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?AOA?AO

ii oaia:

Iiiyoea Aiaa a oeeinioee Aaiaaeeeoa Nieiicu

Eniieieoaeue:

Iiiiia?aa A.A.

A?oiia IYO-I

Iineaa

1997

TOC \o “1-3” Enoi?e/aneay ni?aaea GOTOBUTTON _Toc406351692
PAGEREF _Toc406351692 3

AEeciaiiue iooue e ?aaiou. GOTOBUTTON _Toc406351693 PAGEREF
_Toc406351693 3

?acaeoea oeeinioneie nenoaiu GOTOBUTTON _Toc406351694 PAGEREF
_Toc406351694 4

Iiiyoea Aiaa a ?aaioao e aeecie Nieiicu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc406351695
PAGEREF _Toc406351695 5

Iaoa?eaeeci e aoaeci Nieiicu GOTOBUTTON _Toc406351696 PAGEREF
_Toc406351696 6

Oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey Nieiicu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc406351697 PAGEREF
_Toc406351697 7

Ea?oeia ie?a. Aia anoue ie?. GOTOBUTTON _Toc406351698 PAGEREF
_Toc406351698 7

Yoe/aneia cia/aiea o/aiey i Aiaa. Aeaoa?ieieci Nieiicu. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc406351699 PAGEREF _Toc406351699 9

I?aae?annoaeee ethaeae a eo iiiyoee Aiaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc406351700
PAGEREF _Toc406351700 11

Caeeth/aiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc406351701 PAGEREF _Toc406351701 13

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc406351702 PAGEREF _Toc406351702
15

Enoi?e/aneay ni?aaea

AEeciaiiue iooue e ?aaiou.

Aa?oo Nieiica (ecaanoiia iaienaiea aai eiaie Aaiaaeeeo –
eaoeiece?iaaiiay aa?ney aai iiaeeeiiiai eiaie) yaeyaony iaeiei ec
iaeaieaa y?eeo iuneeoaeae oeieu ?aoeeiiaeecia. Ii aeee n 1632 ii 1677
aiae, ai a?aiaia ?anoeaaoa ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee. Oioy aai
ianeaaeea ia oae aiaaoi, eae, iai?eia?, ianeaaeea ?aia Aeaea?oa, ii
iaiiiaea aai ?aaiou ioee/athony aaeeeieaiiie i?iaeoiaiiinoueth e /aoeie
no?oeoo?ecaoeeae. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiue noi?iiiee i?eiaiaiey ?acoia e
eiaeee ai anao io?aneyo /aeiaa/aneie iunee, ii noiae eniieueciaaoue
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiue iiaeoiae, i?eiaiyaiue iau/ii a iaoaiaoe/aneii
eceiaeaiee aeaaea a naieo oeeinioneeo ?aaioao.

