.

Философия и ее роль в жизни человека и общества

Язык:
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1820
Скачать документ

OEEINIOEss E AA ?IEUe A AEECIE *AEIAAEA E IAUANOAA.

O. aicieeea a eiioea 7-6 a aei i.y. O. ioiineony e ie?iaicc?aieth.

Ie?iaicc?aiea (I)( niaieoiiinoue iauanoaaiiuo acaeyaeia, ioeaiie,
i?aaenoaaeaiee i ie?a e ianoa a iai /ae.

A no?-?a I auaeaeythony ianeieueei ninoaaeythueo:

a) Ie?iiuouaiea( iaoiaeeony yiioeeiiaeueii-ineoieiae/aneay noi?iia I

a) Ie?iaini?eyoea( iaoiaeeony oi?ie?iaaiea iiciaaaoaeueiuo ia?acia ia
iniiaa iaaeyaeiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee.

a) Ie?iiiieiaiea( ana acaeyaeu, i?aaenoaaeaiey naycaiiua n iiieiaieai, n
iauaeoeaiui.

O. ioiineony e ie?iiiieiaieth.

Auaeaeytho 2 ini o?iaiy I:

iauaeaiiue( nin?aaeioa/eaaao i?aaenoaaeaiey, acaeyaeu, ioeaiee eaaeaeiai
ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea.

Oa?aeoa?: oaioe/iinoue i?aaenoaaeaiee; iaee/ea caaeoaeaeaiee a ?aieao
iauaeaiiiai I; aeiaiaoe/iinoue (i?aaenoaaeaiey, eio ia iiaeaa?aathony
e?eoeea, onoiyaoeany i?aaenoaaeaiey).

Oai?aoe/aneee o?iaaiue( E iaio ioiineony O. Oa?aeoa?ii iino?iaiea
oeaeueiie,no?oeoo?iie nenoaiu, no?aieaiea e enoeia, no?aieaiea
ecaaaeoueny io oa?aeoa?enoee iauaeaiiiai o?iaiy.

Oa?aeoa?: ana i?ioeaiiieiaeiia iauaeaiiiio o?iaith.

I?e niioiioaiee O e I caiaoii, /oi O yae. a enoi?e/aneii niunea aeaeaei
ia ia?aui oeiii I, a naiui iicaeiei ec anao nouanoaiaaaoeo.

Naiue ia?aue oei I( ieo. Ieo( iniaue oei I aeey eio. oa?aeoa?iu
aaeeinoai, neeoiinoue, ia?an/eaiaiiinoue, oieaa?naeueiinoue.
I?aaenoaaeyao niaie nia?aiea anaai, /oi ciae /ae i ie?a. Ae. o-oeey
ieoa( ?aaoee?othuay.

A ?aieao ieoia i?ienoiaeeei iaeiieaiea e nio?aiaiea ciaiee. I?e
enneaaeiaaiee yiina Aiia?a auei iaia?oaeaii >30 i?aeoe/aneeo ia?
a?a/aaaiey; iaeaeaia O?iy.

A 6 a aei i.y. ia/eiaao iiyaeyoueny ae? oei ie?iaicc?aiey( ?aeeaey. Iii
aeecei e ieoe/aneiio, iiiai noiaenoa, ii aeaaea a nia?aiaiiuo ?aeeaeyo
anoue ieoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey. Naiia aeaaiia ioee/ea( ieo ia
?acaeaeyao caiiia (anoanoaaiiia) e naa?oanoanoaaiiia, a ?aeeaey /aoei eo
?acaeaeyao. ? a ia?aaiaea icia/aao aeaai/anoea.

?( oaeie oei I aeey eio. oa?aeoa?ii oaeaiaiea ie?a ia ie? anoanoaaiiue
(iinthnoi?iiiee) e ie? naa?ouanoanoaaiiue (iioonoi?iiiee).

Ae. i?eciae ?( aa?a a ?aaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea naa?ouanoanoaaiiiai.

O iie?aaony ia ?acoi, a aeey ? aa?a anaaaea noieo auoa ?acoia.

A yoi aea a?aiy, ( 6-5 a aei i.y. ia/eiaao oi?ie?iaaoueny iaoea
(i?aaeiaoea, ia?aia iao/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea). Iao/iua i?aaenoaaeaiey
ia/eiatho noaaeoue iiae niiiaiea ieou. Ii iaoea ia niiniaia auiieieoue
ie?iaicc?ai/aneoth o-oeeth e ieoo caieiatho ? e O.

O( oaeie oei I eio. i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio naiuo iaueo
i?aaenoaaeaiee i ie?a e ianoa a iai /ae. O. i?ioea aeieaee iooue,
i?aaeaea /ai ia?aoea a eoeueoo?o.

Ia?aue, eoi i?aaei?eiye iiiuoeo auaeaeeoue O, eae iniaoth io?aneue
ciaiey a ioaeaeueioth nenoaio ie?iaicc?aiey aue A?enoioaeue a 4a. aei
i.y.

Niaoeeoeea oeeinioneiai ciaiey:

Ia?aui oiio?aaee neiai oeeinio Ieoaai?. Aeineiaiue ia?aaiae n
ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai oeeinioey icia/aao ethaiaue e ioae?inoe. (Oieueei aiao
aeinooiia enoeiiay ioae?inoue( nioey).

O ninoaaeyao o?eaaeeinoai niaea?aeaiey, iaoiaea, oeaee (niaoeeoeea O):

niaea?aeaiea( O iiiuoaeanue iauynieoue ie? a oeaeii, yoei ioaeaeea naay
io /anoiuo iaoe (oieueei /anoe ?aaeueiinoe).

iaoiaeu( O anaaaea i?eaioe?iaaeanue ia ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiiyoea
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ?aoeeiiaeueiua iaoiaeu iiciaiey ( n iiiiuueth
?acoia).

oeaeue( a eiia/iii eoiaa( iinoeaeaiea enoeiu (eae e ae. oeaeue aeey
iaoee). Aeey O oa?aeoa?ii, /oi enoeia anaaaea iineo oeaeinoiue
iooaiie.

?annae (aiae.) ii?aaeaeee ianoi O eae ie/aeioth caieth iaaeaeo iaoeie e
?aeeaeae. Ii aiai?ee i oii, /oi iaoea e O caieiathony iiiuoeie iiciaoue
ie? n iiiiuueth ?acoia, ii O aiai?eo, /oi ieii/aoaeueiiai ciaiey auoue
ia iiaeao.

Enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea oeeinioneeo eaeae.

Aeey enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey O ia oa?aeoa?ai i?ia?anneaiue oei ?acaeoey.
Ia i?eiaiythony iiiyoey noa?ia e iiaia (eae e a eneonnoaa). Ii a O anoue
i?aainoaaiiinoue( naycue eaeae iaaeaeo iieieaieyie, ii i?e yoii iao
i?ia?anna. Iu ooee aeaeueoa a O /ai ae?. a?aee, ii oieueei a iauaia
nioeeaeueiiai iiuoa. Any nia?aiaiiay O( eiiiaioa?ee e Ieaoiio ( e?. ie?a
iuouaiee).

Nouanoaiaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie O, niaoeeoeea.

Ii ioiioaieth e ie?iaie O nou. iaoeeiiaeueiua O (iai, ?on). O(
io?aaeaiea aeooe ia?iaea. ?onneay O aicieeea e ?acaeaaeanue a iiiiceoeee
e Cai-aa?iiaeneie O. Niaoeeoe/aneia iiiyoea ?onneay eaeay( aa?a a ana
/aeiaa/iinoue iennee ?onne. ia?iaea. I?inoie yenii?o eaeae ia
i?eaeeaaaony aac iii?aaie ia iaoeeiiaeueiia niciaiea.

