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OEEINIOEss ?ONNEIAI EINIECIA

Aaaaeaiea

?onneee einieci yaeyaony oeeinioneei iai?aaeaieai n aieueoeie
o?aaeeoeeyie a eoeueoo?a ?innee e iauaaeeiyao ia oieueei oeeinioia, a
oaeaea o/?iuo, ?aeeaeiciuo iuneeoaeae, ienaoaeae, iiyoia, ooaeiaeieeia.
Naii nouanoaiaaiea “?onneiai einiecia” eae oeeinioneiai oa/aiey aeaaea a
iaoa a?aiy aucuaaao ino?ua aeaaaou.

Naii ca?iaeaeaiea ?onneiai einiecia iaoneiaeaii a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
naiaia?aciie iauanoaaiiie e eoeueoo?iie ianoaiiaeie a ?innee XIX a.
?acaeoea ?onneiai einiecia iaycaii ai iiiaii iai?aiaiiiio
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieth yoiai oeeinioneiai iai?aaeaiey naiei iniiaai
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie iaoee e eoeueoo?u. Yoi i?ioeainoiyiea caeeth/aei a
naaa aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeeaeiaa, niinianoaiaaaoaai eciaiaieth
?onneiai einiecia, aai i?ia?anneaiiio aicaeaenoaeth ia eoeueoo?o
iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey a XX a. Cia/eoaeueiue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao
i?aanoaaiiue, nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneee niune ?onneiai einiecia. Ii
niiniaai ieoaoue niaie aanueia oe?ieee niaeo? aicc?aiee – io e?aeia
?aaeoeeiiiuo aei eeaa?aeueiuo, eioi?ua icaai/aiu iieneii oai?/aneiai
i?eie?aiey iniiaiuo oeaiiinoae o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iauanoaa e eoeueoo?u
aeeiaie/iie oeeaeeecaoeee.

Eaeae ?onneiai einiecia noaiiayony iniaaiii iiioey?iuie a iaoa a?aiy, a
oii /enea e aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi iiiaea i?aaeneacaiey einienoia naueenue
e i?iaeieaeatho nauaaoueny.

1. Iniiaiua oa/aiey a oeeinioee ?onneiai einiecia

1.1. Oeeinionei-?aeeaeiciia oa/aiea.

1.1.1. ?onneee einieci I.A.Oei?aineiai

I.A.Oei?aineee yaeyaony iaeiei ec oao, eiai ii i?aao ioiinyo e
o?aaeeoeee “?onneiai einiecia”. Ii n/eoae, /oi nouanoaoao “eaeaaeueiia
?iaenoai” ie?a e /aeiaaea, eo “i?iiecaiiinoue ae?oa ae?oaii”,
acaeiinaycaiiinoue. Iiaeiaii ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee ii niioiineo ie?
e /aeiaaea eae iae?ieiniin (einiin, aieueoie ie?, n?aaeo) e iee?ieiniin,
yaeythueeny a nai?i ?iaea “ia?acii e iiaeiaeai Anaeaiiie” e ianouee a
naaa an?, /oi anoue a ie?a. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi einie/aneee iiaeoiae e
/aeiaaeo eeoaao aai iieiiou ee/iinoiiai auoey, Oei?aineee noiae iaeoe
auoiae ec yoie o?oaeiie neooaoeee. E ie? e /aeiaae iaeeiaeiai neiaeiu e
aioo?aiia aaneiia/iu, iiyoiio iie iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eae /anoe ae?oa
ae?oaa. Iiaeii n iieiui iniiaaieai n/eoaoue ie? aeieiae/anee –
anaeaineei oaeii /aeiaaea, a yeiiiie/anee – noa?ie aai oicyenoaiaaiey.
“Ie? anoue ?ane?uoea *aeiaaea, i?iaeoeey aai” [2]. A yoii caeeth/aaony
einie/anee-aio?iiieiae/aneee aeoaeeci (eee aeaoaaeeinoai) Oei?aineiai,
eioi?ue ?anniao?eaaao aai a ?aieao o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ieaoiie/aneiai
aeoaeecia ai?iaai e aeieueiaai (iaoaio ie?o i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony eiie,
“i?aie?iue”, eioi?ue neiaiee/anee i?eioe?uaaaony a ?aaeueiinoyo caiiiai
auoey). Oaeie aeoaeeci, ii iiaieth Oei?aineiai, iiaeii i?aiaeieaoue
oieueei a Oea?eae: “A iae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue iaeooioai?yaony,
inayuaaony, iaiaeeaaaony” [3]. “Iaiaeeaaiea” yaeyaony eiia/iui
?acoeueoaoii nianaiey anaai ie?a /a?ac nianaiea /aeiaaea, eioi?ia
i?ienoiaeeo a Oea?eae neeaie O?enoa e Aai Aeooa. Nianaiea ono?aiyao
eiioeeeo /aeiaaea e ie?a, yoi e anoue “einie/aneay noi?iia o?enoeainoaa”
[4]. O Oei?aineiai, eae ai?i/ai e o iiiaeo ieaoiieeia, ea?oeia auoey
noaoe/ia: aeeiaie/aneea i?ioeannu, yaiethoeey, enoi?ey ii?aaeaeythuaai
cia/aiey ia eiatho. Eae n/eoaao Oei?aineee, any enoi?ey ie?a – yoi i?ae,
iaeia eeoue “ii/ue, iaeei no?aoiue nii, ?anoyaeaathueeny a aaea”. Ii
iiaio iiaieth oeeinioey Oei?aineiai – yoi einieci aac yaiethoeeiiecia
(“i?aia?aaeaiea ie?a” ia auoiaeeo ca ?aiee ioaeaeueiuo oea?eiaiuo i/aaia
e ia i?iieeaao a ie?iaoth aeeciue e nioeeaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue
/aeiaaea).

1.1.2. O?enoeaineee einiin A.N.Nieiaue?aa

Iaeaieaa iieii oaia einiecia ?anniio?aia A.N.Nieiaue?aui a o?aeoaoa
“*oaiey i Aiai/aeiaa/anoaa”. Ii iiaieth Nieiaue?aa, enoeiiie caaaaeeie
aeey ?acoia yaeyaony ia aa/iue, eee aiaeanoaaiiue, ie?. Iai?ioea, eae
eaeaaeueiay iieiioa anaai e inouanoaeaiea aeia?a, enoeiu e e?aniou, ii
yaeyaony eae yniia e ii?iaeueiia. Eeoue a yoie aa/iie noa?a iiaeii
ia?anoe aaconeiaiia ia?eei aeey i?eciaiey ?acoiiie i?e?iaeu eae /aai—oi
oneiaiiai e i?aoiaeyuaai. Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue ie?oaeathuaai ian ie?a
yaeyaony iiaeeeiiie caaaaeeie e caaea/ae aeey ?acoia. “Yoa caaea/a …
naiaeeony e auaaaeaieth oneiaiiai ec aaconeiaiiai, … neo/aeiie
?aaeueiinoe ec aaniethoiie eaeae, i?e?iaeiiai ie?a yaeaiee ec ie?a
aiaeanoaaiiie nouiinoe. … naycothuaa caaii iaaeaeo aiaeanoaaiiui e
i?e?iaeiui ie?ii anoue /aeiaae. *aeiaae niaiauaao a naaa anaaiciiaeiua
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, eioi?ua ana naiaeyony e iaeiie aaeeeie
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe iaaeaeo aaconeiaiui e oneiaiui, iaaeaeo aaniethoiie e
aa/iie nouiinoueth e i?aoiaeyuei yaeaieai, eee aeaeeiinoueth. *aeiaae
anoue aianoa e aiaeanoai, e ie/oiaeanoai” [5]. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeey
/aeiaaea iaiaoiaeeii iaeoe ianoi e cia/aiea a iauae nayce enoeiii
nouaai. Nieiaue?a aeaeeo a aiaeanoaaiiii nouanoaa aeaoaaeeinoai:
“aeaenoaothuaa, eee i?iecaiaeyuaa, aaeeinoai aiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa
Neiaa (Eiaina), e aaeeinoai i?iecaaae?iiia, inouanoaeaiiia…, –
aaeeinoai i?aaie/aneiai oaea” [5]. Eia/a aiai?y, ia?aia aaeeinoai – yoi
Aia (Eiain), aoi?ia aaeeinoai (i?iecaaae?iiia aaeeinoai, Nioey) –
“ia/aei /aeiaa/anoaa, … eaeaaeueiue eee ii?iaeueiue /aeiaae. E
O?enoin, a yoii aaeeinoaa i?e/anoiue /aeiaa/aneiio ia/aeo, anoue
/aeiaae, eee, ii au?aaeaieth nayuaiiiai Ienaiey, aoi?ie Aaeai” [5].
Aa/iinoue Aiaa eae Eiaina e aeaenoaothuaai Aiaa i?aaeiieaaaao aa/iinoue
/aeiaa/anoaa, ii ia i?e?iaeiiai, eioi?ia aicieeaao ia Caiea a
ii?aaeae?iiue ia?eiae, a /aeiaaea oiiiinoeaaaiiai, eaeaaeueiiai. Yoi
oieaa?naeueiia nouanoai caeeth/aao a naaa anao ethaeae. “Eaaeaeue ec
ian, eaaeaeia /aeiaa/aneia nouanoai nouanoaaiii e aeaenoaeoaeueii
ei?aieony e o/anoaoao a oieaa?naeueiii e aaniethoiii /aeiaaea” [5]. Ii –
ana/aeiaa/aneee i?aaieci, aa/iia oaei Aiaeea e aa/iay aeooa ie?a, Nioey.
Iiyoiio /aeiaae yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui e iacaiaieiui caaiii a aaniethoiii
oeaeii. Eiaiii yoi ii?aaaeuaaao aeiiouaiea aeaoo aaeeeeo enoei:
/aeiaa/aneie naiaiaeu e /aeiaa/aneiai aannia?oey.

Eneeth/eoaeueiia naiiooaa?aeaeaiea eee yaieci, ananeeueiue a
i?aeoe/aneie aeecie, yaeyaony ei?aiiui ceii iaoae i?e?iaeu, e oae eae
yaieci naienoaaiai anaio a i?e?iaea, oi cei – yoi iauaa naienoai anae
i?e?iaeu. I?e?iaea yaeyaony io?aaeaieai anaaaeeiie eaeae e nouanoaiaaiey
iainiaeaiiiai, ?acaeae?iiiai, ?ac?iciaiiiai, /oaeaeiai yoie eaeae.
Nieiaue?a i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi i?e?iaea cea iaoaoece/ia, oniao?eaay
cei a ioiioaiee aeooe ie?a (Nioee, “ia?aiia?aciiai /aeiaa/anoaa”) e
Aiaa. A? iin?aaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo Aiaii e i?e?iaeiui ie?ii
caeeth/aao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoaiey naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, niaeaci
iaeaaeaiey “anai” io naay, a ia io Aiaa e oai naiui ia?ooaaony aaeeinoai
ie?icaeaiey. Eaeaaeueiia anaaaeeinoai aiciiaeii oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea
i?ienoiaeeo niaaeeiaiea aiaeanoaaiiiai ia/aea n aeooie ie?a, aaea ia?aia
– ia?acothuee yeaiaio, a aoi?ia – ianneaiay neea, eioi?ay aini?eieiaao
eaeaaeueiia e niaaaeaao aai iaoa?eae aeey ?acaeoey, iaiei/eie aeey aai
iieiiai iaia?oaeaiey. Yoi niaaeeiaiea ia iineo oa?aeoa?a iaeiie?aoiiai
oai?aiey. Iooue e aeinoeaeaieth niaa?oaiiiai e aa/iiai i?aaiecia – yoi
iaaeeaiiue e io/eoaeueiue iooue, eioi?ue iauyniyaony oieueei iaeiei, aac
/aai iaiuneeiu ie Aia, ie i?e?iaea – naiaiaeie. “Anee an? nouanoaothuaa
(a i?e?iaea eee ie?iaie aeooa) aeieaeii niaaeeieoueny n Aiaeanoaii – a a
yoii oeaeue anaai auoey, – oi yoi aaeeinoai, /oiau auoue
aeaenoaeoaeueiui aaeeinoaii, i/aaeaeii aeieaeii auoue iaithaeiui, o.a.
eaeoe ia oieueei io Aiaa, ii e io i?e?iaeu, auoue e a? nianoaaiiui
aeaeii” [5].

