananoi?iiiaai enneaaeiaaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ia?yaeo n yoei , *a?iuoaaneee n/eoae oeeinioeth
Aaaaey oaea onoa?aaoae. Iaoea ?acaeaaeanue aeaeueoa.

Ia?aoiae e iaoa?eaeecio Oaea?aaoa.

Iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiue oeeinioneie nenoaiie Aaaaey, *a?iuoaaneee ia?aoeeny e
ni/eiaieyi aeaeiaeoaai oeeinioa oiai a?aiaie – Ethaeaeaa Oaea?aaoa.

*a?iuoaaneee aue i/aiue ia?aciaaiiui /aeiaaeii, ii eco/ee o?oaeu i/aiue
iiiaeo oeeinioia , ii naiei o/eoaeai iacuaae oieueei Oaea?aaoa.

Eiaaea *a?iuoaaneee ienae naith ia?aoth e?oiioth iao/ioth ?aaioo,
aeenna?oaoeeth ii ynoaoeea, ii oaea a iaeanoe oeeinioee aue aiieia
neiaeeaoeiny iuneeoaeai- oaea?aaoeaioeai , oioy a naiie aeenna?oaoeee
naiae ia ?aco ia oiiiyioe eiaie Oaea?aaoa, oiaaea cai?auaiiiai a ?innee.

A ia/aea 1849 aiaea ?onneee oo?uea?eno- iao?aoaaaoe Oaiueia aeae
*a?iuoaaneiio , aeey iciaeiieaiey, ciaiaieooth Oaea?aaoiao “Nouiinoue
o?enoeainoaa”. Aaea Oaea?aao naiae oeeinioeae ooaa?aeaeae , /oi i?e?iaea
nouanoaoao iacaaeneii io /aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey e yaeyaony iniiaaieai,
ia eioi?ii au?anoatho ethaee n eo niciaieai, e /oi aunoea nouanoaa,
nicaeaiiua ?aeeaeiciie oaioaceae /aeiaaea, – yoi oieueei oaioanoe/aneea
io?aaeaiey nianoaaiiie nouiinoe /aeiaaea.

I?i/eoaa “Nouiinoue o?enoeainoaa” , *a?iuoaaneee ioiaoee a naiai
aeiaaieea, /oi iia aio iii?aaeeanue “naiei aeaai?iaenoaii, i?yiioie,
ioe?iaaiiinoueth, ?aceinoueth”. Ii ociaaae i nouiinoe /aeiaaea, eae aa
iiieiae Oaea?aao , a aeooa anoanoaaiii – iao/iiai iaoa?eaeecia, ociaaae
i oii, /oi niaa?oaiiiio /aeiaaeo naienoaaiiu ?acoi, aiey, iuneue ,
na?aeoea, ethaiaue, yoa aaniethoiay o Oaea?aaoa , nouiinoue /aeiaaea eae
/aeiaaea e oeaeue aai auoey. Enoeiiia nouanoai – ethaeo, iuneeo, oi/ao.
Aunoee caeii – ethaiaue e /aeiaaeo. Oeeinioey aeieaeia enoiaeeoue ia ec
iaeiae aaniethoiie eaeae, a ec i?e?iaeu, aeeaie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
I?e?iaea , auoea – noauaeo iiciaiey, a iuoeaiea i?iecaiaeii. I?e?iaea –
ia?ae/iia, eaeae – aa ii?iaeaeaiey, ooieoeey /aeiaa/aneiai iicaa. Yoi
auee aeey iieiaeiai *a?iuoaaneiai ianoiyuea ioe?iaaiey.

Ii iaoiaeee oi, /oi eneae. Iniaaiii ii?aceea aai aeaaiay iuneue ,
iieacaaoayny niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeaie, – /oi “/aeiaae anaaaea aiia?aaeae
naaa aiaa /aeiaa/aneei ii naiei nianoaaiiui iiiyoeyi i naaa”.

A 1850 aiaeo ii oaea caienae :”Neaioeoeeci a aeaea ?aeeaee ?acaeeny o
iaiy aei oiai , /oi y ii/oe ?aoeoaeueii io aeooe i?aaeai o/aieth
Oaea?aaoa”.

