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Философские основы этики: мораль и нравственность

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OEEINIONEEA INIIAU YOEEE: II?AEUe E I?AANOAAIIINOUe

Anooieaieea

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaaethaeaaony iniaue eioa?an e yoeea – yoie
noa?aeoae e aianoa n oai iaiiaoi?eii iieiaeie io?anee oeeinioneiai
ciaiey. E yoi ia neo/aeii. ?acaeoea ?innee a iai?aaeaiee e
aeaiie?aoe/aneiio i?aaiaiio ainoaea?noao, ?aaoee?iaaiea anao aa
nioeeaeueiuo no?oeoo?, a oii /enea e aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee iaaiciiaeii
aac ooaa?aeaeaiey i?aanoaaiiinoe.

Iao/iua ciaiey i ii?aee, caeiiao aa aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey iaiaoiaeeiu
eaaeaeiio ioeoea?o aeey oiai, /oiau eaaeeoeoee?iaaiii i?iaiaeeoue
iao/aiea e ainieoaiea ee/iiai ninoaaa, oe?aieyoue aieineoth aeenoeeieeio
e ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneoth aioiaiinoue aiaiiineoaeaueo e auiieiaieth
naiaai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai aeieaa ii iaania/aieth iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoe no?aiu.

1. I?aaeiao e iacia/aiea yoeee

Yoeea (rpe4.etnika, io etnos) – i?eau/ea, i?aa) – oeeinioneay iaoea,
iauaeoii eco/aiey eioi?ie yaeyaony ii?aeue.

Neiai “ii?aeue” icia/aao a nia?aiaiiii ycuea i?eia?ii oi aea naiia, /oi
e i?aanoaaiiinoue. Iiyoiio aieueoeinoai niaoeeaeenoia ia i?iaiaeyo
no?iaiai ?aca?aie/aiey iaaeaeo ii?aeueth e i?aanoaaiiinoueth e n/eoaao
yoe neiaa neiiieiaie.

Neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi e neiai “yoeea” ia?aiia/aeueii icia/aei oi aea,
/oi e “ii?aeue”, e “i?aanoaaiiinoue”. Aei neo ii? aiai?yo ia yoeea
iiaaaeaiey, yoeea ioeoea?a, i iaaeaaiae/aneie yoeea e o.ae., eiay a
aeaeo aeaaiui ia?acii ii?aeueiua ii?iu e i?aanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, eioi?ua
neiaeeeenue a oie eee eiie noa?a iauanoaaiiie aeecie. E ana aea neiai
“yoeea” a ianoiyuaa a?aiy /aua eniieuecoaony aeey iaicia/aiey iaoee i
ii?aee. Eiaiii a oaeii niunea iu e aoaeai oiio?aaeyoue yoo eaoaai?eth.

Yoeea auyniyao ianoi ii?aee a nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee,
aiaeece?oao aa i?e?iaeo e aioo?aiithth no?oeoo?o, eco/aao
i?ienoiaeaeaiea e enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea i?aanoaaiiinoe, oai?aoe/anee
iainiiauaaao oo eee eioth aa nenoaio. Eae oeeinioneay iaoea yoeea
aicieeaao ia oii yoaia ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, eiaaea
i?ienoiaeeo ioaeaeaiea aeooiaii-i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e
iaoa?eaeueii-i?aeoe/aneie. Aia/aea iia icia/aea aeeciaiioth ioae?inoue,
i?aeoe/aneea ciaiey ioiineoaeueii oiai, eae iaaei naay aanoe.
Ae?aaiaeoae yoe/aneie ii?iie iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea yaeyaony “cieioia
i?aaeei” i?aanoaaiiinoe. Aai iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oi?ioee?iaea
aeaneo: “(Ia) iinooiae ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei oae, eae ou (ia) oioae
au, /oiau iie iinooiaee ii ioiioaieth e oaaa. “Cieioia i?aaeei” oaea
ano?a/aaony a ?aiieo ienueiaiiuo iaiyoieeao iiiaeo eoeueoo? (A o/aiee
Eiioooeey, a ae?aaiaeiaeeeneii Iaoaa?aoa, a Aeaeee, a “Iaeennaa” Aiia?a
e ae?.) e i?i/ii aoiaeeo a niciaiea iineaaeothueo yiio. A ?onneii ycuea
iii i?aaenoaao a aeaea iineiaeoeu “*aai a ae?oaii ia ethaeoue, oiai e
nai ia aeaeae”.

A iniaoth aeenoeeieeio yoeea auea auaeaeaia A?enoioaeai, eioi?ue aaae e
nai oa?iei a iacaaiea naieo ?aaio: “Ieeiiaoiaa yoeea”, “Aieueoay yoeea”,
“Yaaeaiiaa yoeea”. Ii ?acaeaeee ana iaoee ia o?e aieueoea a?oiiu eee
eaoaai?ee: oai?aoe/aneea (oiic?eoaeueiua), i?aeoe/aneea e oai?/aneea
(niceaeaoaeueiua). E ia?aui A?enoioaeue ioian oeeinioeth, iaoaiaoeeo e
oeceeo, ei aoi?ui – yoeeo e iieeoeeo, a e o?aoueei – eneonnoaa, ?aianea
e i?eeeaaeiua iaoee. Yoeea eae i?aeoe/aneay iaoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
o/aiea i i?aanoaaiiinoe, i i?eaeoee /aeiaaeo aeayoaeueii-aieaauo,
aeooaaiuo ea/anoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aio a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a iauanoaaiiie
aeecie, a caoai e a ee/iie. Iia o/eo (e i?eo/aao) i?aeoe/aneei i?aaeeai
iiaaaeaiey e ia?aco aeecie ioaeaeueiiai eiaeeaeaea. I?aanoaaiiinoue
iai?aaeaia ia naiiai /aeiaaea, ia ?acaeoea caeiaeaiiuo a iai
niiniaiinoae, iniaaiii aai aeooiaiuo nee, ia niaa?oainoaiaaiea aai
aeecie, o.a. ia aeinoeaeaiea /aeiaaeii aunoaai aeaaa, ia ?aaeecaoeeth ei
niunea naiae aeecie e aa iacia/aiey. A?enoioaeue aeieacuaaao, /oi a
noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaae niia?acoao naia iiaaaeaiea e ia?ac aeecie n
i?aanoaaiiui eaeaaeii, n i?aaenoaaeaieyie i aeia?a e cea, aeieaeiii
eouai e o.ae.

Oio niaea?aeaoaeueiue niune, eioi?ue aeeaaeuaaaony a i?aanoaaiiue
eaeaae, nouanoaaiii caaeneo io ie?iiiieiaiey ethaeae e iiyoiio ?acee/ai
a oao eee eiuo oeeinioneeo nenoaiao. Iai?eia?, Aa?aeeeo o/ee, /oi ana
niaa?oaaony ii eiaino. Ionthaea, anoanoaaiii, auei e i?aaeiieiaeaiea i
oii, /oi iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea oiaaea ieacuaaaony i?aanoaaiiui,
aeaai/anoeaui, caeiiiui, eiaaea iii niaeanoaony n caeiiii, anoanoaaiiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.

A aeaeueiaeoai i?ienoiaeeo oaeoaeaiea e eciaiaiea i?aaenoaaeaiee i
i?aanoaaiiii eaeaaea /aeiaaea. Ia?auaaony aieiaiea ia oi, /oi ia?yaeo n
anoanoaaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iiaaaeaieai /aeiaaea oi?aaeytho iau/ae
ethaeae, onoaiiaeaiey eoeueoo?u, ana oi, /oi ninoaaeyao eioth, aoi?oth,
ia – aauioth i?e?iaeo. Naia yoa “aoi?ay i?e?iaea” i?aaenoaao eae
?acoeueoao auai?a e i?iaeoeo oai?/anoaa, aeoeaiinoe naiiai /aeiaaea. Iia
?oeioai?ia e nicaeaia naiei /aeiaaeii. A yoi icia/aao, /oi
i?aanoaaiiinoe iiaeii iao/eoueny. Eiaeeaeae, /oiau noaoue ii?aeueiui,
aeieaeai ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny nianoaaiiuie oaaaeaeaieyie, a ia
iieaaaoueny ia eiai-oi (noaeueao, i?aeoeia, o/eoaeae e o. ae.).
I?aanoaaiiinoue yoi oi, /oi ioiineony ei “aoi?ie i?e?iaea”, e
eoeueoo?iiio ieanoo /aeiaa/aneie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, e oiio, /oi
oa?aeoa?ecoao /aeiaaea eae iauanoaaiiia, a ia i?e?iaeiia nouanoai.

Ii?aeueiuie ea/anoaaie /aeiaaea yaeythony oa, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho aai
n oi/ee c?aiey niiniaiinoe aeeoue a iauanoaa. Iie oi?ie?othony a
i?aeoe/aneii iauaiee e niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. E oaeei
ea/anoaai A?enoioaeue ioiinee ioaeanoai, oia?aiiinoue, uaae?inoue,
aaeeeieaiea, aaee/aainoue, /anoiethaea, i?aaaeeainoue, ae?oaeaethaea,
ethaaciinoue, a oaeaea ni?aaaaeeeainoue e ae?oaeao. Au?aaaouaay a naaa
yoe ea/anoaa,

/aeiaae noaiiaeony i?aanoaaiiui. E a yoii niunea i?aanoaaiii ana, /oi
neoaeeo oe?aieaieth iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa.

N ia?aoiaeii io iieeniie i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiie aeecie e e?oiiui
ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneei ia?aciaaieyi oeia eiia?ee A.Iaeaaeiineiai
aicieeatho iiaua i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?aanoaaiiinoe e aeia?iaeaoaee.
Iaonoie/eainoue aeeciaiiuo oneiaee, iaoaa?aiiinoue a caao?aoiai aeia,
caaeneiinoue noaeueau eiaeeaeaeia, eo aeeciaiiiai oniaoa e n/anouey ia
oieueei io ee/iuo aeia?iaeaoaeae, ii e iaeii?aaeneacoaiuo aeeciaiiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa aucaaee i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?aanoaaiiinoe eae noauaeoeaiii
ninoiyiee. Iiiaea oeeiniou noaee ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi i?aanoaaiiinoue
anoue iaeay aioo?aiiyy onoaiiaea, eioi?ay ia caaeneo io iiaaaeaiey
ethaeae e i?ioeainoieo ei. Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee
i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?aanoaaiiinoe, ?acaeaaaiua noieoeeciii, yieeo?eciii e
neaioeoeeciii. Noieee, iai?eia?, iiieiaee iiae ii?aeueiinoueth
aioo?aiiee iieie, aeinoeaaaiue a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaiiaeooii-noieeiai
ioiioaiey e ie?o. Yieeo?eci n/eoae /oi n/anouea /aeiaaea ninoaaeytho
/oanoaaiiua e aeooiaiua oaeiaieuenoaey, niieienoaea e iaaiciooeiinoue.
Neaioeoeeci aeieacuaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eieoeeieaeueiiai aicaea?aeaiey
io ii?aaeaeaiiuo noaeaeaiee, iineieueeo ii?iaeueiui ineoieiae/aneei
ninoiyieai /aeiaaea yaeyaony iaoaa?aiiinoue e niiiaiea.

Iiiaea oaeea i?aaenoaaeaiey i ii?aee aioee e oeeinioeth aieaa iicaeiaai
a?aiaie. I?e yoii iiaeao iieacaoueny, /oi eco/aiea ii?aee – aeaei
aeinoaoi/ii i?inoia, iineieueeo iia caeeth/aia a eaaeaeii ec ian,
oi/iaa, iinoiyiii iaia?oaeeaaao naay a /aeiaa/aneeo acaeiiioiioaieyo.
Yoi ia yeaeo?iiu eee aaiu, aeey aa eco/aiey ia o?aaoaony aei?iainoiyuay
niaoeeaeueiay aiia?aoo?a. Ii?aeue eaaei iaia?oaeeaaaony, /oi iacuaaaony,
iaaii?oaeaiiui acaeyaeii. Ii iii?iaoeoa ?acia?aoueny a naiai nianoaaiiii
ii?aeueiii niciaiee, aeaoue i?eia?, ii?aaeaeaiea oiio, /oi au n/eoaaoa
aeia?ii, a /oi ceii, e i/aiue nei?i oaaaeeoanue, /oi i?aanoaaiiua
i?iaeaiu ia noieue aaiaeueiu, eae i?aaenoaaeythony ia ia?aue acaeyae.
Oeeiniou oaaaeeoaeueii aeieacaee yoi. A /anoiinoe, aanueia
iiaa?oiinoiui, ?eneiaaiiui e aeaaea iianiui yaeyaony i?enouaa aeey
aieueoeinoaa ethaeae, ia neeiiiuo e ?aciuoeaieyi ia ioaea/aiiua oaiu,
ooaa?aeaeaiea: “Aeia?i – yoi oi?ioaa, cei – yoi ieioia”.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oi?ioaio ioaeii no?aieoueny, ioaeii aai
i?eoiiiaeaoue, a n ieioei – ai?ioueny. A ie?a iiiai cea, iioiio /oi n
ieie ieioi ai?thony. Eae iieacae ?onneee oeeinio N.E.O?aie , eiay a
aeaeo oaeie iiaeoiae: “ana ai?a e cei”, oea?yuaa ia caiea, ana iioiee
i?ieeoie e?iae e neac, ana aaaenoaey, oieaeaiey, no?aaeaiey, ii iaiueoae
ia?a ia 99%, nooue ?acoeueoao aiee e inouanoaeaieth aeia?a, oaiaoe/iie
aa?u a eaeea-eeai nayuaiiua i?eioeeiu, eioi?ua iaaeeaaeeo ianaaeeoue ia
caiea, e aiee e aaniiuaaeiiio eno?aaeaieth cea; oiaaea eae aaeaa ee
iaeia nioay aeiey cea e aaaenoaee iaoneiaeaia aeaenoaeai ioe?iaaiii
ceie, iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?anooiiie e naiaei?unoiie aiee” [9, n. 128].

Ii/aio aea oae iieo/aaony? Ii/aio “aeaaea iaia?aiey” ai?ueau ni ceii
“aaaeoo a aae?” Ioaaou ia yoe aii?inu i?aaeiieaaatho ciaiea i?e?iaeu
ii?aee, i?ioeai?a/ee aa aicieeiiaaiey, ?acaeoey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

I?aaeaea anaai iaaei ioiaoeoue ii?iaoeaiue oa?aeoa? ii?aee. Iia
aiieiuaaony a ii?iao e i?aaeeao, ?aaoee?othueo iiaaaeaiea ethaeae, eo
acaeiiioiioaiey.

