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1,2.Ie?iaicc?aiea.Aai enoi?e/.oeiu.

Ie?iaic-ea- yoi niaie-oue iaueo i?aaeiaoia i aeaenoaeyo, eio.io?aaeatho
e ?ane?uaatho i?aeoe/aneia e oai?aoe/aneia ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e ie?o. A
yoi iiiyoea aoiaeyo aeeciaiiua iiceoeee /aeiaaea, oaaaeaeaiey,
eaeaaeu(enoeia, aeia?i, e?anioa), i?eioeeiu iiciaiey e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe(iioeieci, ianneieci) oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee.
Ie?iaic-ea auaaao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia, iau., a?oiiiaia. A ie?iaic-ee
auaeaeytho aeaa o?iaiy: /oanoaaiii-yiioeeiiaeuei. e oai?aoe/.
*oanoa.-yiioe.ie?iaic.- yoi oeaeueiia iniciaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a
eaaea iuouaiee, aini?eyoee, yiioeee. Oai?aoe/.o?iaaiue-
eioaeeaeooaeueiue aniaeo ie?iaic-y(aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue /a?ac i?ecio
caeiiia).

Enoi?e/.oi?iu ie?iaic-y: ieo- nayuaiiia i?eaeaiea, neiaeaiiia i aeayiee
aiaia, a eio.iiaanoaoaony i oii eae ono?iai ie?. Ieoieiaey- naiay ia?aay
oi?ia iniciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iia naycaia n ia?yaeaie, ?eooaeaie.
Ieo aiieiuaao a naaa eieeaeoeaiue iaaeaaeiue iiuo iniuneaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?aaeeia. Ieoieiae/.niciaiea nou-ao e nae/an.
?aeeaey- yoi oi?ia iau-ai niciaiey, niune eio caeeth/-ny a
oaioanoe/aneii, eeethci?iii, eneaaeaiiii i?aaenoaaeaiee. ?aeeaey
iniiaaia ia aa?a a aiaia, oi/iaa ia nou-ee iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo
aiaia(iiiioaeci,iieeoaeci). Ioee/ea io ieoa a oii, /oi o ?aeeaee nou-tho
naie eieae e i?aaiecaoe.i?aai. Oeeinioey(n a?a/ane. “ethaiaue e
ioae?inoe”)- yoi o/aiea iaunoeo i?eioeeiao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, i ia?auo
ia/aeao auoey, o/aiea i aeoaeiiie iniiaa ie?a. Ini.oee-ea i?iaeaiu:
1.iioieiaey(oai?ey iiciaiey). 2. aiinaieiaey (o/aiea i
auoea).3.iaoiaeieiaey(o/aiea i ?acaeoee).4.nioeeieiaey(nioe.i?iaeaiu).
5.yoeea(o/aiea i ii?aee). 6.ynoaoeea(o/aiea i i?ae?aniii).
7.aio?iiieiaey(o/aiea i /aeiaaea). 8.aeneieiaey(o/.i oeaiiinoyo).
9.aeeaeaeoeea(o/.i aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe). 10. iaoaoeceea(o/.i niunea
aeecie).

*aeiaae anaaaea caaeoiuaaeny iaae oai eaeiai aai ianoi a ie?a, ca/ai ii
aeeaao,/ai, niune aai aeecie, ii/aio nouanoaoao aeeciue e nia?oue.
Eaaeaeay yiioa e eaaeaeay iauanoaaiiay a?oiia eee eeann eiatho
eaeia-eeai i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?aoaieee yoeo aii?inia. Noiia anao oaeeo
?aoaiee e ioaaoia ia?acotho I., e-ay au?uaeaaony iin?aaenoaii
eaoaai?ee. Iii ea?aao iniaoth, i/aiue aaaeioth ?ieue ai anae
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae eee eae aiai?yo iaeaaeaao iniaie
iaoiaeieiae/aneie o-ae io a?a/. methods-niinia,iooue logos-o/aiea.A
oeaio?a o-eo i?iaeai noiyo aii?inu i I. Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo o-ee
O.yaeyaony iainiiaaiea ii?aaaeaiea e aiaeec I. O.-oai?eoe/aneia
yae?i I.

Enoi?e/aneea oeiu I.: Iaoneiaeaiiua oie eee eiie enoi?e/aneie yiioie
oai eee eiui iauanoaaiiui eeannii, ii?aaeaeaiiua ii?iu e i?eioeeiu
niciaiey noeee iuoeaiey. e a caaeneiinoe io oiai, niaiaaeatho ee
eioa?anu aeaiiiai eeanna n iauaeoeaiie oaiaeaioeeae iauanoaaiiiai
?acaeoey, yaeyaony ee ii iineoaeai aieaa i?ia?anneaiiai niiniaa i?-aa
eee iao, aai I. ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth iiaeao auoue iao/iui eee
iaiao/iui, iaoa?eaeenoe/aneei eee eaeaaeenoe/aneei, ?aaiethoeeiiiui
eee ?aaeoeeiiiui. Iai?eia?: I. ao?aeoacee eiaaea iia i?ioeaioiyea
oaiaeaeecio auei nia/aea i?ia?anneaiui, iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey o aeanoe
ao?aeoacey e aa I. Noaiiaeony eiina?aaoeaiui eee ?aaeoeeiiiui.

3.Ini.i?iaeaiu oee-ee e eo i?e?iaeu.

Ini.i?iaeaiu: ioiioaiea auoey e iuoeaieth; ioiioaiea oece/.e
ineoe/aneiio; ioiio.iaoa?eaeuei.e eaeaaeueiiio; ioiio.aeooa e i?e?iaea;
ioiio.noauaeoeaiiai e iauaeoeaiiio. Ana yoe i?iaeaiu yae.ninoaaiuie
iaeiie aieueoie i?iaeaiu – ioiioaiey auoey e niciaiey. Aiinaieiae/aneay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iinoaiiaee yoeo i?iaeai (aiinaieiaey – o/aiea i
iiciaiee) caeiaeaia a ?aaeueiii ioiioaiee /aeiaaea e aiaoiaio ie?o:
ethaie yeaiaioa?iue aeo /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey e iiaaaeaiey
i?aaeiieiaaaao ?aca?aie/aiea noauaeoeaiiai e iauaeoeaiiai, niciaiey
iniciaaaaiuo aauae. Yoe i?iaeaiu au?anoatho ec iianaaeiaaiie aeecie
ethaeae, ec i?aeoeee. Anoue aeaa noi?iiu yoeo i?iaeai: aiinaieiae/aneay
(aiciiaeiinoue a iaoeo iiiyoeyo e i?aaenoaaeaieyo i aeaenoaeoaeueiii
ie?a ninoaaeyoue aa?iia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe) e
iioieiae/aneay (aii?in i ia?ae/iinoe aeooa eee iaoa?ee). O.a.ini.
i?iaeaiu oeeinioee aicieeatho ec iieaieee iaaeaeo noi?iiieeaie ?acee/iuo
oa/aiee ii iiaiaeo yoeo iniiaiuo aii?inia (aiinaieiaey e iioieiaey).

4.ooieoeee oeeinioee e aa i?eaioaoeey ia nioe.oeaiiinoe.

O. – iniaay nenoaia ciaiee i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey ?aoaiey
oeaeiai ?yaea acaeiinaycaiiuo i?iaeai, aicieeathueo e a anoanoaaiii
iao/iii enneaaeiaaiee e a enoi?e/aneii iiciaiee, e a iianaaeiaaiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iniiaiua o-oeee:
1) neioac ciaiee e nicaeaiea aaeeiie ea?oeiu ie?a,
niioaaonoaothuae ii?aaeaeaiiiio o?iaith ?acaeoey iaee, eoeueoo?u e
enoi?e/aneiai iiuoa; 2) iainiiaaiea, ii?aaaeaiea e aiaeec ie?iaicc?aiey;
3) ?ac?aaioea iauae iaoiaeieiaee iiciaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea a
ie?oaeathuai ie?a. Eaaeaeay iaoea eco/aao naie e?oa i?iaeai. Aeey
yoiai au?aaaouaaao nianoaaiiua iiiyoey, e-?ua i?eiaiythony a no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe aeey aieaa eee iaiaa ia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa
yaeaiee. Iaeiaei, ie iaeia ec iaoe, e?iia O., ia caieiaaony
niaoeeaeueiui aii?inii, /oi oaeia “iaiaoiaeeiinoue”, “neo/aeiinoue”,
oioy iiaeao eniieueciaaoue eo a naiae iaeanoe. Oaeea iiiyoey yaeythony
i?aaeaeueii oe?ieeie, anaiaueie e oieaa?naeueiuie. Iie io?aaeatho
anaiauea nayce, acaeiiaeaenoaey e oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey ethauo aauae
e iacuaathony eaoaai?eyie (ni. aeinna?ee). Iniiaiie aii?in: Iniiaiua
caaea/e eee i?iaeaiu eanathony auyniaiey ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
/aeiaa/aneei niciaieai e aiaoiei ie?ii, iaaeaeo iuoeaieai e ie?oaeathuei
ian auoeai.

5.Niioiio.oeeinioee e iaoee, oee-ee e iieeoeee.

Oeeinioey ceaeaeaony ia iiieiaiee ie?a e /aeiaaea n oi/ee c?aiey ?acoia
e ciaiee. Oeeinioey eae iniaue niinia aeooiaiiai inaiaiey ie?a, anoue
oai?aoe/anee noi?ioee?iaaiiia ie?iaicc?aiea e enoi?e/anee ia?aay oi?ia
oai?aoe/aneiai ciaiey. Niaoeeoe/aneay iniaaiiinoue oeeinioee a oii, /oi
iia aunooiaao neioace?othuae oi?iie iiciaiey. Iaoea- noa?a
enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiay ia i?iecaiaenoai iiauo
ciaiee i i?e?iaea, iauanoaa e iuoeaiee. Iaoea ?anniao?eaaaony eae
oeaeinoiay nenoaia, aeeth/athuay enoi?e/anee iiaeaeaeiia niioiioaiea
/anoae: i?e?iaeiaaaeaiea e iauanoaiaaaeaiea; oeeinioey e anoanoaiciaiea;
iaoiaea e oai?ee; oai?aoe/aneeo e i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee. Iieeoeea-
aeayoaeueiinoue naycaiiay n ioiioaieai iaaeaeo eeannaie, iaoeeyie e
ae?.nioe. a?oiiaie, yae?ii eioi?ie yae.caaiaaaiea, oaea?aeaiea e
eniieueciaaiea ainoaea?no.aeanoe. Iieeoeea yae.iaaeno?ieeie iaae
yeiiiie/aneei aacenii. Oeeinioey eae iaoea eniieuecoao iao/iua iaoiaeu e
iiaeoiaeu a eco/aiee e iiciaiee aiaoiaai ie?a. *anoiua iaoee yae.iaeiei
ec iaoiaeia iiciaiey n i?aeoe/aneie noi?iiu e i?aaeinoaaeytho oeeinioee
e5iie?aoiua ?acoeueoaou e iiuo aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey oeeinioneie
iunee. Oaeea iaoee eae iaoaiaoeea e eiaenoeea (ninoaaeythuea eiaeee)
yae.iaiouaieaiie /anoueth oeeinioee e i?aaenoaaeaiu e eniieuecothony
noi?iiieeaie ?aoeeiiaeecia (Eaio, Oeooa, Aaaaeue). Iieeoeea eae iaeii ec
iau-uo yaeaiee oaeaea aoiaeeo a noa?o oeeinioneiai aiaeeca e
enneaaeiaaiey, iineieueeo iauanoai – iaeei ec ini.iauaeoia ecaa/iuo
oeeinioee. Oeeinioey iuoaaony iinoe/ue ?aaeueiinoue iieiinoueth, a
iineieueeo iau-ai yae.iaeiie ec iaiouaieaiuo ninoaaiuo ?aaeueiinoe, oi e
ana iauanoaaiiua i?ioeannu (a o./.iieeoeea) noaiiayony iauaeoaie aa
enneaaeiaaiey.

6.iniaaiiinoe oeeinioee ae?. Ainoiea.