Ie?iaie einiiaiie/aneee i?ioeann i?ioiaeeo iiiaeanoai iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo
oac. Ia/eiaynue yiioie ca?caeiie (ano?aeueiie), eiaaea aeaenoaeai
anaie?iiai oyaioaiey iaoa?ey noyaeaaaony a aaeeeea einie/aneea oaea, ii
caaa?oaaony niceaeaieai i?aaie/aneie aeecie e a? niaa?oainoaii – oi?iie
/aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia. “A /aeiaaea ie?iaay aeooa aia?aua niaaeeiyaony
n aiaeanoaaiiui Eiainii a niciaiee eae /enoie oi?ia anaaaeeinoaa… A
/aeiaaea i?e?iaea ia?a?anoaao naio naay e ia?aoiaeeo (a niciaiee) a
iaeanoue auoey aaniethoiiai. Aini?eieiay e iiny a nai?i niciaiee aa/ioth
aiaeanoaaiioth eaeath e aianoa n oai ii oaeoe/aneiio i?ienoiaeaeaieth e
nouanoaiaaieth naiaio ia?ac?uaii naycaiiue n i?e?iaeie aiaoiaai ie?a,
/aeiaae yaeyaony anoanoaaiiui iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo Aiaii e iaoa?eaeueiui
auoe?i, i?iaiaeieeii anaaaeeiyuaai aiaeanoaaiiiai ia/aea a noeoeeioth
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue, – ono?ieoaeai e i?aaiecaoi?ii anaeaiiie” [5]. E?iia
/aeiaaea ana eiua nouanoaa eeoaiu aiaeanoaaiiiai ia/aea e i?e/anoiu e
iaio eeoue iiae/eiaieai aiaoiaio anoanoaaiiiio caeiio. Iiaeiaii ie?iaie
aeooa, /aeiaae, i?e/anoiue e anaaaeeinoao Aiaa, naiaiaeai caoioaoue
eiaoue aai eae Aia. Aeey yoiai ii “ooaa?aeaeaao naay ioaeaeueii io Aiaa,
aia Aiaa, ioiaaeaao eee ioaeaeyaony io Aiaa a nai?i niciaiee oae aea,
eae ia?aiia/aeueii ie?iaay aeooa ioaeaeeeanue io Iaai ai an?i auoee
nai?i” [5]. Oaeei ia?acii ia/eiaaony iiaay oaca oaea ia
einiiaiie/aneiai, a oaieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey, a i?ioeanna eioi?iai
/aeiaae i?ioiaeeo iooue io ano?aeueiuo ?aeeaee /a?ac nieioeaiieeiinoai e
oaeee/aneie, aaea, iaeiiaoe, aica?auaaony e naiaio nianoaaiiiio
iaoa?eaeueiiio ia/aeo e aunoaa i?iyaeaiea ie?iaie nayce iaoiaeeo a
neiaeiii aaeeinoaa ?iaeiaie i?aaiecaoeee aeecie.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei aannii?iuo eaeae einiecia Nieiaue?aa:

Eaeay anaaaeeinoaa, aa/iiai i?aaie/anee oeaeinoiiai enoeiiinouaai ie?a,
eioi?ay eiaao ?aeeaeiciue oa?aeoa? (aia aiaeanoaaiiiai ia/aea auoea –
yoi oain).

Oaeia nii?e/anoiinoe /aeiaaea einiino a aai (/aeiaaea) aiaeanoaaiiie
i?e?iaea (/aeiaae yaeyynue iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo Aiaii e iaoa?eaeueiui
auoe?i, i?iaiaeieeii aaeeiyuaai aeaenoaey ia noeoeeioth
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue, /aeiaae – ono?ieoaeue e i?aaiecaoi? anaeaiiie.

A einiina Nieiaue?aa aeaaainoaotho i?aanoaaiii-?aeeaeiciua niuneu
(oeaeaniia?aciinoe), eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho nouanoai anao oac e oceiauo
iiiaioia aai yaiethoeee e auoey.

I?iaeaia iieiiou iiciaiey aiiaua ia iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia eae
aiinaieiae/aneay (iieiia ciaiea – yoi ?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneia
ie?iaini?eyoea (“aini?eyoea ie?a a yeaiaioa nioeeiinoe”), oai naiui
Nieiaue?a e?eoeeoao ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue eae ioaea/?iiia ia/aei, iiae/eiyy
e i?aia?acoy a? a naaoa ?aeeaeiciiai iiuoa e ienoe/aneiai nica?oeaiey.

1.1.3. Oeeinioey iauaai aeaea I.O.O?aei?iaa

A nai?i iniiaiii oeeinioneii o?oaea “Oeeinioey iauaai aeaea”
I.O.O?aei?ia i?iaicaeaoaao iaua/aeiaa/aneea, iauaieaiaoa?iua caaea/e
yiioe iiinoa?iiai auai?a: oi?aaeaiea i?e?iaeie (“aianaiea a ia? aiee e
?acoia”), eioi?ia aeey O?aei?iaa yaeyaony eniieiaieai aeaeaeneie
caiiaaaee ia iaeaaeaiee caie?e; iiaaaea iaae noeoeeiuie neeaie, iaae
aieiaeii, aieaciyie e nia?oueth; ia?aaiae aiaiiie iiue a
niceaeaoaeueioth e ie?ioth. O?aei?ia io/?oeeai iiieiae oi
eaoano?ioe/aneia iai?aaeaiea, a eioi?ii aeaeaeaony ?acaeoea iuiaoiae
“yenieoaoe?othuae, a ia ainnoaiaaeeaathuae” i?e?iaeo oeeaeeecaoeee. “Iu
aeiiaaou, ia a oii oieueei, /oi aeaeaai (oeuie/anoai), ii e a oii cea,
eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeo ii iaoaio aacaeaenoaeth”. Aacaeaenoaea /aeiaaea
niaeaenoaoao i?eaeeaeaieth Eiioea, icia/aao eciaio yaiethoeeiiiiio
i?aaeiacia/aieth ?acoia: noaoue i?oaeeai “aianaiey ii?yaeea a
aanii?yaeie, aa?iiiee a neaiie oain”. Eae ?ac yoo caaea/o e noaaeo
?ac?aaioaiiue a “Oeeinioee iauaai aeaea” i?iaeo “?aaoeyoeee i?e?iaeu”
[6]. Ii aeeth/aao iaeioi?ua eiie?aoiua i?aaeeiaeaiey, a oii /enea, i
?aaoeyoeee iiaiaeu iaoiaeii ac?uaa a iaeaeao, eioi?ue aei neo ii?
i?eiaiyaony, a oaeaea e aieaa aeiaaeueiua i?iaeou “?aaoeyoeee
i?e?iaeu”: ia oi?aaeaiee iaaieoiuie neeaie, aeaeaeaieai caiiiai oa?a, ia
iaeaaeaiee iiauie enoi/ieeaie yia?aee, i iaoai?e/aneie ?aaoeyoeee a
ianooaaao ia oieueei anae ieaiaou, ii e i auoiaea a einiin e oi?aaeaiee
einie/aneeie i?ioeannaie.

Einiin, einie/aneia a oeeinioneii niciaiee iau/ii auee aiieiuaieai
aani?aaeaeueiiai, aaniethoiiai, iaaeinooiiiai ia?aie/aiiiio
/aeiaa/aneiio iiieiaieth, inoaaaynue i?aaeiaoii iaaeeoaoeee, aunieiai
ainoeuaiey, niaoaiiiai n o?aiaoii oaeana ia?aae aacaeiie iaauoey.
Nica?oeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e einiino, ooiaeyuaa a aeoaieoth ae?aaiinoue,
i?aiaeaaeaei iiiaea aaea. E oieueei ia/eiay n O?aei?iaa, a oeeinioeth e
iaoeo aoiaeeo o?aaiaaiea i?aia?aciaaoaeueiie aeoeaiinoe ni noi?iiu
/aeiaa/anoaa, iai?aaeaiiie ia iae?ieiniin. “Ai?ueaa n ?acuaaeeiythuei
i?ino?ainoaii” [6] aeey iuneeoaey – “ia?aue oaa a ai?ueaa ni
anaiiaeiuathuei a?aiaiai”. Aeaa aeiaaeueiua iiaaaeu /aeiaa/anoaa: – iaae
i?ino?ainoaii e a?aiaiai – acaeiinaycaiu e acaeiicaaeneiu. Iieai
i?aia?aae?iiie, aannia?oiie, iaiaeaiie aeecie iiaeao auoue ia oieueei
any Anaeaiiay, aaneiia/iay e iaen/a?iaaiay a naieo yia?aaoe/aneeo e
iaoa?eaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoyo, a oaeaea e aeieaiaeeaouea, a iioii e
aannia?oiua nicaeaiey n aeieiae/anee aeaeei, ia?aaeaeaiiui i?aaieciii,
oi?aaeyaiui niciaieai, niiaoo aeeoue e oai?eoue a naiuo iaaa?iyoiuo
aiacaiiuo oneiaeyo. Nooue eaeae “?aaoeyoeee i?e?iaeu” ia oieueei a
eiie?aoiuo i?iaeoao, iiiaea ec eioi?uo oaea inouanoaeythony eee iiaoo
auoue inouanoaeaiu – iia aieaa ?aaeeeaeueia, noaay aunoae oeaeueth
i?aia?aciaaiea naiiai noaoona i?e?iaeiiai e einie/aneiai auoey, naiie
i?e?iaeu /aeiaaea.

I?i?i/aneay eaeay O?aei?iaa i ia?ac?uaiie nayce einiina e /aeiaaea
iaoiaeeo nai? iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea a nia?aiaiiuo iao/iuo iiaeoiaeao. A yoie
nayce iiaeii i?eaanoe a ea/anoaa i?eia?a aio?iiiue i?eioeei. Ii ninoieo
a neaaeothuai: ie? ia aue au oaeei, eaeia ii anoue, anee au a i?i ia
auei iaaethaeaoaey, o.a. ethaeae (/oanoaothueo e iuneyueo nouanoa). Anee
au ie? aue ae?oaei oioue iaiiiai – e ian au ia auei: /ooue au
nianoeeenue ia?aiao?u ninoaaeythueo ie?a, eaeay-ieaoaeue yeaiaioa?iay
/anoeoea auea au ae?oaie eee en/acea – ia yaeeenue au ie aeeciue, ie
niciaiea. Iiyoiio, eiaaea iu noaaei caaea/o eciaiaiey eee ie?a, eee
/aeiaaea, iaiaoiaeeii aoaeao o/eouaaoue yoio i?eioeei. Eciaiyoue naith
(/aeiaa/aneoth) i?e?iaeo iiaeii oieueei aianoa n eciaiaieai ie?a a oii
aea iai?aaeaiee, e iaiai?io, eiaaea /aeiaae, ia eciaiyy naay, ia noaa ia
iooue nianoaaiiiai iaeooioai?aiey, ia/eiaao iiei?youe eee
i?aia?aciauaaoue i?e?iaeo (eee ie?), ii i?eoiaeeo e iaecaaaeiiio
aeenaaeaino, e e?eceno, yeieiae/aneiio e i?aanoaaiiiio. Oaeia
iaeiinoi?iiiaa aiaoaoaeuenoai, i?iecaaae?iiia ianiaa?oaiiui, ii
naiiaeiaieueiui /aeiaaeii a i?e?iaeo (aianoi ?aaoeyoeee, niciaoaeueiie e
?acoiiie) i?eaiaeeo e enoiuaieth i?e?iaeu, eioi?ay eae aoia?aia (a aeaea
eaoano?iou) ia?ooeaaaony ia naiiai /aeiaaea.

O?aei?ia oaeaea auaeaeioe eaeath i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaaaeu iaae nia?oueth
(“o/aiea i aine?aoaiee” eee aieaa ?aca??iooi – “o/aiea ia iauaaeeiaiee
aeeaoueo nuiia aeey aine?aoaiey oia?oeo”) [6]. Aeey O?aei?iaa “o?oaeiaia
aine?aoaiea” yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoueth, auoaeathuae ec aeooa
o?enoeaineiai o/aiey. O?aei?ia i?aaeeiaeee iiaia ii?aaeaeaiea –
“Noi?aii?aeeci, eee anaiauee neioac”, eioi?ia cao?aaeaaao oeeinioneea e
yoe/aneea iiaeoiaeu aai o/aiey. Yoa oeeinioey yoe/aneay e iiaeii
neacaoue naa?oyoe/aneay auaeaeaaao i?ei?eoao aeieaeiiai iaae nouei,
cia?o e i?aia?aaeaieth auoey a aeaaiauoea. E i?aaeeaaaao
iineaaeiaaoaeueii neioaoe/aneee niinia iuoeaiey e aeinoeaeaiey aunoeo
oeaeae – yoi oeeinioey neioaca, “neioaca aeaoo ?acoiia (oai?aoe/aneiai e
i?aeoe/aneiai) e o??o i?aaeiaoia ciaiey e aeaea” (Aia, /aeiaae e
i?e?iaea), e, iaeiiaoe, “neioaca iaoee e eneonnoaa a ?aeeaee,
ioiaeaeanoaeyaiie n Ianoie”. Iiaeoiae, ioe?uaathuee i?eioeeieaeueii
iiaua aiciiaeiinoe iaoea e oeeinioee, eioi?ua, ii iiaieth O?aei?iaa, oee
e eaeoo i?aeiouanoaaiii ioo?i ?acaeaeaiey, ?an/eaiaiey, aiaeeca. Yoiio
O?aei?ia i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao iooue aine?aoaiey eae niae?aiey, neiaeaiey,
neioaca anaai ?acuaaeei?iiiai e ?aceiaeaiiiai – io ciaiey aei
/aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia. I?aiaeaaeathuee naaiaeiy aiaeeoe/aneee oei
iuoeaiey naycai, ii aai iiaieth, n i?iiuoeaiiie oeeaeeecaoeeae, eioi?ay
oia?uaeyao, ?acaeaeuaaao aeeaua iaoo?aeueiua i?iaeoeou i?e?iaeu e
caieaaeaeey e aioiaeo ec ieo i??oaua, eneonnoaaiiua aaue. I?aiaeaaeaiea
aiaeeca naycaii n iiaeniciaoaeueiui e niciaoaeueiui niaeaneai ia
nia?oue. Naia nia?oue e anoue aeaaiue aiaeecaoi?, ?acaeaeythuee neiaeiia
ia aieaa i?inoua yeaiaiou. Aine?aoaiea aea, iai?ioea, – ainniaaeeiaiea
i?inoiai a neiaeiia oeaeia, i?aaeiieaaathuaa i?eia?aoaiea iiaiai,
i?aia?aae?iiiai ea/anoaa. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeei neioac anao niiniaiinoae
e aiciiaeiinoae /aeiaa/anoaa. Iiyoiio iniiaiay eaeay oeeinioee
“anaiauaai neioaca” ninoieo a i?aiaeieaiee i?ioeai?a/ee: ai?iaea e naea,
ciaiey e aeaea, /oanoaa e iunee, ia/ou e aiee, aa?u e iaoee, yaiecia e
aeueo?oecia. Ia naaiaeiyoiai yoaia ?acaeoey, eae y n/eoath, /aeiaa/anoai
au? ia aioiai e eaeaa aaeeinoaa e iiyoiio aiieia caeiiiia?ii, /oi yoa
eaeay yaeyaony ooiie/aneie.

