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Философские проблемы геосистем

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Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Yeaeo?ioaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao

Eaoaae?a oeeinioee

?AOA?AO

ia oaio:

“Oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu aainenoai”

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a

1998

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea
2

1. I?iaeaia nenoaiiie ia?aaeeaiu a i?e?iaeiuo aainenoaiao
6

2. Oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneeo aainenoaiao 17

3. I?iaeaiu acaeiiaeaenoaey anoanoaiciaiey (iniaaiii aaia?aoee) e
oaoie/aneeo iaoe
20

Caeeth/aiea
28

Eeoa?aoo?a
29

Aaaaeaiea

Ioaeaeueiua iaoee, eco/ay caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey ?aciuo no?oeoo?
ieaiaou, inouanoaeytho yoi ia iniiaa ia anao eiathueony oaeoia, a eeoue
iaoiaeyueony a nayce n iniaaiiinoyie nianoaaiiiai iauaeoa eco/aiey –
oai?aoe/aneiai ia?aca eco/aaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. I?aaenoaaeaiea ia
iauaeoa – enoiaeiue ioieo eaaeaeie iaoee, ?acoeueoao iaiauaiey
niaieoiiinoe aeaiiuo, auyaeaiey iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iuneaiiiai aeieacaoaeueiiai iainiaeaiey eo ai
anaiauae i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiie nayce n oeaeueth aieaa oaeoaeaiiiai
eco/aiey. Ana oai?ee e iaoiaeeee, ?ac?aaioaiiua a ?aieao ioaeaeueiie
iaoee, io?aaeatho caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey oieueei yoie /anoe
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Iauaeou iiciaiey – iuneaiiua ia?acu yaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, – eae
i?aaeei, eco/athony iiiaeie iaoeaie. A iaeaieueoae noaiaie yoi
i/aaeaeii, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i Caiea a oeaeii e i eiiieaena aiaoieo
iaiei/ae ieaiaou. A nayce n yoei iaaeaeo iaoeaie neeaaeuaaaony
naiaia?aciia “?acaeaeaiea o?oaea”: eaaeaeay ec ieo eco/aao
ii?aaeaeaiioth no?oeoo?o ioiioaiee a iauaeoa eee a nayce n iei –
acaeiinaycue ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiiiiiaio, i?ioeannia e o.ae. Ia yoie iniiaa
oaeaea oi?ie?oaony iuneaiiue ia?ac eco/aaiie /anoe aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe –
i?aaeiao iaoee.

Oaeei ia?acii, iauaeo e i?aaeiao iaoee acaeiinaycaiu. Iaeiaei aeey ieo
oa?aeoa?ii e aua iaeii naienoai: ii ia?a ?acaeoey ciaiey, eiie?aoecaoeee
enoiaeiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee, niaea?aeaiea i?aaenoaaeaiey ia iauaeoa e
i?aaeiaoa iaiyaony. Ia ?aciuo yoaiao iiciaiey o iaeiie e oie aea iaoee
aeaaea i?e ioiineoaeueii onoie/eaii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eco/aaiii
yaeaiee ieacuaathony ?aciua i?aaenoaaeaiey ia iauaeoa e i?aaeiaoa.

Niaeanii nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi, aaia?aoey, ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie
iaoeaie i Caiea, eco/aao eiiieaen aiaoieo iaiei/ae ieaiaou. Yoi – aa
iauaeo. Iaeiaei yoi e iauaeo anao iaoe i Caiea. A ii ia?a oiai eae
oaeoaeyaony yeieiae/aneee e?ecen, yoio eiiieaen – caiiie “aeii
/aeiaa/anoaa” (4, n.7) – ana a aieueoae noaiaie noaiiaeony iauaeoii
eco/aiey aaeaa ee ia anao nouanoaothueo iaoe e, aieaa oiai, ii?iaeaeaao
iiaua. I?aaeiaoii aaia?aoe/aneiai eco/aiey a yoii acaeiiaeaenoaee iaoe
ia ?aiieo yoaiao yaeyeanue aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ninoiyiee eiiieaena, a
nae/an aai oa??eoi?eaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey.

Eco/aiea nenoaiu “iauanoai-i?e?iaea”, naycae e i?ioeannia a iae o?aaoao
i?eaea/aiey iiiaeo iao/iuo iai?aaeaiee, eniieueciaaiey nenoaiiiai
iiaeoiaea. Anoanoaaiiua, oaoie/aneea, e iauanoaaiiua iaoee eco/atho
acaeiinayce i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa n ?acee/iuo noi?ii.

Oe?ieee e?oa oaoie/aneeo iaoe aaaeao, i?aaeaea anaai, iiene e ?ac?aaioeo
iiauo oaoiieiae/aneeo nenoai e ?aoeeiiaeueiie iaei- eee aaciooiaeiie
oaoiieiaee. Anoanoaaiiua iaoee, oaeaea eae e eani- e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua, ?ac?aaaouaatho iooe iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey e io?aiu caiaeue io aeaa?aaeaoeee, ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey ei?iiauo e eaniuo ?ano?nia. Iaaeeoeeineea iaoee
?anniao?eaatho ia?aiao?u ii?iaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey /aeiaa/aneiai
i?aaiecia, aiciiaeiinoe yai aaeaioaoeee e ?acee/iui oneiaeyi n?aaeu,
iaoieiae/aneea ioeeiiaiey, aucuaaaiua iaaeaaii?eyoiuie oneiaeyie n?aaeu,
iooe e niiniau eo ono?aiaiey.

Anoanoaaiiua iaoee – aeieiae/aneea, aaieiae/aneea – iniiaiia aieiaiea
oaeaeytho auyaeaieth iineaaenoaee aicaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo oi?i
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e oaoieee ia ?aciiia?aciua i?e?iaeiua
yaeaiey e i?ioeannu. Iie eco/atho – eaaeaeay a naiae iaeanoe – nenoaio
oeaiiuo ?aaeoeee ia yoe aicaeaenoaey, aiaeece?otho iaoaieciu i?e?iaeiuo
aaeainia aauanoaa e yia?aee, naii?acaeoey e naii?aaoee?iaaiey i?e?iaeu,
anoanoaaiiuo aeeiaie/aneeo ?aaiiaanee; auyaeytho aiciiaeiinoe auyaeaiey
eee i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee a oeaeyo oeo/oaiey ie?oaeathuae
/aeiaaea n?aaeu.

?ieue ciaiee i no?iaiee, aeeiaieea e yaiethoeee i?e?iaeiuo iauaeoia, i
iiyaeaiee a ieo ?acee/iuo i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia e yaeaiee a i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio
eniieueciaaieth i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia iaecia?eii aaeeea.

Aianoa n oai ciaiey yoe iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe eeoue n iiiiuueth oaoie/aneeo iaoe, caaea/a eioi?uo
nicaeaiea oaeeo nenoai e eiiieaenia, eioi?ua iicaieytho /aeiaaeo aeeoue
eo/oa a caei?iaie e e?aneaie i?e?iaeiie eee i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneie
n?aaea.

N iiceoeee nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue – ie?oaeathuay
/aeiaaea n?aaea – ?anniao?eaaaony eae nenoaia. I?eiaieoaeueii e iauaeoai
caiiie i?e?iaeu iu aiai?ei i aaia?aoe/aneeo nenoaiao – aainenoaiao.
Neiai yoi ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae “aaia?aoe/aneay” e “nenoaia”.
Eniieueciaaiiia a ea/anoaa ?iaeiaiai iiiyoea “nenoaia” icia/aao
“niaieoiiinoue iauaeoia, iaoiaeyueony a ioiioaieyo e naycyo iaaeaeo
niaie e ia?acothueo ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaeinoiinoue, aaeeinoai”. Aeaeiaia
iiiyoea “aaia?aoe/aneay” iaicia/aao i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e Caiea, iaee/ea
oa??eoi?eaeueiie oii?yaei/aiiinoe. ?acee/atho aainenoaiu, ninoiyuea
oieueei yeaiaioia i?e?iaeu – i?e?iaeiua aainenoaiu; e ninoiyuea ec
yeaiaioia i?e?iaeu, ianaeaiey e oicyenoaa – eioaa?aeueiua aainenoaiu.

Aainenoaia i?e?iaeiay – yoi o/anoie caiiie iiaa?oiinoe, aaea ioaeaeueiua
eiiiiiaiou i?e?iaeu iaoiaeyony a oaniie acaeiinayce ae?oa n ae?oaii, e
eioi?ue eae oeaeia acaeiiaeaenoaoao n ninaaeieie o/anoeaie, einie/aneie
noa?ie e /aeiaa/aneei iauanoaii. I?e?iaeiua aainenoaiu iiaoo eiaoue
?acee/iua ?acia?u.

Eioaa?aeueiay aainenoaia – yoi neiaeiia oa??eoi?eaeueiia ia?aciaaiea
(i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiia), aeeth/athuaa a naay oaeea yeaiaiou
(iiaenenoaiu) eae i?e?iaea, ianaeaiea, oicyenoai; eee i?e?iaea e
iauanoai (a eioi?ia aeeth/aaony ianaeaiea e oicyenoai) n aai ?acee/iuie
aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe (i?iecaiaenoaaiiie, eoeueoo?iie, auoiaie,
?ae?aaoeeiiiie). Eioaa?aeueiua aainenoaiu iaeaaeatho aeaienoaaiiie
ea/anoaaiiie i?e?iaeie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, nio?aiyy i?e?iaeiua naienoaa,
iie ?acaeaathony e aeeaoo ii i?e?iaeiui caeiiai; n ae?oaie noi?iiu iie
eiatho ea/anoaa nioeeaeueiua, iauanoaaiiua, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony,
i?aaeaea anaai, caeiiaie ?acaeoey iauanoaa. Eioaa?aeueiua aainenoaiu
eiatho ?acee/iua ?acia?u e o?iaie neiaeiinoe.