Aeaei a oii, /oi ai anyeii iauanoaa nouanoaoao iauaeoeaiay iio?aaiinoue
a oii, /oiau a ii?aaeaeaiiuo, /anoi iiaoi?ythueony neooaoeeyo ethaee
iinooiaee iaeiioeiiui ia?acii. Yoa iio?aaiinoue e ?aaeecoaony
i?aeoe/anee iin?aaenoaii ii?i ii?aee. Eo iaycothuayny neea aeey
eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea iniiauaaaony ia aicaeaenoaee ianniaiai
i?eia?a, iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, aeanoe eieeaeoeaiie i?eau/ee e ia ae?oaeo
oi?iao i?aeoe/anee au?aaeaiiie aiee iauanoaa, i?iaeythuaeny a
neiaeeaoeony a aeaiiii iauanoaa i?aaao. I?eia?ii oaeeo ii?i e i?aaee
iiaeao neoaeeoue iaia?oaeaiiue o naieo ?aciuo ia?iaeia iau/ae, eioi?ue
eiiaaea iacuaatho caeiiii oaeeiia: aeiiaiue aeieaeai iiianoe iaeacaiea,
?aaiia ii neea i?anooieaieth (“iei ca iei”, “coa ca coa” e, eiia/ii,
“nia?oue ca nia?oue”.

Aanueia iieacaoaeai e eiaaoee ianoi a aieaa iicaeiaa a?aiy oaiaeaeueiue
eiaeaen /anoe e naycaiiua n iei ?uoea?neea iiaaeeiee e aeai?yineea
aeoyee.

Aaaeiaeoae oeaeueth ii?aee yaeyaony niaeaniaaiea ee/iiai eioa?ana n
iauanoaaiiui, ?aaoee?iaaiea iinooieia ethaeae oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iie
neoaeeee iauaio aeaao. Aeaiiay ooieoeey ii?aee oi?ioi ecaanoia.
Iai?eia?, o?aioeocneee oeeinio-iaoa?eaeeno XVIII aaea Aaeueaaoeee ienae,
/oi n/anouea eee ian/anouea ia?iaea caaeneo eneeth/eoaeueii io
niioaaonoaey eee ianiioaaonoaey eioa?ania /anoiuo eeoe eioa?anai
iauanoaaiiui. Ae?aaiaa?a/aneee iuneeoaeue Ieoaai? ooaa?aeaeae, /oi aeaa
aaue aeaeatho /aeiaaea iiaeiaiui aiaai: aeeoue ia aeaai iauanoao e
aiai?eoue i?aaaeo. Aeaai iauanoaa – aa?oiaiue caeii.

Eaeay neoaeaiey iauaio aeaao iieo/eea naia eiie?aoiia aiieiuaiea a
i?aaeea eieeaeoeaecia. Iii yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei i?eioeeiii ii?aee e
i?aaeiieaaaao iinoiyiioth iai?aaeaiiinoue ee/iinoe ia inouanoaeaiea
iauaai aeaaa, ni/aoaiea a aa i?iaaaeaiee ee/iuo e iauanoaaiiuo
eioa?ania.

Eieeaeoeaeci ia en/a?iuaaao oeaee ii?aeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Ii?aeue
iai?aaeaia ia inouanoaeaiea aua iaeiie oeaee, eiy eioi?ie aoiaieci
(/aeiaa/iinoue). Eaeay aoiaiecia iieo/aao aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea e
oai?aoe/aneia ?acaeoea, ia/eiay n yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey. Nooue yoie eaeae
iaeaieaa /aoei au?acee E.Eaio: “…*aeiaae e aiiaua anyeia ?acoiiia
nouanoai nouanoaoao eae oeaeue naia ii naaa, a ia oieueei eae n?aaenoai
aeey ethaiai i?eiaiaiey ni noi?iiu oie eee ae?oaie aiee…”. [4, n. 16].
*aeiaae – oeaeue naia ii naaa, /aeiaae – aunoay, ie n /ai ia n?aaieiay
oeaiiinoue, /aeiaaea ioaeii ethaeoue e oaaaeaoue, aai n/anouea aeieaeii
noaoue eiia/iie oeaeueth iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey – ana yoe iieiaeaiey
yoe/aneie oai?ee au?aaeatho ooiaeaiaioaeueiua oeaee ii?aeueiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey.

Eieeaeoeaeci e aoiaieci eae iniiaiua oeaee ii?aeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
i?aaie/ii acaeiinaycaiu iaaeaeo niaie. Yoi aeaoaaeeiay oeaeue aee. Anee
a eieeaeoeaecia ee/iue eioa?an eae au iiae/eiai iauanoaaiiiio, a

ee/iinoue – iauanoao, oi a aoiaiecia iaiai?io, iauanoaaiiia iiae/eiaii
ee/iiio,a iauanoai ee/iinoe, aeaai e n/anouea eioi?ie noaiiaeony
eiia/iie oeaeueth iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Oai naiui ii?aeue ni/aoaao
iauanoaaiiua e ee/iua eioa?anu.

Yoeea ia oieueei oi?ioee?oao oeaee ii?aeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, ii e
ii?aaeaeyao niiniau aeinoeaeaiey naieo oeaeae. Iia auyniyao eae, eaeeie
niiniaaie niaeanoaony ee/iue e iauanoaaiiue eioa?anu, ia /oi iie?aaony
ii?aeue, /oi aiiaua iiaoaeaeaao /aeiaaea auoue ii?aeueiui. I?aaeaea
anaai iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi ii?aeue, ?aaoee?oy /aeiaa/aneea ioiioaiey,
iie?aaony ia ia neeo ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a ia neeo niciaiey, ia
oaaaeaeaiea. Aieaa eiie?aoii iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ii?aeue aea?aeeony eae
au ia o?ao aaaeiaeoeo iniiaaieyo.

Ai-ia?auo, yoi o?aaeeoeee iau/ae, i?aau, eioi?ua neiaeeeenue a aeaiiii
iauanoaa, a n?aaea aeaiiiai eeanna, nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu. *aeiaae
onaaeaaao yoe i?aau, o?aaeeoeeiiiua ii?iu iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua aoiaeyo a
i?eau/eo, noaiiayony aeinoiyieai aeooiaiiai ie?a ee/iinoe. Iie
?aaeecothony a aai iiaaaeaiee, iioeau eioi?iai i?e yoii oi?ioee?othony
neaaeothuei ia?acii: “oae i?eiyoi” eee “oae ia i?eiyoi”, “oae ana
aeaeatho”, “eae ethaee, oae e y”, “oae ennoa?e aaeinue”, “iaoe iooeu e
aeaaeu oae iinooiaee e iu aoaeai oae aea”. Aaaeiinoue iiaeiaiuo iioeaia
ianiiiaiia. Aaaeue aac onaiaiey oiai, /oi i?eiyoi eee ia i?eiyoi a
aeaiiii iauanoaa, iaeuecy iiiyoue, “/oi oaeia oi?ioi e “/oi oaeia
ieioi”.

Ai-aoi?uo, ii?aeue iie?aaony ia neeo iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, eioi?ia n
iiiiuueth iaeia?aiey iaeieo iinooieia e inoaeaeaiey ae?oaeo ?aaoee?oao
iiaaaeaiea ee/iinoe, i?eo/aao aa niaethaeaoue ii?aeueiua ii?iu.
I?oaeeyie iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey yaeythony n iaeiie noi?iiu, /anoue,
aeia?ia eiy, iauanoaaiiia i?eciaiea, eioi?ua noaiiayony neaaenoaeai
aeia?iniaanoiiai auiieiaiey /aeiaaeii naieo iaycaiiinoae, iaoeeiiiiai
niaethaeaiey ei ii?aeueiuo ii?i aeaiiiai iauanoaa; n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
nouae, i?enouaeaiea /aeiaaea, ia?ooeaoaai ii?iu ii?aee.

Iaeiiaoe, a-o?aoueeo, ii?aeue iniiauaaaony ia niciaoaeueiinoe eaaeaeie
ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe, ia iiieiaiee ath iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaeaniaaiey
ee/iuo e iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania. Yoei ii?aaeaeyaony aeia?iaieueiue
auai?, aeia?iaieueiinoue iiaaaeaiey, /oi eiaao ianoi oiaaea, eiaaea
i?i/iie iniiaie ii?aeueiiai iiaaaeaiey ee/iinoe noaiiaeony niaanoue. I
?aaeueiinoe iacaaiey o?ao iainiiaaiee ii?aee aiai?eo any aa enoi?ey.
Caoeene?iaaii yoi e ia?iaeiie ioae?inoueth. Aaaeue iaaea?ii aiai?yo ia
i/aiue ieioii, aii?aeueiii /aeiaaea: “Ie nouaea, ie niaanoe”. Cia/eo,
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ia iaai ia aeaenoaoao, a niaanoue ia?acaeoa. Oaeiai
/aeiaaea ii?aeueth ia i?ieiaoue, i?eoiaeeony i?eiaiyoue aieaa aeanoeea
n?aaenoaa aicaeaenoaey, ?ann/eoaiiua ia ieceee o?iaaiue niciaoaeueiinoe.
(“Eiai /anoue ia aa?ao, oiai iaeea i?ieiao”, – aiai?eo iaeia ec
iineiaeoe).

Oeacaiiua o?e iainiiaaiey ii?aee iaiaeeiaeiau ii naiei ?acia?ai, neea e
cia/aieth. Aeey ii?aee, iie?athuaeny ia i?eau/ee, o?aaeeoeee e neeo
iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, iniaia cia/aiea eiaao niciaoaeueiinoue ee/iinoe,
aeia?iaieueiinoue aa i?aanoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii?aeue yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo nioeeaeueiuo
?aaoeyoi?ia. Iia aeeth/aao a naay niaieoiiinoue ii?i e i?aaee iiaaaeaiey
e yaeyaony aaaeiui niiniaii ?ane?uoey aiciiaeiinoae /aeiaaea,
noaiiaeaiey e ooaa?aeaeaiey /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe.

2. I?ienoiaeaeaiea i?aanoaaiiinoe

I?ienoiaeaeaiea ii?aee eae iaeiiai ec iniiaiuo niiniaia ii?iaoeaiie
?aaoeyoeee aeaenoaee /aeiaaea a iauanoaa, iniaie oi?iu iauanoaaiiiai
niciaiey e aeaea iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee ii-?aciiio iauyniyaony
?acee/iuie oeeinioneeie nenoaiaie. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue ii iaiueoae ia?a
o?e iniiaiuo iiaeoiaea e ?aoaieth yoie i?iaeaiu.

Ai-ia?auo, ?aeeaeicii-eaeaaeenoe/aneee, ?anniao?eaathuee ii?aeue eae
aea? aiaeee. Iiaeiaii oaea?o iieiee ii?aeue ionaeaao /aeiaaea io ie?a
aeeaioiuo.

Ai-aoi?uo, iaoo?aeenoe/aneee, ?anniao?eaathuee ii?aeue eae i?inoia
i?iaeieaeaiea, oneiaeiaiea a?oiiiauo /oanoa aeeaioiuo, iaania/eaathueo
auaeeaaiea aeaea a ai?ueaa ca nouanoaiaaiea. I?aaenoaaeoaee iaoo?aeecia
a yoeea naiaeyo nioeeaeueiia e aeieiae/aneiio, noe?atho ea/anoaaiioth
a?aiue, ioee/athuoth /aeiaa/aneoth ineoeeo io aeeaioiie. Iie
ioiaeaeanoaeytho a?oiiiaua /oanoaa aeeaioiuo e ii?aeue.

A-o?aoueeo, nioeeieiae/aneee, ?anniao?eaathuee ii?aeue eae oaiiiai,
aicieeoee aianoa n iauaieai e eieeaeoeaiuie o?oaeiauie aeaenoaeyie e
iaania/eaathuee eo ?aaoee?iaaiea. I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea i?aanoaaiiinoue
aicieeaao ii ia?a auoiaea /aeiaaea ec aeeaioiiai ninoiyiey, iieo/ay
?acaeoua oi?iu aianoa n aicieeiiaaieai e oaeoaeaieai iauanoaaiiuo
?acee/ee aioo?e ieaiaie. Aeaaiua i?e/eiu, aucaaaoea iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ii?aeueiie ?aaoeyoeee, ninoiyo a ?acaeoee e oneiaeiaiee nioeeaeueiuo
ioiioaiee: iiyaeaiee i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aai
?ani?aaeaeaiey; iieiaic?anoiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea; au/eaiaiee ?iaeia
aioo?e ieaiaie;

oii?yaei/aiee iieiauo ioiioaiee e o.ae.

Iineieueeo eiaiii nioeeieiae/aneee iiaeoiae aai i?aaenoaaeyaony iaeaieaa
i?aaeeueiui, ?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa i?aau ?iaeiaiai no?iy, iauanoaa, a
eioi?ii ca?iaeaeaaony ii?aeue, caeeaaeuaathony iniiau iaoa?eaeueiie e
aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie nioeeaeueiuie i?aaeiinueeaie, iaoneiaeaoeie
aicieeiiaaiea i?aanoaaiiinoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoue ii?aeueiie ?aaoeyoeee
ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa, yaeeenue:

– ?acaeoea niciaiey e ?a/e;

– aicieeiiaaiea neioiaiaenoaa, caieaaeaeey, ?aianea (aii/a?iia aeaei,
ieaaea iaoaeeia, oea/anoai e o.ae.);

– oi?ie?iaaiea i?inouo i?aaee iauaiey, /oanoaa iauiinoe,
acaeiiiiaeaea?aeee e o.ae.;

– aicieeiiaaiea ia?aiauoiiai eieeaeoeaecia eae iniciaiey
e?iaiiai ?iaenoaa, aaeeinoaa anao /eaiia ieaiaie.

Iniaaiiinoe ?iaeiieaiaiiie ii?aee.

1. Ia ?aiieo nooiaiyo /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa i?aanoaaiiinoue aunooiaao
aeaaiui ia?acii a yiioeeiiaeueiuo, iaaeyaeii-/oanoaaiiuo oi?iao. Iia
neoaeia ia ?aoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia, oi anoue ia o?iaia iiiyoee,
i?eioeeiia, iainiiaaiee, iineo i?aeiouanoaaiii eiie?aoiue e /oanoaaiiue
oa?aeoa?, ia iniciaaaynue a aeaea aano?aeoeee. I?aanoaaiiinoue naiaeeony
e ainoaaeaieth oece/aneie neeu, ooaa?aeaeaieth acaeiiiiaeaea?aeee,
iiaeiiaaiey noa?oei e o.i. Eeoue iinoaiaiii, iicaeiaa
eiie?aoii-/oanoaaiiia iaiauaiea i?eoiaeeo e aano?aeoeeyi ii?aeueiiai
cia/aiey – i?eioeeiai, ii?iai,ioeaieai, iiiyoeyi.

2. Ia?iiiia cia/aiea eiaei iiae?aaeaiea a i?aeoe/aneie aeecie.

3. Yoe/aneia e ynoaoe/aneia aua ia ioaeaeeeenue ae?oa io ae?oaa. Ii?aeue
cae?aieyeanue a niciaiee ethaeae /a?ac neacaiey, ieou, ianie, ?eooaeu e
o.i.

4. ?aaainoai anao /eaiia ?iaeiieaiaiiiai eieeaeoeaa. Ana ?aaii
o?oaeyony, eiatho ?aaiia ioiioaiea e ?acoeueoaoai o?oaea, iae?aiei
cae?aieaiiua a iau/ayo, oaao (cai?aoao) e o.ae.

5. Ii?aeue ia?aiauoiiai no?iy ?ani?ino?aiyaony oieueei ia /eaiia ?iaea,
ieaiaie, ii ia ia ae?oaeo ethaeae, “/oaeaeia”. I?aaenoaaeaiea i
ii?aeueiie oeaiiinoe eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea aia?aua aicieeaao ia aa?oeiao
eoeueoo?u ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee.