?anniao?eaay oeeinioneea i?iecaaaeaiey Nieiicu, iaaiciiaeii
eaii?e?iaaoue oneiaey a eioi?uo ?acaeaaeny aai iao/iue oaeaio, eae e oa
oneiaey, a eioi?uo aio i?eoiaeeeinue ?aaioaoue. Ii ?iaeeeny a
Ainoa?aeaia a naiuea aa?aaa, aaaeaaoeo ec Ii?ooaaeee io ?aeeaeiciuo
i?aneaaeiaaiee. A aieueoie aa?aeneie iaueia, neiaeeaoaeny e oiio a?aiaie
a Ieaea?eaiaeao oea?eea aoiinoa?a ?aeeaeiciiai oaiaoecia e iaoa?ieiinoe.
Ia?aiia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea ii iieo/ee a naieeeanniii aa?aeneii o/eeeua,
aaea i?aiiaeaaaeinue aa?aeneia aiaineiaea e ae?aaiaaa?aeneee ycue.
Ia?aiia/aeueii ii iiaeaaae aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu, e aai ?iaeeoaee
iaaeayeenue, /oi ii noaiao iiaui naaoeeii a eoaeaenoneie ?aeeaee.
Iaeiaei iuoeeaay iaoo?a iieiaeiai Aa?ooa ia iaoiaeeea oaeiaeaoai?aiey a
nooii aeiaiaoecia Oaeioaea. Ii ia/ae eco/aoue iaoaiaoeeo e iaaeeoeeio,
ana aieaa e aieaa oaeaeyynue io iaueiu. Eoeueieiaoeeae yoiai
iinoaiaiiiai ?ac?uaa noaei aai ioeo/aiea io ?aeeaee i?iecioaaeoaa a 1656
aiaeo. I?eia?ii a yoi a?aiy ii iaienae naith ia?aoth ?aaioo «E?aoeee
o?aeoao i aiaa, /aeiaaea e aai n/anouea». (1658-1660aa.). Aeaeueiaeoay
noaeueaa Nieiicu oaeaea auea iaeaaeie, ii iiiai ?aaioae, ii i/aiue iaei
ia/aoaeny. I?aeoe/anee ana naie eaeae aio i?eoiaeeeinue ?ani?ino?aiyoue
iooai ia?aienee e ee/iiai iauaiey. Iiae aai eiaiai e i?e aai aeecie
aiiaua auoea anaai iaeia ?aaioa, «Iniiau oeeinioee Aeaea?oa, aeieacaiiua
aaiiao?e/aneei niiniaii»(1661-1662 aa.). Aoi?ie aai eieaie, eioi?ay
oiaea auoea i?e aai aeecie, oioy e aiiieiii, aue
«Aiaineianei-iieeoe/aneee o?aeoao» (1670a.) Yoa eieaa aucaaea oaeoth
ao?th yiioeee, /oi aini?aiyonoaiaaea ioaeeeaoeee iaiiiai aieaa
iaeo?aeueiie «Yoeee», eioi?ay auea ieii/aia a 1675 aiaeo. Yoa eieaa,
niaea?aeauay eaeioynnaioeeth oeeinioneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee Nieiicu,
oaeaeaea naao oieueei iinea aai nia?oe, a «Iinia?oiii ecaeaiee»,
inouanoaeaiiii aai ae?ocueyie a 1677 aiaeo. Ii noaeueaa aai ?aaio ii
i?aaeiaio auea o?aae/iie. Anaai /a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa nionoy
ioaeeeaoeey auea cai?auaia e ia ia?aecaeaaaeanue aei 19 aaea.

?acaeoea oeeinioneie nenoaiu

A aai oeeinioneie nenoaia iacaiaoii ?aceeo nea/eia, ii aeinoaoi/ii
iineaaeiaaoaeai a naieo oaaaeaeaieyo. Aeinoaoi/ii n?aaieoue «E?aoeee
o?aeoao i i?e?iaea Aiaa, *aeiaaea e aai n/anouey» e «Yoeeo», /oiau
oaeaeaoue, /oi a yoeo aeaoo eieaao, ianiio?y ia ?acaeaeythuea eo aieaa
/ai 15 eao, iniiaiua eaeae Nieiicu i?eioeeieaeueii ia eciaieeenue, oioy
e i?ia?aee aieueooth auaa?aiiinoue e no?oeoo?e?iaaiiinoue. Oa?aeoa?iie
iniaaiiinoueth iaoiaea Nieiicu yaeyeinue aai no?aieaiea e /aoeie
oi?iaeecaoeee ?annoaeaeaiee e aeieacaoaeuenoa. Ii no?aieeny naeaeaoue
oeeinioeth oaeie aea oi/iie iaoeie, eae auea a aai a?aiy aaiiao?ey. Ia
neo/aeii, /oi a iacaaieyo aai eiea oae eee eia/a /anoi i?enoonoaotho
neiaa «aaiiao?e/aneee niinia aeieacaoaeuenoaa». Yoi eanaaony eae «Iniia
oeeinioee Aeaea?oa, aeieacaiiua aaiiao?e/aneei niiniaii», oae e «Yoeee»
(Iieiia iacaaiea ia/eiaaony ni neia «Yoeea, aeieacaiiay a aaiiao?e/aneii
ii?yaeea…»).