Einiin O?aei?iaa eae e o A.N.Nieiaue?aa – yoi o?enoeaineee einiin. Yoio
einiin ia aeai, a caaeai, oae eae naaiaeiy yoi aanii?yaeie e oain, ie?
ia?acoiey, “no?aiiue eca?au?iiue ii?yaeie, eioi?ue eo/oa au, eaaeaony,
iacaaoue aanii?yaeeii”. Oaeia ninoiyiea anoue neaaenoaea iaaeaiey
/aeiaaea, oae eae ecia/aeueiue ie?, noaey ii Oai?oeo, aue ie?ii
iaaeiiinoe e /enoiou. Iiyoiio e iaiaoiaeei anaiauee neioac (anaiauaa
aaeeiaiea). Einiin o O?aei?iaa noaiiaeony “oicyenoaii”, iiae/ei?iiui
caaea/a aine?aoaiey i?aaeeia e aai (einiina) ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
i?aia?aaeaiey. “?aaoeyoeey i?e?iaeu” – yoi o?enoeainoai, ia?au?iiia a
aeaenoaea aine?aoaiey. Ec-ca /aai, nai i?iaeo (a ecia?aiee “?aaeueiiai
aeaea”) iaecaaaeii e aii?aee aeaeaieth naiiai aaoi?a i?eia?aoaao
ooiie/aneea /a?ou. ?inney i?aoaiaeoao nae/an ia aeeth/aiea a ie?iaia
niiauanoai n aaeeiui oeiii oicyenoaiaaiey e iieeoe/aneiai ono?ienoaa.
Iioa?e ?innee ia yoii iooe aaeeee: ?aniaae aaeeinoaa no?aiu, ioeac io
auneacaiiie au? O?aei?iaui aaiiieeoe/aneie caaea/e niae?aiey caiaeue e
ia?iaeia, oie?ioai?aiey eneaia, oaeoaeaiea iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiie e
iaae?aaeiiaeueiie ?icie, ?acaae yeiiiieee, iaieuaiea ianaeaiey, oo?aoa
iaoeeiiaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e caaea/. “Oeeinioey iauaai aeaea” oaaaeaeaao
a oii, /oi aeey oiai, /oiau auaeeoue a aoaeouai iaiaoiaeeii iaoeeiiii
ainoiaeeoue ia oieueei e iiaiio o?iaith eiioi?oa e eniieueciaaieth
i?e?iaeu, aaea nei?i ianooieo i?aaeae, a e a i?aanoaaiiii ea/anoaa,
iniciaaay nai? yaiethoeeiiiia i?aaeiacia/aiea.

1.2. Anoanoaaiiiiao/iia oa/aiea.

1.2.1. Oeeinioneea acaeyaeu I.A.Oiiaa

Oeeinioneea e ie?iaicc?ai/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey I.A.Oiiaa ai iiiaii ia
niaeanothony n o?aaeeoeeae ?onneiai einiecia. Einiin I.A.Oiiaa – einiin
oeceea, eioi?ue naiaiaeai io aio?iiiii?oecia. Ii oeacuaaao, /oi
“ianiio?y ia i?ia?ann anoanoaaiiuo iaoe, aio?iiiii?oioth oi/eo c?aiey
iaoiaeei e o nia?aiaiiuo iuneeoaeae, ioee/athuothny io ae?aaiae oai, /oi
iie ia?aiinyo ia i?e?iaeo naienoaa naiae aieaa eoeueoo?iie ee/iinoe. Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, ianiiiaiii, oeacuaaao, aei eaeie noaiaie o?oaeii
ecaaaeaoue a? /aeiaaeo, no?aiyuaiony ii?aaeaeeoue nai? ioiioaiea e oiio
“An?”, eioi?ia iiaeaaeyao aai naiei aaee/eai e iiuueth” [7]. A iauai
i?aaenoaaeaiee i einiina o I.A.Oiiaa ia niaea?aeeony ie iaeaeoaai iai?ea
ia iaeea aa?aioee ?inoa aeecie, a? aacoaea?aeiie yeniainee, e oai aieaa
/aeiaaei?acia?iinoe einiina. Einiin aaniethoii ?aaiiaeooai e aeecie, e
/aeiaaeo. Aanue niune nouanoaiaaiey e aeaaiay caaea/a /aeiaa/aneiai
aaiey a iaeiii: “Io?aiaiea, ooaa?aeaeaiea aeecie ia Caiea” [8]. Iiae
neeueiui aia/aoeaieai ?onneie ?aaiethoeee 1905-1907aa., a? eaeae,
I.A.Oiia i?eoiaeeo e oaaaeaeaieth ia eeethci?iinoe iniiaiuo oeaeae e
?acoeueoaoia ?aaiethoeee. Naiia aeaaiia, /oi aucuaaao o iaai neeueiia
iai?eyoea – yoi eaeae ?aaainoaa e o?aaieoaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe, iioiio
/oi aanue niune yaiethoeee aeeaiai caeeth/?i a iaono?aieiii ia?aaainoaa,
a aai aunieie oai?/aneie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe. Oai, aaea ?aaainoai
ooaa?aeaeaaony neeie, oai i?ae?auaaony ?acaeoea, i?ae?auaaony anyeay
yaiethoeey. Ii iiaieth I.A.Oiiaa, ?onneay ?aaiethoeey au? ?ac
iaia?oaeeea nouanoaiaaiea aeaoo ii?aeae, iaeiie – o?aaeeoeeiiiie
(caienaiiie a Aaaiaaeee), e ae?oaie – ii?aee oai?/aneiai niceaeaiey. “Ia
a iiae?uaaaiii /aeiaa/aneei oai?/anoaii eicoiaa “i?iaeoeo o?oaea
aeieaeai i?eiaaeeaaeaoue ia?aaaouaathuaio” e?iaony ?ac?aoaiea aaaenoaee
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie, a a oaaee/aiee /aeiaa/aneei oai?/anoaii aiaaonoa
aoi?ie i?e?iaeu, eciai?iiiai aia-/aeiaaea, e a i?eiauaiee aiciiaeii
aieueoae /anoe ?iaea /aeiaa/aneiai e oea?noao iuneae e aiee” [8].
Aeoeaiia e iineaaeiaaoaeueiia iai?eyoea o?enoeainoaa, aai eaeaieiaee e
oeaiiinoe, i?eiyoea aeooa ioe?uoinoe naiiai /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey
a /oaeaeii, ia iiaeaeathuainy /aeiaa/aneie iunee e aiee ie?a – yoi
oeacuaaao ia iooiae I.A.Oiiaa io o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ?onneiai einiecia.

1.2.2. Aio?iiieinieci I.A.Oieiaeiiai

A naiae iniiaiie ?aaioa “Iunee aea?aeienoa i i?e?iaea e /aeiaaea”
(1944a.) I.A.Oieiaeiue ?acaeaaao naith oeeinioeth aio?iiieiniecia e
oai?eth iiciaiey, iniiaaiioth ia eaeayo yaiethoeeiiecia. A i?ioeaiaan
aio?iiioeaio?ecio (noaaeaoaio /aeiaaea a oeaio? anaai ie?icaeaiey)
Oieiaeiue eniieuecoao aio?iiieinieci, eioi?ue auaeaeyao ia?iiiia
cia/aiea /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a i?ioeannao yaiethoeee i?e?iaeu,
ai acaeiiioiioaieyo /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu. A naiae eieaa Oieiaeiue
aiaeece?oao acaeiiioiioaiey /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu, iieacuaaao i?ioeann
nicaeaiey /aeiaaeii naiaia?aciie n?aaeu, ioee/iie io anoanoaaiiie,
eioi?oth ii iacuaaao aio?iiinoa?ie. Aio?iiinoa?a, yaeyynue /anoueth
aeinoa?u, nicaeaia /aeiaaeii, aai o?oaeii. “*aeiaae, ianiio?y ia
nouanoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe nicaeaiiie ei aeeciaiiie n?aaeu, i?iaeieaeaao
inoaaaoueny iaiouaieaiie /anoueth einiina, iieiinoueth iiae/ei?iiie
aeaenoaothuei a i?i caeiiai. *aeiaae iaoiaeeony ia iaae i?e?iaeie, a
aioo?e i?e?iaeu” [10]. Iniiaiui ioee/eai i?eniiniaeyaiinoe i?aaiecia e
n?aaea /aeiaaea io aeeaioiuo, ii iiaieth Oieiaeiiai, yaeyaony oi, /oi
ianneaiia i?eniiniaeaiea i?aaiecia e iaiythueiny oneiaeyi ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, oa?aeoa?ii aeey aeeaioiuo, caiaiyaony aeoeaiinoueth /aeiaaea,
no?aiyuaainy eciaieoue ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo a niioaaonoaee ni naieie
oeaeyie. “O?oae inoa?ony iniiaiui oneiaeai ?inoa oinoaaiiuo niiniaiinoae
/aeiaaea…” [10]. Aeey Oieiaeiiai ianiiiaiia naycue iaaeaeo
eioaeeaeooaeueiuie niiniaiinoyie /aeiaaea e aai einie/aneei ie?oaeaieai,
eioi?ay (naycue) yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii yaiethoeee e anoanoaaiiiai
ioai?a. Iaoeo Oieiaeiue ii?aaeaeyao eae ciaiea oii?yaei/aiiia,
i?eaaae?iiia a nenoaio, i?aaieciaaiiia e niiniaiia e aeaeueiaeoaio
?acaeoeth. Ianiio?y ia aaoiiiiiinoue iaoee, iia naiui oaniui ia?acii
naycaia n aeayoaeueiinoueth e n i?iecaiaenoaii. Caeiiiia?iinoue a
?acaeoee iaoee Oieiaeiue aeaeeo a oii, /oi iaoea iiae/eiyaony iauei
caeiiai i?aaie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie yaiethoeee, o.a. a ?acaeoee iaoee
?aoathuoth ?ieue ea?atho aioo?aiiea oaeoi?u (ioiinyueany e yaiethoeee) e
a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue aiaoiea ioiineoaeueii iaoee oaeoi?u (?aeeaey e
oeeinioey). Iacaaeneiinoue i?ioeannia yaiethoeee Oieiaeiue naycuaaao n
oai, /oi eaaeaeay i?aaeuaeouay noaaeey aai ii?aaeaeyao iineaaeothuoth, a
iinoi?iiiea oaeoi?u iiaoo eeoue onei?youe eee caiaaeeyoue i?ioeann
?acaeoey, ii ia ii?aaeaeyoue aai. Aio?iiieinieci, ii caiuneo Oieiaeiiai,
aea/?o ca niaie i?eioeeieaeueiia eciaiaiea ioiioaiee /aeiaaea e
i?e?iaea. I?aaeaea anaai ii i?eaiaeeo e iuouaieth /aeiaaeii naiae
i?aaie/aneie, ia?ac?uaiie e aeaenoaaiiie nayce ni anai einiinii. E
einiin ieacuaaao aicaeaenoaea ia /aeiaaea, aeeyao ia aai aeeciue.
Aio?iiieinieci i?aaeiieaaaao ea?aeeiaeueiia eciaiaiea ianoa /aeiaaea a
einiina: /aeiaae noaiiaeony (aeaaiaea?y oniaoai iaoee e oaoieee)
einie/aneei oaeoi?ii, i?aia?acothuei i?e?iaeo a oii o/anoea Anaeaiiie,
aaea ii iaeoaao. Aio?iiieinieci yaeyaony aa?eaioii oeeinioee einiecia,
eioi?ue iiae/??eeaaao naiaia?aciia ianoi /aeiaaea a einiina, aai
ia?ac?uaioth naycue n einiinii, acaeiiaeaenoaey e acaeiiaeeyiey,
nouanoaothuea iaaeaeo ieie. Yaiethoeeiiiay oai?ey iiciaiey Oieiaeiiai
ia?auaaony e ?acaeaathuaeny aaeaioaoeee ineoi-oeceieiae/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee /aeiaaea e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea.

1.2.3. O?aoee neioac einiina A.E.Aa?iaaeneiai

Aa?iaaeneee nicaeae nai? i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeinoa?a (o?aoee neioac
einiina), iinoaaea a iniiao aeeaia aauanoai, eioi?ia aeaaeaao anaie
ieia?aeueiuie e oeie/aneeie aeaeaeaieyie, e n eioi?ui naycaiu i?ioeannu
ieoaiey e ?aciiiaeaiey a aeoeaiii iiaa?oiinoiii neia ieaiaou.
Aa?iaaeneee noiae oaeaeaoue i?i/ioth naycue aeecie n iniiaiui iauaeoii
oece/aneiai ie?a – aoiiaie. Eaaeaeue aoii e ana iie aianoa “naeaeaiu” a
aeinoa?a. Eaaeaeue aoii iieo/eo ia/aoue aeinoa?u. Ii “caaaae?i” a iae,
yia?aaoe/anee ianuuai. AEeaia aauanoai ieaiaou ?aniieiaeeeinue a
oi?aaeythuai oeaio?a iaoaai o/anoea ie?icaeaiey e iii aicaeaenoaoao ia
yia?aeth aauanoaa. Naiei ieoaieai, ?aciiiaeaieai e
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoueth aeeaia aauanoai i?aaiecoao an? inoaeueiia
aauanoai e i?eaiaeeo aai a ii?yaeie, iiae/eiythueeny caeiiiia?iinoyi. A
i?e?iaea iao aaeeeiai e iaeiai. *oanoai aaeeinoaa e oeaeinoiinoe
i?e?iaeu oeacuaaao /aeiaaeo ia, oi /oi ieaiaoa ia eioi?ie ii aeea?o e ii
nai ia iiaoo auoue eneeth/aieai ec iauaai aeaeaeaiey aauanoaa.