6. Ii?aeueiua ioeaiee ?ani?ino?aiythony ia yaeaiey i?e?iaeu. *aeiaae ia
auaeaeyao naay ec i?e?iaeu. Ii eae au aeeaao a ie?a aeia?uo e ceuo
noeoee, aeeaioiuo, yaeaiee (aeaaiaea?eo “aeia?iai” iaaeaaaey eee ieaiy,
“iicaieeaoaai” oaeoue naay ia ioioa).

7. Iuoeaiea ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea ni?eaioe?iaaii ia aiaoiee ie?.
Naiiniciaiea, naiiioeaiea oieueei ca?iaeaeaeenue. A ia?eiae ?iaeiaiai
no?iy ethaee, eae i?aaeei, ia ioee/atho iioeaia iinooiea io naiiai
iinooiea, ia ?acee/atho, iai?eia?, oaeenoai n oiuneii io oaeenoaa a
?acoeueoaoa ian/anoiiai neo/ay (ia ioioa e o.ae.). A iaieo neo/ayo a
neeo anooiae caeii aiciacaeey – e?iaiay ianoue.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii?aeueiia ?aaoee?iaaiea iiaaaeaiey ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa
inouanoaeyeinue iin?aaenoaii iau/aaa, o?aaeeoeee, oaao,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e i?acaeie/iuo ?eooaeia e o.i. *aeiaae ia?aiauoiiai
iauanoaa ia aue ?acaeo eae ee/iinoue. I?aanoaaiiinoue ia?aiauoiiai
/aeiaaea iineea ioiineoaeueii iai?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?.

I?aanoaaiiinoue ia ?acee/iuo nooiaiyo oeeaeeecaoeee. Ii?aeue eae
au?aaeaiea iiceoeee ee/iinoe, aa e?eoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e aeecie eiaao
aeeeoaeueioth enoi?eth oi?ie?iaaiey.

A ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae io ?iaeiaiai no?iy i?ienoiaeeo ineaaeaiea
ii?aeueiie ?aaoeyoeee. Iiyaeythony naiua ieciaiiua iiaoaeaeaiey.
Iauanoai iiaeoa/eaatho “ai?ianoai, ianeeea, eiaa?noai e eciaia”.
Nianoaaiii aiai?y, aiaeiae/iay ea?oeia iaaethaeaaony e a ae?oaea
ia?aoiaeiua ia?eiaeu: io oaiaeaeueiiai iauanoaa e ao?aeoaciiio, io
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai e aeaiie?aoe/aneiio e o.i. Iiyoiio nouanoaoao aii?in:
yaeyaony ee ii?aeue oeeaeeeciaaiiiai iauanoaa aieaa ?acaeoie ii
n?aaiaieth n i?inoie, aaneeanniaie ?iaeiieaiaiiie i?aanoaaiiinoueth?
I?ia?ann eee ?aa?ann, oiaaeie i?aaia iaaethaeathony a enoi?e/aneii
?acaeoee iauanoaa? Anoue aeaa iiey?iuo ioaaoa ia yoe aii?inu. Ai-ia?auo,
?acaeoea oeeaeeecaoeee e naiaiaeu /aeiaaea aaaeao e oiaaeeo i?aaia.
Iauanoaaiiue i?ia?ann aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao aeaa?aaeaoeee i?aaia,
ii?aeueiiai ?aceiaeaiey ethaeae (?onni, O?iii). Ai-aoi?uo, ?acaeoea
oeeaeeecaoeee aaaeao e iaiaauaieth, niaa?oainoaiaaieth aeooiaiiai – a
oii /enea e i?aanoaaiiiai – ie?a /aeiaaea.

Aoi?ie ioaao i?aaenoaaeyaony aieaa ii?aaaeaiiui, iineieueeo ii naiaiaeai
io iae?eoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e eaeaaeecaoeee i?aanoaaiiinoe ia?aiauoiuo
ieaiai, i?eienuaaiey ei oao ii?aeueiuo aeinoieinoa, eioi?uie iie a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia iaeaaeaee. I?aaenoaaeaiey ?onni i “aeia?ii
aeeea?a”, aeeaouai “n/anoeeaie” ia?aiauoiie aeeciueth, ia aieaa /ai
eeethcey.

Ia?aoiae e oeeaeeecaoeee yaeeny ea/anoaaiiui nea/eii a ?acaeoee
i?aanoaaiiinoe. Ii auaae /aeiaa/anoai ec ninoiyiey niy/ee, ?aci?aae
?iaeiaua ioou, neiauaathuea eieoeeaoeao eiaeeaeaea, inaiaiaeee aai
niciaiea io iannu noaaa?ee e i?aae?annoaeeia.

A oneiaeyo oeeaeeecaoeee noi?ie?iaaeenue i?aaenoaaeaiey i ii?aeueiie
oeaiiinoe eaaeaeie /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe iacaaeneii io
e?iaii?iaenoaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, io nioeeaeueiuo, ?aniauo eee
iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?acee/ee. Ooaa?aeaeaaony i?eiao oeaiiinoiiai ioiioaiey
/aeiaaea e ie?o ia?aae iiciaaaoaeueiui. Nooue aai oi?ioi eceiaeaia a
ciaiaieoii oacena I?ioaai?a: “*aeiaae anoue ia?a aana aauae”
(Ni.Iaoa?eaeenou ae?aaiae A?aoeee.- I., 1985, n. 172). Iaeiiaoe,
ia?aoiae e oeeaeeecaoeee icia/ae i?ia?ann a ?acaeoee ee/iinoe e
i?aanoaaiiinoe.

A oeaeii aea ia?aoiae e oeeaeeecaoeee iinee i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?,
nii?iaiaeaeaeny aicieeiiaaieai ia oieueei i?ia?anneaiuo yeaiaioia
i?aanoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey, ii e aicieeiiaaieai ii?ieia, eioi?uo
?iaeiaia iauanoai ia ciaei.

Ii?aeue ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai iauanoaa. ?ac?ooaiea ?iaeiaiai no?iy,
aucaaiiia iiyaeaieai /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e eiouanoaaiiiai ia?aaainoaa,
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue aeoaieeie eciaiaieyie i?aanoaaiiiai niciaiey.
Ioiineoaeueii iai?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa? ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea
auoaniyaony iiaie ii?aeueth, iniiaie eioi?ie yaeythony oaiaoaiea
ioe?uoia ia?aaainoai, ioiioaiey ee/iie caaeneiinoe. Aicieeatho aeaa
ii?aee yenieoaoaoi?ia e yenieoaoe?oaiuo, “aunoeo” e “iecoeo”.

Ainiiaenoaothuae ii?aeueth noaiiaeony ii?aeue eeanna ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa.
Aa oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou:

1. ?aa ?anniao?eaaeny eeoue eae aiai?yuaa i?oaeea, aai aeeciue
i?e?aaieaaeanue e oeaiiinoe aaue. ?aaa iiaeii auei eoieoue, i?iaeaoue,
oaeoue e o.ae. Aio eae ia?eniaai i?eia? ?ani?aau iaae ?aaii a
“Iaeennaa”: “Iaaeueth

iauaaeiith au?aaee iicae?e, ia?acaee ooe, ?oee e iiae ionaeee aio; e
iioii ec?oaeaoe a e?ioe, aai ia nuaaeaiea a?ineee aeaaeiui niaaeai”.

2. Eoeueoeae?iaaeanue eaeay aa/iinoe e ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aanoaa.

3. Oece/aneee o?oae ?anniao?eaaeny eae oaeae ?aaia, eae i?ieeyoea,
ieniineaiiia noaeueaie.

4. Aunoeie aeia?iaeaoaeyie i?eciathony ioaeanoai, o?aa?inoue,
noieeinoue, aa?iinoue ai?iaeo – ainoaea?noao, aieineay aeiaeanoue. I?e
yoii oeacaiiua i?aanoaaiiua ea/anoaa aiieia oaeeaathony n i?ac?aieai e
ie?iiio o?oaeo, aeanoieinoueth a aieiao, n iaianuoiui /anoiethaeai e
aeanoiethaeai.

*oi eanaaony ii?aee ?aaia, oi iia auea eeoaia aioo?aiiaai aaeeinoaa.
?aau auee ?aciauaiu, ?aciiycu/iu, i?eiaaeeaaeaee e ?acee/iui yoie/aneei
a?oiiai. ?aau iaoiaeeeenue a ninoiyiee aioaaiiecia ni naieie oicyaaaie.
Ia neo/aeii neiaeeeanue eoaeueyineay iiaiai?ea: “Neieueei ?aaia,
noieueei a?aaia”.

Aianoa n oai a iauanoaa iinoiyiii ia?anoaee iano?iaiey i?ioanoa i?ioea
?aanoaa. Iinoaiaiii neeaaeuaathony iiaua i?aaenoaaeaiey i oeaiiinoe e
aeinoieinoaa ee/iinoe, ii?aeueiie oeaiiinoe eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea,
iaua/aeiaa/aneii ?aaainoaa. Yaiethoeeth acaeyaeia ii yoiio aii?ino
iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue ii neaaeothuei aeioaaeoei aei ian auneacuaaiey. Anee
ai II aaea aei i.y. ?aaiaeaaeaeaoe Eaoii i?aaeeaaae niaaou, eioi?ua a
iniiaiii naiaeeeenue e oiio, /oiau aea?aeaoue ?aaa nuoui, caei?iaui e ie
ia ieiooo ia inoaaeyoue aai aac aeaea, oi iicaeiaa a niaaoao Eieoiaeeu
ainiiaeeio oaea ?aeiiaiaeoaony ae?oaeanee oooeoue e ?acaiaa?eaaoue n
?aaii, noaaeoue a caaeneiinoue io aai o?oaeiethaey aai naiaeiia
iieiaeaiea e o.ae.

Yoe/aneea acaeyaeu e i?aaenoaaeaiey yiioe ?aaiaeaaeaiey i?aaenoaaeaiu a
i?iecaaaeaieyo eneonnoaa e i?aaio/eoaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a. A ieo, ia?yaeo n
io?aaeaieai ?aaeueiie i?ioeai?a/eainoe ii?aee ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai
eeanna, ni anae ino?ioie iiaeieiathony i?iaeaiu aeia?a e cea,
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e iani?aaaaeeeainoe, noaeueau e naiaiaeu, aeia?iaeaoaee
e ii?iea. Iiiaea ienaoaee e ooaeiaeieee aioe/iiai ie?a ae/otho oaeea
ii?iee, eae aeaaeaea iaaeeau, no?aieaiea e ?ineioe, iaaaaeanoai, iaiai,
ouaneaaea, ?aca?ao, ceineiaea (Aaneiae, A?enoioai, Oaoeeo, Ieooa?o e
ae?.). Iieo/atho ?acaeoea yoe/aneea oai?ee, io?aaeathuea i?aanoaaiiua
oiiiano?iaiey, neiaeeaoeany a ecaanoiie ia?a iiae aicaeaenoaeai
inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueau ?aaia e aaaeiyeia (Yieeo?, noieee). Naiaea
ienae:

“Anee anoue a oeeinioee /oi oi?ioaa, oae yoi oi, /oi iia ia niio?eo a
?iaeineiaioth”. [6, n. 445]. Noieee ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi ana ethaee ?aaiu
ia?aae i?aanoaaiiui caeiiii. Oi?ie?othony aoiaienoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey
i iacia/aiee /aeiaaea, niunea aai aeecie. Iaeaunoae naiaiaeie, eioi?oth
iiaeao aeinoe/ue /aeiaae, i?iaicaeaoathony i?aanoaaiiia niaa?oainoai e
o?aaiiaaoaiiinoue aeooa, iaa?aaeie ca aeia?iaeaoaeue – naia
aeia?iaeaoaeue.

Ii?aeue yiioe oaiaeaeecia. Oaiaeaeueiue no?ie oa?aeoa?ecoaony oeaeie
nenoaiie caaeneiinoae, ec eioi?uo! noa?aeiaaie yaeyaony e?aiinoiay
caaeneiinoue io oaiaeaeia. Neeaaeuaaaony oaiaeaeueiay ii?aeue
iaoa?iaeeci (io eao.neiaa pater. – ioaoe). I?aanoaaiiinoue ninoieo ec
?yaea caieioouo eiaeaenia, i/a?/eaathueo iaycaiiinoe /aeiaaea ii
ioiioaieth e “iie?iaeoaeth” eee nioeeaeueiie a?oiia, eioi?ay aai
caueuaao (?uoea?neea e iiiaoaneea i?aeaiu, oeaoe e aeeueaeee,
ei?ii?aoeee eee ?aeeaeiciua naeou).

N?aaeiaaaeiaay yoeea aicieeea eae iieiia io?eoeaiea aioe/iie. Iniiaiia
aieiaiea iia nianoeea ia aiaoiaiauaeoeae?iaaiiua oi?iu. E?eoa?ee aeia?a
e cea auee auianaiu ca i?aaeaeu ee/iinoe. Ii?aeue auea ioi?aaia io
i?aaia. Ae auea i?eaeaia oi?ia, iicaieythuay eniieueciaaoue aa eae
i?oaeea aeooiaiiai oaiaoaiey iann.

Aaaeiaeoea iniaaiiinoe oaiaeaeueiie ii?aee ninoiyo a neaaeothuai.
Ai-ia?auo, a oneiaeyo oaiaeaeecia neeaaeuaathony i?aaenoaaeaiey i
ia?aaiuo ii?aeueiuo ea/anoaao, ?acee/iie oeaiiinoe ethaeae “aunoeo” e
“iecoeo” nineiaee. Oi?ie?othony acaeyaeu i ni?aaaaeeeainoe eae
aicaeayiee ethaeyi a ia?aaiie noaiaie, “ii aeinoieinoao”, ii?aaeaeyaiiio
aai nineiaiui noaoonii.

Ai-aoi?uo, yoe/aneia iniuneaiea ie?a niaa?oaaony a ?aieao ?aeeaeiciiai
ie?iaicc?aiey. Ainiiaenoaoao o?aaeeoeeiiaeeci. Iau/ae, nouanoaothuea “io
aaea”, cae?aieythony neeie ainoaea?noaaiiiai ianeeey.

A-o?aoueeo, oaiaeaeueiay ii?aeue ia?aie/eaaea “yeiiiie/aneea aiiaoeou
eiaeeaeaea. Aiaaonoai aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue aai iauanoaaiiiio
iieiaeaieth. No?aieaiea e aiaaonoao “ia ii noaoono” ?anoeaieaaaony eae
aeaaeiinoue, a iia anoue “nia?oaeueiue a?ao”.

A-/aoaa?ouo, ainiiaenoaothuay a oaiaeaeueiii iauanoaa i?aanoaaiiinoue
ninoieo ec ?yaea iniiaiuo ii?i e onoaiiaeaiee. Yoi nineiaiay /anoue,
aa?iinoue “noa?oei”, aieineay o?aa?inoue e neaaa, uaae?inoue,
ainoai?eeinoai, iaycaiiinoue iie?iaeoaeuenoaa /eaiai naiae ei?ii?aoeee,
iaaiaeiinoue. Iai?eia?, nineiaiay /anoue i?aaeienuaaea /aeiaaeo ia?ac
aeecie e aeaenoaee, ia oieaeathuee aeinoieinoaa oiai nineiaey, e
eioi?iio ii i?eiaaeeaaeae. Oaiaeaeu, a /anoiinoe, i?ace?atho oece/aneee
o?oae, ioeaieaatho aai eae oaeae iecoeo nineiaee.

