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Iaeaaeaiea:

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………………………………………………..2

Oeeinioey enoi?ee: iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu………………………………….……………3

2. Niune e iai?aaeaiiinoue enoi?ee………………………………………………………………….4

3. Oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee………………………………………………….5

Niaoeeoeea oeeinioneiai iiciaiey nioeeaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe…………………….…….9

I?aaeiao e ooieoeee nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee……………………………………………………..12

6. Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u………………………………………………….…….…..……15

A niaaoneia a?aiy a aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo eco/aeny eo?n oeeinioee,
eioi?ue aeeth/ae a naay aeaa /anoe – aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci e
enoi?e/aneee iaoa?eaeeci. Aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci aue i?ecaai aeaoue
oae iacuaaaiue ia?enenonei-eaieineee acaeyae ia caeiiu ?acaeoea
i?e?iaeu, i?iaiaeece?iaaoue iaoa?eth e niciaiea, iuoeaiea e i?ioeannu
iiciaiey. Enoi?e/aneee iaoa?eaeeci eco/ae i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a
iauanoaa, e i?aaeaea anaai auiieiye eaeaieiae/aneoth ooieoeeth.

A aiaeu caeaoa nioeeaeecia a NNN? iiiaea o/aiua caaeaeenue aii?inii:
yaeyaony ee aeaenoaeoaeueii enoi?e/aneee iaoa?eaeeci iaoeie? Auaiaeu,
eioi?ua oiaaea auee naeaeaiu, oaeeaeee iiiaeo, aeaaea aeaeaeeo io
oeeinioee ethaeae.

Ai-ia?auo, oa?iei “enoi?e/aneee iaoa?eaeeci”, ieacuaaaony, icia/aao ia
iaoeo, a anaai eeoue “iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea iauanoaa e enoi?ee”.
“Enoiao” – yoi nie?auaiea, eioi?ia aaae a iao/iue iai?io O. Yiaaeuen,
eiaaea a 90-o aiaeao OIO a. ?acuyniye a ienueiao naiei iiiai/eneaiiui
ei??aniiiaeaioai nouiinoue ia?enenoneiai iiieiaiey iauanoaa e enoi?ee.

Ai-aoi?uo, enoi?e/aneee iaoa?eaeeci – yoi ia iaoea e iioiio, /oi any
ia?enenonei-eaieineay oeeinioey iaoeie ia yaeyaony. Ecaanoiue
ioa/anoaaiiue oeeinio A.E. Ieeeoi?ia ienae, /oi ioiaeaeanoaeaiea iaoae
oeeinioee n iaoeie iaianei ae iaiaeue a?aae: oeeiniou ia eiaee
aiciiaeiinoe auneacuaaoue naie nianoaaiiua iunee, a aeieaeiu auee
?ac?aaaouaaoue oieueei oi, /oi auei eiaaea-oi auaeaeiooi “eeanneeaie
ia?enecia-eaieiecia” e eaeaieiaaie eiiioienoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey.1

Iaeei ec naiuo ecaanoiuo ?inneeneeo enoi?eeia oeeinioee A.I.*aiuoaa
iiaeaa?a e?eoeea e ae?oaoth “aeneiio” niaaoneie oeeinioee – aa
ia?oeeiinoue: “Oeeinioey ii naiae nooe aania?oeeia, – ienae ii. –
Oeeinioo ia i?anoaei i?eiaaeeaaeaoue e eaeie-eeai iieeoe/aneie ia?oee e
iaaeaaaoue ia aeaca iaecaaaeiua ia?oeeiua oi?u. Aeaeea?e?oy, /oi
oeeinioey anaaaea auea ia?oeeiie, A.E. Eaiei aioiaee aeey oeeinioee e
oeeinioia ia/aeueiia e iici?iia aoaeouaa: ae – noaeueao auoue
eneeth/eoaeueii eaeaieiaeae, oi anoue neoaeaieie iieeoeee, a ei –
noaeueao aeeieiie?iaaiiuo eaeaaa ia?oie?aoee, noiyuae iaae aanneiaaniui,
yeiau oaiiui ia?iaeii e aiinyuae a iaai niciaiea ecaia”.2

Iuia a aunoae oeiea i?iecioae ioeac io o/aaiuo eo?nia aeeaeaeoe/aneiai e
enoi?e/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia. Nae/an eaeao eioaineaiay ?aaioa ii
nicaeaieth oaeeo eo?nia oeeinioee, eioi?ua ioaa/aee au o?aaiaaieyi,
auaeaeaaaiui nia?aiaiiui o?iaiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa.

Ia?aniio? i?aaeieo eaeaieiae/aneeo aeneii oeeinioee einioeny i?aaeaea
anaai oao i?iaeai, eioi?ua iinyo aeneieiae/aneee oa?aeoa?, oi anoue
caaeaaatho oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee iauanoaa e /aeiaaea: nouiinoue
iauanoaa eae naii?acaeaathuaeny nenoaiu, ianoi /aeiaaea e aai eioa?ania
a neiaeiie no?oeoo?a nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, niune e i?aaeiacia/aiea
enoi?ee, nouiinoue i?ia?anna e aai e?eoa?eaa, nouiinoue eoeueoo?u,
/anoiay nianoaaiiinoue e ioiioaiea e iae e o.ae. Iiiaea ec yoeo aii?inia
?anniao?eaaao nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey – iaoea aeey iinoniaaoneiai
iauanoaa iiaay, oai ia iaiaa, oniaaoay caiyoue aanueia aaoi?eoaoiia
ianoi a nenoaia ae?oaeo nioeeaeueii-aoiaieoa?iuo aeenoeeieei.

Aiciiaeiu ?acee/iua aa?eaiou iino?iaiey nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee ii
oaeiaiaa ?anniao?eaaoue nioeeaeueioth oeeinioey ninoiyuoth ec
neaaeothueo e?oiiuo aeieia:

• i?aaeiao nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee,

• oeeinioey iauanoaa,

• oeeinioey enoi?ee,

• oeeinioey /aeiaaea,

• oeeinioey eoeueoo?u.

Iiaeiaioth no?oeoo?o iiaeii iauynieoue oai, /oi nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey
eco/aao iauanoai e nioeeaeueioth aeeciue ia oieueei
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiii ieaia, ii e a aa enoi?e/aneii ?acaeoee.
Aaconeiaii, /oi i?aaeiaoii aa ?anniio?aiey yaeyaony e nai /aeiaae,
acyoue eae i?aaenoaaeoaeue nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu eee iauiinoe, o.a. a
nenoaia aai nioeeaeueiuo naycae.

1. Oeeinioey enoi?ee: iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu

Enoiaeiui ioieoii oeeinioee enoi?ee eae niaoeeoe/aneiai ?acaeaea
oeeinioneiai ciaiey n/eoathony aaaaeaaneea “Eaeoeee ii oeeinioee
enoi?ee”. Oaeeaeoaeueia enoi?ey eo nicaeaiey. Yoi ia oaeno naiiai
o/aiiai, a eiiniaeou aai eaeoeee, ninoaaeaiiua o/aieeaie e ecaeaiiua a
iaiyoue i aaeeeiei o/eoaea.

A.A.O. Aaaaeue i?ineaaeeny ia oieueei iaoeie aeeaeaeoeeie, ii e
eaeoeeiiiui eo?nii ii oeeinioee enoi?ee, a eioi?ii a ia/aea

XIX aae aia?aua a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie iunee niaaeeiee oeeinioeth e
enoi?eth. Ei auea ?ac?aaioaia eiioeaioeey ?acoiiinoe
anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna – enoi?e/anee ia?aay ioeaiea oiaea
enoi?ee. Aaaaeue ooaa?aeaeae: “Ii aaeeinoaaiiith iuneueth, eioi?oth
i?aaiineo n niaie oeeinioey, yaeyaony oa i?inoay iuneue ?acoia, /oi
?acoi ainiiaenoaoao a ie?a, oae /oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e
anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann niaa?oaeny ?acoiii. Yoi oaaaeaeaiea e
iiieiaiea yaeythony i?aaeiinueeie ii ioiioaieth e enoi?ee eae e oaeiaie
aiiaua; a naiie oeeinioee yoi ia yaeyaony i?aaeiinueeie. Iooai
oiic?eoaeueiiai iiciaiey a iae aeieacuaaaony, /oi ?acoi … yaeyaony eae
noanoaioeeae, oae e aaneiia/iith iiuueth; ii yaeyaony aeey naiiai naay
aaneiia/iui niaea?aeaieai anae i?e?iaeiie e aeooiaiie aeecie, ?aaii eae
e aaneiia/iie oi?iie, – i?iyaeaieai yoiai aa niaea?aeaiey”.3

Eioa?an e oeeinioee enoi?ee a Aa?iia iiyaeeny a yiioo O?aioeocneiai
I?inaauaiey. Oa?iei “oeeinioey enoi?ee” aue aaaaeai Aieueoa?ii e
ioaaouaae niaieoiiinoue oeeinioneeo ?annoaeaeaiee i anaie?iie enoi?ee
aac niaoeeaeueiiai oeeinionei-oai?aoe/aneiai iainiiaaiey eo
iaiaoiaeeiinoe e i?aaiia?iinoe. ?acaa?ioooth a?aoiaioaoeeth ?acee/ee
iaaeaeo iienaoaeueiie enoi?eae eae ciaieai oaeoia e oai?aoe/aneie
?aeiino?oeoeeae enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna inouanoaee AE.-AE.?onni. Ii aua
aei iaai Ae.Aeei ioaeaeye “aa/ioth eaeaaeueioth enoi?eth”, iinoeaaaioth
“iiaie iaoeie”, io yiie?e/aneie enoi?ee ?aciuo ia?iaeia.

Ia iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie iniiaa oeeinioey enoi?ee ?ac?aaaouaaeanue
E.Ia?enii. A OO aaea aieueoie aeeaae a ?acaeoea aeaiiie io?anee ciaiey
aue aianai I.A.Aa?aeyaaui, E.ssnia?nii, ?.A?iiii. Iaeieie ec iaeaieaa
ecaanoiuo o?aeoiaie oeeinioee enoi?ee yaeythony eiioeaioeee A. Oieiae e
O. ?inoio.

Nia?aiaiiay oeeinioey enoi?ee – yoi ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiay
iaeanoue oeeinioneiai ciaiey, eioi?ay iinayuaia iniuneaieth
ea/anoaaiiiai naiaia?acey ?acaeoey iauanoaa a aai ioee/ee io i?e?iaeu.
Oeeinioey enoi?ee ?anniao?eaaao ianeieueei aaaeiaeoeo i?iaeai:

• iai?aaeaiiinoue e niune enoi?ee,

• iaoiaeieiae/aneea iiaeoiaeu e oeiieiaecaoeee iauanoaa,

• e?eoa?ee ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee,

• e?eoa?ee i?ia?anna enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.

I?enooiay e ?anniio?aieth yoeo i?iaeai, ia?aoei aieiaiea ia oi, /oi a
oeeinioee enoi?ee iao aaeeinoaa iiaiee ie ii iaeiiio ec iacaaiiuo auoa
aii?inia. Oi/ee c?aiey ?acee/iu ianoieueei, /oi nei?aa, iie
i?ioeaiiieiaeiu, a ia aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa. Oae, iaeioi?ua oeeiniou
i?eciatho enoi?e/aneea caeiiu, ae?oaea – eo io?eoeatho. ?yae oeeinioia
n/eoaao, /oi o enoi?ee anoue niune, ae?oaea aea n/eoatho, /oi niunea o
enoi?ee iao e auoue ia iiaeao. Aeaaiaea?y eaeei aeaeaeouei neeai
niaa?oaaony enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann? E ia yoio aii?in ?aciua oeeiniou
aeatho naiua ?acee/iua ioaaou.

Iauynieoue yoe i?ioeai?a/ey iiaeii aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi. Enoi?ey i?ioaeaao
a ?aciia nioeeaeueiia a?aiy, a ?acee/iuo eoeueoo?ao e oeeaeeecaoeeyo, ia
oiia ?acee/iie aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaeu, i?e ?acee/aiii o?iaia ?acaeoey
oaoieee e i?iecaiaee- oaeueiuo nee eaaeaeiai iauanoaa. Iaeiiaoe, a
?aciuo iauanoaao ainiiaenoaothueie yaeythony ?aciua ea?a?oee oeaiiinoae,
?aciua ?aeeaee, eaeaieiaee e o.i.