A 1877 aiaeo *a?iuoaaneee ienae ec neae?neie nnueee nuiiaueyi: “Anee au
oioeoa eiaoue iiiyoea i oii, /oi oaeia ii iiaio iiaieth /aeiaa/aneay
i?e?iaea, ociaaaeoa yoi ec aaeeinoaaiiiai iuneeoaey iaoaai noieaoey, o
eioi?iai auee niaa?oaiii aa?iua, ii – iiaio , iiiyoey i aauao. Yoi –
Ethaeaea Oaea?aao… A iieiaeinoe y ciae oeaeua no?aieoeu ec iaai
iaeconoue. E neieueei iiao noaeeoue ii iiei iiooneiaaoei ainiiieiaieyi i
iai, inoathnue aa?iui iineaaeiaaoaeai aai”.

Acaeyaeu ia oai?eth iiciaiey

*a?iuoaaneee e?eoeeoao eaeaaeenoe/aneoth nouiinoue aiinaieiaee Aaaaey e
aai ?inneeneeo iineaaeiaaoaeae, oeacuaay, /oi iia ia?aai?a/eaaao n iia
ia aieiao enoeiiia iieiaeaiea aauae, /oi iia eaeao ia io iaoa?eaeueiiai
ie?a e niciaieth, iiiyoeyi, a, iai?ioea, io iiiyoee e ?aaeueiui
i?aaeiaoai, /oi iia ?anniao?eaaao i?e?iaeo e /aeiaaea eae ii?iaeaeaiea
aano?aeoiuo iiiyoee, aiaeanoaaiiie aaniethoiie eaeae.

*a?iuoaaneee ionoaeaaao iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia ?aoaiea iniiaiiai aii?ina
oeeinioee, iieacuaaao, /oi iao/iay iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay aiinaieiaey
enoiaeeo ec i?eciaiey eaeae, iiiyoee, yaeythueony eeoue io?aaeaieai
?aaeueiuo aauae e i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a iaoa?eaeueiii ie?a, a
i?e?iaea. Ii oeacuaaao, /oi iiiyoey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?acoeueoao
iaiauaiey aeaiiuo iiuoa, eoia eco/aiey e iiciaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a,
/oi iie ioaaouaatho nouiinoue aauae. “Ninoaaeyy naaa ioaea/aiiia
iiiyoea i i?aaeiaoa,– ieoao ii a noaouea “E?eoe/aneee acaeyae ia
nia?aiaiiua ynoaoe/aneea iiiyoey”,– iu na?anuaaai ana ii?aaeaeaiiua,
aeeaua iiae?iaiinoe, n eioi?uie i?aaeiao yaeyaony a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
e ninoaaeyai oieueei aai iauea nouanoaaiiua /a?ou; o aeaenoaeoaeueii
nouanoaothuaai /aeiaaea anoue ii?aaeaeaiiue ?ino, ii?aaeaeaiiue oeaao
aiein, ii?aaeaeaiiue oeaao eeoea, ii ?ino o iaeiiai /aeiaaea aieueoie,
o ae?oaiai iaeaiueeee, o iaeiiai /aeiaaea oeaao eeoea aeaaeiue, o
ae?oaiai ?oiyiue, o iaeiiai aaeue, o ae?oaiai nioaeue, o o?aoueaai, eae
o iaa?a, niaa?oaiii /a?iue,– ana yoe ?aciiia?aciua iiae?iaiinoe ia
ii?aaeaeythony iauei iiiyoeai, aua?anuaathony ec iaai. Iiyoiio a
aeaenoaeoaeueiii /aeiaaea anaaaea iaoiaeeony ai?acaei aieueoa
i?eciaeia e ea/anoa, iaaeaee, neieueei iaoiaeeony a ioaea/aiiii iiiyoee
/aeiaaea aiiaua. A ioaea/aiiii iiiyoee inoaaony oieueei nouiinoue
i?aaeiaoa”

ssaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iieaaae *a?iuoaaneee, aanueia ?acii?iaeiu e
?aciiia?aciu. Naith neeo /aeiaae /a?iaao ec aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
aeaenoaeoaeueiie aeecie, ciaiey aa, oiaiuey iieueciaaoueny neeaie
i?e?iaeu e ea/anoaaie /aeiaa/aneie iaoo?u. Aeaenoaoy niia?acii n
caeiiaie i?e?iaeu,

/aeiaae aeaeieciaiyao yaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe niia?acii naiei
no?aieaieyi.