I?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneay aainenoaia – yoi aa?eaio (aeae) eioaa?aeueiie
aainenoaiu, a eioi?ie ia ia?aue ieai auoiaeeo acaeiiaeaenoaea i?e?iaeu e
oaoieee. I?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneay aainenoaia – eiiieaen oaoie/aneeo nenoai
e i?e?iaeiuo aainenoai, iauaaeei?iiuo a eioa?anao auiieiaiey aaeeiie
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie caaea/e. Iiae i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneeie
aainenoaiaie iiieiathony ia oieueei oaeea aainenoaiu, a eioi?uo
oaoie/aneea ono?ienoaa aunooiatho eae iaiin?aaenoaaiiue yeaiaio nenoaiu
(eae, iai?eia?, a oaoie/aneeo nenoaiao), ii e oaeea, aeayoaeueiinoue
eioi?uo a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeyaony eneonnoaaiiuie oneiaeyie,
nicaeaaaaiuie a ?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey oao eee eiuo oaoie/aneeo
n?aaenoa (iai?eia?, naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo, eanioicyenoaaiiuo,
i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo)

I?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneea aainenoaiu, eee aaioaonenoaiu – yoi eiiaeiaoeee
i?oaeee e n?aaenoa o?oaea, naycaiiua aaeeiui oaoiieiae/aneei oeeeeii e
auiieiythuea ii?aaeaeaiioth oaoiieiae/aneoth ooieoeeth. Oaoieea a
aaioaonenoaia eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth nioeeaeueioth ooieoeeth, aunooiay,
eae naiaia?aciue iaoaieci, iicaieythuee iauanoao i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, a n ae?oaie i?eniiniaeoue i?e?iaeo e
oaeiaeaoai?aieth naieo iio?aaiinoae.

1. I?iaeaia nenoaiiie ia?aaeeaiu a i?e?iaeiuo aainenoaiao

N?aaee i?e?iaeiuo nenoai a ie?oaeathuae /aeiaaea n?aaea iniaoth ?ieue
ea?atho i?e?iaeiua aainenoaiu. Aoaeo/e oeaeinoiu e aianoa n oai aeaeeiu
ia iiae/ei?iiua nenoaiu e iiaenenoaiu, iie ioaaouaatho anth iiaa?oiinoue
ieaiaou e ia?yaeo n yoei a ea/anoaa aaoiiiiiiai o?aaiaioa
naiinoiyoaeueii ooieoeeiie?otho ia iaaieueoii, aiieia iaic?eiii
i?ino?ainoaa.

“Enoi?ey oece/aneiai ie?inica?oeaiey, – ienae A.Aoiaieueo (1, n.10) –
anoue enoi?ey iiciaiey oeaeinoiinoe i?e?iaeu”, i?aaenoaaeaiea i eioi?ie
/aeiaa/anoai iinoeaaei iiyoaiii. Ia?aiia/aeueii ana naiaeeeinue e
iiciaieth nouanoaiaaiey eiiiiiaioia i?e?iaeu, a aeaeueiaeoai a ?aciuo
aniaeoao ?ac?aaaouaaeanue eiioeaioeey ia eo acaeiiaeaenoaee e
acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoe. Iaeaieueoaai iiieiaiey i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu
/aeiaa/anoai aeinoeaei, eniieuecoy i?eioeeiu iauae oai?ee nenoai,
?acaeoea eioi?ie naycaii n eiaiai Ethaeaeaa Aa?oaeaiae?e (1901-1971).
Iiaay eiioeaioeey iaania/eea i?aaenoaaeaiea i aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaea eae
ia ea?a?oe/aneie nenoaia, oeaeinoiie naiie ii naaa e aeaeaiiie ia
iiae/eiaiiua oeaeinoiinoe.

Nenoaiiay ia?aaeeaia ioe?uea ia?aae aaia?aoeae iiaua ia?niaeoeau.
Ii-iiaiio noae o?aeoiaaoueny e?oaiai?io noanoaioeee a aaia?aoe/aneie
iaiei/ea. Iiaia o?aeoiaaiea iieo/ee i?ioeann eciaiaiey eiee/anoaa
yio?iiee e iaayio?iiee a eaiaeoaooiie n?aaea. Ia aaca nenoaiiiai
iiaeoiaea ii-iiaiio noaee aini?eieiaoueny i?aaenoaaeaiey i
i?aia?aciaaoaeueiie e noaaeeece?othuae aeeiaieea aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaeu.
N ia/aea 1960-o aa. ooaa?aeeeinue iiiyoea i aaineoaiao e ia/aei
nicaeaaaoueny o/aiea i ieo, iiaeioeaoaa iiiaia ec iaeiieaiiiai ?aiaa
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaieai, iaeiaei iaiaei i?aaeieo i?aaenoaaeaiee i
eaiaeoaooao iioa?yei i?e yoii naia cia/aiea.

I?e iiaa?oiinoiii iiaeoiaea aainenoaiu n/eoatho eiiaaea neiiieiii
aaia?aoe/aneiai eiiieaena, /oi niaa?oaiii ia niioaaonoaoao niaea?aeaieth
yoeo iiiyoee e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui oa?ieiieiae/aneei ii?iai: ie ia iaeiii
ycuea, iia?e?othuai iao/iuie iiiyoeyie, eiiieaen ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae
neiiiei nenoaiu e niuneiaie ithain iaaeaeo yoeie oa?ieiaie iau/ii ia
inia?eaaaony. Iiaeoiae n iiceoeee iauae oai?ee nenoai – aio /oi
oa?aeoa?ii aeey o/aiey i aainenoaiao; yoi ia auei naienoaaiii
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaieth ia?aie iieiaeiu iuiaoiaai aaea. Ii n?aaiaieth n
eaiaeoaooiaaaeaieai i?ioeiai o/aiea i aainenoaiao a cia/eoaeueii
aieueoae noaiaie eiaao yeieiae/aneoth iai?aaeaiiinoue a niunea
i?eaioaoeee ia yeieiae/aneea oneiaey n?aaeu iaeoaiey. Iaaeaeo oai aei
iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie eaioaooiaaaeaiea ?acaeaaeinue i?aeiouanoaaiii ia eeoi
aaiiie iniiaa e ia auei noieue yanoaaiii ono?aieaii e auyaeaieth, naycae
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu n /aeiaa/aneei iauanoaii e eco/aieth aa yeieiae/aneeo
naienoa.

Oeaio?aeueiui ?acaeaeii o/aiey i aainenoaiao yaeyaony eco/aiea aeeiaieee
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, eioi?ia ioe?uaaao i?yiua iooe iao/iiai iiciaiey
aeeyiey /aeiaaea ia no?oeoo?o e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aainenoai, iiiiaaao
ane?uoue iaoaieci aio?iiiaaiiuo aicaeaenoaee ia i?e?iaeo.

Nenoaiiay ia?aaeeaia ioe?uea aiciiaeiinoue ia?aniio?aoue eiae/aneea
iniiau o/aiey eaiaeoaooiie noa?a e /aoei ia?aie/eoue caaea/e oece/aneie
aaia?aoee io io?aneaauo aaia?aoe/aneeo aeenoeeieei. Naeeaeaiea n
yeieiaeae eaeao iai?a?uaii.

Ni a?aiai I. Eiiiiiniaa e E. Eaioa (1724-1804) oece/aneay aaia?aoey
ioii/eiaaea io naay oeaeue ?yae iao/iuo aeenoeeieei: eae inoaaoeony a
e?oao aaia?aoe/aneeo iaoe (aeae?ieiaey), oae e ioioaaeoeo e oece/aneei
(iaoai?ieiaey) eee aaieiae/aneei (aaiii?oieiaey). Oo?aoa /anoe
niaea?aeaiey ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy iieieaaaea iieiaeaiea oece/aneie
aaia?aoee a aeaaeaie/aneeo noa?ao e aa aaoi?eoao a oieaa?neoaoao.
Iaeiaei, aace?oynue ia o/aiee i aainenoaiao, a oaeaea a nayce n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?aoaiey caaea/ io?aiu e iioeiecaoeee ie?oaeathuae
/aeiaaea n?aaeu, oece/aneay aaia?aoey niiaa i?eia?aoaao iniiaaiey
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia noaa?aieoao e ia?ainoaiaiioth ?ieue a eco/aiee e?oaa
i?iaeai, aieiothueo /aeiaa/anoai. O/aiea i aainenoaiao ioiineony e
iaeiie ec iniiaiiieaaathueo aeenoeeieei i?eeeaaeiie iaoee aoaeouaai i
i?eioeeiao e iaoiaeao eciaiaiey caiiie iiaa?oiinoe a ioaeiii aeey
/aeiaaea iai?aaeaiee.

