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Философия информационной цивилизации

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

Caaaeeaeueneee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao

eiaie I.A.*a?iuoaaneiai

Eaoaae?a oeeinioee

?AOA?AO

Oeeinioey eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeeaeeecaoeee.

Auiieiee: ann. i?aiiaeaaaoaey eaoaae?u EO CEI NEA IE Aaaee E.A.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue: i?ioanni?

Eiaueyineee A.A.

*eoa 1997 aiae

IEAI

?aoa?aoa ia oaio: Oeeinioey eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeeaeeecaoeee.

Aaaaeaiea.

Oeeinioey eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeeaeeecaoeee.

?ieue eioi?iaoeee a aeecie nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa.

Iniiaiua /a?ou eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeeaeeecaoeee.

Iaeeiaeiinoue i?ioeannia ?acaeoey iauanoaa.

Iiaay eiioeaioeey nie?aee ?acaeoey.

Iainiiaaiea noiaeyuaeny nie?aee ?acaeoey.

3. Caeeth/aiea.

Ethaay oeeaeeecaoeey neeueia eoeueoo?ie o?oaea, oiaieai ?aaioaoue. A
iniiaa yoiai eaaeeo iao/iia (ia oiic?eoaeueii-aeiaiaoe/aneia, a
i?ienoaeathuaa ec iiuoa /aeiaa/anoaa) ie?iaicc?aiea, iai?a?uaiia
iaiiaeaiea ciaiee. Aeanyoeeaoey oioaeeoa?iiai aaeeiiiuneey e canoiy, a
oaeaea iaaino?aaiaaiiinoue ciaiee e o?aaieeiaea ioo/eee iiaeaaeythuoth
/anoue niaaoneeo ethaeae iuneeoue e ?aaioaoue, a ?oeiaiaeeoaeae —
i?eieiaoue eiiiaoaioiua ?aoaiey. Iiyoiio yeiiiie/aneay ?aoi?ia a no?aia
e aeooiaiia aic?iaeaeaiea iauanoaa eaeoo e?aeia iaaeeaiii.

A oi aea a?aiy /aeiaa/anoai a eeoea iiiaeanoaa ?acaeouo no?ai
no?aieoaeueii iaiyao naie nioeeaeueiue iaeee. A yiioo IO? yoiio
niinianoaoao aaee/aeoee ii aeoaeia i?ioeann ao?iiai ?acaeoey iaoee.
I?ienoiaeeo ia?aniio? ea?aeeiaeueiuo iao/iuo eiioeaioeee, ?anoe?ythuee
a?aieoeu iaoaai iiciaiey. Eeaa?iaoeea e neia?aaoeea iicaieeee aeoaaea e
ii-eiiio iniuneeoue i?ioeannu naiii?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee e aa iiinoa?u.
Aic?anoaiea aeeiaiecia nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia e eo yaiethoeey, e?ooaiea
eiiioienoe/aneie eaeaieiaee e auoiae ia?aaeiauo no?ai a ea/anoaaiii
iiaoth oeeaeeecaoeeth o?aaotho iauyniaiee, oeeinioneeo iaiauaiee e iiauo
ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo i?eaioe?ia.

Niaio ie?iaicc?aiey ia ?oaaaea o?aoueaai ouny/aeaoey iiaeaioiaeea
?aaiethoeey a iaeanoe eiiioieeaoeee e eioi?iaoeee, aeinoeaoay oaeeo
ianooaaia, eaeeo ia iiaee naaa i?aaenoaaeoue i?aaeoanoaothuea iieieaiey.
Ianniaay eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey, aiaae?aiea e ?acaeoea iiaaeoae
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee i?eaaee e aia/aoeythuaio ?uaeo aia?aae a
noa?ao ia?aciaaiey, aeciana, i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee e nioeeaeueiie aeecie. Eioi?iaoeey i?aa?aoeeanue a
aeiaaeueiue, a i?eioeeia iaenoiueiue ?ano?n /aeiaa/anoaa, anooieaoaai a
iiaoth yiioo ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee — yiioo eioaineaiiai inaiaiey yoiai
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ?ano?na e ianeuoaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae oaiiiaia
oi?aaeaiey.

Eiaiii eioi?iaoeey, oi?aaeaiea e i?aaiecaoeey, eae iiao/ea eieiiioeau
i?ia?anna, oi/aee ?acaeoua no?aiu a iiaoth oeeaeeecaoeeth. Yoio ia?aoiae
ia/aeny a 60-o e caaa?oeeny (aeey yoeo no?ai) e na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia,
niaiaa ii a?aiaie n aiaeaie canoiy a iaoae no?aia. Oaia?ue iu ieacaeenue
oaea a aeoaieii nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii ooieea. E iaeia ec i?e/ei
yoiai — aeiaiaoe/aneia, ioi?aaiiia io iaoee e nioeeaeueiie i?aeoeee
canei?oceia ie?iaicc?aiea. Aniiiiea aoeaaeianeia «?ac?ooa ia a eeicaoao,
a a aieiaao», ia?aoei naie acaeyae ia naaiaeiyoiaa ninoiyiea iaoae
oeeinioee. Oaeia ninoiyiea iaoae oeeinioneie iaoee iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue iaeiei neiaii — noaaiaoeey. Iia yaeyaony neaaenoaeai
aeeeoaeueiie aioeeioaeeaeooaeueiie aoiinoa?u, aioea?eaoaeny a iauanoaa a
iineaeaieineee ia?eiae. Oaea a na?aaeeia 20-o aiaeia, iniaaiii iinea
aunueee ec no?aiu oeaeie a?oiiu aeaeiuo oeeinioia, oaeeo, eae E. A.
Eeueei, I. A. Aa?aeyaa, N, E. O?aie, N. I. Aoeaaeia e ae?oaea, oeeinioey
eeoeeanue aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeiie aeey aa ?acaeoey naiaiaeu aeeneonnee.
Oeeinioey noaea ?anniao?eaaoueny ia eae iaeanoue eoeueoo?u, a eae anaai
eeoue oi?ia au?aaeaiey eeanniauo eioa?ania, eae eaeaieiaey i?aayuaai
eeanna.

I?e E. A. Noaeeia i?eioeei ia?oeeiinoe oeeinioee aue ia?aianai aiiaua ia
iaoeo e i?aa?auai a n?aaenoai iieeoe/aneeo iaaeiaiee e aeene?aaeeoaoeee
ia oieueei /anoiuo o/aiuo, ii e oeaeuo iao/iuo iai?aaeaiee —
eeaa?iaoeee, aaiaoeee e ae?. A noa?o oeeinioee i?eoee iaaeinoaoi/ii
ia?aciaaiiua, a ii?ie e i?inoi iaeia?aiioiua ethaee, i?aa?aoeaoea
oeeinioeth a eaeaieiae/aneoth aeoaeio, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie aa?oeeny
?aca?ii oeeinioneie iunee, aaeanue ai?ueaa n ino?iaeaie iacaaeneiuo
oai?aoe/aneeo eneaiee. *a?iia e?uei ?ai?annee, eieanieoea nia?oe e
oaeenoa iiaeiyee iiae naay oeeinioneoth iuneue.

A oeaeii 20-80-a aiaeu noaee aiaeaie eiiiaioaoi?noaa ?aaio eeanneeia
(aeeth/ay Noaeeia, ?ieue eioi?iai ana aicaaee/eaaeanue) e ?aoaiee
ia?oee. Auee e iiceoeaiua ?aaiou ii enoi?ee oeeinioee, ioaeaeueiua
oniaoe a ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeieiaee /anoiuo iaoe, a oaeoaeaiee oai?ee
io?aaeaiey. Iaeiaei i?e yoii ?aaeeciauaaeny ioiineoaeueii i?inoie
o?iaaiue eioa?i?aoaoeee oeeinioee—aano?aeoii-anaiauee, iniiaaiiue ia
iiiyoeyo iaoa?ee aiiaua e aa ?acaeoey «io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio» (aac
?ane?uoey aioo?aiieo iaoaieciia naiii?aaiecaoeee, onei?aiey oaiiia),
caeiiia aeeaeaeoeee aiiaua e o. i.

Ia?eneci ooaa?aeeeny eae ia?aaeeaia ia ana a?aiaia. Ia?yaeo n yoei a
nioeeaeueiie aeecie iauanoaa, a yeiiiieea, eoeueoo?a, ii?aee, aea e a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?aai/ai aeaeaeaiee iaeaieeaaeenue ana aieaa na?ueaciua
i?iaeaiu e i?ioeai?a/ey. Oeeinioey auea eeoaia aiciiaeiinoe i?iaiaeeoue
iauaeoeaiue aiaeec nouanoaothuae nioeeaeueiie i?aeoeee, oi?ioee?iaaoue
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ei??aeoe?iaea eo?na.

E a oai?aoe/aneii ieaia ca ana yoe aiaeu niaaoneay oeeinioneay iuneue ia
auaeaeioea ie iaeiie e?oiiie eaeae, eioi?ay nua?aea au
?aaiethoeeiiece?othuoth ?ieue a ?acaeoee anoanoaaiiuo, oaoie/aneeo e
iauanoaaiiuo iaoe. Inoaeenue ia?ac?aaioaiiuie oeaeua ieanou i?iaeai,
aanueia aeooaeueiuo eae a iao/iii, oae e i?aeoe/aneii ieaiao. A eiaiii:
naiii?aaiecaoeey iaoa?ee e nioeeoia; iaoaieci onei?aiey oaiiia
i?ia?anna; aeeaeaeoeea nea/eia e iae?iaeeiaieea i?ioeannia ?acaeoey;
iaeeiaeiinoue ?aaeueiuo i?ioeannia, yaeythuayny anaiauae
caeiiiia?iinoueth e o. ae.

Eeaa?iaoeea e neia?aaoeea, aianoea iaeaieueoee eiioeaiooaeueiue aeeaae a
nia?aiaiiia ie?iiiieiaiea, aua ia aieaoaiu aeieaeiui ia?acii a oeaiue
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeee. A o/aaieeao ia eceaaaaony nouiinoue
aaaeiaeoeo oeeinioneeo e nioeeaeueiuo oaiiiaiia — oi?aaeaiey,
i?aaiecaoeee e eioi?iaoeee, ia aiai?y oaea ia yio?iiee. Eioi?iaoeey aei
neo ii? ia i?eciaia oeeinioneie eaoaai?eae. A aaaeue eioi?iaoeey e
yio?iiey naaiaeiy noaee iniiaiiieaaathueie iiiyoeyie oai?ee
naiii?aaiecaoeee e oai?ee ?acaeoey.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey e oaeoaeaiey iiciaiey iaia?oaeeaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iinoeaeaiey nenoaiii-aeeiaie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a neeaaeuaathuaeny ea?oeiu
ie?a. Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay aeeaeaeoeea, oai?ey io?aaeaiey, nia?aiaiiue
o?iaaiue anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo ciaiee neoaeao oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneee
i?aaeiinueeie aeey iino?iaiey eiae/anee no?ieiie aaeeiie ?acaeaathuaeny
ea?oeiu ie?a ia aaca eioi?iaoeee.

Noaoenoe/aneay oai?ey eioi?iaoeee e eeaa?iaoeea nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eee
iiiyoea eioi?iaoeee: eioi?iaoeey noaea iauaeoiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie
iaoa?eaeueiuo nenoai e eo acaeiiaeaenoaey. I?eiaiaiea oai?ee eioi?iaoeee
a iaoeao i iaaeeaie i?e?iaea i?eaaei e ia?aniio?o i?aaenoaaeaiey ia
eioi?iaoeee eae i naienoaa oieueei eeaa?iaoe/aneeo nenoai. Yoi naienoai
ieacaeinue i?enouei ia oieueei iauanoaaiiui, aeeaui e oaoie/aneei
nenoaiai, ii e aiiaua anai iaoa?eaeueiui nenoaiai, a oii /enea e
iauaeoai iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu.

Eioi?iaoeey, eae e iaoa?ey, nouanoaiaaea e nouanoaoao anaaaea. Iia
iaiouaieaiue ao?eaoo iaoa?ee e aeaeaeaiey. Iaiyooy, /oi
aeaeaeaiea—niinia nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
eioi?iaoeey ?aaeecoao yoio niinia, yaeyy niaie ia?o eciaiaiee, eioi?uie
nii?iaiaeaeathony ana i?ioaeathuea a ie?a i?ioeannu.

Ieeaeay nioeeaeueiay aeeciue iaaiciiaeia aac eioi?iaoeee, aac iauaiey e
eiiioieeaoeee. Eioi?iaoeey aunooiaao a ea/anoaa aeaeaaoaey iauanoaaiiiai
e oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, a oaeaea a ea/anoaa oceiaiai ioieoa iiciaiey,
auyaeyy anaiauea e eiie?aoiua, iiiaia?aiiua nayce n
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth eae io?aaeaiea yoie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Nouanoaoy
iacaaeneii io iiciathuaai noauaeoa, eioi?iaoeey i?iyaeyaony a i?ioeanna
iiciaiey.

Ii naiaio iioieiae/aneiio noaoono eioi?iaoeey ia ioee/aaony io
i?ino?ainoaa, a?aiaie, yia?aee, iannu e o.i. A oi aea a?aiy iiiyoea
eioi?iaoeee nouanoaaiii oe?a, iiiaianiaeoiaa eaaeaeie ec yoeo
oeeinioneeo eaoaai?ee. Aoaeo/e iaeaieaa naycaiiie n eaoaai?eae
io?aaeaiey, iia yaeyaony iauaeoeaiie anoanoaaiiiiao/iie oa?aeoa?enoeeie
anao iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia e eo acaeiiaeaenoaee ia anao o?iaiyo
i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee. A /anoiinoe, eiaiii eioi?iaoeey eaaeeo a iniiaa
i?ioeannia naii?aaoee?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey a aeeaie i?e?iaea e a
/aeiaa/aneii iauanoaa.

Neacaiiia auoa iicaieyao acyoue ca iniiao iino?iaiey ?acaeaathuaeny
anoanoaaiiiiao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a oaeoth oeeinioneoth eaoaai?eth, eae
eioi?iaoeey, aeey eioaa?aoeee ?acee/iuo iao/iuo eiioeaioeee a aaeeioth
ea?oeio ie?a.