Ii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue: enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea a oeaeii iineo iauaeoeaiue
oa?aeoa?, oae eae aeeciue ethaeae, aaea au e eiaaea au iia ia i?ioiaeeea
iniiaaia ia iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaeiaeaoai?aiey iaoa?eaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae,
oi anoue a ethaii neo/aa, iauanoai, ia eaeie au nooiaie ?acaeoey iii ia
iaoiaeeeinue, aeieaeii oaeaeyoue cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea iaoa?eaeueiiio
i?iecaiaenoao. Yoi i?iecaiaenoai inouanoaeyaony ia ii?aaeaeaiiii o?iaia
?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, eioi?ue aeinoaeny “a ianeaaenoai” io
i?aaeoanoaothueo iieieaiee, eia/a aiai?y, iauaeoeaii. Iauaeoeaiinoue
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna naycaia, oaeei ia?acii, n iaee/eai ii?aaeaeaiiuo
iaoa?eaeueiuo iniia aeeciaaea- yoaeueiinoe ethaeae, n eioa?anaie,
eioi?ua iie i?aneaaeotho, e iio?aaiinoyie, eioi?ua iie aeieaeiu
oaeiaeaoai?eoue.

Ana ethaee aunooiatho iaeiia?aiaiii e eae noauaeou, e eae iauaeou
enoi?ee. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi enoi?ey ia caaa?oaia, iia ia eiaao
eiioea. E?iia oiai, iia eiaao ia eeiaeiue, a aa?eaoeaiue oa?aeoa?.

A /ai aea caaea/a nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee, eae iaeanoe oeeinioneiai
ciaiey, aiaeece?othuae enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa? Nia?aiaiiue ioaao ia yoio
aii?in cao/eo neaaeothuei ia?acii: “n?aaee iannu oaeoia enoi?ee auyaeoue
aeaaiua, ii?aaeaeythuea e iieacaoue caeiiiia?iinoe e oaiaeaioeee
?acaeoey enoi?e/aneeo niauoee e nioeeaeueiuo nenoai. I?e yoii
nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey aeieaeia no?aieoueny eniieueciaaoue ?aciiia?aciua
oai?aoe/aneea iiaeaee iiciaiey, ?anniao?eaaoue iauaeo n ?aciuo noi?ii,
ecaaaaoue oai?aoe/aneiai aeiaiaoecia.4

2. Niune e iai?aaeaiiinoue enoi?ee

I?iaeaia “iai?aaeaiiinoe” enoi?ee o?oaeiinoae a iiieiaiee ia aucuaaao:
iiiyoii, /oi oeeiniou ?ac?aaaouaaee e ?ac?aaaouaatho aii?in i oii,
ioeoaea e eoaea eaeao iauanoai. I?iaeaia “niunea enoi?ee” ianeieueei
neiaeiaa, iineieueeo niune enoi?ee iiaeii iiieiaoue eae oeaeue enoi?ee.
A anoue ee oeaeue, oi anoue niune o enoi?ee? Yoio aii?in eioa?aniaae
ethaeae iiiaea noieaoey. A nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneie iunee eiathony ?aciua
iiaeoiaeu, aeathuea naie eioa?i?aoaoeee i?iaeaia niunea e iacia/aiey
enoi?ee.

A aioe/iie oeeinioee ?ani?ino?aiaiiie auea oi/ea c?aiey, aeanyuay, /oi
iauanoai n ?acaeoeai oeeaeeecaoeee aeaa?aaee?oao. Iii eaeao io “cieioiai
aaea” e “na?aa?yiiio aaeo” e io iaai – e “aeaeaciiio”. A aeaeaeneie
o?aaeeoeee yoa oi/ea c?aiey i?iyaeeanue a o?aeoiaea Anaie?iiai iioiia,
eae Aiaeueaai iaeacaiey. Eioa?anii, /oi a iauaeaiii-i?aeoe/aneii
niciaiee iiaeiaiay iiceoeey, eiaaea i?ioeia aniiieiaaony a ?aaeoaeiuo
oiiao, eiaao aanueia oe?ieia oiaeaeaiea. Ia i?e/eiao iiaeiaiuo acaeyaeia
iu iiae?iaiaa inoaiiaeiny i?e ?anniio?aiee oaiu “Eoeueoo?a eae
nioeeaeueiia yaeaiea”.

A aioe/iinoe iiyaeeanue e ae?oaay o?aeoiaea enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna,
iniiau eioi?ie caeiaeee Aa?aeeeo. Aai eaeay “ioeuenaoeee” enoi?ee eae
aa/iiai iaiy, oi oaanathuaai, oi ?acai?athuaainy n iiaie neeie,
oaeoe/anee noaea enoi?e/anee ia?- aie ec oae iacuaaaiuo “oai?ee
e?oaiai?ioa”. Aaoi?aie oai?ee e?oaiai?ioa auee A?enoioaeue, Ae.Aeei,
I.ss.Aeaieeaaneee, I.Oiaiaea?, I.A.Ni?ieei, O.I?oaaa-e-Aannao, A.Oieiae.

O?aoueth a?oiio i?aaenoaaeytho oai?ee, ?anniao?eaathuea enoi?eth eae
iinooiaoaeueiia ?acaeoea, ia?aoiae iauanoaa io iecoeo e aieaa
niaa?oaiiui oi?iai aeecie (Eiiaei?na, Oth?ai, E.Eaio, Aaaaeue, E.Ia?en).

Iiiaea oeeiniou ia/eiatho oeeinioeth enoi?ee n Aa?aeey Aaaonoeia. Iai
eaaeaony i?aaeeueiaa oeeinioeth enoi?ee ia/aoue n Aaaaey, ii caneoae
Aa?aeey Aaaonoeia a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie o?enoeaineie oeeinioee aaeeee.
Ii no?aieeny iieacaoue aaeeinoai anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna,
ii?aaeaeea a ea/anoaa ia/aea enoi?ee yaeaiea O?enoa. Oaeei ia?acii,
enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa – yoi “nioai?aiiia” auoea, eiioeii eioi?iai
yaeyaony No?aoiue noae. Ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo aaeia, aeeth/ay e aae OO,
o Aaaonoeia auei iaiaei iineaaeiaaoaeae.

Ioaeaeeoue /aeiaa/aneoth enoi?eth io enoi?ee aiaeanoaaiiie, caiioth io
iaaaniie, iiiuoaeny eoaeueyineee iuneeoaeue Ae.Aeei. Ii naycuaae niune
enoi?ee n anoanoaaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth, oi anoue n iinoiyiii
iiaoi?ythueiny ii?yaeeii i?e/ei e neaaenoaee. Ana ia?iaeu i?ioiaeyo
aaeeiue iooue, aeeth/athuee o?e yiioe: aiaeanoaaiioth, aa?ie/aneoth,
/aeiaa/aneoth, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho aeaonoao, thiinoe e c?aeinoe
/aeiaa/anoaa. (Ae.Aeei n/eoae, /oi oaeea yoaiu a naiai ?acaeoee
i?ioiaeyo eoeueoo?a, ycue e ana, /oi naycaii n aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoueth
/aeiaaea e /aeiaa/anoaa). I?ieaey iieiaeaiiue e?oa, no?aiu e ia?iaeu
ia/eiatho e?oa iiaue – oa aea o?e iacaaiiua auoa yiioe. I?e yoii Ae.Aeei
ia io?eoeae ?iee Aiaeanoaaiiiai i?iaeaeaiey, eioi?ia iaocaeuaaao
/aeiaa/aneea no?anoe.

XVIII aae oaea oiiieiaeny iaie eae a?aiy, eiaaea aeaaiaea?y Aieueoa?o
iiyaeeinue iiiyoea “oeeinioey enoi?ee”. Iiae/a?eiai, /oi a yoi a?aiy e
niuneo e iacia/aieth enoi?ee ia/ae neeaaeuaaoueny iiaeoiae, oa?aeoa?iue
aeey yiioe I?inaauaiey. Niune enoi?ee i?e yoii naycuaaeny n i?ia?annii
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia, a enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa, oaeei ia?acii,
noaiiaeeanue aeaeaeaieai ii nooiaiyi yoiai i?ia?anna. Oae, o?aioeocneee
oeeinio Eiiaei?a iainiiaae oi/eo c?aiey, aeanyuoth, /oi i?ia?ann
iauanoaa ninoieo a aeaeaeaiee e enoeia e n/anoueth. Ii?aaeaeaiiue aeeaae
a ?acaeoea yoie eaeae aianee aaeeeea iaiaoeeea oeeiniou E.A.Aa?aea? e
E.Eaio.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiia iainiiaaiea 1i?eioeeia enoi?eoeecia 0, iiyaeaoaainy
aua o Aa?aea?a. i?eiaaeeaaeeo Aaaaeth. Enoi?eoeeci Aaaaey aeeth/aao a
naay aeaa iniiaiiieaaathueo i?eioeeia:

1) i?eciaiea noanoaioeeaeueiinoe enoi?ee, iaee/ea a iae a ea/anoaa
iniiaiiieaaathuae noanoaioeee ?acoia, eioi?ue iaeaaeaao aaneiia/iie
iiuueth,

2) ooaa?aeaeaiea oeaeinoiinoe enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna e aai
oeaeaniia?aciinoe; eiia/iie oeaeueth anaie?iie enoi?ee aunooiaao
niciaiea aeooii aai naiaiaeu.

I?eioeei enoi?eoeecia aue aini?eiyo ia?enenoneie oeeinioeae, iaeiaei aai
iiieiaiea i?aoa?iaei cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey, eioi?ua einioeenue
i?aaeaea anaai ia?ai?eaioaoeee ia iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea enoi?ee e
iauanoaa. A ia?enecia oa?iei “enoi?eoeeci” oaeaea aue eciaiai e iieo/ee
iacaaiea “enoi?ecia”. Enoi?eci iniiauaaeny ia iiaeoiaea e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eae eciaiythuaeny ai a?aiaie, ?acaeaathueeny. I/aiue
/aoei yoio i?eioeei aue noi?ioee?iaai A.E.Eaieiui: “…Ia caauaaoue
iniiaiie enoi?e/aneie nayce, niio?aoue ia eaaeaeue aii?in n oi/ee c?aiey
oiai, eae ecaanoiia yaeaiea a enoi?ee aicieeei, eaeea aeaaiua yoaiu a
naiai ?acaeoee yoi yaeaiea i?ioiaeeei, e n oi/ee c?aiey yoiai aai
?acaeoey niio?aoue, /ai aeaiiay aauue noaea oaia?ue”.5

I?aaenoaaeoaee iiiaeo oeeinioneeo oeie /anoe/ii eee iieiinoueth
io?eoeatho i?eioeei enoi?ecia. E iei iiaeii ioianoe I.?eeea?oa e
A.Aeiaeaeueaaiaea (iaieaioeainoai), E.ssnia?na (yecenoaioeeaeeci),
i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?aaiaoecia e iaiiiceoeaecia. Iiciaeiieiny n iaeiei ec
aa?eaioia aeieacaoaeuenoaa ianinoiy- oaeueiinoe i?eioeeia enoi?ecia,
eioi?ue i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?o E.?.Iiiia?a.

Ia?enenoneee iiaeoiae e enoieeiaaieth enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna
E.?.Iiiia?ii eaoaai?e/anee ia i?eiyo. Anth nioeeaeueioth oeeinioeth
E.Ia?ena E.?.Iiiia? iacaae “enoi?eoeeciii”, iauyniythuei aanue
enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann a caaeneiinoe io eeanniaie ai?ueau ca
yeiiiie/aneia i?aainoiaenoai. Iiiia? io?eoeae iauaeoeaiua caeiiu
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, a iiyoiio – e aiciiaeiinoue nioeeaeueiiai
i?iaiice?iaaiey. “Aa?a a enoi?e/aneoth iaiaoiaeeiinoue yaeyaony yaiui
i?aae?annoaeeii e iaaiciiaeii i?aaeneacaoue oiae /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee
… iao/iuie iaoiaeaie”. Eoae, “Enoi?eoeeci – yoi aaaeiue iaoiae,
eioi?ue ia i?eiineo ?acoeueoaoia”.6

A iainiiaaiea naiae iiceoeee E.Iiiia? i?eaiaeeo neaaeothuea aa?oiaiou:

1. Oiae /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io ?inoa
/aeiaa/aneiai ciaiey.

2. Iu ia iiaeai i?aaeneacaoue, eaeei aoaeao ?ino iao/iiai ciaiey.

3. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iu ia iiaeai i?aaeneacaoue oiae /aeiaa/aneie
enoi?ee.