Na?ueaciia cia/aiea, ii iiaieth *a?iuoaaneiai, eiatho eeoue oa
/aeiaa/aneea no?aieaiey, eioi?ua iniiaaiu ia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Oniaoa
iiaeii iaeeaeaoue eeoue io oao iaaeaaeae, eioi?ua aicaoaeaeathony a
/aeiaaea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth.

*a?iuoaaneee aic?aaeaao i?ioea oaioanoeee, ia eiathuae ei?iae a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eae e i?ioea neaiiai i?aeeiiaiey ia?aae oaeoaie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ii aic?aaeae i?ioea noauaeoeaecia a iuoeaiee.

Nai aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae, ii ?anniao?eaae, i?aaeaea anaai, eae
i?ioeaiyaeea i?ioea noauaeoeaiiai iaoiaea iiciaiey, iaaycuaathuaai
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naie caeeth/aiey, ia aeiauaaaiua ec iauaeoeaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

*a?iuoaaneee e?eoeeoao oeeinioia, eioi?ua eneaee ia enoeiu, a
ii?aaaeaiey naieo oaaaeaeaiee. Oai naiui ii e?eoeeoao “noauaeoeaeci” a
iuoeaiee. E ii iaiaeiie?aoii iiaoi?yao iuneue i oii, /oi “ioaea/aiiie
enoeiu iao; enoeia eiie?aoia”. Ii ai?aony i?ioea ioaea/aiiie iaoee ca
iaoeo aeecie, i?ioea aanieiaeiuo noieanoe/aneeo oinoaiaaiee.

Enoeia, ii *a?iuoaaneiio, aeinoeaaaony oieueei no?iaei, ananoi?iiiei
enneaaeiaaieai aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a ia i?iecaieueiuie noauaeoeaiuie
oinoaiaaieyie.

A naiae aeenna?oaoeee ii ynoaoeea ii ienae: “Oaaaeaiea e
aeaenoaeoaeueiie aeecie, iaaeiaa?/eainoue e ai?ei?enoe/aneei, oioy au e
i?eyoiui aeey oaioacee, aeiioacai,– aio oa?aeoa? iai?aaeaiey,
ainiiaenoaothuaai iuia a iaoea”, e ii iauyaeyao naay noi?iiieeii eiaiii
yoiai iao/ii – oeeinioneiai iai?aaeaiey.

*a?iuoaaneee ioaa?aaao acaeyae, aoaeoi iuneue i?ioeaiiieiaeia
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iia ia iiaeao auoue i?ioeaiiieiaeia ae, eai
“ii?iaeaeaaony aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth e no?aieony e inouanoaeaieth,
iioiio /oi ninoaaeyao iaiouaieaioth /anoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe”. E
*a?iuoaaneee ii?iaa?aaao eaeaaeenoe/aneea oeeinioneea nenoaiu, eioi?ua,
aeiaa?yy “oaioanoe/aneei ia/oai”, ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi /aeiaae euao
aaniethoiiai e, ia iaoiaey aai a aeaenoaeoaeueiie aeecie, ioaa?aaao aa
eae iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueioth. Ii caueuaao iiaua aicc?aiey, eioi?ua,
i?eciaaay aanniuneea oaioacee, ioaeaeathuaeny io aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
?oeiaiaenoaothony oaeoaie ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiie aeecie e
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. *a?iuoaaneee caueuae oeeinioneoth
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth oai?eth, aeieacuaathuoth, /oi iuoeaiea
ii?aaeaeyaony auoeai, aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth.

Ii oeacuaae, /oi “oai?ey aac i?aeoeee iaoeiaeia aeey iunee”, /oi
aaaeii ioee/aoue iieiua, aiia?aaeaaiua no?aieaiey /aeiaaea io caeiiiuo
iio?aaiinoae /aeiaa/aneie iaoo?u. Ii eoi aea aoaeao noaeueae?
“…i?aeoeea, – yoio iai?aeiaeiue, i?iaiue eaiaiue anyeie oai?ee, –
ioaa/ae *a?iuoaaneee, – aeieaeia auoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeueieoeae iaoath”.

“I?aeoeea, – i?iaeieaeaao *a?iuoaaneee, – aaeeeay ?aciaea/eoaeueieoea
iaiaiia e naiiiaieueuaiee ia oieueei a i?aeoe/aneeo aeaeao, ii oaeaea a
aeaeao /oanoaa e iunee… *oi iiaeeaaeeo nii?o a oai?ee, ia /enoioo
?aoaaony i?aeoeeith aeaenoaeoaeueiie aeecie”.