Ao?aeoaciay ii?aeue. A oneiaeyo eaieoaeecia neeaaeuaaaony iiaay ii?aeue.
*anoiue eioa?an, oniao a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe ioe?uoi
i?iaicaeaoathony aunoae oeaeueth e iioeaii aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae.

Oiiiaeaiea nianoaaiiinoe, no?aieaiea e aeanoe, aeeyieth, caaiaaaieth
i?anoeaea – oaeiau aeaaiua o?aaiaaiey ao?aeoaciie ii?aee. Iia inayuaao
oaeoe/aneia ia?aaainoai, naieoeeiie?oao ioiioaiea e ae?oaei ethaeyi eae
e iioaioeeaeueiui i?ioeaieeai, eiieo?aioai, aeaao iie/aeeaia niaeanea ia
oeeieci, oa?enaenoai, /a?noainoue, iaei/ioth ?an/aoeeainoue,
nioeeaeueiia /anoiethaea, ouaneaaea e o.i. Ii?aeue aeiioneaao
caoaaoie/aneea aieiu, eieiieaeueiue ?acaie, iiaeaaeaiea nioeeaeueiiai
iaaeiaieuenoaa, iieeoe/aneia eio?eaainoai.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, no?aieaiea e /anoiiio eioa?ano iiauoaao aeoeaiinoue
ethaeae, oeaiaioe?oao eo nayce, noeioee?oao iaoa?eaeueiia e aeooiaiia
?acaeoea iauanoaa e ee/iinoe. Ao?aeoaciay ii?aeue i?aaeiieaaaao
oi?iaeueiia i?eciaiea ?aaainoaa i?aa e aiciiaeiinoae eaaeaeiai /eaia
iauanoaa ia aeayoaeueiinoue, aaaeouoth e /anoiiio oniaoo. Iauanoai,
iniiaaiiia ia ee/iie caaeneiinoe, onooiaao ianoi iauanoao, iniiaaiiiio
ia

aauiuo ioiioaieyo. Ii n?aaiaiee» n oaiaeaeueiie (nineiaiie,
ei?ii?aoeaiie) ii?aeueth, ao?aeoaciue eiaeeaeaeoaeeci aieaa
i?ia?anneaai, iineieueeo ioe?uaaao ee/iinoe aiciiaeiinoe aeey aieaa
naiaiaeiiai ?acaeoey.

A ?acaeoee ao?aeoaciie ii?aee iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e iniiaiuo yoaia.
Ai-ia?auo, ca?iaeaeaiea ?aiiaao?aeoaciie ii?aee. Ii a?aiaie yoio yoai
niaiaaeaao n i?ioeannii ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey eaieoaea. Ii
nii?iaiaeaeaaony yeni?ii?eaoeeae iaeeie nianoaaiiinoe e?anoueyi e
?aianeaiieeia, eieiieaeueiie yeniaineae e aucaae oyaeaeua ii?aeueiua
iineaaenoaey. Ai-aoi?uo, eeanne/aneay ao?aeoaciay ii?aeue yiioe
naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee. Ia aeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey ao?aeoaciay ii?aeue
iaia?oaeeaaao aeaienoaaiiue oa?aeoa?. Iia niaaeeiyao a naaa caueoo
eioa?ania aeciana, “aeaea”, inoaeaeaao ?anoi/eoaeueiinoue, i?iiiaaaeoao
aneaoeci. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?iaicaeaoaaony ii?aeue “aaaeiiecia”,
i?aaenoaaeaiey i oeaiiinoe eeoue oiai, /oi /aeiaae oi/ao a io?uaa io aai
aeieaeainoaiaaiey, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue i?aaeeii: “Oniaoa aeinoiei oio, eoi
aai aeiaeeny”. A-o?aoueeo, ii?aeue ainoaea?noaaiii-eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
iauanoaa. Iia i?aiaeieaaaao eaeaaeu e i?aaenoaaeaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiiai
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia. Aiiaue neeaaeuaaaony “ei?ii?aoeaiay” ii?aeue,
o?aaothuay i?aaeaiiinoe eioa?anai iiiiiieee, i?eniiniaeai/anoaa e naiie
eniieieoaeueiinoe. Ii?aeue i?eaioe?oao ia ioiioaiea io onoaiiaie ia
aa?aaeeeainoue, aiaeaeaao eiaeeaeaea a ni?aaiiaaiea cao?ao, a
iio?aaeoaeueneoth aiieo, iai?aaeaiioth ia caaiaaaiea i?anoeaea.
Aicieeaao oae iacuaaaiue ?uii/iue /aeiaae, eioi?ue aini?eieiaao ana eae
oiaa?, – ia oieueei aaue, ii e naio ee/iinoue, aeeth/ay aa oece/aneoth
yia?aeth, iaauee, ciaiey, iiaiey, /oanoaa, aeaaea oeuaee. Ethaee
i?eaioe?othony ia ianeaaeaeaiey e aauaiieeiiie/anoai, ia i?aa?auaiea a
“/aeiaaea ?acaeaeathuaainy”.

Eae ?aaeoeey ia iio?aaeoaeueneoth ii?aeue ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa
aicieeaao aa aioeiiae – “ieaeeenoe/aneay” ii?aeue. Iia io?aaeaao
e?eoe/aneia ioiioaiea e eaieoaeenoe/aneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iie?aaony
ia /enoi yiioeeiiaeueiua i?ioanou, iac?aeua a iieeoe/aneii e
i?aanoaaiiii ioiioaiee aicc?aiey. Naieo i?eaa?aeaioeaa iia /a?iaao
i?aeiouanoaaiii a iaeeiao?aeoaciuo neiyo ianaeaiey, a n?aaea ionoaeuo e
neaai i?aaieciaaiiuo o?oaeyueony, o/auaeny iieiaeaaee, eiea?aioneeo
a?oii. Ieaeeenoe/aneay ii?aeue inoaeaeaao ea?uea?eci,
i?eniiniaeai/anoai, oo?aoo ii?aeueiuo e?eoa?eaa a nia?aiaiii ao?aeoaciii
ie?a. Iaeiia?aiaiii iia i?eieaeaao cia/aiea i?aanoaaiiinoe, iaaycuaaao
onoaiiaee ia iiae?ua iauai?eiyouo oi?i iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa.

Oioaeeoa?eci e ii?aeue. *?acau/aeii aeooaeueiui a oai?aoe/aneii e
i?aeoe/aneii ioiioaieyo i?aaenoaaeyao enneaaeiaaiea ii?aee oioaeeoa?iiai
iauanoaa. I?eia?aie caeanue yaeythony oaoenoneay Aa?iaiey e neiaeeaoaany
a ia?eiae noaeeiueiu iauanoai a NNN?. Iineieueeo iineaaenoaey
oioaeeoa?ecia aeatho i naaa ciaoue aei neo ii?, ?anniio?ei aai iniiaiua
i?eciaee. Ai-ia?auo, yoi – iaiiia?ii aic?inoay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa ai
anao iaeanoyo iauanoaaiiie aeecie: yeiiiieea, iieeoeea, eoeueoo?a.
Ai-aoi?uo, /?acia?iay eaeaieiaecaoeey iauanoaa, ainiiaenoai
aeiaiaoe/aneiai iuoeaiey. A-o?aoueeo, ainiiaenoai onoaiiaee, niaeanii
eioi?ie ia ainoaea?noai aeieaeii neoaeeoue /aeiaaeo, a /aeiaae
ainoaea?noao. A-/aoaa?ouo, i?ei?eoao iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiinoae e
eioa?ania ia?aae /anoiuie, ee/iinoiuie, eiie?aoiuie. A oioaeeoa?iii
iauanoaa ?oeiaiaenoaothony i?aaeeii: “anee oi?ioi ainoaea?noao, oi yoi
oi?ioi e aeey anao aai a?aaeaeai”.

A oneiaeyo oioaeeoa?iiai iauanoaa i?aanoaaiiinoue neeueii
aeaoi?ie?oaony. Aucaaii yoi oai, /oi i?ienoiaeeo neeueiia io/oaeaeaiea
/aeiaaea io nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, ?acoeueoaoia aai
o?oaea e io aeanoe. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay
ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea /anoiuo eioa?ania, noaiiaeony cai?auaiiie e aeaaea
oaieiaii iaeacoaiie. Io/oaeaeaiea /aeiaaea io nianoaaiiinoe,
i?aneaaeiaaiea /anoiii?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe aaaeao e
?aceiio nieaeaieth aeoeaiinoe ethaeae, ii?iaeaeaao ianneaiinoue e
ineoieiaeth eaeaeeaai/anoaa.

Aeey oioaeeoa?ecia oa?aeoa?ia “aeaieiay” ii?aeue: iaeia iieaciay,
aiaoiyy, o?eaoiiay, a ae?oaay aioo?aiiyy, aeaenoaeoaeueiay,
iianaaeiaaiay. Ethaee a ioeoeeaeueiie ianoaiiaea aiai?yo iaeii, a
aeoiatho ae?oaia. Oioaeeoa?eci iecaiaeeo /aeiaaea aei aeioeea aeaaioneie
ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoeiu. Aai i?eioeeiii yaeyaony ecaanoiia ec?a/aiea
“Noaeeia: “Iacaiaieiuo ethaeae o ian iao”. Oioaeeoa?eci eaii?e?oao
oieeaeueioth iaiiaoi?eiinoue eaaeaeie ee/iinoe, ii?iaeaeaao nineiaioth,
ei?ii?aoeaioth ii?aeue. Iaiiia?ii neeueii ?ac?anoaaony ath?ie?aoe/aneee
neie iauanoaa, oneeeaaaony cia/aiea iiiaieeaoo?u. Oi?ie?othny oneiaey
aeey i?aeoe/anee aaciaeacaiiie eo aeayoaeueiinoe. I?eieaeaaony cia/aiea
iaua/aeiaa/aneiai niaea?aeaiey i?aanoaaiiinoe. Aaniethoece?oaony e
ioeueaa?ece?oaony eeanniaue iiaeoiae e ii?aee.

Oioaeeoa?eci – yoi eiio?ieue iaae anaie noa?aie iauanoaaiiie aeecie, a
oii /enea e eiio?ieue iaae i?aanoaaiiinoueth. Yoi i?aneaaeiaaiea ca
aeaiie?aoe/aneea oaaaeaeaiey e ianaaeaeaiea no?aoa. Oioaeeoa?eci – yoi
ieeeoa?ecaoeey iauanoaa, iieeoeea aiei e aiaiiuo i?eaioiaeaiee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoa iauanoai a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a inaiaiaeeeinue io
a?aiaie oioaeeoa?ecia. Iieiia aai i?aiaeieaiea i?aaeiieaaaao
aeaeueiaeooth aeaiie?aoecaoeeth iauanoaa, ?acaeoea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, oi?i/aiea naiaiae, i?aiaeieaiea e?eceniuo yaeaiee
a yeiiiieea, iieeoeea e eoeueoo?a.

Oaeiau iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea e iniaaiiinoe ii?aee ia ?acee/iuo nooiaiyo
oeeaeeecaoeee.

3. Niaoeeoeea e iniiaiua ooieoeee ii?aee

Iiiyoea “ii?aeue” /?acau/aeii iiiaicia/ii. Nouanoaoao ianeieueei
aeanyoeia ii?aaeaeaiiie ii?aee. *aua anaai iiae ii?aeueth iiieiatho
iaeei ec iniiaiuo niiniaia ii?iaoeaiie ?aaoeyoeee aeaenoaee /aeiaaea a
iauanoaa, a oaeaea iniaoth oi?io iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey e aeae
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

O?oaeiinoe eco/aiey ii?aee iaoneiaeaiu oai, /oi iie naycaiu n i/aiue
“oiieeie” ineoieiae/aneeie e nioeeaeueiuie iaoaieciaie. Ii?aeue
aicieeaao oai, aaea aeaiu ineoe/aneea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie. Ii
yoe ioiioaiey noi?ie?iaaiu ia nioeeaeueiii o?iaia, oai, aaea ineoe/aneea
ia?aaeeaaiey naycaiu n i?aaenoaaeaiey i

aeia?a e cea, ni?aaaaeeeainoe, /anoe, aeieaa, niaanoe, n/anouea e o.i.
Anoanoaaiii, /oi o aeeaioiuo oaeeo i?aaenoaaeaiee a ynii au?aaeaiiie
oi?ia iao e auoue ia iiaeao, eai ii?aeueiua ioiioaiey – yoi ineoe/aneea
ioiioaiey aieaa aunieiai nioeeaeueiiai o?iaiy, i?enouea oieueei
/aeiaaeo.

Neiaeiinoe aicieeatho e oiaaea, eiaaea iu no?aieiny eieaeeciaaoue
ii?aeue,auaeayeoue aa ec ae?oaeo naycae e ioiioaiee. Naeaeaoue yoi ia
oaeaaony. Aeaei a oii, /oi ii?aeue iaeaaeaao anai?iieeathuae
niiniaiinoueth, a ia eieaeeciaaia a eaeie-oi iaeiie iaeanoe: iaoea,
iieeoeea, i?iecaiaenoaa, naiuea e o.ae. Iaeii e oi aea aeaenoaea iiaeao
ieacaoueny ii?aeueiui, aii?aeueiui, aiaii?aeueiui – ana caaeneo io oiai,
au?aaeaao ee iii ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e aeaenoaothuae a iauanoaa nenoaia
oeaiiinoae. I?uaeie a aiaeo eoiaeueueea ie ii?aeai, ie aii?aeai. Ii
iiaeiaiue aea i?uaeie, niaa?oaiiue /aeiaae aeey nianaiey ooiiathuaai,
oaea ii?aeueiue iinooiie, eai ii io?aaeaao ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e
oeaiiinoe ae?oaie /aeiaa/aneie aeecie. Eeoaoue /aeiaaea aeecie a?yae ee
ii?aeueii, ii anee yoi i?ienoiaeeo i?e auiieiaiee caaea/ aii?oaeaiiie
caueou Ioa/anoaa, ia iiea aiy, yoi yoi ai ana a?aiaia i?eciaaaeinue e
ii?aeueiui, e aeinoieiui aeayieai. Aiiaua iaaei neacaoue, /oi
i?aanoaaiiinoue, ii?aeueiinoue eee aii?aeueiinoue ia nouanoaotho naie ii
naaa, ioaeaeueii io iinooieia e aeaenoaee /aeiaaea. Ethaie /aeiaae
iiaeao ia neiaao iaaeaeyoue naay ethauie ea/anoaaie. Aieueoa oiai, ii
iiaeao ene?aiia aa?eoue a oi, i /ai ii aiai?eo. Iaeiaei eeoue
aani?eno?anoiue aiaeec iinooieia, aeae yoiai /aeiaaea iiaeao
iiaeoaa?aeeoue eee ii?iaa?aiooue aai ooaa?aeaeaiea.