OAeA ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo ouny/aeaoee iiaeao auoue i?eo?i/aia e
o?ai oeaio?ai: ae?aaiaeiaeeeneay, ae?aaiaeeoaeneay oeeaeeecaoeee e
ae?aaiyy oeeaeeecaoeey N?aaeiaai Ainoiea. OAeA ?acaeeanue ec
ieoieiae/aneeo nthaeaoia yoeo oeeaeeecaoeee. I?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey:
1.nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay (ia?aoiae io iaaee e aeaeaco)
2.oiaa?ii-aeai. ioiio. 3.ineaaeaiea ?iaei-ieaiaiiuo naycae 4.ia?aia
ain-ai 5. aeooiaiay aeeciue. A Eiaeee i?ioeann ca?iaeaeaiey O. iac-ny
“yiioie a?iaeaiey oiia”. O. aicieeaao a Eiaeee eae e?eoeea
a?aoiaiecia. Iniiaiua o-ea oeieu: aaeaeeea (aaeaeeaeea)
(oaoaeueii-iaoo?aeenoe/aneia o/aiea), aeaeaeieci (iiciaiea ie?a),
aoaeaeeci (iiiuoea iniciaoue aeooiaiia e oaeaniia). Eiaeeeneay O.
nenoaiaoe/anee eceaaaeanue a noo?ao Aaaeu – ia?aua nayuaiiua eieae
ae?aaiae Eiaeee, ?acoeueoaoii aeaeueiaeoae ?ac?aaioee eaiiiia o/aiey
noaee A?aoiaiu (I oun. aei i.y. ?eooaeueiua oaenou), a?aiueyee (“eaniua
eieae aeey iooaeueieeia” na?aaeeia I oun. aei i.y.), oiaieoaaeu
(“ciaiey iieo/aiiua o iia o/eoaey” aei II oun. aei i.y.). Aeey
ae?aaiaeiaeeeneie oeieu oa?-iu:1.aieiaiea e aii?inai iienea nouiinoe
/ae. e ie?oaeathuaai ie?a 2.i?eciaiea oiaeaeanoaa iaaeaeo iee?i- e
iae?ieiniinii 3.i?eciaiea nouanoaiaaiea 4-o o?iaiae auoey: oaeaniue,
o?iaaiue nino. ec aeeciaiiiai y, o?iaaiue ninoiyuee ec niciaiey,
nino. iaiauathuaa a naaa ana o?e o?iaiy – “aoiai” A Eeoae i?ioeann
ca?iaeaeaiey O. iac-ny “yiioie ai?thueony oea?noa”. Ia?aua o-u a?iaeyae
e?eoeeiaaee ieoieiaeth. O-u e?ooua Eiioooeee e Eai-aecu. Aeey
ae?aaiaai Eeoay oa?-ia iii?a ia nayuaiiua eieae – “iyoeeieaeea”. Aneaou,
a?iaey/ea ioae?aoeu – ia?aua e?eoeee ieoieiaeee, iiaeaioiaeee yiioo
ai?thueony oea?noa. Oaea a iaeaieaa ?aiiae ec eiea oiiieiaaony aeaa
i?eioeeia yiue e eiue ieeoeeoai?ytho aeaa acaeiiaeiiieiythueo
ia/aea (ioae. e aeai.). Iicaea aeeth/aia eaoaai?ee
oee-iaiaoa?eaeueiay noanoaioeey, /oi i?iiecuaaao aanue einiin. ?anoeaao
i?eoiaeeony ia a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey 6 eeanne/aneeo oeie. Aoaeaeeci –
ca?iaeeeny a Eiaeee a VI-V aa. aei i.y., aeaeeo inaiaiaeaeaiea io
no?aaeaiee ia iooe i?aanoaaiiiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey, oaeaeaiey io ie?a
e aeinoeaeaiey iooai iniauo aeooiaiuo iaaeeoaoeee e oece/aneeo
oi?aaeiaiee ninoiyiey ie?aaiu. A ia?auo aaeao iaoae y?u aoaeaeeeneay
?aeeaey oa?ieo ii?aaeaiea.

7. Einiioeaio?eci ae?aaiaa?a/aneie O.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee VI-IV aa. aei i.y. a A?aoeee i?ienoiaeee ao?iue ?anoeaao
eoeueoo?u e O. Ca yoio ia?eiae auee nicaeaiu iiaia iaieo. I., iiaay
ea?oeia ie?a, oeaio?aeueiui yeaiaioii e-?ie noaei o/aiea i einiina.
Einiin ioaaouaaao Caieth, /aeiaaea, iaaaniua naaoeea e nai iaaaniue
naiae. Ii caieioo, eiaao noa?e/aneoth oi?io e a iai i?ienoiaeeo
iinoiyiiue e?oaiai?io – ana aicieeaao, oa/ao e eciaiyaony. Ec /aai
aicieeaao, e /aio aica?auaaony ieeoi ia ciaao. Iaeie a?a/aneea
o-u (iaoo?o-u) n/eoatho, /oi iniiaie aauae yaeyaony /oanoaaiii
aini?eieiaaiua yeaiaiou eenei?iae, iaiiue, aiaea, caiey e ii?aaeaeaiiia
aauanoai – aiae?ii; ae?oaea (ieoaai?aeoeu) aeaeaee aa a iaoaiaoe/aneeo
aoiiao; o?aouee (yeaaou) oniao?eaaee iniiao ie?a a aaeeiii,
iac?eiii auoee; /aoaa?oua n/eoaee oaeie iniiaie (Aeaiie?eo)
iaaeaeeiua aoiiu; iyoua (oeiea Ieaoiia) – caiiie oa? eeoue
oaiue,?acoeueoao aiieiuaiey oea?noaa /enoie iunee. ?acoiaaony ana yoe
O. iai?aaeaiey auee ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo iaeaiuie e
i?ioeai?a/eauie ae?oa ae?oao. Ia ii?aaa aua aei eiioea n ieoieiaeae,
iie ioaiaeeee aiaai, naa?ouanoanoaaiiui neeai aoi?inoaiaiiia, a oi e
o?aoueanoaiaiiia ianoi, iuoaeenue iiciaoue ie? ec iaai naiiai. Ia
ia?auo ii?ao ae?aaiaa?a/aneea o-u ia iniciaaaee, /oi iniiaiie aii?in O.
iiaeao eiaoue ?aciia cia/aiea, ii oaea a V a. aei i.y. (Ieaoii,
Aeaiie?eo) /aoei iaicia/eeenue aeaa i?ioeaiai?noaothuea eeiee, ai?ueaa
iaaeaeo e-?uie i?ioiaeeo /a?ac anth aeaeueiaeooth enoi?eth O.

8.Iiiyoea auoey aioe/i.oeeinioia.

Oecen -ia?aiia/aei (oi ec /aai ana i?ienoiaeeo e oi, ai /oi ana
?ac?aoaaony). Nouanoaiaaee 4 ?acuia oeieu: 1) Oaean, Aiaenaiaiae?,
Aiaenaiai, Aa?aeeeo – Ieeaoneay oeiea. 2)Enaiioai, Ia?iaieae, Caiii,
Iaeenn- Yeaaou. 3)Ieoaai?, Aeeiaii – ieoaai?aeoeu. 4)Aeaiie?eo, Eaaeeii-
aiaoiienou.

Ana iie auee iaoo?aeenou (inaaaeiiaoa?eaeenou). Iaoa?eaeueiia ia/aei,
eio.iie a?aee ca iniiao eiaei aiaeanoaaiioth nouiinoue. Oaean n/eoae
ia?aiia/aeii aiaeo (iai?eia?, ieoaiea anao aauae “aeaaeii”).
Aiaenaiaiae?- aiae?ii (aaca?aie/iia, aani?aaeaeueiia, aa/ii
aeaeaeouaany, eio.ii?aaeaeyaony iin?aaenoaii aicaeaenoaey ia iaai iaeie
aunoae noanoaioeee (i?ienoiaeaeaiea eio.ia o?aaoao aeieacaoaeuenoa)).
Aiaenaiai – aicaeoo (aaneiia/iue, aa/iue, iiaeaeaeiue. Nia/aea naouaynue
ia?acoao iaeaea, caoai aiaeo, caieth, eaiie e ?ac?aaeaynue i?aa?auaaony
a iaiiue). A aai o/aiee aeaeia eaeay ia?aoiaea eiee/anoaa a ea/anoai.
Aa?aeeeo – iaiiue (ia?aue iiaeiaoee oi, /oi ie? iaoiaeeony a aaneiia/iii
eciaiaiee, aeaeaeaiee, e ionthaea auaiae, /oi iaiiue iaeaieaa
iiaeaeaeiue, iaeaieaa niiniaiue e eciaiaieth yeaiaio auoey). Enaiioai –
a naieo iiyiao e?eoeeiaae aio?iiiii?oiia iiieiaiea nouiinoe aiaa
(i?eienuaaiea aio /aeiaa/aneeo ea/anoa e naienoa. I?ia?ann yoiai aue a
oii, /oi ii ia?aue iiiye, /oi aiaeanoai – aac?acee/iay ie?o nouiinoue,
eio.ia iiaeao auoue iaaeaeaia naienoaaie, i?enoueie oai, eoi aai
iuoaaony ?anniio?aoue). Ia?iaieae – iniiaaoaeue iioieiaee (o/aiea i
auoea). Ana aai o/aiey auee a iiyiao. Aai o/aiea auei iai?aaeaii i?ioea
o/aiey Aa?aeeeoa i oii, /oi auoea iiaeaeaeii, eciai/eai. N/eoae, /oi
auoea eiia/ii, iaiiaeaeaeii. Ana aeaeaeaiea, eio.nou-o – yoi eeoue
eeethci?iay aeaeeiinoue. Ia?aue anoae ia iooue /enoiai ?aoeeiiaeecia,
o.a.ii aiai?ee, /oi iiciaoue ie? aiciiaeii oieueei ?aoeeiiaeueiui iooai
(iooai oiicaeeth/aiee) e ana /oanoaaiiia ioiinee e eiaeiiio. Io?eoeae
nou-ea iaauoey. Caiii- iineaaeiaaoaeue Ia?iaieaea. Ia aeiaiaeu
iiiiiaioia, ooaa?aeaeaaoeo, /oi ie? iiaeaeaeai e eciai/ea i?eaiaeee
“ia?aaeienu”, noaaeaoea a io?eoeaoaeueiie oi?ia aeeaeaeoe/aneea aii?inu
aeaeaeaiey. Aeey iaai auoea iai?ioeai?a/eai. I?eia? “ia?aaeiena”:
no?aea, auiouaiiay a ae?oaoth oi/eo i?ino?ainoaa a eaaeaeue iiiaio
a?aiaie iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee iieiy ioiineoaeueii eaeiai-oi o/anoea
i?ino?aionaa. A eoiaa noiia iiiaeanoaa ninoiyiee iieiy iiaeao aeaoue
oieueei iieie, oioy aecoaeueii iia eciaieea naia iieiaeaiea
ioiineoaeueii ia/aeueiie oi/ee. Ieoaai?aeoeu – i?eoee e auaiaeo i oii,
/oi eiee/anoaaiiua ioiioaiey yaeythony nouiinoueth aauae. N/eoaee
ia?aiiniiaie /enei. Iuoaeenue ioia?aceoue nouiinoue ie?a n iiiiuueth
aaiiao?e/aneeo oeao?. Aiaoiienou n/eoaee, /oi ana oaea ninoiyo ec aoiiia
(eiia/iay iaaeaeeiay aaeeieoea). Aoiiu+ionoioa – yoi iniiaa anaai
nouaai. Oae, ii naiae i?e?iaea aoii iaeciaiai, oi e nouiinoue anaai
iaeciaiia. Iin?aaenoaii noieeiiaaiey aoiiia aiciee aanue ie?. Aeaa
noieaoey iicaea- Yieeo?. Io?eoeae aiaoaoaeuenoai aiaia a aeaea ie?a e
enoiaeee ec i?eciaiey aa/iinoe iaoa?ee. Aian eciaiaiey a aiaoiieci: aeey
iauyniaiey aiciiaeiinoe noieeiiaaiey aoiiia aaiaeeo iiiyoea aioo?aiia
iaoneiaeaiiiai ioeeiiaiey aeaeaeaiea aoiia io i?yiie eeiee, /oi yaeeinue
iniiaie aieaa aeoaieiai acaeyaea ia niioiioaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe e
neo/aeiinoe.

9.I?iaeaia /aeiaaea a Ae?aaiaa?a/.oee-ee.

Iniiaiui aeinoeaeaieai nioenoia auei oi, /oi iie ia?aianoeee aeauioth
i?iaeaio oeeinioee n oecena ia /aeiaaea. Nioenoeea- niciaoaeueiia
i?eiaiaiea a nii?a eee a aeieacaoaeuenoaao iai?aaeeueiuo aeiaiaeia.
Nioenou aia?aua naeaeaee oeeinioeth naiae i?ioanneae, iie a?aee aeaiueae
ca iao/aiea, iie naie eneaee naaa o/aieeia. Iaeiei ec naiuc ecaanoiuc
i?aaenoaaeoaeae nioenoia aue I?ioaai?. Aai iniiaiia iieiaeaiea
caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi ii iieaaae /aeiaaea eae ia?o anao aauae.
Iiyoiio iaaiciiaeia aaniethoiay enoeia, enoeia ioiineoaeueia. Aeey
iaeiiai e oiai aea /aeiaaea ieeiaaea iaeii e oi aea ia auaaao enoeiiui
?ac e iaanaaaea, a ?acee/iia a?aiy, eai oio aea /aeiaae noaiiaeony
ae?oaei /aeiaaeii. A yoii niunea ana ioiineoaeueii. NIE?AO. A oeaio?
naieo oeeinioneeo eioa?ania ii noaaeo i?iaeaio noauaeoa – /aeiaaea. Aai
oeeinioey iniiaaia ia oii, /oi i?aanoaaiiia ioaeii iiciaoue e onaieoue,
a ec cia/aiey i?aanoaaiiinoe neaaeoao anaaaea aeaenoaea a niioaaonoaee n
iei. I?aanoaaiiui yae.oi aeaenoaea, eio.aeaao enoeiioth iieueco, a
aianoa n oai e enoeiiia aeaaeainoai. Iiyoiio i?aaeiinueeie i?aeoe/aneie
i?eniiniaeaiiinoe yae.naiiiiciaiea (“iiciae naiiai naay”). Aeey Nie?aoa
ciaiea yaeyeinue ii?aaeaeythuei e?eoa?eai aeey ii?iu iiaaaeaiey. Ciaiea
o iaai ioiaeaeanoaeyeinue n aeia?iaeaoaeueth, a iaaaaeanoai- ni ceii.
Ini.aeia?iaeaoaeyie. Nie?ao n/eoaao naea?aeaiiinoue, ioaeanoai e
ni?aaaaeeeainoue.