4. Yoi cia/eo, /oi iu aeieaeiu ioaa?aiooue aiciiaeiinoue oai?aoe/aneie
enoi?ee.

N yoeie a?aoiaioaie (eae e ni anae oai?eae “aioeenoi?eoeecia”,
?ac?aaioaiiie aua a 20 – 30-a aiaeu), iiaeii nii?eoue, ii io?eoeaoue oi,
/oi iia aanueia iiioey?ia, neiaeii. Aioeenoi?eoeeci Iiiia?a io?eoeaao
enoi?e/aneee i?ia?ann. I?ia?ann – yoi aeaeaeaiea e eaeie-oi
ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee, oeaee aea nouanoaotho oieueei aeey /aeiaaea, aeey
enoi?ee iie i?inoi ia aiciiaeiu. Iiyoiio Iiiia? n/eoaao, /oi
i?ia?anne?iaaoue iiaeao oieueei /aeiaae, caueuay, iai?eia?,
aeaiie?aoe/aneea einoeoo- ou, io eioi?uo caaeneo naiaiaea.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?eiyoay a niaaoneie oeeinioneie eeoa?aoo?a oi/ea c?aiey
i iinooiaoaeueiii, ainoiaeyuai ?acaeoee enoi?ee, ia?aoiaea iauanoaa io
iecoeo e aieaa aunoei, niaa?oaiiui oi?iai aeecie a enoi?ee oeeinioneie
iunee yaeyaony ia aaeeinoaaiiie. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiceoeeth
E.Eaioa, Aaaaey, E.Ia?ena e ioiineony e OVIII – XIX aaeai. Enoaoe,
aeieaia a?aiy n/eoathueeny a ioa/anoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a iniiaiie e?eoa-
?ee i?ia?anna – o?iaaiue ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoaa –
oiaea eaeay XIX aaea, eiaaea aa?a a i?ia?ann i?eia?aea oa?aeoa?
?aeeaeiciiai oaaaeaeaiey. Nai aea i?ia?ann a XIX aaea naycuaaeny n
i?iiuoeaiiui ?acaeoeai. O E.Ia?ena i?ia?ann – yoi ?ino
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoaa e niaia iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo
oi?iaoeee. Oi anoue, a eiia/iii n/aoa, oai?ey iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo
oi?iaoeee, ?ac?aaioaiiay E.Ia?enii, – yoi iniuneaiea noaiiaeaiey
oaoiiaaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee a oneiaeyo XIX aaea.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO aaea iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi iaeiio?iee?oaiia ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iaecaaaeii auciaao aeiaaeueioth yeieiae/aneoth
eaoano?ioo, iiyoiio nae/an iiiaea o/aiua eniuouaatho ?aci/a?iaaiea a
i?ia?anna. Oaea oiiieiaaoeeny iaie I.Oaeaeaaaa? ia?aui a OO aaea
iinoaaeaoee aii?in i ceiaauai oaiiiaia oaoieee. I oii aea aiai?eee e
ienaee o/aiee C.O?aeaea, ineoieia e oeeinio Y.O?ii, i?aaenoaaeoaee
?eineiai eeoaa Aeae.Oi??anoa? e Ae.Iaaeioc, iiiaea ae?oaea.

Eae ioaa/atho iaoe nia?aiaiieee ia aii?in: ai eiy /aai niaa?oaaony
enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann?

Ia?aoeiny e ia?aie iieiaeia OO aaea. Yoi a?aiy iiyaeaiey iiiaeo eaeae
yecenoaioeeaeecia, noauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey a
oeeinioee, naiue cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a eioi?ue aianee oaeea ecaanoiua
ienaoaee, oaao?aeueiua aeayoaee, ooaeiaeieee, eae AE.I.Na?o?, A.Eaith,
O.Eaoea, N.Aiaoa?, a noi?iiieeaie a ianna naiae auee i?aaenoaaeoaee
eioaeeeaaioeee. Yoio iiaeoiae no?aieony oanii oaycaoue niune enoi?ee n
oeaeueth e niuneii nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaaea. Oae, iaiaoeeee
yecenoaioeeaeeno E.ssnia?n, eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeeo na?ueaciay ?ac?aaioea
niunea e iacia/aiey enoi?ee, /aeiaa/aneoth nouiinoue oniao?eaaao a
naiaiaea, eioi?ay i?iyaeyaony a naiaiaeiie ?aaeecaoeee aeooiaiuo nee
/aeiaaea.

Aieueoay /anoue nia?aiaiiuo oeeinioia n/eoaao, /oi o enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna iao e ia iiaeao auoue oeaee. Oeaeue noaaeo ia?aae niaie e
iauanoaii /aeiaae. A niioaaonoaee n yoie oeaeueth ii ii?aaeaeyao e niune
enoi?ee.

3. Oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee

Ia i?aaaea ee, iao ie/aai i?iua, /ai iacaaoue ia?eiaeu anaie?iie
enoi?ee: ae?aaiee ie?, n?aaeiea aaea, iiaia a?aiy, iiaaeoaa a?aiy – aio
oa ia?eiaeu, eioi?ua iiiaea iaciaoo aacioeai/ii. Ioa?inei iiaaeoaa a?aiy
e iieo/ei eeanne/aneoth o?eaaeo – ia?eiaeecaoeeth, i?eiyooth oaea ie
iaeei aae. “Ienoe/an- eay o?ieoea yiio a aunoae noaiaie i?eaeaeaoaeueia
aeey iaoaoece/aneiai aeona Aa?aea?a, Eaioa e Aaaaey… Iu aeaeei, /oi ia
oieueei aeey ieo: iia i?eaieaia aeey enoi?eei-iaoa?eaeenoe/an- eiai
aeona Ia?ena, iia i?eaieaia e aeey i?aeoe/anee-aeneieiae/aneiai aeona
Iaena Aaaa?a, o.a. aeey aaoi?ia ethaie oeeinioee enoi?ee, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaaeyaony ei iaeiae caeeth/eoaeueiie noaaeeae aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/anoaa. Aeaaea aaeeeee Oaeaeaaaa?, caaeaaaynue aii?inii, a /ai
nouiinoue Iiaiai a?aiaie, iie?aeny ia oo aea o?eaaeo,” – eiinoaoe?oao ai
aaaaeaiee e ciaiaieoie eieaa iaiaoeeiai oeeinioa Inaaeueaea Oiaiaea?a
iao nia?aiaiiee A.I.Aeoaiia.7

I.Oiaiaea? aue iaeiei ec ia?auo, eoi oniiieeny a “iaaeyaeii-iiioey?iii
/eaiaiee” anaie?iie enoi?ee ia o?e yii- oe. OO aae noae a?aiaiai, eiaaea
iiiaea oeeiniou, nioeeieiae e enoi?eee, ia?auaynue e iiuoo i?ioeiai e
enneaaeoy oaiaeaioeee ianoiyuaai, iuoaeenue nicaeaoue naie
ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee.

Iiiyoii, /oi aaeeiiia?acey a iiaeoiaeao e i?iaeaia ia- ?eiaeecaoeee
enoi?ee iao: aaaeue auaeaeaiea ia?eiaeia a enoi?ee caaeneo io oiai
e?eoa?ey (eee e?eoa?eaa), eioi?ua iieiaeaiu a iniiao ia?eiaeecaoeee. Ca
iniiao ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee a?aeenue, e i?eia?o, i?oaeey o?oaea
(O.?inoio, Ae.Aaee, I.Oiooea?), ?ino ia?iaeiianaeaiey (O.?.Iaeueoon),
aaia?aoe/aneay n?aaea (O.E.Iiioaneuea) e o.ae.

I?eaeiaeueiue iiaeoiae e ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna
i?aaeeiaeee E.A.Oeooa. Ii n/eoae, /oi “oeaeue caiiie aeecie
/aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea – naiaiaeiia e niia?aciia n ?acoiii ono?iaiea anao
naieo ioiioaiee. … Naiaiaea aeieaeia auoue … iaoeie a ?acoiiuo
caeiiao, niia?acii eioi?ui ?iae aeieaeai ono?aeaaoue /a?ac naiaiaeiia
eneonnoai naie ioiioaiey”.8 Eoae, aeaaiue e?eoa?ee auaeaeaiey yiio o
Oeooa – naiaiaea, noaiaiue ioaeaeaiiinoe aa io einoeieoia. Aeaeaa
iaiaoeeee oeeinio auaeaeye iyoue yiio: “1) yiioa, a eioi?oth
/aeiaa/aneea ioiioaiey onoaiaaeeaathony aac i?eioaeaeaiey, aeaaiaea?y
iaeiiio ?acoiiiio einoeieoo; 2) yiioa, a eioi?oth yoio einoeieo, noaaoee
neaaaa e i?iyaeythueeny eeoue a iaiiiaeo eca?aiiuo, i?aa?auaaony
iineaaeieie a i?eioaeeoaeueiue aeey anao aiaoiee aaoi?eoao; 3) yiioa, a
eioi?oth ioaa?aaaony yoio aaoi?eoao e aianoa n iei ?acoi a aaeeinoaaiiie
oi?ia, a eaeie ii i?iyaeyeny aei yoiai a?aiaie; 4) yiioa anaiauaai
?ani?ino?aiaiey a /aeiaa/aneii ?iaea ?acoia a oi?ia iaoee; 5) yiioa, a
eioi?oth e iaoea i?eniaaeeiyaony eneonnoai, /oiau oaa?aeie e aa?iie
?oeie i?aia?aciaaoue aeeciue niia?acii n iaoeie… Caoai iao ?iae
anooiaao a aunoea noa?u ae?oaiai ie?a.” Iiceoeey Oeooa, noa?oaai
nia?aiaiieea Aaaaey, – yoi iaiaoeeee eeanne/aneee eaeaaeeci, iiiaea
eaeae eioi?iai auee iaaayiu I?inaauaieai e Aaeeeie O?aioeocneie
ao?aeoaciie ?aaieth- oeeae.

Ioiaoei, /oi eniieueciaaiea oa?ieia “yiioa” a oeeinioee aeinoaoi/ii
?ani?ino?aiaii aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie, ii, iiaeaeoe, yoi ia caneoaa
Oeooa, a aeeaae a nia?aiaiioth oeeinioeth i?aaenoaaeoaeae
yecenoaioeeaeecia. Oaea oiiieiaaiue iaie E. ssnia?n naeaeae auaiae i
oii, /oi enoi?ey – yoi ia?aoiae io iaeiie yiioe e ae?oaie.
“Enoi?e/aneoth noanoaioeeth /aeiaa/aneiai auoey” ninoaaeyao o?aaeeoeey.
Ii iiaieth ssnia?na, /aeiaa/anoai aaeeii. Aeey iauyniaiey /aeiaa/aneiai
aaeeinoaa ssnia?n aaiaeeo oe?iei ecaanoiia nae/an iiiyoea “inaaie
yiioe”(na?aaeeia 1 oun. aei i.y.), eiaaea /aeiaa/aneay enoi?ey ia?aoaao
naith nianoaaiioth no?oeoo?o. Eaaeaeay enoi?e/aneay yiioa ioee/aaony io
ae?oaie naiae niaoeeoe/aneie enoi?e/aneie neooaoeeae. Aiciiaeii
aicieeiiaaiea noiaeiuo enoi?e/aneeo neooaoeee. Oae, i?eia?ii a iaeii e
oi aea a?aiy aicieeatho iaeeiaeiaua enoi?e/aneea neooaoeee a Eeoaa,
Eiaeee, Ia?nee, Iaeanoeia e Ae?aaiae A?aoeee, eiaaea oi?ie?oaony oei
nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea. Aio yoi e anoue “inaaay yiioa” ie?iaie
oeeaeeecaoeee.

Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie nae/an yaeythony oi?iaoeeiiiue e oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue
iiaeoiaeu e iiieiaieth enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. I?iaeaia ia?eiaeecaoeee
enoi?ee ii oi?iaoeeyi e oeeaeeecaoeeyi aeoeaii ianoaeaeaaony a
eeoa?aoo?a oaea aieaa noieaoey. Iiciaeiieiny e iu n oai, /oi
aeeaaeuaatho o/aiua a eaoaai?ee “oi?iaoeey” e “oeeaeeecaoeey”.

Aaoi?noai oai?ee iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeee i?eiaaeeaaeeo
E.Ia?eno. Oa?iei “oi?iaoeey” aue aini?eiyo ec aaieiaee, aaea ei
iaicia/aaony iaieanoiaaiea aaieiae/aneeo ioeiaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai
ia?eiaea. Ia/aei oeeinioneiai o/aiey i oi?iaoeeyo caeiaeaii a naiii
cia/eoaeueiii i?iecaaaeaiee ia?eiaea oi?ie?iaaiey ia?enecia “Iaiaoeeie
eaeaieiaee”, iaienaiiii a 1845 – 1846 aiaeao niaianoii n O. Yiaaeuenii.
Aaoi?u “Iaiaoeeie eaeaieiaee” auaeaeeee no?oeoo?o iauanoaa,
aeeth/athuoth a naay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu – i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
ioiioaiey – iieeoe/aneoth iaaeno?ieeo – oi?iu iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey. A
yoie ?aaioa auea oaeaea aeaia ia?eiaeecaoeey enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.
Iniiaiua noaaeee enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa – yoi
iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaiythuea ae?oa ae?oaa ainiiaenoaothuea oi?iu
nianoaaiiinoe: 1) ieaiaiiay, 2) aioe/iay, 3) oaiaeaeueiay, 4)
ao?aeoaciay, 5) aoaeouay eiiioienoe/aneay oi?ia anaiauae nianoaaiiinoe.