Aeey iiciaiey eaiaeoaooiie noa?u iniaaiii nouanoaaiia eeanneoeeaoeey aa
iiae?acaeaeaiee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iia iniiauaaaony ia ii?oieiae/aneeo e
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iieacaoaeyo, a oaeaea iiae?acaeaeaiee aainenoai ia
ei?aiiua, i?iecaiaeiua e ?aciiai ?iaea eo ia?aiaiiua ninoiyiey. Iaeaieaa
e?oiiia, /oi i?eaianaii ca iineaaeiaa a?aiy a i?iaeaio eaiaeoaooiie
eeanneoeeaoeee, – yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eiaa?eaioa aainenoai.

Eiioeaioeee eiaa?eaioa, i?eoaaeoae ec iaoaiaoeee, noaeaeaii nua?aoue a
oece/aneie aaia?aoee ia iaiueooth ?ieue, /ai iia oaea nua?aea a
e?enoaeeia?aoee e iniaaiii a o/aiee ia aneiiao?ee, eioi?ia iniiauaaaony
ia aeaoo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ia/aeao: i?aia?aciaaiee (eciaiaiee) e
nio?aiaiee (eiaa?eaioa). Iiaeiaii oiio, eae e a ie?a e?enoaeeia, a
aaia?aoe/aneie iaiei/ea i?ienoiaeyo iinoiyiiua i?aia?aciaaiey e aianoa n
oai nio?aiythony iaeioi?ua naienoaa, eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe yaeythony
eiaa?eaioii ii ioiioaieth e ii?aaeaeaiiui naeaeaai ai a?aiaie e
i?ino?ainoaa.

Oieueei iooai auyaeaiey yoeo nio?aiythueony yeaiaioia e eo naycae iu a
ninoiyiee iino?ieoue eeanneoeeaoeeth aainenoai, ioia?aaeathuoth caeiiu,
aeaenoaothuea a i?e?iaeiie n?aaea e ii?iaeaeathuea aa i?aia?aciaaiey.

Iaoa aieiaiea /anoi i?eaeaeatho i?aa?auaiey a i?e?iaeiie a n?aaea a
i?aaeaeao iaeiiai eiaa?eaioa, aucaaiiua iiiaeie, ia?aaeei neo/aeiuie
aicaeaenoaeyie /aeiaaea. Eiia/ii, eo iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue. Iaeiaei
eco/aiea yoeo neo/aeiuo i?iyaeaiee ia aeieaeii eeoaoue ian aiciiaeiinoe
iinoe/ue ooiaeaiaioaeueiua caeiiiia?iinoe i?e?iaeu. *aeiaae aeaaii
no?aieony aano?aae?iaaoue caeiiu i?e?iaeu io neo/aeiiai n oai, /oiau
iaeaieaa iieii auynieoue e iiciaoue eo.

I?ino?ainoaaiiue aeeaiacii nia?aiaiiie aaia?aoee ii n?aaiaieth n i?ioeui
cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eeny e oaeoaeeny. Nei?inoiua n?aaenoaa nayce e
i?aeoaeueiua iaaethaeaiey i?aaeinoaaeee iaaeaeaiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey
enneaaeiaaiee a ieaiaoa?iii ianooaaa, cia/aiea eioi?uo oneeeeinue
aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth aaioece/aneie aiia?aoo?u. Niiinoaaeaiea
?acee/iuo oaiaoe/aneeo ea?o ie?a ioe?uei iiaua ia?niaeoeau
aaia?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca. Caiaoei, iaeiaei, /oi naia ii naaa caaea/a
auyaeaiey ieaiaoa?iuo caeiiiia?iinoae yaeyaony eeiiiie aeey aaia?aoee, a
iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann eeoue iaania/ee aa inouanoaeaiea ia
ea/anoaaiii iiaii e ian?aaiaiii aieaa aunieii o?iaia.

Anaai yoiai iaeuecy neacaoue i eiiieaeniuo aaia?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo
ia iaaieueoeo i?ino?ainoaao, i oae iacuaaaiuo aaioiiieiae/aneeo
ecuneaieyo, eioi?ua ii nouanoao auee /oaeaeu oece/aneie aaia?aoee
i?ioeiai e i?iaiaeeeenue eeoue io?aneaauie aaia?aoe/aneeie
aeenoeeieeiaie. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaia?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ia
oiiieiae/aneii o?iaia iieo/eee ie?iaia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ?acee/iuo
no?aiao. A nayce n yoei oaea aicieeei iiiai iaoiaee/aneeo, oai?aoe/aneeo
e i?eeeaaeiuo aii?inia, iiaeeaaeaueo ianoaeaeaieth.

Oiiieiae/aneea aniaeou a aaia?aoee eiatho aieueoia cia/aiea aeey ?aoaiey
iiiaeo aii?inia, eanathueony niiioaiiie e aio?iiiaaiiie aeeiaieee
aainenoai, iiciaiey yeieiae/aneeo ?aaeeiia caiaeue e ae?oaeo aaaeiaeoeo
iniaaiiinoae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. Io enneaaeiaaiee ia oiiieiae/aneii
o?iaia iaaei iaeeaeaoue, i?aaeaea anaai, auyaeaiey eiaa?eaioa aainenoai.
Yoe enneaaeiaaiey ioe?uaatho iooe e aeey eiee/anoaaiiuo iaoiaeia ioeaiee
iiaeaee?iaaiey aaia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia e no?oeoo?. Iaeiiaoe, n ieie
naycaiu iiiaea iiaua iao/ii-i?aaiecaoeeiiiua aii?inu, a /anoiinoe
i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a aaia?aoe/aneeo noaoeeiia?ia, ia eioi?uo
aaaeaony ?ac?aaioea iooae caueou aeinoa?u, a oaeaea i?eioeeiia e
iaoiaeia iioeiecaoeee ie?oaeathuae /aeiaaea n?aaeu. Anee ia?aua
?acoeueoaou ?aaio ia oiiieiae/aneii o?iaia eacaeenue aeaeaeeie io
?aaeiiaeueiuo aaia?aoe/aneeo i?iaeai, oi ii ia?a aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey
oaeeo ?aaio ii?aaeaeeeenue aiciiaeiinoe eo ?aaeiiaeueiie eioa?i?aoaoeee.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeooaeueioth i?iaeaio,
iineieueeo niinianoaoao ?anoe?aieth i?eiaiaiey oi/iuo iaoiaeia a
aaia?aoee e aiciiaeiinoe yenia?eiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee enoiaeiuo
oai?aoe/aneeo iieiaeaiee.

O?aaeeoeeiiiua aeey aaia?aoee ?aaeiiaeueiua i?iaeaiu i?e nenoaiiii e iei
iiaeoiaea oaeaea iaia?oaeeaatho iiaua oi/ee ?inoa. I?ino?ainoaaiiue
aiaeec aainenoai euao iaoiaeu i?eaieaiua aeey ?aoaiey iac?aaoeo caaea/.
Ii?aaeaeaiiua ?acoeueoaou iieo/aiu i?e ?aaeiiaeueiie eioa?i?aoaoeee
enneaaeiaaiee ii iaoiaeo eiiieaeniie i?aeeiaoeee, i?ecaaiiiio
nenoaiaoece?iaaoue nayce iaaeaeo eiiiiiaioaie aainenoaiu ia noaoe/aneie
iniiaa. Iino?iaiey oaeoi?eaeueiuo e ?aciiai ?iaea aeeiaie/aneeo ?yaeia
oaeaea yaeythony aeaenoaaiiuie i?eaiaie i?ino?ainoaaiiiai aiaeeca.
Iineaaeiee caeeth/aao iiieii i?i/aai aeaiiua ia ono?ienoaa ioaeaeueiuo
?aaeiiia e ?aciiia?aciuo eo ni/aoaiee.

Eiioeaioeey aainenoai iicaieyao naeeceoue caaea/e i?ino?ainoaaiiiai e
ooieoeeiiaeueiiai aiaeecia ia oieueei i?eiaieoaeueii e ioaeaeueiui
eaiaeoaooai, ii e a ianooaaa oaeniiiie/aneeo iiae?acaeaeaiee
ieaiaoa?iiai ii?yaeea. Ooieoeeiiaeueiue aiaeec a ei?ia i?aia?acoao
iaoiaeu e o?aaeeoeee aaia?aoee i?ioeiai e oaeo a naaa aiciiaeiinoe iiauo
iaiauaiee. Iu iiaeai iuneeoue aieueoie e?oaiai?io noanoaioeee a
aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaea eae ea?a?oeth iiae/eiaiiuo ae?oa ae?oao e eae au
aeiaeaiiuo iaeei a ae?oaie e?oaiai?ioia, inouanoaeythueony eae a
aeioeaiicao, oae e iee?i-, iaci- e iae?iaaioi?ao. Oaeniiiie/aneay oeaea
aainenoai – yoi ia iaeei oieueei oaaaeue eo ?aiaia, ii e niioiioaiea
ianooaaia eo iaoa?eaeueii-yia?aaoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe.

Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai eco/aiey aaia?aoe/aneeo i?ino?ainoa yaeyaony eae
enneaaeiaaiey a i?e?iaea, oae e nicaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaiauaiee,
io?aaeathueo oa??eoi?eaeueiua iniaaiiinoe e ooieoeeiiaeueioth no?oeoo?o
yoeo i?ino?ainoa. Yoi aeinoeaeeii iooai nicaeaiey na?ee oaiaoe/aneeo
ea?o e n iiiiuueth iiaeaee?iaaiey ae?oaiai ?iaea. Ea?oia?aoey –
ae?aaiaeoee ?acaeae iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii eeoue iaaeaaii iia
aeinoeaea ninoiyiey, i?e eioi?ii aa oaiaoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea niiaei
oaeiaeaoai?youe cai?inu o/aiey i aainenoaiao. Yoiio niinianoaiaae,
ia?yaeo n i?i/ei, ia?aoiae ea?oia?aoee a noa?o iao/iie eioi?iaoeee.
Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu oieueei i?iaeaaao naaa aei?iao a
iao/iie i?aeoeea. Aeinoieinoai iiaeaee a aa eaeiie/iinoe, a ono?aiaiee
oao aeaoaeae, eioi?ua ia iaiaauatho aa i?eioeeieaeueii, a caoooaauaatho
aeaaiaeoea caeiiiia?iinoe.

Iaeiaei i?iaeaiu ea?oia?aoe?iaaiey e iiaeaee?iaaiey ia iiaoo ?aoaoueny
iaeiicia/ii. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie oeaee ioaeiu
?acee/iua ii niaea?aeaieth e oa?aeoa?o iino?iaiey oaiaoe/aneea ea?ou. A
oaeaea ?aciua e ia?aaeei iiiaea iiaeaee. Iineaaeiea iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu aeey ?acaeaeaiey neiaeiiai ia yeaiaiou, a a ae?oaeo
neo/ayo, iaiai?io, aeey iieo/aiey neioaoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey. I/aiue
aaaeioth aniiiiaaoaeueioth ?ieue ea?atho a?aou. Eo ?ieue iniaaiii aaeeea
a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aua iao aeinoaoi/iuo aeaiiuo aeey iino?iaiey
iiaeaeae.

I?e ieaie?iaaiee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou i?aaeoniao?eaaaony e
ana ioiinyuaany e aa aiaae?aieth a i?iecaiaenoai. O/aiea i aainenoaiao
eiaao auoiae a i?aeoeeo /a?ac i?iaeoioth e ieaiiaoth aeieoiaioaoeeth, a
eioi?uo eniieuecoaony ia?a?aaioaiiay aaia?aoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey. Oaeiai
?iaea aeiiieieoaeueiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaioa, eioi?ay aoiaeeo
ninoaaiie /anoueth a aaia?aoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea, e ninoaaeyao
nouiinoue i?eeeaaeiie aaia?aoee caneoaeeaaao ananoi?iiiaai ianoaeaeaiey
a i?ia?aiiiii e iao/ii-i?aaiecaoeeiiiii ioiioaieyo.

Nia?aiaiiay aaia?aoey aeieaeia eco/aoue i?e?iaeo a nayce n /aeiaaeii;
i?iaeaiu acaeiiaeaenoaey i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa anaaaea auee e inoathony
oeaio?aeueiuie aeey aaia?aoee. Aanue aii?in a i?aaeeueiie eo iinoaiiaea
e aeaenoaaiiii ?aoaiee.

Iiuo iieacuaaao, /oi acaeiiaeaenoaea aaoiiiiiuo aaia?aoe/aneeo
iai?aaeaiee e /aoei ?aca?aie/aiiuo i?iaeai aeaao aieueoee yooaeo a
niunea eioa?i?aoaoeee e niaeaniaaiiinoe ?aoaiee, /ai
“iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue eiiieaen” oeia aaeeiie aaia?aoee (1, n.45). Aio
ii/aio ?acaeaeueiay o?aeoiaea i?e?iaeiuo aainenoai,
oa??eoi?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nenoai e oa??eoi?eaeueiuo nenoai
ianaeaiey e aiaeec eo acaeiinaycae noeeo aieaa eiino?oeoeaiua auaiaeu
i?aeoe/aneiai ii?yaeea, iaaeaee iiieiaiea aainenoai a ea/anoaa aaeeiiai
aaia?aoe/aneiai eiiieaena, ni/aoathuaai a naaa i?e?iaeo, ianaeaiea e
oicyenoai. Iaaiciiaeii io?eoeaoue naiiauoiinoue i?e?iaeiiai,
aeaiia?aoe/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai ia/ae, iioiio /oi iie ?aaeueii
nouanoaotho. Iaiaoiaeeii oieueei eaaeaeia ec ieo ?anniao?eaaoue eae
caaeneiia io aeaoo ae?oaeo iin?aaenoaii i?yiuo e ia?aoiuo,
iieiaeeoaeueiuo e io?eoeaoaeueiuo naycae. Niiinoaaeaiey i?e?iaeiiai
(oneiaey e ?ano?nu) iioaioeeaea aainenoai n ia?niaeoeaaie ?acaeoey
oa??eoi?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiiieaena aeaao cia/eoaeueii aieueoa
aeey i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, /ai oioaeueiay eo
o?aeoiaea.

Ec /enea i/aiue iiiaeo o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e o/aieth i
aainenoaiao, iaeioi?ua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eia?aoatho iniaoth ino?ioo. E
iei ioiinyony, i?aaeaea anaai, onoaiiaeaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiuo (ai anyeii
neo/aa, aeiionoeiuo) ii?i i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey. Caeanue nouanoaaiai
iiiainoi?iiiee iiaeoiae e i?iaeaia a niunea eiiieaeniinoe eniieueciaaiey
?ano?nia e o/aoa anao noi?ii aiaoaoaeuenoaa /aeiaaea a i?e?iaeiue
i?ioeann. A oeaeii aii?in i ii?iao i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey ia iiaue, ii
i?eaiu ?aoaiey aai n iiceoeee o/aiey i aainenoaiao ii/oe ia ?ac?aaioaiu,
oioy eiaiii iie iiaoo iaania/eoue ioaeiua ?acoeueoaou. A oaniie nayce n
yoie caaea/ae iaoiaeeony i?iaeaia aaia?aoe/aneiai i?iaiice?iaaiey.
Aaia?aoe/aneee i?iaiic iaiaoiaeeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae iaiouaieaioth
/anoue eaaeaeiai i?iaeoa inaiaiey iiauo oa??eoi?ee e yenieoaoaoeee
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.

Ec ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo caaea/ o/aiey i aainenoaiao, ?ann/eoaiiuo ia
ia?niaeoeao e o?aaothueo i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie oai?aoe/aneie e iaoiaee/aneie
iiaeaioiaee, iaciaai inouanoaeaiea nioai?/anoaa /aeiaaea n i?e?iaeie.
Iiae yoei iiae?acoiaaathony oneeey /aeiaaea, iai?aaeaiiua ia iiauoaiey
iieaciiai aeaenoaey nee i?e?iaeu e i?iyaeaiea anao oayueony a iae
iieaciuo aiciiaeiinoae. Iiaeiaiua ia?ii?eyoey inouanoaeiu i?e oneiaee
niaoeeaeueiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, iniiaaiiiai ia aeoaieii eco/aiee
no?oeoo?u e aeeiaie/aneeo oaiaeaioeee aainenoai. Ii naiaio oeaeaaiio
iacia/aieth nioai?/anoai n i?e?iaeie aeecei e i?aia?aciaaieth i?e?iaeu
/aeiaaeii. Iaeiaei a ia?aii neo/aa eiaaony a aeaeo ae?oaie iiaeoiae e
aeaeo e i?eioeeieaeueii ae?oaay nenoaia aiaoaoaeuenoaa a ?anii?yaeie
i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia. Iaeioi?ua aeaeu i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeu aiciiaeiu
oieueei ia ia/aeao niae?oaeanoaa n iae. A /anoiinoe, yoi ioiineony e
iiaeaea?aeaieth e iiauoaieth ynoaoe/aneeo naienoa eaiaeoaooa, /aio a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy ia/eiatho oaeaeyoue aieiaiea, iai?eia?, a ianoiinoyo
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?ae?aaoeee. Aac oaeiai iiaeoiaea iaaiciiaeia
oniaoiay ?aaeecaoeey ethauo ieaiia, eanathueony iioeiecaoeee
ie?oaeathuae /aeiaaea n?aaeu e nicaeaiey aeieain?i/iuo nenoai
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey ia iniiaa ?aaoee?othuaai i?e?iaeiiai (eee
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiiai) ?aaeeia. *ai oe?a e ?aciinoi?iiiaa aoaeoo
i?aeoeeiaaoueny yoe ia?ii?eyoey, oai aieueoaa cia/aiea aoaeoo
i?eia?aoaoue acaeiiioiioaiey /aeiaaea n i?e?iaeie ia iniiaa
nioai?/anoaa.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo aaia?aoe/aneeie noa?aie cia/eoaeueii
eiie?aoece?oaony a nia?aiaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaieyo i aainenoaiao. Iineaaeiea
e?aoei iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae caiiua i?ino?ainoaa anao ?acia?iinoae,
aaea ioaeaeueiua eiiiiiaiou i?e?iaeu iaoiaeyony a nenoaiiie nayce ae?oa
n ae?oaii, e eae ii?aaeaeaiiay oeaeueiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaotho n
einie/aneie noa?ie e /aeiaa/aneei iauanoaii.