A ?acoeueoaoa naieo ecuneaiee ioiineoaeueii eaoaai?ee i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie Aa?iaaeneee i?eo?e e neaaeothuei auaiaeai:

1) I?ino?ainoai e a?aiy – ?aaeueiua naienoaa ?aaeueiuo i?e?iaeiuo
iauaeoia, a ia oeeinioneea eaoaai?ee e ai?ei?iua i?eioeeiu iiciaiey, eae
iie i?aaenoaaeyeenue a oeeinioee Eaioa e a iiiai/eneaiiuo aa?eaioao
yoiai i?aaenoaaeaiey. Eia/a aiai?y, i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy – yoi neiaa
aeey iaiauaiey i?e?iaeiuo oaiiiaiia. Oae aea eae ianeaaenoaaiiinoue
eiaao iineoaeae a i?aaieciao – ii?aaeae?iiua eiiieaenu aeioeie/aneeo
no?oeoo?, – oae e i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy eiatho naieo iineoaeae. A
ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii i?eaanoe iaia?aoeiinoue a?aiaie, aai
iaeiiiai?aaeaiiinoue (iacaiaieiinoue i?ioeiai e aoaeouaai) e
aeene?aoiinoue a?aiaie (aeaeeiinoe a?aiaie ia ii?aaeae?iiua /anoe).
I?ino?ainoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iyaeythony a aaiiao?e/aneeo
iino?iaieyo (iiiyoey neiiao?ee e aeenneiao?ee i?e?iaeiuo iauaeoia).

2) A oece/aneii ie?a (ie?a iaoaie/aneiai ia?aiauaiey oae) eae a
iae?iie?a aieueoeo aaee/ei e iau/iuo nei?inoae, oae e a iee?iie?a iaeuo
oae e ia?iiiuo nei?inoae, i?e/eia a?aiaie ia niaea?aeeony. O.a. a?aiy e
i?ino?ainoai – ia i?eciaee oece/aneie ?aaeueiinoe. Iie ia oi?ie?othony a
ie?a aiei, eieaaaiee, i?aeo e o?aaeoi?ee, ia yaeythony eo i?eciaeii.

3) Ana oa?aeoa?enoeee a?aiaie-i?ino?ainoaa e aeecie a a?
aeiaaioeie/aneii au?aaeaiee ia oieueei niioiinyony, ii e naiui
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii niaiaaeatho.

E a?aiy, e aeeciue – iaia?aoeiu, AEeaia aauanoai ieeiaaea ia
aica?auaaony a i?aaeiaa ninoiyiea. Ia oieueei eeaoea, eae iniiaiay
/anoue aeeaiai, ii e i?aai iiiaieeaoi/iiai oaea, aeiaainenoaia, aeinoa?a
– a oeaeii anaaaea iiaua e a eaaeaeue aeaiiue iiiaio ia iioiaee ia naay
i?aaeieo. Aeinoa?a iai?a?uaii eciaiyaony. Iiyoiio iaia?aoeiinoue a?aiaie
io?aaeaao niaie yoio naiue ianniaue i?e?iaeiue i?ioeann, e eioi?iio
i?eiaaeeaaeeo e nai aeaenoaothuee e iiciathuee ?aaeueiinoue /aeiaae.
E?iia a?aiaie aeecie (aeieiae/aneia a?aiy), ii iiaieth Aa?iaaeneiai,
ae?oaeo iaeeo niaoeeoe/aneeo a?ai?i iao. Yoi eaoaai?ee ycuea, i?eau/ee
iuoeaiey. Aeieiae/aneia a?aiy – aaeeinoaaiii, e ia aai oiia eaeoo ana
inoaeueiua niauoey einie/aneie enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa. Iaeiaei /aua anaai,
a oeeinioee n/eoatho a?aiy e i?ino?ainoai iauaeoeaiuie i?eciaeaie
anaiauaai aeaeaeaiey i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia. Aa?iaaeneee aaiaeeo
ooi/iaiea – eaeeo eiaiii i?ioeannia – aeieiae/aneeo. Iauaeoeaiinoue e
?aaeueiinoue i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie iicaieeee Aa?iaaeneiio oaa?aiii
cayaeoue i einie/aneii oa?aeoa?a aeecie e iainiiaaoue o?aoee neioac
Einiina, iiaia aaeeinoai, a eioi?ii aeeciue e aeeaia aauanoai caieiatho
ia iiae/ei?iioth, a ?aaioth iiceoeeth n ae?oaeie i?e?iaeiuie nouiinoyie.
Aa?iaaeneee iauaaeeiyao eco/aiiua e iaiau?iiua a iaoea ?aaeueiua /a?ou
anaioaaouaathuaai Einiina. Iaoa?ey, ?aaeeaoeey, yia?aey, i?iyaeaiey
aeecie – e?iia yoeo nouiinoae a ie?a iao ie/aai. Yoe nouiinoe ia
naiaeyony ae?oa e ae?oao, nouanoaotho aa/ii eae ea/anoaaiii ?acii?iaeiua
iaeanoe e iaeiia?aiaiii aianoa n ae?oaeie, ia yaiethoeeiie?otho iaeia a
ae?oaoth. Anaaaea anoue onoie/eaay iaoa?ey a aeaea aoiiia, anaaaea anoue
?aaeeaoeey, anaaaea anoue yia?aey. E anaaaea anoue aeeciue, eiathuay
einie/aneia cia/aiea. Aa?iaaeneee aaiaeeo iiiyoea ieanoa ?aaeueiinoe,
iiae eioi?ui ii iaicia/aao neie ie?oaeathuae ian i?e?iaeu, naycaiiua
iaaeaeo niaie, ii naiaeeiua ae?oa e ae?oao. Nouanoaotho “…o?e
?acaeaeueiuo ieanoa ?aaeueiinoe… Yoe o?e ieanoa, ii-aeaeeiiio, ?acei
ioee/iu ii naienoaai i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie, iie i?iieeatho ae?oa ae?oaa,
ii ii?aaeae?iii caiueathony, ?acei ioa?aie/eaathony ae?oa io ae?oaa a
niaea?aeaiee e iaoiaeeea eco/aaiuo a ieo yaeaiee. Yoe ieanou: yaeaiey
einie/aneeo i?inoi?ia, yaeaiey ieaiaou, iaoae aeeceie iai “i?e?iaeu” e
yaeaiey iee?ineiie/aneea, a eioi?uo oyaioaiea iooiaeeo ia aoi?ie ieai.
Iao/iua yaeaiey aeecie iaaethaeathony oieueei a aeaoo iineaaeieo ieanoao
ie?iaie ?aaeueiinoe” [11]. Aa?iaaeneee ia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ie? ono?iai
oae-oi e oae-oi, a ooaa?aeaeaao: a iaoea ia iniiaa aai caeiiia eo/oa
anaai n/eoaoue, /oi ie? ono?iai oae-oi e oae-oi. O/aiea Aa?iaaeneiai
ioe?uaaao iai iiaoth no?aieoeo a iiciaiee /aeiaaeii naiiai naay – eae
?acoiiie /anoe aeeaiai ie?a e iaeiia?aiaiii iaeaieaa neiaeiiai e
caeiiiia?iiai yaeaiey ie?icaeaiey. Ae?aaiaa iuouaiea aaeeinoaa e
iniciaiea naay /anoueth einie/aneie ?aaeueiinoe iieo/aao a iaoa a?aiy
aeaenoaeoaeueiia iainiiaaiea, ia?aaiaeeony a ?aoeeiiaeueiue ieai.

1.2.4. Einie/aneay oeeinioey E.Y.Oeeieeianeiai

Einie/aneay oeeinioey E.Y.Oeeieeianeiai – yaeyaony iaeiei ec noieiia
?onneiai einiecia. Iia iuooeii iiaeeyea ia nia?aiaiioth oeeaeeecaoeeth
iin?aaenoaii einiiiaaoeee, eioi?ay noaea iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee
IO?. Iaiaeiaaaeii e oi, /oi iia ioiineony e /eneo iaiiiaeo a ?onneii
einiecia ia?acoeia oeaeinoiie oeeinionei-ie?iaicc?ai/aneie nenoaiu.

Acaeyaeu Oeeieeianeiai i nouiinoe oeeinioee iaaayiu yiioie I?inaauaiey.
Ii n/eoae, /oi oeeinioey – “aa?oeia iao/iiai ciaiey, aai aaiaoe,
iaiauaiea, iaoea iaoe” [12]. Ana i?aaeoanoaothuea oeeinioneea nenoaiu
eacaeenue Oeeieeianeiio “no?aiiuie” e eo oa?ieiieiaey iaioaeiie, aiai?y,
/oi “o?oaeii naycaoue iith oeeinioeth n ae?oaeie”. Iaeiaei, a
einie/aneie oeeinioee ianoaeaeaeenue a iniiaiii o?aaeeoeeiiiua
oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu, ?anniao?eaaaiua n “einie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey”.
Oaeaea o?aaeeoeeiiiu auee e i?aaenoaaeaiey Oeeieeianeiai i no?oeoo?a
oeeinioneiai ciaiey: oeeinioey “ninoieo ec iaoaoeceee, aiinaieiaee e
yoeee. Ia?aua aeaa ioaeaea neoaeao iiaeaioiaeith aeey yoeee eee iao/iuo
iniia i?aanoaaiiinoe. Eiiaaea yoo iiaeaioiaeo ia ioaeaeytho io yoeee.
Oae io/anoe aeaeath e y”. Oai ia iaiaa Oeeieeianeee aeiiieiee
oeeinioneia ciaiea au? iaeiei ?acaeaeii – nioeeieiae/aneei, o.a.
iino?iaieai noai “eaeaaeueiiai no?iy aeecie” [12].

A oeeinionei-ie?iaicc?ai/aneie eiioeaioeee Oeeieeianeiai iiaeii
auaeaeeoue o?e iniiaiuo yoaia. Ia?aue yoai (1898-1914 aa.) ioaaouaaao
?aaiou: “Iao/iua iniiaaiey ?aeeaee” (1898a.), iaeaieaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiue
oeeinioneee o?oae Oeeieeianeiai “Yoeea eee anoanoaaiiua iniiau
i?aanoaaiiinoe” (1902-1903aa., eni?aaeaii a 1914a.), “Ie?aaia” (1914a.).
Ia yoii yoaia iniiaiui aue i?eioeei, noi?ioee?iaaiiue Oeeieeianeei
aiineaaenoaee (1934a.): “Noaeueaa nouanoaa caaeneo io noaeueau
Anaeaiiie”. Iiae “nouanoaii” iiae?acoiaaaaony ia oieueei /aeiaae.
“I?inoaeoaa nouanoai”, niaeanii einie/aneie oeeinioee – “aoii-aeoo”.
Niaieoiiinoue “aoiiia-aeooia” ia?acoao noanoaioeeiiaeueioth iniiao ie?a.
Einiin – ea?a?oey nouanoa, aeeth/ay e /aeiaaea. Nai einiin oiaea “aeeaia
nouanoai”, “i?e/eia” e “aiey” eioi?iai a no?iaeo ?aieao ii?aaeaeyao
iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea e ae?oaeo “nouanoa” einiina.

Ia aoi?ii yoaia (1915-1923 aa.) Oeeieeianeee iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyao
ae?oaei i?iaeaiai, ioee/iui io Einiina: 1) eceiaeaieth “iao/iiai”
iiieiaiey aeaeaeneeo oaenoia; 2) i?iaeaiai iauanoaa aoaeouaai,
?ac?aoaaiui a nioeeaeueii-ooiie/aneii aeooa (“Ai?a e aaiee”, 1916a.;
“Eaeaaeueiue no?ie aeecie”, 1917a. e ae?.); 3) i?iaeaiai no?iaiey e
aeecie /aeiaa/aneiai oaea (“*aeiaae. Naienoaa /aeiaaea”, 1917a.).
Oeeieeianeee iiae/??eeaaao ianiaa?oainoai nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee,
iani?aaaaeeeainoue a iauanoaa e ae?. I?iaeaiu einiecia cao?aaeaathony a
?aaioao: “Ia?aii?e/eia” 1918a., “Nioeeieiaey (oaioacey). I?eeeth/aiey
aoiia” 1918a. e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo.

Ia o?aoueai yoaia (1923-1935 aa.) Oeeieeianeee ?ac?aaaouaaao oae
iacuaaaiue “aeoeaii-yaiethoeeiiiue” i?eioeei einiecia. Aai niune ninoieo
a neaaeothuai: “Noaeueaa Anaeaiiie caaeneo io einie/aneiai ?acoia, o.a.
io /aeiaa/anoaa e ae?oaeo einie/aneeo oeeaeeecaoeee, eo
i?aia?aciaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe”. Yoio i?eioeei iainiiauaaaony ai
iiiaeo noaoueyo e a?ioth?ao: “AEeaay Anaeaiiay” (1923a.), “Iiieci
Anaeaiiie” (1925-1931aa.), “Aoaeouaa Caiee e /aeiaa/anoaa” (1928a.),
“Einie/aneay oeeinioey” (1935a.) e iiiaeo ae?oaeo. Eioa?anii, /oi
“aeoeaii-yaiethoeeiiiue” niune i?eioeeia einiecia ninouanoaoao o
Oeeieeianeiai n aieaa o?aaeeoeeiiiui niuneii yoiai i?eioeeia: “Noaeueaa
nouanoaa caaeneo io noaeueau Anaeaiiie”. An? yoi nicaea?o neiaeiinoe i?e
iiieiaiee einie/aneie oeeinioee ia caaa?oathuai yoaia a? noaiiaeaiey.

Aaaeiaeoeie i?eioeeiaie einie/aneie oeeinioee, eioi?ua eaaeao a iniiaa
iaoaoeceee e iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a Oeeieeianeiai yaeythony i?eioeeiu
aoiienoe/aneiai iaiineoecia, iiiecia, aaneiia/iinoe, naiii?aaiecaoeee e
yaiethoeee.