I/aiue y?ei iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth oeeinioeth *a?iuoaaneiai au?aaeaao
“aio?iiieiae/aneee i?eioeei” , eioi?iai ii i?eaea?aeeaaeny .
*a?iuoaaneee n/eoae , /oi aunoei i?aaeiaoii oeeinioee yaeyaony /aeiaae e
i?e?iaea, e naith oeeinioeth iacuaae “aio?iiieiae/aneie”.

A?aa anyeie aeaienoaaiiinoe, anyeiai aeoaeecia a oeeinioee, *a?iuoaaneee
aini?eiye e ?acaeaae iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth eaeath aaeeinoaa /aeiaa/aneiai
i?aaiecia. A i?ia?aiiiie noaouea “Aio?iiieiae/aneee i?eioeei a
oeeinioee” (1860) ii ia?eniaae naie iniiaiua oeeinioneea

acaeyaeu, noaay ai aeaao oaea /aeiaaea.

Aneaae ca Oaea?aaoii *a?iuoaaneee n?aaee iaoe ioaiaeee
anoanoaiciaieth i/aiue aieueoia e cia/eoaeueiia ianoi. Yoi aanueia
oa?aeoa?ii aeey ia?aaeiauo aeayoaeae yiioe iyoeaeanyouo aiaeia.
*a?iuoaaneee n/eoae, /oi i?eioeeiii iao/ii-oeeinioneiai aicc?aiey ia
/aeiaa/aneoth aeeciue neoaeeo au?aaioaiiay anoanoaiciaieai eaeay i
aaeeinoaa /aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia. *a?iuoaaneee ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
iaaethaeaieyie oeceieiaia ono?aiaia eaeaaeenoe/aneay iuneue i aeoaeecia,
aeaienoaaiiinoe /aeiaaea. *aeiaae aaeei, ii, i?e aaeeinoaa /aeiaa/aneie
iaoo?u, iu caia/aai aeaa ?yaea yaeaiee – iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo
(*a?iuoaaneee aiai?eo– i?aanoaaiiuo). Eo ?acee/ea ia i?ioeai?a/eo
aaeeinoao /aeiaa/aneie iaoo?u. E *a?iuoaaneee oae oi?ioee?oao
“aio?iiieiae/aneee i?eioeei”, eioi?iai ii a iaoea i?eaea?aeeaaaony:
“I?eioeei yoio, – ieoao ii, – ninoieo a oii, /oi ia /aeiaaea iaaeiaii
niio?aoue eae ia iaeii nouanoai, eiathuaa oieueei iaeio iaoo?o, /oiau
ia ?ac?acuaaoue /aeiaa/aneoth aeeciue ia ?aciua iieiaeiu,
i?eiaaeeaaeauea ?aciui iaoo?ai, /oiau ?anniao?eaaoue eaaeaeoth noi?iio
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea eae aeayoaeueiinoue eee anaai aai i?aaiecia, io
aieiau aei iia aeeth/eoaeueii, eee anee iia ieacuaaaony niaoeeaeueiui
ioi?aaeaieai eaeiai-ieaoaeue iniaaiiiai i?aaia a /aeiaa/aneii i?aaiecia,
oi ?anniao?eaaoue yoio i?aai a aai, iaoo?aeueiie nayce ni anai
i?aaieciii”.

Ia?yaeo n e?eoeeie eaeaaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee e iaoa?eaeenoe/aneei
?aoaieai aii?ina ia ioiioaiee iuoeaiey e auoeth, *a?iuoaaneee aae
ai?ueao i?ioea aaiinoeoeecia, anaaiciiaeiuo oai?ee, ooaa?aeaeaaoeo
iaiiciaaaaiinoue ie?a, yaeaiee, i?aaeiaoia.