Ea/anoaaiiia naiaia?acea i?ioeannia io?aaeaiey ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo
i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee caaeneo io ea/anoaa (aeaea) niioaaonoaothuae
eioi?iaoeee. Iiyoiio, i?eieiay ca iniiao eeanneoeeaoeeth,
i?aaeeiaeaiioth A. A. Iieooeeiui, a oaeaea o/eouaay ?aaiou ae?oaeo
aaoi?ia e niaethaeay i?eioeei enoi?ecia, i?aaenoaaei aeaeu eioi?iaoeee a
o?iiieiae/aneii ii?yaeea e eioi?iaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u a eo enoi?e/aneii
?acaeoee.

Niioaaonoaaiii o?ai iniiaiui aeaeai iia?aoeaiie
eioi?iaoeee—yeaiaioa?iie, aeieiae/aneie e nioeeaeueiie — iu ?acee/aai
o?e e?oiiuo eeanna eioi?iaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?:

anoanoaaiii aicieeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u iai?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeu;

anoanoaaiii aicieeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u i?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeu;

eneonnoaaiiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u, nicaeaiiua oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea (oae iacuaaaiay aoi?ay i?e?iaea eee
iiinoa?a).

Eaeay ?acaeoey ia iniiaa io?aaeaiey e oneiaeiythuaainy oii?yaei/aiey
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo naycae eae anaiauaai i?eioeeia aeieacuaaao iauiinoue
i?ienoiaeaeaiey anao aeeauo i?aaieciia, ianaeythueo Caieth. Aieaa oiai,
eco/aiea iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?ioaeathueo i?ioeannia naii?acaeoey iaoa?ee,
io aa iecoeo oi?i e aunoei, niinianoaoao ia oieueei i?aaeeueiiio
aeaeaieth ?acaeaathuaainy ie?a a oeaeii, ii e iao/iiio iainiiaaieth
noaeaeaiee ia oneiaeyo aicieeiiaaiey e aiciiaeiinoe aiacaiiie aeecie.

Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie ?acaeoey
aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai aicc?aiey yaeyaony neioac ciaiee e
ia?aoiae io eieaeueiuo eaeae e iauaaeeiythuae, «neaiciie» eaeaa
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ia aaca iiiyoee io?aaeaiey e eioi?iaoeee,
ioaaouaathuae ana nooiaie ?acaeoey iauaeoeaiiai ie?a. A oi aea a?aiy a
ioa/anoaaiiie oeeinioneie eeoa?aoo?a i?e ianoaeaeaiee aii?ina i
niaea?aeaiee e ianoa eaoaai?ee ?acaeoey a nenoaia iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie
aeeaeaeoeee auneacuaathony ?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey, ia/eiay n
iaeiinoi?iiieo oceieieaeueiuo eioa?i?aoaoeee ?acaeoey, iiieiaiey aai eae
/anoiiai i?ioeanna, /anoiiai aeaea aeaeaeaiey, i?enouaai eeoue iaeioi?ui
oi?iai ?aaeueiinoe. Aeeneooe?othony a iniiaiii o?e acaeiieneeth/athuea
o?aeoiaee ?acaeoey:

ie?iaiai e?oaiai?ioa iaoa?ee;

iaia?aoeiuo ea/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee;

aaneiia/iiai aeaeaeaiey io iecoaai e aunoaio.

?anniio?aiea acaeiinaycae e enoi?e/aneie yaiethoeee o?iaiae i?aaiecaoeee
iaoa?ee iicaieyao i?aiaeieaoue iiiaiia?acea acaeyaeia ia nouiinoue
?acaeoey. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay ea?oeia ie?a aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
neioace?iaaoue ioia/aiiua iaie o?aeoiaee a oeaeinoioth aeeaeaeoe/aneoth
eiioeaioeeth ?acaeoey io iecoaai e aunoaio, io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio. *oi
eanaaony e?oaiai?ioa iaoa?ee e iaia?aoeiuo ea/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee, oi
yoi eeoue ninoaaiua /anoe i?ioeanna ?acaeoey.

Iaeioi?ua ca?oaaaeiua oeeiniou aeeaeaeoeea i?ioeaiiinoaaeytho
aeaoa?ieieci, iuoaynue io?eoeaoue i?eioeei io?aaeaiey, nua?aaoee
aieueooth ?ieue a ?acaeoee aiinaieiaee. Iaoe oeeiniou a niae?oaeanoaa n
aieaa?neeie iiiaia naeaeaee aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey oai?ee
io?aaeaiey. Aaaeii oe?aieoue yoo oai?eth, ?ac?aaioaa eioi?iaoeeiiioth
ea?oeio ie?a. Iinoaiiaea oaeie caaea/e eiae/anee iaoneiaeaia ia oieueei
ao?iui ?acaeoeai anoanoaaiiuo iaoe, ii e «eioi?iaoeeiiiie ?aaiethoeeae»,
ioe?uaoae iooue e ea/anoaaiii iiaie oeeaeeecaoeee ia Caiea.

I?aaeeiaeaiiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay ea?oeia ie?a yaeyaony eeoue ia?aui
i?eaeeaeaieai e ?aoaieth yoie caaea/e, ii oaea iicaieyao iaaeyaeii e
oeaeinoii i?aaenoaaeoue anaiauea nayce e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue yaeaiee
a i?ioeanna enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey. N aa iiiiuueth aeeaeaeoeea
aini?eieiaaony e eae i?ioeann ainoiaeyuaai ?acaeoey oi?i io?aaeaiey e
aeaeia eioi?iaoeee, o. a. eae aicieeiiaaiea ana aieaa neiaeiuo,
oii?yaei/aiiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e enoi?e/aneiai
iaeiieaiey ?aciiia?acey — n ae?oaie.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay ea?oeia ie?a iniaaiii iaaeyaeii iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
iineaaeiaaoaeueiia ?acaeoea anae iaoa?ee, eae i?aainoaaiiia iaeiieaiea
eioi?iaoeee, ?aciiia?acey. I?e/ai ?aciua oi?iu aeaeaeaiey niioiinyony
ae?oa n ae?oaii ia oieueei ii noaiaie ea?a?oe/aneiai oneiaeiaiey, ii e
ii ii?yaeeo aaiaoe/aneiai ii?iaeaeaiey iaeieo oi?i ae?oaeie.«Yoi
iineaaeiaaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea iaoa?ee, — ienae I.E.Aiioei,—ei?aiiui
ia?acii iiaeeyei ia anth yaiethoeeth i?eniiniaeoaeueiuo oi?i aeeauo
i?aaieciia»[1].

Iai?a?uaii e iinooiaoaeueii ?acaeaaeanue e iaoea, iaiaauay /aeiaa/anoai
iaoa?eaeueii e i?aanoaaiii. Ac?ua iao/iie iunee a XX a. aue
iiaeaioiaeai, eae ooaa?aeaeae A. E. Aa?iaaeneee, anai i?ioeui aeinoa?u e
eiae aeoai/aeoea ei?ie a aa no?iaiee. Ea?oeia Anaeaiiie, iniiaaiiay ia
ecaanoiuo oeceeaeenoneii e ianniyia?aaoe/aneii i?aaenoaaeaieyo, caeanue
caiaiyaony aieaa iauei ia?aiao?ii — o?iaiai i?aaiecaoeee. Eiaiii
aic?anoaiea o?iaiy i?aaiecaoeee ia aaca iaeiieaiey eioi?iaoeee,
?aciiia?acey naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iai?aaeaiiinoe ?acaeoey io iecoaai e
aunoaio.

Oaeei ia?acii, eioi?iaoeeiiiay ea?oeia ie?a ia /oi eiia, eae ?acaeoea
iauaeoeaiiai ie?a, eae aaeeiue caeiiiia?iue i?ioeann ca?iaeaeaiey e
?anoeaaoa aeecie e ?acoia, iaiaoiaeeii i?ioiaeyuee anth
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue nooiaiae (oi?i) iaoa?ee, aeeth/ay iai?aaie/aneoth
i?e?iaeo, oei?o, oaoio (i?aaenoaaeaiiua ia?iiiui iiiaeanoaii aeaeia) e,
iaeiiaoe, *aeiaaea e /aeiaa/aneia iauanoai.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay ea?oeia ie?a ia?auaia e a aoaeouaa, oeacuaay ia?niaeoeao
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey iaoa?ee /a?ac iauaiea n aiacaiiuie
oeeaeeecaoeeyie. Aeinoeaeaiey iaoee e oaoieee XX a. (iai?eia?, a iaeanoe
?aeaoii-einie/aneie oaoieee, ?aaeeinayce, YAI) yaeythony i?aaeiinueeie
aeey ?aaeecaoeee oaeiai iauaiey. Iii ioe?iao iiaua ia?niaeoeau aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai iiciaiey iaoa?ee. Aeaaiaea?y oniaoai einiiiaaoeee iao/iue
yenia?eiaio oaea auoae a einiin, /oi niinianoaoao i?aiaeieaieth
anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai aaioeaio?ecia e auyaeaieth caeiiiia?iinoae, ia
oiaeaeanoaaiiuo caiiui. Noaea i?eioeeieaeueii aiciiaeiie e
i?aia?acothuay aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae aia Caiee.

Anee ia Caiea aeeciue ?acaa?ioea ianiaoiia iiiaiia?acea oi?i, eae au
no?aiynue iaeoe ana aieaa niaa?oaiiua, oi eiae/ii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
i?e iaee/ee iienaiiuo auoa oneiaee iia aeaea a ianooaaao Aaeaeoeee
aan/eneaiiua iiaaae, no?aiyueany aaa?o, e ?acoio. Iaeiaei iu ia eiaai
neaiaeia io i?aaeiieaaaaiuo ?acoiia ai Anaeaiiie. A ooaeoai neo/aa, anee
/aeiaa/anoai aeaenoaeoaeueii iaeeiiei a einiina, yoi iaecia?eii
iiauoaao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ioaaonoaaiiinoue /aeiaaea ca nio?aiaiea
aeeaie i?e?iaeu e oneiaee aeecie ia Caiea, a n ae?oaie — cia/aiea
enoi?e/aneie iennee *aeiaaea: ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii anoatho eieinnaeueiua
einie/aneea caaea/e—ia?aianoe ene?o aeecie, aeinoeaeaiey iaoae
oeeaeeecaoeee ia ae?oaea iaaaniua oaea, iaeeaeoue e i/aeiaa/eoue aanue
aani?aaeaeueiue ie?.

Iiieiaiea yoie caaea/e iiaeao iaiieieoue ?aaeinoueth e ai?aeinoueth
na?aeoea e oiu, noaoue enoi/ieeii aaeioiiaaiey e iioeiecia. Ii oniaoii
?aoeoue yoo caaea/o niiaeao oieueei iaiauanoaeaoaany /aeiaa/anoai,
inaiaiaeeaoaany io a?aiaie aanniuneaiiuo cao?ao ia aiieo aii?oaeaiee, io
oa?icu yaea?iie eaoano?iou, niiniaiie oie/oiaeeoue, iiaaneoue, auoue
iiaeao aaeeinoaaiioth, enei?eo aeecie.

*aeiaa/anoai ieacaeinue a XX a. a aani?aoeaaeaioiie neooaoeee ?aaeueiie
iianiinoe naiioie/oiaeaiey. ?acoeueoaoii aieueoie oa?iiyaea?iie aieiu
iiaeao auoue eeoue aeaaeue oeeaeeecaoeee, nia?oue e no?aaeaiey
ieeeea?aeia ethaeae, nioeeaeueiay e aeieiae/aneay aeaa?aaeaoeey
inoaaoeony a aeeauo e eo iioiieia. Ia eneeth/aia aeaaeue anaai aeeaiai
ia iiaa?oiinoe nooe.

Ia iaiaa a?iciie yaeyaony iiiaieeeay yeieiae/aneay iianiinoue —
i?ia?anne?othuaa io?aaeaiea n?aaeu iaeoaiey n?aaenoaaie eioaineoeeaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iooiaeaie oeie/aneeo,
yia?aaoe/aneeo, iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?iecaiaenoa, o?ainii?oa e auoa,
oie/oiaeaiea eania, enoiuaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, iaia?aoeiia ia?ooaiea
?aaiiaaney a aeeaie e iaaeeaie i?e?iaea e — eae aiiaae anaai — ia?ooaiea
aaiioiiaea /aeiaaea e ae?oaeo aeeauo nouanoa. Iu, aiciiaeii, oaea
anooieee ia iooue, aaaeouee e yeieiae/aneie aeaaee.

«A?yaeouay eioi?iaoeeiiiay oeeaeeecaoeey aeieaeia noaoue e
yeieiae/aneie, i?e/ai eiaiii ia iniiaa ianniaie eioi?iaoecaoeee
aiciiaeii ?aoaiea yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai, aac nicaeaiey aac aeaiiuo e
ciaiee yeieiae/aneie eioi?iaoeee,—ooaa?aeaeaao A.Ae.O?noe,— aac iieiiai
?acaeoey yeieiae/aneie aeaniinoe iaeuecy aoaeao ia?aeoe e ieaiaoa?iiio
oi?aaeaieth yei?acaeoeai… Aeeceay oa?ica yeieaoano?iou n iniaie
ino?ioie noaaeo aii?in ia onei?aiee eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa»[2].

A nayce n yoei aicieeaao ino?ay iaiaoiaeeiinoue eioaineoeeaoeee
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, iniiaiuie ninoaaeythueie eioi?ie, eae
iieacaei eco/aiea oiaea iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey a
nenoaiii-eeaa?iaoe/aneii ieaia, yaeythony:

iaoeeiiiia aic?anoaiea nei?inoe ia?aaea/e niiauaiee;

oaaee/aiea iauaia ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee;

onei?aiea ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;

ana aieaa iieiia eniieueciaaiea ia?aoiuo naycae;

oaaee/aiea iauaia aeiauaaaiie iiaie eioi?iaoeee e onei?aiea aa
aiaae?aiey;

iaaeyaeiia ioia?aaeaiea eioi?iaoeee a i?ioeannao oi?aaeaiey;

?ino oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai o?oaea.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e i?iaeaia onei?aiey ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa iauaeoeaii auaiaeeo ia ecia?aiea, ioeaieo a?aiaie oee?eoeyoeee
eioi?iaoeee a iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey, i?e/ai iineaaeiee aunooiaao naiaai
?iaea iauaaeeiythuei «eiia?aoeaii» i?e enneaaeiaaiee iinoaaeaiiie
i?iaeaiu.