I?eioeei aoiienoe/aneiai iaiineoecia iai?yioth naycai n iiieiaieai
Oeeieeianeei iaoa?ee. Oeeieeianeee aiai?ee, /oi “ss ia oieueei
iaoa?eaeeno, ii e iaiineoeno, i?eciathuee /oanoaeoaeueiinoue anae
Anaeaiiie. Yoi naienoai y n/eoath iaioaeaeeiui io iaoa?ee”. Ana oaea
Anaeaiiie “eiatho iaeio e oo aea nouiinoue; iaeii ia/aei, eioi?ia iu
iacuaaai aeooii iaoa?ee (nouiinoue, ia/aei, noanoaioeey, aoii a
eaeaaeueiii niunea)”, /oi i/aiue noiaeii n oeeinioeae Ieaoiia.
“Aoii-aeoo” (“eaeaaeueiue aoii”, “ia?aiauoiue aeoo”) ii Oeeieeianeiio,
“anoue iaaeaeeiay iniiaa eee nouiinoue ie?a. Iia aacaea iaeeiaeiaa.
AEeaioiia anoue aianoeeeua aaneiia/iiai /enea aoiiia-aeooia, oae aea,
eae e Anaeaiiay. Ec ieo oieueei iia e ninoieo, iaoa?ee, eae a? i?aaeaea
iiieiaee, iao. Anoue oieueei iaeii iaiaoa?eaeueiia, anaaaea
/oanoaothuaa, aa/iia iaeno?aaeyaiia, iaoie/oiaeaaiia, ?ac e iaanaaaea
nicaeaiiia eee anaaaea nouanoaiaaaoaa” [13]. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
“aoii-aeoo” – yoi yeaiaio iaoaoece/aneie noanoaioeee, eaaeauae a iniiaa
ie?a e ioee/iie io yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe a nia?aiaiiie oeceea.

I?eioeei iiiecia au?aaeaao aaeeinoai noanoaioeeiiaeueiie iniiau ie?a,
ia?acoaiie “aoiiaie-aeooaie”. “Iaoa?ey aaeeia, e iniiaiua naienoaa a? ai
anae Anaeaiiie aeieaeiu auoue iaeeiaeiau” [13]. Yoi icia/aao:

aaeeinoai iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai ia/ae Anaeaiiie;

aaeeinoai aeeaie e iaaeeaie iaoa?ee: “iaoa?ey aaeeia, oae aea aa
iocua/eainoue e /oanoaeoaeueiinoue”;

aaeeinoai /aeiaaea e Anaeaiiie, o.a. aai o/anoea a einie/aneie
yaiethoeee, a i?ioeaiaan o?enoeaineei i?aaenoaaeaieyi i aannia?oee
aeooe;

auaiaeeiinoue yoe/aneeo ii?i ec iaoaoeceee einiina.

I?eioeei aaneiia/iinoe ?ani?ino?aiyeny Oeeieeianeei e ia ie? eae oeaeia,
e ia naienoaa i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, e ia no?iaiea yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe
aauanoaa, e ia no?oeoo?ioth ea?a?oeth o?iaiae einie/aneeo nenoai, e ia
?eoiu einie/aneie yaiethoeee, e ia aic?anoaiea iiaouanoaa einie/aneiai
?acoia, e ia ionoonoaea i?aaeaeia aeey aai aiciiaeiie yeniainee ai
Anaeaiiie. Anaeaiiay, ii Oeeieeianeiio, aaneiia/ia a i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie e aeeth/aao a naay aaneiia/ioth ea?a?oeth einie/aneeo no?oeoo? –
io aoiiia aei “yoe?iuo ino?iaia” ?aciiai o?iaiy neiaeiinoe. Iuneue
Oeeieeianeiai i aiciiaeiinoe ninouanoaiaaiey ai Anaeaiiie iiiaeanoaa
einiinia iaiiiai iia?aaeeea nai? a?aiy e oaia?ue iia iaoea nai? ?acaeoea
a eaaioiaie einiieiaee.

I?eioeeiu naiii?aaiecaoeee e yaiethoeee oaeaea yaeythony eeth/aauie aeey
iaoaoeceee einie/aneie oeeinioee e auoaeathuae ec ia? iao/iie ea?oeiu
ie?a. “An? aeeai”, o.a. niiniaii e aaneiia/iie naiii?aaiecaoeee e
yaiethoeee. Oeeieeianeee aue ia niaeanai n oieeiaaieai einie/aneie
yaiethoeee eae iaoeeiiiie aeaa?aaeaoeee e aai ianiaeanea iaoei nai?
au?aaeaiea a i?eioeeiao naiii?aaiecaoeee e yaiethoeee. ?eoie/aneea
eciaiaiey Anaeaiiie a iaoaoeceea einie/aneie oeeinioee i/aiue aeecee
aaneiia/iui oeeeeai yaiethoeee. Yoe i?eioeeiu i?eia?aoatho a eiioaenoa
einie/aneie oeeinioee neaaeothuea cia/aiey:

yaiethoeey eae ia?eiaee/aneea o?ainoi?iaoeee, a oiaea eioi?uo aicieeatho
e ?ac?ooathony aan/eneaiiua nithcu “aoiiia-aeooia”, ia?acothueo
einie/aneea no?oeoo?u ?aciuo o?iaiae;

naiii?aaiecaoeey eae aicieeiiaaiea neiaeiuo (a oii /enea, aeeauo)
no?oeoo? ec aieaa i?inouo;

yaiethoeey e naiii?aaiecaoeey eae “aeiaaeueiue yaiethoeeiieci” (yoe
i?ioeannu iiaoo auoue niiioaiiuie eee iai?aaeyoueny ?acoiii).

Eaeay ia?aii?e/eiu (i?e/eiu) einiina eae n/eoae Oeeieeianeee “ia iiaeao
oaaaeeoue e ia eiaao aeaea iao/iie enoeiu. Ii y ia iiao ee/ii iaieoenue
aac ia?aii?e/eiu, anaiiaouae e aeaainoiie e naiaio nicaeaieth” [13]. Ii
neiaai Oeeieeianeiai an?, /oi aeey iaoaai oia aacia/aeueii e aaneiia/ii,
oi aeey ia?aii?e/eiu eiia/ii, aeaaea ioeue, o.a. aeey ia? ie? iia eiaoue
ia/aei. Anaiiaouay e iaaeii ethayuay nai? oai?aiea ia?aii?e/eia
iaoiaeeony aia Anaeaiiie e iiaeao a? oie/oiaeeoue ii naiae aiea. I?e/eia
“aacia?ii auoa einiina” e ianiecia?eia ni naiei oai?aieai, o.e. nicaea?o
aauanoai e yia?aeth, /oi “einiin nai ia a neeao aeaeaoue”. I?iieeiiaaiea
a naienoaa i?e/eiu i?eaiaeeo e iaiaeeaeaiiui auaiaeai yoe/aneiai
cia/aiey, eioi?ua “ia iiaoo ia eiaoue aeaaioai?iiai aeeyiey ia iinooiee
/aeiaaea e ae?oaeo niciaoaeueiuo” [13]. A? aeia?ioa, n/anouea,
ioae?inoue e iiaouanoai aaneiia/iu e ionthaea neaaeoao, ii
Oeeieeianeiio, ?yae auaiaeia:

“oaeiaeaoai?aiea ethaiciaoaeueiinoe e auoaeathuaa ionthaea niieienoaea”;

“nie?aiea ia?aae i?e/eiie”;

“/oanoai aeaaiaea?iinoe ca ia eii/athuaany aic?anoathuaa n/anouea”;

“iiaouanoai i?e/eiu ia i?eian?o iai cea e a aoaeouai”.

Iniiaiua eaeae einiecia iaoiaeyo oaeaea nai? io?aaeaiea a ?annoaeaeaieyo
Oeeieeianeiai i “aiea Anaeaiiie”. Anee an? aie?oa “ii?iaeaeaii
Anaeaiiie. Iia – ia/aei anao aauae”, oi “io ia? an? e caaeneo. *aeiaae
eee ae?oaia aunoaa nouanoai e aai aiey anoue oieueei i?iyaeaiea aiee
Anaeaiiie”. A eiioaenoa “aeeaie Anaeaiiie” iaoaoeceea /aeiaa/aneie
noaeueau ninoieo a oii, /oi nia?oe iao. A i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey e
?aniaaea nithcia “aoiiia-aeooia” nia?oue “neeaaaony n ?iaeaeaieai”.
Iiaay aeeciue “oioy e ?ac?ooeia, ii iiaia ?ac?ooaiea nieue?ony n iiaui
niaa?oaiiui ?iaeaeaieai… ?ac?ooaiey eee nia?oe aoaeoo iiaoi?youeny,
aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai ?ac, ii ana yoe ?ac?ooaiey anoue ia
en/aciiaaiey, a aicieeiiaaiey”. Niaeanii einie/aneie oeeinioee “aeooe
oioy e iao”, aeeciue a ?eoiao yaiethoeee Anaeaiiie “iai?a?uaia,
n/anoeeaa, iiaouanoaaiia, ieeiaaea ia i?ae?auaeanue e ieeiaaea ia
i?ae?aoeony”, o.e. ai a?aiaiii i??oaii aauanoaa iao noauaeoeaiiai
iuouaiey a?aiaie. Oaeie iiaeoiae e noaeueaa /aeiaaea a einiecia
oa?aeoa?ai oieueei aeey Oeeieeianeiai e yaeyaony i/aaeaeiie
aeueoa?iaoeaie “aeoeaii-yaiethoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea”. A niioaaonoaee n
eaeayie einiecia Oeeieeianeee n/eoae, /oi /aeiaae ioithaeue ia aa?oeia
yaiethoeee. *aeiaa/anoao i?aaenoieo “eaeoe aia??ae e i?ia?anne?iaaoue –
a ioiioaiee oaea, oia, i?aanoaaiiinoe, iiciaiey e oaoie/aneiai
iiaouanoaa. Aia?aaee aai aeae?o ia/oi aeanoyuaa, iaaiia?aceiia”. Ii
enoa/aiee ouny/e ieeeeiiia eao “ie/aai ianiaa?oaiiiai … ia Caiea oaea
ia aoaeao. Inoaiaony iaeii oi?ioaa, e /aio iaecaaaeii i?eaaae?o iao
?acoi e aai neea”. Einie/aneia auoea /aeiaa/anoaa ii Oeeieeianeiio
“iiaeao auoue iiae?acaeaeaii ia /aou?a iniiaiuo y?u:

Y?a ?iaeaeaiey, a eioi?oth anooieo /aeiaa/anoai /a?ac ianeieueei
aeanyoeia eao e eioi?ay i?iaeeeony ianeieueei ieeeea?aeia eao.

Y?a noaiiaeaiey. Yoa y?a aoaeao iciaiaiiaaia ?annaeaieai /aeiaa/anoaa ii
anaio einiino. Aeeeoaeueiinoue yoie y?u – nioie ieeeea?aeia eao.

Y?a ?anoeaaoa /aeiaa/anoaa. Oaia?ue o?oaeii i?aaeneacaoue a?
aeeeoaeueiinoue – i/aaeaeii, nioie ieeeea?aeia eao.

Y?a oa?ieiaeueiay caei?o aeanyoee ieeeea?aeia eao. Ai a?aiy yoie y?u
/aeiaa/anoai … ni/o?o ca aeaai aeeth/eoue aoi?ie caeii oa?iiaeeiaieee
a aoiia, o.a. ec ei?ioneoey?iiai aauanoaa i?aa?aoeoueny a eo/aaia. *oi
oaeia eo/aaay y?a einiina – iu ie/aai ia ciaai e ie/aai i?aaeiieaaaoue
ia iiaeai” [13].

Nia?aiaiiue einieci i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ia?aiio noaiiaeaiey
/aeiaa/anoaa e einie/aneay oeeinioey Oeeieeianeiai iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae ia?niaeoeaiue aa?eaio inouanoaeaiey oaeie
i?ia?aiiu.

1.2.5. Aaeeiue i?e?iaeiue noano?ao A.E.*eaeaaneiai

E.Y.Oeeieeianeee ieacae ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea iao/iiai
ie?iaicc?aiey e iaoiaeia iao/iie ?aaiou A.E.*eaeaaneiai. Eaeay aaeeinoaa
aeeaiai e iaaeeaiai, /aeiaaea e Einiina, ineoe/aneiai e oece/aneiai
yaeyaony iniiaiie aeey *eaeaaneiai e ii?aaeaeyao iai?aaeaiey aai iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee. Auaeaeaeaiea niaeuo aeiioac n iineaaeothuae eo
yiie?e/aneie i?iaa?eie noaiiaeony aeey *eaeaaneiai iniiaiui iaoiaeii
iao/iiai iiciaiey i?e?iaeu. Ii?aaeaao iau?i enneaaeiaaiee, auiieiaiiuo
*eaeaaneei a 1917-1924aa. A yoio ia?eiae ii auiieiyao ?aaiou ii
yenia?eiaioaeueiie aeioeceea, nioeeieiaee, yaiethoeeiiiie ii?oieiaee,
enoi?ee iaoee, eeoa?aoo?iaaaeaieth, iiiaea ec eioi?uo noaee
eeanne/aneeie. A naiae ?aaioa “Iniiaiia ia/aei ie?icaeaiey. Principium
Universale Circulationis” (1920-1921aa.) aaeeinoai i?e?iaeu *eaeaaneee
aeaeeo a aaeeiii i?e?iaeiii noano?aoa – yeaeo?iiiii, e a aaeeiii
i?aayuai ie?ii i?eioeeia, eioi?ue aeieaeai iaiaueoue iiiai/eneaiiua
/anoiua caeiiu.