Eaioianeee eaeaaeeci, ii iacuaae “aaieaeueii iaiooaiiie nioenoeeie”. Ii
ai?y/i aic?aaeae iiiai/eneaiiui i?aaenoaaeoaeyi oeeinioneeo oeie,
ooaa?aeaeaaoei, /oi iu ciaai ia i?aaeiaou, eaeiau iie naie ii naaa a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a eeoue iaoe iuouaiey io i?aaeiaoia, iaoe ioiioaiey
e iei. A yoeo ooaa?aeaeaieyo eaeaaeenoia *a?iuoaaneee ia aeaeae ie
ethaae e enoeia, ie aeoaieie iao/iie iunee. Ii cei iacuaae noi?iiieeia
yoeo eaeaaeenoe/aneeo oai?ee “aeaeeeie iaaeaioaie, iaaaaeanoaaiiuie
aaaeiyaaie – uaaieyie”. E ii ooaa?aeaeae a i?ioeaiaan ei, /oi iu iiciaai
i?aaeiaou oaeeie, eaeiau iie ia naiii aeaea.

Iieiaeei, iu aeaeei aea?aai. Ae?oaie /aeiaae niio?eo ia yoio aea
i?aaeiao. Acaeyioa a aeaca yoiio “ae?oaiio /aei – aaeo” oaeaeei, /oi a
aeacao o iaai oi aea?aai ecia?aaeaaony niaa?oaiii oaeei, eaeei iu
aeaeei aai. Aeaa ea?oeiu niaa?oaiii iaeeiaeiaua: iaeio iu aeaeei i?yii,
ae?oaoth – a ca?eaea aeac oiai, ae?oaiai /aeiaaea. Yoa ae?oaay ea?oeia
– aa?iay eiiey ia?aie. ?acieoeu iaaeaeo aeaoiy ea?oeiaie iao. Aeac
ie/aai ia i?eaaaeyao e ia oaaaeyao. Ii, auoue iiaeao, iaoa “aioo?aiiaa
/oanoai” eee iaoa “aeooa” ia?aaeaeuaaao /oi-ieaoaeue a oie, ae?oaie
ea?oeia? Ionoue oio, ae?oaie /aeiaae, iienuaaao, /oi ii aeaeeo.
Ieacuaaaony, A=A; A=N. Neaaeiaaoaeueii A=N, iiaeeeiiee e eiiey
iaeeiaeiau. Iaoa iuouaiea iaeeiaeiai n eiieae. Iaoa ciaiea i iaoai
iuouaiee – iaeii e oi aea n iaoei caaieai i i?aaeiaoa. Iu aeaeei
i?aaeiaou, eaeeie iie aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaotho. E *a?iuoaaneee
oiiaeiaeyao eaeaaeenoia, i?eaea?aeeaathueony oi/ee c?aiey
iaiiciaaaaiinoe /aeiaa/aneei iuoeaieai i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee, ioaeeeo ec
neacee, ona?aeii ?oayuaio noe, ia eioi?ii ii neaeeo.

E?eoeea eaeaaeenoia.

*a?iuoaaneee aue iineaaeiaaoaeueiui iaoa?eaeenoii. Aaaeiaeoea yeaiaiou
aai oeeinioneiai ie?iaicc?aiey- ai?ueaa i?ioea eaeaaeecia , ca i?eciaiea
iaoa?eaeueiinoe ie?a, ia?ae/iinoue i?e?iaeu e i?eciaiea /aeiaa/aneiai
iuoeaiey io?aaeaieai iauaeoeaiie, ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
“aio?iiieiae/aneee i?eioeei a oeeinioee”, ai?ueaa i?ioea aaiinoeoeecia,
ca i?eciaiea iiciaaaaiinoe i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee.

*a?iuoaaneee iaoa?eaeenoe/anee ?aoae iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee, aii?in
ia ioiioaiee iuoeaiey e auoeth. Ii, ioaa?aay eaeaaeenoe/aneia o/aiea i
i?aainoiaenoaa aeooa iaae i?e?iaeie, ooaa?aeaeae ia?ae/iinoue i?e?iaeu,
iaoneiaeaiiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey ?aaeueiui auoeai, eioi?ia eiaao
naith iniiao a naiii naaa.