Oeeinioneay nenoaia Nieiicu iaeaieaa aeecea e nenoaia Aeaea?oa. Ii
?acaeaeye eae ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneee iaoiae Aeaea?oa, oae e aai oece/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey. Ia neo/aeii, /oi iaeia ec 6 e?oiiuo ?aaio Nieiicu
iinayuaia aeieacaoaeuenoao eaeae Aeaea?oa. Iaeiaei, a ioee/ea io
Aeaea?oa, eioi?ue iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeye iaoiaeo, Nieiica
eioa?aniaaeny aieueoa i?eiaiaieai yoiai iaoiaea aeey iieo/aiey ciaiee ia
ie?oaeathuai ie?a e ?annoaeaeaieyi ii iiaiaeo yoiai ie?a. Cia/eoaeueiia
aeeyiea ia Nieiico ieacaee oaeaea eaeae Aeaei?aeaii A?oii, iniaaiii aai
iaioaenoe/aneea ?annoaeaeaiey. Oaeaea cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia iaai
ieacaee oaeea ?aciua iuneeoaee eae Oiian Aian, aeaeiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue
iaoa?eaeecia oiai a?aiaie, e Iaeiiieae, aa?aeneee oeeinio e aiaineia 12
aaea, neeiiyaoeeny e iaioaecio.

Iiiyoea Aiaa a ?aaioao e aeecie Nieiicu.

Iaeiei ec i?aaeiaoia, eioi?ua eioa?aniaaee Nieiico yaeyeinue iiiyoea
Aiaa, e ae?oaea aii?inu naycaiiua n nouanoaiaaieai Aiaa. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, iau/ii ii ?anniao?eaaao yoio aii?in a ia?ac?uaiie nayce ni
naiei o/aieai i /aeiaaea e yoeea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yaii aeaeii, /oi
yoio aii?in aieioao aai nai ii naaa. Ioiioaiea Nieiicu e i?iaeaia Aiaa
iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae iaioaeci, ii iaioaeci ianeieueei
niaoeeoe/aneee. Niaoeeoe/iinoue aai iaioaecia auea ianoieueei auniea,
/oi a niaaoneie oeeinioneie o?aaeeoeee aai i?eiyoi auei ?anniao?eaaoue
eae iaoa?eaeenoa. Yoi naycaiii n oai, /oi Nieiica ia ?anniao?eaae Aiaa
eae iaeoth noanoaioeeth, eioi?ay iaeooioai?yao e iai?aaeyao i?e?iaeo,
aoaeo/e «?aceeoa» a iae, a eae noanoaioeeth, eioi?ay iaeiia?aiaiii anoue
Aia e i?e?iaea. Oaeei ia?acii, Aia aeaenoaeoaeueii oo?a/eaaao naia
niaoeeoe/aneia iieiaeaiea e oai?/aneay ?ieue ieacuaaaony ?aceeoie a
i?e?iaea. Iaeiaei aieaa aieiaoaeueiia i?i/oaiea ?aaio Nieiicu, iniaaiii
aai aieaa iicaeiae e c?aeie «Yoeee», oaaaeaeaao, /oi Nieiica ia a eiai
neo/aa ia aue iaoa?eaeenoii, iineieueeo ana aai aeieacaoaeuenoaa e
oai?aiu, a oii /enea oai?/aneiai ia/aea a i?e?iaea, a oie eee eiie ia?a
aace?othony ia aia/oanoaaiiii, aunoai ia?aca Aiaa.