Nenoaiiue iiaeoiae iicaieyao ii-iiaiio noi?ie?iaaoue caaea/e
enneaaeiaaiey oeceei-aaia?aoa, /aoei ii?aaeaeeoue eo niaea?aeaiey,
ioee/iia io oaeiaiai /anoiuo aaia?aoe/aneeo aeenoeeieei. Ii ii?iaeaeaao
iiaua oi/ee ?inoa iaoee e ?anoe?yao aa ia?niaeoeau i?aeoe/aneiai
eniieueciaaiey aa ?acoeueoaoia.

Iaciaai iniiaiua i?iaeaiu, aoiaeyuea a o/aiea i aainenoaiao e
oa?aeoa?ecothuea nia?aiaiiua iai?aaeaiey oece/aneie aaia?aoee:

· aiaeec aeneii e ae?oaeo iieiaeaiee niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee aainenoai eae
/anoae iauae oai?ee (iaoaoai?ee) nenoai;

· iiaeaee?iaaiea aainenoai n o/aoii eo niiioaiiie e aio?iiiaaiiie
aeeiaieee e niioaaonoaothuaai ei eioaa?aeueiiai ?aaeeia;

· iienee ?aoeeiiaeueiuo i?eaiia eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee aainenoai e
eaiaeoaooiia?acothueo i?ioeannia, a /anoiinoe iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa,
i?eaiaeiiai aeey eo iienaiey;

· nenoaiiue aiaeec i?ino?ainoaaiiuo naycae a aaia?aoe/aneie iaiei/ea ia
ieaiaoa?iii, ?aaeiiaeueiii e oiiieiae/aneii o?iaia;

· eco/aiea i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiuo aniaeoia aainenoai e nicaeaiea eo
aaia?aoe/aneeo iiaeaeae, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ea?o, a nayce n i?iaeaiaie
io?aiu e iioeiecaoeee n?aaeu;

· i?iaeaiu yaiethoeee aainenoai e eniieueciaaiea i?eioeeiia nenoaiiiai
iiaeoiaea a iaeaiaaia?aoee;

· eco/aiea aeeyiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia i?e?iaeioth
n?aaeo e i?iaiice?iaaiea aainenoai aoaeouaai;

· ananoi?iiiaa enneaaeiaaiea i?e?iaeiuo i?aaeiinueie n oeaeueth
oi?ie?iaaiey oa??eoi?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiieaenia;

· iainiiaaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia n
o/aoii eo ainnoaiiaeaiey e iaiaauaiey (aeey aiciaiiaeyaiuo ?ano?nia);

· ?ac?aaioea oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeo iniia io?aiu e iioeiecaoeee
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu aeey aeecie e o?oaea /aeiaaea;

· aaia?aoe/aneay yenia?oeca i?iaeoia eiiieaeniiai eniieueciaaiey e
io?aiu aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaeu;

· iiaeai?, ia?a?aaioea e nenoaiaoecaoeey i?e?iaeii-no?aiiaaae/aneie
eioi?iaoeee aeey o/aaiuo e ni?aai/iuo oeaeae.

Aiieia anoanoaaiii, /oi auoa oieueei iacaaiu iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee,
a oi a?aiy eae eaaeaeia ec ieo aeeth/aao oeaeue ?yae eiie?aoiuo oai,
ioiinyueony e ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaeai aaia?aoe/aneeo naycae. Oai?aoe/aneei
e iaoiaee/aneei aii?inai.

Ana neacaiiia ia en/a?iuaaao e?oaa caaea/ oece/aneie aaia?aoee, ii iii
oa?aeoa?ecoao iniiaiia aa niaea?aeaiea e, eae iiaeii auei oaaaeeoueny
auoa, ioee/iia io oaeiaiai io?aneaauo aaia?aoe/aneeo i?iaeai.

Oece/aneay aaia?aoey eae o/aiea i aainenoaiao ia iiaeiuaao ie iaeiie
io?aneaaie aaia?aoe/aneie aeenoeeieeiu. Iia eiaao n ieie iaeioi?ua iauea
i?iaeaiu. Eanathueany ii?yaeea naycae eiiiiiaioia aainenoaiu,
iniiauaaaony ia eo aeaiiuo, ii ie e eiai neo/aa ia iiaeiaiyao eo e naia
ia iiaeao auoue caiaiaia eie. Oece/aneay aaia?aoey ia i?aaenoaaeyao
noia?neioaca aeaaea /anoe aaia?aoe/aneeo iaoe, eco/athueo i?e?iaeo. Iia
?aoaao naie, eiiieaeniua aaia?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu. Oaeiai ?iaea
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ooieoeee oece/aneie aaia?aoee i?eia?aoatho iniaia
cia/aiea a nayce n i?iaiice?iaaieai aainenoai aoaeouaai e
enneaaeiaaieyie, iai?aaeaiiuie ia caueoo n?aaeu iaeoaiey.

?aoay eiiieaeniua oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu, oece/aneay aaia?aoey
iaiin?aaenoaaiii nii?eeanaaony n aii?inaie aaia?aoee ianaeaiey e o/aiey
i oa??eoi?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiieaenao. Ia?aiaiaiiay a i?ioeii
aeae?ieiae/aneeie, aaiii?oieiae/aneeie e i?i/eie io?aneaauie i?iaeaiaie
oece/aneay aaia?aoey iaaieueii ioaeaeaeanue io naiae iniiaiie ooieoeee –
eco/aiey naycae i?e?iaeu n /aeiaa/aneei iauanoaii. A nia?aiaiiii
iiieiaiee oece/aneay aaia?aoey eiaao ioiioaiea i?aeiouanoaaiii e
aniaeoai i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, i?eaioe?iaaiiui ia /aeiaaea, e oai i?yiui e
ia?aoiui naycyi, eioi?ua aoiaeyo a neiaeioth nenoaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth,
i?iieeay a yeiiiie/aneoth nioeeaeueioth noa?u.

2. Oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneeo aainenoai

Anee oa??eoi?ey inaiaia, oi nouanoaoao i?ino?ainoaaiiay
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia, i?aaieciaaiiay /aeiaaeii. Aa
ia?aiao?u caaenyo io eiee/anoaa ianaeaiey e o?iaiy ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoaa.

Aoaeo/e inaiaiiie, oa??eoi?ey aeey /aeiaaea aunooiaao ia oieueei “ianoii
noiyiey” (4, n.49) – aa i?ino?ainoaaiiay no?oeoo?a anoue au?aaeaiea
neiaeiuo i?ioeannia iaiaia aauanoaii e yia?aeae iaaeaeo ianaeaieai e
i?e?iaeiui eiiieaenii, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo i?aaeaea anaai aeieiae/aneei
iaiaiii /aeiaaea e i?iecaiaenoaii. Inaiaiiay oa??eoi?ey anoue
i?aia?aciaaiiua eiiieaenu aaia?aoe/aneie iaiei/ee – aainoa?a /aeiaaea.
Ii nouanoao, aeieiae/aneea e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caaiuey iaiaia ianaeaiey
ni n?aaeie i?eaiaeyo e oi?ie?iaaieth oeaeinoiiai ia?aciaaiey “ianaeaiea
– oicyenoai – i?e?iaea”.

Iniiaiia ioee/ea i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneeo aainenoai io i?e?iaeiuo aainenoai
ninoieo a oii, /oi anee a iineaaeieo aaaeouoth ?ieue ea?atho ia?aoiua
io?eoeaoaeueiua nayce, oi a i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneeo aainenoaiao a oneiaeyo
aeaenoaey caeiia ?inoa iio?aaiinoae ia ia?aii ianoa iaoiaeeony
iieiaeeoaeueiay ia?aoiay naycue: eeai Q(t+1) > Q(t) (aaea Q(t) – iauai
oaeiaeaoai?yaiuo iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey), eeai P(t+1) > P(t) (aaea P(t)
– ianaeaiea a iiiaio a?aiaie t), eeai oi e ae?oaia. N o/aoii caeiia
nio?aiaiey aauanoaa neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi i?eaaaeaiiua ia?aaainoaa
e iiae/a?eeaatho oaeo oiai, eae, a eaeeo oeaeyo /aeiaae inouanoaeyao
ia?aa?oiie?iaeo aauanoaa a i?ino?ainoaa aainenoai. Acaeiinaycue aeaiiuo
ia?aaainoa n aaeainii aauanoaa e yia?aee inouanoaeyaony /a?ac o/ao
iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa e aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Niaianoiay
?aaeecaoeey aeaoo oeiia ia?aoiie nayce ii?aaeaeyao i?ioeai?a/eainoue
?acaeoey i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneeo aainenoai, iaiaoiaeeiinoue inaiaiey
oa??eoi?ee aeey ?ac?aoaiey ioia/aiiiai i?ioeai?a/ey.