Ana yoi iaaei o/eouaaoue, iineieueeo ia oieueei eaaeaeue ioaeaeueii
acyoue /aeiaae, ii e eaaeaeue eeann, nioeeaeueiue neie e nioeeaeueiay
a?oiia iauanoaa anaaaea iuoathony eniieueciaaoue ii?aeue a
eaeaieiae/aneeo oeaeyo, i?eniiniaeoue aa e naiei eioa?anai, ii?aaaeaoue
n aa iiiiuueth naie ia?ac aeecie.

Oiiua iieeoeee anaaaea eniieueciaaee e eniieuecotho i?aanoaaiiinoue eae
aeiiieieoaeueiue eino?oiaio eiio?iey aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, eae
iieaciia aeiiieiaiea ?ai?anneaiiai aiia?aoa ainoaea?noaa, eae
niaoeeoe/aneoth ?aaoee?othuoth neeo, iie?aynue ia eioi?oth iiaeii
auno?aa e iaaeaaeiaa ?aoeoue noiyuea ia?aae ainoaea?noaii i?iaeaiu.
Ionthaea eaeoo nianai iaaeaaii aua ainiiaenoaiaaaoea a iaoai iauanoaa
i?aaenoaaeaiey i oii, /oi i?aanoaaiii ana, /oi neoaeeo eiiioiecio.
Nae/an aea, eiaaea ia?aae ainoaea?noaii noiyo niaa?oaiii ae?oaea
caaea/e, naycaiiua n nicaeaieai ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e ?acaeoeai
naiaiaeiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eiiioienoe/aneay eaeay
?anniao?eaaaony ioeoeeaeueiuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie eae
iai?eee/iia caaeoaeaeaiea e ooiiey, a ii?aeueiuie i?eciathony aeaenoaey,
iai?aaeaiiua ia aeaiiioaae aaeieieno?aoeaiiai nioeeaeecia e nicaeaiea a
no?aia iauanoaa caiaaeiiai oeia. Anee iaaeaaii oa?iei
“i?aaei?eieiaoaeue” i?eiaaeeaaeae oaieiaiiio eiaeaeno e cao/ae eae
inei?aeaiea e iaaeiaiea, oi nae/an auoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeai e i?anoeaeii,
e aeioiaeii, e iioaaeueii. I?aanoaaiiue niune yoiai oa?ieia eciaieeny
ianoieueei, /oi iiiaea neeiiiu n/eoaoue i?aanoaaiiui ana oi, /oi neoaeeo
?acaeoeth i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Aiiaua, iaaei neacaoue, /oi i?aanoaaiiinoue a ea/anoaa eaeaieiaee
iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueia. Iia iiaeao oe?aieyoue iauanoai e ?ac?ooaoue aai,
niea/eaaoue ethaeae e ?aciauaoue eo, ?ane?uaaoue /aeiaaeo niune aeecie e
oaiaeeoue a oea?noai a?ac e i?aae?annoaeeia, aucuaaoue o /aeiaaea
?aaeinoue e oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue e eacieoue aai aaniiuaaeiui noaeii
niaanoe, iuouaieai iaiii?aaeiie aeiu.

Eae iniaay oi?ia iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey ii?aeue iaeaaeaao
oeaeinoiinoueth, onoie/eainoueth, ea/anoaaiiui naiaia?aceai. Aa
oeaio?aeueiuie i?iaeaiaie yaeythony ii?iu iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea,
ioeaii/ii-eiia?aoeaiue niinia iiciaiey ie?a n oi/ee c?aiey aeia?a e cea.
Ae?oaea caaea/e noiyo ia?aae iaoeie. Aeey iaa aeaaiia – enoeia, ciaiey,
a eioi?uo iao i?eno?anoiuo, caaenyueo io /aeiaaea eiiiiiaioia. Iiciaiea
iauaeoeaiie enoeiu, neoaeaiea enoeia, auyaeaiea aa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
niaea?aeaiey i?enoue iaoea. Nouanoaaiii ioee/ia ii?aeue e io eneonnoaa,
aeey eioi?iai aeaaiui yaeyaony e?anioa, aiieiuaiiay a ooaeiaeanoaaiiii
ia?aca.

Neacaiiia aiana ia aiai?eo i oii, /oi ana yoe o?e ?acee/iuo niiniaao
inaiaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe:

ii?aeue, iaoea e eneonnoai ioee/athony ?oa io ae?oaa ianoieueei, /oi ia
eiatho ie/aai iauaai. Aeoiaoue oae auei au ii?iiao/eai. Aeia?i, enoeia,
e?anioa iaiaoiaeeii naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii, ia?ae?aueaathony, acaeiii
aeiiieiytho e iaiaauatho ae?oa ae?oaa. Iaoea caeeth/aao a naaa yeaiaiou
oeaiiinoiiai ioiioaiey e ie?o, ii?aeue iiciaaaoaeueia, ooaeiaeanoaaiiue
ia?ac (e?anioa) niaea?aeeony, eae ecaanoii, e a iaoea, e a eneonnoaa.
Ana yoe ?acee/iua niiniau inaiaiey ethaeueie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
iaoneiaeaiu i?aeoeeie, eioi?ay aunooiaao e e?eoa?eai iauaeoeaii
enoeiiiai ciaiey, ia?acoao oeaiiinoioth naycue noauaeoa e iauaeoa,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii au?aaeaao eioa?anu, ono?aieaiey e iaaeaaeaeu /aeiaaea.
I?aeoeea iicaieyao i?iaanoe aeaeaiea yaeaiee ia iieaciua e a?aaeiua,
iinooieia ia aeia?ua e ceua, ni?aaaaeeeaua e iani?aaaaeeeaua.

Iniiaiua ooieoeee ii?aee.

Cia/aiea ii?aee a aeecie /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa ia?iiii. Iia auiieiyao
aeey /aeiaaea ?ie naiaia?aciiai “eiiiana” i?iaaaeaiey, i?eaioe?oao aai a
iauanoaaiiie aeecie, a ie?a nioeeaeueiuo oeaiiinoae. Ii?aeue aeaao
i?aaenoaaeaiey i cia/eiinoe aeey /aeiaaea ie?oaeathuaai aai ie?a, a
iniaaiiinoe ie?a nioeeaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a aai iianaaeiaaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Neacaiiia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaee/ee o ii?aee
ie?iaicc?ai/aneie ooieoeee. Oi?ie?oy i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeia?a e cea,
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, /anoe e aeinoieinoaa e o.ae., ii?aeue au?aaaouaaao
nenoaio oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee, ii?i, cai?aoia, ioeaiie, eaeaaeia,
eioi?ua noaiiayony iaiaoiaeeiui eiiiiiaioii iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey,
i?eaioe?otho eiaeeaeaea, au?aaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea oai eee eiui ii?iai e
iiaaeaiea aeaenoaiaaoue a niioaaonoaee n ieie. I?e yoii ii?aeue
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iniauie ineoieiae/aneeie iaoaieciaie – niaanoueth e
aeieaii. A yoii niunea i?aanoaaiiue /aeiaae – yoi /aeiaae niaanoe e
aeieaa. Niaanoue o?aaoao io /aeiaaea neaaeiaaoue aeia?o e
nii?ioeaeyoueny ceo, aeiea iiaaeaaaao aio auoue /anoiui, auiieiyoue naie
iaycaiiinoe, nio?aiyoue naith /anoue e aeinoieinoai. Eae iniaia
ie?iaicc?aiea ii?aeue o?aaoao

i?eciaoue /aeiaaea aunoae oeaiiinoueth. Iia o?aaoao ii?aaeaeeoue
ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e iauanoao, aiceaaaao ia iaai ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
auai? oeaeae e eaeaaeia iauanoaaiiiai aeaeaeaiey.

Ae?oaie aaaeiaeoae ooieoeeae ii?aee yaeyaony ?aaoee?iaaiea iiaaaeaiey
/aeiaaea ai anao noa?ao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe: a o?oaea, a auoo, a
iieeoeea, a iaoea, a naiaeiuo, aioo?ea?oiiiauo e ae?oaeo ioiioaieyo. Iia
naieoeeiie?oao e iiaeaea?aeeaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua iauanoaaiiua onoie, no?ie
aeecie eeai o?aaoao eo eciaiaiey. I?e yoii iaaei o/anoue, /oi ii?aeueiia
?aaoee?iaaiea iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. Ii?aeue iie?aaony ia ia i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iauanoaaiiu i?aaiecaoeee, a ia neeo iauanoaaiiiai
iiaiey. O ii?aeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iao oie aeanoieinoe, eioi?ay i?enoua
i?aaiaiio ?aaoee?iaaieth. Ii?aeueiua naieoeee aieaa aeaee, ?aciiia?aciu,
aunooiatho a aeaea ia oieueei i?eioaeaeaiey ii e oaaaeaeaiey, iaeia?aiey
iauanoaaiiui iiaieai, a aeaea naiiioeaiee – oaeiaeaoai?aiiie /enoie
niaanoe eee aa oa?ucaiee. O?aouey iniiaiay ooieoeey ii?aee – ainieoaiea
ee/iinoe.

?iaeeaoeeny ?aaaiie ie ii?aeai, ie aii?aeai. E oai e ae?oaei ii iiaeao
noaoue eeoue a iauanoaa, a eieeaeoeaa, a naiuea, a iauaiee.
I?aanoaaiiinoue i?iieouaaao eaaeaeue oaa /aeiaaea. Iia oi?ie?oao o iaai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i oeaiiinoe aeecie e aa niunea. Iiae aeeyieai
ainieoaoaeueiuo aicaeaenoaee iauanoaa ia /aeiaaea, a oaeaea
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo aicaeaenoaee /aeiaae noaiiaeony
ee/iinoueth. *ai i?aanoaaiiaa ii, oai aieaa iieiie aeeciueth aeeaao, oai
neeueiaa a iai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, oai eioa?aniaa ii aeey
ie?oaeathueo.

Iaeiiaoe, /aoaa?oie iniiaiie ooieoeeae ii?aee yaeyaony iiciaiea
ie?oaeathuaai ian ie?a. Yoa iiciaaaoaeueiay ooieoeey ii?aee ia
oiaeaeanoaaiia iao/iiio iiciaieth. Iia aeinoaaeyao eiaeeaeaeo ia i?inoi
ciaiea iauaeoia naieo ii naaa, a i?eaioe?oao aai a ie?a ie?oaeathueo
eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae, i?aaeii?aaeaeyao i?aaeii/oaiea oao ec ieo,
eioi?ua ioaa/atho aai iio?aaiinoyi e eioa?anai.

Ia?yaeo n oeacaiiuie iniiaiuie ooieoeeyie, ia?aaeei auaeaeytho e
ae?oaea, a /anoiinoe, eiiioieeaoeaioth, iioeaaoeeiiioth,
i?iaiinoe/aneoth, ioeaii/ii-eiia?aoeaioth e ae?oaea.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii?aeue – yoi iniaue aeae aeooiaii-i?aeoe/aneiai inaiaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe /aeiaaeii. Iia i?eaioe?oao aai iiaaaeaiea a iauanoaa,
?aaoee?oao yoi iiaaaeaiea, ea?aao aaaeioth iiciaaaoaeueioth ?ieue e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aunooiaao aeoeaiie noi?iiie ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna.

No?oeoo?a ii?aee. A ?acee/iua enoi?e/aneea yiioe no?oeoo?a ii?aee
?acee/ia. Oai ia iaiaa, aiciiaeii aiai?eoue i iaeioi?uo iaueo /a?oao
ii?aee, eioi?ua ioee/atho aa io i?aaa, eneonnoaa, iaoee e o.ae. Ciaiea
yoeo /a?o eiaao ia oieueei oai?aoe/aneoth, ii e i?aeoe/aneoth
cia/eiinoue, iineieueeo iicaieyao a?aiioii no?ieoue ioiioaiey n ae?oaeie
ethaeueie, oiaei i?iaiaeeoue ?aaioo ii ainieoaieth ee/iiai ninoaaa, a
naiuea e o.ae.

Aaaeiaeoeie yeaiaioaie i?aanoaaiiinoe neaaeoao n/eoaoue ii?aeueiua
ii?iu. Iiae ii?iie iiieiaaony oaeia i?aaeienaiea (?aoaiea, oeacaiea,
eino?oeoeey, aee?aeoeaa, i?eeac, i?ia?aiia e ae?.), n eioi?ui aeieaeii
(iiaeii eee iaeuecy) auoue auiieiaii ii?aaeaeaiiia aeaenoaea aeey
aeinoeaeaiey caaeaiiuo oeaeae. I?e yoii iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi a anyeia
i?aaeienaiea yaeyaony ii?iie, a eeoue oaeia, eioi?ia i?eieiaao oi?io
aacee/iuo, anaiaueo e iaua/aeiaa/aneeo eiia?aoeaia, eiaao oa?aeoa?
iauaai i?aaeea, ?ann/eoaiiiai ia iiiaie?aoiia i?eiaiaiea, e niaea?aeeo
anaiauee i?eioeei iiaaaeaiey.

I?aanoaaiiay ii?ia ii?aaeaeyao iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiua oeie/iua
aa?eaiou i?aanoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaeia iauaa
o?aaiaaiea, eioi?ia ?aaeaiaioe?oao, niaeanoao e aaia?aeece?oao iinooiee
ethaeae. A neiaeiie aeeiaieea iauanoaaiiie e ee/iie aeecie /aeiaae
ieacuaaaony ia?aae naiuie ?aciiia?aciuie i?iaeaiaie – ii?iaeueiuie e
eiioeeeoiuie, iaueiiaaiiuie e neiaeiuie, noa?aioeiiuie e oai?/aneeie,
neo/aeiuie e caeiiiia?iuie e o.ae., iiaeaa?aeai iiiainoi?iiiei
aicaeaenoaeyi – aiaoiei e aioo?aiiei, niciaoaeueiui e noeoeeiui,
iieiaeeoaeueiui e io?eoeaoaeueiui, i?eau/iui e iai?eau/iui. Ana yoi
oneiaeiyao auai? iiaaaeaiey. I?aanoaaiiay ii?ia -yoi oaeia n?aaenoai,
eioi?ia aeaao i?eaioaoeeth /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe, oeacuaaao, eaeea
i?inooiee yaeythony aeiionoeiuie e i?aaeii/oeoaeueiuie e eaeeo neaaeoao
ecaaaaoue.

Iniiaiui naienoaii ii?aeueiuo ii?i yaeyaony eo iiaaeeoaeueiinoue
(eiia?aoeaiinoue). A ieo au?aaeaiu i?aanoaaiiua o?aaiaaiey: “iinooiae
oae, eai yoi aeia?i” (eee “aeieaeii”, “ni?aaaaeeeai” e o.i.), “ia aeaeae
oae, eai yoi cei” (eee “iani?aaaaeeeainoue”, “iiaeeinoue” e o.i.).

Iaeia e oa aea ii?ia, neaaeai o?aaiaaiea ni?aaaaeeeainoe, iiaeao auoue
au?aaeaia iaeiia?aiaiii e a oi?ia cai?aoa, e eae iiceoeaiia
i?aaeienaiea: “ia eae”, “aiai?e oieueei i?aaaeo”.