?anniio?ei aeeiaieeo ?inoa ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa ninoaaeythueo
eioaineoeeaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia e ioaaoei ia aii?in: /oi aea
nouanoaaiiui ia?acii iaiyaony a oa?aeoa?a acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo
iauaeoii e noauaeoii o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe a enoi?e/aneii ?ac?aca?

Aic?anoaiea nei?inoe ia?aaea/e niiauaiee. Oieueei naycue aeaeaao
aiciiaeiie nioeeaeueioth aeeciue, eai naycue, eiiioieeaoeee icia/atho
acaeiiaeaenoaea e i?aaiecaoeeth. Iaaeeaiiua oaiiu iauanoaaiiiai
i?ia?anna aei XVIII a. ii?aaeaeyeenue a iniiaiii e?aeia ieceei o?iaiai
eiiioieeaoeee e n?aaenoa nayce. Niiauaiea, aeinoaaeaiiia aiioeii eee
.ii/oiaie ea?aoie, ca/anooth iicaieyei eeoue eiinoaoe?iaaoue oaea
niaa?oeaoeeny oaeo aac aiciiaeiinoe n?i/iuo ioaaoiuo aeaenoaee. Yoi
icia/aei ionoonoaea (eee iaaeinoaoi/iinoue) ia?aoiie nayce,
iaoi?aaeyaiinoue iiiaeanoaa i?ioeannia.

?acaeoea o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ia iaoaie/aneie oyaa e, aeaeaa, nicaeaiea
eaoaoaeueiuo aiia?aoia nouanoaaiii iiauneee nei?inoue aeinoaaee
niiauaiee, ia/aoiie e eiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Ecia?aoaiea oaeaa?aoa a XIX a. e i?iaeieaeathuayny a XX a. ianniaay
oaeaoiiecaoeey iiauneee nei?inoue ia?aaea/e niiauaiee a ouny/e ?ac e
naeaeaee aeinooiiui acaeiiia iauaiea aeey ana aieueoaai e?oaa ethaeae.

N ecia?aoaieai ?aaeei nei?inoue ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee aeinoeaea
i?aaeaeueiiai cia/aiey—nei?inoe naaoa. Ethaee iieo/eee iaiiaaiiua
ia?aaeao/eee ethauo naaaeaiee, ciaiee, iieeoe/aneeo eaeae, eeoa?aoo?iuo
e iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee aei ethaiai ioieoa caiiiai oa?a.
Eioi?iaoeey noaea aeinooiia oe?ieei iannai, ieeeeiiai ethaeae, a
aeaaiia—iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeyoue ia?iiiui /eneii i?ioeannia,
?aiaa ia aeinooiiuo oi?aaeaieth.

Oaaee/aiea iauaia ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee. Ia?yaeo n aic?anoaieai
nei?inoe ia?aaea/e niiauaiee ii ia?a ?acaeoey oaoieee, niaa?oainoaiaaiey
oaoiieiaee e nicaeaiey iiauo oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa iaoeeiiii aic?anoae
iauai ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee. Ooaeiaoo E. n iiiiuueth iaoaiaoe/aneiai
aiia?aoa oai?ee eioi?iaoeee aeae n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec o?ao aaaeiaeoeo
aeaeia ia?aaea/e niiauaiee. Niioiioaiea i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe eaiaeia
nayce neaaeothuaa: oaeaa?aoa—1; oaeaoiia—333; oaeaaeaeaiey—550000(a
oneiaiuo aaeeieoeao).

Oaeaaeaeaiea, noaaoaa a iaoa a?aiy anaai ca iaeii-aeaa aeanyoeeaoey
ianniaui yaeaieai, aianei oi iiaia a eioaineoeeaoeeth eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia, /oi iiiaie?aoii oaaee/eei iauai e eiyooeoeeaio iieaciiai
aeaenoaey ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee, aeaeay ethaeae ia oieueei
neooaoaeyie, ii e i/aaeaeoeaie (e eae au nio/anoieeaie) niauoee, aaea
au iie ie i?ienoiaeeee. Iai?eia?, a iineaaeiea aiaeu any no?aia,
i?aa?aoeaoenue a iiiaiieeeeiiioth aoaeeoi?eth, caoaea aeuoaiea, neooaea
e niio?aea o?aineyoeee nuacaeia ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia NNN? e ?NON?, aeeai
?aaae?oy ouny/aie ioaaoiuo ienai e oaeaa?aii. Ia?iae aii/eth aeaeae
naieo eca?aiieeia a ?aaioa, ociaaay, eoi anoue eoi, eoi ei ?oeiaiaeeo.
Yoi oi?ie?oao iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, iaiaauaao oacao?on, aeoeaece?oao
iauanoaaiiia niciaiea ia?iaea ia iooe e aeaiie?aoee, e i?aaiaiio
ainoaea?noao. Oi anoue oaeaaeaeaiea iicaieyao ia oieueei iaic?aaaoue, ii
e oi?aaeyoue (a ?aaeueiii ianooaaa a?aiaie) o?oaeiiaeinooiiuie
i?ioeannaie, a oaeaea oaeaeaiiuie ia ouny/e eeeiiao?ia iauaeoaie
(iai?eia?, eoiioiaeiuie aiia?aoaie).

Eiaeaia?u nayce aoeaaeueii eciaieee ?acia?u e oi?io ie?a. Anee ?aiueoa
iiainoe aeioiaeeee aei n/eoaiiuo aaeeieoe ethaeae e n aieueoei
iiicaeaieai, oi iuia eioi?iaoeey aoeaaeueii caeeaaao caiiie oa?,
i?iieeay a aai naiua ioaeaeaiiua oaieee. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e ea/anoaaiiui
naeaeaai a yeiiiieea, iaoea, iauanoaaiiie aeecie e eoeueoo?a, aiineo
aeoo nio?oaeie/anoaa a /aeiaa/aneea ioiioaiey. I?iaoaeaeaaony
iaoeeiiaeueiia naiiniciaiea ?aiaa ionoaeuo ia?iaeia, e a ?acoeueoaoa
yoiai ?ooaony iineaaeiea onoie eieiieaeecia e oioaeeoa?ecia. Ia?aaeiaua
eaeae aaea niea/eaatho e iiaeieiatho oaiaoaiiua ia?iaeu ia ai?ueao ca
iaoeeiiaeueii iacaaeneiinoue e aeaiie?aoeth, ca nioeeaeueiua
i?aia?aciaaiey naiae aeecie.

Eneonnoaiaaaeu ieooo ia oaeeaeoaeueiie ii naiae eioaineaiinoe
iocueaeueiie aeeooocee, eioi?ay aeaaiaea?y ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaieth
i?ienoiaeeo iuia iaaeaeo no?aiaie, ia?iaeaie, iaoeeyo e eiioeiaioaie.
Iaeiaeee, ?eoiu ?aciuo ia?iaeia eaaeaeue aeaiue, eaaeaeue /an iaeaoatho
aanue caiiie oa?, noaiiayony iiiyoiuie ae?oaei ia?iaeai. Iocueaeueiue
neiaa?ue eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea iacaiaoii aeey iaai naiiai
noaiiaeony oe?a e aiaa/a.

N?aaenoaa nayce noaee iaeaieaa ao?ii ?acaeaathuaeny io?aneueth iaoee,
oaoieee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iaeii ec aaia?aeueiuo iai?aaeaiee iiaaeoae
oaoieee nayce — ?ac?aaioea eioaa?aeueiuo iioe/aneeo noai, iicaieythueo
yooaeoeaii ia?a?aaaouaaoue eioi?iaoeeth, iinooiathuoth ii naaoiaui
eaiaeai. Nicaeaiu iee?iieieaoth?iua eaca?u aeey nenoai nayce. Eaca?
?acia?ii iaiaa 1 ii niiniaai aaia?e?iaaoue aei iieoieeeea?aea naaoiauo
eiioeuenia a naeoiaeo, /oi icia/aao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaea/e, iai?eia?,
niaea?aeaiey anae ANY (30 oiiia) ca ianeieueei naeoiae!

Aieueoie aeeaae a aeaei nicaeaiey aieieiiii-iioe/aneeo eeiee nayce
aianee niaaoneea o/aiua (ai aeaaa n aeaaeaieeaie A. I. Oo/eaae/ai e
AE.E.Aeoa?iaui), ?ac?aaioaaoea aia?aua a ie?a iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua eaca?u
aeey iioe/aneeo eeiee nayce, aeey nenoai iioe/aneie caiene e
aini?iecaaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee.

Iu yaeyainy naeaeaoaeyie iiaie oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee a nenoaiao nayce.
A 80-o aiaeao ia niaio ii?aeueii noa?athuaio iaaeiiio eaaaeth i?eoea
aieieiiiay iioeea, iaeaaeathuay ia?iiiie i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth. Oae,
ii noaeeyiiiio aieieio aeeaiao?ii anaai eeoue 0,1 ii aiciiaeii
ia?aaeaoue ouny/o oeaaoiuo oaeai?ia?aii eee 50 oun. oaeaoiiiuo
?acaiai?ia. Aieieiiiay iioeea caia/aoaeueia aua e oai, /oi iia ia
iiaeaa?aeaia ?aaeeiiiiaoai. Yoi icia/aao ea/anoaaiiue nea/ie e a
iaaeaaeiinoe nayce a oneiaeyo ana aieueoae ianuuaiiinoe «yoe?a»
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuie eceo/aieyie.

N inaiaieai einiina (60 — 70-a aiaeu) iiyaeeenue iiaua a?iiaaeiua
aiciiaeiinoe ii onei?aieth nai?a e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. I?e/ai
aeooaeueiinoue e ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea iiauo nenoai nayce ana
aic?anoatho. Iaoainiooieee iaania/eaatho auno?ue nai? ia?iiiie iannu
eioi?iaoeee i?aeoe/anee ec anao ?aeiiia caiiiai oa?a. ?aciiia?aciua
iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey a einiina, eco/aiea ieaiao Nieia/iie nenoaiu,
?acaaaeea oaeiu caiiiai iaaiaoecia e aeiaaeueiay ?acaaaeea i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia Caiee, inouanoaeyaiay ca n/eoaiiua nooee, — iiaue ea/anoaaiiue
nea/ie a ?inoa iauaia eioi?iaoeee.

I?eiaiaiea einie/aneie oaoieee aeey aaieiae/aneeo oeaeae iiiaie?aoii
onei?yao eco/aiea caeiiiia?iinoae no?iaiey caiiuo iaae? e iiene iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo. Oae, n iiiiuueth eneonnoaaiiuo niooieeia Caiee auee auyaeaiu
?aeiiu Eacaonoaia, ia?niaeoeaiua aeey iienea iaooe e aaca, eco/ai
aeae?ieiae/aneee ?aaeei Eanieeneiai ii?y, ia?aniio?aiu ea?ou
caieaiieueciaaiey ?yaea ?aaeiiia no?aiu. Onei?aiea ?acaaaeee iiaecaiiuo
aiaaonoa oieueei ia 5 % aeaao, ii ioeaieai o/aiuo, aeey ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa aaeaaiaeiue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo a 2 ie?ae. ?oa., a oeaiao
80-o aiaeia e eiaiii caeanue eiiioieeaoeeiiiua niooieee noaee
i?ei?eoaoiuie. Iie iicaieeee nicaeaoue aeiaaeueiua nenoaiu nayce e
iaaeaaoeee.

A no?aia nicaeaia einie/aneay nenoaia eco/aiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia Caiee
(EI?C), ?ac?aaioaiu iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee iioeiaeueiie nuaiee
i?e?iaeiuo iauaeoia. Iie aanueia ia?niaeoeaiu e aeey yeieiae/aneiai
eiio?iey ninoiyiey ieaiaou.

Iaeiiaoe, niooieee aiaiiiai iacia/aiey, iniauaiiua ?acee/iie
?acaaaeuaaoaeueiie aiia?aoo?ie, ca ei?ioeea i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie
niae?atho aieueoea iauaiu eioi?iaoeee e ia?aaeatho aa ia Caieth aeey
ia?aaioee, aiaeeca, i?eiyoey iia?aoeaiuo ?aoaiee.

A ?acoeueoaoa iauai iao/iie, yeiiiie/aneie, noaoenoe/aneie e i?i/ae
eioi?iaoeee noae noieue aaeee, /oi aicieeea nouanoaaiiay aeeni?iii?oeey
iaaeaeo nei?inoueth iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee e aiciiaeiinoyie aa ia?aaioee.
Yoi i?eaaei e iaiaoiaeeiinoe naiiai oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey YAI aeey
iia?aoeaiie ia?aaioee e aiaeeca eioi?iaoeee.

Onei?aiea ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee. I?eiyoeth ?aoaiee ii/oe anaaaea
i?aaeoanoaoao ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee. Iniiao yoie ia?aaioee ninoaaeytho
au/eneeoaeueiua iia?aoeee, nei?inoue eioi?uo aei aoi?ie iieiaeiu XX a.
auea aanueia ia?aie/aiiie.

Oaea ia?aua YAI, iai?eia?, YIEAE (NOA, 1946 a.) ii naiae
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe oae i?aacioee iau/iua a?eoiiiao?u e eiaa?eoie/aneea
eeiaeee, /oi ia?aiia/aeueii nicaeaoaeyi eacaeinue, /oi aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae iaoee e i?iecaiaenoaa, aeaaea a oaeie
no?aia, eae NOA, aoaeao aeinoaoi/ii eiaoue anaai ianeieueei oaeeo iaoei.

Iaeiaei ianouiua ioaeaeu oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e iauaeoeaiay
i?iecaiaenoaaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue (a a iniiaa eo — oa aea aeieiae/aneay
e nioeeaeueiay aeoeaiinoue /aeiaaea) iio?aaiaaee ia oieueei nicaeaiey
nioai ouny/ iiauo YAI, ii e iiauoaiey (e cia/eoaeueiiai) nei?inoe
au/eneeoaeueiuo ?aaio ia ieo.