10. O. Ieaoiia.

Ieaoii – iniiaaoaeue iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia. Niaeanii o/aieth Ieaoiia
eeoue ie? eaeae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enoeiiia auoea, a eiie?aoiua aaue –
yoi ia/oi n?aaeiaa iaaeaeo auoeai e iaauoeai, iie oieueei oaie
eaeae. Ieaoii iauyaee ie? eaeae aiaeanoaaiiui oea?noaii, a e-?ii aei
?iaeaeaiey /aeiaaea i?aauaaao aai aannia?oiay aeooa. Ca oai iia
iiiaaeaao ia a?aoioth caieth, aaea a?aiaiii iaoiaeynue a /ae. oaea, eae
ociee a oaiieoea iia aniiieiaao i ie?a eaeae. Iiciaiea ii Ieaoiio
anoue ainiiieiaiea aeooie naiaai aeicaiiiai nouanoaiaaiey. N/eoae,
/oi /oanoaa iaiaiuaatho /aeiaaea, e iiyoiio niaaoiaae aeey iiciaiey
enoeiu “cae?uoue aeaca e caoeiooue ooe” e aeiaa?eoueny naiae
aniiieiathuae i naiai aiaeanoaaiiii i?ioeii aeooa A?enoioaeue –
nicaeaoaeue eiaeee, aue o/aieeii Ieaoiia, ii ioaa?a aai
eaeaaeenoe/aneoth oai?eth eaeae. Ii iiaieth A?enoioaey Ieaoii
nicaeae eaeaaeueiue

naa?o/oanoaaiiue ie? ia?yaeo n ie?ii ?aaeueiui. In his humble
opinion eaeay (“oi?ia”) ia?ac?uaia n aauueth, eaaeaeay aauue ninoieo ec
aeaoo ia/ae – iaoa?ee e oi?iu. A iniiaa ie?icaeaiey iaoiaeeony
iaii?aaeaeaiiue ianneaiue noano?ao – “ia?aay iaoa?ey”. Iaeiaei, a
oaeii aeaea iaoa?ey nou. oieueei a aano?aeoeee. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iia ii?aaeaeyaony aeoeaiinoueth naieo ii naaa
iaiaoa?eaeueiuo oi?i. Iaoa?ey yoi aiciiaeiinoue, niiniaiinoue aaue,
oi?ia – aa aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaeeo a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue aeaaiaea?y aeaeaeaieth. Oi?ia

iaoa?eaeecoaony, iaoa?ey oi?ie?oaony. Aia ea?aao ?ieue iaiiaeaeaeiiai
aeaeaaoaey ie?a, e-?ue aaeei e aa/ai.

11.oeein-ay neno. A?enoioaey.

Anee aaue aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaotho, oi iaiaoiaeeiui ia?acii
nouanoaotho e eaeae aauae; oae /oi aac eaeae aauue ia nouanoaoao eee
naia aauue inoaaony iaiiciaaaaiie. Iao i?eioeeieaeueiiai io?uaa eaeae
aaue io naiie aaue. Eaeay aaue iaoiaeeony aioo?e naiie aaue. Eaeay aaue,
aoaeo/e /ai-oi aaeeie/iui, eae aaeeie/ia e naia aauue, a oi aea a?aiy
yaeyaony e iaiauaieai anao /anoae aaue, yaeyaony iaeie iauiinoueth.
Iauiinoue aaue iaycaoaeueii nouanoaoao e a eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie aaue,
e nouanoaoao eaaeaeue ?ac ii-?aciiio; ii yoi cia/eo, /oi
iauiinoue aaue ioaaouaaao ana a? ?acaeaeueiua /anoe e iioiio
yaeyaony oeaeinoiinoueth aaue. Oeaeinoiinoue aaue, eiaaea n oaeaeaieai
iaeiie /anoe aaue aeaiao e any aauue, anoue i?aaieci aaue a ioee/ea
io iaoaiecia aaue, eiaaea aauue inoaaony oeaeinoiie, ianiio?y ie ia
eaeia oaeaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo a? /anoae e caiaio eo ae?oaeie /anoyie.
I?aaieci anoue oaeay oeaeinoiinoue aaue, eiaaea eiaaony iaeia eee
ianeieueei oaeeo /anoae, a eioi?uo oeaeinoiinoue i?enoonoaoao
noanoaioeeiiaeueii. *aou?aoi?eioeeiiay no?oeoo?a anyeie aaue, eae
i?aaiecia: 1. Yeaein (eaeay) aaue yaeyaony oaeie a? nouiinoueth, eioi?ay
iaoiaeeony a iae naiie, e aac eioi?ie aiiaua iaeuecy iiiyoue, /oi oaeia
aeaiiay aauue. 2. Iaoa?ey aaue anoue oieueei au? naiay aiciiaeiinoue a?
ioi?ieaiey e aiciiaeiinoue yoa – aaneiia/ii ?aciiia?aciay. Yeaein aaue
ia anoue a? iaoa?ey, a iaoa?ey aaue ia anoue a? yeaein. Iaoa?ey anoue
oieueei aiciiaeiinoue inouanoaeaiey yeaeina.

3. Anee aaue aeaeaeoony, a aeey aeaeaeaiey aeieaeia
nouanoaiaaoue eaeay-ieaoaeue ii?aaeaeaiiay i?e/eia aeaeaeaiey, oi yoi
cia/eo, /oi iaiaoiaeeii i?eciaoue iaeia naiiaeaeaeaiea,
iaeoth i?e/eio, eioi?ay yaeyaony i?e/eiie aeey naiie aea naay. A
auoee eiaaony naiiaeaeaeouay i?e/eia e yoa naiiaeaeaeiinoue oae eee
eia/a io?aaeaaony e a ?aaeueiie caaeneiinoe aeaeaeaiey iaeiie aaue io
aeaeaeaiey ae?oaie aaue. 4. Iaeuecy iuneeoue aeaeaeaiea a aano?aeoiii
aeaea, oi anoue aac oiai ?acoeueoaoa, eioi?ue iia aeaao. Aeaeaeaiea aaue
iiae?acoiaaaao oeaeue aeaeaeaiey – niaoeeoe/aneoth eaoaai?eth aaue,
eioi?ay ia anoue ie a? oi?ia, ie a? iaoa?ey, ie a? i?e/eia. Iauay
oi?ioee?iaea /aou?aoi?eioeeiiie no?oeoo?u- aauue anoue
iaoa?ey,oi?ia, aeaenoaothuay i?e/eia e ii?aaeaeaiiay oeaeaniia?aciinoue,
oi anoue eaaeaeay aauue anoue iaauanoaeaiiay oi?ia n i?e/eiii-oeaeaaui
iacia/aieai. Ooaeiaeanoaaiii-oai?/aneee ia?aii?eioeei: 1.
Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay ?ieue iaoa?ee – iaoa?ey ia i?inoi ionoonoaea anyeeo
oi?i, ii e aaneiia/iay oai?/aneay aiciiaeiinoue. Iaoa?ey i?iyaeyao
naay a aeaea oao eee eiuo i?ino?ainoaaiiuo e a?aiaiiuo oi?i. 2.
I?e?iaea eae i?iecaaaeaiea eneonnoaa – i?e?iaeiua aaue e any
i?e?iaea, acyoay a oeaeii, yaeyaony oie eee eiie niuneiaie ea?oeiie. 3.
Aeooa anoue ia /oi eiia, eae i?eioeei aeeaiai oaea. Aeooa –
noanoaioeey a ea/anoaa yeaeina oece/aneiai oaea, a iioaioeee
iaeaaeathuaai aeeciueth. Ooaeiaeanoaaiii-oai?/aneee i?eioeei a aai
caaa?oaiee: 1. Iiaeiaii oiio, eae anyeia iaoa?eaeueiia oaei anoue
ia/oi, oi anoue yaeyaony oai eee eiui yeaeinii, e iiaeiaii oiio, eae
yeaein aeeaiai oaea anoue i?eioeei aai aeecie, oi anoue aai aeooa,
iiaeiaii yoiio e anyeay aeooa, aeaeaeouay oaeii a oii eee ae?oaii
iai?aaeaiee, oiaea eiaao naie nianoaaiiue yeaein, iacuaaaiue Oiii,
oae /oi aeooa anoue yia?aey Oia. 2. Oi anoue yeaein anao yeaeinia. 3.
Oi,ianiio?y ia anth naith naiaiaeo io /oanoaaiiie iaoa?ee, niaea?aeeo
naith nianoaaiioth /enoi oinoaaiioth iaoa?eth, aac eioi?ie ii
ia aue au ooaeiaeanoaaiiui i?iecaaaeaieai.

12.?aeeaeici.oa?-a? n?aaeiaaae.oee-ee.Iieaieea iaaeaeo iiieiaeeciii e
?aaeeciii.

N?aaeiaaae.O.- oee-ey caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai oaiaeaeueiiai iau-aa,
?acaeaaaoayny a yiioo io e?ooaiey ?eineie eiia?ee (5a.) aei
aicieeiiaaiey ?aiieo oi?i eaieoaeenoe/.iau-aa (14-15aa.). Iaaeaiea
aioe/iiai ?aaiaeaaeaeue/.iau-aa nii?iaiaeaeaeinue oiaaeeii oee-ee.
Aioe/iia oee-ia ianeaaeea auei oo?a/aii e inoaaaeinue aei aoi?ie
iieiaeiu 12a. iaecaanoiui o/aiui Cai.Aa?iiu. Ainiiaenoaothuae
eaeaieiaeae noaea ?aeeaeiciay: a Ia?aaeiae Acee, A?aaee e a?aaiycu/iuo
no?aiao – ionoeueiaineay, a Aa?iia – o?enoeaineay a aeaoo
?aciiaeaeiinoyo (?eineee eaoieeoeeci e aecaioeeneia i?aaineaaea). Oeiea,
i?inaauaiea ia?aoee a ?oee oea?eae, aeiaiu eio.eaaeaee a iniiaa anao
i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?e?iaea, ie?a e /aeiaaea. ?acaeoea oeie (naaoneeo e
aeooiaiuo), a n na?aaeeiu 12a.e iniiaaiea ia?auo oieaa?neoaoia (a
Eoaeee, Aiaeee, *aoee, O?aioeee) iinoaaeee ia?aae oee-ae caaea/o iiii/ue
oea?eae a oee-ii iauyniaiee e aeaaea iainiiaaiee aeiaiaoia aa?u. Oee-ey
ia ianeieueei aaeia noaea “neoaie aiaineiaey”. ?ieue yoo iia eniieiyea
oaea a aeayoaeueiinoe aiieiaaoia – caueoieeia o?enoeainoaa i?ioea
ycu/anoaa, caoai a ni/. “iooeia oea?eae”. E?oiiaeoee ec ieo ia Caiaaea –
Aaaonoei aaae a nenoaio o/aiee o?enoeaine.oee-ee ?yae eaeae
iaiieaoiiecia. Ae?.- aeey Caiaaea – enoi/ieeii aeeyiey iaiieaoiiecia,
i?eniiniaeaiiiai e caaea/ai o?enoeaineie eaeaieiaee, noaee
aino.iaiieaoiieee, a eo /enea oae iacuaaai. EaeaAeeiienee A?aiiaaeo
(5a.). Aaaeioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee n?.oee-ee nua?ae Eiaii Neio, eee
Y?eaaia. I?e iauyniaiee aeiai aa?u ia?aae n?aaeiaaae.oee-ie aicieeee
neiaeiua aii?inu ia ioiioaiee aaeeie/iiai e iauaio e i ?aaeueiinoe
iauaai. A caaeneiinoe io niiniaa eo ?aoaiey oeieueiay oee-ey, iieo/eaoay
iacaaiea noieanoeee, au?aaioaea ?yae oi/ae c?aiey, ini.n?aaee eio.noaee
anooieaoea a ai?ueao iaaeaeo niaie o/aiey ?aaeecia e iiieiaeecia.

?aaeeci – iai?aaeaiea a n?aaeiaaaeiaie noieanoeea, ooaa?aeaeaaoaa, /oi
iauea iiiyoey (oieaa?naeee) eiatho ?aaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea e
i?aaeoanoaothoi nouanoaiaaieth aaeeie/iuo aauae. ?aaeeci oaeoe/anee
i?iaeieaeae eeieth Ieaoiia a ?aoaiee aii?ina i niioiioaiee iiiyoey e
iauaeoeaiiai ie?a, iauaai e aaeeie/iiai. ?aaeeci neoaeee oeeinioneie
aacie eaoieeoeecia. Aeaeiaeoeie aai i?aaenoaaeoaeyie auee Ainaeuei
Eaioa?aa?eeneee e Aeeueaaeuei ec Oaiii. E yoiio aea iai?aaeaieth
i?eiueae e Oiia Aeaeineee. I?ioea ?aaeecia aaee ai?ueao i?aaenoaaeoaee
iiieiaeecia. Yoa ai?ueaa auea au?aaeaieai ai?ueau aeaoo oaiaeaioeee a
oeeinioee – iaoa?eae-ie (iiieiaeeci) e eaeaaeenoe/aneie (?aaeeci).

Iiieiaeeci – iai?aaeaiea a n?.oee-ee, n/eoaaoaa iauea iiiyoey eeoue
eiaiaie aaeeie/iuo i?aaeiaoia. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue ?aaeecio
iiieiaeenou ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi ?aaeueii nou-tho oieueei ioaeaeueiua aaue
n eo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie ea/anoaaie. Iauea iiiyoey,nicaeaaaaiua iaoei
iuoeaieai ia yoeo aauao, ia oieueei ia nou-tho iacaaeneii io aauae, ii
aeaaea ia io?aaeatho eo naienoa e ea/anoa. Iiieiaeeci aue naycai n
iaoa?eae-ie oaiaeaioeeyie a i?eciaiee ia?ae/iinoe aaue e aoi?e/iinoe
iiiyoey. Iaeiaei, iiieiaeenou ia iiieiaee, /oi iauea iiiyoey io?aaeatho
?aaeueiua ea/anoaa iauaeoeaii nou-eo aauae e /oi aaeeie/iua aaue ia
ioaeaeaiu io iauaai, a niaea?aeao aai a naaa. Aeaeiaeoeie iiieiaeenoaie
a 11-14aa.auee ?inoeaeei, Aeoin, Neioo, Ieeai.

13.Oiia Aeaeineee – nenoaiaoecaoi? n?aaeiaaae.noieanoeee.