Oaea caeanue aeaeiu iniiau aoaeouae oi?iaoeeiiiie ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee
iauanoaa, a a ?acaa?iooii aeaea o/aiea i nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo
oi?iaoeeyo auei ?ac?aaioaii e eiioeo 50-o aiaeia XIX aaea e
noi?ioee?iaaii a ?aaioa “E?eoeea iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee”. Ioiaoei, /oi
iieiue oa?iei “iauanoaaiiay yeiiiie/aneay oi?iaoeey” aianoa n
ii?aaeaeaieai yoiai iiiyoey aia?aua ano?a/aaony a i?aaeeneiaee e ?aaioa
E.Ia?ena “E e?eoeea iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee” (1859 aiae).

Eaeiaa no?oeoo?a iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee?

I?aaeaea anaai, E.Ia?en auaeaeee yeiiiie/aneee aacen – i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
ioiioaiey, aeaaiuie, ii?aaeaeythueie a eioi?uo yaeythony ioiioaiey
nianoaaiiinoe. Aacen ii?aaeaeyao iiee- oe/aneoth iaaeno?ieeo, eioi?ay
aeieaeia aio iieiinoueth niioaaonoaiaaoue; aeaaiui aa yeaiaioii, ii
iunee E.Ia?ena, yaeyaony ainoaea?noai. Aeey aeaeueiaeoaai anniio?aiey
yoie i?iaeaiu en- iieuecoai oaaeeoeo 2.

Oaaeeoea 2. No?oeoo?a iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee

PRIVATE_ Error! Bookmark not defined. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu
I?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey Iaaeno?ieea yeaiaiou oi?iaoeee

I?aaeiao o?oaea. N?aaenoaa o?oaea. *aeiaae n aai iaaueaie e o?oaeo –
i?iecaiaeeoaeue iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa (?aai/ay neea).
Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo nianoaaiiinoe ia
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey, iaiaia e iio?aaeaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa. I?aaiecaoeey e o/?aaeaeaiey: iieeoe/aneea
(ainoaea?noai, ia?oee), eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueiua, ?aeeaeiciua.
Iauanoaaiiia niciaiea e aai oi?iu. Eaeaieiae/aneea, iieeoe/aneea,
i?aaiaua e ?aeeaeiciua ioiioaiey. Eeanniaay no?oeoo?a. Enoi?e/aneea
oi?iu iauiinoe ethaeae (?iae, ieaiy, ia?iaeiinoue, iaoeey). Enoi?e/aneea
oi?iu auoa. Anoanoaaiiua e oaoie/aneea ciaiey.

Eoae, oai?ey E.Ia?ena iiiiaea acaeyiooue ia no?oeoo?o iauanoaa eae ia
nenoaio, e ia aai yoaiu, eioi?ua, n iaeiie noi?iiu aoaeoo aeey ethaiai
ia?iaea iaycaoaeueiuie, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu – eaaeaeia iauanoai ia
eaaeaeii aeaiiii yoaia aoaeao eiaoue noiaeioth no?oeoo?o.

I iaeioi?uo nii?ao, naycaiiuo n nia?aiaiiui aini?eyoeai ia?enecia iu
oaea aiai?eee a ?acaeaea, iinayuaiiii oeeinioneei i?iaeaiai
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa. Ii yoei nii?u ia en/a?iuaathony. Ia?aue
aii?in, eaaeaony, i/aiue i?inoui: neieueei anaai
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeee? “E?aoeee eo?n enoi?ee AEI(a)”,
iniiaiie o/aaiee yiioe noaeeiecia, aeae ioaao, aioaaeoee ai ana
nioeeaeenoe/aneea o/aaieee: oi?iaoeee iyoue – ia?aiauoiiiaueiiay,
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneay, oaiaeaeueiay, eaieoaeenoe/aneay e eiiioienoe/aneay
(aeeth/aao aeaa oacu – nioeeaeeci e eiiioieci). Aniiiiei ia?a/aiue
yoaiia ?acaeoey iauanoaa, aeaiiue a “Iaiaoeeie eaeaieiaee”, aaea iiieii
ae?oaeo iacaai aioe/iue niinia i?iecaiaenoaa. Niioaaonoaoao ee ii
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneie iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee? Eee /oi
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iacaaiiue a iaeiie ec ?aaio E.Ia?ena “aceaoneee
niinia i?iecaiaenoaa”? Niioaaonoaoao ee ii aioe/iiio eee oaiaeaeueiiio
niiniao i?iecaiaenoaa, eee i?aaenoaaeyao ea- eie-oi ae?oaie, aiciiaeii,
oanoie ii n/aoo? Ia yaeyaony ee nioeeaeeci, yaeythueeny aeeeoaeueiie
oacie eiiioiecia, ioaeaeueiie iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeeae? A
eiiioienoe/aneia iauanoai – ia ooiie/aneay ee ia/oa, naienoaaiiay a oie
eee eiie oi?ia iaacaeieaiiui neiyi iauanoaa ia i?ioyaeaiee anae
eeanniaie enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa?

Nae/an aieueoeinoaii oeeinioia i?eciaii, /oi oai?ey
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeee – caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneee oaiiiai, a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ia niiniaiue iauynieoue iiiaea ?aaeee e iioiio ia
auiieiythuee ya?enoe/aneie ooieoeee.

I?eaaaeai iaeii ec oeie/iuo aeieacaoaeuenoa yoie iiceoeee,
i?eiaaeeaaeauaa I.A.*aoeiao, aaaeouaio iao/iiio nio?oaeieeo Einoeoooa
ie?iaie yeiiiieee e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee AI ?innee. Ii ioia/aao,
/oi oai?ey oi?iaoeee ecia/aeueii iniiaaia ia iinooeaoao, oi anoue
iieiaeaieyo, i?eiyouo ca enoeio aac aeieacaoaeuenoa: i?ia?ann eae
iniiaiay oi?ia aeaeaeaiey e oi?iaoeeiiiinoue eae iniiaiie niinia
?acaa?ouaaiey i?ia?anna; oi?iaoeeiiiinoue eae aeanoei iineaaeiaaoaeueiay
noaaeeaeueiinoue; iaeii?iaeiinoue ninoaaa oi?iaoeee; i?eiao
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa; i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey eae aacen
iauanoaa; “eeann” – iniiaiay aaeeieoea iauanoaa e noauaeo enoi?ee.9

Ie iaeei ec iacaaiiuo iniiaiuo oai?aoe/aneeo ioieoia, iieiaeaiiuo a
iniiao oai?ee oi?iaoeee, ia yaeyaony nae/an aannii?iui. Oai?ey
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeee ia oieueei iniiaaia ia oai?aoe/aneeo
auaiaeao na?aaeeiu XIX a., ii a neeo yoiai ia iiaeao iauynieoue iiiaea
aicieeoea i?ioeai?a/ey: nouanoaiaaiea ia?yaeo n ciiaie i?ia?anneaiiai
(ainoiaeyuaai) ?acaeoey cii ionoaeinoe, noaaiaoeee e ooieeia;
i?aa?auaiea ainoaea?noaa – a oie eee eiie oi?ia – a aaaeiue oaeoi?
iauanoaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee; aeaeieciaiaiea e
iiaeeoeeaoeeth eeannia; aicieeiiaaiea iiaie ea?a?oee oeaiiinoae n
i?ei?eoaoii iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae iaae eeanniauie.

A caeeth/aiea aiaeeca oai?ee iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeee
iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue: E.Ia?en ia i?aoaiaeiaae ia oi, /oiau aai oai?eth
naeaeaee aeiaaeueiie, eioi?ie iiae/eiyaony ana ?acaeoea iauanoaa ia anae
ieaiaoa. “Aeiaaeecaoeey” aai acaeyaeia i?iecioea iicaeiaa, aeaaiaea?y
eioa?i?aoaoi?ai ia?enecia.

A eiioea XIX – ia/aea OO aaea aiciee iiaue eoeueoo?ieiae/aneee iiaeoiae
e iiieiaieth oiaea enoi?ee. Ii aue ?ac?aaioai a o?oaeao I. ss.
Aeaieeaaneiai, I. Oiaiaea?a, iicaeiaa A. Oieiae. Iie auaeaeioee eaeath i
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Ii eo i?aaenoaaeaieyi,
iniiao iauanoaaiiie aeecie ninoaaeytho aieaa eee iaiaa eciee?iaaiiua
ae?oa io ae?oaa “eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneea oeiu” (Aeaieeaaneee) eee
“oeeaeeecaoeee” (Oiaiaea?, Oieiae), i?ioiaeyuea a naiai ?acaeoee ?yae
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo noaaeee: ca?iaeaeaiea, ?anoeaao, noa?aiea, oiaaeie.

Aeey anao yoeo eiioeaioeee oa?aeoa?iu oaeea iniaaiiinoe, eae: ioeac io
aa?iiioeaio?enoneie, iaeiieeiaeiie noaiu i?ia?anna iauanoaa; auaiae i
nouanoaiaaiee iiiaeanoaa eoeueoo? e oeeaeeecaoeee, aeey eioi?uo
oa?aeoa?iu eieaeueiinoue e ?aciiea/anoaaiiinoue; ooaa?aeaeaiea ia
iaeeiaeiaii cia/aiee anao eoeueoo? a enoi?e/aneii i?ioeanna.

*oi aea oaeia oeeaeeecaoeey – oa?iei, oiiieiaaiue iaie oaea ianeieueei
?ac? Nae/an aai /anoi eniieuecotho, i?e/ai, ia oieueei a ea/anoaa
nouanoaeoaeueiiai, ii e eae i?eeaaaoaeueiia, iiyoiio iiiyoii, /oi
cia/aiee yoiai oa?ieia iiiaeanoai. “Oeeinioneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee
neiaa?ue” aeaao o?e o?aeoiaee:

1) oeeaeeecaoeey – yoi neiiiei eoeueoo?u, a ia?enenoneie oeeinioee
oiio?aaeyaony oaeaea aeey iaicia/aiey iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u;

2) o?iaaiue, nooiaiue iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie
eoeueoo?u;

3) nooiaiue iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, neaaeothuay ca aa?aa?noaii (E.
Ii?aai, O. Yiaaeuen).10

E oeacaiiui o?ai o?aeoiaea iiaeii aeiaaaeoue e iiiyoey, ?ac?aaioaiiua
oeeinioaie OO aaea:

1) oeeaeeecaoeey – ii?aaeaeaiiay nooiaiue a ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u ia?iaeia
e ?aaeiiia (A.Oieiae, I.A.Ni?ieei);

2) oeaiiinoue anao eoeueoo?, iinyuay iauee oa?aeoa? aeey anao ia?iaeia
(E.ssnia?n);

3) eiia/iue iiiaio a ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u oiai eee eiiai ia?iaea eee
?aaeiia – aai “caeao” (I.Oiaiaea?);

4) aunieee o?iaaiue iaoa?eaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaa- ea, i?oaeee
o?oaea, oaoiieiaee, yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo ioiioaiee e
o/?aaeaeaiee (I.Aa?aeyaa, N.Aoeaaeia).

Iaeiaei a nia?aiaiiie nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee iiae oeeaeeecaoeeae /aua
iiieiatho e?oiiiianooaaioth nioeeieoeueoo?ioth iauiinoue ethaeae e
ia?iaeia.

Oai?ey oeeaeeecaoeee eiaao iiiaeanoai aeinoieinoa, iiiiaay ?ane?uoue
iaoaieciu enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey, auyaeoue aai iooe e iniaaiiinoe. Aa
noi?iiieee iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeytho iai?a?uaiinoe, yaiethoeeiiiinoe
iauanoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Ionthaea, enoaoe, neaaeoao auaiae i oii, /oi
?aaiethoeee – yoi auioaeaeaiiue, iaaeaeaoaeueiue aeo.

Oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae iiiiaaao oaeaeaoue a enoi?ee
iieeaa?eaoeaiinoue, ia ioa?anuaay iaeea aa?eaiou, eae ia ioaa/athuea
e?eoa?eyi eaeie-oi iaeiie eoeueoo?u. N aai iiiioueth iiaeii auaeaeeoue
?yae nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo ?acee/ee nia?aiaiiuo ainoi/iie e caiaaeiie
oeeaeeecaoeee. I?eaaaeai eeoue o?e i?eia?a:

1. ii oa?aeoa?o nayce ee/iinoe e iauanoaa (ainoi/iay oeeaeeecaoeey
i?eaioe?iaaia ia iauanoai, n iieiui iiae/eiaieai aio /aeiaaea; caiaaeiay
– ia ee/iinoue, aa eiaeeaeaeoaeeci, i?ei?eoaou eioa?ania ioaeaeueiiai
/aeiaaea ia?aae eioa?anaie ia- uanoaa);

2. ii nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneei onoaiiaeai /aeiaaea (/aeiaae Caiaaea
/aua anaai ia oaeiaeaoai?ai ianoiyuei, aio oa?aeoa?ii no?aieaiea
oeo/oaoue aai; a ainoi/iie eoeueoo?a iiaia e noa?ia aeieaeiu
o?aaiiaaoeaaoueny, ioaeii neaaeiaaoue o?aaeeoeeyi aeaaeia e i?aaeaaeia,
aaeeeeo o/eoaeae i?ioeiai);

3. ii oa?aeoa?o ?acaeoey nioeeieoeueoo?iie aeecie (eciaiaiey caiaaeiiai
ia?aca aeecie nei?aa e /aua nea/eiia?aciu, /ai ieaaiu; ainoi/iua
eoeueoo?u ?acaeaathony aieaa yaiethoeeiiiui iooai, iie noaaeeueiu,
onoie/eau, iie?athony ia aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe i?ioeiai).

Iineaaeiaaoaee E.Ia?ena ii/oe iieiinoueth io?eoeaee ?ieue ee/iinoe a
enoi?ee. “Iacaiaieiuo ethaeae iao!” – oae yoi io?aceeinue ia o?iaia
ianniaiai niciaiey niaaoneiai ia?eiaea enoi?ee ?innee. A oai?ee
oeeaeeecaoeee aiaeec ?iee ee/iinoiiai oaeoi?a i?eia?aoaao iniaia
cia/aiea. I?e yoii aeaeaaony auaiae, n eioi?ui o?oaeii ia niaeaneoueny:
a enoi?ee auaatho oaeea ia?eiaeu eiaaea ?ieue iaeiiai /aeiaaea a ?aoaiee
eaeeo-oi enoi?e/aneeo i?iaeai iiaeao auoue aieaa cia/eiie, /ai ?ieue
ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia, aeaaea acyouo aianoa.

Ii e oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e iiieiaieth enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna ia
eeoai iaeioi?uo iaaeinoaoeia. A /anoiinoe, a iai ia o/eouaaaony naycue
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie oeeaeeecaoeeyie, ia iauyniyaony oaiiiai
iiaoi?yaiinoe.

Eaeea yoaiu a ?acaeoee iauanoaa e niioaaonoaaiii oeiu iauanoa auaeaeyao
nia?aiaiiay nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneay iuneue?

I?aaeaea, /ai ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in, aniiiiei eae iu aac o?oaea
auaeaeeee ia?eiaeu: ae?aaiee ie?, n?aaeiea aaea, iiaia e iiaaeoaa a?aiy,
aeey eaaeaeiai ec eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ai naie niinia i?iecaiaenoaa, oei
eoeueoo?u e o.ae. N yoie ia?eiaeecaoeeae, enoiaey ec nia?aiaiiuo
aeaiiuo, iieo/aiiuo enoi?e/aneeie iaoeaie, ia niaeaniu i?aaeaea anaai
iiiaea enoi?eee. E oioy yoi oaia ioaeaeueiiai e oaeaeaoaeueiiai
enneaaeiaaiey, ioiaoei iiceoeeth ecaanoiiai o?aioeocneiai enoi?eea AEaea
Ea Aiooa, eioi?ue a 1991 aiaeo a i?aaeeneiaee e ?onneiio ecaeaieth
eieae, iinayuaiiie enneaaeiaaieth n?aaeiaaaeiaie caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee
ienae: “…Naaiaeiy y ianoaeaae au ia ?anoe?aiee a?aiaiiuo ?aiie, ia
“aeieaii” N?aaeiaaaeiauea, ioaaouaathuai yiioo, ia/eiathuothny ni II –
III-ai noieaoey iicaeiae Aioe/iinoe e ia caaa?oathuothny ?aiannainii (XV
– XVI aaea), naycue eioi?iai n Iiaui a?aiaiai, ia iie acaeyae,
i?aoaaee/aia. N?aaeiaaaeiauea aeeeeinue, ii-nouanoao, aei XVIII a.,
iinoaiaiii ecaeeaay naay ia?aae eeoeii O?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee,
i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?aai?ioa XIX a. e aaeeeeo ia?aiai aaea aeaaaeoeaoiai. Iu
aeeaai n?aaee iineaaeieo iaoa?eaeueiuo e eioaeeaeooaeueiuo inoaoeia
N?aaeiaaaeiauey”.11

I?e anae iaiaeeaeaiiinoe auaiaeia Ea Aiooa, ii ia iaeeiie e eiaao iiiai
noi?iiieeia, aeaeathueo ooi/ieoue i?eiyooth ia?eiaeecaoeeth enoi?ee
iauanoaa.

Nia?aiaiiay oeeinioneay iuneue iioea a noi?iio oe?oiiaiey auaeaeyaiuo
yoaiia. Oae, iaeaieaa eniieuecoaiui a caiaaeiuo o/aaieeao yaeyaony
iiaeoiae, eiaaea auaeaeytho:

1) o?aaeeoeeiiiia iauanoai (aeieaieoaeenoe/aneia),

2) eaieoaeenoe/aneia iauanoai (aeeth/aao ?aiithth, ia?aoiaeioth oi?io
eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa, ca?iaeeaoothny a XVII – XVIII aaeao a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, a oaeaea eiaeono?eaeueiia ia- uanoai, ia/eiay n
na?aaeeiu XIX aaea),

3) iinoeiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai (n 60-o aiaeia OO aaea).

Oaeei ia?acii, /aeiaa/anoai i?ioiaeeo eae au o?e “aieiu” oeeaeeecaoeee.
A o?aaeeoeeiiiii iauanoaa i?aiaeaaeaei naeueneia oicyenoai, a
eiaeono?eaeueiii – i?iiuoeaiiinoue, a iinoeiaeono?eaeueiii – noa?a
oneoa, a eioi?ie ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue ea?aao eioi?iaoeey. Eioi?iaoeey a
nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa noaea oaeoi?ii, aeeythuei ia ana aai ?acaeoea.

Oa?iei “eiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai” iiyaeeny a oeeinioneie eeoa?aoo?a
aeaaiaea?y iniiaiiieiaeieeai nioeeieiaee – I. Eiioo e A. Niaina?o.
Iiiyoea “iinoeiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai” aaae a iao/iue iai?io
nia?aiaiiue aia?eeaineee o/aiue Ae.Aaee. Ioee/ea eiaeono?eaeueiiai e
iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai ia- uanoa, eae iieaaaao Ae.Aaee, ninoieo a oii,
/oi “inaaui einoeoooii” eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa yaeyaony /anoiay
nianoaaiiinoue, a iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa – oai?/aneia ciaiea.

Aio oaea aieaa o?aoe aaea oe?iei ecaanoia e iaoea iiiaeo noi?iiieeia
eiioeaioeey o/aiiai ec Eaia?eaeaeneiai oieaa?neoaoa (Aaeeeia?eoaiey) O.
?inoio, iacaaiiay ei “oai?eae noaaeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa”. O. ?inoio
auaeaeyao iyoue “noaaeee” a ?acaeoee iauanoaa:

1) o?aaeeoeeiiiia iauanoai;

2) noaaeey nicaeaiey i?aaeiinueie aeey iiaeuaia;

3) noaaeey naeaeaa;

4) noaaeey ?inoa;

5) ia?eiae aunieiai o?iaiy ianniaiai iio?aaeaiey.

O.?inoio iiyniyao, /oi a eiia/iii eoiaa, ?acee/ea iaaeaeo o?aaeeoeeiiiui
e nia?aiaiiui iauanoaii, ii aai iiaieth, ninoieo a oii, yaeyaony ee
o?iaaiue eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ieceei ii ioiioaieth e i?e?inoo ianaeaiey.
Enoiaey ec i?aaeuaeouae ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?ee iauanoaa, iiaeii iiiyoue,
/oi oaeia o?aaeeoeeiiiia iauanoai, ii ae?oaea noaaeee, auaeaeaiiua
O.?inoio, o?aaotho ooi/iaiey. “Iauanoai a i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea” – yoi ia-
?eiae, eiaaea nicaeathony oneiaey aeey “naeaeaa”, oi anoue
iaeaieeaathony oneiaey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ia?aoiaea e eiaeono?eaeueiie
oeeaeeecaoeee. Ia?eiae (noaaeey) naeaeaa – yoi ia?eiae i?iiuoeai- iie
?aaiethoeee, eioi?ay auea naycaia n eciaiaieai iaoiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa.
Noaaeey ?inoa – “yoi noaaeey, eiaaea yeiiiieea aeaiiino?e?oao, /oi o iaa
anoue oaoie/aneea e i?aaei?eieiaoaeue- neea aiciiaeiinoe i?iecaiaeeoue,
anee ia ana, oi ii/oe ana, /oi iia i?aaeii/eoaao i?iecaiaeeoue”.12

“Oai?ey noaaeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa” i/aiue aeecea iiae?acaeaeaieth
anaie?iie enoi?ee ia o?aaeeoeeiiiia, eiaeono?e- aeueiia e
iinoeiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai. Iaeia ec i?e/ei yoiai ninoieo a oii, /oi
a iniiao ia?eiaeecaoeee iieiaeaii ?acaeoea i?oaeee o?oaea.

Iu ia ?ac eiaee aiciiaeiinoue oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi iuia nioeeaeueiay
oeeinioey ?acaeaaaony no?aieoaeueiuie oaiiaie. Aio aua iaeei y?eee oiio
i?eia?. Iaaeaaii ecaanoiue ?inneeneee oeeinio A.I.Eiaaeaa aunooiee ni
naiei iiaeoiaeii e iniuneaieth anaie?iie enoi?ee, a eioi?ii ii iiiuoaeny
iauaaeeieoue eiathueany oi/ee c?aiey, auaeaeioa “niinia i?iecaiaenoaa
iauanoaaiiie aeecie” eae niaieoiiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai iioaioeeaea,
nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee e i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. Yoa aaeeiay eiioeaioeey
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, ooaa?aeaeaao Eiaaeaa, aeeth/aao
oeeaeeecaoeeiiioth eiioeaioeeth Oieiae, oi?iaoeeiiioth oai?eth Ia?ena,
enneaaeiaaiey Iaeueoona e noi?iiieeia aaia?aoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey.
Eiaaeaa ioia/aao, /oi ana eiioeaioeee caiaaeiuo aaoi?ia eeaaeoo a iniiao
iauanoaaiiuo i?ioeannia ia/oi aiaoiaa ii ioiioaieth e /aeiaaeo, eae au
ii?aaeaeyy aic?ano ia ii ninoiyieth /aeiaaea, a ii oie iaeaaeaea,
eioi?oth ii iineo, oi anoue iauanoai ?anniao?eaaeinue anaaaea ia eae
ea/anoaaiii ii?aaeaeaiiue oeaeinoiue i?e?iaeii-nioeeaeueiue i?aaieci, a
eae noiia eiaeeaeaeia, eioi?ua neeaaeuaathony a iauiinoe e no?iyo
iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey a caaeneiinoe io aiaoieo oaeoi?ia.13

4. Niaoeeoeea oeeinioneiai iiciaiey nioeeaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe

Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey eiaao naiei iauaeoii iiciaiey iauanoai, oi anoue
caieiaaony iiciaieai nioeeaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

A no?iaii niunea neiaa ethaia iiciaiea, iineieueeo iii i?ioaeaao a
iauanoaa, yaeyaony nioeeaeueiui. E?iia oiai, /aeiaae, yaeythueeny
noauaeoii iiciaiey, – nouanoai nioeeaeueiia, ia iiciaaaoaeueioth
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?iai ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea e nioeeaeueiua
ea/anoaa, e aeooiaii-ineoieiae/aneea ninoiyiey. Ii a oeeinioneie
eeoa?aoo?a iiiyoea “nioeeaeueiia iiciaiea” oiio?aaeyaony aeey oiai,
/oiau ?aca?aie/eoue ciaiey ia iauanoaa e ciaiey i i?e?iaea, iineieueeo
nioeeaeueiia iiciaiea eiaao iiiai iniaaiiinoae, ioee/athueo aai io
iiciaiey i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia e yaeaiee. Nioeeaeueiiio iiciaieth iiaeii
aeaoue neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea: ” Iiciaiea ethaeueie caeiiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iauanoaa e naieo naay, naieo oeaeae, aeaeaiee,
iio?aaiinoae, iacuaaaony nioeeaeueiui iiciaieai” .14

Iniiaiay caaea/a nioeeaeueiiai oeia ciaiey – aiaeec iauanoaaiiuo
i?ioeannia e auyaeaiea a ieo caeiiiia?iuo, n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
iiaoi?ythueony yaeaiee. Iiyoiio nioeeieiae/aneia ciaiea iaiauaao,
aaia?aeecoao, no?aieony iauynieoue iiiaiia?acea iauanoaaiiiai auoey,
iie?aynue ia caeiiu aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey, /oiau ia iniiaaiee
e a i?aaeaeao aeaiiie oai?aoe/aneie nenoaiu iiaeii auei i?aaeaeaeaoue
aoaeouaa.