O-oeee O:

Ie?iaicc?ai/aneay o-oeey naycaia n iiiuoeie oai?aoe/aneiai, iiiyoeeiiai
iauyniaiey ie?a e /aeiaaea.

Iaoiaeieiae/aneay o-oeey i?iyaeyaony a iaoiaeieiaee oai?aoe/aneiai e
i?aeoe/aneiai iauyniaiey ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Nouanoaoao
ianeieueei niaoeeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia, iicaieythueo O aeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea
i ie?a (aici. A ia?eiae aioe/iinoe):

aeeaeaeoeea( o/aiea i iaeaieaa iaueo caeiiiia?iinoyo ?acaeoey
ie?oaeathuaai ie?a (ie? eciaiyaony, ?acaeaaaony).

iaoaoeceea( iaoiae iiciaiey e enneaaeiaaiey ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, ia
iniiaaiee eio aaue e i?aaeiaou ?anniao?eaathony eae iaiiaeaeaeiua,
iaeciaiiua, iacaaeneiua ae?oa io ae?oaa. Oa?aeoa?ii no?aieaiea e
aaniethoecaoeee, eciee?iaaiiinoe ie?. ie?a.

3. I?iaiinoe/aneay o-oeey( anaaaea no?ieeenue aeiioacu i ?acaeoee
?aaeueiinoe, iiiuoee ii?aaeaeeoue iooe ?acaeoey iauanoaa, n oie eee eiie
aeieae aa?-oe.

4. E?eoe/aneay o-oeey( oeeinioneia ciaiea anaaaea aeieaeii auoue
iino?iaii ia niiiaiee. Aaaeai e?eoe/aneee iiaeoiae ia oieueei
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, ii e e?eoeea e nianoaaiiui ?aciuoeaieyi.

Aeaea?o( ( Iuneeoaeue iaycai ana iiaeaa?aaoue niiiaieth(.

Ia?eneci- Eaieieci( iieiay aeiaia, aac niiiaiee.

5. Aeneieiae/aneay o-oeey( ethaia O ciaiea niaea?aeeo iiiaio ioeaiee e
oi?ie?oaony n o.c. oao eee eiuo oeaiiinoae. Ia?en( aai nenoaia
oeaiiinoae e iiceoeey aeey ii?aaeaeaiiie a?oiiu ethaeae( i?ieaoa?eaoa.
(iieiinoueth iauaeoeaiue e iacaaeneiue oeeinioneee iiaeoiae yoi ooiiey,
o.e. ethaie oeeinio noieo ia iiceoeee eaeeo-eeai eaeae e ionoaeaaao
/uee-oi eioa?anu).

?acaeaeu oeeinioneiai ciaiey.

O eiaao aioo?aiithth no?-?o, a ?aieao eio. auaeaeythony:

IIOIEIAEss( ?acaeae O, caieiathueeny o/aieai i auoea.

Auoea( ?aaeueiinoue, nouanoaothuay iauaeoeaii, iacaaeneii io
/aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey, o.a. ie? a oeaeii, ana nouaa.

Noauaeo( /ae, a?oiia ethaeae, /aeiaa/anoai. Iauaeo( oi, ia /oi iai?aaeai
i?ioeann iiciaiey.

Noauaeoeaii( oi, /oi caaeneo io iaoaai aini?eyoey. Iauaeoeaii( oi, /oi
nouanoaoao iacaaeneii io niciaiey /ae.

AIINAIEIAEss( ?acaeae O, caieiathueeny eco/aieai iiciaiey. (Aiinon(
ciaiea)

O eco/aao ?acee/iua noi?iiu iiciaiey (/oi oaeia iiciaiea, /oi oaeia
enoeia, aaea a?aieoeu iiciaiey…)

3. NIOeEAEUeIAss O( ?acaeae, eco/athuee iiaaaeaiea iauanoaa.

4. OEEINIOEss AIO?IIIEIAEE( ?acaeae, eanathueeny eco/aiey /aeiaaea,
aai auoey.

ENOI?Ess O( ?acaeae, eco/athuee enoi?e/aneea iooe ?acaeoey O,
no?oeoo?e?iaaiiinoue oeeinioneiai ciaiey.

?acaeaeu ?aca?aie/aiu ia ?yae a?oii e iiaeoiaeia ii:

niaea?aeaoaeueiiio i?eioeeio ia iniiaaiee iaoiaeia( aeeaeaeoe/aneea,
iaoaoece/aneea eiioeaioeee e ae?..

a?aiaiiiio e?eoa?eth (enoi?e/aneea yoaiu):

-) aioe/iay O (cai-aa?iiaeneay O) eii 7 a. aei i.y.( 4 a. i.y.

-) O n?aaeiaaaeiauey 5-15 a.

-) O yiioe aic?iaeaeaiey 14( ia/.17a.

-) O iiaiai a?aiaie 17a.

-) O yiioe i?inaauaiey 18a.

-) iaiaoeeay eeanne/aneay O 2iie.18( 1iie.19a.

-) ia?enenoneay O 2iie.19(20a.

-) nia?aiaiiay caiaaeiay O 2iie.19- 20a.

-) ?onneay O. (?acaeaaaony iniaiyeii( naiy eiaeea, naie yoaiu)

AIOE*IAss OEEINIOEss

Aaea e eiaaea aicieeea O? Cia/eoaeueiay oo?aoa oaenoa ia iicaieyao
aeaoe?iaaoue a?aiy aicieeiiaaiey. A iiiaio aicieeiiaaiey e nouanoaiaaiey
O nou a ?aieao ae? oi?i eoeueoo?u ( ieo e o.ae.)

Nouanoaotho 3 oeaio?a aicieeiiaaiey O:

Ae?. A?aoeey (eii.7- ia/. 6 a aei i.y.);

Eiaeey ( 6 a aei i.y.);

Eeoae ( 5 a. aei i.y.).

Eeanne/aneay oi?ia (eiaeea e o.ae.) anoue oieueei a Ae?aaiaa?a/aneie O.
Eiaeey( iiiai ?aeeaeiciuo iooaieia; Eeoae( iiiai i?aanoaaiiuo
?annoaeaeaiee.

Ia?eiaeu Aioe/iie O:

Ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey Ae?aaiaa?a/aneie O (eii.7- 1iie. 5a. aei i.y.)

2- Ia?eiae ?acaeoey eeanne/aneie O (2iie.5- 4a. aei i.y.)

3- Ia?eiae O yiioe yeeeiecia e ae?aaia?eineie O (3- 1a. aei i.y)

4- Ia?eiae O yiioe iicaeiaai yeeeiecia (1- 4a. i.y.)

Ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey.

Iaeaieaa i?ia?anneaiie a Ae?. A?aoeee auea Eiiey( nenoaia ai?iaeia
(iieen). Iaeia ec eieiiee A?aeia. E?oiiaeoee ai?iae( Ieeao. O 1-ai
ia?eiaea ioiineony e yoiio ianoo e iineo iacaaiea Eiieeneay O. Ia?auie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie Eiieeneie O auee oeeiniou Ieeaoneie oeieu e Aa?aeeeo
(ec Yoana). Iie ia?aoeeenue e aii?ino i?ienoiaeaeaiey ie?a, ii iinoaaeee
aii?in oeeinionee: “*oi anoue ia?aiiniiaa anaai nouanoaothuaai?” (/oi
anoue ia?aiia/aei anao aauae). Oaeay iinoaiiaea aii?ina iicaieyao
aiai?eoue i oii, /oi yoi auee ia?aua oeeiniou.