Nei?inoue au/eneaiee nia?aiaiiuie YAI oaea i?eaeeaeaaony e i?aaeaeueiiio
cia/aieth, ia?aie/aiiiio nei?inoueth naaoa (a iioe/aneeo AI) e ?aaiiio
ieeeea?aeai iia?aoeee a naeoiaeo. A iioe/aneay caienue eioi?iaoeee a
iaiyoe (a aeaea aieia?aii) ioe?uaaao iooue i?aeoe/anee iaia?aie/aiiiio
oaaee/aieth iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe, ieioiinoue caiene eioi?ie iiaeao
aeinoeaaoue 10 aeo/ni.

N ia/aea 70-o aiaeia ao?ii ?acaeaaaony i?iecaiaenoai iee?ii?ioeanni?ia
(II). Eo eniieueciaaiea /?acau/aeii oi?inoeei eiino?oeoeeth
eiiiuethoa?a. A i?iiuoeaiiinoe iie aeaee aeeciue aeaeei oaoiieiae/aneei
nenoaiai e ?iaioai, /oi ioe?uei ea/anoaaiii iiaue yoai ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee.

I?iecaiaenoai eiiiuethoa?ia — oaiiiai ie?iaie yeiiiieee XX a. Yoi
aaeeinoaaiiay io?aneue, eioi?ay aio oaea ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee ia
ciaao e?ecena. Iiaue eiioeuen yoiio aoio i?eaeaei i?iecaiaenoai
ia?niiaeueiuo YAI (IYAI), ia/aoia a 1975 a. a NOA. E 1993 a. ia?e IYAI a
NOA ian/eouaae ieiei 20 iei. iaoei, /oi ioe?uei iaaeaeaiii oe?ieee
aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee, e ciaieyi e niinianoaiaaei nicaeaieth ieeeeiiia
iiauo ?aai/eo iano. A ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeeaeeecaoeee
yeiiiieea NOA nicaeaea aieaa 42 iei. iiauo ?aai/eo iano, aeieacaa
iaiainiiaaiiinoue i?aaeneacaiee ianniaie aac?aaioeoeu aneaaenoaea
aiaae?aiey YAI e ?iaioia.

Naaiaeiy ia?niiaeueiuie YAI a NOA iieuecothony nauoa 20 % naiae e ia
iaiaa 25 % oa?ia?ia. IYAI oe?ieei iioieii oeuioee e a oeieu. I?e yoii
?uiie NOA inoaaony naiui aieei a ie?a, no?aia aaeaaiaeii aaiceo ieeeeiiu
eiiiuethoa?ia e ia iiaeao ianuoeoue ni?in. Aanueia iieacaoaeai e
eieinnaeueiue ?ino cao?ao ia YAI: a 1976 a.—35 ie?ae. aeiee.; a 1980
a.—90, a 1983 a.— 139 ie?ae. aeiee.

Caeiiu eiieo?aioeee e ?uiie iaania/eee iaoeeiiiia iiauoaiea ea/anoaa e
auno?iaeaenoaey YAI i?e iai?a?uaiii oiaiueoaiee eo aaaa?eoia, iannu,
yia?aiiio?aaeaiey e, niioaaonoaaiii, naaanoieiinoe. Anee n?aaieaaoue
yenieoaoaoeeiiiua ia?aiao?u, oi ea?oeia oaeiaa: iee?iYAI a 40 ?ac iiuiaa
ia?auo eaiiiauo YAI, i?e yoii a 10 oun. ?ac aeaoaaea, a 18 oun. ?ac
eaa/a ii ianna, a 1,5 oun. ?ac iaiueoa ii iauaio e a 2,8 oun. ?ac
iaiueoa ii yia?aiiio?aaeaieth.

Aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea YAI ninoieo a oii, /oi iie iicaieeee ?acaeoue iiaua
iao/iua ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iai?aaeaiey, oaeea, eae einie/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey, iiciaiea no?iaiey iee?iie?a. Enneaaeiaaieyi noaee
aeinooiiu neiaeiua, aunieii?aaieciaaiiua nenoaiu ni iiiaeie ia?aiao?aie,
aa?iyoiinoiua nenoaiu e o.i. YAI i?eioeeieaeueiui ia?acii eciaieee
i?aaeaea anaai naio iinoaiiaeo yenia?eiaioa, iicaieea iiiaie?aoii
nie?aoeoue n?iee i?iaaaeaiey oeeeeia ecia?aiee e ia?aaioee ?acoeueoaoia.
Oaeay eioaineoeeaoeey ioe?uea aeinaea iaecaanoiua aiciiaeiinoe a
enneaaeiaaieyo, a /anoiinoe, aeeiaie/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eiaiii iiaeaee?iaaiea ia YAI aiciiaeiuo
iineaaenoaee yaea?iie aieiu, inouanoaeaiiia niaianoii niaaoneeie e
aia?eeaineeie o/aiuie, e iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou, ecaanoiua eae «yaea?iay
ceia» n aeaaeueth anaai aeeaiai ia Caiea, niinianoaiaaee iiieiaieth
aania?niaeoeaiinoe aiaiiie eiio?iioaoeee, nie?auaieth aiaiiuo i?ia?aii e
ioe?uee iooue e aoiaiecio a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaieyo.

A oeaeii eiiiuethoa?u, onoaiiaeaiiua a aeiiao e ia ?aai/eo ianoao
ieeeeiiia ethaeae ai anai ie?a, nicaeatho ia oieueei iiaua oneiaey
o?oaea, ii e iiaoth n?aaeo iaeoaiey n auoiaeii ia a?iiaaeiue
eioi?iaoeeiiiue ?ano?n /aeiaa/anoaa, o. a. iiaue oei ioiioaiey /aeiaaea
n ie?ii. Yoi iiuiua ?inoee iiaie oeeaeeecaoeee, n eioi?uie /aeiaa/anoai
anooiaao a XXI a. — aae eioi?iaoeee.

*oi eanaaony iaoae no?aiu, oi aa eaoano?ioe/aneia iuia ionoaaaiea a
iee?iyeaeo?iieea, a /anoiinoe, a i?iecaiaenoaa ia?niiaeueiuo YAI, auei
caeiaeaii aua a 50-o aiaeao, eiaaea eaeaieiae-iiiiiieenou ?aoeee, /oi
iaoaio eieeaeoeaiiio iauanoao n oeaio?aeeciaaiiie yeiiiieeie yoe ee/iua
YAI ie e /aio: iano?iei ii anae no?aia au/eneeoaeueiua oeaio?u,
niaaeeiei eo a aaeeioth ainoaea?noaaiioth naoue, — e ieeaeeo i?iaeai.

E oiio aea aiaae?aiea YAI a oi?aaeaiea iiae?uaaei iniiau ath?ie?aoee,
eai o?aaiaaei ioe?uoinoe eioi?iaoeee, yniinoe ai anai (ia/eiay n iaee/ey
iano a ainoeieoeao), eiiiaoaioiuo, auno?uo e ioaaonoaaiiuo ?aaeoeee. Aua
aieaa aeoaieea i?e/eiu — ionoonoaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
eiieo?aioeee, /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, ?uiea e iiaeeeiiiai aeciana —
i?eaaee no?aio e naiiio no?aoiiio ionoaaaieth — eioaeeaeooaeueiiio.

Iaayio?iieeiay ?ieue YAI a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa aei neo ii?
iaaeinoaoi/ii iiiyoa ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie ainoaea?noaa. Ieca?iu eiaanoeoeee.
I?iecaiaenoai YAI a iaoae no?aia ninoaaeyao anaai ~ 1 % io o?iaiy NOA.
Iao ianoiyuaai eiiiuethoa?iiai ?uiea. A NIA iao iaoeeiiaeueiie no?aoaaee
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee. Aanii?yaei/iue eiii?o aeaoaauo iaoei i?eaiaeeo e
aeanoaiaea?oecaoeee oaoieee, e aa ianiaianoeiinoe ia oieueei n
ca?oaaaeiuie oaoiieiaeyie, ii e n ioa/anoaaiiuie, cao?oaeiyy nicaeaiea
noieue iaiaoiaeeiuo eieaeueiuo naoae.

I?aauaay aia eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau ia ie?iaii ?uiea, iu ia ciaai e
eiiuthieoo?o nia?aiaiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeeaeeecaoeee a yoie iaeanoe.
Ia?yaeo n ianniaui aiaae?aieai IYAI Caiaae iuia ia?aoiaeeo ia noia?YAI
i/a?aaeiiai iieieaiey. Ninoiyaoeany a 1991-1992 aa. a Iineaa
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eiiiuethoa?iua oi?oiu iieacaee «iaoa aani?inaaoiia
ionoaaaiea ii anai iai?aaeaieyi, aeeth/ay e i?ia?aiie?iaaiea», aaea iu
aua iaaeaaii n/eoaeenue neeueiuie. I nianoaaiiuo YAI oaea e ia ia/oaai,
ieoao aeaeaa iaic?aaaoaeue, e oiio aea ioioaeaaai e na?ueaciuo
ia?oia?ia: aacaeoiiia, eiiia?/aneia ?ani?ino?aiaiea /oaeeo i?ia?aii
«aeinoeaei oaioaniaai?e/aneeo ianooaaia», i?e/ai yoi inouanoaeyaony
ii-ie?aonee, aac niaethaeaiey i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

?acoiaaony, iai neaaeoao anooieoue a Aa?ineoth eiiaaioeeth ii io?aia
aaoi?neeo i?aa, niaethaeaoue ana caeiiu oeeaeeeciaaiiiai ie?a e caiyoue
a iai aeinoieiia ianoi. Nae/an aeey yoiai ioe?uaaaony aeaaii?eyoiay
aiciiaeiinoue: ec-ca cia/eoaeueiiai ?inoa iiuiinoae YAI iaia/aaony
ea?aeeiaeueiay caiaia i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. O?aaothony
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua eaeae, iiaay iaoaiaoeea, naaaeea aeai?eoiu — o
ioa/anoaaiiuo eiiiuethoa?ueeia, i?ia?aiienoia, iaoaiaoeeia iiyaeyaony
oain iaeoe ianoi a e?oiiaeoae ie?iaie eiaeono?ee iiaaeoeo n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ana aieaa iieiia eniieueciaaiea ia?aoiuo naycae. Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo
iai?aaeaiee eioaineoeeaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia yaeyaony
eniieueciaaiea ia?aoiuo naycae. *ai iieiaa e iia?aoeaiaa eniieuecothony
a ooieoeeiiaeueiuo nenoaiao ia?aoiua nayce, oai (i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo
oneiaeyo) nenoaia onoie/eaaa, oi?aaeaiea iioeiaeueiaa e oaii ?acaeoey
auoa. Iaiouaieaiui ao?eaooii naii?acaeoey yaeyaony naiiiao/aiea, a
iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeeo ia?aoiay naycue.

Ioe?uoea i?eioeeia ia?aoiie nayce yaeeinue auaeathueiny niauoeai ia
oieueei aeey ?acaeoey oaoieee, ii e eiaei eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiua
iineaaenoaey aeey iiieiaiey nouiinoe i?ioeannia aaeaioaoeee, oi?aaeaiey
e naiii?aaiecaoeee. Ia?aoiua nayce yaeythony iniiaiui oaeoi?ii a
oi?ie?iaaiee nenoaiiuo naienoa e oacao?ona nenoai, a oeaeaiai?aaeaiiii
iiaaaeaiee. I?eioeei ia?aoiie nayce I. Aeia? iacuaae «iinioii neaiiai» e
«nae?aoii aeecie», a o?aioeocneee aeieia I.Eaoeeue—«nae?aoii anaiauae
oii?yaei/aiiinoe (i?aaieciaaiiinoe)». Ethaay ooieoeeiiaeueiay nenoaia
i?e yooaeoeaiii eniieueciaaiee io?eoeaoaeueiie ia?aoiie nayce noaiiaeony
naiiniaa?oainoaothuaeny, ?acaeaaaony yaiethoeeiiii e ia ioaeaeaaony a
ia?ano?ieeao.

Iaoa ia?iaeiia oicyenoai ia i?ioyaeaiee aeanyoeeaoee eaii?e?iaaei
neaiaeu ia?aoiie nayce, neieue au o?aaiaeii iie ie aeee a eieieiea. Oae,
i?eiaiyaoeany aeey ioeaiee ?aaiou caaiaeia e oaa?ee aaeiaua iieacaoaee
iaaeieai noaee aeaaiie oeaeueth a ieaie?iaaiee ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa, oioy
oi?iiceee oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann. Iio?aaeoaeth ioaeiu, iai?eia?,
oiieinoaiiua o?oau, yeiiiie/iua i?ioeee, nia?aiaiiua iaiaoaeeiaieea
iaoeiu, eieoicai — eaaeea o?aeoi?a, a caaiaeai iaauaiaeii eo
i?iecaiaeeoue, eai ieaiiaua i?aaiu, i?aneiaooue «aae» o?aaiaaee
oaaee/aiey i?iaeoeoeee a oiiiao, a ?oaeyo. ?oaeue, eioi?ue i?ecaai aue
auoue eeoue aaeeiui anaiauei ecia?eoaeai (yeaiaioii noaoenoe/aneiai
o/aoa, ia aieaa), noae aaniethoiui iieacaoaeai, aeaaiie oeaeueth a
ieaie?iaaiee ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa, caneiiea niaie eiie?aoiua ecaeaeey
ioaeiiai ea/anoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa iaii?aaaeaiii ooyaeaeyeenue
eiino?oeoeee iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, no?aia oa?yea nioie ouny/ oiii
iaoaeea a aiae.