A ii?iao eae au aeeoioee?oaony a aeaea iiaaeaiey iieaciue
nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneee iiuo iiiaeo iieieaiee ethaeae. Ii?iu
aae?aniaaiu e /aeiaaeo, e aai aeayoaeueiinoe e iiaaaeaieth. Iniciaiiay
niaieoiiinoue ii?i ii?aaeaeyaony eae ii?aeueiue eiaeaen. Iniiaiia
i?aanoaaiiia ioiioaiea aicieeaao e i?iyaeyaony a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
neooaoeeyo, eiaaea io ee/iinoe o?aaoaony auiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo
iaycaiiinoae, ca eioi?ua iia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae iauanoaii,
eieeaeoeaii eee naiei niaie. Iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie yoeo aeieaeiuo
neooaoeee yaeythony neaaeothuea: nioeeaeueii cia/eiua i?aaeienaiey,
onoaiiaea-i?eaioaoeey, aioiaiinoue ee/iinoe e aeieaeiui o?aaiaaieyi e
iauaeoeaiua oneiaey, iicaieythuea ?aaeeciaaoue niioaaonoaothuaa
aeieaeiia iiaaaeaiea.

Ae?oaei eiiiiiaioii ii?aee yaeythony oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee. Iiae
oeaiiinoyie iiieiathony, ai-ia?auo, i?aanoaaiiia cia/aiea, aeinoieinoai
ee/iinoe (a?oiiu eeoe, eieeaeoeaa) e aa iinooieia eee i?aanoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee iauanoaaiiuo einoeoooia; ai-aoi?uo, oeaiiinoiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey, ioiinyueany e iaeanoe ii?aeueiiai niciaiey – eaeaaeu,
iiiyoey aeia?a e cea, ni?aaaaeeeainoe, n/anouey.

Iauanoai ?aaoee?oao iiaaaeaiea ethaeae iin?aaenoaii oeaiiinoiuo
i?eaioaoeee. Ethaee iiae/eiytho naie caiuneu, iaaeaaeaeu, /oanoaa
aeinoeaeaieth oie eee eiie ii?aeueiie oeaiiinoe. Iauaecaanoii, /oi
iiiaea ethaee anth naith aeeciue iiae/eieee iaeiie aicauoaiiie oeaee:
inaiaiaeaeaieth naiae ?iaeeiu io /oaeacaiiiai eaa (Aeieo?ee

Aeiineie, AEaiia ae,A?e, Eocueia Ieiei e Aeieo?ee Iiaea?neee e ae?.),
ai?ueaa i?ioea ia?aaainoaa e oaiaoaiey (Nia?oae, Aa?eaaeueaee,
ia?iaeiaieueoeu e ae?.); iaeaa/aieth no?aaeaiee aieueiuo (iaoue Oa?aca e
ae?.). Yoa niiniaiinoue i?aanoaaiiiai niciaiey iai?aaeyoue iiiuneu e
aeaenoaey /aeiaaea ia aeinoeaeaiea oie eee eiie ii?aeueiie oeaiiinoe e
iiaeao auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaia eae oeaiiinoiay i?eaioaoeey.

Neaaeothueie no?oeoo?iuie eiiiiiaioaie ii?aee yaeythony iioeaaoeey,
ioeaiea e naiiioeaiea.

Iioeaaoeey, ioeaiea e naiiioeaiea – aaaeiua niiniau ii?aeueiie
?aaoeyoeee iiaaaeaiey ethaeae. Iioea – yoi i?aanoaaiii iniciaiiia
iiaoaeaeaiea e aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiua n oaeiaeaoai?aieai iio?aaiinoae
noauaeoa.

Iioeaaoeey – nenoaia ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii acaeiinaycaiiuo iioeaia,
icia/athueo i?aaeii/oaiea oao eee eiuo oeaiiinoae, oeaeae a ii?aeueiii
auai?a eiaeeaeaea, niciaoaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea eeiee naiaai iiaaaeaiey.

Ii?aeueiay ioeaiea iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue oeaiiinoiia cia/aiea iinooiea,
iiaaaeaiey ee/iinoe, eo niioaaonoaea ii?aaeaeaiiui ii?iai, i?eioeeiai,
eaeaaeai.

A no?oeoo?a ioeaiee iiaeii oneiaii auaeaeeoue aeaa noi?iiu:

1) oeenaoeeth iaeioi?uo iauaeoeaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee i?aaeiaoia, naienoa,
i?ioeannia e o.ae.;

2) ioiioaiea noauaeoa e iauaeoo – iaeia?aiea eee inoaeaeaiea,
?aniieiaeaiea eee iai?eyciue, ainoeuaiea eee iaaiaeiaaiea e o.ae.

Ae?oaeie neiaaie, enoeiiinoue ioeaiee caaeneo ia oieueei io ea/anoa
naiie iauaeoeaiie oeaiiinoe, ii e io ea/anoa noauaeoa, io aai
i?aanoaaiiie iiceoeee, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae, ainieoaiey e
ia?aciaaiey aeaiiiai /aeiaaea eee a?oiiu eeoe.

*oi eanaaony naiiioeaiee, oi yoi naiinoiyoaeueiia, “ia naie no?ao e
?ene”, ii?aaeaeaiea oeaiiinoe naiaai iiaaaeaiey, naieo iioeaia e
iinooieia. Iia oanii naycaia n /oanoaii niaanoe e aeieaa e aunooiaao eae
aaaeiue eino?oiaio naiieiio?iey.

A oeaeii aea iioea, ioeaiea e naiiioeaiea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
?aoeeiiaeueiua iiiaiou iuoeaiey, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo /aeiaae iiaeao
i?aaenoaaeoue naaa i?aanoaaiiua iineaaenoaey naiaai iiaaaeaiey,
eiio?iee?iaaoue ninoiyiea naiaai aioo?aiiaai ie?a. Iie iiiiaatho
ee/iinoe ii?aaeaeeoue naia ioiioaiea e ethaeyi, acaaneoue ia aanao
aeieaa e niaanoe naith ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae iauanoaii, eieeaeoeaii e
naiei niaie.

Iaeiiaoe, i?aaiia?ii auaeaeeoue a no?oeoo?a ii?aee oaeea aa eiiiiiaiou,
eae niaanoue e aeiea. Niaanoue -iaeei ec iaeaieaa ae?aaieo e
eioeiii-ee/iuo ?aaoeyoi?ia iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea. Iia oa?aeoa?ecoao
niiniaiinoue ee/iinoe inouanoaeoue i?aanoaaiiue naiieiio?ieue,
naiinoiyoaeueii oi?ioee?iaaoue aeey naay i?aanoaaiiua iaycaiiinoe,
o?aaiaaoue io naay eo auiieiaiey e i?iecaiaeeoue naiiioeaieo niaa?oaaiuo
iinooieia.

Niaanoue – iaeii ec au?aaeaiee i?aanoaaiiiai naiiniciaiey e naii/oanoaey
ee/iinoe. Aianoa n /oanoaii aeieaa, /anoe, aeinoieinoaa iia iicaieyao
/aeiaaeo iniciaoue naith i?aanoaaiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae naiei
niaie eae noauaeoii ii?aeueiiai auai?a e ia?aae ae?oaeie ethaeueie,
iauanoaii a oeaeii.

?aciiia?acea neooaoeee, a eioi?uo ieacuaaaony /aeiaae, ia iicaieyao
i?aaeoniio?aoue aeai?eoi aeaenoaee a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa, aeaoue
aioiaue ?aoeaio ii?aeueiiai auai?a aeey eaaeaeie neooaoeee. Niaanoue ai
anao yoeo neo/ayo aunooiaao eae ii?aeueiue ?aaoeyoi?. Iia – i?aanoaaiiue
no?ao iiaaaeaiey ee/iinoe. Niaanoue canoaaeyao /aeiaaea auoue ii?aeueii
iineaaeiaaoaeueiui. Iia – i?aanoaaiiue naiinoae, eioi?iio /aeiaae
iiae/eiyao naie aioo?aiiee ie?.

Niaanoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiaia?aciue nieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
iniciaiey e /oanoaaiiiai ia?aaeeaaiey a ineoeea /aeiaaea. Iia
i?iyaeyaony, ai-ia?auo, a oi?ia ?acoiiiai iniciaiey i?aanoaaiiiai
cia/aiey niaa?oaaiuo aeaenoaee, a, ai-aoi?uo, a oi?ia yiioeeiiaeueiuo
ia?aaeeaaiee, iai?eia?, a /oanoaa oa?ucaiee niaanoe eee a
iieiaeeoaeueiuo yiioeeyo “niieieiie, /enoie niaanoe”.

Niaanoue – yoi noauaeoeaiia iniciaiea ee/iinoueth naiaai aeieaa e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae iauanoaii. A iiiyoee “aeiea” au?aaeaii
i?aa?auaiea o?aaiaaiee i?aanoaaiiinoe, a ?aaiie ia?a ioiinyueony ei anai
ethaeyi, a ee/ioth caaea/o eaaeaeiai eiie?aoiiai eeoea. Iai?eia?,
o?aaiaaiea caueou Ioa/anoaa eiie?aoece?oaony i?eiaieoaeueii e
aiaiiineoaeauaio a iiiyoee “aieineee aeiea”. Aeiea – yoi ioiioaiea
ee/iinoe e iauanoao. Ee/iinoue aunooiaao caeanue eae aeoeaiue iineoaeue
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ii?aeueiuo iaycaiiinoae ia?aae iauanoaii.

Eaoaai?ey “aeiea” oanii naycaia n iiiyoeai “ioaaonoaaiiinoue”. Anee
aeiea /aeiaaea ninoieo a oii, /oiau iniciaoue, i?eiaieoue e eiie?aoiiio
iieiaeaieth e i?aeoe/anee inouanoaeoue ii?aeueiua o?aaiaaiey, oi aii?in
i oii, a eaeie ia?a yoa caaea/a auiieiyaony eee a eaeie ia?a /aeiaae
iiaeiai a aa iaauiieiaiee, – yoi aii?in i ee/iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.
Ae?oaeie neiaaie, ioaaonoaaiiinoue caeeth/aao a naaa niioaaonoaea
ii?aeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ee/iinoe aa aeieao, niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo
aeaenoaeoaeueiuie aeaeaie /aeiaaea e aai aiciiaeiinoyie. A nayce n yoei
i?iaeaia ioaaonoaaiiinoe ioaaouaaao neaaeothuea aii?inu: a ninoiyiee ee
/aeiaae aiiaua auiieiyoue i?aaeienuaaaiua aio o?aaiaaiey, a eaeie ia?a
i?aaeeueii ii eo iiiye e enoieeiaae; eae aeaeaei i?inoe?athony a?aieoeu
aai aeayoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae; aeieaeai ee /aeiaae ioaa/aoue ca
aeinoeaeaiea o?aaoaiiai ?acoeueoaoa e ca oa iineaaenoaey naieo
aeaenoaee, ia eioi?ua ieacuaatho aeeyiea aiaoiea ianoiyoaeuenoaa; iiaeao
ee ii i?aaeaeaeaoue yoe iineaaenoaey?

I?e ?aoaiee i?iaeaiu ioaaonoaaiiinoe iiiaea oeeiniou eeai i?eciatho
/aeiaaea iiaeiiui a iineaaenoaeyo aai iinooieia, ia o/eouaay aeeyiey
aiaoieo ianoiyoaeuenoa (yecenoaioeeaeeci), eeai iauyaeytho /aeiaaea
i?aeoe/anee iaaiaiyaiui, iieiinoueth ii?aaaeuaay aai a oii, /oi ii
iai?aaeeueii iiieiaao naie aeiea, ia aeinoeaaao oao ?acoeueoaoia,
eioi?uo aeiaeaaaony (aeaiioieiae/aneee eiooeoeaeci). Aeoiaaony, /oi iaa
neo/ay-iaii?aaaeaiiua e?aeiinoe. Aii?in ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaei ?aoaoue
eiie?aoii. Ee/iinoue ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iauanoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea
naiae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe a i?aaeaeao oao aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?ua
i?aaenoaaeaiu

iaee/iuie nioeeaeueiuie ioiioaieyie e ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. *oi
aea eanaaony aa i?aanoaaiiiai auai?a, ioiioaiey e naiaio ?aaeueiiio
iieiaeaieth a nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo naycae, oi ioaaonoaaiiinoue a yoii
aniaeoa ia ia?aie/aia ie/ai. Oae ?aa ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oi, /oi
ii ?aa, ii aiieia ioaaonoaaiai ca oi, eae ii ioiineony e iieiaeaieth
?aaa.

Ia?a ee/iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai iaoiaeeony a i?yiie nayce n
iauaeoeaiuie aiciiaeiinoyie e enoi?e/anee aeinoeaiooui o?iaiai
ioaaonoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey a iauanoaa. *ai oe?a iauanoaaiiua iieiiii/ey e
?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eiaeeaeaeia, oai auoa ia?a eo ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

I?iaeaia ioaaonoaaiiinoe – yoi a eiia/iii n/aoa aii?in i ?aaeueiie
i?aanoaaiiie naiaiaea /aeiaaea, eioi?ay caaeneo io naiaiaeu ae?oaeo
ethaeae e a iieiie ia?a inouanoaeyaony eeoue a eiioaenoa ananoi?iiiaai
?acaeoey eaaeaeie ee/iinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, onoie/eainoue e oeaeinoiinoue ii?aee iaania/eaathony
ii?aeueiuie ii?iaie, oeaiiinoiuie i?eaioaoeeyie, ii?aeueiuie ioeaieaie,
niaanoueth, aeieaii e ioaaonoaaiiinoueth ethaeae. Ana yoe yeaiaiou
i?aanoaaiiiai niciaiey i?enoonoaotho e a aeecie aiaiiiai /aeiaaea, iie
?aaoee?otho e aeenoeeieeie?otho aeeciue, iicaieytho oaa?aiii aanoe naay
a neiaeiuo oneiaeyo.

4. Nenoaia i?aanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee a oneiaeyo ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe

Ainneoaeauea, eae ai?i/ai e ana ae?oaea ethaee, anooiatho a
iiiaiia?aciua ioiioaiey n iauanoaii e ae?oaeie ethaeueie. Ii naiae nooe
ethaua ioiioaiey aunooiatho eae caaeneiinoue e acaeiicaaeneiinoue
iauaeoia aia eo iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey.

I?aanoaaiiua ioiioaiey – yoi iniaue aeae ioiioaiee ethaeae, eioi?ua
aicieeatho a i?ioeanna eo aeecie e naycaiu n i?aanoaaiiie ioeaieie
iinooieia e ?acoeueoaoia eo aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth
i?aanoaaiiua ioiioaiey ?acee/athony a caaeneiinoe io oiai, ii ioiioaieth
e eiio /aeiaae eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aanoaaiiua iaycaiiinoe e eaeie
oa?aeoa? iie iinyo. A naiii iauai ieaia ?acee/atho o?e iniiaiuo o?iaiy
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, ia eioi?uo au?aaaouaathony e niaoeeoe/aneea
ii?iu, e i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey.