E?iiece?oy, ii ieoao ii aae?ano iaiaoeeeo eaeaaeenoia e eo
iineaaeiaaoaeae a ?innee, a naiae noaouea” Aicauoaiiia e eiie/aneia”:
“…I?iieoeaoaeueiinoue oia a oii e ninoieo, /oiau iiieiaoue oaiiia, e
aio aaeeeea oiu iai?yaatho ana naie oneeey, /oiau i?iynieoue yoo
eaeath, e ia/eiatho iai oieeiaaoue ia “aaniethoa”. Eiaaea neeoeii
iai?yaeaii c?aiea, ia?aae iaoeie aeacaie ia/eiatho iineoueny i?ec?aee,
eee, iii?inoo aiai?y, o ian ia/eiaao ?yaeoue a aeacao. Oae e aaeeeei…
oiai Oaeeeiaa e Aaaaey (iniaaiii Aaaaeue iaeaaeae aeaenoaeoaeueii
no?aoiith neeith oia), iia?oaeaiiui a iai?yaeaiiia nica?oeaiea oaiiie
ionoiou neiaa “aanietho”, yaeeny, iaeiiaoe, oaioii, iaeiiio iaeei,
ae?oaiio ae?oaie. Iie iiiyee “aanietho” e ia/aee iauyniyoue aai. N
iaeiie noi?iiu, oaeaeathuay neea aaieaeueiiai oia, n ae?oaie – nouae
ia?aae naiei niaith neacaoue: “y ia a neeao iiiyoue oiai, /oi iiieiaao,
ii aai neiaai, i/aiue ynii aaiee”, auee i?e/eiith, /oi ii/oe anai
iieacaeinue aoaeoi au “oaia?ue aanietho iauyniai, eaeay aaniethoiiai
noaea ynia”, e ionoia neiai noaei e?aaoaieueiui eaiiai oeeinioneeo
iiaiee”.

A naieo noaoueyo “E?eoe/aneee acaeyae ia nia?aiaiiia ynoaoe/aneia
iiiyoea”, “Eiie/aneia e o?aae/aneia” e ae?oaeo *a?iuoaaneee, auniaeaae
eaeaaeenoe/aneea oeeinioneea nenoaiu ca eo ionoioo e iee/aiiinoue, ca
eo ioi?aaiiinoue io aeecie ia?iaea, io iio?aaiinoae iauanoaaiiiai
?acaeoey, iieacuaae, oi yoe nenoaiu ia auaea?aeaee iaoenea
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneeo aicc?aiee, iiaaaeiiinii ooaa?aeaeathueony a
oeeinioee, a iaoea.

“Eaeaaeeci,– ienae ii,– ainiiaenoaiaae a iaiaoeeie oeeinioee aei
iineaaeiaai a?aiaie, iineaaeiei aaeeeei i?aaenoaaeoaeai eioi?ie aue
Aaaaeue, Oaia?ue oeeinioneea nenoaiu, iniiauaathueany ia eaeaaeecia e
iaeiinoi?iiiai nie?eooaeecia, ?ac?ooaiu…». E?eoeeoy aaaaeaaneoth
oeeinioeth, *a?iuoaaneee oai naiui ia oieueei iaiinee oaea? ii
eaeaaeecio, ii e ?aciaea/ee ?aaeoeeiiioth nouiinoue eaeaaeenoe/aneiai
ie?iaicc?aiey eeaa?aeueii-iiia?oe/aneiai eaaa?y.

Oai?ey ?acoiiiai yaiecia

Aeey naiaai a?aiaie, eae e any oeeinioey *a?iuoaaneiai, iia aeaaiui
ia?acii iai?aaeaia i?ioea eaeaaeecia, ?aeeaee, aiaineianeie ii?aee.

A naieo oeeinioneeo iino?iaieyo *a?iuoaaneee i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi
“/aeiaae ethaeo i?aaeaea anaai nai naay”. Ii – yaieno, e yaieci –
iiaoaeaeaiea, oi?aaeythuaa aeaenoaeyie /aeiaaea.

E ii oeacuaaao ia enoi?e/aneea i?eia?u /aeiaa/aneiai aanei?unoey e
naiiiiaea?oaiaaiey. Yiiaaeiee a?inaaony a e?aoa?, /oiau naeaeaoue
iao/iia ioe?uoea. Eoe?aoeey ii?aaeaao naay eeiaeaeii, /oiau nianoe naith
/anoue. E *a?iuoaaneee aiai?eo, /oi, eae ?aiueoa ia iiaee iauynieoue ec
iaeiiai iao/iiai i?eioeeia iaeiiai caeiia, iaaeaiea eaiiy ia caieth e
iiaeiyoea ia?a aaa?o io caiee, oae ia auei iao/iuo n?aaenoa iauynieoue
iaeiei caeiiii yaeaiey, iiaeiaiua i?eaaaeaiiui auoa i?eia?ai. E ii
n/eoaao iaiaoiaeeiui naaaeaiea anao, /anoi i?ioeai?a/eauo, /aeiaa/aneeo
iinooieia e aaeeiiio i?eioeeio.