Anee a aeeauo i?aaieciao e oaoie/aneeo nenoaiao (aaoi?aaoeyoi?ao)
ia?aoiua nayce eniieuecothony a iieiie ia?a (aac ieo iie
iaaeecianiiniaiu, e yoi aanueia iieacaoaeueii), oi a yeiiiie/aneeo e
nioeeaeueiuo noa?ao eiathony a?iiaaeiua iaeniieueciaaiiua ?aca?au
eioaineoeeaoeee e naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey iiiaeanoaa nenoai a /anoe
yooaeoeaiiai — a iieioth ia?o e iia?aoeaiiai — eniieueciaaiey ia?aoiuo
naycae a i?ioeannao oi?aaeaiey. Nthaea ioiineony e eniieueciaaiea
oeaiiaeoaai enoi?e/aneiai iiuoa ae?oaeo no?ai a ?aoaiee nioeeaeueiuo e
yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai (caiaeueiay ?aoi?ia, iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea,
i?eaaoecaoeey e o. i.), aaea iu i?iaeieaeaai oii?ii eaeoe naiei,
«iniaui» iooai.

?anniio?ei oaeoth io?aneue, eae iaoea. Ie?iaie iiuo iieacuaaao
yooaeoeaiinoue iaeuo iao/iuo eieeaeoeaia. Iu aea i?e ino?aeoai
aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa i?iaeieaeaai niaea?aeaoue a?iiaaeiua IEE, aiaeaie
ia auaeathuea ie iao/iuo ioe?uoee, ie ?ac?aaioie ia o?iaia ecia?aoaiee.
Ii/aio au ia eniieueciaaoue iiuo oioy au ninaaeiae Oeieyiaeee,
iaaieueoie no?aiu n ianaeaieai a 5 iei. /aeiaae, aeiaeaoaeny caiaoiuo
oniaoia a IOI. A yoie no?aia aieueoeinoai o/aiuo ?aaioatho ii eiio?aeoo
n i?aaei?eyoeyi a ninoaaa iaaieueoeo a?aiaiiuo a?oii, ii eiie?aoiui
oaiai, ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey aaaeoony a oieaa?neoaoao, e yoi
ioee/ii ni/aoaaony n o/aaiui i?ioeannii, aeaeay aai eioaeeaeooaeueii
aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiui, eiie?aoiui e yooaeoeaiui.

?ino iauaia aeiauaaaiie iiaie eioi?iaoeee e onei?aiea aa aiaae?aiey.
Aaaeiui iai?aaeaieai eioaineoeeaoeee iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
yaeyaony oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea iaeiieaiiuo iao/iuo ciaiee e oaoie/aneeo
aeinoeaeaiee. Oe?ieay eioi?iaoecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e
eioaeeaeooaeecaoeey iauanoaa oa?aeoa?ecothony, iniaaiii a yiioo
nia?aiaiiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee, iaaeaeaiiui ?anoe?aieai
o?iioa enneaaeiaaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia aeiauaaiea iiaie eioi?iaoeee. Ia
yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia?anoathuee iioie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
eioi?iaoeee.

Aeiauoua iiaua eaeae, iao/iua ioe?uoey eee ecia?aoaiey, iaeiaei, aua
ie/aai ia aeatho iauanoao iiea ia aiieiuaiu a i?aeoe/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, ia ?aaeeciaaiu a aeaea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia eee
aeaenoaothueo ono?ienoa. I?e/ai ?aaeecaoeey, aiaae?aiea iiaie
eioi?iaoeee o?aaotho aua aieaa oeaeaono?aieaiiie i?aaiecaoi?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe, oae eae naycaiu ia oieueei n cao?aoie nee, a?aiaie e
n?aaenoa, n i?aiaeieaieai eiina?aaoecia iuoeaiey, ii e n eiieie noa?iai,
ia?ano?ieeie oaea iaoa?eaeeciaaiiuo, ooieoeeiie?othueo no?oeoo? eee n eo
caiaiie. Iiyoiio oioy iioie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eioi?iaoeee e
oaaee/eaaaony ii ia?anoathuae, ii aiaae?aiea aa a i?aeoeeo i?ienoiaeeo
ii-?aciiio a ?acee/iuo no?aiao. Anee acyoue, iai?eia?, iaoo no?aio, oi
aiaae?aiea iiaeiie eaeao o?oaeii, ayei. Oeaiiaeoea ioa/anoaaiiua
ecia?aoaiey, niiniaiua aeaoue ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao iiiaiieeeeiiiua
i?eauee, aiaeaie e aeanyoeeaoeyie inoathony ia aiaae?aiiuie. Ia?aaeei
iie iaoiaeyo aiieiuaiea ca ?oaaaeii e aica?auathony e iai a aeaea
aioiauo ecaeaeee, iiea/eaaaiuo aaethoie.

Enoeia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ethaay ooieoeeiiaeueiay nenoaia oai
iiaouanoaaiiaa, /ai aieueoa iia iaeiieea eioi?iaoeee e /ai iieiaa e
iia?aoeaiaa aa eniieuecoao. Ia?aaeiaua ?oeiaiaeeoaee eniieuecotho ia
oieueei naie, ii e /oaeie iiuo, eioi?iaoeeth ni noi?iiu. A yoii ieaia
iieacaoaeai yiiineee oaiiiai: e?ooiio iiaeuaio yeiiiieee iineaaiaiiie
ssiiiee, aa oaoie/aneiio i?ia?anno niinianoaiaaee nai?, eioaineaiia
aiaae?aiea ecia?aoaiee e oaoiieiae/aneeo ciaiee, aeiauouo a ae?oaeo
no?aiao (iineaaeiea naiaa?aiaiii eo ia eniieueciaaee).

Iaeii ec eeth/aauo iai?aaeaiee eioaineoeeaoeee iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa naycaii n nenoaiie ia?aciaaiey. Caeanue iai iiyoue
neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia ca?oaaaeiue iiuo, o/eouaay iiaeoiaeu e
i?ei?eoaou. A iaii?aiaeoia I?aceaeaioa NOA (aeaeaa?ue 1991 a.) ia
ia?aciaaiee no?aoaaey ia?aciaaiey iacaaia no?aoaaeae iaoeee.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia ioaeaeu ia?aciaaiey a NOA auaeaeythony ia?iiiua
noiiu — aei 260 ie?ae. aeiee. aaeaaiaeii. Anee e yoiio aeiaaaeoue
eieinnaeueiua eiaanoeoeee ia eioi?iaoeeo (i?aainoiaeyuea noiia?iue
aeeaae a yia?aaoeeo, nu?ueaaua e ia?a?aaaouaathuea io?anee), oi ynii,
/oi ?a/ue eaeao i aani?aoeaaeaioiii oaaee/aiee eioaeeaeooaeueiie iiue
ee/iinoe e no?aiu a oeaeii. Oieueei oi ainoaea?noai iiaeao iaania/eoue
aeinoieioth aeeciue naiei a?aaeaeaiai, n/eoaao aia?eeaineee I?aceaeaio,
eioi?ia auaeaeyao iaiaoiaeeiua n?aaenoaa ia ia?aciaaiea e iaoeo.
Eiaanoeoeee a noa?o ia?aciaaiey ieacuaathony naiui auaiaeiui aeiaeaieai
eaieoaea.

Ae?oaay auaiaeiay noa?a aeiaeaiey eaieoaea—eioi?iaoeea. A i?iiuoeaiii
?acaeouo no?aiao neiaeeaoeany e ia/aeo 80-o aiaeia
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey io?aaeatho oaiaeaioeeth e aic?anoaieth
ioiineoaeueiie oeaiiinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia ii n?aaiaieth ni anaie
inoaeueiuie iaoeeiiaeueiuie ?ano?naie. A yoii ieaia iiao/ei n?aaenoaii
onei?aiey i?ia?anna yaeythony nicaeaiea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea
iauaaeinooiiuo aaieia aeaiiuo (IAAe) a ?acaeouo no?aiao. Yoi noaei
aiciiaeiui aeaaiaea?y eioaa?aeueiui naoyi nayce e ianniaiio aiaae?aieth
YAI, eioi?iaoeeiiii-iieneiauo nenoai (EIN). Eaaeee (n aeiiaoiaai
aeenieay) aeinooi e ethaie eioi?iaoeee n aa ioia?aaeaieai ia ye?aia
i?iecaae ?aaiethoeeth a eioi?iaoeeiiiii iaania/aiee iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, niinianoaiaae ?anoeaaoo iaeiai aeciana, ?acaeoeth
nioeeoeueoauoa. Iniaaiii eioaineaii ?acaeaaaony ia?eaoeia
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa e eioi?iaoeee. I?iaeoe?iaaiea, i?iaeaaea e
yenieoaoaoeey aaieia aeaiiuo e ciaiee eiaao oaiaeaioeeth, e naiiio
no?aieoaeueiiio ?inoo. Yoi aianoa n oai e iaeaieaa aeioiaeiay a
eiiia?/aneii ioiioaiee noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe.

A iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, n?aaenoa e nenoai nayce e,
iniaaiii, iauaaeinooiiuo aaieia aeaiiuo iaoa ionoaaaiea io ia?aaeiauo
no?ai i?iaeieaeaao no?aieoaeueii oaaee/eaaoueny. E anee a aeeaeaeoaa
a?aiy iieiaeaiea ia eciaieony, «oi ?ac?ua oaea ia i?ioyaeaiee ia?aie
iieiaeiu yoiai aeanyoeeaoey — eae ooaa?aeaeaao A. E. ?aeeoia —
i?aa?aoeony a i?iianoue, ionoaaaiea noaiao iaia?aoeiui»[3].

Iinea ?acaaea Nithca NN? iieiaeaiea a NIA ineiaeieeinue iiiaeanoaii
ae?oaeo i?iaeai. Ainoaea?noaa yoe, anee ia i?aaei?eioo n?i/iuo
?aaeeeaeueiuo ia?, iaecaaaeii aeieaeiu iiianoue a iniaoth caaeneiinoue
io i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai NI?N, caaeneiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiioth. Iia
aaaeao e eo i?aa?auaieth e iniaua eioi?iaoeeiiiua eieiiee, eioi?ua a
eo/oai neo/aa niiaoo iinoaaeyy nu?ueaaua e yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu,
neoaeeoue ?uieaie nauoa aeey i?iaeoeoeee ainoaea?noa, anooieaoeo a
noaaeeth eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa, ii ieeiaaea ia niiaoo iaania/eoue
naiaio ianaeaieth nia?aiaiiue o?iaaiue aeecie, eoeueoo?u,
oeeaeeeciaaiiinoe, ia?aciaaiey, caei?iauey e aeaaininoiyiey aeaaea i?e
iiiiue e niaeaenoaee auniei?acaeouo no?ai.

Iaaeyaeiia ioia?aaeaiea eioi?iaoeee a i?ioeannao oi?aaeaiey. Iaaeyaeiia
ioia?aaeaiea eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony oie ninoaaeythuae eioaineoeeaoeee,
eioi?ay aeoeaece?oao naienoai io?aaeaiey («io?aaeaoaeueioth
niiniaiinoue») iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia. Ueou eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey
iiyoiio noaee iai?aiaiiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth eaaeaeiai oi?aaeyaiiai
iauaeoa, oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, eniuoaoaeueiiai noaiaea.

A oneiaeyo ana aieueoaai oneiaeiaiey oaoie/aneeo nenoai e ao?iiai
ia?anoaiey iioieia eioi?iaoeee a yiioo IO? cia/aiea n?aaenoa iaaeyaeiiai
ioia?aaeaiey eioi?iaoeee nouanoaaiii aic?anoaao. Yoei iauyniyaony
nicaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iiaeaeae yia?ainenoai, oaoiieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia, einie/aneeo nenoai e o.i., aaeaeaaoii e ecae?aoaeueii
ioia?aaeathueo iia?aoi?o ninoiyiea e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoaiu,
onei?ythueo ioeaieo neooaoeee e i?eiyoea iioeiaeueiuo ?aoaiee ii
oi?aaeaieth (ca ieieiaeueiua io?acee a?aiaie).

Oaioanoe/anee auno?i ?anoao i?iecaiaenoai oieaa?naeueiuo ono?ienoa
ioia?aaeaiey eioi?iaoeee — aeenieaaa (iiieoi?ia), iaeiiai ec
auaeathueony ecia?aoaiee iaoaai aaea. Aai iacuaatho «ieiii a YAI».
Aeenieae iicaieytho ioia?aaeaoue ?acoeueoaou ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee,
neaaeeoue ca oiaeii iao/iuo yenia?eiaioia, a ioaeiue iiiaio aeoeaii
aiaoeaaoueny, eciaiyoue i?ia?aiio e o. i.

Oaeei ia?acii, n?aaenoaa ioia?aaeaiey aunooiatho eae aeoeaiia naycothuaa
caaii iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e oaoieeie, niinianoaothuaa eioaineoeeaoeee
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee — ioaaonoaaiaeoai
iiiaioa oi?aaeai/aneiai i?ioeanna.

A oeeinioneii ieaia oaiiiai ioia?aaeaiey eioi?iaoeee i?aaenoaaeyaony iai
oe?ieei, aua iaaeinoaoi/ii enneaaeiaaiiui iieai. Ana aeaeu iuoeaiey e
iiciaiey iie?athony ia iaaeyaeiua ia?acu, oi?ie?othueany ia aaca
aini?eyoee e, iniaaiii, i?aaenoaaeaiee. Iaaeyaeiue ia?ac neooaoeee eae
au aae?aao a naay anth noiio ciaiee ia iauaeoa, eae au naeeiaao e
neioace?oao aa. «Nouanoaoao eeoue eeethcey, — ienae A. A. Neaaei, —
aoaeoi aiciiaeii iuoeaiea aac iaaeyaeiinoe»[4].

Aiai?y i ?iee iaaeyaeiiai ioia?aaeaiey eioi?iaoeee a aieaa oe?ieii
ieaia, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a?aoe/aneea eeethno?aoeee. iaaeyaeiua
noaiu caieiatho ana aieueoaa ianoi e a ia/aoiuo ecaeaieyo (a
noaiaea?oao, o/aaieeao, iiiia?aoeyo), nouanoaaiii iaeaa/ay aini?eyoea e
caiiieiaiea oaenoiaie eioi?iaoeee. Ii-aeaeeiiio, yoio i?ioeann ia
iaieaeao e oeeinioeth, iiiiaeao noaoue ae aieaa iiiyoiie e aeioiae/eaie
aeey oe?ieeo iann. Ia yoii ia/oae aua Ae. Aeeae?i: «Oeeinioey aeieaeia
noaoue iiiyoiie ia?iaeiui iannai, anee iia oi/ao auoue i?ia?anneaiie.
Iiyoiio iaaei no?aieoueny e oiio, /oiau naeaeaoue oeeinioeth
iiioey?iie»[5].