Oiia Aeaeineee – n?aaeiaaaeiaue eaoiee/.oaieia, iiiao-aeiieieeaiaoe,
o/aiee Aeueaa?oa Aaeeeiai, a 1323 a.aue i?e/eneai e eeeo nayouo.
Iauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneay oee-ey O.A.neiaeeeanue a ?acoeueoaoa
oaieiae/aneie eioa?i?aoaoee a?enoioaeaaneiai o/aiey, i?eniiniaeaiey
a?enoioaeecia e o?enoeaineiio aa?io/aieth. Ia?aaioea a?enoioaeaaneie
oee-ee Aeaeiaoii oea ii eeiee auoieaueaaiey aa iaoa?eae-eo eaeae e
oneeaiey eaeaaeeno-eo yeaiaioia (o/aiea i iaiiaeaeaeiii ie?iaii
ia?aiaeaeaaoaea e ae?.). Cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia oee-eth O.A. ieacaee e
o/aiey iaiieaoiiecia. A nii?a ia oieaa?naeeyo caieiae iiceoeee
“oia?aiiiai ?aaeecia”, i?eciaaae oieaa?naeee o?ao aeaeia: aei aaeeie/iuo
aauae (a aiaeanoaaiiii ?acoia), a naieo aauao (eae iauaa a aaeeie/iii) e
iinea aauae (a iiciathuai eo /aeiaa/aneii ?acoia). Ini.i?eioeei oee-ee
O.A.- aa?iiiey aa?u e ?acoia; ii n/eoae, /oi ?acoi niiniaai
?aoeeiiaeueii aeieacaoue auoea aiaa e ioeeiieoue aic?aaeaiey i?ioea
enoei aa?u. Ana nou-aa oeeaaeuaaaony O.A. a nicaeaiiue aiaii
ea?a?oe/aneee ii?yaeie. O/aiea O.A. ia ea?a?oee auoey io?aaeaei
oea?eiaioth i?aaiecaoeeth oaiaeaeueiie yiioe. N 1879 noieanoe/aneay
nenoaia O.A. ioeoeeaeueii iauyaeyaony “aaeeinoaaiii enoeiiie oeeinioeae
eaoieeoeecia”. Ini.ni/eiaiey O.A.: “Noiia i?ioea ycu/ieeia”(1261-1264),
“Noiia oaieiaee”(1265-1273).

14.Aio?iiioeaio?eci e aoiaieci oee-ee yiioe aic?iaeaeaiey.

Aic?iaeaeaiea – oeeinio.e nioeeieia.o/aiey a yiioo noaiiaeaiey ?aiiaai
ao?aeoaciiai iau-aa (a iniiaiii a Eoaeee) 14-17aa. Ioeoeeaeueiie
oeeinioeae a yoo yiioo inoaaaeanue noieanoeea, ii aicieeiiaaiea
eoeueoo?u aoiaiecia, cia/eoaeueiua aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe anoanoaiciaiey
i?eaaee e oiio, /oi oeeinioey ia?anoaea ea?aoue ?ieue neoaeaiee
aiaineiaey e ia?niaeoeaa aa ?acaeoey i?eia?aea aioenoieanoe/aneoth
iai?aaeaiiinoue. I?aaeaea anaai iia i?iyaeeanue a yoeea. Aiciaiiaeaiea
yoe/aneeo o/aiee noieoeecia (Iao?a?ea) e yieeo?ecia (Aaeea),
iai?aaeaiiuo i?ioea o?enoeaineie ii?aee. Iaoaieueooth ?ieue a oeeinioee
yiioe aic?iaeaeaiey nua?aee iaoo?oeeinioneea eiioeaioeee (A?oii,
Ei?aeaii, Ia?aoeaeuen), naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaaoea i e?ooaiee noieanoe/aneeo
iaoiaeia iniuneaiey i?e?iaeu. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ?acoeueoaoaie yoiai
anoanoaaiii- iao/iiai iai?aaeaiey a oeeinioee auee: iaoiaeu
yenia?eiaioaeueii – iaoaiaoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey i?e?iaeu;
aeaoa?ieienoeia enoieeiaaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, i?ioeaiiieiaeiia
oaieiae/aneiio enoieeiaaieth; oi?ioee?iaea iao/iuo, naiaiaeiuo io
yeaiaioia aio?iiiii?oecia (iaaeaeaiea noauaeoia, n eio./aeiaae
nii?eeanaaony a naiae aeecie, /aeiaa/aneeie ea/anoaaie) caeiiia i?e?iaeu
(Aaeeeae a iaoaieea). Ii?aaeaeythueie /a?oaie iaoo?oeeinioneiai
iai?aaeaiey a oeeinioee auee: iaoaoece/aneia iiieiaiea iineaaeieo
(iaaeaeeiuo) yeaiaioia i?e?iaeu eae aaniethoii aanea/anoaaiiuo,
iaaeeauo; ionoonoaea enoi?e/aneiai acaeyaea ia i?e?iaeo e a nayce n
yoei aeaenoe/aneay iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue (aeaeci- i?aaeiieaaaao
iaee/ea aiaa, eae aacee/iie i?e/eiu auoey, ia o/anoaothuae a
aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee ie?a), nio?aiythuay iainiaeaiiia iieiaeaiea aiaa a
aaneiia/iii ie?a. Ia?iiiua nioe.-yeiiii.eciaiaiey iaoee naia io?aaeaiea
ai iiiaeo nioeeieia.eiioeaioeeyo, aeey eio.auei oa?aeoa?ii iiieiaiea
iau-aa eae noiiu eciee?iaaiiuo eiaeeaeaeia. A ai?ueaa ni n?aaeiaaaeiaui
oaie?aoeciii ia ia?aue ieai eoeueoo?u aic?iaeaeaiey aunooiatho
aoiaienoe/aneea, aio?iiioeaio?e/aneea iioeau. Aio?iiioeaio?eci-
aicc?aiea, niaeanii eio./aeiaae anoue oeaio? anaeaiiie e oeaeue anao
niaa?oathueony a ie?a niauoee. Aoiaieci- io?aaeaaiue aio?iiioeaio?eci,
eio.enoiaeeo ec /aeiaa/.niciaiey e eiaao naiei iauaeoii oeaiiinoue
/aeiaaea. i?ac?aiea e caiiiio anoanoao caiaiyaony i?eciaieai oai?/aneeo
niiniaiinoae /aeiaaea, ?acoia, no?aieaieth e caiiiio n/anoueth. Aoiaieci
ia/eiaaony oiaaea, eiaaea /aeiaae ia/eiaao ?annoaeaeaoue i naiii naaa, i
naiae ?iee a ie?a, i naiae nouiinoe e ?iaaeiacia/aiee, i niunea e oeaee
naiaai auoey. Yoe ?annoaeaeaiey eiatho anaaaea eiie?aoiua enoi?e/aneea e
nioeeaeueiua i?aaeiinueee, aoiaieci ii naiae nouiinoe anaaaea au?aaeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua nioeeaeueiua, eeanniaua eioa?anu. Aoiaieci ?aiannaina
i?iyaeyeny a ?aaiethoeeiiiuo eaeayo, ia?auaiiuo ia aioo?aiithth, caiioth
“aiaeanoaaiiinoue” /aeiaaea, a i?eaea/aiee /aeiaaea e aeeciaiiie
aeoeaiinoe, a ooaa?aeaeaiee aa?u /aeiaaea a naay. A oceii niunea neiaa
aoiaieci ii?aaeaeyaony eae eaeaeiie aeaeaeaiea, niaea?aeaieai
eio.yaeyaony eco/aiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea aioe/iuo ycueia, eeoa?aoo?u,
eneonnoaa e eoeueoo?u. Iiyoiio eoaeueyineee aoiaieci oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae
eeoa?aoo?iue, oeeieiae/aneee.

15,16.Iniaaiiinoe oee-ee iiaiai a?aiaie. I?iaeaia iaoiaea iiciaiey a
oee-ee iiauo a?aiai.(yiie?eci e ?aoeeiiaeeci).

Oa?aeoa?ia i?eaioaoeey ia iiciaiea ?aaeueiinoe, iniiaaiiia ia
/oanoaaiiii. Oi?ie?iaaiea anoanoaiciaiey naycaii n oaiaeaioeeae iiciaiey
ia aaeeie/iuo, eciee?iaaiiuo oaeoao, ia ii?aaeaeythueo nenoaio
oeaeinoii. Anoaao aii?in i nouiinoe e oa?aeoa?a naiiai iiciaiey, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e iiauoaieth cia/eiinoe aiinaieiae/aneie i?eaioaoeee iiaie
oeeinioee. No?aieaiea e nenoaiaoecaoeee, eiee/anoaaiiue ?ino e
oneeeaoayny aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iiciaiey aucuaatho ?acaeoea oai?aoe/aneiai
iuoeaiey, ia oieueei euouaai i?e/eiii neaaenoaaiiiai (naycaiiiai n
caeiiaie) iauyniaiey acaeiinayce iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie yaeaieyie e
iaeanoyie yaeaiee, ii e no?aiyuaainy e nicaeaieth oeaeinoiiai ia?aca
ie?a, iie?athuaainy ia iiaoth iaoeo e aa aeaiiua. No?aieaiea e
auyniaieth acaeiinaycae e acaeiiaeaenoaee caeiiiia?ii aaaeao e
iiauoaieth ?iee ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey, iiyoiio n ?acaeoeai
/oanoaaiiiai yiie?e/aneiai iiciaiey ie?a ?acaeaaaony e oi/iia,
?aoeeiiaeueiia iaoaiaoe/aneia iuoeaiea. Iniiaiua i?aaenoaaeoaee:
O.Aaeii, ?.Aeaea?o.

17.I?iaeaia /aeiaaea a oeeinioee I?inaauaiey.

I?inaauaiea- iau-ia aeaeaeaiea, i?aaenoaaeoaee eio.no?aieeenue
onoaiiaeoue iaaeinoaoee nia?aiaiiiai iau-aa, eciaieoue aai i?aau,
iieeoeeo, auo, onoaiiaeoue eaeae aeia?a, ni?aaaaeeeainoe, iiciaiey. A
iniiaa i?inaauaiey – eaeaaeenoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey i ii?aaeaeaiiinoe
ciaiey, iauyniythuea ii?iee ethaeae iaiiieiaieai eie naiae i?e?iaeu.
Ai?ieenue i?ioea oea?eae, ?aeeaeiciie aeiaiaoeee, noieanoe/aneeo
iaoiaeia iuoeaiey. *aeiaae, aai naiaiaea, naiaiaea /aeiaa/aneie aiee,
ono?ienoai iau-aa – yoi oa aii?inu, eio.a oi a?aiy ianoaeaeaeenue ia
oieueei a oeeinioneeo aeeneonneyo, ii e a i?aeoe/aneie eaaeaeiaeiaaiie
iieeoeea. Oeeinioey i?inaauaiey aunooiaea i?ioea anyeie iaoaoeceee. A
iaeanoe ii?aee e iaaeaaiaeee i?inaauaiea i?iiiaaaeiaaei eaeaaeu
aoiaiiinoe e ioaa/athuoth cai?inai a?aiaie nenoaio ainieoaiey
iieiaeaaee; a iaeanoe iieeoeee, th?eni?oaeaioeee e
iauanoaaiii-yeiiii.aeecie – inaiaiaeaeaiea /aeiaaea io iani?aaaaeeeauo
oc, ?aaainoai anao ethaeae ia?aae caeiiii, ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii.
Iineaaeiaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiiyoea, ?ac?aaioea eio.yaeyaony aeaaiie
caneoaie i?inaauaiey. I?aaenoaaeoaee: Aieueoa?, ?onni. Aieueoa?:
auneoiae noi?iiieeii iaoaieee e oeceee Iuethoiia, i?eciaaae nou-ea
Aiaa-oai?oea (aeaeci). Aeaeaeaiea i?e?iaeu i?ienoiaeeo ii aa/iui
caeiiai, ii Aia iaioaeaeei io i?e?iaeu. Ioaa?aay o/aiea Aeaea?oa i aeooa
e a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeayo, ii n/eoae enoi/ieeii ciaiey iaaethaeaiea e iiuo.
Eco/aiea iauaeoeaiie i?e/eiiinoe (“O?aeoao i iaoaoeceea”). Ecia?aaeae
enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa eae enoi?eth ai?ueau /aeiaaea ca i?ia?ann e
ia?aciaaiea. ?onni- i?eciaaae aannia?oea aeooe. Aeoaeeno (i?eciaiea
aeaienoaaiiinoe ia/aea ie?a- neioac aeooiaiiai e iaoa?eaeueiiai). A
oai?ee iiciaiey i?eaea?aeeaaeny nainoaeecia (iai?aaeaiea, auaiaeyuaa ana
iiciaiea ec /oanoaaiiuo aini?eyoee). Iuoaeny aeieacaoue, /oi
iaeiia?aiaiii n i?ia?annii eoeueoo?u eaeao iaaeaiea i?aanoaaiiinoe, /oi
caaeoaeaeaiey e i?aae?annoaeee, iaea/aiiua a oeeinionei-iao/ioth oi?io,
caaeooatho aiein i?e?iaeu e ?acoia (ana yaeyaony aeia?ui iineieueeo
auoiaeeo ec ?oe oai?oea, ii au?iaeaeaaony iiae ?oeaie /aeiaaea).

18.niaoeeoeea iaiaoeeiey eeanne/aneie O.