Iaoa?eaeeci e aoaeci Nieiicu

Oioy ii?aaeaeaiea Nieiicu eae iaoa?eaeenoa, aiiaua aiai?y, iai?aaeeueii,
ii?aaeaeaiea aai eae aoaenoa eiaao iiae niaie ii/ao. Ii iiyoue aea a
ianeieueei niaoeeoe/aneii niunea yoiai neiaa. Nieiica ia aue aoaenoii a
oii niunea, /oi ii io?eoeae nouanoaiaaiea Aiaa. Iao, Aia aeey iaai
yaeyeny iniiaie ?aaeueiinoe, eae ii nai aiai?eo, aa «noanoaioeeae». Ii
iiiyoea Aiaa o iaai ianoieueei naiaia?acii, ianoieueei ioee/ii io
auoiaiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i Aiaa, /oi aai auei o?oaeii iiiyoue e
i?iaeaeiooui oeeinioai-o?enoeaiai, ia aiai?y oae i
oaiaoeeao-i?oiaeienao. Iethn oi, /oi Nieiica eaoaai?e/anee ioaa?aae
aiaoithth, iaiinioth ?aeeaeiciinoue, n/eoay aa «oaaaeeuai iaciaiey»
(asylim ignorantiae), ia i?eaaaeyei aio iiioey?iinoe a n?aaea
o?aaeeoeeiiii aa?othueo. A yoii ieaia iaaeiaiey, cao/aaoea a aai aae?an,
eiaee iiae niaie ii/ao. Ii aeaenoaeoaeueii aue aoaenoii a oii niunea,
/oi ii ioaa?aae aeooiaiia aeaaainoai ioeoeeaeueiie oea?eae e aa iiiyoea
i Aiaa. Ii ia aa?ee a oiai Aiaa, a eioi?iai aa?eee iie. Nieiica iicaieee
naaa aoaeiaaoue iniiao iniia ethaie ioeoeeaeueiie ?aeeaee – o?aaeeoeee e
i?aae?annoaeee, eaaeauea a aa iniiaa. Aeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae
i?oiaeienaeueiie oea?eae i?ecua e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio ?anniio?aieth Aiaa e
aii?inia aa?u aue aeaaea ooaea, /ai anee au Nieiica aeaenoaeoaeueii
io?eoeae nouanoaiaaiea Aiaa.

Oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey Nieiicu.

Ea?oeia ie?a. Aia anoue ie?.

Oeaio?aeueiui oeeinioneei iiiyoeai a i?ioeanna iinoeaeaiey Aiaa e
i?e?iaeu aunooiaao iiiyoea noanoaioeee. A ioee/ea io Aeaea?oa, eioi?ue
auaeaeye aeaa acaeiiiacaaeneiua noanoaioeee – iaoa?eth e ?acoi,
iauaaeeiyaiua Aiaii, Nieiica ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi nouanoaoao aaeeinoaaiiue
aeae noanoaioeee, eioi?ay iaeiia?aiaiii anoue Aia e i?e?iaea. I?e?iaeo,
a oaeei ia?acii e noanoaioeeth ii ia naiaeeo e iiiyoeth iaoa?ee, eae yoi
aeaeaao Aiaan, a ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iia anoue «ia iaeia iaoa?ey e aa
ninoiyiey, ii e?iia iaoa?ee e eiia aaneiia/iia». Aeey iiieiaiey oiai,
/oi Nieiica iiieiaao iiae yoei “ae?oaei aaneiia/iui” iaiaoiaeeii
?anniio?aoue iiiyoea Nieiicu ia noanoaioeee, ao?eaooao e iiaeonao. Iiae
ao?eaooii (noanoaioeee) ii iiieiaao «oi, /oi oi i?aaenoaaeyao a
noanoaioeee eae ninoaaeythuaa aa nouiinoue». Niioaaonoaaiii, iiaeon
anoue «ninoiyiea noanoaioeee, eiuie neiaaie, oi, /oi nouanoaoao a
ae?oaii e i?aaenoaaeythony /a?ac yoi ae?oaia». N iaeiie noi?iiu, ii
ooaa?aeaeaao aaneiia/iinoue ao?eaooia aaneiia/iie noanoaioeee. *a?ac yoo
aaneiia/iinoue ii aeieacuaaao aaeeinoaaiiinoue noanoaioeee. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi oaeoe/anee nouanoaoao oieueei aeaa
iacaaeneiuo e aeaaiuo ao?eaooa I?e?iaeu-Aiaa, a eiaiii: i?ioyaeaiiinoue,
au?aaeathuayny a iiaeona iaoa?ee, e iuoeaiea, iaoiaeyuaa naia au?aaeaiea
a iiaeona ?acoia. A ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a ii i?ioeai?a/eo nai naaa, oae eae
?aiaee?iaaiea aaneiia/iiai /enea ao?eaooia, aiiaua aiai?y ia iiaeao
i?eaanoe e auaeaeaieth aeaoo aeaaiuo. Iaeiaei, anee ?anniao?eaaoue yoe
aeaa aeaaiuo ao?eaooa eae a ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea eaoaai?ee, oi yoi aieaa
anoanoaaiii. A ii, aa?iyoii, oae e aeaeaao, oae eae ooaa?aeaeaao a naiai
«E?aoeii o?aeoaoa i Aiaa, *aeiaaea e aai n/anouea», /oi ana i?i/ea
ao?eaoou Aiaa anoue «eee aiaoiaa iaicia/aiea, eae oi /oi ii nouanoaoao
/a?ac naiiai naay, aa/ai, aaeei, iaeciaiai e o.ae. eee .. ioiineony e
aai aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?eia?, /oi ii i?e/eia anao aauae, /oi ii
i?aaeii?aaeaeai e oi?aaeyao eie».