Ao?iue ?ino oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai o?oaea. Ia?iiiue
iioaioeeae yooaeoeaiinoe, caeiaeaiiue a i?aaiecaoeee eae ia iae?io?iaia
iauanoaa, oae e ia ia?ae/iii o?iaia eiie?aoiuo nenoai, iiaeao auoue
?aaeeciaai i?e niioaaonoaothuae oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe i?ioeannia
oi?aaeaiey. I?aoaoieea, oii?yaei/eaay e iaeaa/ay o?oaeiaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea (a /anoiinoe, ii ia?aaea/a e iieo/aieth
iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee, ?aciiiaeaieth e aeaeaeaieth oaoie/aneie
aeieoiaioaoeee), iicaieyao yeiiiieoue a?aiy e nouanoaaiii iiauoaoue
yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeannia oi?aaeaiey.

N 1950 a. ia/aeny ea/anoaaiii iiaue yoai ?acaeoey oi?aaeai/aneie oaoieee
— ia aaca yeaeo?iieee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iecaiaenoai oi?aaeai/aneie
oaoieee (?acee/iuo n/aoii-eeaaeoiuo e ieooueo iaoei, iiiaeeoaeueiuo
aiia?aoia e o. i.) noaei iaeiie ec aaaeoueo e auno?i?acaeaathueony
io?aneae ai anao ia?aaeiauo a i?iiuoeaiiii ioiioaiee no?aiao. I?iaiic,
auneacaiiue yeiiiienoaie a ia/aea 70-o aiaeia, ii?aaaeaeny: ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XX a. ia ia?aia ianoi ii yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa auoee oa
ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ua a iaeaieueoae ia?a niiaee «eniieueciaaoue ana
aiciiaeiinoe oi?aaeai/aneie oaoieee».

Yoa ioeaiea iuia iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iiuoii nia?aiaiiie ssiiiee, aaea
oe?ieay aaoiiaoecaoeey aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa iicaieeea a ianeieueei ?ac
iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue eiioi?neie ?aaiou, iiiaie?aoii ?anoe?eoue aa
iauai aac oaaee/aiey /enea neoaeaueo e iiaeiyoue ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee.
Ia?niiaeueiuie eiiiuethoa?aie naaiaeiy ?aniieaaatho 84% yiiineeo
eiiiaiee, eiie?iaaeueiuie iaoeiaie 83%, i?ioeanni?aie oaenooaeueiie
ia?aaioee 89%, oaeneieeueiuie aiia?aoaie 98%! Niya ni iiiaeo ?aaioieeia
oi?aaeai/aneiai aiia?aoa iiiioiiioth /anoue o?oaea, oi?aaeai/aneay
oaoieea aeaea ei aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeeth/eoueny ia aeaea, naycaiiua n
i?eiyoeai ?aoaiee, eo iioeiecaoeeae. Aaoiiaoecaoeey oi?aaeaiey
aeaaioai?ii neacuaaaony e ia iauai o?iaia iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ciaiee
no?aiu, oii?ii e iaonoaiii ?aouaeny aia?aae ii iooe iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
i?ia?anna.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay ?aaiethoeey ioe?uea iiaoth yiioo a i?ia?anna
/aeiaa/anoaa, yiioo eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeeaeeecaoeee. Iia oa?aeoa?ecoaony
nouanoaaiiuie ia?aiaiaie eae a i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e a
nioeeaeueiie noa?a. Iniiaiua ec ieo neaaeothuea.

Nie?auaaony /enei caiyouo a i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa e naeueneii
oicyenoaa. Oae, iai?eia?, anee a aia?eeaineii naeueneii oicyenoaa a 60-o
aiaeao auei caiyoi ieiei 4 %, oi iuia, ii naeaeaoaeuenoao A. Oiooia?a —
ecaanoiiai enneaaeiaaoaey — oooo?ieiaa, caiyoi eeoue 2 % anae ?aai/ae
neeu no?aiu. Aiaeiae/iay oaiaeaioeey eiaao ianoi e a i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
aaea eioaineaii aiaae?ythony aacethaeiua oaoiieiaee. Iaeiaei oiaiueoaiea
/enea ?aaioieeia o noaiea i?eaiaeeo ia e oiaaeeo i?iecaiaenoaa, a e
?inoo aai yooaeoeaiinoe ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey ia?aaeiauo oaoiieiaee,
?iaioecaoeee e iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioathueo. Yooaeoeaiue o?oae
oaaee/eaaao ianno naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie a?aaeaeai —aeey aeinoaa, oo?ecia,
iiauoaiey eoeueoo?u, aeey naiiia?aciaaiey.

Aeaaiaea?y ia?anoathuae eioaineoeeaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey
i?iecaiaenoaa nieaeaaony iio?aaiinoue ai iiiaeo o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeaeao
nu?uey, /oi niinianoaoao i?e?iaeinaa?aaeaieth e ?aoaieth yeieiae/aneeo
i?iaeai. Eioi?iaoeey noaiiaeony iiaui ?ano?nii /aeiaa/anoaa, iicaieyy
nicaeaaaoue aunieiyooaeoeaiua iaoa?eaeu /anoi ec ie/aai, ec aeaoaauo
eiiiiiaioia. Ciaiea aeaenoaeoaeueii e a iieiie ia?a noaiiaeony neeie,
iaoa?eaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeay e?ueaoia au?aaeaiea aiaeeeneiai iuneeoaey O.
Ayeiia nionoy aieaa 150 eao.

Iaoeiaieea i?iecaiaenoaa n ieieiaeueiui eniieueciaaieai nu?uey e yia?aee
iicaieytho aeaaea iaeui ainoaea?noaai, iiiaea ec eioi?uo ia eiatho e
nianoaaiiuo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, aeiaeaaoueny aia/aoeythueo oniaoia a
yeiiiieea. I?eia?ia oiio aeinoaoi/ii iiiai: Aieeaiaeey, Aeaiey,
Oaeaaiue. Ino?iaiia ainoaea?noai Neiaaio?, ii iauaio aaeiaiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa aioaaeoaa a /enei aeaaaeoeaoe aiaaoaeoeo no?ai
ie?a, ecaanoii eciaeeeai naiuo aeaoaauo a ie?a oiaa?ia e no?aieoaeueiui
?inoii o?iaiy aeecie. Oaiiiai neiaaio?neiai /oaea i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea
nioeeieiaia eae i?aaeaanoiee oeeaeeecaoeee aoaeouaai, aaea aeeciueth
i?aayo eioaeeaeo, ciaiey, aunieii?aaieciaaiiue o?oae, aaea iao
aac?aaioeoeu e iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?iaeai (ianiio?y ia niaoaiea iiiaeo
iaoeee e ?an), aaea ia?iae ai?aeeony naiei oiiui (aeaiie?aoe/anee
ecae?aaiui) i?aaeoaeuenoaii, naiae no?aiie e aeiaieai aeeciueth.

Ainoaea?noai a iiaie oeeaeeecaoeee ioithaeue ia ioie?aao. Iai?ioea, eae
neiaeiay naiii?aaiecothuayny nenoaia, iii aua aieaa niaa?oainoaoao naith
no?oeoo?o. Iiuo ?acaeouo no?ai, oaea anooieaoeo a eioi?iaoeeiiioth
oeeaeeecaoeeth e aeinoeaoeo aia/aoeythueo oniaoia a IOI, yeiiiieea e
ea/anoaa aeecie, iieacuaaao, /oi i?aaiaia aeaiie?aoe/aneia ainoaea?noai
aeieaeii no?ieoueny ii i?eioeeio iyoe eieaoe. Ainoaea?noai iiaeao eiaoue
i?ioeaaoathuoth yeiiiieeo e i?ia?ann a nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iii ieaia
eeoue i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee iyoe iacaaeneiuo aeanoae: caeiiiaeaoaeueiie,
eniieieoaeueiie, noaeaaiie, aeanoe eioi?iaoeee e aeanoe eioaeeaeoa, —
i?e/ai iineaaeiea aeaa aeanoe aeieaeiu i?iiecuaaoue ana inoaeueiua.
Caeanue aeanoue eioi?iaoeee icia/aao naiaiaeo ia/aoe, aeaniinoue,
iaeeea iauaaeinooiiuo aaieia aeaiiuo; ?aaeecoaony, a /anoiinoe, /a?ac
nenoaiu niooieeiaiai oaeaaeaeaiey, inouanoaeythuea anaie?iue
e?oaeinooi/iue iioie iiainoae. Aeanoue eioaeeaeoa ?aaeecoaony
aeanoeei ioai?ii a ?oeiaiaeyuea caaiuey anao o?iaiae iaeaieaa
iiaeaioiaeaiiuo, eiiiaoaioiuo niaoeeaeenoia — ai anao noa?ao:
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie, noaeaaiie e eioi?iaoeeiiiie. Iai
i?aaeinoaaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?eoue yoio i?eioeei e iaoae
70-eaoiae enoi?ee, e aa ?aciui yoaiai. Auea ee iacaaeneiie
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay (eniieieoaeueiay, noaeaaiay) aeanoue eee iia
iiae/eiyeanue aeeeoaoo iaeiiai /aeiaaea, ia eiaaoaai ioiioaiey e
iiiyoeth eioaeeaeoa? Niaianoeia ee auea ath?ie?aoey n eioi?iaoeeae? Eoi
e eae iaie i?aaee?

5. Iaaeaeaiii aic?anoaao aeeiaieci yeiiiieee. Nicaeathony aeiaaeueiua
?uii/iua iaoaieciu, aeeth/athuea ia oieueei iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai,
ii e aaieianeia aeaei, iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey, nenoaio ia?aciaaiey. Ana
yeaiaiou yoie nenoaiu, iaiaieaaynue ana oaaee/eaathueieny iioieaie
aeaiiuo, eioi?iaoeee e ciaiee, ia iooyo aacaoiaaeiie oaoiieiaee
oi?aaeaiey nicaeatho iiaue, aieaa aeeiaie/iue aacen yeiiiie/aneiai
i?ia?anna. Ianniaay eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey e aoi iaeiai aeciana ioe?uee
iaaeaeaiiua a i?ioeii aiciiaeiinoe auno?ie ia?ano?ieee i?iecaiaenoaa e
nicaeaiey niaa?oaiii iiauo i?aaei?eyoee. A oeaeii, ioe?ueanue
aiciiaeiinoue naa?oaunieiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia,
aeaeueiaeoaai iiauoaiey aai yooaeoeaiinoe.

I?ienoaaeoea ca iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ia?aiaiu a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ineaaeytho, a ii?ie naiaeyo ia iao cia/aiea ?yaea
ecaanoiuo nioeeaeueiuo eaoaai?ee , a oaeaea aeaeaiea ie?a ia
eaieoaeenoe/aneee e eiiioienoe/aneee. Ii aicieeatho, eae ooaa?aeaeaao A.
Aeeiia, «iiaua aiaei?acaeaeu, iiaua aeenaaeainu — iaaeaeo «auno?uie» e
«iaaeeaiiuie» yeiiiieeaie n iianiinoueth ?anoouaai io?uaa ia?auo io
aoi?uo». Caeanue aiiaue ai aanue ?ino anoatho oaeoi?u a?aiaie e
eiiiaoaioiinoe. Oai, eoi no?aieony ia aeiionoeoue naiaai aeaeueiaeoaai
ionoaaaiey, «neaaeoao i?aaeaea anaai oynieoue iniaoth iiaoth ?ieue
ciaiee a i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e ai anao ae?oaeo aeaeao
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe»[6].

A oi?ioi iinoaaeaiiua nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey e cae?aaiio?aiaiey
aeeaaeuaathony ana aieueoea eaieoaeu aeey eo niaa?oainoaiaaiey.

Ianiiiaiiu oniaoe a io?aia i?e?iaeu.

Auei au iaeaiui aeieacuaaoue, /oi a no?aiao Caiaaea a oneiaeyo
iiiaieaoieo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee oaea aioea?eeinue anaiauaa aeaaiaeainoaea
e ana ia?a/eneaiiua auoa oaiaeaioeee iiaie oeeaeeecaoeee a ?aaiie ia?a
oaea ?aaeeciaaiu. AEeciue anoue ai?ueaa aeia?a ni ceii, ii?yaeea n
oainii. Anoanoaaiii, /oi anoue e i?anooiiinoue, caaanoiaee e aua
iiiaeanoai ia?aoaiiuo i?iaeai. Oiaiueoaiea yio?iiee a iaeiii ianoa /anoi
aaaeao e a? ?inoo a ae?oaii. Ii iainii?ei oio oaeo, /oi eeaa?aeeci e
aeaiie?aoey a ie?a nicaeaee ai?acaei aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaeoey
/aeiaaea e iauanoaa, /ai oioaeeoa?iua oeiu ono?ienoaa, /oi iioeiecaoeey
oi?aaeaiey e ana aieaa oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea ia?anoathuaai iauaia
ciaiee iaania/eaatho i?ia?anneaioth naiii?aaiecaoeeth iauanoaa eae
iaeaieaa iauoth oaiaeaioeeth.

Iainii?eii, /oi iniciaiea o?ainoi?iaoeee, ?ai?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa, anae
oeeaeeecaoeee a oeaeii, aea/ao ca niaie ia?aniio? i?ioeannia,
caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa.

Iaeiie ec oaeeo caeiiiia?iinoae yaeyaony iaeeiaeiinoue i?ioeannia. Iia
aua ia iniuneaia oeeinioaie, ia iaoea io?aaeaiey a eiioeaiooaeueiii
aiia?aoa iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeee.