Ai-ia?auo, yoi ioiioaiey ethaeae eae a?aaeaeai aeaiiiai ainoaea?noaa,
?aaoee?oaiua i?aaeaea anaai i?aaii -ii?iaie iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua eiatho
neeo caeiia.

Ai-aoi?uo, nouanoaotho ioiioaiey a ooieoeeiiaeueii-?ieaaie noa?a
aeayoaeueiinoe. Caeanue iiaaaeaiea, iiieii i?aaiauo ii?i, ?aaoee?oaony
oaeaea iniauie i?aaeeaie, eioi?ua enoiaeyo ec niaoeeoeee aeaiiiai aeaea
o?oaea, i?ioannee. Iai?eia?, o ainneoaeaueo yoi iniaua o?aaiaaiey,
au?aaeaiiua a caeiia i ainneoaeauai a ?O, eino?oeoeeyo, ianoaaeaieyo e
o.ae.

A-o?aoueeo, eiaaony o?iaaiue iaaeee/iinoiiai iauaiey, eioi?ue
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ana noa?u aeecie. Ia yoii o?iaia ioiioaiey
?aaoee?othony ii?iaie ii?aee, eioi?ua aeaenoaotho iacaaeneii io
neoaeaaiiai iieiaeaiey ethaeae, eo i?ioannee, ciaiee e o.ae.

A /ai aea niaoeeoeea i?aanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee ethaeae, iauaaeeiaiiuo a
oi?aaeai/aneea eieeaeoeau? I?aaeaea anaai yoa niaoeeoeea ninoieo a naiii
iacia/aiee aeaiiuo eieeaeoeaia iaania/eaaoue auiieiaiea ?aoaiee
I?aceaeaioa ?O e ainoaea?noaaiioth e yeiiiie/aneoth caueoo naiaai
Ioa/anoaa. Oaeay caaea/a, neaaeai, ia noieo iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae
o?oaeiauie eieeaeoeaaie, i?ecaaiiuie ?aoaoue niceaeaoaeueiua caaea/e.
Ieeoi yoe caaea/e ia no?aieony auiieieoue aeaaea oeaiie aeecie. Eiia/ii,
ooo iiaoo auoue eneeth/aiey, /?acau/aeiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
iai?aaeaeaeaiiua oneiaey. Ii naie yoe eneeth/aiey aoaeoo eeoue
iiaeoaa?aeaeaoue iauaa i?aaeei: o?oaeiaie eieeaeoea i?ecaai nicaeaaaoue,
a ia oi?aaeyoue. *oi eanaaony oi?aaeai/aneiai eieeaeoeaa, oi ii ii
naiaio i?aaeiacia/aieth i?ecaai i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeaenoaiaaoue a
/?acau/aeiuo oneiaeyo, a oneiaeyo, nii?yaeaiiuo n auiieiaieai n?i/iuo e
iai?aeeia?iuo caaea/, eiaaea iniiaiuie i?iaeoeoaie aeayoaeueiinoe
yaeythony nioeeaeueiay e yeiiiie/aneay caueoa ethaeae.

I?aanoaaiiua ioiioaiey ainneoaeaueo e iauanoao iaoiaeeo naia eiie?aoiia
au?aaeaiea a no?aieaiee i?e ethauo ianoiyoaeuenoaao auiieieoue naie
iaycaiiinoe, naie aeiea.. Aunieay iauanoaaiiay cia/eiinoue o?oaea
ainneoaeauaai, i?eciaiea aai anaie ethaeueie aunieiii?aeueiui,
iaiaoiaeeiui e aeeciaiii aaaeiui aeey iauanoaa iaoiaeeo naia au?aaeaiea
a oii, /oi ainneoaeauea iaania/eaathony anai iaiaoiaeeiui aeey
auiieiaiey naieo iaycaiiinoae ca n/ao o?oaea inoaeueiie /anoe ia?iaea,
iieuecothony aai oaaaeaieai e aieiaieai. E anee iu ana aea ano?a/aainy n
iaaaoeaiui ioiioaieai e oi?aaeai/aneei no?oeoo?ai ii?aaeaeaiiuo e?oaia,
i?aaiecaoeee, oi yoi yaeyaony neaaenoaeai i?aanoaaiiiai iaaeaaiiieo/ey a
iaoai iauanoaa. Oaeia iieiaeaiea iaoneiaeaii e?ecenii i?aanoaaiiinoe,
nouanoaaiiie noi?iiie eioi?iai yaeyaony ia?aniio? noa?ie nenoaiu
oeaiiinoae, ioeac io iaa a iieueco iiaie. Ia ianoi aaca?aie/iie aa?u a
aaoi?eoaou, aeiaiaoece?iaaiiie ii?aee i?eoiaeeo iiaay ii?aeue, naycaiiay
n ii?aaaeaieai no?aieaiey ethaeae e oaaee/aieth noiiu oaeiaieuenoaee e
ianeaaeaeaiee, ee/iiai eiioi?oa e iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, n ?acaeoeai
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia. I?ioeann yoio, ii-aeaeeiiio, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey
iauanoaa a oeaeii, ieacaeny ?ac?ooeoaeueiui aeey ainoaea?noaa e aai
ninoaaeythueo e io?eoeaoaeueii neacaeny ia i?aanoaaiiii caei?iauea
eieeaeoeaia ainneoaeaueo. Ai?i/ai, iieiaeaiea iaiyaony e eo/oaio.
Nicaeathony e niaa?oainoaothony no?oeoo?u ainoaea?noaaiiie e
ioieoeeiaeueiie aeanoe. ?anniao?eaathony e ae?oaea aeieoiaiou,
ii?aaeaeythuea iieiaeaiea a iauanoaa e aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiuo no?oeoo?.

Niaoeeoe/aneia i?aaeiacia/aiea ainneoaeaueo eae i?oaeey caueou Ioa/anoaa
a iieeoe/aneii e yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaieyo iaoneiaeeaaao e ae?oaoth
iniaaiiinoue i?aanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, caeeth/athuothny a eo iiauoaiiie
eiia?aoeaiinoe. Iiaaeeoaeueiinoue, i?enouay i?aanoaaiiinoe aiiaua, a
ioiioaieyo ainneoaeaueo aunooiaao iniaaiii ?acei e iaaeyaeii. Aaaeiaeoea
o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e i?aanoaaiiui ea/anoaai

ainneoaeaueo, yaeythony ia oieueei i?aaeienaieyie iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey,
ii e o?aaiaaieyie caeiiia, ?aciia?aciuo i?aaiauo ii?i, ia?ooaiea eioi?uo
aea/ao naieoeee ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa.

I?aanoaaiiua ioiioaiey ainneoaeaueo i?iyaeythony a ?acee/iuo oi?iao.
Aaaeiaeoeie ec ieo yaeythony aeiea, ioaaonoaaiiinoue, /anoue,
aeinoieinoai, niaanoue.

Anooiay a ioiioaiey ae?oa n ae?oaii, ainneoaeauea iiae/eiythony
aeenoeeieeia, o?aaiaaieyi caeiiia, onoaiiaeaoeiny o?aaeeoeeyi, i?aaai,
i?eau/eai. Ai anao yoeo oi?iao i?aanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee anaaaea nouanoaoao
aeaa noi?iiu – noauaeo e iauaeo. Ii yoe noi?iiu oi e aeaei iaiythony
ianoaie. Iai?eia? /aeiaae, iineieueeo ii eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua iaycaiiinoe
ia?aae iauanoaii e ae?oaeie ethaeueie, aunooiaao eae noauaeo, a iauanoai
e ae?oaea ethaee – eae iauaeo aai ii?aeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii yoio aea
/aeiaae yaeyaony iauaeoii ii?aeueiuo iaycaiiinoae aeey ae?oaeo ethaeae,
aeey iauanoaa, iineieueeo iii oiaea aeieaeii caueuaoue aai eioa?anu. N
iaeiie noi?iiu, iauanoai oi?ioee?oao iaycaiiinoe ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe e
ioeaieaaao aa iinooiee. Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii?aeueiua o?aaiaaiey
noaiiayony ee/iui aeieaii e ioaaonoaaiiinoueth eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea e
aeoeaii i?iaiaeyony a aeeciue. E?iia oiai, ee/iinoue ii?aeueii
ioeaieaaao iauanoai, aai nioeeaeueiue ii?yaeie, iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey,
iaaycuaaaiua ei caeiiu iiaaaeaiey e o.ae., iecaiaey aai oai naiui aei
o?iaiy iauaeoa.

*ai auoa niciaoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, oai aieaa ii niiniaai
naiinoiyoaeueii eiio?iee?iaaoue e iai?aaeyoue naie aeaenoaey, oai a
aieueoae ia?a ii yaeyaony naiiaeayoaeueiui noauaeoii.

I?aanoaaiiua ioiioaiey oa?aeoa?ecothony nenoaiie oeaiiinoae,
neiaeeaoaeny eee ca?iaeaeathuaeny a iauanoaa. Ii?aeueiua oeaiiinoe
aunooiatho eae i?eaioe?u iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea. A ea/anoaa ii?aeueiuo
oeaiiinoae aunooiatho onoaiiaeaiey e i?eioeeiu, ii?iu e i?aaeea
iiaaaeaiey, ia?ac aeecie e eaeaaeu. Iie?aynue ia neiaeeaoothny a
iauanoaa nenoaio oeaiiinoae, niciaiea /aeiaaea iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue
aeaaaoue iineaaeiaaoaeueioth, ioiineoaeueii onoie/eaoth i?aanoaaiioth
ioeaieo iinooieai, iiaaaeaieth ethaeae.

I?aanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe i?iiecuaatho niaie anth aeooiaioth eoeueoo?o
iauanoaa, i?aeiieyynue a oeeinioneeo eiioeaioeeyo, a i?iecaaaeaieyo
eneonnoa, a ainieoaiee, a ia?aca aeecie e iiaaaeaiee ethaeae.

A ?uii/iii iauanoaa, e eioi?iio ono?aieeenue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, aunoae
i?aanoaaiiie oeaiiinoueth ii/eoaaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, oiaiea
aeaeaoue aeaiueae. Iaeaaeaiea aeaiueaaie noaiiaeony naeaeaoaeuenoaii
i?aoniaaaiey a aeecie e “i?aanoaaiiie i?eniiniaeaiiinoe” eiaeeaeaea,
e?eoa?eai aai ii?aeueiinoe. Oi/ii oae aea a oaiaeaeueiie ii?aee
nineiaea-ei?ii?aoeaiue noaoon eiaeeaeaea ioiaeaeanoaeyaony ni noaiaiueth
aai ii?aeueiinoe, eioi?ay ieacuaaaony i?enouae aio a neeo
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ciaoiinoe, a ia a neeo aeaenoaeoaeueiuo naienoa. Yoa
eeethcey, iaaeaeythuay aeia?iaeaoaeueth oao eeoe, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho
aiaaonoaii e aeanoueth, nio?aiyaony e a oioaeeoa?iii iauanoaa, aaea
i?ienoiaeeo ioiaeaeanoaeaiea aeieaeiinoiiai iieiaeaiey eiaeeaeaea n aai
ii?aeueiuie ea/anoaaie.

?acoiaaony, /oi a eaeaaea ii?aeueiue aaoi?eoao, aeinoieinoai, i?anoeae
ee/iinoe aeieaeiu ii?aaeaeyoueny aa aeaeaie e iioeaaie, iinooieaie e
yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaauie ea/anoaaie. ?aaeueiua oneeey ee/iinoe, aa
ioiioaiea e o?oaeo, oai?/aneay aeoeaiinoue – aio /oi ?ane?uaaao aa
aeaenoaeoaeueiua aeinoieinoaa, noaiaiue aa ii?aeueiinoe. A naith
i/a?aaeue, ii?aeueiinoue iiaaaeaiey io?aiyaony naieoeeyie, eioi?ua iiaoo
auoue ?acee/iuie: io iauaai i?ac?aiey, ino?aeecia aei ainoi?aeaiiiai
iieeiiaiey, ie?oaeaiey oiai eee eiiai iinooiea i?aieii neaau, aa?iecia.
A oeaeii i?aanoaaiiay aeeciue oa?aeoa?ecoaony nenoaiie naieoeee. A
ioiioaiee aiaiiineoaeaueo yoa nenoaia i?aaeiieaaaao ?aciiia?aciua ia?u
iiiu?aiee e acuneaiee, ii?aaeaeyaiua caeiiaie. Iineieueeo ethaee
aeaenoaotho ia?aaeei a i?eau/iuo iiaoi?ythueony oneiaeyo, iinoieueeo e
eo aeaenoaeyi iauanoaaiiia iiaiea i?eeeaaeuaaao iauacia/eioth ioeaieo,
?aeiiaiaeoao oio eee eiie ia?acaoe ?aoaiey. Oaeeie ia?acoeaie iiaoo
neoaeeoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue e iiaaaeaiea auaeathueony ee/iinoae,
aa?iaa ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee e o.ae. Eo ia?acoeu iiaoo auoue
yoaeiiaie, e?eoa?eyie ii?aeueiinoe ioiioaiee. Iie niaea?aeao a naaa
eaeaaeueiia i?aanoaaiiia ia/aei – eaeaae.

Naia ii?iaoeaiia au?aaeaiea i?aanoaaiiua ioiioaiey iieo/atho a yoeeaoa.
A naiae nooe yoeeao oi?aaeaioea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii?aaeaeaiioth
niaieoiiinoue i?aanoaaiiuo ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth e ynoaoe/anee
aia/aoeythueo ii oi?ia i?aaee iiaaaeaiey ainneoaeaueo. ?anniao?eaay
iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea eae aaeeinoai i?aanoaaiiiai e ynoaoe/aneiai, yoeeao
aeaaiui ia?acii iauyniyao ia “ii/aio”, a “eae ioaeii iinooiaoue a oie
eee eiie neooaoeee, ii anaaaea aunooiaao eae aiaoiyy noi?iia
i?aanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

A yoeeaoa i?iyaeythony iaua/aeiaa/aneea /a?ou i?aanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Ii
i?aaeiieaaaao aini?eyoea eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea eae ee/iinoe iacaaeneii io
aai neoaeaaiiai iieiaeaiey, aeinoieinoaa e ciaiey. Aianoa n oai, a
i?aaeeao yoeeaoa au?aaeaiu e yeaiaiou aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai ioiioaiey e
ethaeyi. Aeaei a oii, /oi iie oaeoe/anee ia?aaiu, iaoiaeyony ia
?acee/iuo nooiaiyo nioeeaeueiie eanoieoeu, iiaoo ioee/aoueny ae?oa io
ae?oaa ii oece/aneiio e oinoaaiiiio ?acaeoeth, ia?aciaaieth, eoeueoo?a.
Nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea eiatho e ?acee/ey ii aic?anoo, iieo e o.i.