Yoe/aneia cia/aiea o/aiey i Aiaa. Aeaoa?ieieci Nieiicu.

Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea o/eouaaoue i?e ?anniio?aiee eiioeaioeee Aiaa o
Nieiicu oio oaeo, /oi oioy yoa eiioeaioeey e eiaao cia/eoaeueiia
naiinoiyoaeueiia cia/aiea, ii Nieiica ana-oaee ?anniao?eaae aa eae
iniiao aeey naiaai yoe/aneiai o/aiey e o/aiey i i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoe.

I?aaeaea anaai aai iiiyoea i i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoe aace?oaony ia aai
i?aaenoaaeaiee i I?e?iaea (Aiaa) eae i aaneiia/iie e iaaeaeeiie
noanoaioeee. I?e/ai noanoaioeey yoa aaneiia/ia eae a i?ino?ainoaa, oae e
ai a?aiaie. Yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea i Aiaa aaneiia/iii ai a?aiaie, aiiaua
aiai?y, iau/iia aeey oiai a?aiaie, i?eaaei Nieiico e auaiaeo, e?aeia
iaiau/iiio a oi a?aiy. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi Aia iiaeao
i?aaenoaaeoue aaniethoii ana aiciiaeiua eiiaeiaoeee ao?eaooia e
iiaeonia, eioi?ua ii iiaeao i?iecaanoe eae i?e/eia ii?aaeaeythuay naia
naay, a oaeaea eiiaiaioiay i?e/eia anaai nouaai. Ec yoiai auaiaea,
aeiiieiaiiiai iinooeaoii i anaiiaouanoaa Aiaa, ii aeaeaao ai iiiaii
ia?aaeienaeueiue auaiae – anaiiaouee Aia oaea nicaeae ana, /oi ii
niiniaai nicaeaoue e aai oai?/aneay ?ieue nicaeaoaey naaaeaia oai naiui
e ioeth. Oioy Nieiica e iuoaaony caaoaee?iaaoue naie auaiae, i?iaiaey
aiaeiaeth a naienoaii anaaaaeaiey. Nii?iinoue oaeie aiaeiaee n?aco
ieacaeanue i/aaeaeia i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ioeoeeaeueiie ?aeeaee. Iniaaiioth
aaaeiinoue yoiio auaiaeo i?eaeaei oi, /oi anee Aia aieaa ia yaeyaony
aeaeaeouae neeie i?e?iaeu, oi aai nouanoaiaaiea i?eia?aoaao /enoi
oai?aoe/aneia cia/aiea, oo?a/eaaaony niune a aa?a.