Aaeeinoai ie?icaeaiey aeieaeii iniiauaaoueny ia aaeeiii i?e?iaeiii
noano?aoa, aaeeiie “noeoee” – oaeiai aicc?aiea ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo
oeeinioia eiieeneie oeieu. O Oaeana oaeei noano?aoii aunooiaao aiaea, o
Aiaeneiaia – aicaeoo, o Aa?aeeeoa – iaiiue, o Aiaeneiaiae?a –
aeiioaoe/aneee aiae?ii [1]. *eaeaaneee aeaeeo noano?ao-ia?aiiniiao a
ioe?uoie a eiioea XIX a. no?oeoo?iie noaaoiiiie aaeeieoea aauanoaa –
yeaeo?iia. “Iaoa?eaeueiue ie? anoue a?aia iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo, a iioiio
caeiiiia?iuo, eiiaeiaoeee, aaeeiiai noano?aoa-yeaeo?iia!” – ioia/aao
*eaeaaneee. “Anee iu aniio?einy a ie?oaeathuee ian ie? aeeaioiuo e
?anoaiee, eaeia aaca?aie/iia ?aciiia?acea oaeaeei iu! Ii ai an?i yoii
aiaoiai ?aciiia?acee iu iaoiaeei aaeeioth aeey anao i?aaieciia iniiao –
aeeaoth eeaoeo e anaiauiinoue eieeieaeiiai ninoiyiey. Iineaaeiaa iaei
oiai, /oi o/eo ian aaeeeiio aaeeinoao i?e?iaeu, iii o/eo ian aa?eoue a
aa/iia a? nouanoaiaaiea, oeaeaniia?aciinoue e aa?iiieth; … iu eiaai
aaeeinoai aeeaiai aauanoaa; … ienoiaey a aeoaeio anaai aeeaiai, e
aeaeaa – a aeoaeio iaoa?ee, iu iicia?i aaeeiia ia/aei, aaeeioth iniiao
anaai nouaai – aaeeinoai iaoa?ee – yeaeo?ii” [14]. Iaiaoiaeeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi ioe?uoue a eiioea XIX a. yeaeo?ii aeieaia a?aiy aue
aaeeinoaaiiie ecaanoiie yeaiaioa?iie /anoeoeae. A ia/aea XX a.
iaoaienoe/aneay ea?oeia ie?a onooiaao ianoi yeaeo?iiaaieoiie. Oaeei auei
iao/iia ie?iiiieiaiea o iiiaeo o/?iuo a ia?aie /aoaa?oe XX a., oaeei iii
auei e o *eaeaaneiai. “Ana oeie/aneea, a oaeaea oece/aneea yaeaiey iuia
iauyniythony eneeth/eoaeueii naienoaaie yeaeo?iiia: naao, oaieioa,
?acee/iua ninoiyiey iaoa?ee: aaciia?aciia, aeeaeeia, oa??aeia, aeaaea
yeaeo?e/anoai e iaaiaoeci – ana iie nooue i?iyaeaiey iaeiie e oie aea
einie/aneie yia?aee – yeaeo?iiaaiaoecia e aai yeaiaioa?iie /anoe/ee –
yeaeo?iia. E aeaeaeoueany aie?oa naaoeea ieaiaou, e naao, iiaeiuaaiue
cae?iuie ?anoaieyie, e ao?iay ?aaeoeey oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeaia, e ana aei
aaeeiiai yaeaiey – an? yoi i?iaeoeou ?aaiou yoiai iaeaiueeiai
yeaeo?iia”. “Iao niiiaiey, /oi e iieaeoey?iua neeu, e neeu anaie?iiai
oyaioaiey iaeiiai aaeeinoaaiiiai yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, –
iaeiiai aaeeinoaaiiiai, oae eae e naia iaoa?ey, i?aaieciaaiiay eee
iai?aaieciaaiiay, anoue i?iyaeaiea yoeo e oieueei yoeo aaeeiuo,
anaiaueo, einie/aneeo yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo nee” [14]. Aicc?aiey *eaeaaneiai
ia aaeeiue i?e?iaeiue noano?ao, ai iiiaii i?iaeae/aneea, ii e ai iiiaii
ia?aie/aiiua ?aieaie oece/aneiai ciaiey oiai a?aiaie, iaaeaeo oai,
iiiiaee aio aeinoe/ue oniaoia a enneaaeiaaiee aeioece/aneeo,
aeioeie/aneeo e ae?oaeo i?ioeannia, a eioi?uo nouanoaaiioth ?ieue
ea?atho yeaeo?iiaaieoiua yaeaiey. Aaeeinoai ie?icaeaiey aeieaeii
iniiauaaoueny, ii iiaieth *eaeaaneiai, ia oieueei ia aaeeiii i?e?iaeiii
noano?aoa, ii e ia aaeeiii ie?iaii i?eioeeia. *eaeaaneee n/eoaao, /oi
“iaoaieea i?e?iaeu aeieaeia iieieoueny ia aaeeiii, anaiauaiethuai
i?eioeeia” – i?eioeeia anaiauaai e?oaiia?auaiey (principium universale
circulationis), eioi?iio iiae/eiaii an? ie?oaeathuaa ian. O.a.
*eaeaaneee iiaeieiaao ieoaai?aeneoth eaeath e?oaiiai?ioa aei o?iaiy
anaiauaai ie?iaiai i?eioeeia. “I/aaeaeii, /oi anaeaiiay eee a?
ioaeaeueiua /anoe – ca?caeiua ie?u – iiaeaa?aeaiu oiio aea einie/aneiio
i?eioeeio, eioi?ue iu iaaethaeaai a oea?noaa i?aaie/aneie e
iai?aaie/aneie iaoa?ee. *aeiaae, aeeaioiia e ?anoaiea ?iaeaeathony,
aeeaoo e oie?atho … Oi aea naiia niaa?oaaony e ni ca?caeiuie
nenoaiaie: iie niceaeathony, aeeaoo e iiaeaatho, /oiau aiiaue …
nicaeaoue iiaoth nenoaio eee iiaue ie?. … Iai aaaeii eeoue onoaiiaeoue
oaeo oie iauiinoe anao yaeaiee a i?e?iaea, eaeiaay e i?eaaae?o ian a
eiioea eiioeia e i?eciaieth aa/iiai e?oaiai?ioa aauae – yoiai aannia?oey
Einiina, eae Aaeeeiai Oeaeiai” [14]. *eaeaaneee aaiaeeo iiaoth
eeanneoeeaoeeth iaoa?eaeueiuo oae, aeaey eo ia aeaa eeanna – oaea
anoanoaaiiua: ieia?aeu, ?anoaiey, aeeaioiua e oaea eneonnoaaiiua:
iaoaie/aneea niane, aaieiae/aneea ia?aciaaiey, i?aaeiaou oai?/anoaa ie?a
aeeauo nouanoa.

Anoanoaaiiua oaea (“o?e oea?noaa i?e?iaeu – ie? ieia?aeia, ?anoaiee,
aeeaioiuo”) “aicieeatho anoanoaaiiui ioo?i, iieo/atho naith oi?io
iaiin?aaenoaaiii io i?e?iaeu”. Iie iaeaaeatho aiieia ii?aaeae?iiie
oi?iie, eioi?oth i?e eo “?iaeaeaiee” iiaeii i?aaeneacaoue.

Eneonnoaaiiua oaea (aeii, niou, aiacaei, ai?u…) ia?acothony a
?acoeueoaoa iaeioi?iai oai?/aneiai aeoa oae anoanoaaiiuo – “aeeauo
nouanoa eee iaoaie/aneeo nee i?e?iaeu”. Eo oi?ia ?acee/ia e
ii?aaeaeyaony yoei oai?/aneei aeoii, a? iaeuecy i?aaeneacaoue ca?aiaa.

*eaeaaneee oeacuaaao ia cia/aiea ie?iaicc?aiey – iiiecia, eioi?iai ii
i?eaea?aeeaaeny. Ii aai iiaieth, “anei?a aeieaeiu aoaeoo ioianoue ana
iaoaoece/aneea oeieu, e iaiao/iue aeoaeeci aeieaeai aoaeao onooieoue
ianoi iao/iiio iiiecio” [14].

O?oaeu *eaeaaneiai ia i?iiaee aea?ii, e ii nae aeaiue iu eniieuecoai aai
ciaiey ia aeaai iauanoaa.

2. Nia?aiaiiay oeeaeeecaoeey e ?onneee einieci

Ao?iia ?acaeoea oaoiieiaee a iaoe aeie i?eaaei e caeiiiia?iui e?eceniui
yaeaieyi, eioi?ua o?ainoi?ie?iaaeenue a eiioea XX a. a aeiaaeueiua
i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua, a oii /enea, e n yeieiaeae. Eoeueoo?a oaoiiaaiiie
oeeaeeecaoeee anaaaea aeeth/aea a naay iao/ioth ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue,
eioi?ay auea iai?aaeaia ia i?aia?aciaaiea ie?oaeathuaai ie?a a
niioaaonoaee n iio?aaiinoyie /aeiaa/anoaa. Iaiaoiaeeii oeacaoue ia
niaiaaeaiea iiiaeo i?aaenoaaeaiee iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a n eaeayie
oeeinioee ?onneiai einiecia. A ?onneii einiecia i?aaei?eieiaeanue
iiiuoea aic?iaeeoue eaeath i?aaie/iie nayce /aeiaaea e einiina.

A ?aeeaeiciii iai?aaeaiee einiecia iaeaieaa aaaeouae auea eiioeaioeey
I.O?aei?iaa, eioi?ue ia aue oaeiaeaoai??i ?aneieii ie?icaeaiey ia
/aeiaaea e i?e?iaeo eae i?ioeainoiyuea ae?oa ae?oao /anoe ie?icaeaiey.
Ii aai iiaieth, oaeia i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea ia?aeaei i?e?iaeo ia
aacaeoiiinoue e ?ac?ooeoaeueiinoue, a ethaeae – ia iiae/eiaiea
nouanoaothuaio ceo. O?aei?ia ionoaeaae eaeath aaeeinoaa /aeiaaea e
i?e?iaeu, nayce “aeooe” e einiina a oa?ieiao ?aaoeyoeee e aine?aoaiey.
Aai i?iaeo aine?aoaiey naiaeeeny ia oieueei e iaeeaeaieth a oceii,
i?yiii niunea, a e a aieaa oe?ieii – iaoaoi?e/aneii – niunea aeeth/ae
niiniaiinoue i?e?iaeu e naiiainnoaiiaeaieth, o.a. aai i?iaeo aine?aoaiey
naycai n eaeaae auoiaea /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia a einiin. Aeey iaai “caiey
ia a?aieoea”, a “/aeiaa/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ia aeieaeia
ia?aie/eaaoueny i?aaeaeaie caiiie ieaiaou”, eioi?ay yaeyaony eeoue
enoiaeiui ioieoii yoie aeayoaeueiinoe [6]. E?eoe/anee ioiinynue e
ooiie/aneei yeaiaioai aicc?aiee O?aei?iaa, iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue
?aoeeiiaeueiua iiiaiou aai eiioeaioeee – , a eiaiii, – aai io/?oeeai
i?i?eniaaiioth eaeath acaeiinayce, aaeeiaiey /aeiaaea e einiina, eaeath
acaeiiiai iieaaaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai e i?aanoaaiiiai ia/aea /aeiaaea,
eaeaae aaeeinoaa /aeiaa/anoaa eae ieaiaoa?iie iauiinoe ethaeae.

A ioee/ee io ?aeeaeiciiai einiecia, a anoanoaaiiiiao/iii iai?aaeaiee i?e
?aoaiee i?iaeaiu acaeiinayce /aeiaaea e einiina iniaia aieiaiea
oaeaeyeinue iniuneaieth iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo yoo
acaeiinaycue. I.A.Oieiaeiue ?acaeaae yoe eaeae a oa?ieiao
aio?iiieiniecia, a i?ioeaiaan ao?iiioeao?ecio. “Iinoaaea naay ia ianoi
aiaa, – ioia/ae ii, – /aeiaae ?ac?ooee anoanoaaiiua nayce n i?e?iaeie e
ia??e naay ia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia iaeeii/iia nouanoaiaaiea” [10]. Ii aai
iiaieth, aio?iiioeaio?eci i?io?e ianeieueei yoaiia a nai?i ?acaeoee: ia
ia?aie noaaeee /aeiaae ia auaeaeye naay ec i?e?iaeu e ia
i?ioeaiiinoaaeye naay ae, nei?aa ii “i/aeiaa/eaae” i?e?iaeiua neeu
(ioiioaiea neaaiai e neeueiiio); ia aoi?ii yoaia /aeiaae, auaeaeyy naay
ec i?e?iaeu, ia/eiaao niio?aoue ia ia? eae ia iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey,
iniiao naiaai aeaaininoiyiey; ia neaaeothuae noaaeee /aeiaae aiciineo
naay iaae i?e?iaeie, iie?aynue ia neeo aeooa, ii iicia?o Anaeaiioth; e
iaeiiaoe, ia neaaeothuai yoaia, ianooiaao e?ecen aio?iiioeaio?enoneiai
ie?iaicc?aiey, eioi?ia ia/eiaao ?ac?ooaoueny iiae aeeyieai oniaoia iaoee
e oeeinioee. I.A.Oieiaeiue ni?aaaaeeeai ioia/ae, /oi aio?iiioeaio?eci a
nai? a?aiy nua?ae iiceoeaioth ?ieue a ea/anoaa ie?iaicc?aiey,
inaiaiaeeaoaai /aeiaaea io no?aoa ia?aae neeaie i?e?iaeu oeaiie naiaai
aicaaee/eaaiey iaae iae. Iaeiaei iinoaiaiii noaee aicieeaoue ca/aoee
iiaiai acaeyaea – aio?iiieinie/aneiai. Aio?iiieinieci ?anniao?eaaeny
Oieiaeiui eae ii?aaeae?iiay eeiey ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai eioaeeaeoa, aai
aiee, eioi?ua aaee /aeiaaea e aeinoeaeaieth aai oeaeae. Aaaeiui
yeaiaioii a aio?iiieiniecia auea iiiuoea ia?aniio?aoue aii?in i ianoa
/aeiaaea a i?e?iaea e aai acaeiiioiioaiee n Einiinii ia iniiaa
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo ciaiee. *aeiaae ia/eiae ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iaeia ec
i?aaie/aneeo /anoae ie?a, e ooaa?aeaeaeinue oaaaeaeaiea, /oi oieueei ia
yoii iooe iiaeii iaeoe eeth/ e iiieiaieth i?e?iaeu naiiai /aeiaaea.
*aeiaae aeieaeai no?aieoueny e aaeeinoao n i?e?iaeie, eioi?ia iaiaauaao
e ?anoe?yao aai aioo?aiithth aeeciue.