Oeaeinoiinoue nenoaiu acaeiinaycae /aeiaaea e n?aaeu iaania/eaaaony
aaeeinoaii o?ao caaiueaa:

1. nianoaaiii i?e?iaeiui iaiaiii;

2. aeieiae/anee iaoneiaeaiiui iaiaiii /aeiaaea ni n?aaeie;

3. nicaeaiiuie /aeiaaeii i?ioeannaie oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie ia?a?aaioee
aauanoaa i?e?iaeu aeey iieo/aiey iio?aaeoaeueneeo noieiinoae;

Iineoaeai acaeiinayce eiiiiiaio aainenoai yaeythony iioiee aauanoaa.
Ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth aai a i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneie aainenoaia
yaeyaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy cia/eoaeueiinoue ianooaaia ecaeaeaaiiai ec
anoanoaaiiiai ninoiyiey aauanoaa e ioiineoaeueii iaeay aeiey aai iieacii
eniieuecoaiie /anoe: ii nouanoaothuei ioeaieai eeoue 10% aeiauaaaiiai
aauanoaa i?e?iaeu eaeao ia ecaioiaeaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii
iio?aaeoaeueneeo noieiinoae. Inoaeueiia, yaeyynue n oi/ee c?aiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia iooiaeaie, aianoa n oai inoaaony a
aaineoaia /aeiaaea. Iineaaeiaa anoue i?iyaeaiea iaeiiai ec aaaeiaeoeo
caeiiia ie?icaeaiey – caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee. *aeiaa/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iauanoaaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae, naiae ?ano?niie aacie eiaao aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie oieueei
Caieth. I?aia?aciaaiea aauanoaa /aeiaaeii a YII anoue ia?aa?oiie?iaea
aauanoaa a o?aoia?iii i?ino?ainoaa aainenoai – a yoii iniaaiiinoue
oaoiiaaiiie ninoaaeythuae iauaai e?oaiai?ioa aauanoaa a aeiaaeueiie
aainenoaia ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei ninoaaeythuei. Oaeei ia?acii “aoiae”
e “auoiae” iioiea aauanoaa a aainenoaia naaeaine?iaaiu (anee eiaoue a
aeaeo oaeaea iooiaeu anao noaaeee YII e iaiai naiiai /aeiaaea ni
n?aaeie).

Naycue caaiueaa iaiaia a i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneie aainenoaia iaania/eaaaony
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Aeey iauanoaa iineaaeiyy /anoue anoue
i?ioeann nicaeaiey iio?aaeoaeueneeo noieiinoae. A i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneie
aainenoaia – yoi iniaia caaii iauacaiiiai i?ioeanna, oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia
?anoiaeiaaiea iaeiieaiiie /aeiaaeii yia?aee, ia?aoiay iieiaeeoaeueiay
naycue. A caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeia eiee/anoai o?oaea aoaeao iai?aaeaii
a aainenoaio, eae aoaeao i?aaieciaaii aai ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaaeaeo
caaiueyie eiiieaeniia?acothuaai i?ioeanna (a /anoiinoe, iaaeaeo
yia?aii?iecaiaeyueie i?ioeannaie), iaoiaeyony ?acoeueoaou inaiaiey,
yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaieciaaiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea e n?aaeu –
noaiaiue iieiiou oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae /aeiaaea (aeeth/ay nthaea
e niioaaonoaea ia?aiao?ia n?aaeu oeceieiae/aneei iio?aaiinoyi /aeiaaea,
aiciiaeiinoe i?aaiecaoeee aeinoaa a oneiaeyo iaoeeiiiiai aic?anoaiey
aeiee naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie a iauai athaeaeaoa a?aiaie).

Aeey eaaeaeie oa??eoi?ee oa?aeoa?ii ninoiyiea i?aaeaeueiie aieinoe aa
inaiaiey i?e aeaiiii niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa inaiaiey: aani?aaeaeueiia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea a aeaiiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo ca n/ao
iaeiie e oie aea oa??eoi?ee iaaiciiaeii. Oieueei ni/aoaiea oa??eoi?ee,
iaoiaeyueony ia ?aciuo noaaeeyo inaiaiey, iaania/eaaao aeaenoaea caeiia
iaoeeiiiiai ?inoa iio?aaiinoae.

Ninoiyiea i?aaeaeueiie aieinoe inaiaiey aiciiaeii e aeey caiiiai oa?a a
oeaeii. Iaeiaei neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ia?aaiiia?iinoue
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, i?ino?ainoaaiiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey
naienoa aaia?aoe/aneie iaiei/ee aucuaatho iaoao?iiiinoue inaiaiey
oa??eoi?ee – ia iaeiia?aiaiiinoue aeinoeaeaiey noiaeiuo o?iaiae
inaiaiiinoe ia ?acee/iuo oa??eoi?eyo.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneea aainenoaiu i?aaenoaaeytho
oeaeinoiia ia?aciaaiea – “ianaeaiea – oicyenoai – i?e?iaea”. A nayce n
yoei, i/aiue ino?ie yaeyaony i?iaeaia acaeiiaeaenoaey oaoie/aneeo iaoe e
anoanoaiciaiey.

3. I?iaeaiu acaeiiaeaenoaey anoanoaiciaiey (iniaaiii aaia?aoee) e
oaoie/aneeo iaoe

Ia i?ioyaeaiee nioai eao anoanoaiciaiea e oaoieea oanii nii?eeanaeenue
iaaeaeo niaie, Ii ioiioaiey eo iinoiyiii iaiyeenue. E iniaaiii auno?i a
eiioea XIX, ia/aea XX aaeia. Eiaiii a yoio ia?eiae iaiaoeeenue o?e
e?oiiuo yoaia, ioee/athueany ae?oa io ae?oaa oeaeyie, eioi?ua noaaeee
ia?aae niaie anoanoaaiiua iaoee n iaeiie noi?iiu, a oaoieea n ae?oaie.
Eiia/ii, auaeaeaiea yoeo o?ao yoaiia – oneiaiay noaia, iineieueeo e
naaiaeiy i?e?iaeiaaaeai (aaia?aoai, aeieiaai, yeieiaai) i?eoiaeeony (e,
iaaa?iia, aeieai i?eaeaony) auiieiyoue e caaea/e i?aaeoanoaothueo
yoaiia, eae caaea/e ino?ua.

Ia?aue yoai – yoai ianeoaeeaaiey. Iauay oeaeue, eioi?ay auaeaeaaaony
ia?aae anoanoaiciaieai – iiii/ue oaoieea, o.a. i?aaenoaaeoaeyi
oaoie/aneeo iaoe – no?ieoaeyi, i?iaeoe?iaueeai aeiaeoueny a i?ioeanna
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaeneiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey anao
aiciiaeiinoae i?e?iaeu, niinianoaiaaoue ieieiecaoeee cao?ao i?e inaiaiee
iiauo oa??eoi?ee e i?e?iaeiuo iauaeoia. I?e yoii i?e?iaeiaaae iaycai aue
iinoiyiii iiiieoue ia ia?aie/aieyo, iaoneiaeaiiuo aiciiaeiinoyie
oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa, eo e?eoe/aneeie ia?aiao?aie e onoie/eainoueth,
o.a. niiniaiinoueth auaea?aeeaaoue iaa?ocee i?e aicaeaenoaee iiuiuo
iinoiyiiuo e ia?aaoey?iuo i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia: caieao?ynaiee, eaaei,
iaaiaeeia, naeae. Ia anoanoaiciaiea eiaeeeanue caaea/a i?aaeoi?aaeaeaoue
oaoieeo i iaeaieueoeo aiciiaeiuo i?e?iaeiuo iaa?oceao. Ii yoa caaea/a ia
auea aaeeinoaaiiie, I?eoiaeeeinue oaea ecaeaaia eneaoue ?ano?nu e
iaeaieeaaoue ciaiey ia eo aiciaiiaeiinoe. Anoanoaiciaiea i?aaeinoaaeyei
oaoieea iau/ii o?aaeeoeeiiioth, iauaiao/ioth, i?e?iaeiaaae/aneoth
eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay niiinoaaeyeanue n oaoie/aneeie ii?iaoeaaie,
oa?aeoa?ecothueie onoie/eainoue nii?oaeaiee i?ioea i?e?iaeiuo
i?ioeannia. Oaeie iiaeoiae, eiaaea ia ia?aia ianoi noaiiaeony
nio?aiiinoue oaoie/aneeo nii?oaeaiee, iiaeii iacaaoue
aaioaoiieiae/aneei. Iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe a yoio ia?eiae –
niaaaeaiea oaoieee eioi?iaoeeae i ?ano?nao i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe (aaiiieneiaua ?aaiou, ninoaaeaiea eaaeano?ia,
aiieoe?iaee, ioeaiee e o.i.) e oaeaea ia iianiuo aeey ii?iaeueiiai
ninoiyiey eiaeaia?iuo nii?oaeaiee i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee. (?en.1.)

A oeaeii ?ieue anoanoaiciaiey, ?ieue aaia?aoee ia yoii yoaia iiaeii
iaicia/eoue eae ?ieue “aa?iie neoaeaiee” (3, n.34) oaoie/aneeo iaoe.

Iaeiaei /ai aeeaea iu iiaeoiaeei e iaoaio a?aiaie, oai /aua ioia/aai,
/oi i?e?iaeiaaae/aneay eioi?iaoeey i?eia?aoaao ana aieaa
oeaeaono?aieaiiue oa?aeoa?. Niaea?aeaiea e oi?ia aa ana aieaa
iiae/eiyaony eiie?aoiui oeiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caaea/
(caieaaeaeue/aneeo, a?aaeino?ieoaeueiuo, aeae?iiaeei?aoeaiuo e o.ae.) Ai
iiiaeo io?aneyo anoanoaiciaiey nicaeathony eiaeaia?iua eee i?eeeaaeiua
iai?aaeaiey, oaeea eae eiaeaia?iay aeae?ieiaey, eiaeaia?iia
ia?ceioiaaaeaiea, no?ieoaeueiay eeeiaoieiaey.