Eaeay anaiauiinoe iaeeiaeiuo caeiiiia?iinoae aia?aua auea auneacaia E.
E. Iaiaeaeueooaiii aieaa 50 eao oiio iacaae. Anei?a iia iiaeoaa?aeeeanue
a ?aaioao aeaaeaieea ?. A. Oioeiaa ii iaeeiaeiie iioeea e iaeeiaeiie
aeonoeea. Enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua /eaiaie ?eineiai eeoaa (Ieaeiocii
Ae., Oi??anoa?ii Ae. e ae?.), iieacaee, /oi e aeiaaeueiua i?ioeannu
—aeaiia?aoe/aneea, enoiuaiey ?ano?nia, caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu —
nooue i?iyaeaiey anaiauiinoe iaeeiaeiuo caeiiiia?iinoae. Eaeae
iaeeiaeiinoe oe?iei aioee a nia?aiaiioth oeceeo, a /anoiinoe, a oeceeo
ieaciu, a eaaioiaoth oai?eth iiey, a eaaioiaoth yeaeo?iieeo, iaania/ea
oniaoiia ?acaeoea eaca?iie oaoieee. Aunooiay ia O Ananithciii niaauaiee
ii oeeinioneei aii?inai nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey (Iineaa, 1982),
aeaaeaiee I. A. Aania oeacae ia ianoiyoaeueioth iaiaoiaeeiinoue
oeeinioneiai iniuneaiey iaeeiaeiuo caeiiiia?iinoae, eai iuia «ie? a
oeaeii auoae ca ?aiee eeiaeiiai i?eaeeaeaiey».

?acaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e iaoee a iaoa a?aiy nieioue e ?yaeii
noaeeeaaaony n yaeaieyie ianuuaiey, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e n enoiuaieai
?ano?nia—n ae?oaie. A oi aea a?aiy o yeiiiienoia aua aeeao/e eeiaeiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey. Yoi e eeiaeiue iiaeoiae e oiiaeo iaeiieaiey, e
iiiaieaoiyy i?aeoeea eeiaeiiai ia?aueaaiey ieaiiauo oeeo? io
aeinoeaiooiai.

A oeeinioneie eeoa?aoo?a oaea aeinoaoi/ii iaeiieeinue aeaiiuo i
iaeeiaeiii oa?aeoa?a i?ioeannia iae?iyaiethoeee. Iai?eia?, E. Aa?oaeaioe
iuoaeny a?aoe/anee ecia?aceoue eciaiaiey a nenoaia, iaoiaeyuaeny a
iaeioi?ie ioaeaeaiiinoe io ninoiyiey yio?iiee e no?aiyuaeny aua aieaa
ioaeaeeoueny io iaai. Yoi «ioaeaeaiea», eae auynieeinue, aeinoeaaaony
aianaieai eioi?iaoeee, o?aaoao cao?ao yia?aee e anaaaea ia?aie/eaaaony
iaeanoueth ianuuaiey, o. a. nouanoaaiii iaeeiaeii. A oeaeii aeey
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo nenoai oa?aeoa?ii yaeaiea «noiaeeiinoe» e
ii?aaeaeaiiiio iioeioio a iaeanoe ia?aaiiaaniie onoie/eainoe e ianuuaiey
eioi?iaoeeae. Iii iaoneiaeaii iaee/eai oeaee, no?aieaieai e
onoie/eainoe, e eioi?ie nenoaia no?aieony, aaeaioe?oynue e niaa?oainoaoy
naith no?oeoo?o ii ia?a iaeiieaiey eioi?iaoeee.

Ii eae iiaeieoe e oeeinioneiio iniuneaieth iaeeiaeiinoe? Eaeia
eiie?aoiia aiieiuaiea iia iiaeao iaeoe a eiioeaiooaeueiii aiia?aoa
aeeaeaeoeee?

Iauyniyy i?ioeannu ?acaeoey, oeeiniou iau/ii caeeth/atho, /oi a oeaeii
?acaeoea i?ienoiaeeo ii ?ane?o/eaathuaeny aaa?o nie?aee n aaneiia/iui
/a?aaeiaaieai nea/eia. Oae ee yoi?

Iienee iaaeyaeiiai ia?aca naiiaeaeaeaiey aaee iiiaea iuneeoaee i?ioeiai.
Oae, iai?eia?, Eeaeo ienae, /oi «i?ia?ann anoue e?oaiaia aeaeaeaiea,
?aaeeon eioi?iai ana aic?anoaao».

Naiaia?acii i?aaenoaaeye oi?io nie?aee ?acaeoey A. A. Aaeeineee:
«*aeiaa/anoai aeaeaeaony ia i?yiith eeieae e ia ceacaaaie, a nie?aeueiui
e?oaii, oae /oi aunoay oi/ea ia?aaeeoie ei enoeiu a oi aea a?aiy anoue
oaea e oi/ea iiai?ioa aai io yoie enoeiu, — i?aaaea, iiai?ioa ia aaa?o,
a aiec: ii aeey oiai aiec, /oiau i/a?oeoue iiaue, aieaa iaoe?iue e?oa e
noaoue a iiaie oi/ea, auoa i?aaeiae e iioii iiyoue eaeoe, iiieaeaynue
eaa?oo»[7].

Noania A. A., aiai?y i ?iee iaoee a iauanoaa, n/eoae, /oi «aeaei
o/aiiai… aeecei eaeoe n naiei ia?iaeii, iiaeieiaoue aai iacaiaoii
auethuaeny nie?aeueth ia o?oaeiua e?ooeciu enoeiu»[8].

Ia?ac nie?aee a oeeinioee aiciee eae aeeaeaeoe/aneia io?eoeaiea e neioac
aeaoo iaoaoece/aneeo ia?acia i?ioeanna ?acaeoey — ia?aca
iinooiaoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey ii iieiaie i?yiie e ia?aca aeaeaeaiey ii
caieiooiio e?oao. Yoe iieiaeaiey aeeaeaeoeee, iniaaiii iiiyoea
io?eoeaiey, yaeythuaany iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo a oeeinioee Aaaaey, i?eaaee
aai e iunee i nie?aeaaeaeiie oi?ia , i?ioeannia ?acaeoey: «Iu aeieaeiu
?anniao?eaaoue i?e?iaeo eae nenoaio nooiaiae, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo
iaiaoiaeeii auoaeaao ec ae?oaie»[9].

A iaeiie ec naieo ?aiieo ?aaio O. Yiaaeuen n?aaiee ?acaeoea iauanoaaiiie
aeecie ni naiaiaeiie, io ?oee ia/a?/aiiie nie?aeueth: «Iaaeeaiii
ia/eiaao enoi?ey naie aaa n iaaeaeeiie oi/ee, ayei niaa?oay aie?oa iaa
naie iai?iou, ii e?oae aa ana ?anooo, ana auno?aa e aeeaaa noaiiaeony
iieao…»[10].

Yoio iaoaoi?e/aneee ia?ac, a ni/aoaiee n i?aaenoaaeaieyie i ainoiaeyuai
oa?aeoa?a ?acaeoey, i?eaae oeeinioia e iuneaiiie iiaeaee a aeaea
?anoe?ythuaeny aaa?o nie?aee. Noaa o?anoiiaoeeiie ia iieoi?a noieaoey,
iia, ieeai ia enneaaeiaaiiay, aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie iiaoi?yaony ec
o/aaieea a o/aaiee , ia?aoiaeeo ec neiaa?y a neiaa?ue. Ath iieuecothony
yeiiiienou, ioaeeoeenou e aiaeaee, oiiieiay i iiaii aeoea nie?aee.

Ianiiiaiii, oacen i nie?aeaaeaeiinoe ?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, a
ioee/ea io aaaaeaaneie o?eaaeu aeooa, yaeyaony oaaii aia?aae, aieueoie
caneoaie Yiaaeuena. E eae io?aaeaiea aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea
nio?aiyao naia cia/aiea e nae/an. Ii oi?ia nie?aee o?aaoao ia?aniio?a n
o/aoii nia?aiaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee anoanoaiciaiey, ?acoeueoaoia iiauo
enneaaeiaaiee. Nenoaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho iaaaeaeaaoiinoue
iauaecaanoiie nie?aee ?acaeoey iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe:

aaneiia/iia /a?aaeiaaiea nea/eia—yoi eeiaeiia, ioeai/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea.
A caeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iao iai?a?uaiiai /a?aaeiaaiey nea/eia.
I?ioeannu naiii?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee iinyo noiaeyueeny oa?aeoa?, eai
aic?anoaiea o?iaiy i?aaiecaoeee ethaie nenoaiu eiaao naie i?aaeae,
iaeanoue ianuuaiey, eee, iiaeii neacaoue, naie iioeioi, ii?aaeaeyaiue
oeaeaaie ooieoeeae e aiciiaeiinoyie aeaeueiaeoaai iaeiieaiey eioi?iaoeee
a aeaiiie no?oeoo?a;

oaeea ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iiiyoey, oa?aeoa?ecothuea ethaie i?ioeann
?acaeoey, eae ia?a oii?yaei/aiiinoe, yio?iiey e oaeoi? a?aiaie, a
?anoe?ythuaeny nie?aee ia i?aaenoaaeaiu. Iiyoiio iiaeaeue ia eiaao
oece/aneie eioa?i?aoaoeee e ia auiieiyao aiinaieiae/aneea ooieoeee. Ii
iae iaaiciiaeii noaeeoue ie ia o?iaia i?aaiecaoeee, ie i oaiiao ?acaeoey
nenoaiu;

?ane?o/eaathuayny oi?ia nie?aee ia niaeanoaony , ia ei??aee?oao n
iiiyoeyie onoie/eainoe, oiaaea eae aeey i?ioeannia ?acaeoey oa?aeoa?ii
no?aieaiea e iaayio?iieeiie onoie/eainoe.

Iai i?aaenoieo aeieacaoue, /oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e oi?ia nie?aee
eiay, e niaea?aeaiea aa cia/eoaeueii aiaa/a, /oi i?ioeann iiciaiey
caeanue ioe?uaaao iiaua aeoaeiu aeeaeaeoeee. Ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
neaaeoao oynieoue iiiyoea yio?iiee — yaiethoeeth e nia?aiaiiia
niaea?aeaiea yoiai iauaiao/iiai iiiyoey.

I?iaeaia oi?iaeueiiai iienaiey i?ioeannia naiii?aaiecaoeee, iainiiaaiey
eiee/anoaaiiuo e?eoa?eaa o?iaiy i?aaiecaoeee, iaeaaeathueo aieueoie
iauiinoueth, e, aeaaiia, i?iaeaia nicaeaiey iuneaiiie iiaeaee i?ioeannia
naiii?aaiecaoeee, neioace?othuae aeeaeaeoe/aneea caeiiu n nia?aiaiiuie
anoanoaaiii-iao/iuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie i i?ioeannao ?acaeoey,
i?eia?aoatho iniaia cia/aiea. I?e yoii eiee/anoaaiiue eioi?iaoeeiiiue
e?eoa?ee yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii oieaa?naeueiui e aaeaeaaoii iienuaaao
i?ioeannu, eioi?ua a iaoae oeeinioneie eeoa?aoo?a eceaaathony eae
i?ioeannu ia?aoiaea io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio, io iaiaa i?aaieciaaiiiai e
aieaa i?aaieciaaiiiio.

Eae iuneaiiay iiaeaeue i?ioeanna naiii?aaiecaoeee, noiaeyuayny nie?aeue
aieaa aaeaeaaoia nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi i i?ioeannao ?acaeoey, eai
iia:

iieacuaaao, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea iiaie no?oeoo?u ia/eiaaony ia n iaiiiyoiie
iaaeaeeiie oi/ee, a n iaeneiaeueiie, ?aaeueii nouanoaothuae, yio?iiee
(oaina, iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe);

no?ieony a eii?aeeiaoao eioi?iaoeee — yio?iiee e ioia?aaeaao
aic?anoaiea o?iaiy i?aaiecaoeee iauaeoa ai a?aiaie;

iauyniyao ia?aie/aiiinoue /enea aeoeia nie?aee yoaiii ia?aoiaeiiai
i?ioeanna, iinyuaai yaii au?aaeaiiue nie?aeaaeaeiue oa?aeoa?;

eae ioia?aaeaiea i?ioeanna naiii?aaiecaoeee, noiaeyuayny nie?aeue eiaao
ii?aaeaeaiiia noiaenoai n eieaaaoaeueiui i?ioeannii a onoie/eauo
nenoaiao aaoi?aaoee?iaaiey. «Aiiainoao, — ienae O. Yoae, — a iaeioi?ii
niunea ia aeaeaao ie/aai, e?iia oiai, /oi aeaeaeaony e ninoiyieth
?aaiiaaney»[12]. N yoei ooiaeaiaioaeueiui iieiaeaieai eae iaeuecy eo/oa
niaeanoaony eiaiii noiaeyuayny oi?ia nie?aee. ?a/ue o Yoae eaeao i
?aaiiaanee a niunea iaayio?iieeiie onoie/eainoe ia?aaiiaaniie nenoaiu,
ioaeaeeaoaeny io o?iaiy iaeneiaeueiie yio?iiee (?aaiiaaney);

ioia?aaeaao iaeeiaeiinoue i?ioeannia naiii?aaiecaoeee.

A eiioea i?ioeanna naiii?aaiecaoeee, eiaaea «a?oeoaeoo?a» iauaeoa a
iniiaiii ii?aaeaeeeanue e ianooiaao ianuuaiea eioi?iaoeeae, noiaeyuayny
nie?aeue iinoaiaiii aui?yieyaony, ioia?aaeay ia?aoiae iauaeoa a
yaiethoeeiiioth noaaeeth ?acaeoey.

Eaaeaeue yoai ?acaeoey a ?aaeueiuo i?ioeannao eiaao naith aioo?aiithth
aeeaeaeoeeo. Iai?eia?, yeiiiie/aneei oi?iaoeeyi oa?aeoa?iu ainoiaeyuea e
ienoiaeyuea eeiee ?acaeoey. Iiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey aeaiiie
oi?iaoeee aieaa eee iaiaa niioaaonoaotho o?iaith i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee,
iineaaeiea ?acaeaathony onei?aiii, ii ainoiaeyuae eeiee. A eiaaea
onoiyaoeany i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey ia/eiatho oi?iiceoue
i?iaeieaeathueeny ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, oiaaea ianooiaao
canoieiay eee aeaaea ienoiaeyuay noaaeey a ?acaeoee yoie oi?iaoeee, /oi
a eoiaa iiaeaiaeeo iauanoai e ?aaiethoeeiiiie neooaoeee, e iiaiio nea/eo
a ?acaeoee.