Iioiaeea eaeae ?acaeaae e I.A.Oiia, iiae/??eeaay, /oi “/aeiaae iiaeao
iuneeoue naay eae /anoue, eae iaeii ec i?aoiaeyueo caaiueaa Anaeaiiie”.
Ii oaeaea iieaaae, /oi aio?iiioeaio?e/aneia ie?inica?oeaiea ?ac?ooaaony,
inaiaiaeaeay ianoi aio?iiieiniecio [8].

Eaeae acaeiinayce /aeiaaea e einiina iniaaiii auaeaeyeanue a ?aaioao
E.Y.Oeeieeianeiai, eioi?ue aeaaea iacuaaao iaeio ec ieo “Einie/aneay
oeeinioey”. “Aanue einiin iaoneiaeeaaao iaoo aeeciue, – ienae ii, – an?
iai?a?uaii e an? aaeeii”. “Anaeaiiay ia eiaea au niunea, anee au ia auea
caiieiaia i?aaie/aneei, ?acoiiui, /oanoaothuei ie?ii”. Oeeieeianeee ia
i?inoi oeacuaaao ia acaeiinaycue /aeiaaea e Einiina, ii e iiae/??eeaaao
caaeneiinoue /aeiaaea io iaai. “… O?oaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oiau
eaeay-ieaoaeue aai (einiina) /anoue ia eiaea ?aii eee iicaeii ia ian
aeeyiea” [24].

Yoa eaeay – aeeyiey eae aeeaeiaai, oae e aeaeueiaai einiina ia aeeciue
/aeiaaea – aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaaeanue A.E.*eaeaaneei,
eioi?ue iieaaae, /oi “iaoa iao/iia ie?iaicc?aiea au? aeaeaei io
enoi?e/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i cia/aiee aeey i?aaie/aneiai oea?noaa
einie/aneeo eceo/aiee”. Oai ia iaiaa ?yae aeinoeaeaiee iaoee XX a., ii
iiaieth *eaeaaneiai, iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi “a iaoeao i
i?e?iaea eaeay i aaeeinoaa e naycaiiinoe anao yaeaiee a ie?a e /oanoai
ie?a eae iaaeaeeiiai oeaeiai aeinoeaee a iaoe aeie iniaie yniinoe e
aeoaeiu… No?iaiea Caiee, a? oeceeioeiey, aeinoa?a yaeythony
i?iieeiiaaieai no?iaiey e iaoaieee Anaeaiiie”. *eaeaaneee
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao naith oi/eo c?aiey nouanoaothuaio iiaieth, /oi
“aeeciue anoue ?acoeueoao neo/aeiie ea?u oieueei caiiuo nee”. Aeey iaai
aeeciue a cia/eoaeueii aieueoae noaiaie anoue yaeaiea einie/aneia, /ai
caiiia. Iia nicaeaia aicaeaenoaeai oai?/aneie aeeiaieee einiina ia
eia?oiue iaoa?eae Caiee. *aeiaae “ia oieueei caiiia nouanoai, ioia/ae
ii, – ii e einie/aneia, naycaiiia anae naiae aeieiaeae, anaie
iieaeoeaie, /anoeoeaie naieo oae n einiinii, n aai eo/aie, iioieaie e
iieyie”. A yoii neo/aa aiana ia neo/aeiui auaeyaeeo aeeyiea nieia/iie
yia?aee ia i?ioaeaiea aeeciaiiuo i?ioeannia. *eaeaaneee iaeiei ec ia?auo
enneaaeiaaoaeae iainiiaae yoo eaeath eiie?aoiuie iao/iuie oaeoaie. A
/anoiinoe, ii i?iaiaeece?iaae ei??aeyoeee iaaeaeo nieia/iie
aeoeaiinoueth e ieeaie yieaeaiee e iieacae, /oi nieia/iay aeoeaiinoue
aunooiaao naiaia?aciui ?aaoeyoi?ii oa/aiey yieaeaie/aneeo i?ioeannia.
Yoi eiia/ii ia icia/aao, /oi “ninoiyiea nieioeaaeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie i?e/eiie yieaeaie/aneiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey oao eee eiuo
aieaciae”, ii aeoeaiinoue Nieioea “niinianoaoao eo auno?iio iac?aaaieth
e eioaineaiiio oa/aieth” [16].

I?iaeaia aaeeiiai ie?a e aaeeiiai ciaiey i ie?a auea iaeaieaa
iniiaaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaia A.E.Aa?iaaeneei. Aa?iaaeneee ioia/ae, /oi
“aio?iiioeaio?e/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia niaiaaeaao n oai ?aaeueiui
auyaeaieai Einiina, eioi?ue ioaaouaaaony iao/iie ?aaioie e iao/iie
iuneueth enneaaeiaaoaey I?e?iaeu” [17]. Ii ioia/ae, /oi “a iaoea iao aei
neo ii? yniiai niciaiey, /oi yaeaiey aeecie e yaeaiey i??oaie i?e?iaeu,
acyoua n aaieiae/aneie, o.a. ieaiaoa?iie oi/ee c?aiey, yaeythony
i?iyaeaieai aaeeiiai i?ioeanna”. Ii, eae iiae/??eeaaao Aa?iaaeneee,
aeieiae ia aeieaeiu caauaaoue, /oi eco/aaiay eie noa?a aeecie yaeyaony
ia?ac?uaiie /anoueth caiiie ei?u e ieacuaaao ia ia? aeoeaiia ia?aoiia
aeeyiea, eciaiyy a?. Iie ia aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoue aeeciue a io?uaa io
yaiethoeee oeaeinoiiai einiina. Ii aai iiaieth, oaeay onoaiiaea yaeeanue
neaaenoaeai oiai, /oi aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy Anaeaiiay eacaeanue
aacaeeciaiiie. Iniiaaieai aeey oaeeo iano?iaiee yaeeinue ooaa?aeaeaiea a
iaoea i?eioeeia Eiia?ieea, a eiaaea a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. Auee
iieo/aiu /eneiaua aeaiiua i ?acia?ao Anaeaiiie, eacaeinue, /oi aeeciue
aiiaua ?anoai?eeanue a einie/aneii i?ino?ainoaa, e iinoaiaiii noaei
ooaa?aeaeaoueny iiaiea, /oi iaeia cia/aiea aeecie a ie?icaeaiee yaeyaony
auaiaeii ec iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee. Iaeiaei ii ia?a ?acaeoey iaoee
iiyaeythony iniiaaiey oniiieoueny a aannii?iinoe oaeiai ?iaea
caeeth/aiee. Aa?iaaeneee i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao o?aaeeoeeiiiie oi/ea c?aiey
eioth iiceoeeth. Ii aeaiiino?e?oao, /oi a ie?iaie yaiethoeee aeeciue
aunooiaao ia neo/aeiui, a caeiiiia?iui neaaenoaeai, /oi oa?aeoa?
einie/aneiai ?acaeoey aeeciaiiuo i?ioeannia iaoneiaeai anai einie/aneei
oeaeui. I?e oaeii ?anniio?aiee aeeciue aunooiaao oaea eae einie/aneia
yaeaiea. Aa?iaaeneee ?anniao?eaaao /aeiaa/anoai eae /anoue aeinoa?u,
eioi?ay ieacuaaao ia yoo nenoaio aeoeaiia aicaeaenoaea. Aicieeathuaa a
i?ioeanna aeiyaiethoeee /aeiaa/aneia niciaiea noaiiaeony iniaui oaeoi?ii
yaiethoeee, cia/aiea eioi?iai aic?anoaao n oa/aieai a?aiaie.
Ia?a?anoaiea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o eae au yaeyaony eiae/aneei caaa?oaieai
yaiethoeee iaoa?ee: ana /anoe ?acaeaathuaainy ie?a ieacuaathony
acaeiinaycaiiuie, e /aeiaae caeiiiia?ii aienuaaaony a yoio ie?.

A ?onneii einiecia aeinoaoi/ii ynii iniciaaaeenue ia oieueei
caaeneiinoue /aeiaaea io einiina, ii e ia?aoiia aeeyiea /aeiaaea ia
ie?oaeathuee ie?. Ni?acia?iinoue /aeiaaea e inoaeueiiai ie?a iineoaeeee
iniiaie aeey ?acaeoie ?onneeie einienoaie eaeae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
niecia?youe /aeiaa/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue n i?eioeeiaie oeaeinoiinoe
yoiai ie?a. A ?onneii einiecia iainiiauaaeenue i?eioeeiu iiaiai
ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e i?e?iaea. Oaeoe/anee ii aeinoaoi/ii aeecei iiaeio?e
e iniciaieth oao i?iaeai, eioi?ua a aeaeueiaeoai iieo/eee iacaaiea
aeiaaeueiuo. Ii iaiueoae ia?a eaeay aiciiaeiiai yeieiae/aneiai e?ecena,
oioy e iayaii, ii ana-oaee io/?oeeai cao/aea a ?aaioao einienoia e aiana
ia neo/aeii. Oieiaeiue oeacuaae, /oi “eciaiaiey, iaaycuaaaiua /aeiaaeii
i?e?iaea, eiatho naie a?aieoeu”, eae nouanoai ?acoiiia, /aeiaae aeieaeai
i?aaeaeaeaoue ?acoeueoaou naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, ca eioi?oth ian?o
ioaaonoaaiiinoue [10]. Eiooeoeaiia iniciaiea ?onneei einieciii
aiciiaeiuo aeiaaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo oaoiie?aoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea e aa?iiieae einiina i?eaiaeeei aai e iieneai
auoiaea ec aiciiaeiiai aoaeouaai iaaeaaii?eyoiiai ninoiyiey, a eioi?ia
iiaei au auoue aaa?aiooi /aeiaa/anoai.

Eaaeaeue ec einienoia i?aaeeaaae naie aa?eaio aoaeouaai ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/anoaa. Oeeieeianeee ?eniaae aiieia eaeeeee/aneoth ea?oeio: “…
eeeiao aoaeao eciaiyoueny ii aeaeaieth e iaaeiaiinoe. Any caiey
naeaeaaony iaeoaaiie e i?eiinyuae aaeeeea ieiaeu. Aoaeao iieiue i?inoi?
aeey ?acaeoey eae iauanoaaiiuo, oae e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo naienoa
/aeiaaea. Oaoieea aoaeouaai aeano aiciiaeiinoue eco/eoue ana ieaiaou…,
ianiaa?oaiiua ie?u aoaeoo eeeaeaee?iaaiu e caiaiaiu nianoaaiiui
ianaeaieai. Caiey aoaeao ioaeaaaoue iaaaniui eieiieyi naie ecauoie
ethaeae… A eiia/iii n/?oa, iu oaeaeei aaneiia/ioth Anaeaiioth n
aaneiia/iui /eneii niaa?oaiiuo nouanoa” [18]. Iaeaieaa ?aaeenoe/iua
noeaia?ee ?anniao?eaaeenue a eiioeaioeee Aa?iaaeneiai. ?anniio?aiea
/aeiaaea eae iniaie aaieiae/aneie neeu, niiniaiie ?aaeeeaeueii eciaieoue
ie?, a eioi?ii ii aeea?o, i?eaiaeeee e auaiaeo i aiciiaeiuo iaaaoeaiuo
iineaaenoaeyo aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, /oi iiaeao ioeaieaaoueny eae
i?aaeaeaeaiea aa?iyoiuo aeiaaeueiuo yeieiae/aneeo e?ecenia. Aianoa n
oai, Aa?iaaeneee iioeienoe/anee ?anniao?eaae ia?niaeoeau /aeiaa/anoaa,
naycuaay aai aoaeouaa n i?ioeannaie ia?aoiaea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o e
aic?anoaieai ?aaoee?othuae ?iee /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia. Eioa?aniua
?aciuoeaiey auee i?aaeeiaeaiu a oeeinioee “iauaai aeaea” O?aei?iaa, a
eioi?ie ii i?aaeinoa?aaae io aiciiaeiuo iineaaenoaee ia?acoiiiai
ia?auaiey n i?e?iaeie. “*aeiaae naeaeae, ii-aeaeeiiio, an? cei, eaeia
oieueei iia ioiineoaeueii i?e?iaeu (enoiuaiea, iionoioaiea,
oeuie/anoai), ioiineoaeueii e ae?oa ae?oaa (ecia?aoaiea aoaeoaeueiuo
i?oaeee e aiiaua n?aaenoa aeey acaeiiiai oie/oiaeaiey)” [18]. Ana aaaeu
iaoae aeecie, ii aai iiaieth, i?ienoiaeyo ec-ca aeenaa?iiiee /aeiaaea e
i?e?iaeu. Iauaa aeaei aunooiaao eae oi?aaeaiea noeoeeiuie neeaie
i?e?iaeu. A ?aaeecaoeee yoiai i?iaeoa O?aei?ia a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
iieaaaeny ia i?aanoaaiioth neeo /aeiaaea e neeo aai ?acoia. “Einiin
ioaeaeaaony a ?acoia aeey oiai, /oiau noaoue einiinii, a ia oainii.
Einiin (eaeia ii anoue, ii ia eaeiaui aeieaeai auoue) anoue neea aac
?acoia, a /aeiaae anoue (iiea) ?acoi aac neeu. Ii eae aea ?acoi iiaeao
noaoue neeie, a neea – ?acoiii? Neea noaiao ?acoiiie, eiaaea ?acoi
noaiao oi?aaeyoue ath. Noaei auoue ana caaeneo io /aeiaaea”. O.a. iauaa
aeaei yaeyeinue eae iooue, aaaeouee /aeiaa/anoai e aaeeiaieth e
iaiiaeaieth ia aoiaienoe/aneie, i?aanoaaiiie iniiaa.