I?aaeaa?yy iaeii ec naiuo eioa?aniuo e ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo ioa/anoaaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee ii oai?ee iiciaiey , iinayuaiiiai nioeeaeueiiio iiciaieth,
aaoi?u ni?aaaaeeeai oeacuaatho ia oi, /oi nioeeaeueiia iiciaiea – yoi
ia?iiiue ie?, aiaaoue e ?aciiia?aciue, eioi?ue nae/an oaea o?oaeii
ioaaoeoue oeaeeeii. Ii aeaaii i?ioeainoieo ie?o anoanoaaiiuo iaoe,
i?ioeainoieo ia a ieaia eiieo?aioeee, a a neeo naiae niaoeeoeee e
no?aieaiey e naiii?aaiecaoeee.15

E aeaenoaeoaeueii, yoi – iniaue ie? ni naieie i?iaeaiaie, iaoiaeaie,
iiaeoiaeaie, ie?, aua ia neiaeeaoeeny ieii/aoaeueii, ii oi?ie?othueeny
ia iaoeo aeacao.

A /ai aea caeeth/athony iaeaieaa aaaeiua ioee/ey nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey
io iiciaiey anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai:

1. A anoanoaaiiuo iaoeao ia?aiia/aeueii eaeie-eeai i?aaeiao iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eciee?iaaiii io ae?oaeo, aano?aae?oynue io aai naycae e
acaeiiaeeyiee ?aaeueiiai ie?a. Nioeeaeueiia iiciaiea i?aaeaea anaai
eiaao aeaei n nenoaiie acaeiinaycae e ioiioaiee. I?aaenoaaeoue naaa
eaeie-eeai i?aaeiao enneaaeiaaiey: – nianoaaiiinoue, aeanoue,
eaeaieiaeth, eoeueoo?o e o.ae. – aac nenoaiu ioiioaiee e acaeiiaeeyiee
iaaiciiaeii.

2. A anoanoaaiiuo iaoeao ioe?uou caeiiu, aeaenoaea eioi?uo aeinoaoi/ii
iaeciaiii. Nioeeaeueiay aeeciue, iaiai?io, i/aiue iiaeaeaeia, eciai/eaa,
iioiio caeiiu, aeaenoaothuea a iauanoaa, eiatho oa?aeoa? oaiaeaioeee , a
ia aeanoei aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo caaeneiinoae.

3. Iniaaiiinoueth iauaeoa nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey yaeyaony aai
enoi?e/iinoue, iineieueeo e iauanoai, e ee/iinoue, e oi?iu eo
acaeiiaeaenoaey aeeiaie/iu, a ia noaoe/iu.

4. A iauanoaaiiie aeecie yaeaiey ia niaiaaeatho n nouiinoueth a
cia/eoaeueii aieueoae ia?a, /ai yoi iaaethaeaaony a i?e?iaea. A ionthaea
– aeiiieieoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey.

5. A anoanoaaiiuo iaoeao, eae ecaanoii, oe?iei eniieuecothony oae
iacuaaaiua aeanoeea iiciaaaoaeueiua i?ioeaaeo?u, a iiciaiee nioeeaeueiie
aeecie eniieueciaaiea iaoaiaoe/aneeo e iiaeiaiuo ei i?ioeaaeo? aiciiaeii
eeoue a aeinoaoi/ii ia?aie/aiiuo i?aaeaeao, a eiiaaea i?inoi
iaaiciiaeii.

6. Iauanoai aunooiaao iaeiia?aiaiii e noauaeoii, e iauaeoii iiciaiey.
Oaeei ia?acii, nioeeaeueiia iiciaiea aunooiaao eae naiiiiciaiea. (Yoi
ioithaeue ia aeaeaao aai i?iua eee oniaoiaa!)

I?ioeann nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey, eae e iiciaiea aiiaua, inouanoaeyaony
ia aeaoo o?iaiyo- iauaeaiii-i?aeoe/aneii e iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneii.
Eiia/ii, aeoaeia i?iieeiiaaiey a nouiinoue yaeaiee, iaoiaeaeaiea
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae, ii- ieiaiea nouiinoe iaaethaeaaiuo
yaeaiee ia ieo ?aciua. Iauaeaiiia niciaiea a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
?oeiaiaenoaoaony “aeeoaeneie ioae?inoueth”, ia i?iieeay a nouiinoue
yaeaiey e aeiaieuenoaoynue aiaoieie i?iyaeaieyie, eae au neieuecy ii
iiaa?oiinoe. Eiia aeaei iao/iia iiciaiea. Iii i?ioiaeeo aeaa yoaia –
yiie?e/aneee e oai?aoe/aneee.

Yiie?e/aneei iacuaaaony oio yoai iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, ia eioi?ii
iiciathuee noauaeo iaiin?aaenoaaiii nii?eeanaaony n iauaeoii iiciaiey:
enneaaeiaaoaeue iienuaaao eco/aaiue i?ioeann, eeanneoeoee?oao, no?ieo
oiicaeeth/aiey ii aiaeiaee, iaaethaeaao, i?iaiaeeo oanoe?iaaiea,
aieaoe?iaaiea, ioae?aao iaiaoiaeeiua enoi/ieee (a?oeaiua aeieoiaiou,
noaoenoe/aneea iaoa?eaeu e o. i.). A aeaeueiaeoai yoe aeaiiua
i?eia?aoatho iao/iue e no?iaee oai?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

Oai?aoe/aneee yoai iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey iai?aaeai ia iaia?oaeaiea a
iauaeoa onoie/eauo e iiaoi?ythueony naycae, ioe?uoea caeiiia e
caeiiiia?iinoae aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey. A i?ioeanna
oai?aoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey o/aiue, eniieuecoy eiathueeny yiie?e/aneee
iaoa?eae, iieo/aao iiaua ciaiey i ie?a, i?iieeaao a nouiinoue yaeaiey.
Ii nioeeaeueiue iauaeo ianoieueei aiaao, iiiaiia?acai e neiaeai, /oi
noaei iaiaoiaeeiui iiae?acaeaeaiea nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiea ia ianeieueei
oeiia (aeaeia).

O?aaeeoeeiiii auaeaeythony neaaeothuea oeiu nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey:

1) aoiaieoa?iia ciaiea,

2) nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ciaiea,

3) nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneia ciaiea.

A /ai iniaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai ec yoeo oeiia?

I?aaeiaoii aoiaieoa?iiai ciaiey aunooiaao noauaeoeaiue ie? /aeiaaea.
Nioeeaeueiia auoea ?anniao?eaaaony a iai noauaeoeaii, /a?ac aai
cia/eiinoue aeey /aeiaaea. Iauaeoii eco/aiey aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe yaeythony
aeooiaiua e eoeueoo?iua yaeaiey, /aeiaae, iauanoai. Nthaea i?aaeaea
anaai ioiinyony iaaeaaiaeea, ineoieiaey, ynoaoe/aneia e i?aanoaaiiia
ia?aciaaiea, ooaeiaeanoaaiiia oai?/anoai.

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ciaiea i?eaioe?iaaii ia iienaiea oao
i?ioeannia, eioi?ua ieacuaatho cia/eoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia ?acaeoea
iauanoaa e i?aaeaea anaai – ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe, ?ani?aaeaeaiey,
iaiaia e iio?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, oi anoue yeiiiie/aneoth aeeciue
iauanoaa. Yoio oei ciaiey i?eaeeaeaaony e anoanoaaiiiiao/iiio, iiyoiio a
iai oe?iei eniieuecothony iaoaiaoe/aneea e ae?oaea oi/iua iaoiaeu
iiciaiey.

N?aaee anao oeiia nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneia ciaiea
caieiaao iniaia ianoi. Eae aiai?yo oeeiniou, iii yaeyaony
nenoaiiia?acothuae iniiaie aeey anao nioeeaeueiuo ciaiee. Iii
?ac?aaaouaaaony ia aaca iaiauaiey i?aeoeee eiie?aoiiai enoi?e/aneiai
yoaia ?acaeoey iauanoaa e i?eaioe?iaaii ia au?aaioeo iaeaieaa iaueo
i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?e?iaeiii e nioeeaeueiii auoee /aeiaaea, caeiiao aai
?acaeoey e ioiioaiey e ie?o. Nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneia ciaiea auaeaeyao
iniiaiua oi?iu /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iniiaiua caeiiu eo
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey, aiaeece?oao acaeiinaycue e acaeiiaeeyiea
iniiaiuo noa? aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa e ianoi /aeiaaea a yoeo
nenoaiao.

?yae aaoi?ia i?aaeeiaaao ae?oaie iiaeoiae e auaeaeaieth oeiia
nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey. Ii eo iiaieth, oaeia iiciaiea aeaeeony ia aeaa
cia/eoaeueii ioee/athueony ae?oa io ae?oaa iiaenenoaiu. Iiciaiea caeiiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iauanoaa inouanoaeyaony iauanoaaiiuie iaoeai, a
iiciaiea /aeiaaeii naiiai naay, naiaai ss, oeaiiinoii-niuneiaie noa?u
auoey – oae iacuaaaiuie aoiaieoa?iuie iaoeaie. ?acoiaaony, aeaeaiea
nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey ia iaoee i /aeiaaea e aai ianoa a ie?a e iaoee ia
iauanoaa aeinoaoi/ii oneiaii. Iaeiaei oaeia aeaeaiea eiaao naia
aeoaeiii- niaea?aeaoaeueiia iniiaaiea.

Iiiaei ni oeieueiie neaiuee ciaeiia ?anoiaeay o?aca: e?eoa?eai
enoeiiinoe iaoeo ciaiee yaeyaony i?aeoeea. Enoeia – yoi aaeaeaaoiinoue
i?aaenoaaeaiee noauaeoa aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, i /ai iiae?iaii aiai?eeinue
a ia?aie /anoe eo?na oeeinioee. Ii aeinoeaeeia ee enoeia a nioeeaeueiii
iiciaiee? Iiiuoaainy aieaa iiae?iaii ?acia?aoueny a yoii aeooaeueiii e
cao?aaeaathuai eaaeaeiai aii?ina. Aeey yoiai, i/aaeaeii, iaaei ioaaoeoue
ia aii?in i oii, neieueei iiaeao auoue enoei? Ioaao, eioi?ue i/aaeaeii
iai?aoeaaaony, cao/eo oae: eiaaea aeaei eanaaony /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee,
enoei noieueei, neieueei e ethaeae. Ia?aaeei, yaeyynue naeaeaoaeyie
eaeie-ieaoaeue iieaieee, iu neuoei aeiaiaeu iaeiie noi?iiu e (iniaaiii
anee yoa noi?iia iai neiiaoe/ia) neeiiiu n ieie niaeaneoueny. Ii aio a
nii? anooiaao noi?iiiee eiie oi/ee c?aiey, e iai eaaeaony, /oi ii …
oiaea i?aa. Oae ianoieo aeaei a ie?a iianaaeiaaiinoe.

A nioeeaeueiuo iaoeao, aaea o/aiua aii?oaeaiu a?naiaeii ?aciiia?aciuo
iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey, iaoe?iui e?oaii enoi/ieeia e aiaaoui iiuoii
iiiaeo naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, aeaei ianoieo aua aieaa na?ueacii.

Aaoi?u oaea oiiieiaaiie ?aaiou ii oai?ee iiciaiey iauyniytho iaee/ea
iiiaeanoaa naiuo ?acii?a/eauo iiaiee o/aiuo ii i?iaeaiai iauano aaiiie
aeecie neaaeothuei ia?acii.15

Iaaiciiaeiinoue aeaaaoue iaeiicia/iua ioaaou ia aii?inu, eioi?uie
caieiaaony nioeeaeueiay iaoea, naycaia n i?eioeeieaeueiie yiie?e/aneie
ianiiinoaaeiinoueth ?acee/iuo oai?aoe/aneeo eiino?oeoeee. I?e/eia
iiiaeanoaaiiinoe aiciiaeiuo oi?i iienaiey nioeeaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe – a
ionoonoaee oieaa?naeueiuo enoiaeiuo aeiiouaiee, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acee/iuo ie?iaicc?aiee e eoeueoo?. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e
iiiuoeai ioaaoeoue ana i?aaeiaoiia iiea nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey n iiiiuueth
iaeiiai i?eioeeia, eioi?ue E. Ia?en a eiia/iii n/aoa aeaeae a yeiiiieea,
iaiaoeeee nioeeieia ?oaaaea XIX-OO aaeia I.Aaaa? – a ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe,
nia?aiaiiue oeeinio ec O?A TH.Oaaa?ian – a eiiioieeaoeaiii aeaenoaee.
I?eioeeieaeueiay iaoiaeieiae/aneay iaono?aieiinoue oeaiiinoiuo
eiiiiiaioia aeaeaao iacaaiiua nioeeaeueiua eiioeaioeee yiie?e/anee
?aaiii?aaiuie. Noieeiiaaiea ?acee/iuo oai?aoe/aneeo nenoai ieacuaaaony a
eiia/iii n/aoa noieeiiaaieai enoiaeiuo, oeaiiinoii ie?aoaiiuo onoaiiaie.
Iiiaeanoai eiioeaioeee, io?aaeathueo ?acee/iua oeaiiinoe, ieacuaaaony
anoanoaaiiui e iaono?aieiui. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, enoi/iee iiiaiia- ?acey
nioeeaeueiuo eiioeaioeee, iienuaathueo nioeeaeueiua i?ioeannu, – iaee/ea
a iauanoaa ?aciiiai?aaeaiiuo oeaiiinoii-ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo onoaiiaie,
aeeythueo ia oa?aeoa? enoiaeiuo iieiaeaiee oai?ee e niaoeeoeeo eo
iainiiaaiey.