Ieeaoneay oeiea: Oaean, Aiaeneiaiae?, Aiaeneiai. ssaeyeenue
iaoo?oeeinioaie( oeceeaie (oecen( i?e?iaea). ?annoaeaeaee i i?e?iaea a
aa ooiaeaiaioaeueiii cia/aiee( ana nouanoaothuaa. O?aaeeoeeiiii
ia?auaeenue e noeoeyi:

Oaean(eii.7- ia/.6a aei i.y.)( a ea/-aa ia?aiia/aea ii?aaeaeye aiaeo(
?aaeueiinoue eio oaeo/a, anthaeo i?iieeaaia, noeoeeia. Aaae iiiyoea
noi?ii naaoa. Ii n/eoae, /oi Caiey( aeene, eio ieaaaao a ieaaia.

Aiaeneiaiae? (6a. aei i.y.)( o/aiee Oaeana. A ea/anoaa ia?aiia/aea aaae
nianoaaiiia iiiyoea “aiae?ii”( aa/ii, iaeciaiii, i?enoonoaoao aacaea,
aaneiia/ii. Aano?aeoiia iiiyoea. Iioeae?iaae oai, /oi ane ioaeaoue
i?aaeii/oaiea eaeie-oi iaeiie ec noeoee, oi ia eaeii iniiaaiee?
N/eoaaony ecia?aoaoaeai nieia/iuo /ania; ninoaaee ia?aoth ea?oo A?aoeee.

Aiaeneiai (6a. aei i.y.)( o/aiee Aiaen/eiaiae?a. Ioeacaeny io eaeae
naiaai o/eoaey. A ea/-aa ia?aiia/aea n/eoaao aicaeoo( nouanoaothuee
aacaea, anai?iieeathuee, iaaeaeeiue.

A ia/aea 5a. aei i.y. Ieeao oa?yao iacaaeneiinoue a ?acoeueoaoa aieiu n
Ia?neae. Oeaio? O ia?aiauaaony a Yoan.

Aa?aeeeo. Iaeaaeae neiaeiui neiaii, iiyoiio aai iacuaaee oaiiui. A
ea/-aa ia?aiiniiau( iaiiue (oi, /oi nou aacaea e anaaaea( ia?aiiniiaa
anaio). Iaiaeiain (eiain( caeiiiia?iinoue, caeii). Iiyaeyaony eaeay i
caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey a ?aieao yoiai ie?a. Iiaeii n/eoaoue Aa?aeeeoa
ia?aui aeeaeaeoeeii( eaeay aaeeinoaa e ai?ueau i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae(
noiaeyuaainy e ?anoiaeyuaainy. Eaeae aeaeaeaiey, ?acaeoey (ana oa/ao,
eciaiyaony /a iaeio e oo aea ?aeo iaeuecy aieoe aeaaaeaeu).

A eiioea 5a. aei i.y. oeaio? cai-aa?iiaeneie ae?aaiaa?a/ O ia?aiauaaony
ec Eiiee a oae iacuaaaioth Aaeeeoth A?aoeeth (Yeeaaeo).

Eoaeeeneay O.

Yeaaou( oeeiniou ec ai?iaea-iiyna Yeae (Yeaeneay oeiea).

Ia?iaieae( iniiaaoaeue O Yeaaoia. O yeaaoia ia?aiia/aei oeeinioe/ii;.o
ia?auo oeeinioia( oece/ii; o ieoaai?eeoeaa( iaoaiaoe/ii; nae/an(
noanoaioeey. Noanoaioeey( yoi oa iaeaieaa aeoaieay nouiinoue, i?e/eia e
iniiaaiea eio caeeth/aiu ia a /ai-oi ae?oaii, a a iae naiie (oi
i?aaeaeueiia, aeaeueoa eioi?iai iao). Ia?iaieae, ia?aoeaoenue e i?iaeaia
iaeioi?ie noanoaioeee, auneacae iuneue: “anoue auoea e anoue iaauoea;
iaauoey iao o.e. iao iacaiieiaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa; auoea aaeeii, a iai
iao iiiaeanoaa, iii aa/ii, iaeciaiii.”

Caiii( o/aiee Ia?iaieaea. Aaniuneaiii eneaoue /oi-oi, e?iia auoey. Acye
ia naay aeieth ionoaeaaoue i?aaioo o/eoaey. Auneacae ?yae aii?ee
(aeie-aa, ia eio no?iee naie acaeyaeu) iaeaieaa ecaanoiua: Aoeean e
/a?aiaoa; no?aea; ioaie/iia ca?ii; aeeooaiey. Auei iiiai iaiaaeie ia
o/aiea yeaaoia a iniiaiii ia aeaeaeaiea e eciaiaiea.

Ia?eiae ?acaeoey eeanne/aneie O

A 1 iieia. 5a. aei i.y. a?aee aiaaaee n Ia?neae. 490a.( aeoaa i?e
Ia?aoiia; 480a.( aeoaa i?e Oa?iiieeao; 479a.( a?aee iaea?aeaee ii?neoth
iiaaaeo, eio ia?aeiieea oiae aieiu.

A ?acoeueoaoa aieiu oeaio? O ia?aianoeeny a Aooeeo a Aoeiu. Ia/eiaaony
?annaao a?a/aneie O, i?iaeieaeathueeny aei 431a., iiea ia ia/aeenue
iaaeaeioniaiua aieiu. I?e Ia?eeea i?iecioei aic?iaeaeaiea O e eneonnoaa,
a Aoeiao aaye aaeeeee Oeaeee.

A?aoeey auea niae?oaeanoaii ai?iaeia-iieenia. Auei 2 oeia i?aaeaiey:
aeaiie?aoey, oeaio? iaoiaeeeny a Aoeiao, e ieeaa?oey, n oeaio?ii a
Nia?oa.

I?e aeaiie?aoee oi?aaeaieai caieiaeenue ana naiaiaeiua a?aaeaeaia. I?e
ieeaa?oee( oieueei iaaieueoay a?oiia ethaeae iaeaaeaea i?aaii aieina, a
ana inoaeueiua naiaiaeiua a?aaeaeaia eiaee i?aai niaauaoaeueiiai aieina.

Ana aii?inu ?aoaeenue a ia?iaeiii nia?aiee (noaeaaiua, eniieieoaeueiua,
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua). Iiyaeeenue ethaee, aunooiathuea a nia?aiee a ea/-aa
aaeaieaoia, eo iacaaee nioenoaie. Iie auee ia /enouie oeeinioaie, ii iie
yaeeenue ia?auie oeeinioaie oiai ia?eiaea. Iie ia?ai?eaioe?iaaeenue n
?aciuoeaiee i i?e?iaea ia ?aciuoeaiey i /aeiaaea( aio?iiioeaio?eci.

A yoio ia?eiae iiyaeythony ia?aua ?acaa?iooua eiioeaioeee iauanoaa.

Nioenoeea a ia?aiia/aeueiii niunea( ioae?noaiaaiea, a a iineaaenoaee(
oiieea, eneoniua, ii niciaoaeueii aaiaeyuea a caaeoaeaeaiea
?annoaeaeaiey.

Nioenou: I?ioaai?, Aeiiee, Ai?aee.

Aeey oeeinioneeo ?annoaeaeaiee nioenoia oa?aeoa?ai ?aeyoeaeci (o/aiea i
oii, /oi ana ioiineoaeueii). Nioenou io?eoeaee nouanoaiaaiea e
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iienea enoeiu; iie n/eoaee /oi enoeia o eaaeaeiai naiy,
iao e ia iiaeao auoue iauae enoeiu, o.a. enoeia ioiineoaeueia (nioeci
ia o/aieea I?ioaai?a( Aaaoea).

Ae. oacen I?ioaai?a( /aeiaae anoue ia?a anao aauae. Yoa iiceoeey
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia yoeeo( o/aiea i i?aanoaaiiinoe. Yoe/aneee ?aeyoeaeci
nioenoia aiai?eo, /oi iao iiiyoey aeia?a e cea. Ae. e?eoa?eai yaeyaony
auaiaea: /oi /aeiaaeo auaiaeii( oi aeia?i, /oi ia auaiaeii( oi cei.