Aoi?ie yoai – i?ioeaiaeaenoaey – aeeaea e iai ii a?aiaie. Ana /aua e
/aua i?e?iaeiaaaeu, ioee/ii aeaey e ino?i aini?eieiay io?eoeaoaeueiua
iineaaenoaey aicaeaenoaey oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa ia i?e?iaeo, noaee
oi?ioee?iaaoue oeaeue naieo enneaaeiaaiee e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
eae ai?ueao ca ieieiecaoeeth ?ac?ooaiee i?e?iaeu (a iniaaiiinoe aeeaie)
oaoie/aneeie nenoaiaie. Caeanue ia/ae aunooiaoue ia ia?aue ieai
i?e?iaeiio?aiiue iiaeoiae.

1. – I?e?iaea

2. – Oaoieea

3. – I?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneay nenoaia

4. – Anoanoaaiiua iaoee

5. – Oaoie/aneea iaoee

6. – “Acaeiiaeaenoaea oaoieee e i?e?iaeu”

7. Iaeanoue niaianoiuo eioa?ania aeaoo iaoe

8. – Acaeiiaeaenoaea i?eciaaaaiia aaaeiaeoei

9. – “Cai?in” i naienoaao nenoai, aeeythueo ia ae?oaoth nenoaio

?en.1. Yoaiu acaeiiioiioaiee anoanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo iaoe

Ia yoii yoaia i?e?iaeiaaae noae, i?aaeaea anaai, eneaoue e
oi?ioee?iaaoue ia?aie/aiey iaeeaaeuaaaiua ia oaoie/aneea ?aoaiey
iniaaiiinoyie ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu: aiciiaeiinoueth ainnoaiiaeaiey
i?aaeoanoaothuaai ninoiyiey eiiiiiaioia i?e?iaeiuo aainenoai,
niiniaiinoue i?e?iaeiuo nenoai nio?aiyoue onoie/eainoue, e?eoe/aneea
neooaoeee aeey aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee, a /anoiinoe: i?aaeaeueii
aeiionoeiua eiioeaio?aoeee (IAeE) ?acee/iuo aauanoa. Ia yoii yoaia
ciaiey i i?e?iaea anaaaea niioiinyony n oaie eee eiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
oaoie/aneeo nenoai. Niaianoiay ?aaioa n oaoieeie ia i?aaeuaeouai yoaia
ia i?ioea aeey anoanoaiciaiey aanneaaeii, i?iecioei caeinoaiaaiea
iaeioi?uo oa?aeoa?iuo aeey oaoie/aneeo iaoe iiaeoiaeia, a n ieie iiiyoee
e oa?ieiia. Iiiyoey “ii?ia”, “i?aaeaeueiay iaa?ocea”, “onoie/eainoue”,
“e?eoe/aneea oi/ee”, ca?iaeeaoeany a iaae?ao oaoieee, noaee
?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia i?e?iaeiua iauaeou. Iaino?yaony eioa?an e
i?iaiice?iaaieth. I?e yoii ?a/ue eaeao eae i i?iaiice?iaaiee niiioaiiiai
(aioo?aiiaai) ?acaeoey i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia, oae e i?iaiice?iaaiee
eciaiaiee i?e?iaeu, i?ienoiaeyueo iiae aicaeaenoaeai /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe anoanoaieniuoaoaey naiaeeony,
i?aaeaea anaai, e auyaeaieth aiciiaeiinoe eee iaaiciiaeiinoe
“aienuaaiey” oaoie/aneeo nenoai a i?e?iaeiua eiiieaenu. Ionthaea e
oeie/iay aeey aeaiiiai yoaia oi?ia eiioaeoa n oaoie/aneeie iaoeaie –
“yenia?oeca” aa?eaioia oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee e i?iaeoia.

Caiaoii, /oi i?aaenoaaeoaee oaoie/aneeo iaoe, aua iaaeaaii ioiineaoeany
e yoie aeayoaeueiinoe aanueia ianoi?iaeaiii, a iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea
noaee ana aieaa na?ueacii e oaaaeeoaeueii ioiineoueny e iiaeiaiui
?aaioai. Aaia?aou e yeieiae ana /aua iieo/atho i?inueau e ii?o/aiey
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue aiciiaeiua iineaaenoaey inouanoaeaiey oao eee eiuo
e?oiiuo i?iaeoia eniieueciaaiey anoanoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, aeaoue i?iaiic
iineaaenoaee oaoie/aneeo aicaeaenoaee ia i?e?iaeo, ?ac?aaioaoue ii?iu
iaa?ocee ia i?e?iaeiua eiiieaenu, i?eiyoue o/anoea a ?ac?aaioea
noaiaea?oia. ?acaeae “i?iaiic eciaiaiey i?e?iaeu iiae aeeyieai
i?aaeeaaaaiiai i?iaeoiiai nii?oaeaiey” noaiiaeony aaaeiie /anoueth
i?iaeoa.

A ioee/ea io ia?aiai yoaia, eiaaea eciaiaiey i?e?iaeu ?anniao?eaaeenue
oieueei, eae oeaeinoiia aiaianooaaiia yaeaiea, caeanue ia/eiaao
i?iaeaaoue naaa aei?iao eaeay i ea/anoaaiiie iaiaeii?iaeiinoe i?e?iaeu e
i aa ioiineoaeueiie oa??eoi?eaeueiie aeene?aoiinoe e ea?a?oe/aneii
no?iaiee.

A oeaeii yoio yoai iiaeii iaicia/eoue eae ia?eiae i?ioeaiaeaenoaey
o?aaeeoeeiiiie noa?a naiinoiyoaeueiiai aeaenoaey oaoie/aneeo iaoe.
Anoanoaiciaiea no?aieony niaieoue ?ieue “neoaeaiee” ia iiceoeeth
einiaeoi?a, iaaeaeaiiiai oe?ieeie cai?aoeoaeueiuie i?aaaie.

?ino eiee/anoaa, ?aciiia?acey e a iniaaiiinoe iiue oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa,
oaaee/aiea eiiiiiaioia i?e?iaeu e i?ino?ainoa, ioaaouaaaiuo
aicaeaenoaeai oaoie/aneeo eiiieaenia – iaino?eee i?iaeaio. ?acei aic?in
ia oieueei iao/iue, ii, i?aaeaea anaai iauanoaaiiue eioa?an e i?iaeaia.

Ianiio?y ia aic?inoee ianooaa yiie?e/aneeo iaaethaeaiee, ia ecaanoiia
i?aaiecaoeeiiiia oe?aieaiea ?aiaa ca?iaeeaoeony iai?aaeaiee, a
aunooieaieyo i?aaenoaaeoaeae anoanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo iaoe ana /aua
noaea cao/aoue iioea iaoaeiaieuenoaey aeinoeaioouie ?acoeueoaoaie,
naoiaaiey ia ionoaaaiea oai?ee acaeiiaeaenoaey oaoieee e i?e?iaeu io
neeueii oneiaeieaoeony caaea/, auaeaeaaaiuo ia?aae iaoeie a oneiaeyo
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee.

Naycaii yoi aiciiaeii n oai, /oi iaeiieaiea oaeoia ia i?aaeuaeoueo
yoaiao ia eciaieei naiie iiaeaee aiaeeca eioa?anothuaai ian i?ioeanna. E
i?e?iaea e oaoieea a iiaeaaeythuai /enea enneaaeiaaiee e
iiioey?ecaoi?neeo aunooieaiee i?iaeieaeatho ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueiua i?ioeaiai?noaothuea neeu. I?e yoii iiiaea
anoanoaieniuoaoaee ia ecaaaeeenue io no?aieaiey aeaoue ioeaieo yoei
neeai, iie?aynue ia oeaiiinoiua eaoaai?ee – “aeia?i” e “cei”. Ioeaiee
yoe enoi?e/anee iaiyeenue. Oi oaoieea aunooiaea a ?iee aeia?ie oae,
i?ioeainoiyuae neaiui neeai i?e?iaeu, oi iia aea ?anniao?eaaeanue, /ooue
ee ia eae no?aoiay aiieaeeioe/aneay neea, aunooiathuay i?ioea “iaoa?e-
i?e?iaeu” (3, n.70).

Iiyoiio oi ia ia?auo aeaoo yoaiao ia oieueei i?e?iaea e oaoieea, ii e
oaoie/aneea iaoee, e anoanoaiciaiea aunooiatho eae oioy e naycaiiua
iaaeaeo niaie, ii ?acei ?acee/athueany nenoaiu. ?anniio?aiiua auoa
o?aaeeoeee i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey i?e?iaeu e oaoieee, anoanoaiciaiey e
oaoie/aneeo iaoe, au?aaeaiiua a ?acee/iuo oi?iao iaoneiaeee e
aicieeiiaaiea iiiaeo eiioeeeoia iaaeaeo i?e?iaeiaaaeaie e
eiaeaia?aie-i?iaeoe?iaueeaie. A iniiaa iiaeiaiuo eiioeeeoia, /anoi
eaaeeo iaeiinoi?iiiaa iiieiaiea i?iaeaiu “i?e?iaea-oaoieea”.