Eiia/ii, ioaeii o/eouaaoue, /oi aei oao ii?, iiea iiiyoea enoeiu
eniieuecoaony ia no?iai, a a iauai aeaea, o?oaeiinoae iiaeao e ia
aicieeiooue. Ii a nioeeaeueiuo iaoeao ia ia?aia ianoi /anoi aunooiaao ia
iiciaaaoaeueiue, aiinaieiae/aneee, eioa?an enneaaeiaaoaey, a oeaiiinoiua
onoaiiaee oao, eoi caeioa?aniaai a aeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee. Yoi, eiia/ii,
ia ioaeii iiieiaoue eae ceiiaia?aiioth iiaeoaniaeo oaeoia. I?inoi
nioeeaeueiua iaoee (eaeeie au caoai?aoece?iaaiiuie iie ia eacaeenue ia
ia?aue acaeyae), caaeaaatho eioa?anu iiiaeo ethaeae, a iioiio iinyo y?ei
au?aaeaiioth aeneieiae/aneoth, o. a. oeaiiinoioth ie?aneo. Ecaanoiue
ioa/anoaaiiue iaoiaeieia iaoee A.Ieeeoi?ia a nayce n yoei i?aaeeiaeee a
oii, /oi eanaaony iiciaiey a anoanoaaiiuo iaoeao, inoaaeoue oa?iei
“enoeia”, a a oii, /oi ioiineony e nioeeaeueiiio iiciaieth aaanoe oa?iei
“i?aaaea”, eae niaaeeiaiea aeneieiae/aneeo e aiinaieiae/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee iiciaiey.16

Oaeei ia?acii, iioieiae/aneay, aiinaieiae/aneay e aeneieiae/aneay
noi?iiu nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie, ia?acoy
oeaeinoioth no?oeoo?o iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. ?anniio?ei
yoi iiae?iaiaa.

Iioieiae/aneay noi?iia nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey eanaaony iauyniaiey auoey
iauanoaa, caeiiiia?iinoae e oaiaeaioeee aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e
?acaeoey. Aianoa n oai, iia cao?aaeaaao e /aeiaaea eae noauaeoa
nioeeaeueiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, ii eeoue a oie noaiaie, a eaeie ii
aeeth/ai a nenoaio iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Aiinaieiae/aneay noi?iia nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey naycaia n iniaaiiinoyie
naiiai yoiai iiciaiey, i?aaeaea anaai n oai, niiniaii ee iii
oi?ioee?iaaoue nianoaaiiua caeiiu e eaoaai?ee e eiaao ee eo aiiaua.
Ae?oaeie neiaaie, ?a/ue eaeao i oii, iiaeao ee nioeeaeueiia iiciaiea
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia enoeio e iaeaaeaoue noaoonii iaoee? Ioaao ia yoio
aii?in ai iiiaii caaeneo io iiceoeee o/aiiai a ?aoaiee iioieiae/aneeo
i?iaeai nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey, io oiai, i?eciaaony ee iauaeoeaiia
nouanoaiaaiea iauanoaa e iaee/ea a iai iauaeoeaiuo caeiiia.

Iiieii iioieiae/aneie e aiinaieiae/aneie noi?ii nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey
nouanoaoao e oeaiiinoiay-aeneieiae/aneay noi?iia, ea?athuay aaaeioth
?ieue a iiieiaiee aai niaoeeoeee, iineieueeo ethaia iiciaiea, e iniaaiii
nioeeaeueiia, naycaii n oaie eee eiuie oeaiiinoiuie ia?acoeaie,
i?eno?anoeyie e eioa?anaie ?acee/iuo noauaeoia. Oeaiiinoiue iiaeoiae
i?iyaeyaony oaea n naiiai ia/aea nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey – n auai?a
iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey. Yoio auai? inouanoaeyaony eiie?aoiui noauaeoii
enoiaey ec aai aeeciaiiiai e iiciaaaoaeueiiai iiuoa, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
oeaeae e caaea/.

5. I?aaeiao e ooieoeee nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee

Enoi?ey oeeinioee ian/eouaaao aieaa aeaoo n iieiaeiie ouny/aeaoee. Ca
yoi a?aiy iaeiieeinue iiiaeanoai ii?aaeaeaiee oeeinioee, ii aei neo ii?
ia ooeoatho nii?u i oii, /oi aea iia niaie i?aaenoaaeyao –
ie?iaicc?aiea, iaoeo, eaeaieiaeth, eneonnoai? Anai ecaanoiu ?acaiai?iua,
aeeoaeneea ii?aaeaeaiey oeeinioee:

1) oeeinioey – yoi neiaeeaoeany oaaaeaeaiey ii iiaiaeo /aai-eeai
(iai?eia?, aeeciaiiay oeeinioey, nooaeai/aneay oeeinioey);

2) ioaea/aiiua, iauea, ia ioiinyueany e aeaeo ?annoae aeaiey (iai?eia?,
?acaiaeeoue oeeinioeth).

Iaeii ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ii?aaeaeaiee oeeinioee, eioi?ia
ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee auei i?eiyoi a NNN?, enoiaeeei ec oacena
E.Ia?ena i iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey iiaie oeeinioneie iaoee,
aii?oaeaiiie nia?aiaiiuie, oi/iuie iaoiaeaie enneaaeiaaiey auoey,
iauanoaa e /aeiaaea: oeeinioey – yoi iaoea i iaeaieaa iaueo caeiiao
?acaeoey i?e?iaeu, /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa e iuoeaiey.

Ia?aaeei iiae oeeinioeae iiieiaaony /uea-eeai o/aiea i ie?a (iai?eia?,
aioe/iay oeeinioey, oeeinioey Aaaaey e o.i.)

Oa?ieiii “oeeinioey” /anoi iacuaatho iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu,
eaaeauea a iniiaa eaeie-eeai iaoee, iaeanoe ciaiey (iai?eia?, oeeinioey
enoi?ee, oeeinioey iaoaiaoeee e o. ae.)

Ii?aaeaeeoue nioeeaeueioth oeeinioeth au? aieaa neiaeii, iineieueeo yoa
iaeanoue ciaiey iaiin?aaenoaaiii cao?aaeaaao eioa?anu ethaeae, iiieiaiea
eie ie?a e naay a yoii ie?a. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey aa?ao nai? ia/aei a
Aioe/iinoe. Aa iiyaeaiea naycaii n eiaiaie Nie?aoa e Ieaoiia, aia?aua
iinoaaeaoeo caaea/o oeeinioneiai iniuneaiey iauanoaa e ioaeaeueiuo aai
noa?.

*oi aea eanaaony oeeinioee enoi?ee, oi aa ia/aei a Aa?iia caeiaeee
Aaaonoei Aa?aeee (IV a.i.y.) naiei ciaiaieoui o?oaeii “I a?aaea
Aiaeueai”. Aaaonoeiianeia oieeiaaiea enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna a
aa?iiaeneie oeeinioee ainiiaenoaiaaei aei XVIII aaea. Ii oi?ie?iaaiea
nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee eae ioaeaeueiie io?anee ciaiey ioiineony e
na?aaeeia XIX aaea. A yoi a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo noaiiaeaiea nioeeieiaee e
ineoieiaee. O/aiua ioeacuaathony io “niaeoeyoeaiiai”, iniiaaiiiai
oieueei ia ?aciuoeaiee, ?annoaei/iiai iiciaiey ie?a a iieueco iiuoiiai,
?aoeeiiaeueiiai ciaiey. Iie auaeaeytho aeoeaioth ?ieue /aeiaaea, eioi?ue
iaeaaeaaaao oaeiaie ie?icaeaiey ia n iiiiuueth iaoaoece/aneeo,
ioi?aaiiuo io ?aaeueiie aeecie oiiiino?iaiee, a ca n/ao oi/iuo iao/iuo
iaoiaeia.

I?ioaaeoea n oao ii? iieoi?a aaea ia aianee yniinoe a i?iaeaio nouiinoe
eae oeeinioee a oeaeii, oae e nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee, a /anoiinoe. E ii
nae aeaiue a eeoa?aoo?a iao aaeeinoaa a ii?aaeaeaiee nioeeaeueiie
oeeinioee e aa i?aaeiaoa. Aieaa oiai, a iao/iii ie?a ionoonoaoao aeaaea
aaeeiia iiieiaiee iaeiie ec iniiaiuo eaoaai?ee – “nioeeaeueiia”,- oioy
iauaeoii nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee yaeythony nioeeaeueiay aeeciue e
nioeeaeueiua i?ioeannu.

A eeoa?aoo?a oa?iei “nioeeaeueiue” oiio?aaeyaony a ?aciuo niuneao.
Iiaeaeoe, iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecoaony ii?aaeaeaiea, aeaiiia I.A.
Ni?ieeiui, ii iiaieth iiiaeo, naiui auaeathueiny nioeeieiaii ia?aie
iieiaeiu OO aaea. “Nioeeaeueiia yaeaiea anoue ie? iiiyoee, ie?
eiae/aneiai (iao/iiai – a no?iaii niunea yoiai neiaa) auoey,
iieo/athueeny a i?ioeanna acaeiiaeaenoaey (eieeaeoeaiue iiuo)
/aeiaa/aneeo eiaeeaeaeia”, – ienae yoio aia?eeaineee o/aiue.17

?anniio?ei ii?aaeaeaiey nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee. Iaeiei ec naiuo
ecaanoiuo ii?aaeaeaiee yaeyaony neaaeothuaa: “Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey
i?ecaaia ioaaoeoue ia aii?in i oii, eae aiiaua aiciiaeii niciaoaeueiia
oii?yaei/aiea ethaeueie naieo ioiioaiee a iauanoaa, eaeea ioe?uaaeenue e
ioe?uaathony ia?aae ieie a ?acee/iua enoi?e/aneea yiioe iooe e n?aaenoaa
no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, eaeie oa?aeoa? iineee e iinyo
caeanue iauaeoeaiua i?aa?aaeu, anoathuea ia?aae ethaeueie, eae yoe
ia?aie/aiey iniciathony ethaeueie e i?iyaeythony a i?aeoeea, ianeieueei
aaeaeaaoii yoo i?iaeaio io?aaeaee oeeinioneea nenoaiu e eaeaieiae/aneea
eiino?oeoeee i?ioeiai e ianoiyuaai” .14

Ia aoaeai aiaeece?iaaoue noieue neiaeioth aeaoeieoeeth (oieeiaaiea
neiaa), aeaeeii, iia iiaeao auoue aeinoaoi/ii iieaciie aeey
o/aiiai-oai?aoeea, ii iu iii?iaoai iaeoe aieaa i?inoia ii?aaeaeaiea:
“Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey – yoi nenoaia iao/iiai ciaiey i iaeaieaa iaueo
caeiiiia?iinoyo e oaiaeaioeeyo acaeiiaeaenoaey nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee,
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey iauanoaa, oeaeinoiiai i?ioeanna
nioeeaeueiie aeecie”.4

Aaoi?ii aua iaeiiai ii?aaeaeaiey yaeyaony ecaanoiue ioa/anoaaiiue o/aiue
A.N.Aa?oeei. Ii n/eoaao, /oi “nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey eco/aao caeiiu,
niaeanii eioi?ui a iauanoaa neeaaeuaathony onoie/eaua, aieueoea a?oiiu
ethaeae, ioiioaiey iaaeaeo yoeie a?oiiaie, eo nayce e ?ieue a
iauanoaa”.18