Ana iiiaiia?acea i?aanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, ?aaoee?oaiuo yoeeaoii,
aace?oaony ia neaaeothueo aaaeiaeoeo i?eioeeiao;

– aa?iiie/iinoue iiaaaeaiey. Yoio i?eioeei ii?aaeaeyao ainieoaiiinoue
/aeiaaea a iieiii iauaia, a aaeeinoaa aai aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo ea/anoa,
niaea?aeaiey e oi?iu. A.I.*aoia aiai?ee: “A /aeiaaea ana aeieaeii auoue
i?ae?anii: e eeoei, e iaeaaeaea, e aeooa, e iunee. *anoi y aeaeo
i?ae?aniia eeoei e oaeoth iaeaaeaeo, /oi e?oaeeony aieiaa io ainoi?aa,
ii aeooa e iunee – aiaea iie! A e?aneaie iaiei/ea i?y/aony eiiaaea aeooa
oaeay /a?iay, /oi ia cao?aoue aa ieeaeeie aaeeeaie” [10, n. 396].

Aa?iiie/iinoue i?aaeiieaaaao aaeeinoai yoe/aneiai e
ynoaoe/aneiai a iiaaaeaiee /aeiaaea; – nenoaiaoe/iinoue a auiieiaiee
i?aaeienaiee e i?aaee yoeeaoa.

Nenoaiaoe/iinoue icia/aao niaethaeaiea ii?i yoeeaoa ia io neo/ay e
neo/ath, a iinoiyiii. Iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaoue i?aaeea i?eee/ey ei anai
aac eneeth/aiey eeoeai e oiaaea, eiaaea /aeiaae inoaaony iaaaeeia n
niaie. A.N.Iaea?aiei ienae: “…y iiiye, /oi eaaei iao/eoue /aeiaaea
iinooieoue i?aaeeueii a iiai i?enoonoaee, a i?enoonoaee eieeaeoeaa, a
aio iao/eoue aai iinooiaoue i?aaeeueii, eiaaea ieeoi ia neuoeo, ia
aeaeeo e ie/aai ia ociaao, – yoi i/aiue o?oaeii…” [5, n. 422].

– oai?/aneee iiaeoiae e oeaeaniia?aciinoue. Yoi aaaeiue i?eioeei yoeeaoa
i?aaeiieaaaao o /aeiaaea niiniaiinoue aeaei iuneeoue e auno?i
i?eaioe?iaaoueny a eciaiythuaeny nioeeaeueiie n?aaea. Aaaeue oi, /oi
oianoii e oeaeaniia?acii a iaeieo oneiaeyo, iiaeao aiana ia iiaeoiaeeoue
e ae?oaei. Aeiaiaoe/aneia neaaeiaaiea yoeeaoo iiaeao iinoaaeoue /aeiaaea
a e?aeia iaeiaeia iieiaeaiea;

– ene?aiiinoue e anoanoaaiiinoue a iiaaaeaiee. A aeaiiii i?eioeeia
au?aaeaiu iaeaieaa niaoeeoe/aneea ea/anoaa iiaeeeiii e?aneaiai
iiaaaeaiey. Eo iaee/ea aiai?eo i aunieie eoeueoo?a iiaaaeaiey, i
i?aanoaaiiii niaa?oainoaiaaiee /aeiaaea.

Anoanoaaiiinoue a iiaaaeaiee – yoi eoia ainieoaiey e naiiainieoaiey.
Iaiaoiaeeii aeiaeaaoueny aaoiiaoe/aneiai auiieiaiey i?aaee, i?aa?auaoue
eo a i?eau/eo iiaaaeaiey. A i?eau/ea aeaenoaey aaoiiaoece?othony e
niaa?oathony ia iniiaa iio?aaiinoe iinooiaoue oae, e ia eia/a. Oaeie
“aaoiiaoeci” iinooieia i?eaeaao auiieiaieth o?aaiaaiee yoeeaoa
oi/iinoue, aani?aeineiaiinoue, naiaiaeo e ?aneiaaiiinoue a aeaenoaeyo;

– ne?iiiinoue e oaeoe/iinoue. Ne?iiiinoue yaeyaony i?yiui neaaenoaeai
oaeeo ea/anoa eae niaanoue, nouae, naiie?eoe/iinoue, i?inoioa, oiaiea
auoue naiei niaie. Iaeiei ec au?aaeaiee ne?iiiinoe yaeyaony
oaeoe/iinoue. Oaeo – yoi ia?a, niiniaiinoue /oanoaiaaoue a?aieoeo a
naiai iiaaaeaiee. Ionoonoaea oaeie niiniaiinoe aiai?eo i
iaainieoaiiinoe;

/oanoai ia?u – a /aeiaa/aneeo acaeiiioiioaieyo – yoi ii?aeueiay
eiooeoeey ainieoaiiiai /aeiaaea, eae au iiaeneacuaathuay aio iaeaieaa
aa?iue iiaeoiae, iaeaieaa oiieoth, inoi?iaeioth, aeaeeeaoioth eeieth
iiaaaeaiey ii ioiioaieth e ie?oaeathuei. I?aaeea, eioi?uie
?oeiaiaenoaoaony oaeoe/iue, aeaeeeaoiue /aeiaae ia?aaeei ia/eiathony n
/anoeoeu “ia”: a aeiioneae, ia aiai?e, ia ia?auay aieiaiey, a cao?aaeaae
e i?. A.I.*aoia ienae:

“Oi?ioaa ainieoaiea ia a oii, /oi ou ia i?ieueaoue niona ia neaoa?oue, a
a oii, /oi ou ia caiaoeoue, anee yoi naeaeaao eoi-ieaoaeue ae?oaie”. Ia
caiaoeoue, /oiau iiii/ue /aeiaaeo auno?aa e i?iua ni?aaeoueny n
aeinaaeiie iaeiaeinoueth, io eioi?ie ieeoi ia aa?aioe?iaai.

Ana oeacaiiua i?eioeeiu yoeeaoa ?aaoee?otho iiaaaeaiea ainneoaeaueo a
iniiaiie noa?a eo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe – ia neoaeaa.

5. Yoe/aneay oai?ey eae niaoeeoe/aneay /anoue yoeee

Yoeea enneaaeoao ?acee/iua iaeanoe ii?aee. Oa aa noi?iia, eioi?ay
eco/aao e ?ane?uaaao niaoeeoeeo i?iyaeaiey ii?aee a i?ioeanna
iiaeaioiaee ainneoaeaueo e aeaenoaeyi a auoiauo oneiaeyo, iacuaaaony
yoe/aneie oai?eae. Yoeea ainneoaeauaai eae au eiie?aoece?oao iauea
i?eioeeiu e ii?iu ii?aee i?eiaieoaeueii e ainoaea?noao, e ?aciinoi?iiiae
aeayoaeueiinoe ainneoaeaueo. Iia oi?ioee?oao ?yae iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee,
au?aaeathueo o?aaiaaiey e ii?aeueiui ea/anoaai oi?aaeaioea.

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue yoe/aneeo iieiaeaiee iaoiaeeo i?aaiaia cae?aieaiea
a caeiiao ainoaea?noaa. A yoii ninoieo eo iniaaiiinoue, iineieueeo
niaethaeaiea i?eioeeiia ii?aee a oneiaeyo ?aaiou ainneoaeauaai
iaania/eaaaony ia oieueei ia iniiaa eo aeia?iaieueiiai i?eciaiey, ii e
aeanoueth i?eeaca, ?anii?yaeaiey, o?aaiaaiey ioeoeeaeueiiai
aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey aiaiii-yoe/aneie
iunee ia?aaeiaua ?onneea aiaia/aeueieee e iuneeoaee i?aaei?eieiaee
iiiuoee noi?ioee?iaaoue iniiaiua, enoiaeiua iiiyoey aieineie yoeee a
?aieao aiaiiie iaaeaaiaeee. Eo oneeey auee iai?aaeaiu i?aaeaea anaai ia
?acaeoea eaeae iao?eioecia, ainieoaiea aa?iinoe ?iaeiie caiea.

A ?acaeoee aieineie yoeee iineaieoya?ueneiai ia?eiaea oneiaii iiaeii
auaeaeeoue /aou?a yoaia.

Ai-ia?auo, yoai ?acaeoey aiaiii-yoe/aneeo acaeyaeia a aiaeu
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e eiino?aiiie eioa?aaioeee. A yoio ia?eiae a aeeciue
E?aniie A?iee aiineeanue ii?aeue eeanniaie e aiaaie nieeaea?iinoe,
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e eieeaeoeaecia, iioeieci e aa?a a iiaaaeo
eiiioienoe/aneeo eaeaaeia. A ai?aea 1918 aiaea auea i?eiyoa oi?ioea
Oi?aeanoaaiiiai iaauaiey (Aiaiiie i?enyae) aieiia E?aniie A?iee e
ooaa?aeaeaia neoaeaaiay “Eieaeea e?aniia?iaeoea”, yaeyaoayny ia?aui
niaaoneei eiaeaenii aieineie yoeee.

Ai-aoi?uo, yoai noaiiaeaiey aiaiii-yoe/aneie oai?ee a aeiaiaiiue ia?eiae
(1924-1941 aiaeu). A yoio ia?eiae aieiaiea eiiaiaeiiai e iieeoe/aneiai
ninoaaa E?aniie A?iee ia?auaaony ia iieeoeei-ii?aeueiia ninoiyiea
aiaiiineoaeaueo, iniai auaeaeyaony ?aaioa ii ainieoaieth iao?eioecia,
eieeaeoeaecia, aunieie ii?aeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, aa?iinoe
iauanoaaiiiio e aieineiio aeieao, aaeeoaeueiinoe eae i?iyaeaiey
iieeoe/aneie e i?aanoaaiiie niiniaiinoe aeaeaoue aa?aa?noai e auoue
aioiaui ni?aaoue aai caiuneu.

Aianoa n oai, eiaiii a i?aaeaiaiiia a?aiy ii?aeueiiio ninoiyieth ee/iiai
ninoaaa E?aniie A?iee aue iaianai na?ueaciue oua?a Noaeeiui e aai
aeeaeaeoei ie?oaeaieai. A ianoaiiaea ioi?ieaoaainy eoeueoa ee/iinoe a
a?iee ianaaeaeaeenue aoiinoa?a /?acia?iie iiaeic?eoaeueiinoe,
aeiiineoaeuenoai, oieiiiiaiey, iienee “a?aaia ia?iaea”. Auei
iaiainiiaaiii ?ai?anne?iaaii nauoa 40 ouny/ eiiaiaee?ia e
iieeo?aaioieeia, n?aaee eioi?uo

auee e i?ineaaeaiiua ia?aua Ia?oaeu Niaaoneiai Nithca Oooa/aaneee,
Aethoa?, Aai?ia. Iineaaenoaey ?ai?annee a a?iee iniaaiii neeueii
neacaeenue a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae aieiu, eiaaea iu iiianee i/aiue aieueoea
iioa?e.

A-o?aoueeo, yoai ?acaeoey aieineie yoeee a ia?eiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie
aieiu.

A oiaea aieiu ino?i anoaea i?iaeaia iiauoaiey ii?aeueiie noieeinoe
aiene. Iieo/eee ?acaeoea e eiie?aoecaoeeth oaeea aiaiii-yoe/aneea
eaoaai?ee, eae iao?eioeci, iaiaaenoue e a?aao, aieineay /anoue, aa?ieci,
naiiioaa?aeaiiinoue e ae?oaea. Aiaiii-yoe/aneea eaeae i?iieeee a
niciaiea ieeeeiiia niaaoneeo ethaeae.

A-/aoaa?ouo, nia?aiaiiue yoai ?acaeoey aieineie yoeee. E?oiiua
ea/anoaaiiua i?aia?aciaaiey, i?ienoaaeoea a iaeanoe aiaiiiai aeaea iiae
aicaeaenoaeai iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee, iniauaieyi aii?oaeaiiuo
nee ?aeaoii-yaea?iui i?oaeeai e ae?oaeie n?aaenoaaie oie/oiaeaiey,
iaoneiaeee iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeoaieie iao/iie ?ac?aaioee
ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee aiene e aeaenoaeyi a oneiaeyo
nia?aiaiiie aieiu. A ianoiyueo oneiaeyo aiaiii-oaoie/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia?aaeeaatho e?ecen. Aucaaii yoi ia?aoiaeii e iiaie
nenoaia i?aanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae, eciaiaieai nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo
i?eaioaoeee e ia?aciaaieai (no?ieoaeuenoaii) iaoeeiiaeueiuo a?iee aiiaue
ia?aciaaiiuo ainoaea?noa.

Oaeei ia?acii, aieineay yoeea – yoi /anoue, noi?iia yoeee, eioi?ay
eco/aao niaoeeoeeo i?iyaeaiey ii?aee a i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaee e
aii?oaeaiiie caueoa Ioa/anoaa e a nianoaaiii aiaauo oneiaeyo. Yoi
eiie?aoecaoeey yoeee i?eiaieoaeueii e aieineie e aiaaie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Niaoeeoeea aieineie yoeee ninoieo, ai-ia?auo, a iiauoaiiie
eiia?aoeaiinoe e eaoaai?e/iinoe ii?aeueiuo o?aaiaaiee, ai-aoi?uo, a
no?iaie noai?aeeiaoeee e ?aaeaiaioaoeee anao noi?ii aieineie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a-o?aoueeo, a th?eaee/aneie ioi?ieaiiia™ i?aanoaaiiuo
ii?i.

Iniaaiiinoe aieineie i?aee iaoneiaeaiu nioeeaeueiie ?ieueth e
niaoeeoeeie caaea/, ?aoaaiuo aii?oaeaiiuie neeaie, i?aaiecaoeeae
a?iaeneie aeecie, oa?aeoa?ii ?aoiiai o?oaea, auoa e acaeiiioiioaiee a
aieineeo eieeaeoeaao.

Nia?aiaiiue o?iaaiue o?aaiaaiee e aiaaie aioiaiinoe aiene ii?aaeaeyao
iiauoaiiia aieiaiea aieineie yoeee e oi?ie?iaaieth o aiaiiineoaeaueo
aunieeo ii?aeueii-aiaauo ea/anoa. Aieineay yoeea enneaaeoao
iaoiaeieiae/aneea iniiau i?aanoaaiiiai ainieoaiey aiaiiineoaeaueo e
aieineeo eieeaeoeaia, nouiinoue, no?oeoo?o niaea?aeaiey e iniaaiiinoe
i?iyaeaiey ii?aeueiiai oaeoi?a.

Caaa?oay e?aoeia ianoaeaeaiea oeeinioneeo iniia yoeee, iiaeii naeaeaoue
neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

– ii?aeue i?eiaaeeaaeeo ie?o eoeueoo?u, aoiaeeo ai “aoi?oth”,
nicaeaiioth /aeiaaeii i?e?iaeo, yaeyaony iauanoaaiiui ioiioaieai iaaeaeo
eiaeeaeaeaie;

– ii?aeue oa?aeoa?ecoao /aeiaaea n oi/ee c?aiey aai niiniaiinoe aeeoue a
iauanoaa, no?ieoue aa?iiie/aneea ioiioaiey n ae?oaeie ethaeueie,
i?aaenoaaeyao oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?acaeoey ee/iinoe, au?aaeathueo
aeia?iaeaoaee e niaa?oainoai /aeiaaea eae iauanoaaiiiai nouanoaa;

– ii?aeue anoue iniaia ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e aeecie, iauanoaaiiui
oeaiiinoyi e iioeaai;

– ii?aeue anoue niaieoiiinoue ii?i i?eaioe?ia e yoaeiiia iiaaaeaiey
/aeiaaea.

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