A oeeinioee einiecia i/aiue io/?oeeai iaicia/eeenue aeaa aniaeoa
acaeiinayce /aeiaaea e einiina: n iaeiie noi?iiu, /aeiaae ?anniao?eaaeny
eae iaiouaieaiay /anoue iaiythuaainy Einiina, caaenyuay ai anao naieo
i?iyaeaieyo io einie/aneiai oeaeiai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, nai /aeiaae
?anniao?eaaeny a ea/anoaa oaeoi?a yaiethoeee, ?acaeaay naie niiniaiinoe
oaeei ia?acii, /oi, nicaeaaay iiaoth oaoieeo e oaoiieiaeth, ii ia/eiae
aeoeaii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ie?oaeathuee ie?. E oioy ia ?oaaaea XIX-XX
aa. aa?a a iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann auea aeinoaoi/ii c?eiie e au? ia
i?iyaeyeenue e?eceniua iineaaenoaey oaoiie?aoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e ie?o,
einienou i?aaeoi?aaeaeaee aoaeouea iieieaiey io aiciiaeiuo iaaaoeaiuo
iineaaenoaee aacoaea?aeiie e ie/ai ia ia?aie/aiiie oaoiieiae/aneie
yenieoaoaoeee i?e?iaeu. E ana aea einieci ia iieo/ee oe?ieiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey e iiaoi?ee noaeueao iiiaeo oeeinioneeo oa/aiee,
i?iaeoeoeaiua eaeae eioi?uo cia/eoaeueii iia?aaeaee naith yiioo. Oai ia
iaiaa a nia?aiaiiie neooaoeee ia?aae eeoeii yeieiae/aneiai e?ecena,
iiene “iauaai aeaea” eae ?aaoeyoeee ioiioaiee /aeiaaea e inoaeueiiai
ie?a i?eia?aoaao oaea i?ei?eoaoiia cia/aiea. Iniai noieo iiae/a?eiooue
niaiaaeaiea aeaaiuo i?eioeeiia oeeinioee einiecia e iiiaeo iniiaiuo
eaeae nia?aiaiiie iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a. Einieci aica?auaao ian e
oeaeinoiiio aeaeaieth ie?a eae aaeeinoaa /aeiaaea e einiina. Ii a
ninoiyiee nua?aoue iiceoeaioth ?ieue a niaaeeiaiee eaeae
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?iie o?aaeeoeee e ainoi/iuo oeeinioneeo
nenoai, aaea /aeiaae ecia/aeueii ?anniao?eaaeny eae iaiouaieaiay /anoue
Einiina. A oaeaea iiii/ue a ?ac?aaioea iiaie iaoaoeceee naycaiiie n
iiaui iiieiaieai ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e ie?oaeathuaio ie?o.

Iiinoa?a: ooiiey eee ?aaeueiinoue ?

A eiioea XX a. ethaee Caiee caaiai?eee i auaeeaaiee. Iniiaiiieiaeieee
o/aiey i iiinoa?a aa?eee a oi, /oi a? noaiiaeaiea aaae?o e oeo/oaieth
i?e?iaeiie e nioeeaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e aieaa niaa?oaiiui oi?iai
auoey. Aaaeue iiinoa?a yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii ieaiiia?iiai e
niciaoaeueiiai i?aia?aciaaiey aeinoa?u a ea/anoaaiii iiaia ninoiyiea.
Yoi i?aia?aciaaiea i?eieiaeinue eae ianiiiaiiia aeaai, eioi?ia i?eian?o
/aeiaa/anoao ?ac?aoaiea anao o?oaeiuo i?iaeai. A.E.Aa?iaaeneee naycuaae
aai n nioeeaeeciii, ?anoe?ea caaea/o i?aiaeieaiey noeoeeiinoe i?e?iaeu
aei iauanoaa. E.Y.Oeeieeianeei iiinoa?a ?anniao?eaaeanue eae iieiia
ono?aiaiea cea, eae anaiauay aa?iiiey. Yeieiae/aneay ianoaiiaea
nia?aiaiiinoe noieue na?ue?cia, /oi o?aaoao ei?aiiiai ia?aniio?a o/aiey
i iiinoa?a, eioi?ia n naiiai ia/aea ianei a naaa yeaiaiou ooiiee.
Iaiaoiaeeii ioee/aoue ooiie/aneea ia/ou i iiinoa?a e a? oaia?aoiaa
ninoiyiea. Nae/an iiinoa?a auno?i i?ia?anne?oao e aeaaea niia?ie/aao n
aeinoa?ie. *oi aea a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?ienoiaeeo a “iaeanoe ieaiaou,
ioaa/aiiie ?acoiiie /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth” (eae ii?aaeaeyao
iiinoa?o “Oeeinioneee neiaa?ue”). Iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue, /oi noaiiaeaiea
iiinoa?u e aicieeiiaaiea aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai /aeiaa/anoaa – iaeei e oio
aea i?ioeann. Iiinoa?a eae ?aaeueiinoue – yoi eneonnoaaiiay n?aaea,
eioi?ay iiaeaaeyao ie?oaeathuoth i?e?iaeo. Oi?ie?iaaiea eneonnoaaiiie
n?aaeu aeaei /aeiaa/anoao i?aeoe/anee iaia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey
?inoa eiioi?oa e aaciianiinoe, ii i?eaaei e cya?yciaieth aicaeooa e
aiaeu, e iauae aeaa?aaeaoeee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

?onneee einieci e nia?aiaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i iiinoa?a eiatho, a
nouiinoe, iauea oeaee, eioi?ua iiae/eiaiu ia?aeeth/aieth iaoaai aieiaiey
e aeayoaeueiinoe n i?e?iaeu ia oaoieeo, n caiee ia einiin. I?e?iaea a
ea/anoaa aeinoa?u ioaeia oaoiieiaee oieueei ia ia/aeueiii yoaia. Oaoieea
iiaeao ?aaioaoue e ia aacaeeciaiiuo ieaiaoao, /oi ioe?uaaao
aiciiaeiinoue aaca?aie/iie einie/aneie yeniainee iiioaoiinoa?u.
Aaeeinoaaiiay i?iaeaia – /aeiaae, eioi?iio ioaeiu ii?aaeae?iiua oneiaey
aeey aeecie. Ec-ca yoiai ana einienou i?eoiaeyo e eaeaa “iiaiai
/aeiaaea”, naa?o/aeiaaea ia niiniaiiai iiiaoaoue aeaeueiaeoaio i?ia?anno
iiciaiey e oaoieee. A niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie einie/aneie n?aaeu
/aeiaae aoaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie iiaeiaea niaa?oaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a,
ia /oanoaeoaeueiiai e oneiaeyi ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Ii iiaeii ee a oaeii
neo/aa ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi yoi nicaeaiea inoaiaony /aeiaaeii? Nicaeaiea e
?acaeoea nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa iaeuecy inoaiiaeoue.
Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi iai inoa?ony – yoi ai?ueaa ca nio?aiaiea caiiie
n?aaeu iaeoaiey, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey auaeeaaiey iau/iiai /aeiaaea.
Aeiionoei aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey iaeiaai aanoaeaniiai nicaeaiey.
Yoi ia /aeiaae e ia aeooa, oae eae aeey ia? iaiaoiaeeii oaei. “Aeooa”
noi?iiieeia a? aannia?oey – aannia?oiay eioi?iaoeey, iniciaaoay naiia
naay. Aannia?oea – yoi aaneiia/iinoue ai a?aiaie, a iiiyoea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao aaeeie/iia, o.a. eiia/iia. I
aannia?oee iiaeii aiai?eoue oieueei i?eiaieoaeueii e auoeth a oeaeii.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ia aannia?oii, aoaeue oi oaei, aeooa eee
eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia. Oie?aao aeaaea eioi?iaoeey, oae eae i?e
eciaiaiee oneiaee iia i?aa?auaaony a aeaceioi?iaoeeth e aeieaeia
iaiiaeyoueny. O einienoia iao yniinoe a ioiioaiee ee/iiai aannia?oey.
Oioy eaeae, iunee aieueoeinoaa oia?oeo inoathony a iaiyoe ?iaenoaaiieeia
eee a eieaao, eiaee?othony, aaiaeyony a eiiiuethoa?iua aacu aeaiiuo,
aeinooiiua anaio ie?o. Iu iiaeai oaeaeaoue ia?acu oia?oeo (ia ye?aia
oaeaaeci?a), eioi?ua aiai?yo, iitho, aeaeaathony. Ii ii/aio-oi iu ia
n/eoaai eo aeeauie. Iaeiaei anoue ethaee, oaa?aiiua “ai ananeeee ciaiey,
iiaaaeaeathuaai nia?oue e iiaouaai ia aaca eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ia?aii
aeiiieaauo nenoai aica?aoeoue e aeecie anao, eae aiai?eony, ooaaeoeo a
iaauoea, ii a iiaie, aieaa niaa?oaiiie oi?ia, ia iaaaeeiaie iniiaa”.

Iaaei niioiineoue iaoeo e oaoieeo n oeaeyie auaeeaaiey, aaniieiynue ia
oi?aaeaiee, ia noieueei anoanoaaiiie, neieueei eneonnoaaiiie n?aaeu,
ec-ca oiai, /oi a? noeoeeiia ?acaeoea noaiiaeony aeey /aeiaa/anoaa
iaoi?aaeyaiui e iianiui. Iiaeii oeacaoue ianeieueei iniiaiuo niiniaia a
ai?ueaa ca auaeeaaiea, eioi?ua, ia iie acaeyae, nouanoaotho:

Ia?aoiae ia aaciooiaeioth oaoiieiaeth ia oieueei a i?iecaiaenoaa, a ai
anao inoaeueiuo noa?ao aeecie /aeiaaea. Iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau aoi?e/iia
nu?ue? (eae iai?eia?, iiiaie?aoii eniieuecoaiay aiaea a caieiooii
i?iiuoeaiiii oeeeea) noaei iniiaiui, a i?e?iaeiia – aniiiiaaoaeueiui.

Iaeiaeaiea ia?aie/aiee ia iaeioi?ua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiiyoii, /oi
iaiaoiaeeii ia?aie/aiea caioneia einie/aneeo ?aeao, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e
iaainiieieiie iioa?a iciiiaiai neiy Caiee. Oaeea ia?aie/aiey ieaaeoo
aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea yeieiae/anee aaciianiuo oaoiieiaee.

Aeaeaei ia an?, oi /oi n iao/iie e oaoie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey inouanoaeii,
neaaeoao nicaeaaaoue, eia/a yoi i?eaaae?o e aeaaee /aeiaa/anoaa.

ss aeoiath, /oi iaaei ia?aoiaeeoue io ianneaiie caueou i?e?iaeu
(?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeu) e oi?aaeaieth eneonnoaaiiie
n?aaeie. Iaeuecy oiiaaoue oieueei ia iiinoa?o, iaaeaynue, /oi iia aoaeao
oi?aaeyoue anai e any, iaiaoiaeeii aeoiaoue i oii, eae ae oi?aaeyoue,
aac yoiai iaoa auaeeaaiea iaaiciiaeii.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

Ua?aeiei A.A. Eaeoeee ii oeeinioee, I., 1996-1997aa.

Oei?aineee I.A. Iae?ieiniin e iee?ieiniin, “*aeiaae e i?e?iaea”, 1989,
?9.

Oei?aineee I.A. Ec aiaineianeiai ianeaaeey, “Aiaineianeea o?oaeu”, I.,
1977, Aui.17.

Oei?aineee I.A. Noiei e Ooaa?aeaeaiea Enoeiu, I., Iooue, 1914.

Nieiaue?a A.N. *oaiey i Aiai/aeiaa/anoaa, Nieiaue?a A.N. Ni/eiaiey: A 2
o., I., O. 2, 1989.

O?aei?ia I.O. Oeeinioey iauaai aeaea, O.2, I., 1913.

Oeeieeianeee E.Y. A??cu i caiea e iaaa, Ooea, 1986.

Oiia I.A. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee O3, I., 1916.

O?aei?ia I.O. Ni/eiaiey, I., 1982.

Oieiaeiue I.A. Eca?aiiua o?oaeu, Eeaa, 1982.

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea, I., Iaoea, 1991.

Oeeieeianeee E.Y. Yoeea eee anoanoaaiiua iniiau i?aanoaaiiinoe.

Oeeieeianeee E.Y. I/a?ee i Anaeaiiie, I., 1992.

*eaeaaneee A.E. Iniiaiia ia/aei ie?icaeaiey.

Oeioiia O.ss. Aeinoa?iay yoeea, “Yeieiae/aneay aeueoa?iaoeaa”, I., 1990.

*eaeaaneee A.E. Caiiia yoi nieia/iuo ao?ue, I., 1976.

Aa?iaaeneee A.E. AEeaia aauanoai, I., 1978.

Oeeieeianeee E.Y. A?acu i caiea e iaaa, Ooea, 1986.

ssaiaeeineee A.I., Aeaenaiae? Eaiieaeiae/ *eaeaaneee, I.: Iaoea, 1987.

Iaiaaa A.E. Oeeinioneee aiaeec aioeiiiee iaoee, Ieine, 1974.

Aiiaea?aiei A.Ae. Nia?aiaiiay oaoiieiaey: Oai?ey e i?aeoeea, Eeaa, 1985.

PAGE 44

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“Oeeinioey ?onneiai einiecia”

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