Nooaeaio iiaeao acyoue ia aii?oaeaiea ethaia ec i?eaaaeaiiuo
ii?aaeaeaiee. Ii iiaeao oaeaea eaeei-oi ia?acii iiiuoaoueny eo
neioace?iaaoue, eee aeaaea iii?iaiaaoue neiino?oe?iaaoue naia
nianoaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea. Ii aeey yoiai iaaei ciaoue, /oi iiiaiia?acea e
?acee/ea ii?aaeaeaiee nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee ai iiiaii naycaii n oai,
/oi aei neo ii? ia ynai i?iaeaiii-i?aaeiaoiue noaoon nioeeaeueiie
oeeinioee. I?e/eiu yoiai ?aciiia?aciu. Neacuaaaony ieaeeenoe/aneee
(io?eoeathuee iieiinoueth ana i?ioeua aeinoeaeaiey) ?ac?ua n
“enoiaoianeei” i?ioeui. Aeeyao ooaa?aeaeaiea n na?aaeeiu 80-o aiaeia
“ieth?aeecia iuneae, a ia ciaiee”. Neacuaathony e o?oaeiinoe a inaiaiee
nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Ia iineaaeiae i?e/eia inoaiiaeiny aieaa iiae?iaii. Ianeieueei
aeanyoeeaoee aeaaea niaaoneea oeeiniou-i?ioanneiiaeu, ia aiai?y oaea i
oao, eoi eco/ae oeeinioeth a aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo eee i?inoi
eioa?aniaaeny ath, auee eeoaiu aiciiaeiinoe iauaoueny n ca?oaaaeiuie
eieeaaaie-iaia?enenoaie e /eoaoue ca?oaaaeioth oeeinioneoth eeoa?aoo?o.
Neaaenoaeai yoiai, iiieii anaai i?i/aai, yaeeinue oi, /oi n eiioea 80-o
aiaeia eieaeiue ?uiie ia?ooee ia /eoaoaeae oaeie iauai ?aiaa iaecaanoiie
eeoa?aoo?u, eioi?ue i?inoi o?oaeii auei inaieoue. Ii aeaei ia oieueei a
yoii. A ?innee noaei iiaeiui iiiaia ec oiai, /oi ca ?oaaaeii oaea auei
enoi?eae oeeinioee.

Anee ia caiaaea oa?iei “nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey” noae aanueia
?ani?ino?aiaiiui a na?aaeeia OO aaea, oi a ?innee – eeoue a caaa?oathuea
aai 90-a aiaeu. Ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aaee neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi e ia
Caiaaea iao aaeeiiai iiaiey i nouiinoe nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee. Oae,
o/aaiee aeey nooaeaioia Ienoi?aea niaea?aeeo ?acaeaeu i nouiinoe
iauanoaa, ee/iinoe, nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe, nioeeaeueiii ?aaainoaa
e aai iiaeaea?aeaiee, cae?aaiio?aiaiee, ii?aeueiuo ii?iao e i?aaa.19
Ae?oaie o/aaiee, ecaeaiiue a Aea?iooaaeoa, ?anniao?eaaao eiioeaioeee
iauanoaa, eaeath naiaiaeu aiee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe /aeiaaea, i?iaeaiu
iaeacaiey, aeanoe, iieeoe/aneea nenoaiu, oai?ee ni?aaaaeeeauo aiei e
o.ae.20 Yoio nienie iiaeii i?iaeieaeeoue.

Ioiaoei, /oi iiaeoiaeu ioa/anoaaiiuo aaoi?ia oae aea ?acee/iu e ana iie
eiatho i?aai ia nouanoaiaaiea, oae eae ia yaeythony aeueoa?iaoeaiuie, a
eeoue aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa, ?anniao?eaay neiaeiue nioeeaeueiue ie? n
?acee/iuo noi?ii oeeinioneiai ie?iaicc?aiey.

Eaeoth ?ieue ea?aao nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey a iauanoaa? I?aaeaea, /ai
ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in, iaiiiiei ooieoeee oeeinioee: aaaeue a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iie yaeythony iaueie e aeey nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee.

1) ooieoeey yeno?aiieyoeee oieaa?naeee (auyaeaiea iaeaieaa iaueo eaeae,
i?aaenoaaeaiee, iiiyoee, ia eioi?uo aace?oaony iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneay
aeeciue ethaeae);

2) ooieoeey ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee e nenoaiaoecaoeee (ia?aaiae a eiae/aneoth e
oai?aoe/aneoth oi?io noiia?iuo ?acoeueoaoia /aeiaa/aneiai iiuoa ai anao
aai ?aciiaeaeiinoyo: i?aeoe/aneii, iiciaaaoaeueiii, oeaiiinoiii);

3) e?eoe/aneay ooieoeey (e?eoeea aeiaiaoe/aneiai niiniaa iuoeaiey e
iiciaiey, caaeoaeaeaiee, i?aae?annoaeeia, ioeaie);

4) ooieoeey oi?ie?iaaiey oai?aoe/aneiai iaiauaiiiai ia?aca ie?a ia
ii?aaeaeaiiie nooiaie ?acaeoey iauanoaa.

Aiai?y i niaoeeoeea nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee, neaaeoao iniaia aieiaiea
oaeaeeoue neaaeothuei aa ooieoeeyi:

1) aiinaieiae/aneay ooieoeey (enneaaeiaaiea e iauyniaiea iaeaieaa iaueo
caeiiiia?iinoae e oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iauanoaa a oeaeii, a oaeaea
iauanoaaiiuo i?ioeannia ia o?iaia aieueoeo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii);

2) iaoiaeieiae/aneay ooieoeey (nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey aunooiaao eae
iauaa o/aiea i iaoiaeao iiciaiey nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee, iaeaieaa iaueo
iiaeoiaeao e eo eco/aieth);

3) eioaa?aoeey e neioac nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey (onoaiiaeaiea anaiaueo
naycae nioeeaeueiiai auoey);

4) i?iaiinoe/aneay ooieoeey nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee (nicaeaiea aeiioac ia
iaueo oaiaeaioeeyo ?acaeoey nioeeaeueiie aeecie e /aeiaaea);

5) ie?iaicc?ai/aneay ooieoeey (a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo enoi?e/aneeo oi?i
ie?iaicc?aiey – ieoieiaee e ?aeeaee – nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey naycaia n
iiiyoeeiui, aano?aeoii-oai?aoe/aneei iauyniaieai nioeeaeueiiai ie?a);

6) aeneieiae/aneay eee oeaiiinoiay ooieoeey (ethaay
nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey niaea?aeeo a naaa ioeaieo
enneaaeoaiiai iauaeoa;

7) nioeeaeueiay ooieoeey (a iaeaieaa oe?ieii niunea nioeeaeueiay
oeeinioey i?ecaaia auiieiyoue aeaoaaeeioth caaea/o – iauyniyoue
nioeeaeueiia auoea e niinianoaiaaoue aai iaoa?eaeueiiio e aeooiaiiio
eciaiaieth);

8) aoiaieoa?iay ooieoeey (nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey aeieaeia
niinianoaiaaoue oi?ie?iaaieth aoiaienoe/aneeo oeaiiinoae e eaeaaeia,
ooaa?aeaeaieth iiceoeaiie oeaee aeecie).

Ooieoeee nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee aeeaeaeoe/anee acaeiinaycaiu. Eaaeaeay
ec ieo i?aaeiieaaaao inoaeueiua e oae eee eia/a aeeth/aao eo a naia
niaea?aeaiea. Oaeei ia?acii, i/aaeaeii, /oi nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneia
enneaaeiaaiea iauanoaaiiuo i?ioeannia aoaeao oai aieaa oniaoiui, /ai n
aieueoae ouaoaeueiinoueth aoaeao ia?auaii aieiaiea ia eaaeaeoth ec
ooieoeee oeeinioee.

Ecaanoiue oeeinio E.O.Iiiaeaeyi ni?aaaaeeeai ioia/aao, /oi, a ioee/ea io
eiie?aoiuo iaoe, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo ?ac?aaaouaaao naith “aeaeyieo”, o
oeeinioee oaaoaao aea?cinoe iii?iaiaaoue iniuneeoue ie? a aai
oioaeueiinoe, oieaa?naeueiinoe, anaiauiinoe. Yoa oioaeueiinoue
?ane?uaaaony ath a aeaoo acaeiinaycaiiuo aniaeoao, eioi?ua oneiaii
iiaeii iacaaoue “noanoaioeeaeueiui” e “ooieoeeiiaeueiui”. A ia?aii
neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i iienea nouanoaaiiuo e ianeo/aeiuo noiaenoa iaaeaeo
iiaenenoaiaie oeaeinoiiai ie?a (i?eia?ii eioi?iai iiaeao neoaeeoue eo
iiae/eiaiiinoue oieaa?naeueiui i?eioeeiai eaocaeueii-ooieoeeiiaeueiie
nayce, ia nouanoaiaaiee eioi?uo ianoaeaatho eiioeaioeee oeeinioneiai
aeaoa?ieiecia). Ai aoi?ii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i iiiuoeao iauyniaiey
iiaeiaiuo noiaenoa iooai ?ane?uoey nouanoaaiiuo e ianeo/aeiuo naycae,
?aaeueiuo iiin?aaeiaaiee iaaeaeo niioiineiuie “oea?noaa auoey”.21

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiay caaea/a nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee ninoieo a oii,
/oiau ?ane?uoue nouiinoue iauanoaa, ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue aai eae /anoue
ie?a, ioee/athuothny io eiuo aai /anoae, ii naycaiioth n ieie a aaeeiue
ie?iaie oieaa?noi.

Aianoa n yoei nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey aunooiaao eae iniaay oai?ey,
eiathuay naie eaoaai?ee, caeiiu e i?eioeeiu enneaaeiaaiey.

A neeo aieueoie noaiaie iauiinoe naieo iieiaeaiee, caeiiia e i?eioeeiia,
nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey aunooiaao e eae iaoiaeieiaey aeey ae?oaeo
iauanoaaiiuo iaoe

Eniieuecoiaaiay eeoa?aoo?a

1. Ieeeoi?ia A.E. ssaeyaony ee oeeinioey iaoeie? // Oeeinioneea
iaoee.1989.N6. N.53.

2. *aiuoaa A.I. Iaeioi?ua niia?aaeaiey ii iiaiaeo noaouee aeaoo
oeeinioia // Aanoiee Iine. oi-oa. Na?. “Oeeinioey”. 1991.N2. N.88.

3. Aaaaeue A.A.O. Eaeoeee ii oeeinioee enoi?ee. NIa., 1993. C.68.

4. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey. I.,1996. N.51.

5. Eaiei A.E. Iiei.nia?.ni/. O.39. N.67.

6. Iiiia? E.?. Ieuaoa enoi?eoeecia \\ Aii?inu oe- einioee. 1992. N 4.
C.49.

7. Aeoaia A.I. Iaaeaiea Caiaaea e aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu /aeiaa/anoaa
(iauaaeinooiiia aaaaeaiea) // Oiaiaea? I. Caeao Aa?iiu.
Iiaineae?ne,1993. N.6.

8. Oeooa E.A. Iniiaiua /a?ou nia?aiaiiie yiioe // Ie? oeeinioee: Eieaa
aeey /oaiey. *.2. I.,1991. N.445.

9. Oeeinioneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. I.,1989. N.733.

10. *aoeia I. Iiieiaiea oeaeinoiinoe ie?a: a iieneao iaoi?iaoeeiiiie
ia?aaeeaiu // Ie?iaay yeiiiie- ea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey. 1990. N
5. N.33-48.

11. Ea Aioo AE. Oeeaeeecaoeey n?aaeiaaaeiaiai Caiaaea. I.,1992. N.5-6.

12. *aeiaae e iauanoai. Iniiau nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee: O?anoiiaoey.
I.,1992. N.51-52.

13. Eiaaeaa A. Aua ?ac i oi?iaoeeiiiii e oeeaeeecaoeeiiiii iiaeoiaea //
Iauanoaaiiua iaoee e nia?aiaiiinoue. 1996.N.97-104..

14. I/a?ee nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee. I.,1994. N.16.

15. Oai?ey iiciaiey: A 4-o o. O.4. Iiciaiea nioeeaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe.
I.,1995.

16. Ieeeoi?ia A. ?aaiethoeey a oai?ee iiciaiey? // Iauanoaaiiua iaoee e
nia?aiaiiinoue. 1995. N 4. N.117.

17. Ni?ieei I.A. *aeiaae. Oeeaeeecaoeey. Iauanoai. I.,1992. N.527.

18. Aa?oeei A.N. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey. *.1. I.,1993. N.90.

19. A?yoai A. Nia?aiaiiay nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey. Ienoi?ae, 1988.

20. Oi?oia? I. *aeiaae e iauanoai: iniiaiua iiiyoey nioeeaeueiie
oeeinioee. Aea?iooaaeo, 1989.

21. Iiiaeaeyi E.O. Nioeeoi. Iauanoai. Enoi?ey. I.,1994. N.68.

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