Ae?oaie auaiae Nieiicu, iiae?uaathuee ioeoeeaeueioth ?aeeaeth,
caeeth/aeny a aai o/aiee i i?aaeii?aaeaeaiee. Ii n/eoaao, /oi oae eae
any niceaeaoaeueiay iioaioeey Aiaa oaea ?aaeeciaaia, oi ana a i?e?iaea
aaniethoii aeaoa?ieie?iaaii. Ana, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a ie?a anoue
aaneiia/iay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue noeaieaiey iiaeonia, eioi?ua
naycuaathony a aaneiia/iua oeaii/ee i?e/ei e neaaenoaee, a eioi?uo iao e
ia iiaeao auoue ?ac?uaia. E oae eae ia?aiia/aeueiui eiioeuenii e
i?e/eiie anao iiaeonia iineoaeeea noanoaioeey, oi eae ii aiai?eo “Aauue,
eioi?ay ii?aaeaeaia e eaeiio-eeai aeaenoaeth, iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeaia
oaeei ia?acii Aiaii, a ia ii?aaeaeaiiay Aiaii, naia naay ii?aaeaeeoue ia
iiaeao”. Yoio aaniethoiue aeaoa?ieieci caeiiiia?ii neaaeiaae o?aaeeoeeyi
iaoaienoe/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia, eioi?iai i?eaea?aeeaaeny a oii /enea
Aeaea?o. A ioiioaiee /aeiaaea yoio aeaoa?ieieci au?aaeaeny a oaoaeecia.
Oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi i?e anae iioeienoe/iinoe oeeinioee Nieiicu, aai
o/aiea i i?aaeii?aaeaeaiee aaniethoii eeoaii iaeaeoae iaaeaaeaeu. Aeaaea
naiiii?aaeaeythuayny noanoaioeey ia?aie/aia a naiaiaea naii?aaeecaoeee
oai, /oi oaea inouanoaeea aa (naii?aaeecaoeeth). *oi aea aiai?eoue i
/aeiaaea, eioi?ue eae iaeei ec iiaeonia ii?aaeaeyaony yoie noanoaioeeae…
Naiaiaea aea ii?aaeaeyaony ei ia eae iacaaeneiinoue, a eae ia
i?eioaeaeaiiinoue e ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaenoaeyi. Eae ii aiai?eo;
“Naiaiaeiie iacuaaaony oaeay aauue, eioi?ay nouanoaoao ii iaeiie oieueei
iaiaoiaeeiinoe naiae nianoaaiiie i?e?iaeu e ii?aaeaeyaony e aeaenoaeth
naia niaie. Iaiaoiaeeiie aea eee, eo/oa neacaoue, i?eioaeaeaiiie
iacuaaaony oaeay, eioi?ay /ai-eeai eiui ii?aaeaeyaony e nouanoaiaaieth e
aeaenoaeth ii ecaanoiiio e ii?aaeaeaiiiio ia?aco”. *aeiaae, iinoieueeo
iineieueeo ii yaeyaony iiaeonii – i?aaeii?aaeaeai e ia iiaeao
i?aoaiaeiaaoue aeaaea ia oaeoth naiaiaeo. Iaeiaei, oae eae /aeiaae
yaeyaony neiaeiie aauueth, eioi?ay aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth ?acoia iiaeao, ia
auoiaey ca i?aaeaeu yoie aeaoa?ieiaoeee, ia?aoaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth
naiaiaeo naii?aaeecaoeee. Yoa ia?aie/aiiay naiaiaea iiaeao i?iyaeyoueny
a iiciaiee. Oaeei ia?acii, Nieiica ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi /aeiaae
noaiiaeoueny naiaiaeiui, anee ii iiciaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue “aiaeanoaaiiiai
i?aaeia/a?oaiey”(sic!).

I?aae?annoaeee ethaeae a eo iiiyoee Aiaa.

Aiaeiae/ii naiaiaea, Nieiica e?aeia iaiau/ii o?aeooao iiiyoey oeaee
i?e?iaeu, e ionthaea aeia?a e cea, ii?yaeea e aanii?yaeea. I?aaeaea
anaai, ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iauaa iiaiea ethaeae, /oi eae iie naie, oae
e ana i?i/ea aaue eiatho eaeoth-oi oeaeue nouanoaiaaiey, ioeai/ii. Aieaa
oiai, e Aia oaeaea ia eiaao oeaee. Ii aai iiaieth, aicieeiiaaiea yoiai
i?aae?annoaeea aucaaii oai, /oi ia ciay i?e/ei naiaai nouanoaiaaiey
ethaee no?aiyony e naiae ee/iie iieueca. Anoanoaaiii, /oi iie ia/eiatho
n/eoaoue oaeoth ee/ioth iieueco naiae oeaeueth. Ana anoanoaaiiua aaue,
eioi?ua eo ie?oaeatho, aini?eieiathony eie eae “n?aaenoaa aeey naiae
iieuecu”. Noaey i Aiaa n aio?iiiii?oe/aneie iiceoeee, iie
?ani?ino?aiytho naia iiiyoea i oeaee e ia Aiaa. Anoanoaaiiue
yaioeaio?eci /aeiaaea, eioi?ue oaeaea ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia Aiaa,
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi oeaeue aeaeyo a nouanoaiaaiee /aeiaaea eeoue
iinoieueeo, iineieueeo ii aa?eo a Aiaa e ieacuaaao aio ii/anoe.
Niioaaonoaaiii, oaeay aio?iiiii?oiay eiioeaioeey oeaee i?eaiaeeo e oiio,
/oi eae oeaeue /aeiaaea ?anniao?eaaaony ii/eoaiea Aiaa, a eae oeaeue
Aiaa – ono?iaiea anaai aeey iaeeo/oae iieuecu ethaeae (/oi au aai
ii/eoaee) e iaeacaiea ethaeae, anee iie aai ii/eoatho iaaeinoaoi/ii.