O nioenoia auei iiiai i?ioeaieeia. Iniiaiui aue Nie?ao.

Nie?ao (2iie. 5a.)( aue ia?aui Aoeineei oeeinioii ii ?iaeaeaieth.

Nie?ao /anoi aunooiae a nia?aiee e?eoeeoy naieo nia?aaeaeai. Ii aeoiae i
aeaaa anao, a ia i nianoaaiiuo eioa?anao. Iaaeee iiiai a?aaia e a 399a.
i?ioea iaai aue i?aaieciaai noaeaaiue i?ioeann: iaaeieee a ?aeeaeiciii
eiuoinoaa (ia ii/eoaiea iie?iaeoaeae ai?iaea) e a ?anoeaiee (ii?aeueiii)
thiioae. Max. iaeacaiea( ecaiaiea ec Aoei. Nie?ao caueuae naay nai. Ii
ioeacaeny i?eciaoue naay aeiiaiui, i?e yoii cayaea: (Aiae oieueei ?ac
aeaee oaeiai eae y, aoi?ie ?ac iie aai oaeiai ia aeaaeoo.( Aai i?eciaee
aeiiaiui e i?aaeeiaeeee aua?aoue naaa iaeacaiea. Nie?ao i?aaeeiaeee
i?enoaeeoue naaa i?aai aanieaoiiai iaaaea n ieeiieeoeaie. Ca yoi aai
i?eaiai?eee e nia?oe. Aio i?aaeeaaaee aaaeaoue, ii Nie?ao ioeacaeny e
auiee /aoo n yaeii.

Oeeinioneea acaeyaeu Nie?aoa n/eoathony aio?iiieiae/aneeie o.e. ii
ia?auaeny e /aeiaaeo. *aeiaae aeaaiay i?iaeaia e eioi?ie ia?auaeny
Nie?ao(iiciae naay nai).

Nie?ao ni?aoeaae: /oi anoue nouiinoue /aeiaaea? Ioaa/aao: nouiinoue
/aeiaaea anoue aeooa. Aeooa(Nie?ao) yoi iuneyuay aeoeaiinoue, ?acoi,
i?aanoaaiiua i?eaioe?iaee. Ia?auaaony e aeia?iaeaoaee(oi /oi aucuaaao
no?aieaiea e niaa?oainoao) oi /oi aaae?o aeooo e niaa?oainoao, a yoei
yaeyaony ciaiea(iiciaiea). Ionoonoaea aeia?iaeaoaee(ii?ie)- iaciaiea
(iaaaaeanoai). Ec-ca yoiai iiceoeeth Nie?aoa iac. yoe/aneee
?aoeeiiaeeci. Aai iiceoeey oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaoiy oacenaie:

-aeia?iaeaoaeue- ciaiea aeia?a e aeaenoaea a niioaaonoaee n yoei.

-ieeoi ia a?aoeo niciaoaeueii, o.a. /aeiaae oai?eo cei ii iaciaieth
(/aeiaae

aeaenoaoao ?aaee naiae auaiaeu- o.a. aeia?a).

*oiau enei?aieoue cei iaaei naeaeaoue aeooo ciathuae. Ia/eiay n Nie?aoa
yoio aii?in ?anniao?eaaeny niaoeeaeueii- yaaeaiaiey(iiene n/anouey).
N/anouea /aeiaaea aiciiaeii a oii neo/aa anee aeooa
aeia?iaeaoaeueia(ciathuay),eiaaea anoue aioo?aiiee aeooiaiue
ii?yaeie(aa?iiiey).

Ii ioiioaieth e iauanoao Nie?ao ooaa?aeaeae iai?aeiaeiinoue caeiiia.

Nie?ao ecaanoai oaeaea oai /oi e?eoeeiaae Aoeineoth aeaiie?aoeth. Ii
n/eoae /oi aeey oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii iaaei iaeaaeaoue niiniaiinoyie
e i?ieoe aeieaee iooue ciaiey(ieeiaaea ia aeiaa?eee au caei?iauea a?a/o
ia i?ioaaeoaio iao/aiea, iaeiaei oi?aaeyoue ainoaea?noaii iiaeao
eaaeaeue).

Nie?ao ieeiaaea ie/aai ia ienae. Ii eceaaae naie acaeyaeu, noaeaeaiey
onoii ii niaoeeaeueiiio iaoiaeo. Eiaiii yoio iaoiae iac. aeeaeaeoeeie
Nie?aoa. Aeeaeaeoeea a aeaiiii neo/aa eiaao cia/aiea a ea/anoaa
eneonnoaa nii?a, ?annoaeaeaiey. Aeeaeaeoeea Nie?aoa eiaao i?aanoaaiiue
iooaiie e aeeth/aao neaaeothuea ninoaaeythuea(yoaiu):

-e?iieth(i?eoai?noai a iaciaiee)- ii oi?ia nioenoe/ioth(y ciath /oi y
ie/aai ia ciath). Caioouaaao a i?ioeai?a/eyo e aea?o iiiyoue /aeiaaeo
/oi oio caaeoaeaeaaony.

-eiaeoeoeey(ainoiaeaeaiea io /anoiiai e iauaio)- a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aai?a
iiaiee iuoaeenue iaeoe iauaa.

-/aeiaae aeieaeai ?iaeeoue(iuneue).

Yoio iaoiae Nie?ao iacaae iaeaaoeea(ii ae?.a?a/anee- ?iaeianiiiiaeaiea).

N Nie?aoa ia/eiaaony aio?iiieiae/aneay o?aaeeoeey- ia?auaiea, iinoaiiaea
aii?ina i /aeiaaea.

Iinea nia?oe Nie?aoa iiyaeeinue iiiai iineaaeiaaoaeae, eioi?ua
iauaaeeiyeenue a a?oiiu, a oie eee eiie noaiaie ?acaeaeythuea acaeyaeu
Nie?aoa. Iie iacuaaeenue nie?aoe/aneeie oeieaie.

Nie?aoe/aneea oeieu (4ath aei i.y.):

eeieee, ee?aiaeee, iaaa?oeu, yeeaei-y?eo?aeoeu.

Eeieee.

Iniiaaoaeue- Aioenoai. Iacaaiea i?ienoiaeeo io neiaa
ethieean(niaaee)-niaa/uey O- i?aaeaeueii oi?iu?iiue ia?ac aeecie.
Ia?auaeenue e i?iaeaia aeaaa. Aeaaii /aeiaaea iiaeao auoue oieueei oi,
/oi aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo(ia aeaiueae, ia aeaaea aeeciue). Aeia?iaeaoaeue-
aioo?aiiyy naiaiaea, ia/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e no?aaeaieyi, i?aiaa?aaeaiea
e iao. aeaaai.

Naiui y?eei i?aaenoaaeoaeai aue Aeeiaai(Neiiineee)- aeee a ai/ea, oiaeee
ii Aoeiai n oiia??i(eneae /aeiaaea), i?inee iiaeayiea o noaooe. Aeeiaai
n/eoae, /oi oieueei e?aeieie iinooieaie iiaeii i?eo/eoue ethaeae e ia?a.
Ieeiio ia aeaeae neeaeie(Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee). Neiai oeeieci
ia?aciaaiii io neiaa eeiee. Aeeiaai i?eo?e a o?ai e a ea/anoaa iiaeayiey
i?eian ia aeoa?ue aioue. O.i. eeieee- ethaee noiyuea aia iauanoaa.

Aoiieci

I?aaenoaaeoaee: Eaaeei e Aeaiie?eo.

Aeaiie?eo(Niathueeny)- n/eoae aeinoieiui niaoa ana /aeiaa/aneea aeaea.
?iaeii ec Aaaea?(ai?iaea aeoioeia).