A eiioea XVII – i. XIX aa. Aa?iaiey i?eaeeaeaeanue e ao?aeoaciie
?aa-oeee. O. ?aa-oeey i?aaeoanoaiaaea iieeoe/aneiio ia?aai?ioo.
Aaaeioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee IEO nua?aee aeinoeaeaiey anoanoaiciaiey
e iauanoaaiiuo iaoe. Eaio -iniiaiiieiaeiee iai. eeanne/.
eaeaaeecia. ?ac?aaioae eiioeaioeeth i?ienoiaeaeaiey nieia/iie
nenoaiu ec aeaaioneie aaciaie ooiaiiinoe. N/eoae, /oi ?aoaieth oaeeo
i?iaeai a O. eae i?iaeaiu auoey, ii?aee e ?aeeaee aeieaeii
i?aaeoanoaiaaoue enneaaeiaaiea aiciiaeiinoae /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey, e
onoaiiaeaiea aai a?aieoe. Iu iiciaai ie? ia oae eae ii anoue ia naiii
aeaea, a oieueei oae eae ii iai yaeyaony. Ooaa?aeaeae nouanoaiaaiea
iaeiaai i?aaeiaoa aia iaoaai niciaiey, e-?ue ii iac. aauue a naaa
(“iioiai”). Ii iineaaeiyy n ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?eioeeieaeueii
iaiiciaaaaia, yaeyynue iioonoi?iiiae iaoaio niciaieth
(o?ainoeaiaeaioiie). Aeaa ia?eiaea oai?/anoaa – aeie?eoe/aneee e
e?eoe/aneee. Aeie?eoe/aneee: eaeae ia?aaoey?iiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey
anaeaiiie ec ooiaiiinoe, iiiyoea io?eoeaoaeueiuo aaee/ei, aeey
iiciaiey aieueooth ?ieue ea?atho enneaaeiaaiey, a ia eiaeoeoeey e ia
aeaaeoeoeey. E?eoe/aneee: e?eoeea eeanne/. ?acoia, i?aeoe/aneay oai?ey
iiciaiey, yoeea, ynoaoeea e oai?ey i oeaeaniia?aciinoe. Oeooa – io?eoeae
aaiinoeoeeci Eaioa, aai i?aaenoaaeaiea i aaue a naaa. I?aaeeaaaao
iauaeo “ss” e noauaeo “ia ss”. A iniiaa ie?a eaaeeo eaeia-oi eiie?aoiia
“ss”. Ie? iiaeii iiciaoue /a?ac eioaeeaeooaeueioth eiooeoeeth. Iaoiae
iiciaiey: enoeio iiaeii auaanoe n iiiiuueth oacena, aioeoacena e
neioaca. Oacen -auneacuaaiea, aioeoacen – i?ioeaiiieiaeiia auneacuaaiea,
neioac = oacen + aioeoacen. Aioeoacen iaeuecy auaanoe ec oacena.
Noauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeno. Aaaaeue – ana, /oi nouanoaoao, nouanoaoao
a iuoeaiee. A iniiaa ie?a – aaniethoiay eaeay – ie?iaie ?acoi. A
naiai ?acaeoee eaeay i?ioiaeeo o?e yoaia, iioiio /oi aeoeaia: 1)
?acaeaaaony naia a naaa, eiaeea /a?ac nenoaio eaoaai?ee, nouanoaoao
iauaeoeaii; 2) eaeay auoiaeeo ai aia e nicaeaao i?e?iaeo; 3) eaeay
a iuoeaiee, ?acaeoea aa – a aeooa. Oaea?aao – iaoa?eaeeno. Aunooiae
i?ioea eaeaaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu Aaaaey. Iieacae, /oi eaeaaeeci
yaeyaony oai?aoe/aneie iniiaie ?aeeaee. E?eoe/anee ioeaieaae
aaiinoeoeeci Eaioa. Iainiiaae iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth oai?eth
io?aaeaiey. Iuouaiey ia ioaeaeytho ian io aiaoiaai ie?a, a naycuaatho
ian n iei. Iii anoue ia?ac iauaeoeaiiai ie?a.

19.Oee-ay iiceoeey Eaioa.

E.Eaio iai.oeeinioe o/aiue, ?iaeiia/aeueiee iai.eeanne/.eaeaaeecia.
E.-iniiaaoaeue “e?eoe/aneiai”, eee “o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai” eaeaaeecia.
A oae iac-ue “aeie?eoe/aneee” ia?eiae (aei 1770) nicaeae “iaaoey?ioth”
einiiaiie/aneoth aeiioaco, a eio.aicieeiaaiea e yaiethoeey ieaiaoiie
nenoaiu auaiaeeony ec ia?aiia/aeueiie “ooiaiiinoe”. A yoi aea a?aiy
E.auneacae aeiioaco i nou-ee Aieueoie anaeaiiie aaeaeoee aia iaoae
Aaeaeoeee, ?acaee o/aiea i caiaaeeaiee – a ?acoeueoaoa i?eeeaiiai
o?aiey- nooi/iiai a?auaiey Caiee e o/aiea ia ioiineoaeueiinoe aeaeaeaiey
e iieiy. Enneaaeiaaiey yoe, iauaaeeiaiiua iaoa?eae-ie eaeaae
anoanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey anaeaiiie e Caiee, nua?aee aaaeioth ?ieue a
oi?ie?iaaiee aeeaeaeoeee. A oee-eo ?aaioao “aeie?eoe/aneiai” ia?eiaea
E.iaiaoee – iiae aeeyieai yiie?ecia e neaioeoeecia THia- ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo iniiaaieai ?aaeueiui e iniiaaieai eiae/aneei,aaae a oee-eth
iiiyoea ia io?eoeaoaeueiuo aaee/eiao e iniaye oaea/aiea nia?aiaiieeia
ienoeeie e “aeooiaeaeieai”. Ai anao yoeo ?aaioao ia?aie/eaaaony ?ieue
aeaaeoeoeaii-oi?iaeueiuo iaoiaeia iuoeaiey a iieueco iiuoa. A 1770
ninoiyeny ia?aoiae E.e aicc?aieyi “e?eoe/aneiai” ia?eiaea; a 1781
iiyaeeanue “E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia”, ca iae iineaaeiaaee “E?eoeea
i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia” (1788) e “E?eoeea niiniaiinoe noaeaeaiey” (1790).
A ieo iineaaeiaaoaeueii eceaaaeenue: “e?eoe/aneay” oai?ey iiciaiey,
yoeea, ynoaoeea e o/aiea i oeaeaniia?aciinoe i?e?iaeu. A ?aaioao
“e?eoe/aneiai” ia?eiaea E.aeieacuaaao iaaiciiaeiinoue iino?ieoue nenoaio
oiic?eoaeueiie oeeinioee (“iaoaoeceee”, niaeanii i?eiyoie oiaaea
oa?ieiieiaee)- ai?aaeue aei i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey oi?i
iiciaiey e a?aieoe iaoeo iiciaaaoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae. Enneaaeiaaiey yoe
i?eaiaeyo E.e aaiinoeoeecio- e ooaa?aeaeaieth, aoaeoi i?e?iaea aauae,
eae iie nou-o naie ii naaa (“aauae a naaa”), i?eioeeieaeueii iaaeinooiia
iaoaio iiciaieth: iineaaeiaa aiciiaeii oieueei ioiineoaeueii “yaeaiee”,
o.a.niiniaa, iin?aaenoaii eio.aaue iaia?oaeeaathony a iaoai iiuoa.
Aeinoiaa?iia oai?aoe/aneia ciaiea eiaaony oieueei a iaoaiaoeea e
anoanoaiciaiee. Iii iaoneiaeaii, iiE., oai, /oi aiaoai niciaiee iaeeoei
“ai?ei?iua” oi?iu /oanoaaiiiai nica?oeaiey, oaeea aea ai?ei?iua
oi?iu,eee iiiyoey, ?annoaeea e ai?ei?iua oi?iu nayce, eee neioaca
/oanoaaiiiai iiiaiia?acey e iiiyoee ?annoaeea, ia eio.iniiauaathony,
iai?., caeii iinoiyinoaa noanoaioeee, caeii i?e/eiiinoe, caeii
acaeiiaeaenoaey noanoaioeee. A ?acoia, iiE., caeiaeaii iaenei?aieiia
no?aieaiea e aaconeiaiiio ciaieth, auoaeathuaa ec aunoeo yoe/aneeo
cai?inia. Iiae aeaaeaieai yoiai /aeiaa/aneee ?annoaeie no?aieony e
?aoaieth aii?inia i a?aieoeao eee aani?aaeaeueiinoe ie?a a i?ino?ainoaa
e a?aiaie, i aiciiaeiinoe nouanoaiaaiey iaaeaeeiuo yeaiaioia ie?a, i
oa?aeoa?a i?ioeannia, i?ioaeathueo a ie?a, i aiaa, eae aaconeiaii
iaiaoiaeeiii nouanoaa. E.n/eoae, /oi n ?aaiie aeieacaoaeueiinoueth iiaoo
auoue iainiiaaiu i?ioeaiiieiaeiua ?aoaiey: ie? e eiia/ai e ia eiaao
i?aaeaeia; nouanoaotho iaaeaeeiua /anoeoeu (aoiiu) – e oaeeo /anoeoe
iao; ana i?ioeannu i?ioaeatho eae i?e/eiii iaoneiaeaiiua – e nouanoaotho
i?ioeannu (iinooiee), niaa?oathueany naiaiaeii; eiaaony aaconeiaii
iaiaoiaeeiia nouanoai- e oaeiai nouanoaa iao. Oaeei ia?acii, ?acoi ii
i?e?iaea aioeiiie/ai, o.a.?acaeaaeaaaony a i?ioeai?a/eyo. Iaeiaei,
i?ioeai?a/ey yoe, ii E., ana aea eeoue eaaeoueany. ?aoaiea caaaaeee- a
ia?aie/aiee ciaiey a iieueco aa?u, a ?acee/aiee “aauae a naaa” e
“yaeaiee”, a i?eciaiee “aauae a naaa” iaiiciaaaaiuie. Oae, /aeiaae
iaeiia?aiaiii e ia naiaiaeai (eae nouanoai a ie?a yaeaiee) e naiaiaeai
(eae noauaeo iaiiciaaaaiiai naa?o/oanoaaiiiai ie?a); nouanoaiaaiea aiaa
iaaeieacoaii (aeey ciaiey), e a oi aea a?aiy anoue iaiaoiaeeiue iinooeao
aa?u, ia eio.iniiauaaaony iaoa oaaaeaeaiea a nouanoaiaaiee i?aanoaaiiiai
ii?yaeea a ie?a, e o.ae. Yoi o/aiea ia aioeiiie/iinoe ?acoia, neoaeeaoaa
o E.iniiaaieai aeey aeoaeecia “aauae a naaa” e “yaeaiee” e aeey
aaiinoeoeecia, noaei oie/eii aeey ?ac?aaioee iieiaeeoaeueiie aeeaeaeoeee
a iai.eeanne/.eaeaaeecia. Iai?ioea, a iiieiaiee iiciaiey, iiaaaeaiey e
oai?/anoaa yoi o/aiea inoaeinue a ieaio aeoaeecia, aaiinoeoeecia e
oi?iaeecia. Oae, a yoeea E.i?iaicaeaoae aa ini.caeiiii aaconeiaiia
iiaaeaiea, o?aaothuaa ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny oaeei i?aaeeii, eio.niaa?oaiii
iacaaeneii io i?aanoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey iinooiea iiaei au noaoue
anaiauei caeiiii iiaaaeaiey. A ynoaoeea ii naiaeeo i?ae?aniia e
“iacaeioa?aniaaiiiio” oaeiaieuenoaeth, iacaaenyuaio io oiai, nou-ao eee
ianou-ao i?aaeiao, ecia?aae.a i?iecaaaeai.eneonnoaa, e iaoneiaeaiiiio
oieueei oi?iie. Ai?i/ai, i?iaanoe iineaaeiaaoaeueii naie oi?iaeeci E.ia
niia: a yoeea – a?ac?ac n oi?iaeueiui oa?-ii eaoaai?e/aneiai eiia?aoeaa-
ii auaeaeioe i?eioeei naiioeaiiinoe eaaeaeie ee/iinoe, eio.ia aeieaeia
auoue i?eiineia a aea?oao aeaaea ai eiy aeaaa anaai iau-aa; a ynoaoeea –
a?ac?ac n oi?iaeeciii a iiieiaiee i?ae?aniiai – iauyaee aunoei aeaeii
eneonnoaa iiyceth, o.e.iia aicauoaaony aei ecia?aaeaiey eaeaaea, e o.ae.
I?ia?anneaiui auei o/aiea E.i ?iee aioiaiieciia a enoi?e/.i?ioeanna
aeecie iau-aa e o/aiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aa/iiai ie?a. N?aaenoaii e
onoaiiaeaieth e nio?aiaieth ie?a E.n/eoae ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee e iauaiey n acaeiiuie auaiaeaie aeey ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noa.
Eciaeeothuaa i?ioeai?a/eyie o/aiea E.ieacaei ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia
iineaaeothuaa ?acaeoea iao/iie e oeeinioneie iunee.

20.Oee-ay eiioeaioeey Aaaaey. Nenoaia e iaoiae.