I?eaaaeai aua ianeieueei noaeaeaiee a iiaeaea?aeeo i?aaeeiaeaiiie
eiioeaioeee nie?aee ?acaeoey.

Noiaeyuayny nie?aeue, eae ioia?aaeaiea i?ioeanna naiii?aaiecaoeee
onoie/eauo no?oeoo?, eiaao, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ii?aaeaeaiiia
noiaenoai n eieaaaoaeueiui ia?aoiaeiui i?ioeannii a onoie/eauo nenoaiao
aaoi?aaoee?iaaiey. Yoa aiaeiaey eanaaony e nouiinoiie noi?iiu yoeo
yaeaiee, e aiaoiaiienaoaeueiie. E?iia oiai, oeeinioneay, iiciaaaoaeueiay
noi?iia yoie aiaeiaee — aua iaeii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea aaeeinoaa iaoa?ee.

Iiaay eiioeaioeey nie?aee io?aaeaao naioth nouanoaaiioth noi?iio
i?ioeanna ?acaeoey—aic?anoaiea o?iaiy i?aaiecaoeee, naycaiiia n
oiaiueoaieai iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe ii ia?a iaeiieaiey eioi?iaoeee. Yoi
iieiaeaiea iaoiaeeo iiiai/eneaiiua iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey a iauaeoeaiie
aeeaeaeoeea. Oae, aiai?y ia iaueo i?eciaeao no?iaiey i?aaiecia, E. E.
Oiaeueaaocai ienae:«*ai auoa o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee, oai iaiueoa naiaiaea
eiiaeie?iaaiey, oai aieueoa naycaiiinoue i?aaiecaoeee e oai iaiueoa aa
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue».

I?e ianoaeaeaiee iiaie eiioeaioeee nie?aee ?acaeoey a Einoeoooa
oeeinioee, AI NNN? (1977 a.) aanueia eioa?aniia niia?aaeaiea auneacae
aeieia, ae-? oeeinioneeo iaoe A. E. E?aiyineee, oeacaa ia naycue o?iaiy
i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeeaiai n eiee/anoaii aeaeia aeieiae/aneeo oi?i: «Ec
aeieiaee ecaanoii, /oi /enei aiciiaeiuo iaeiieeaoi/iuo anaaaea iaiiiai
aieueoa, /ai /enei ?aaeecaoeee, i?e/ai ii ia?a aic?anoaiey o?iaiy
i?aaiecaoeee yoi /enei oiaiueoaaony. Iecoeo aeieiae/aneeo oi?i
iiiaeanoai, a *aeiaae—iaeie. Yoi oaeaea iiaeoaa?aeaeaao noiaeyuothny
oi?io nie?aee ?acaeoey».

4. I?iaeaaao naaa aei?iao e ?anniio?aiea i?ioeannia ?acaeoey a
«yio?iieeiii iiea». Aiai?y i n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, TH.A.
Oa?eiaiei oae iienuaaao, iai?eia?, i?ioeann i?aaiecaoeee aacaoiiai
iiia?a:«Aeaeaeaiea io iaeneiaeueiie ia/aeueiie aei ieieiaeueiie eiia/iie
yio?iiee au?aaeaao niaie e nouiinoue i?ioeanna nicaeaiey aacaoiiai
iiia?a, ?aaeei- eee oaeai?ia?aiiu. Aunieay iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue
niaea?aeaiey e ioi?ieaiey iiia?a eee auionea ia/eiaao oiaiueoaoueny ia
?aaeaeoeeiiiie eaoo/ea e aeinoeaaao ieieioia n auoiaeii aacaou a naao, a
?aaeei- e oaeai?ia?aiiu—a yoe?»[13].

Iaeioi?uie iiiiiaioaie auneacuaaeinue iiaiea, /oi ecaanoioth nie?aeue
?acaeoey ieeoi ana?ueac ia i?eieiaao, /oi yoa nie?aeue eeoue aeeaai?ey,
iaoaoi?e/aneee ia?ac, i?eaeeceoaeueiia n?aaiaiea e a?yae ee yaeyaony
aeooaeueiie eae i?aaeiao enneaaeiaaiee. Iiyoiio-aea aa ieeoi e ia
enneaaeiaae.

Ia yoio n/ao iiaeii neacaoue neaaeothuaa. Iiieiaiea nouiinoe e i?e/ei
nie?aeaaeaeiiai oa?aeoa?a ?acaeoey eiaao aieueoia
oai?aoeei-iiciaaaoaeueiia cia/aiea. Oae, nie?aeueiinoue — iaeia ec
eaaioiauo oa?aeoa?enoee yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, ii?aaeaeyaiay eae
i?ioaeoeey /anoeoeu ia iai?aaeaiea aa aeaeaeaiey (ia eiioeuen). A
aeieiaee no?oeoo?a iieaeoeu AeIE oaeaea eiaao oi?io nie?aee (aeaieiie
nie?aee). ssaeaiey nie?aeaaeaeiinoe eiathony e a einiieiaee. Oae /oi
oaiiiai nie?aeaaeaeiinoe a i?e?iaea caneoaeeaaao aeoaieiai eco/aiey e
oeeinioneiai iniuneaiey.

Oeeinioaie i?ioeiai nie?aeaaeaeiinoue ?acaeoey oaeaea iiae/a?eeaaeanue
eae iaeia ec ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo, nouanoaaiiuo /a?o i?ioeanna ?acaeoey.
Neaaeoao e yoiio aeiaaaeoue, /oi iaaeyaeiua ia?acu i?aaenoaaeytho iaeio
ec aaaeiaeoeo oi?i iao/iiai iiciaiey. Oae, I. Ai?i auniei oeaiee
iiaeaee, n/eoay eo i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?aaeueiuo aauae. Aini?iecaiaey a
eaeie-oi noaiaie caeiiiia?iinoe i?eaeiaea, iuneaiiay iiaeaeue aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aeoaaea iiiyoue e iiciaoue i?eaeiae.

Oaeiaa e noiaeyuayny nie?aeue. Aeooaeueiinoue aa enneaaeiaaiey ia
aucuaaao niiiaiee. Oae, A. N. A?yciia (EEAeO AI NNN?, caa. naeoi?ii
eiaeee ?acaeoey iaoee) a naiai iocuaa (1974 a.) ienae: «Anee a iaoae
eeoa?aoo?a eaeay nie?aeaaeaeiiai ?acaeoey, eae i?aaeei, iineo ia aiieia
yniue oa?aeoa?, oi aaoi? aeaeaao aa ia oieueei iaaeyaeiie, ii aieaa
oiai, i?aa?auaao eaeath i nie?aeaaeaeiii oa?aeoa?a ?acaeoey a eaeath,
eioi?ay iiaeao auiieiyoue e ooieoeee i?iaiice?iaaiey». Yoa ioeaiea
oeeinioa iiaeoaa?aeeeanue i?e i?iaiica iaie iooae ?acaeoey YAI.

Eae e anyeia iiaia, eceiaeaiiay eiioeaioeey, anoanoaaiii, o?aaoao ia
caiae/eaaiey, a ooi/iaiee, iai?aaeacyoiai iiaeoiaea e caeioa?aniaaiiiai
ianoaeaeaiey. Ioaa?aiooue yoo iiaeaeue aneaaenoaea aa iaaeinoaoeia, aac
i?aaeeiaeaiey eiie?aoiuo, aeieaeiui ia?acii iainiiaaiiuo aeueoa?iaoea
auei au ?aaiineeueii auneacuaaieth, /oi i?ioeann iiciaiey iiaeao auoue
inoaiiaeai.

Iiaay iao/iay eiioeaioeey o?aaoao ananoi?iiiaai iainiiaaiey. Aicueiai
i?ioeann iuoeaiey e caaeaaeeiny aii?inii: eioi?ay ec aeaoo
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iiaeaeae aio aieaa aaeaeaaoia?

Ethaie oai?/aneee i?ioeann, eae i?aaeei, ia/eiaaony n iaii?aaeaeaiiiai
iiiaeanoaa ia?acia, n iaoii?yaei/aiiuo, io?uai/iuo aeaiiuo, oi anoue n
iaeneiaeueiie yio?iiee. Ioiineoaeueii aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iica
inouanoaeyao iiene e ioai? ec iaiyoe e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, a i?ioeanna
aeoeaiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey n iae, ioaeiiai iaoa?eaea, iuoaaony naycaoue
aai a ii?aaeaeaiiua eiiaeiaoeee. Iuneue ?iaeaeaaony e cae?aieyaony a
aeaea ioaeaeueiuo o?aaiaioia eneiiiai a i?ioeanna aioo?aiiaai aeeaeiaa
iaaeaeo iuneeoaeai e aai «niaanaaeieeii».

A ia/aeueiie noaaeee yoiai aeeaeiaa ioa?anuaathony e aieueoea eonee
iaoa?eaea, iaeiieaiiiai ?aciiia?acey. Oae, ecia?aoaoaeue, eiino?oe?oy
iaoeio, /anoi aua?anuaaao eee ia?aaeaeuaaao oeaeua oceu, iiea ia
aeiaueaony eo iioeiaeueiiai ono?ienoaa e ni/aoaiey.

Ii ia?a aeaeueiaeoaai iaeiieaiey e ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee i?ienoiaeyo
onei?aiea ?acaeoey oaiu, io?aaioea eaeae; aicieeatho iiaua iaoiaeee, oae
iacuaaaiua ica?aiey, eioi?ua «nea/eaie» ana /ao/a au?eniauaatho
a?oeoaeoo?o eneiiiai iauaeoa, nicaeaaaaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey.

A i?ioeannao iiciaiey y?ei i?iyaeyaony aeaenoaea caeiiia aeeaeaeoeee.
Iai?eia?, i?e iienea iiauo eaeae, oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee eee i?e ?ac?aaioea
oai?ee yniinoue iiieiaiey /anoi ianooiaao aiacaiii, nea/eii e eae au
neo/aeii. Ii /aua anaai yoiio i?aaeoanoaoao oeaeaono?aieaiiue iiene «ia
iiaeoiaeao», aeieaea ianyoeu e aeaaea aiaeu iaonoaiiuo iiuoia,
?aciuoeaiee e io?aaioee anaaiciiaeiie eioi?iaoeee, o. a. ea/anoaaiiue
nea/ie ianooiaao a ?acoeueoaoa eiee/anoaaiiiai ?inoa ?aciiia?acey.

*ai aieaa niaa?oaiai iica a /anoe iauaia iaiyoe, i?aaiecaoeee e
eioaineaiinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, oai auoa aai annioeeaoeaiua e
neioeueoaiiua niiniaiinoe e oai aieaa niaa?oaiai i?iaeoeo iunee.
I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi caaa?oathuee yoai e caeanue yaiethoeeiiiue:
«oeeoiaea» e «aeiaiaeea» iieo/aiiiai ?acoeueoaoa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?ioeann iuoeaiey aieaa aaeaeaaoii ioia?aaeaaony nie?aeueth ?acaeoey
noiaeyuaeny oi?iu.

A caeeth/aiee iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue cia/aiea iiaiai iiaeoiaea e
?anniio?aieth i?ioeannia ?acaeoey iauanoaa ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia. Eae
ecaanoii, a enoi?ee ie?iaie eoeueoo?u ecaanoii o?e ieea aa ?anoeaaoa.
Yoi — Ae?aaiyy A?aoeey, yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey e ?inney XIX aaea, aeaaoay
ie?o aeanoyuoth ieayaeo ienaoaeae, o/aiuo, iiyoia, ooaeiaeieeia,
eiiiiceoi?ia. Ia iiaii aeoea nie?aee ?acaeoey iaeeaeaaony iiaue iee —
ainoiae iiaie oeeaeeecaoeee — eioi?iaoeeiiiie, eioi?ay o?aaoao iniaiai
iiaeoiaea e ?anniio?aieth anaai niaeo?a aii?inia, naycaiiuo n iae. Iiaua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee aicaeaenoaotho ia oieueei ia aniaeou
oeeaeeecaoeee, naycaiiua n i?iecaiaenoaii iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, ii e
ia aeooiaioth noa?o iauanoaa, eciaiyy naiia naiiniciaiea e i?ioeann
iuoeaiey *aeiaaea. Iiyoiio eioi?iaoeeiiiay oeeaeeecaoeey o?aaoao naiae
iniaie oeeinioee, oeeinioee aoaeouaai.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aiioei I.E. I?aaeeneiaea. // Yoae O. Eiino?oeoeey iicaa. Iineaa.:
Ecaeaoaeuenoai eiino?aiiay eeoa?aoo?a. 1962a.

O?noe A.Ae. Ia iooe e eioi?iaoeeiiii- yeieiae/aneiio iauanoao. //
Oeeinioneea iaoee. 1991 ?5.

?aeeoia A.E. Oeeinioey eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaiethoeee. Iineaa.: Iuneue.
1991a.

Neaaei A.A. Iaaeyaeiue ia?ac a no?oeoo?a iiciaiey. Iineaa.: Iieeoecaeao.
1971a.

Aeeae?i Ae. Eca?aiiua oeeinioneea i?iecaaaeaiey. Iineaa.: Ainiieeoecaeao
1941a.

Aeeiia A. Ea/anoaaiii iiaay oeeaeeecaoeey. // Ecaanoey. 1991a. 20 ia?oa.

Aaeeineee A.A. Iieiia nia?aiea ni/eiaiee. O.12. Iineaa.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai
AI NNN? 1926a.

Noania A.A. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee. O.3. NIa 1894a.

Aaaaeue A.A.O. Ni/eiaiey .O. 29. Iineaa.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai AI NNN? 1956a.

Ia?en E. Yiaaeuen O. Ec ?aiieo i?iecaaaeaiee. Iineaa.: Ainiieeoecaeao.
1956a.

Aaaeaaa ?.O. Oeeinioey Eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeeaeeecaoeee. Iineaa.: AEAAeIN.
1994a.

Yoae O. Aaaaeaiea a eeaa?iaoeeo. Iineaa.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai eiino?aiiay
eeoa?aoo?a. 1970a.

Oa?eiaei TH.A. Ineoieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu ianniauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia. Iineaa.: Naycue. 1973a.

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