Aoiiecou nii?yo n Yeeeaoaie. Ia?auathony e i?iaeaia auoey, ia caauaay
/aeiaaea. Nouanoaoao auoe?, eioi?ia ninoieo ec aoiiia, e iaauoe?,
i?aaenoaaeythuaa ec naay ionoioo. Auoe? iiiaeanoaaiii(o Yeeeaoia auoe?
aaeeii) e yoi iiiaeanoai aoiiia. Ii iie oa?aeoa?ecotho aoii eae
eiia/iue, iaaeaeeiue, iaeciaiiue. Aoii /anoeoea iaoa?eaeueiay-
neaaeiaaoaeueii auoe? iaoa?eaeueii. Aoiiecou yaeythony ia?auie
iaoa?eaeenoaie. A iniiao eeaaeoo iaoa?eaeueiia, a aeooiaiia(eaeaaeueiia)
yaeyaony aoi?e/iui (i?iecaiaeiie).

Aeaiie?eo ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ie? iaoiaeeony a aeaeaeaiee, eciaiaiee, ii
aaneiia/ai, aa/ai e aeey aai aicieeiiaaiey iaioaeii ieeaeiai ?acoiiiai
ia/aea, o.a. ii eiaao aioo?aiiea enoi/ieee ?acaeoey.

Aeaoa?ieieci- o/aiuea i anaiaueo caeiiiia?iinoyo, naycyo e i?e/eiao
iaoneaaeeaathueo ana yaeaiey.

Aeaiie?eo ooaa?aeaeaao i iaee/ee oaoaeecia(?iea). Ii ioiaeanoaeye
iaiaoiaeeiinoue e i?e/eiiinoue, o.a. ethaia neaaenoaea n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eiaao eaeoth eeai i?e/eio. Ii io?eoeae neo/aeiinoue,
oieueei aeanoeay iaiaoiaeeiinoue. I?eaiaeee i?eia? i iaaeaiee ia aieiao
eaiiy; neo/aeiinoue eee iaiaoiaeeiinoue? O.i. aeaoa?ieieci Aeaiie?eoa
iineo iooaiie oaoaeecia.

Ieaoii(4a.)- eaeaeiue niia?iee Aeaiie?eoa.

Ieaoii(oe?ieiiea/ee) i?icaeua aeae Nie?ao, eioi?ue aue aai o/eoaeai.
Iniiaae oeeinioneoth oeieo- aeaaeaieth- iacaaiea i?iecioei ec ca oiai
/oi oeiea iaoiaeeeanue a ?iua iinayu?iiie aiao Aeaaeaio. I?inouanoaiaaea

oeiea ieiei 900 eao.

Ieaoii nicaeae o/aiuea i auoea. Ooaa?aeaeae ?aaeueiinoue
naa?o/oanoaaiiiai (iaae oece/aneiai). Caaeaeny aii?inii: iiaoo ee ethaua
oece/aneea iniiaaiey eaaeaoue a iniiaa naa?o/oanoaaiiiai; ioaao aeae
io?eoeaoaeueiue. Naie iiaeoiae iacaae “aoi?ie iaaeaaoeeae”. Aiai?ee /oi
iaoo?oeeiniou ia?aaeaeaaeenue ia ia?onao n iiiiuueth oece/aneiai(ia?aay
iaaeaaoeey), a ii ioe?ue naa?o/oanoaaiiia.

Ii/aio aauue e?aneaa- iaoo?oeeiniou iauyniyee oeaaoii, oi?iie e o.ae.

Ieaoii aiai?ee /oi a iniiaa eaaeeo eaeay naiie e?aniou e anee eaeay
i?enoonoaoao oiaaea aauue, eioaaeue,… e?aneaa.

Iaoaoeceea- o/aiea i naa?o/oanoaaiiie iaae oece/aneie ?aaeueiinoe.

Aeaaiui a ia?aiiniiaa auoey eaaeeo eaeay(nouiinoue auoey). Eaeae ia
ii?iaeaeaiu ieeai, iie aa/iu, iaeciaiiu, iaiiaeaeaeiu e iaoiaeyony a
ioiioaieyo n iaoa?eaeueiui- aanue iaoa?eaeueiue ie? naeaeai eae neaiie,
iiaeaeue, eiiey ie?a eaeae. Ieaoii aaiaeeo iiiyoea aiaa -Aeaio?aa,
eioi?ue ec oaina eaieo aaue ii ia?aco eaeae. O.i. Ieaoii yaeeny
iniiaaoaeai iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia, o.e. aai eaeae ia caaenyo io
niciaiey /aeiaaea. I?iaeaia /aeiaaea o Ieaoiia naycaiia n
aeia?iaeaoaeueth(ia?auaeny e aeooa). Aeey Ieaoiia aeooa aannia?oia “anee
au aeooa auea nia?oia, /oi au oiaaea neoaeeei iaeacaieai aeey
aaci?aanoaaiiuo ethaeae”.

Iiieii e?eoeee oi?i iieeoe/aneiai ono?ienoaa, Ieaoii noi?ioee?iaae
iiaeaeue eaeaaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa, aeaaiie oeaeueth eioi?iai yaeyaony
ni?aaaaeeeainoue. Ni?aaaaeeeainoue- caaioa i aeaaa anao a?aaeaeai.
Iiaeaeue i?aaenoaaeyea oioaeeoa?iia ainoaea?noai ai aeaaa n oeeinioaie.
Aiaeece?iaae iiaeaee nouanoaothueo ainoaea?noa, e n/eoae ?aaeueii
nouanoaothuea oi?iu i?aaeaiey iaaaoeaiuie; aeaeeo ia 4 oi?iu:

-oeiie?aoey- aeanoue /anoiethaoeaa.

-ieeaa?oey- aeanoue iaiiiaeo iaae aieueoeinoaii.

-aeaiie?aoey- aeanoue aieueoeinoaa.

-oe?aiey- aeanoue iaeiiai.

Iaeaieaa iai?eaieaiua oi?iu: aeaiie?aoey e oe?aiey, iaeaieaa
iiaeoiaeyuay- ieeaa?oey. I?e aeaiie?aoee e aeanoe i?eoiaeyo ia iaeaieaa
ciathuea, aeinoieiua ethaee, a “o?ooie” (aeaiaaiae nicaeathuea
aaeeioaae). Aeaiie?aoey ieioa oai, /oi nicaea?o aiciiaeiinoue
onoaiiaeaiey oe?aiee. I?e aeaiie?aoee aeaaiui aeaaii yaeyaony naiaiaea,
ii /?acia?iay naiaiaea aaae?o e /?acia?iiio ?aanoao.

A?enoioaeue(4a.)- o/aiee Ieaoiia. I?eienuaatho o?aco: “Ieaoii iia
ae?oa, ii enoeia aei?iaea”.

AEee i?e aeai?a Iaeaaeiineiai oea?y e aue ainieoaoaeai Aeaenaiae?a.
Aeaenaiae? aiai?ee: “ss /oo A?enoioaey ia?aaia ni naiei iooeii iioiio,
/oi ioaoe aeae iia aeeciue, a A?enoioaeue aeae iia oi /oi i?eaea?o ae
oeaiiinoue”.

Aa?ioaoenue a Aoeiu A?enoioaeue iniiaae oeeinioneoth oeieo- eeoeae
(iaoiaeeeanue i?e o?aia Aiieiia Eeeaeneiai) eee ia?eiaoaoe/aneay
(i?iaoei/iay).

A 323 oie?aao Aeaenaiae?, e A?enoioaeue oacaeaao ec Aoei.