Aaaaeue – iai.oeeinio, iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeno, i?aaenoaaeoaeue
iai.eeanne/.oee-ee. A iieiaeinoe A.ioee/aeny ?aaeeeaeueiui ia?acii
iuoeaiey, i?eaaonoaiaae o?.?aaiethoeeth, aunooiae i?ioea
oaiaeaeuei.ii?yaeeia i?onneie iiia?oee. ?aaeoeey, eio.ia/aeanue iinea
Aaineiai eiia?anna , ieacaea aeeyiea e ia A. Oeeinioey A.naiaia?acii
io?aceea i?ioeai?a/euae oa?-a? ?acaeoey Aa?iaiee iaeaioia ao?aeoaciie
?aaiethoeee, a iae neacaeanue aeaienoaaiiay i?e?iaea iai.ao?aeoacee,
eaeaieiaii eio.aue A. Ionthaea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?ia?anneaiua e aeaaea
?aaiethoe.oaiaeaioeee aai oeeinioee eae au?aaeaiea eaeaeiie iiaeaioiaee
ao?aeoaciie ?aaiethoeee a Aa?iaiee, a n ae?.- eiina?aaoeaiua e
?aaeoeeiiiua eaeae eae ?acoeueoao iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e o?oninoe
iai.ao?aeoacee, aa neeiiiinoe e eiii?iiennai n ?aaeoeeiiiui thiea?noaii.
Aiaeece?oy eaoaai?eth io/oaeaeaiey, A., oioy e a eaeaaeenoe/aneie oi?ia
, “ooaaouaaao nouiinoue o?oaea”, o.a.iiiaea aaaeiua noi?iiu i?aaeiaoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ?anniao?eaaao /aeiaaea e aai enoi?eth eae
“?acoeueoao aai nianoaaiiiai o?oaea” , a neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeiaaaeuaaaony
i iaeioiuo ?aaeueiuo caeiiiia?iinoyo enoi?ee. A.iainiiauaaao oacen i
noanoaioeee eae noauaeoa, eae aeayoaeueiii, aeoeaiii ia/aea. Enoiaeiia
iieiaeaiea oeeinioee A.- oiaeaeanoai auoey e iuoeaiey,o.a.iiieiaiea
?aaeueiiai ie?a eae i?iyaeaiea eaeae, iiiyoey, aeooa. Yoi oiaeaeanoai
A.?anniao?eaae eae enoi?e/anee ?acaeaathueeny i?ioeann naiiiiciaiey
aaniethoiie eaeaae naiie naay. A ?acaeoii aeaea niaea?aeaiea nenoaiu
aaniethoiiai (iauaeoeaiiai) eaeaaeecia A.ninoieo a neaaeothuai. A iniiaa
anao yaeaiee i?e?iaeu e iau-aa eaaeeo aanietho, aeooiaiia e ?acoiiia
ia/aei – “aaniethoiay eaeay”, “ie?iaie ?acoi” eee “ie?iaie aeoo”. Yoi
ia/aei aeoeaii e aeayoaeueii, i?e/ai aeayoaeueiinoue aai ninoieo a
iuoeaiee, a oi/iaa, a naiiiiciaiee. A naiai ?acaeoee aaniethoiay eaeay
i?ioiaeeo o?e yoaia: 1)?acaeoea eaeae a aa nianoaaiiii eiia, a “noeoee
/enoiai iuoeaiey”- Eiaeea, aaea eaeay ?ane?uaaao naia niaea?aeaiea a
nenoaia naycaiiuo e ia?aoiaeyueo ae?oa a ae?oaa eiae/aneeo eaoaai?ee;
2)?acaeoea eaeae a oi?ia “eiiauoey”, o.a.a oi?ia i?e?iaeu, – Oeeinioey
i?e?iaeu; i?e?iaea ia ?acaeaaaony, a neoaeeo eeoue aiaoiei i?iyaeaieai
naii?acaeoey eiae/aneeo eaoaai?ee, ninoaaeythueo aa aeooiaioth
nouiinoue; 3)?acaeoea eaeae a iuoeaiee e enoi?ee (a “aeooa”) – Oeeinioey
aeooa. Ia yoii yoaia aaniethoiay eaeay aiiaue aica?auaaony e naiie naaa
e iinoeaaao naia niaea?aeaiea a ?acee/iuo aeaeao /aeiaa/.niciaiey e
aeayoaeueiinoe. Aai nianoaaiiie nenoaiie caaa?oaaony, ia acaeyae A.,
i?ioeann naii?acaeoey aaniethoiie eaeae e aianoa n oai aa naiiiiciaiea.
Oeaiiaeoei i?eia?aoaieai oeeinioee A.auea aeeaeaeoeea, eceiaeaiiay
iniaaiii iieii a “Iaoea eiaeee” (1812-16). Eneeth/eoaeueii aaeee aeeaae
A.a oai?eth iiciaiey, a /anoiinoe aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao aai aeoaieay
e?eoeea nica?oeaoaeueiinoe, eaioianeiai aeoaeecia “aauae a naaa” e
yaeaiee. Aieueoie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho oaeaea oaeea ?aaiou A., eae
“Oeeinioey i?aaa”, “Eaeoeee ii enoi?ee oeeinioee”, “Eaeoeee ii
ynoaoeea”, “Eaeoeee ii oeeinioee enoi?ee”. Ai anao iaeanoyo oee-ee ii
inoaaee aeoaieee neaae, i?eiaiyy aeeaeaeoeeo, aeoaiei aiaeece?oy
aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu iaoee. Iaeiaei aeeaeaeoeea A.auea iaea/aia a
ienoe/aneoth iaiei/eo. Eaeaaeeci oeeinioee A.i?eaae e i?yiie eciaia aai
nianoaaiiui aeeaeaeoe/aneei eaeayi (i?eciaiea caaa?oaiiinoe ?acaeoey
ie?a e iiciaiey, ienoeoeeaoeey aeeaeaeoeee, ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?eioeeia
?acaeoey oieueei ia eaeaaeueiua yaeaiey, noaiaoeci e eneonnoaaiiinoue a
?acaeoee ?yaea eiae/aneeo eaoaai?ee, caieiooinoue eo nenoaiu, iaoiaiea e
iaaeaeaiea naeaeaoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiua nioeeaeueiua auaiaeu ec
aeeaeaeoeee e ae?.), e iaoeeiiaeenoe/.i?aae?annoaeeai e o.ae.

21.aio?iiieieiae/.iao-eci Oaea?aaoa.

Oa?-ay iniaaiiinoue iao-ia Oaea?aaoa- aio?iiieiaeci, yaeaoeeny
neaaenoaeai enoi?e/.oneiaee i?aae?aaiethoe-ie Aa?iaiee e au?aaeaieai
eaeaaea ?aaiethoe.ao?aeoaci.aeaiie?aoee. enoiaeiui ioieoii oee-ie
yaiethoeee O.auea e?eoeea eaeaaeenoe/aneiai iiieiaiey Aaaaeai
/aeiaa/.nouiinoe, naaaeaiea aa e naiiniciaieth. Ioeac io iiaeiaiie oi/ee
c?aiey iaieioaii aae e e ioeaco io eaeaaeecia aiithua. Caneoaie
O.yae.iiae/a?eeaaiea nayce eaeaaeecia n ?aeeaeae. ?aceie e?eoeea
iiaeaa?aaao O.oaeaea eaeaaeenoe/.oa?-a? aaaaeaaneie aeeaeaeoeee. E?eoeea
Aaaaey ioe?uaaea iooue e eniieueciaaieth ?aoeeii-ai niaea?aeaiey
aaaaeaaneie oeeinioee e a yoii ioiioaiee niinianoaiaaea oi?ie?iaaieth
ia?enecia. Iaeiaei O.i?inoi ioa?inee oee-eth Aaaaey e iiyoiio ia noiae
oaeaeaoue aeaaiiai aai aeinoeaeaiey- aeeaeaeoeee. Ini.niaea?ae.e niune
oee-ee O.-ionoaeaaiea iao-ia. Aio?iiieiaeci O.i?iyae-ny a auaeaeaeaiee
ia ia?aue ieai nouiinoe /aeiaaea, eio.?anni-ny ei eae
“aaeeinoaaii.,oieaa?n-ue e aunoee” i?aaeiao oee-ee. Ii i?iaanoe
iineaaeiaaoaeueii iaoa?-oth oi/eo c?aiey a yoii aii?ina O.ia oaeaaony,
o.e./aeiaae aeey iaai- aano?aeoiue eiaeeaeae, /enoi aeieiae/.nouanoai. a
oai?ee iiciaiey O.ionoaeaaao oi/eo c?aiey yiie?ecia e nainoaeecia,
?aoeoaeueii aunooiaao i?ioea aaiinoeoeecia. Aianoa n oai ii ia io?eoeae
e cia/aiea iuoeaiey a iiciaiee, iuoaeny oa?-oue iauaeo a nayce n
aeayoaeueiinoueth noauaeoa, auoeneacuaae aeiaaaeee ia iauanoaaiiie
i?e?iaea /aeiaa/.iiciaiey e niciaiey e o.ae. Ii a oeaeii O.ia i?aiaeieae
nica?oeaoaeueiinoe aeiia?enianeiai iaoa?eaeecia. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi
a iiieiaiee enoi?ee O.aua oeaeeeii inoaaaeny ia iiceoeeyo eaeaaeecia.
Eaeaaeenoe/.aicc?aiey ia iauanoa.yae-y auoaeatho ec no?aieaiey
O.i?eiaieoue aio?iiieiaeth eae oieaa?naeueioth iaoeo e eco/aieth
iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Eaeaaeeci O.iniaaiii y?ei i?iyaeyaony a
enneaaeiaaiee ?aeeaee e ii?aee. ?aeeaey ?anniao?eaaaony ei eae
io/oaeaeaiea /aeiaa/aneeo naienoa: /aeiaae eae au oaeaaeaaaony e a eeoea
aiaa nica?oeaao naith nianoaaiioth nouiinoue. Oaeei ia?acii, ?aeeaey
aunooiaao eae “aanniciaoaeueiia naiiniciaiea” /aeiaaea. I?e/eiu oaeiai
oaeaiaiey O.aeaeeo a /oanoaa caaeneiinoe /aeiaaea io noeoeeiuo nee
i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa. Iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho aeiaaaeee O.i nioe.e
enoi?e/.ei?iyo ?aeeaee.

22.Oee.iiiyoea io/oaeaeaiey e aai i?aiaeieaiea o Ia?ena.

Io/oaeaeaiea- iiiyoea, oa?-aa, ai-ia?auo, i?ioeann e ?acoeueoaou
i?aa?auaiey i?iaeoeoia /aeiaa/.aeayoaeueiinoe (eae i?aeoe/aneie –
i?iaeoeou o?oaea, aeaiueae, iau-ua ioiioaiey e o.ae., oae e
oai?aoe/aneoie), a oaeaea naienoa e niiniaiinoae /aeiaaea a ia/oi
iacaaeneiia io ethaeae e ainiiaenoaothuaa iaae ieie; i?aa?auaiea
eaeeo-eeai yaeaiee e ioiioaiee a ia/oi eiia, /ai iie yaeythony naie ii
naaa, eneaaeaiea e eca?auaiea a niciaiee ethaeae eo ?aaeueiuo aeeciaiiuo
ioiioaiee. Ia?en, eio.oaeaeee aiaeeco I.aieueoia aieiaiea iniaaiii a
“Yeiiiie/anei-oeeinioneeo ?oeiienyo 1884 aiaea”, “Iaiaoeeie eaeaieiaee”
e a yeiiiie/.?eiienyo 1857-59, enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi I.au?aaeaao
i?ioeai?a/ey ii?aaeaeaiiie nooiaie ?acaeoey iau-aa. Iii ii?iaeaeaii
aioaaiienoe/aneei ?acaeaeaieai o?oaea e naycaii n /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoueth. A oaeeo oneiaeyo iau-ua ioiioaiey oi?ie?-ny noeoeeii,
auoiaeyo ec-iiae eiio?iey ethaeae, a ?acoeueoaou e i?iaeoeou
aeayoaeueiinoe io/oaeaeathony io eiaeeaeaeia e nioe.a?oii e aunooiatho
eae iaaycaiiua eeai ae?.ethaeueie, eeai naa?ouanoanoaaiiuie neeaie. A
oeaio?a aieiaiey Ia?ena – aiaeec I.o?oaea, i?e iiiiue eio.ii oa?-ao
nenoaio eaieoaeenoe/.ioiioaiee e iieiaeaiea i?ieaoa?eaoa. I?eciaiea
I.o?oaea a ea/anoaa iniiau anao ae?., a o./.e eaeaieiae/aneeo, oi?i
I.aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue iiiyoue eneaaeaiiia, eiaeiia niciaiea eae
?acoeueoao i?ioeai?a/ee ?aaeueiie iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Oaeei ia?acii,
onoaiaaeeaaeanue caaeneiinoue oai?ee io i?aeoeee e ia yoie iniiaa
ia?ano?aeaaeanue oeeinioey. Iaeiia?aiaiii Ia?en iainiiaae caaea/o
eeeaeaeaoeee I.iooai eiiioienoe/aneiai ia?aono?ienoaa iau-aa. A
aeaeueiaeoai a naieo eeanne/.i?iecaaaeaieyo Ia?en au/eaiyao ?acee/iua
aniaeou I.e iainiiauaaao iaoiaeieiae/aneoth ?ieue yoie eaoaai?ee aeey
aiaeeca ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey anae nenoaiu iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee
eaieoaeecia.

23.?ac?aaioea eiioeaioeee iaoa?-ia e aeeaeaeoeee a oee-ee Ia?ena.

Eiioeaioeey ?ac?aaioaia ia iniiaa eeanne/.iai.oee-ee. Iiaoi?ye iooue
Oaea?aaoa, ii n/eoae, /oi /aeiaae ia oieueei i?e?iaeiia nou-ai, a anoue
i?e?iaeiia nouiinoii-?iaeiaia nouanoai e iiyoiio e naaa ioiineony eae e
oieaa?naeueiiio e naiaiaeiiio nouanoao. I?e?iaea nou-ao eae
i?iaeieaeaiea /aeiaaea e niinia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. ?anoaiey, eaiie –
/aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey, eae iauaeo i?e?iaeiaaaeaiey e /anoe/ii eae
iauaeo eneonnoaa. A yoii niaoeeoeea e i?eaeiaeueiinoue aoiaienoe/aneiai
iaoa?eaeecia Ia?ena. Oieaa?naeueiinoue /aeiaaea – a aai iauanoaaiiie
i?e?iaea. Iauanoaaiiue /aeiaae ii Ia?eno aeaeeo ia?niaeoeao a
aiciiaeiinoe aeoeaiiai i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeu a eioa?anao /aeiaaea.
Aeeaeaeoeea – aaeeinoai i?ioeaiiieiaeii iai?aaeaiiuo i?ioeannia.
Aoiaieci i?e?iaeu e iaoo?aeecaoeee /aeiaaea i?eaiaeeo e naaoiaie
aa?iiiee.

26.oee-ey iaiiiceoeaecia e iinoiic-ia.