Eiaeiinoue oaeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey Nieiica aeieacuaaao, iie?aynue ia oaea
aeieacaiiua ei e oiio a?aiaie naienoaa noanoaioeee. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
iia (a iia e anoue Aia) ia iaaeaeaia aieae e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iiaeao
eiaoue e oeaee. Io?eoeaiea neo/aeiinoe anoanoaaiii iieaaaao, /oi ana a
i?e?iaea ii?aaeaeyaony ia eaeie-oi aano?aeoiie oeaeueth, a i?inoui
neaaeiaaieai i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiie oeaii/ee. Iniiaiia aeieacaoaeuenoai
noi?iiieeia oai?ee aiaeanoaaiiie aiee ninoieo a oii, /oi ca/anooth
ni/aoaiea i?e/ei, i?eaaaeoeo e aeaiiiio neaaenoaeth, neeoeii iaaa?iyoii,
/oiau i?iecieoe naii ii naaa, aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa aiaeanoaaiiie aiee.
Nieiica aea ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi nnueea ia aiaeanoaaiioth aieth anoue
“asylum ignorantiae (oaaaeeua iaciaiey)” e ana yoi i?ae?anii iiaeao
auoue iauyniaii, anee ciaoue anth niaieoiiinoue i?e/ei, eioi?ua
aicaeaenoaotho ia i?ienoiaeyuaa a aeaiiii neo/aa.

Anoanoaaiiui eoiaii iai?aaeeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i oeaee Aiaa e
/aeiaaea noaiiaeoueny, n oi/ee c?aiey Nieiicu, aicieeiiaaiea oeaeie
a?oiiu iiiyoee-aioiieiia, oaeeo eae aeia?i-cei, ii?yaeie-aanii?yaeie,
e?anioa-aacia?acea, oaiei-oieiae. Niioaaonoaaiii, eaaeaeia ec yoeo
iiiyoee ?anniao?eaaaony a i?aeiieaiee ioiioaiey e iei /aeiaaea. Nieiica
n/eoaao iai?aaeeueiui, /oi /aeiaae aunooiaao, eae e?eoa?ee ea/anoa (eee
ao?eaooia), i?eiaiyaiuo e i?e?iaea, eae aa iniiaiua ao?eaoou, iineieueeo
/aeiaae a) neeiiai e aio?iiiii?oecio, a) neeiiai e iai?aaeeueiie ioeaiea
neooaoeee e a) noaeaeaiey /aeiaaea noaoai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiu, a
iaoiaeaeaiea i?aaeeueiiai noaeaeaiey eae n?aaeiaai ec /anoiuo ca/anooth
iiaeiaii iaoiaeaeaieth n?aaeiae oaiia?aoo?u ii aieueieoea. Eoiaiaia
caeeth/aiea Nieiicu oaeiai, “/oi ana niiniau, eioi?uie iaueiiaaiii
iauyniytho i?e?iaeo, ninoaaeytho oieueei ?acee/iua ?iaeu aiia?aaeaiey e
iieacuaatho ia i?e?iaeo eaeie-eeai aaue, a eeoue ninoiyiea niiniaiinoe
aiia?aaeaiey”. Ionthaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii neaaeoao, /oi ?aca?aie/aiea
i?e?iaeu ii ia?a niaa?oainoaa, ii?aaeaeyy iineaaeithth eae ia?o
niioaaonoaey aaue /aeiaaeo, anoue a?oaaeoay ioeaea aucaaiiay iiaeiaiie
iiiyoee.