Ecaanoai oai /oi inoaaee o?oaeu ii anai ecaanoiui io?aneyi ciaiee
(aeieiaey, ?eoi?eea, iieeoeea, …). Ii i?ieca?e nenoaiaoecaoeeth ciaiee
e ia?aue auaeaeee O. O A?enoioaey aeaa O:

-oeceea(iaoo?oeeinioey)- aiineaaenoaee noaea anoanoaaiiui i?aaeiaoii.

-iaoaoeceea(iinea oeceee)- ?aciuoeaiea i auoea(i naa?o/oanoaaiiie
?aaeueiinoe).

O A?enoioaey nou. iiiyoey oi?ia(nouiinoue aaue) e iaoa?ey(oi ec /aai
aauue ninoieo). Oi?ia e iaoa?ey neeou aiaaeeii.

A?enoioaeue n/eoaaony iooeii eiaeee-iaoee i caeiiao iuoeaiey.

Ia?auaaony e oi?iai ainoaea?noa, ii aeaeeo eo ii ae?oaiio(/ai Ieaoii) ia
i?aaeeueiua e iai?aaeeueiua. E?eoa?eai aeaeaiey neoaeeo caaioa i aeaaa
a?aaeaeai:

-i?aaeeueiua- iiia?oey(aeanoue iaeiiai), a?enoie?aoeea(aeanoue
iaiiiaeo), iieeoey/eaeaaeueiia ainoaea?noai i?eaeoiaiiia
A?enoioaeai/(aeanoue aieueoeinoaa).

-iai?aaeeueiua- oe?aiey, ieeaa?oey, aeaiie?aoey/eiaao oaiaeaioeeth
i?aa?auaiey a ioeie?aoeth(aeanoue oieiu)/.

O. Yiioe Yeeeiecia. Ae?aaia?eineay O.

Niaoeeoeea:

334-323a. iioiaeu Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai, n yoeo iioiaeia ia/aeanue
yiioa Yeeeiecia.

A 338a. aei i.y. i?iecioea aeoaa i?e Oa?iiaa iaaeaeo a?a/aneeie e
iaeaaeiineeie aieneaie. A?aee iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea e iioa?yee
iacaaeneiinoue. Eoeueoo?a niaieeanue ia Yeeeienoe/aneoth.

Iniiaiuie aii?inaie noaee aii?inu yoeee(o/aiey i i?aanoaaiiinoe),
aiciiaeiinoe aeinoeaeaiey n/anouey.

AOA?AENEss- aaciyoaaeiinoue, iaaiciooeiinoue(eiae yoi e aoaeaoue
n/anoeeaui /aeiaaeii).

Auei o?e oeieu: neaioeoeeci, yieeo?aeci, noieoeeci.

Neaioeoeeci- i?aaenoaaeoaeue- a?ae Ie??ii(2y. iie. 4a. – ia/. 3a. aei
i.y.). “*aeiaae iiaeao auoue n/anoeeaui anee aeinoeaiao ninoiyiey
aoa?aenee”.

Oacen- aicaea?aeaiea io noaeaeaiee. *aeiaaeo ia aeaii ciaoue, iiieiaoue.
*aeiaae ia iiaeao noaeeoue. Neaioeee niiiaaathony a oii, /oi /aeiaae
iiaeao aeinoeaiooue enoeiu.

AAIINOEOeECI- ae?oaia iai?aaeaiea neaioeoeecia. N/eoatho, /oi /aeiaae ia
niiniaai iieo/eoue enoeio.

Yieeo?aeci- iniiaaoaeue Yieeo?(342-271a. aei i.y.). N/eoae, /oi
aoa?aeney aeinoeaaaony i?e ionoonoaee no?aoa(nia?oe, aanneeey ia?aae
i?e?iaeie). Inaiaiaeaeaiea /aeiaaea io no?aoa, ai?ueaa n iei. Iiai?ioue
no?ao iiaeii oieueei eco/ay i?e?iaeo e a? yaeaiey.

No?ao nia?oe: “Ia noieo aaniieieoueny ian/?o nia?oe. Nia?oue ia eiaao e
iai ioiioaiey. Eiaaea iu anoue- nia?oe au? iao, eiaaea iia ianooiaao-
ian oaea iao”.

*aeiaae aeieaeai aeeoue n oaeiaieuenoaeai, ii yoi i?aaeaea anaai
ionoonoaea no?aaeaiee(oece/aneeo e aeooiaiuo). *aeiaae ia aeieaeai
i?anooiaoue ia?u a oaeiaieuenoaeyo. Oacen Yieeo?a- aeeae iacaiaoii.

Noieoeeci- iniiaaoaeue oeieu- Caiii ec Eeoey(336-265a.). Iacaaiea
i?iecioei io “noiy”-ii?oee, eieiiiaaea- ianoa nai?a. Iaoiaeeeenue a
iiiiceoeee Yieeo?o. Noieee aiai?eee, /oi /aeiaae aeieaeai iiae/eiyoueny
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, a yoii aai iniiaiay aeia?iaeaoaeue. Ia iaaei eaeoe
i?ioea noaeueau.

AIAOEss- aanno?anoea, /oanoaaiiia niieienoaea.

Naiaea(eii. 1a. aei i.y.)- ae?. ?eineee iuneeoaeue, aue aiaao e aeecei
naycai n eiia?aoi?ii Iae?iiii. A nai?i o/aiee aiai?ee, /oi ia iaaei
no?aieoueny e aiaaonoao, o.e. aiaaonoai anoue aaniieienoai. N iaaeaieai
Iae?iia naycaii e iaaeaiea Naiaee. Ii oaoae ec noieeoeu e eii/ee aeeciue
a aaaeiinoe, a niioaaonoaee ni naiei o/aieai. *aeiaae aeieaeai
iiei?youeny noaeueaa, ii anee ii caioouaaaony a i?ioeai?a/eyo, oi
ooiaeeo ec aeecie nai. Naiaea oie?aao ane?ua naaa aaiu.

O. Yiioe iicaeiaai Yeeeiecia.

Ieioei- i?aaenoaaeoaeue.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea: a?aiy ?ac?ooaiey, ?aneiea ?eineie eiia?ee. A yoi a?aiy
i?iieeatho ienoe/aneea e ?aeeaeiciua iuoeaiey n ainoiea. Oeeinioneay
iuneue naeeaeaaony n ?aeeaeiciui o/aieai.

O. Ieioeia yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii eiioeii e ia/aeii, eiioeii aioe/iie O.
e ia/aeii o?enoeaineie oaieiaee.

N?aaeiaaaeiaay O. (5-15a. i.y.)

N?aaeiaaaeiaue caiaae oianeaaeiaae aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey ae?. ?eieyi.

476a.- iaaeaiea ?eineie eiia?ee. 4a.- iniiaai Eiinoaioeiiiieue.

A oa??eoi?eaeueiii niunea Cai. Aa?iia iaeaiueeay. Caieiooinoue,
neo/aiiinoue ai?iaeia; ia caiea an? iaeaiueeia, ia?aie/aiiia, a oai,
iaaa?oo, aaea aia ianoa iiiai. *aeiaae aeea?o a iaeeaeaiee nia?oe, a
no?aoa ia?aae iae; a aaniieienoaa i aoaeouae aeecie. Oi?ioea e ieioea
aeaea acaaoeaathony. Eoaea iiiaae?o /aeiaae e aiao eee aeueyaieo.
I?iaeaia aeaienoaaiiinoe, ?aneiea- /aeiaae aeea?o ia caiea, ii aeieaeai
no?aieoueny e aiao. Iooaeueie/anoai, ooiae io ie?a- oi/ii iiiaae?oue a
?ae. Iieiia i?iuaiea a?aoia i?e iieiie ia?aaea/a anao n?aaenoa oea?eae.

*aeiaae ooaa?aeaeaeny ia auaeaeyynue, a ?anoai?yynue a iauanoaa,
noaiiaynue ia?aui ec iiiaeo, o.e. ai?aeuiy no?aoiue a?ao. *aeiaae naycai
n ii?aaeae?iiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiiie ia anth aeeciue.