EIAE*ANEEE IICEOEAECI eioi?ue ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii aiciee a Aiaeee,
Aa?iaiee, Aano?ee, Iieueoa. Iniiaioth caaea/o iaiiiceoeaeci aeaeeo a
aiaeeca eiae/aneie no?oeoo?a ycuea. Oa?ieiia e i?aaeeiaeaiee, eioi?ua
oiio?aaeythony a iao/iii ycuea. Ae?oaea ?aciiaeaeiinoe iaiiiceoeaecia
aiaeece?otho iauaeaiiue ycue. Iiciaaaoaeueiui enoi/ieeii iaiiiceoeaecia
yaeyaony aaniethoecaoeey eee i?aoaaee/aiea iiciaaaoaeueiuo ooieoeee
oi?iaeueiie eiaeee. O.a. iie eniieuecotho oi?iaeueioth eiaeeo aeey
aiaeeca i?aaeeiaeaiee. Enoi/ieeii yoiai o/aiey auei o/aiea ?annaea
(Aiaeey) i eiae/aneii aiaeeca. Ii aai iiaieth ana oi/iia ciaiea aeieaeii
auoue au?aaeaii ycueii, a?aiiaoeeie eioi?iai yaeyeinue au iaoaiaoe/aneay
eiaeea. O.i. iaoaiaoe/aneay eiaeea aa?aony ca iniiao eae ycue eioi?ue
iiaeao au?aaeaoue ana oi/iua ciaiey. Ia?aianaiea i?eioeeiia
iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeee ia aiaeec iao/iiai ycuea yaeyaony iniiaie yoiai
o/aiey. A aeaeueiaeoai i?ienoiaeeo iooiae io eiae/aneiai iiceoeaecia
aieueoeinoaa oeeinioia. I?ienoiaeeo o?ainoi?iaoeey a naiaioe/aneoth O, a
iioii a eeiaaenoe/aneee aiaeec. Naiaioe/aneee eaeaaeeci (naiaioe/aneay
O). Caeanue nio?aiaiu enoiaeiua i?eioeeiu eiae/aneiai iiceoeaecia, ii
i?e yoii aeiiieiytho eo o?aaiaaieai iauyniaiey e ooi/iaiey oiio?aaeyaiuo
neia. I?aaenoaaeoaeyie yaeythony EA?IAO (Aano?ey) e OA?NEEE (Iieueoa).
Ia?yaeo n oai?aoe/aneie naiaioeeie nouanoaoao iauay naiaioeea eioi?ay a
30-a aiaeu auea iniiaaia EAAEEANEEI (Iieueoa). Ioee/ea iaaeaeo aeaoiy
aeaeaie O ninoieo a oii, /oi /enoay naiaioeea enneaaeoao niuneiaoth
ooieoeeth ycuea, n oi/ee c?aiey ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ciaieyie n neiaieaie,
a iauay naiaioeea enneaaeoao eoi oiio?aaeyao yoe neiaieu eee ciaiey.
O?aouey ?aciiaeaeiinoue iaiiiceoeaecia- O eeiaaenoe/aneiai aiaeeca.
I?aaenoaaeoaee yoie O eca?aee aeey naay aieaa ne?iiioth caaea/o –
iienaiea oiai, /oi anoue o.a. iienaiea niiniaia oiio?aaeaiey neia
naienoaaiiuo iauaeaiiiio ycueo. Iaeaieaa y?eeie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
yaeythony AEOAA?OOAEI (Aano?ey) e IO? (Aiaeey). Ii iiaieth yoeo O
(eeiaaenoe/aneeo aiaeeoeeia) O aeieaeia i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia ia iaoeo, a
ia iauaeaiiua ciaiey, ia iau/iue ycue. E aieaa oiai O ia eiaao i?aaa
auoiaeeoue ca ?aiee iau/iiai ycuea. A 50-70 aa aeaeathony iiiuoee
ia?ainiuneaiey iiceoeaenoneiai niiniaa iuoeaiey. Yoi i?eaaei e
aicieeiiaaieth oeaeie a?oiiu e?eoe/aneeo iai?aaeaiee eee iino
iiceoeaecia, eioi?ua a naay aeeth/atho e?eoe/aneee ?aoeeiiaeeci Iiiia?a,
iaoiaeieiae/aneiai oaeueneoeeaoeeiiaeeci Eieaoi?oa, enoi?e/aneay oeiea
iaoiaeieiaee O e iaoee eee oai?ey ?aaiethoeee a iaoea Oiiana EOIA (NOA),
e ia eiiaoe iaoiaeieiae/aneee aia?oeci Oea?aoaia. Nooue e?eoe/aneiai
?aoeeiiaeecia Iiiia?a ninoieo a oii, /oi ii ioeacuaaaony n/eoaoue enoeio
oeaeueth iiciaiey. Ii iiaeiaiyao iiiyoea enoeiu iiiyoeai
i?aaaeiiiaeiaey, o.e. iu ia iiaeai aeieacaoue enoeiiinoue. Iiiia?
io?eoeaao naycue iaaeaeo ciaieai e ?aaeueiui ie?ii, e iaeiia?aiaiii
ioaeaeyao ciaiey io /aeiaaea (noauaeoa). Eoi noaaeo aii?in i oii, /oi
iiiyoue nouiinoue ciaiee ia aiciiaeii aia enoi?e/aneeo eiioaenoia iaoee.
Anee eoi-oi ?anniao?eaaao ciaiey eae onoiyaoeany aeaiiua, oi Eoi
aiai?eo, /oi iaaei ?anniao?eaaoue aeeiaieeo ?acaeoey iao/iiai ciaiey.
Eae iii aicieeei, oi?ie?iaaeinue o.a. enoi?e/aneee iiaeoiae, a ia
oieueei eiae/aneee. Ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa enoi?e/aneiai iiiaioa
?acaeoey iao/iiai ciaiey ia?auaao aieiaiea e Eaeioi?o. Ii aianoi
Eoiianeeo iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee aeaao ae?oaia iiiyoea –
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay i?ia?aiia. Aeaeueoa anao iinoiiceoeaenoia ia
iooe ia?aie/aiey iiceoeaenoneiai eiia?ecia iioae iaeei Aia?eeaineee O.
Ii i?aaeeaaaao aeiiieieoue i?eioeeiu eiia?ecia i?eioeeiii oai?aoe/aneiai
ieth?aeecia. Nooue yoiai i?eioeeia ninoieo a oii, /oiau i?eieiaoue ia
iaeio oai?eth e enoiaey ec iaa /oi-oi aeieacuaaoue, a ?aaioaoue
iaeiia?aiaiii ni iiiaeie oai?eyie, eioi?ua iiaoo aeaaea i?ioeai?a/eoue
ae?oa ae?oao. Ii i?aaeeaaaao naie iooue iaoiaeieiaecaoeee iaoee e yoio
iooue iieo/ee iacaaiea iaoiaeieiae/aneee aia?oeci. Iniiaiie i?eioeei
eioi?iai – ana iiaeoiaeeo. Ii aiai?eo, /oi anee ioiaoaoue ana oi/ee
c?aiey e noiyoue ia iaeiie e oae naeaeaao eaaeaeue oi a noiiaeaaeaeue ii
naiaio i?aa e ia i?aa iaeiia?aiaiii a enoeia aeaaony a eiiieaena.

27.o?aeaeeci e iaio?aeaeeci.

O?aeaeeci – iacaaiea oai?ee e iaoiaea ineoiaiaeeca. Iacaai oae ii eiaie
Ceaioiaea O?aeaea aano?.a?a/a-iaa?iiaoieiaa e ineoeao?a.
O?aeae,enneaaeoy i?e/eiu iaoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia a ineoeea,
?aoeoaeueii ioeacaeny io iaoa?eaeenoe/.a naiae iniiaa iiiuoie iauynieoue
eciaiaiey niaea?aeaiey ineoe/aneeo aeoia oeceieiae/aneeie i?e/eiaie. Ii
iaeiia?aiaiii ii niaa?oaiii ioioae io iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey,
ioeacaeny io iauaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey ineoeee e nicaeae a
oeaeii i?iecaieueioth, iaaeoiaiioth, noauaeoeaenoneoth oai?eth. Nooue aa
ninoieo a io?uaa ineoeee io iaoa?eaeueiuo oneiaee e i?e/ei, aa
ii?iaeaeathueo. Ineoeea ?anniao?eaaaony eae ia/oi naiinoiyoaeueiia,
nouanoaothuaa ia?aeeaeueii iaoa?eaeueiui i?ioeannai e oi?aaeyaiia
iniauie, iaiiciaaaaiuie, aa/iuie ineoe/aneeie neeaie, eaaeaueie ca
i?aaeaeaie niciaiey. Iaae aeooie /aeiaaea aeanoaotho, eae ?ie,
iaeciaiiua ineoe/aneea eiioeeeou aanniciaoaeueiuo no?aieaiee e
ianeaaeaeaieth (i?aaeaea anaai iieiaiio), e aa?annee n “i?eioeeiii
?aaeueiinoe”, e eio.i?eniinaaeeaaaony niciaiea. Ana ineoe/aneea
ninoiyiey, ana aeaenoaey /aeiaaea, a caoai e ana enoi?e/aneea niauoey e
iau-ua yaeaiey O?aeae iiaeaa?aaao ineoiaiaeeco, o.a.enoieeiauaaao
eaei?iyaeaiea aanniciaoaeueiuo, e i?aaeaea anaai naenoaeueiuo, aea/aiee.
Oae, eaeaaeueiia-ineoe/aneia (e i?aaeaea anaai iaiiciaaaaiia “Iii” –
aanniciaoaeueiia) noaiiaeony o O?aeaea i?e/eiie enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa,
ii?aee, eneonnoaa, iaoee, ?aeeaee, ainoaea?noaa, i?aaa, aiei e o.i.
Nia?.noi?iiieee O.-iaio?aeaeenou, i?aaenoaaeoaee oeie “eoeueoo?iiai
ineoiaiaeeca” (Oi?ie, Ea?aeeia?, Aeaenaiaea? e ae?.), nio?aiytho
iao?iiooie ini.eaeaaeenoe/aneoth eeieth C.O?aeaea, ioeacuaaynue eeoue io
oaiaeaioeee aeaeaoue ai anao yaeaieyo /aeiaa/aneie aeecie naenoaeueioth
iiaeiieaeo e io iaeioi?uo ae?.iaoiaeieiae/anee ianouanoaaiiuo
iniaaiiinoae eeanne/aneiai O. O?aeaeenoneay eiioeaioeey ieacaea e
i?iaeieaeaao ieacuaaoue aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acee/iua iaeanoe eoeueoo?u,
e iniaaiii caiaoiia – ia oai?eth e i?iecaaaeaiey caiaaeiiai eneonnoaa.
Iaiueoaa aeeyiea O.eiaao nae/an a iaa?ieiaee e ineoeao?ee.

28.Auoea e aai ini.oi?iu.

Auoea – oeein.eaoaai?ey, eio.oeene?oao nou-ea e acaeiinaycue i?aaeiaoia
e yaeaiee (ethaeae, ninoiyiee, eaeae, ie?a a oeaeii). Iii i?aaenoaaeaii
a ianeieueeeo oi?iao. 1)Auoea aauae e i?ioeannia. A naith i/a?aaeue
oaeaea iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaii a aeaoo oi?iao: a)auoea aauae e
ninoiyiee i?e?iaeu, eio.aieueoeinoai ethaeae aini?eieiatho eae
iauaeoeaaoth ?aaeueiinoue, eio.nou-ea aei ieo e io ieo ia caaeneo. Yoi
acaeyae n iiceoeee iaoa?eaeecia. a)Eaeaaeenoe/. iiceoeey. Auoea aoi?ie
i?e?iaeu, oeeaeeecaoeee. Yoi auoea aeaienoaaiii, o.e.n iaeiie noi?iiu,
iie naeaeaiu ec oaea i?e?iaeu, a n ae?oaie- a ieo aeiaeaia niciaiea e
aeooa /aeiaaea. 2)Auoea /aeiaaea. a)auoea /aeiaaea a ie?a aauae (/aeiaae
?anniao?eaaaony eae /anoue i?e?iaeu,eae aauue); a)niaoeeoe/./aeiaa/aneia
auoea (/aeiaae ia eae oaei, a eae eiaeeaeaeooi). 3)Auoea aeooiaiiai,
eaeaaeueiiai. a) eiaeeaeae.aeooiaiia (niciaiea eiaeeaeaea). No?oeoo?a
aanniciaoaeueiiai: *?aoeaenu*, *iiaeniciao.*, *eiooeoeey*. a)
iauaeoeaii-nouanoaothuaa aeooiaiia – oi, /oi iaoa?eaeeciaaiii a
eoeueoo?a. 4)Auoea nioeeaeueiia. a) auoea /aeiaaea; a) auoea /aeiaaea a
iauanoaa.