Oioneathony ec aeaea o?e na?ueaciuo ianoiyoaeuenoaa:

Ai-ia?auo, iaee/ea oaniuo naycae iaaeaeo i?e?iaeie e oaoieeie. Oaoieea
iie?aaony ia ciaiea caeiiia i?e?iaeu. Iiiaea aa ?aoaiey i?iaeeeoiaaiu e
aucaaiu e aeecie oa?aeoa?ii i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee e i?ioeannia. Ii /aua
anaai yoe caeiiu i?e?iaeu aunooiatho ia?aae oaoieeie, eae caeiiu oeceee
e oeiee, o.a. a oi?iao nouanoaaiii aano?aae?iaaiiuo io caiiie
?aaeueiinoe, i?iyaeythuaeny ia ii?aaeaeaiiie eiie?aoiie oa??eoi?ee.

Ai-aoi?uo, iniaue oa?aeoa? oaoieee a aieaa neiaeiie nenoaia
“iauanoai-i?e?iaea”, aa nioeeaeueiay ooieoeey. Aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey
naieo iio?aaiinoae nia?aiaiiia iauanoai auioaeaeaii nicaeaaaoue
oaoie/aneea nenoaiu, eioi?ua aunooiatho eae naiaia?aciue iaoaieci,
iicaieythuee /aeiaa/anoao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aaeaioe?iaaoueny e neiaeiie
e ?aciiia?aciie i?e?iaeiie n?aaea, n ae?oaie, i?eniinaaeeaaoue n?aaeo e
oaeiaeaoai?aieth naieo iio?aaiinoae.

A-o?aoueeo, oioneaeanue ec aeaea no?oeoo?iinoue e ea?a?oe/iinoue eae
ie?oaeathuae ian i?e?iaeu, oae e oaoie/aneeo nenoai. I?e eco/aiee
aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia i?e?iaeo /anoi eae ?aaiicia/iua
?anniao?eaaeenue caa?yciaiea ieaaia iaooueth e noiee oeie/aneeo aauanoa
n iieae, y?icey ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeueyo e oi?ie?iaaiea
aei?iaeiuo auaiie, iaaceanaiea neeiiia oeaeuo ai?iuo nenoai e au?oaea
i?eai?iaeiie ?iue, o.a. yaeaiey, ian?aaieiua ii ianooaao.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa yoeo o?ao aaaeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa iinoaaeea oaoieeo
e anoanoaiciaiea ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia?aoiaea e o?aoueaio yoaio –
yoaio niaianoiuo aeaenoaee. Aeey yoiai yoaia oeie/ii eiino?oe?iaaiea
iiaiai i?aaeiaoa enneaaeiaaiey, naycaiiiai n i?aaenoaaeaieyie i
acaeiiaeaenoaothueo i?e?iaeiuo e oaoie/aneeo nenoaiao, eae aaeeiii
eiiieaeniii nenoaiiii ia?aciaaiee.

Eaeay eiiieaeniinoe a aeaiiii neo/aa ?aaeecoaony a i?aaenoaaeaiee i oii,
/oi acaeiiaeaenoaea i?e?iaeiuo aainenoai e oaoie/aneeo nenoai ianoieueei
neeueii, /oi iii nicaeaao aiciiaeiinoue ?anniao?eaaoue eo niaieoiiinoue
eae iiaue iauaeo iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey e i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Oeaeueth aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaenoaaeoaeae oaoie/aneeo iaoe e
i?e?iaeiaaaeia ia yoii yoaia aunooiaao iioeiecaoeey aaeeiie
oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneie aainenoaiu n iiceoeee ?aoaiey
iniiaiuo nioeeaeueiuo caaea/. Eiaiii a yoie nayce iniiaiua ia?aie/aiey
ii?aaeaeythony oaea ia oieueei o?aaiaaieyie iaeneiaeueiie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e aeaoaaeciu oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa, ia ?ac?ooaaiinoueth
aano?aeoiie i?e?iaeu, a auoaeatho ec i?aaenoaaeaiee i aeeyiee ia
caei?iauea /aeiaaea eciaiyaiie oaoie/aneeie ono?ienoaaie i?e?iaeiie
n?aaeu.

A oeaeii yoio yoai – ia?eiae iienea caeiiiia?iinoae nicaeaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneeo aainenoai. Iniiaiie eaeaeiue
noa?aeaiue yoiai yoaia – iiaeoiae e i?iaeoe?iaaieth ethaiai e?oiiiai n
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo iiceoeee iauaeoa: ai?iaea, aaeiia?aoeee, nenoaiu
?annaeaiey, ?ae?aaoeeiiiie ciiu, eae i?iaeoe?iaaieth
i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneie aainenoaiu; iiieiaiea oiai, /oi nicaeaaay ai?iae,
iiaue ?aeii, iu iaecaaaeii iaeiia?aiaiii iaiyai nouanoaothuoth
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, i?e?iaeo. A ?ac oae – oi aeieaeiu iaeiia?aiaiii
i?iaeoe?iaaoueny e iauaeo, e i?e?iaea. I?e?iaea ia iiaeao auoue eeoue
oiiii, iia aunooiaao iaeiei ec iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey. E ?a/ue eaeao ia
oieueei i caeaiuo ianaaeaeaieyo, ia oieueei i /enoioa aicaeooa e aiae.
Oaiia?aoo?iua oneiaey, /enei /ania nieia/iiai neyiey, niioiioaiea
iaaeaeo a?oioiaui e iiaa?oiinoiui noieii – ana aiaeaeaaony a noa?o
eciaiaiee, a cia/eo aeieaeii iiaeeaaeaoue iniuneaieth a i?iaeoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

?anniio?aiea i?iaeoe?oaiiai iauaeoa eae nenoaiu, ninoiyuae ec aeaoo
e?oiiaeoeo /anoae – oaoie/aneie e i?e?iaeiie, eae nenoaiu nioai?/anoaa
/aeiaa/anoaa e i?e?iaeu aeaeaao nenoaiiue iiaeoiae ia oe?aoaieai, a
iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai ?aaiou, a i?e?iaeiaaaea-aaia?aoa, yeieiaa –
nithcieeii, ni?aoieeii i?iaeoe?iaueea.

I?iaeoe?iaaiea – ia i?inoi e ia oieueei i?iaeoe?iaaiea oaoie/aneeo
oceia, oaoiieiaee, ii e n?aaeu, a eioi?ie aeeaao /aeiaae.
I?iaeoe?iaaoue, nicaeaaaoue n?aaeo iioeiaeueioth aeey aeecie /aeiaaea –
yoi cia/eo i?iaeoe?iaaoue nenoaiu, eiino?oeoeee, oaoiieiaee oaeeie,
/oiau iie auee iaeneiaeueii oaycaiu n nouanoaothueie acaeiinaycyie a
i?e?iaea.

Caeeth/aiea

Eoae, aeaaiue auaiae, eioi?ue iiaeii naeaeaoue ec anaai auoa neacaiiiai,
yoi oi, /oi e i?e?iaeiua nenoaiu neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae neiaeiua
oeaeinoiua nenoaiiua ia?aciaaiey, iaoiaeyueany a ia?ac?uaiie nayce n
iauanoaii e oaoie/aneeie iauaeoaie.

E i?e?iaea, e nenoaia “i?e?iaea-iauanoai” – neiaeiua oeaeinoiua
ia?aciaaiey, e eciaiaiea iaeiiai ec eiiiiiaioia iaycaoaeueii aucuaaao
oeaiue eciaiaiee ae?oaeo eiiiiiaioia. E oaeea acaeiinaycaiiua
iineaaeiaaoaeueiua eciaiaiey iiaoo i?eaanoe e cia/eoaeueiiio eciaiaieth
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. 1.Ni/aaa A.A. “O/aiea i aainenoaiao 🙁 Iaoa?eaeu e VI nuacaeo Aaia?.
Iauanoaa NNN?”, Iiaineae?ne: Iaoea. Neae?neia Ioaeaeaiea, 1975.

2. ?ooeaae/ I.I., Eieoiai E.ss “Aeeaeaeoeea e oai?ey iiciaiey”, I.:
Iuneue, 1994.

3. “Aaiyeieiae/aneea iiaeoiaeu e i?iaeoe?iaaieth i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneeo
aainenoai”, ioa. ?aae. Aeaenaiae?iaa O.Ae., I: EA, 1985.

4. “Aaiyeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?e?iaeii-oaoie/aneeo
aainenoai: nai?iee AI NNN?, Einoeooo aaia?aoee”, ioa. ?aae.
Aeaenaiae?iaa O.Ae., I: EA, 1987.

5. Eoeoaoaa I.A. “I?iaeaiu oai?ee aaia?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey. Iauaiao/iua
e oeeinioneea i?aaeiinueee”, Oaa?ue: OAO, 1994.

6. Ieeeoi?ia A.E. “Oeeinioey iaoee”, I.: Aeii eioaeeaeooaeueiie eieae,
1998.

7. Aaena?iaaa I.I. “Iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey aaia?aoee
ianaeaiey”, Aeia-Aoa, 1990.

8. Ieeieaaiei Ae.A. “Aoiiaienoe/aneay aaia?aoey caiaaea. E?eoe/aneee
aiaeec”, E.: 1983.

9. Aai?ia TH.A. “Iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iao/iiai
iiciaiey”, I.: 1993.

10. Aiae?onaiei A.A., Ieaiaa?ia Ae.A.”Iaoiaeieiaey iao/iiai iiciaiey”,
I?aiao?a, 1996.

11. Eeueei A.A. “Oai?ey iiciaiey”, I.: IAO, 1994.

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