Naiaiaea- iaee/ea iie?iaeoaey, aa?aioe?othuaai oaie i?aaa.

Aanue n?aaeiaaaeiaue ie? naycai n o?enoeainoaii, e O. naycaiia n aiaii.

O?enoeainoai- ainiiaenoaothuay eaeaieiaey.

Oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa- oaioeaio?e/iinoue(oain- aia)- ?aaeueiinoue
ii?aaeaeythuay anth nouiinoue- aia.

I?iaeaia ioiioaiey aiaa e ie?a- oeeinioneay i?iaeaia. Auei ianeieueei
oa/aiee ii yoie i?iaeaia:

Oaeci- o/aiea niaeanii eioi?iio aia aunooiaao nicaeaoaeai ie?a e
yeaiaioii iinoiyiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia ana i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a
yoii ie?a. Iniaaiiinoue, naycaiiay n enoi?e/aneeie
oneiaeyie(eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue noiyea ia?aaia ni naaoneie aeanoueth,
eiiaaea i?aauoay a?)- aaeeinoaaiiua aeooiaiua oeaio?u: iiianou?e,
oea?eiaiua aeooiaiua oeaio?u, oieaa?neoaou(naycaiiua n oea?eiaiuie
oeieaie).

Noieanoeea- neiiiei n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee. Niaoeeoeea iaoiaea
iiciaiey: O. ia auea iai?aaeaia ia eco/aiea ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eae iia anoue naia ii naaa. Ana enoeiu iaoiaeyony a
nayuaiiii ienaiee, iie anoue eo ia iaaei aeieacuaaoue.

O. aeieaeia iainiiauaaoue iieiaeaiea aauae.

O.- neoaeaiea aiaineiaey, o.a. ?aoaao aaaeiaeoea i?iaeaiu a?aiaie, aa?u
e ?acoia.

Eiia?iee, ii/oe ia?aae nia?oueth(ii/aio e ia aue iaeacai eieaeceoeeae),
iaienae naith oai?eth aaioeaio?ecia.

Niaoeeoeea, niaea?aeauay anth oeeinioneoth eiioeaioeeth
n?aaeiaaaeiauey,- oaioeaio?eci – aia ?aaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeythuay an?.

E?aaoeeiieci- o/aiea oai?aiey aiaii ie?a ec ie/aai.

I?iaeaeaioeeaeeci- aia ia oieueei nicaeae ie?, ii e o/anoaoao ai anao
oa/aieyo aeecie.

Ia?niiaeeci- o/aiea i nicaeaiee aiaii /aeiaaea(/aeiaae- aunoaa oai?aiea
aiaa), ii anoue aeaa noi?iiu: aeoo e ieioue. Aeooie /aeiaae iiaeao
i?eeiniooueny e aiaeanoaaiiiio ie?o.

I?iaeaiu: /oi ia?ae/ii?, niioiioaiey iauaai e aaeeie/iiai(?aaeeci e
iiieiaeeci)-iaueo iiiyoee i?iaeieaeaeenue iiiaea noieaouey.

Nouanoaiaaei o/aiea /oi iao e ia iiaeao auoue iiiyoee aac eiie?aoiuo
i?aaeiaoia.

Auei ianeieueei ia?eiaeia:

iao?enoeea 2-5a. i.y.(a ia?aaiaea n eaouie- o/aiea iooeia oea?eae).

Aa?aeee Aaaonoei 4-5a.- iaeei ec iooeia oea?eae. Iuneeoaeue
cao?aaeaathuee i?iaeaio niioiioaiey aa?u e ?acoia: “Aa?th, /oiau
iiieiaoue” (i?aainoiaenoai aa?u ia?aae ?acoiii).

ia?eiae ?aiiae noieanoeee 6-12a.

Oa?aeoa?ecoaony oneeaieai aeeyiey oea?eae, ?ani?ino?aiaiea eaoieeoeecia
a iauanoaa.

Ainaeuei Eiioa?aa?eeneee- aeaaa oea?eiaiie aia?oee 11a. Iiaeaea?aeeaae
eaeath- aa?a auoa ?acoia, o.a. ia?ainoaiaiiinoue aa?u ia?aae ?acoiii.

?anoeaao noieanoeee 13a.

Ieii/aiea e?anoiauo iioiaeia(1096-1270)(a?aaaaee, ?acaie aa?ioaoeony
?uoea?ae). Iaineay aeanoue iaia?aie/aiia. “Aa?iiaeoeu ie/aai ia iieo/eee
io e?anoiauo iioiaeia e?iia aa?eeinia”- Oa?eue EaAio.

13a.- ai?ueaa n a?anueth aioo?e o?enoeainoaa. 1206a.-aiciee i?aeai
o?aioeeneaioeaa.1216a.- aiciee i?aeai aeiieieeaioeaa(ioaa/ae ca
eieaeceoeeth)

dominicanis- inu ainiiaeiea.

Oiia Aeaeineee- aeiieieeaiaoe, “aiaaeueneee aeieoi?”- ioaoe oea?eae
nicaeaaoee o?oae “Noiia oaieiaee”.

ia?eiae iicaeiae noieanoeee 14-15a.

Ia?eiae ?aceiaeaiey, caeaoa yiioe n?aaeiaaaeiauey. I?iecioea iiiuoea
?acaeaeeoue aa?o e ?acoi.

Eiaaii Aeoin Neioo- “oiieee aeieoi?” o?aioeeneaiaoe- a noa?a oii/aeoeo
aii?inia. Iiiuoaeny ?acaeaeeoue aa?o e ?acoi. Oaieiaey e oeeinioey-
?aciua iiiyoey.

O. yiioe aic?iaeaeaiey 14-ia/.17a.

Naycaiia n Eoaeeae.

Oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou yiioe e O. oiai a?aiaie.

Aoiaieci.

Nioeeaeueii- oeeinioneay iuneue.

Yiioa aic?iaeaeaiey e ?aoi?iaoeey(Aa?oieiiaaaneay ii/ue).

Iaoo?oeeinioey aic?iaeaeaiey.

1.

Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey- yoi ia?aai?io a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a nenoaia
oeaiiinoae. Aicieeaao oaaaeaeaiea a oii, /oi /aeiaae- aunoay oeaiiinoue.
Iaeiie ec oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o aeooiaiie aoiinoa?u yoiai a?aiaie noaei
caiaoiia iaeeaeaiea naaoneeo iano?iaiee.

Naaoneee oa?aeoa? i?enou y?eiio yaeaieth eoeueoo?u Aic?iaeaeaiey-
aoiaiecio. A oe?ieii niunea neiaa aoiaieci i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?ac
iuoeaiey, eioi?ue i?iaicaeaoaao eaeath aeaaa /aeiaaea aeaaiie oeaeueth
nioeeaeueiiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey e ionoaeaaao oeaiiinoue /aeiaaea
eae ee/iinoe.

A oi?ie?iaaiee ?aiannainiiai iuoeaiey ia?iiioth ?ieue nua?aei aioe/iia
ianeaaeea. Aic?iaeaeaiea aioe/iinoe e aeaei iacaaiea anae yiioa
(?aiannain ia?aaiaeeony eae aic?iaeaeaiea).

Oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa oiaaeaoiae O.- nicaeaiea iiaie iaioaenoe/aneie ea?oeiu
ie?a, ioiaeanoaeythuae aiaa e i?e?iaeo.

Iaeiiaoe, anee O. N?aaeiaaaeiauey oaioeaio?e/ia, oi oa?aeoa?iay
iniaaiiinoue O. Aic?iaeaeaiey- aio?iiioeaio?eci. *aeiaae- ia oieueei
aaaeiaeoee iauaeo oeeinioneiai ?anniio?aiey, ii e oeaio?aeueiia caaii
anae oeaie einie/aneiai auoey.