29. Aeeaeakoeka e aa aeueoa?iaoeau.

Ae. – o/aiea i iaeaieaa iaueo caeiiiia?iuo naycyo e noaiiaeaiee,
?acaeoee auoey e iiciaiey e iniiaaiiue ia yoii o/aiee iaoiae
oai?/anee iiciathuaai iuoeaiey. Ini. i?eioeeiu Ae. – anaiauay naycue,
noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea, e-?ua iniuneeaathony n iiiiuueth anae
enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny nenoaiu eaoaai?ee e

caeiiia. I. oeaeinoiinoe: i?iaeaia ianaiaeeiinoe oeaeinoiinoe e
i?inoie noiia /anoae caeeth/aaony a nayce, iauaaeeiythuae i?aaeiaou
a neiaeiua eiiieaenu, ai acaiiaeeyiee /anoae. I. aeaoa?ieiecia:
?aaeueiua i?e?iaeiua, iauanoa. e ineoe/. yaeaiey e i?ioeannu
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiu, o.a. aicieeatho, ?acaeaathony e oie/oiaeathony

caeiiiia?ii, a ?ac-oa aeaenoaey ii?aae. i?e/ei, iaoneiaeaiu eie. A
ia?enecia Ae. aunooiaao eae o/aiea i anaiaueo naycyo, i iaeaieaa
iaueo caeiiao ?acaeoey auoey e iuoeaiey. Iaoa?eaeenoe/. Ae.
au?aaeaaony a nenoaia

oeein. eaoaai?ee e caeiiia. Aeaaiua caeiiu: 1) i?aa?auaiea
eiee/anoaa a ea/anoai, 2) acaeiiia i?iieeiiaaiea iiey?iuo
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae e i?aa?auaiea eo ae?oa a ae?oaa, eiaaea iie
aeiaaaeaiu aei e?aeiinoe (aaeeinoai e ai?ueaa
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae), 3) ?acaeoea iooai i?ioeai?a/ey, eee io?eoeaiea
io?eoeaiey –

nie?aeueiay oi?ia ?acaeoey. Aeey Ae. oa?aeoa?ii oi?ie?iaaiea ia?iuo
eaoaai?ee, io?aaeathueo “iiey?iua”

noi?iiu oeaeinoiuo yaeaiee, i?ioeannia. Eaoaai?ee. Aaeeie/iia
oa?aeoa?ecoao ioaeaeueiue i?aaeiao, yaeaiea, i?ioeann,

ioee/athueeny ii naiei i?ino?ainoaaiiui, a?aiaiiui e ae?oaei na-aai io
eiuo, a oii /enea iiaeiaiuo aio, i?aaeiaoia, yaeaiee, i?ioeannia.
Iauaa – iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuaa no-ai oa?aeoa?enoee aaeeie/iuo
i?aaeiaoia, eo iaeiioeiiinoue a iae-?uo ioiioaieyo, i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e
iaeiie e oie aea a?oiia yaeaiee eee aaeeiie nenoaia

naycae. Nouiinoue – aioo?aiiyy, aeoaeiiay, ne?uoay, ioiineoaeueii
onoie/eaay noi?iia oiai eee eiiai i?aaeiaoa, yaeaiey, i?ioeanna,
ii?aaeae. aai i?e?iaeo, niaieoiiinoue /a?o e ae?. oa?-ee. ssaeaiea –
aiaoiea, iaaethaeaaiua, iau/ii aieaa iiaeaeaeiua, eciai/eaua oa?-ee
oiai eee eiiai i?aaeiaoa. Niaea?aeaiea -niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo
yeaiaioia e eo acaeiiaeaenoaee, ii?aaeaeythueo iniiaiie oei,
oa?aeoa? oiai eee eiiai i?aaeiaoa, yaeaiey, i?ioeanna. Oi?ia- i?eioeei
oii?yaei/aiiinoe, niinia nouanoaiaaiey oiai eee eiiai
niaea?aeaiey. I?e/eia-neaaenoaea. Ea/anoai- oeaeinoiay, eioaa?aeueiay
oa?-ea i?aaeiaoa (aaeeinoai aai na-a) a nenoaia aai naycae e
ioiioaiee n ae?oaeie i?aaeiaoaie. Eie-ai – oa?-ea yaeaiee, i?aaeiaoia,
i?ioeannia ii noaiaie ?acaeoey eee eioaineaiinoe i?enoueo ei na-a,
au?aaeaaiay a aaee/eiao e /eneao. Ia?a – aeeaeaeoe/. aaeeinoai ea/-aa
e eie-aa eee oaeie eioa?aae eie-iuo ecia?aiee, a i?aaeaeao e-?iai
nio?aiyaony ea/anoaaiiay ii?aaeaeaiiinoue i?aaeiaoa. Nea/ie – ia?aoiae
eiee/anoaaiiuo ecia?aiee a ea/anoaaiiua eee ia?aoiae ec iaeiiai
ea/anoaaiiiai ninoiyiey a ae?oaia (a ?ac-oa i?aauoaiey ia?u).
Eaoaai?ee nenoaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey:nenoaia – oii?yaei/aiiia ii-ai
acaeiinaycaiiuo

ye-oia, iaeaaeathuaa no?oeoo?ie e i?aaiecaoeeae; ye-o- ia?aceiaeeiue
aeaeaa eiiiiiaio neiaeiuo i?aaeiaoia, yaeaiee, i?ioeannia; no?oeoo?a –
ioiineoaeueii onoie/eaue niinia (caeii) nayce ye-oia oiai eee eiiai
neiaeiiai oeaeiai.

30.aaeeinoai *ycoaaiiiai e paoeeiiaeueiiai a niciaiee.

Iiciaiea, ia/eiaynue n iuouaiee, aini?eyoee, i?iaeieaeaynue
a aeaea i?aaenoaaeaiee, e iiaeieiaynue ia aunoea yoaaee
oai?eoe/aneiai iuoeaiey, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeiue i?ioeann,
oanii naycaiiue n aieae e /oanoaaie. Aeeaeaeoeea
/oanoaaiiiai e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai a iiciaiee i?aiaeieaaaao
iaoaoece/aneoth ia?aie/aiiinoue nainoaeecia e yiie?ecia,
i?aoaaee/eaathueo ?ieue /oanoaaiiie oi?iu iiciaiey n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
?aoeeiiaeecia, oiaeythuaai ?ieue iuouaiee e aini?eyoee.
?aoeeiiaeeci, neeueii aeia?o?ioe?othuee ?aoeeiiaeueiia a oua?a
?aaeueiie cia/eiinoe /oanoaaiiiai iiaeao neoaeeoue aei?iaie e
eaeaaeecio. eiae/aneia iuoeaiea iaaiciiaeii a io?uaa io /oanoaaiiiai; ec
iaai iii enoiaeeo e ia ethaii o?iaia aano?aae?iaaiiey caeeth/aao a
naaa aai eiiiiiaiou a aeaea iaaeyaeiuo noai, neiaieia, iiaeaeae.
Aianoa n oai /oanoaaiiay oi?ia iiciaiey

aae?aao a naay iiuo iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aaeeinoai
/oanoaaiiiai e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai i?aaenoaao a i?ioeanna iiciaiey a
aeaea aaneiia/iie nie?aee: ca eaaeaeui oaeaeaieai io enoiaeiie iunee
neaaeoao ana iiaue e iiaue aica?ao e iei e eo iaiaauaiea. N eaaeaeui
iiiyoeai anee ia aeooaeueii oi iioaioeeaeueii naycaiiu

iaaeyaeiua i?aaenoaaeaiey, eioi?ua aunooiatho ia oieueei ia/aeueiui,
ii e eiia/iui ioieoii aano?aeoiiai iuoeaiey, eiaaea iii aiieiuaaony a
eiie?aoiia aeaei. Iiae/a?eeaay aaeeinoai /oanoaaiiie e ?aoeeiiaeueiie
nooiaie iiciaiey, iu aeieaeiu eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iie iaeaaeatho
e ioiineoaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth: iuoeaiea anoue ea/anoaaiii
naiinoiyoaeueiia oeaeia ni naiae niaoeeoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie,
ioee/iie io no?oeoo?u /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey.

38.Iiiyoea eeanne/.e iaeeanne/.oeiia oeein-ee.

Eeanne/.e iaeeanne/.oeeinioey – oa?ieiu, iiyaeaoeany ec anoanoaiciaiey.
Aaiiao?ey Aaeeeaea, Iuethoiiiaa oeceea n/eoathony eeanne/. A eiioea 19,
ia/.20aa.iaaethaeaeny iooiae io eeanneee- nicaeaiea iaeeanne/.oecee,
aaiiao?ee. Oa aea i?ioeannu i?ienoiaeyo e a oeeinioee. Aaioeii
eeanne/.oee-ee n/eoatho iai.eeane/.oee-eth (io Eaioa aei Aaaaey).
Ae.i?iaeaia – i?iaeaia ?aoeeii., ?acoiiiai iiciaiey. I?e /ai ?acoi
?anniao?ea.ia oieueei, eae eiaeeaeae, ii e naa?oiaaeeiaeeaeae-e,
aiieiuaiiue a iiiyoeyo, a iuneyo, eaeaaeao, a oii, /oi Aaaaeue
iac.iau-ui niciaieai. *aeiaae inaaeaaao ie? oieueei n iiiiuueth ?acoia.
A yoie oee-ee ainiiaenoaoao aa?a a ?acoi, a aai niaa?oainoai e
anaiiaouanoai. N/eoaaony, /oi ?acoi aaaeao e i?inaauaieth iann e
aeaiie?aoee. Eeanne/.oee-ey iieaaaao, /oi a ie?a nou-o ?acoii.ii?yaeie;
a i?e?iaea, iau-aa, a naiii /aeiaaea. Caaea/a /aeiaaea – n iiiiuueth
?acoia iinoe/ue caeiiu i?e?iaeu, iau-aa. Ia/aei 20a.- ao?iia ?acaeoea
iaoee, aioeaoiaieci ai anai (aieiu, oaeenoaa e o.ae.). Ana yoi iinoaaeei
iiae niiiaiea eaeath anaaeanoiinoe ?acoia. E?iia oiai, auee ioe?uoey a
iaeanoe aeieiaee, ineoieiaee /aeiaaea (ioe?uoea O?aeaea) e ae?.
?anoe?aiiia iiieiaiea eaeae O?aeaea i?eaiaeeo e iiaiio iiieiaieth
/aeiaaea. Ia?aie iiiuoeie ia?ainiuneeoue eeanne/.oee-eth aue ia?eneci.
Ii ia?aui auoae ec eeanne/.oee-ee a i?aeoeeo, /aeiaa/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, a inoaeueiii aea ii i?eaea?aeeaaeny eeanne/.oai?ee.
Ae?.oee-ea oa/aiey 20a ii?uaatho n eeanne/.oai?eae aiiaua. Iie oaea ia
iniiauaathony ia ?acoia, eo eaeaaeii noaiiaeony e??aoeeiiaeeci,
o.a.naa?o?aoeeiiaeeci. A iniiaa eaaeeo ia/oi, /oi ia i?ioeai?a/eo
?acoio, iii auoa ?acoia. O.ia?., caaea/ae iaeeanne/.oee-ee noaiiaeony
iiciaiea caeiiia ia iauaeoeai., a noauaeoeai.ie?a: aioo?.ninoiyiee,
ia?aaeeaaiee /aeiaaea. *aeiaae ?anniao?eaaaony a e??aoeeii-ia eae
noauaeo iauaiey, eae aai aioo?ai./oanoa.naycue n ie?ii (aoaeue oi ie?
ae?./aeiaaea eee iau-aa). A eeanne/.oee-ee ainiiaenoaiaae
aiinaieiae/.iiaeoiae. A oee-ee 20a ae.noaiiaeony aeneieiae/aneee
iiaeoiae. Aeneieiaey – iaoea i oeaiiinoyo. I?aaeiaoii aiaeeca yae.no?ao,
oinea, caaioa, io/ayiea. Oee-ey noaiiaeony ineoieiae/iie.

24,41.eaeiau ini.i?eioeeiu i?aanoaai-oe a oee-ee Neiai?iaeu.

Nui iaeicaiaeueiiai eacaea, iieo/ee ia?aciaaiea a Eeaai-iiaeeyineie
aeooiaiie aeaaeaiee, ioeacaaoenue io aeooiaiie ea?uea?u eca?ae iooue
i?iiiaaaeieea. Ia aai ie?iaic-ea ieacaee aeeyiea eaeae Ieaoiia,
oeeinioia iiaiai a?aiaie, Eiiiiiniaa. Eieaaaeny ai acaeyaeao iaaeaeo
iaoa?-ii e eaeaaeeciii, ai iiiaeo i?iaeaiao i?eaea?aeeaaeny iao-eo
i?eioeeiia, iaeiaei i?eoae e auaiaeo i aa/iinoe eae-oe iaoa?ee i
ainiiaenoaa a i?e?iaea caeiiiia?iuo naycae. Nicaeae oai?eth o?ao ie?ia
“iauaiethueo niaie ana nouaa”: iae?ieiniin(i?e?iaea),
iee?ieiniin(/aeiaae) e “ie? neiaieia”(aeaeey) e eaaeaeue ec ieo ninoieo
ec aeaoo iaoo?- “aiaoiae”(iaoa?-ie) e “aioo?-ae”(aeooiaiie). Iuoaeny
iauaaeaieoue iiiyoey “aia” e “i?e?iaea” aeey niyoey i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo
aeooiaiui e iaoa?-ui ia/aeaie, /oi oa?ae-ii aeey iaioaecia. Neiai?iaea
i?eciaaae ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiinoue /aeia-ai iiciaiey i?iiaaaiaee?iaae
o/aiea Eiia?ieea. Aai yoe/aneea i?iiiaaaee auee ia?a/aiu a ?aeeaeicioth
oi?io. Neiai?iaea i?ecuaae iieii/eoue n aani?aaeai. Oioy ii ?acaeaeye
eioa?anu ia?iaea aai ?aoaiey nioe-uo i?iaeai iineei ooiie/aneee oa?-a?,
o.e.ii n/eoae aeaai.oaeoi?ii iiaiai iau-aa ii?aeueiia ia/aei. Eco/ae
i?iaeaio niunea e oeaee (aeecie) /aeiaa/.auoey. aai enoi/ieeaie auee
aeaeey, oee-ey Ieaoiia. Ini.no?oeo. i?eioeei aai i?ieca-ee- aeeaeia,a
eio.?anniao?-ny ?ace.oi/ee c?aiey. Neiai?iaea auaeaeaae ia?aaeiaua aeey
oiai a?aiaie eaeae i oai?/aneii o?oaea, iauiinoe eiouanoaa, ethaae e
?aaainoaa eae iniiaa iau-ie aeecie. ?aaiou Neiai?iaeu ia ecaeaaaeenue
i?e aai aeecie, ii ?ani?ino?aiyeenue a ?oeiieniuo ecaeaieyo.

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