*a?iuoaaneee enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi a iiaoaeaeaieyo /aeiaaea iao aeaoo
?acee/iuo iaoo?, a ana ?aciiia?acea /aeiaa/aneeo iiaoaeaeaiee e
aeaenoaeth, eae e ai anae /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, i?ienoiaeeo ec iaeiie e
oie aea iaoo?u, ii iaeiiio e oiio aea caeiio.

E yoio caeii – ?acoiiue yaieci.

A iniiaa ?aciiia?aciuo /aeiaa/aneeo iinooieia eaaeeo

iuneue /aeiaaea i aai ee/iie iieueca, ee/iii aeaaa. *a?iuoaaneee oae
a?aoiaioe?oao naith oai?eth:“Anee ioae e aeaia aeeee iaaeaeo niaie
oi?ioi, – ?annoaeaeaao ii, – aeaia ene?aiia e aeoaiei ia/aeeony i
nia?oe ioaea, ii eae iia au?aaeaao naith ia/aeue? “Ia eiai ou iaiy
iieeioe? *oi y aoaeo aac oaay aeaeaoue? Aac oaay iia oioii aeeoue ia
naaoa!” A neiaao: “iaiy, y, iia” *a?iuoaaneee aeaeeo niune aeaeiau,
enoiee ia/aee. Iiaeiaii aea, ii iiaieth *a?iuoaaneiai, aua aieaa
aunieia /oanoai, /oanoai iaoa?e e ?aaaieo. Aa iea/ i nia?oe ?aaaiea
oaeie aea: “Eae y oaay ethaeea!” Yaienoe/aneoth iniiao aeaeeo
*a?iuoaaneee e a naiie iaaeiie ae?oaeaa. E eiaaea /aeiaae ?aaee
ethaeiiai i?aaeiaoa aea?oaoao naiae aeeciueth, oi e oiaaea, ii aai
iiaieth, iniiaaieai neoaeeo ee/iue ?an/ao eee ii?ua yaiecia.

O/aiua, iacuaaaiua iau/ii oaiaoeeaie, aac?acaeaeueii i?aaeaaoea naay
enneaaeiaaieyi, niaa?oeee, eiia/ii, eae aeoiaao e *a?iuoaaneee, aaeeeee
iiaeaea. Ii e caeanue ii oniao?eaaao yaienoe/aneia /oanoai,
oaeiaeaoai?eoue eioi?ia i?eyoii. Neeueiaeoay no?anoue aa?ao aa?o iaae
aea/aieyie iaiaa neeueiuie e i?eiineo eo naaa a aea?oao.

Enoiaey ec oaea?aaoianeeo aano?aeoiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i /aeiaa/aneie
i?e?iaea, *a?iuoaaneee iieaaae, /oi naiae oai?eae ?acoiiiai yaiecia ii
aicaaee/eaaao /aeiaaea. Ii o?aaiaae io /aeiaaea, /oiau ee/iua,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua eioa?anu ia ?anoiaeeeenue au n iauanoaaiiuie, ia
i?ioeai?a/eee ei, iieueca e aeaao anaai iauanoaa, a niaiaaeaee n ieie,
niioaaonoaiaaee ei. Oieueei oaeie ?acoiiue yaieci ii i?eieiae e
i?iiiaaaeiaae. Ii aicauoae oao, eoi oioae auoue “aiieia /aeiaaeii”,
eoi, caaioynue i nianoaaiiii aeaaininoiyiee, ethaee e ae?oaeo ethaeae,
aae iieacioth aeey iauanoaa aeayoaeueiinoue e no?aieeny ai?ioueny i?ioea
cea. Ii ?anniao?eaae “oai?eth ?acoiiiai yaiecia eae ii?aeueioth oai?eth
“iiauo ethaeae”.

Aeaeeia?aoey

A.A. Aaneaeia “Ie?iaicc?aiea *a?iuoaaneiai”

I. Iiae/ “AEeciue *a?iuoaaneiai”

I.A. Oannei “*a?iuoaaneee a Ai?ueaa ca nioeeaeenoe/aneia aoaeouaa
?innee”

I.A. *a?iuoaaneee “Eca?aiiua ni/eiaiey”

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