Caeeth/aiea.

A naiai o/aiee i i?e?iaea Aiaa Nieiica ?ane?uaaao i?e?iaeo Aiaa (eae
noanoaioeee) e aai naienoaa-ao?eaoou. E iineaaeiei ii ioiineo:

oi, /oi ii iaiaoiaeeii nouanoaoao;

oi, /oi ii aaeei

oi, /oi ii nouanoaoao e aeaenoaoao oieueei ii i?e/eia caeeth/aiiie a iai
naiii

oi, /oi ii ninoaaeyao naiaiaeioth i?e/eio anao aauae, i?e/ai i?e/eio
eiiaiaioioth;

oi, /oi ana nouanoaoao a aiaa e caaeneo io iaai;

oi, /oi aac iaai ie/aai ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue, ie auoue i?aaenoaaeaii.

oi, /oi ana i?aaeii?aaeaeaii, i?e/ai ia ec naiaiaeu aiaeanoaaiiie aiee,
a ec aaniethoiie i?e?iaeu aiaa, o.a. aai aaniethoiiai iiaouanoaa.

Eiae/aneei neaaenoaeai ec ao?eaooia Aiaa ii n/eoaao nouanoaiaaiea
iiaeonia. Aeaiiua iiaeonu nooue aaneiia/iua aiieiuaiey enoiaeiie
noanoaioeee-aiaa e ninoaaeytho /oanoaaiiue ie?.

*aeiaaea Nieiica ?anniao?eaaao eae iaeei ec iiaeonia, eioi?ue iaeaaeaao
iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai ?acoia, e aaeeinoaaiiue ec iiaeonia, iiaeao
aeinoeaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiie naiaiaeu iooai iniciaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nianoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey. No?aieaiea e aio?iiioeaio?ecio, naienoaaiiia
/aeiaaeo, iiaeao i?eaanoe e ioeai/iiio aini?eyoeth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e
aicieeiiaaieth noaaa?ey. E oaeei noaaa?eyi Nieiica ioiineo ana
ainiiaenoaiaaaoea a oi a?aiy ?aeeaee, n/eoay eo iaiainiiaaiiuie ieiaeaie
/aeiaa/aneiai aiia?aaeaiey. Ii aunooiaao ca ?acaeoea iniaie ?aeeaee,
eioi?ay auea au ii?iaeaeaieai ioae?inoe, o.a. ?acoia, i?eeiaeaiiiai e
iiieiaieth i?e?iaeu Aiaa

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

A. Nieiica «Yoeea»

A. Nieiica «E?aoeee o?aeoao i Aiaa, *aeiaaea e aai n/anouea»

A. Nieiica «Iniiau oeeinioee Aeaea?oa, aeieacaiiua aaiiao?e/aneei
niiniaii»

A.A. Nieieia «Nieiica»

«Noanoaioeey – oi, /oi nouanoaoao naii a naaa e i?aaenoaaeyaony naii
/a?ac naay, o.a. oi, i?aaenoaaeaiea /aai ia ioaeaeaaony a i?aaenoaaeaiee
ae?oaie aaue, ec eioi?iai iii aeieaeii auei au ia?aciauaaoueny» A.
Nieiica. Nia?. ni/. a 2 oo. Oii 1, no?. 361

A. Nieiica. Nia?. ni/. a 2 oo. Oii 1, no?. 20

Oai aea.

Oai aea. Iiae yoei ae?oaei Nieiica anoanoaaiiui ia?acii ?anniao?eaaao
ao?eaoou noanoaioeee.

A. Nieiica. Nia?. ni/. a 2 oo. Oii 1, no?. 90.

A. Nieiica. Nia?. ni/. a 2 oo. Oii 1, no?. 392

A. Nieiica. Nia?. ni/. a 2 oo. Oii 1, no?. 362

A. Nieiica. Nia?. ni/. a 2 oo. Oii 1, no?. 398

A. Nieiica. Nia?. ni/. a 2 oo. Oii 1, no?. 400

PAGE 16

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