2.

Oa?iei “aoiaieci” i?ienoiaeeo io eaoeineiai “humanitas” (/aeiaa/iinoue).

?iaeiia/aeueieeii aoiaiecia n/eoaaony iiyo, oeeinio O?ai/anei Iao?a?ea
(1304-1374). A aai oai?/anoaa- ia/aei iiiaeo iooae, eioi?uie oei
?acaeoea ?aiannainiie eoeueoo?u Eoaeee. Ii oaaaeaeaieth Iao?a?ee, i?eeoe
e iiaiio ?anoeaaoo eeoa?aoo?u, eneonnoaa, iaoee iicaieeo ia neaiia
iiae?aaeaiea i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, a no?aieaiea iiaeiyoueny aei aunio
aioe/iie eoeueoo?u e a oi aea a?aiy ia?ainiuneeoue e a /?i-oi i?aacieoe
a?. Iao?a?ea n/eoae, /oi niaea?aeaieai iiaeeeiiie O. aeieaeiu noaoue
iaoee i /aeiaaea.

Aoiaienou au?aaaouaatho iiaue iiaeoiae e iiieiaieth /aeiaaea, a eioi?ii
ia?iiioth ?ieue ea?aao iiiyoea aeayoaeueiinoe. Oeaiiinoue ee/iinoe
ii?aaeaeyaony ia i?ienoiaeaeaieai eee nioeeaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth,
a ee/iuie caneoaaie e ieiaeioai?iinoueth aa aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaeiaei iaeuecy eaeaaeece?iaaoue aoiaieci, ia caia/aoue aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee.

Aaaeiie aoiaienoe/aneie iuneueth noaea eaeay aeinoieinoaa ee/iinoe,
oeacuaathuay ia iniaua naienoaa /aeiaaea ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie
nouanoaaie e aai iniaia iieiaeaiea a ie?a. I?ineaaeyy iiuue /aeiaaea e
aai aaee/ea, ainoeuaynue aai oaeeaeoaeueiuie oai?aieyie, iuneeoaee yiioe
Aic?iaeaeaiey i?eoiaeeee e naeeaeaieth /aeiaaea n aiaii. A
?annoaeaeaieyo Aeaeaiiioeoei Iaiaooe, Ia?neei Oe/eii, Oiiiaci Eaiiaiaeeu
i?iyaeeanue oa?aeoa?enoeea aoiaienoe/aneiai aio?iiioeaio?ecia-
oaiaeaioeey e iaiaeanoaeaieth /aeiaaea.

Iaeiaei aoiaienou ia auee ie a?aoeeaie, ie aoaenoaie. A iiaeaaeythuai
aieueoeinoaa iie auee aa?othueie. Ii anee o?enoeaineia ie?iaicc?aiea
ooaa?aeaeaei, /oi ia ia?aii ianoa noieo aia, a caoai /aeiaae, oi
aoiaienou auaeaeaaee ia ia?aue ieai /aeiaaea, a caoai aiai?eee i aiaa.
Aoiaienoe/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea, oaeei ia?acii, aeeth/aao
aioeeea?eeaeueiua acaeyaeu, o.a. aicc?aiey, iai?aaeaiiua i?ioea
i?eoycaiee oea?eae e aeooiaainoaa ia ainiiaenoai a iauanoaa.

3.

Iniaia ianoi a O. Aic?iaeaeaiey caieiatho eiioeaioeee ia?au?iiua e
i?iaeaiai ainoaea?noaa: iniiaaiiua ia ?aaeenoe/aneeo i?eioeeiao
iieeoe/aneea oai?ee Ieeeiei Iaeeaaaeee(1469-1527) e O?ai/anei
Aae//a?aeeie(1482-1540) e nioeeaeueiua ooiiee Oiiana Ii?a(1479-1555) e
Oiiiaci Eaiiaiaeeu(1568-1639).

Naiui e?oiiui e i?eaeiaeueiui aue Iaeeaaaeee.

N?aaeiaaaeiaoth eiioeaioeeth aiaeanoaaiiiai i?aaeii?aaeaeaiey Iaeeaaaeee
caiaiyao eaeaae oi?ooiu, i?eciaaay neeo ianoiyoaeuenoa, canoaaeythueo
n/eoaoueny n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth. Ii noaeueaa eeoue iaiieiaeio aeanoaoao
iaae /aeiaaeii, ii iiaeao e aeieaeai ai?ioueny n ianoiyoaeuenoaaie.
Iiyoiio ia?yaeo n oi?ooiie aeaeaeouae neeie enoi?ee Iaeeaaaeee n/eoaao
ae?oo- aiieiuaiea /aeiaa/aneie yia?aee, oiaiey, oaeaioa.

Iiaeeeiiui aiieiuaieai naiaiaeu /aeiaa/aneie aiee yaeyaony aeey
Iaeeaaaeee iieeoeea. Iieeoe/aneee ?aaeeci Iaeeaaaeee i?iyaeyao i?e
aiaeeca ainoaea?noaaiiuo oi?i. Aoaeo/e noi?iiieeii ?anioaeeee, ii oai ia
iaiaa n/eoae iaaiciiaeiui iauaaeeiaiea Eoaeee ia ?anioaeeeaineeo
ia/aeao. Enneaaeoy aeayoaeueiinoue Iaaee/e, Noi?oea, Ai?aeaea,
Iaeeaaaeee i?eoiaeeo e eaeaa “iiaiai ainoaea?y”- aaniethoiiai
aeanoaeeia.

Iiaeiaiua ?annoaeaeaiey nicaeaee Iaeeaaaeee ia/aeueioth neaao o/eoaey
oe?aiia e aaoi?a oacena “oeaeue ii?aaaeuaaao n?aaenoaa”. Ieo ia
aaoi?noaa yoiai oacena aue nicaeai noa?aieyie eacoeoia. Inaiaiaeaeay
iieeoeeo io ii?aeece?iaaiey, Iaeeaaaeee iaiinee oaea? ii ?aeeaee e
oea?eae. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ec?a/aiea i?eiaaeeaaeeo eacoeoo Yneiaa?o e
yaeyaony aeaaecii i?aeaia.

4.

Ia/aei 16a. iciaiaiiaaeinue e?oiiaeoei e?ecenii ?einei-eaoiee/aneie
oea?eae. Aiiaaai a? i?aanoaaiiiai oiaaeea e i?aaeiaoii iniaiai
aiciouaiey noaea i?iaeaaea eiaeoeueaaioeee- a?aiio, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo
ia ioiouaiee a?aoia.

“95 oacenia i?ioea eiaeoeueaaioeee”, iaienaiiua a 1517a. iaiaoeeei
aiaineiaii Ia?oeiii Ethoa?ii(1483-1546), eiaee ia?iiiue ?aciiain. Iie
iineoaeeee iiuiui noeioeii aeey aunooieaiey i?ioea ioeoeeaeueiie
oea?eiaiie eaeaieiaee e iineoaeeee ia/aeii ?aoi?iaoeee- aeaeaeaiey ca
iaiiaeaiea aa?u.

?aoi?iaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu, i?eaaaey e ?aneieo ?eineie oea?eae e
nicaeaieth iiaie ?aciiaeaeiinoe o?enoeainoaa- i?ioanoaioecia,
i?iyaeeanue n ?aciie noaiaiueth eioaineaiinoe ai anao no?aiao
eaoiee/aneie Aa?iiu.

Ioiioaiey ?aoi?iaoeee e ?aiannaina i?ioeai?a/eau. N iaeiie noi?iiu
iauaaeeiyea iai?eyciue e noieanoeea, aeaaeaea ?aeeaeiciiai iaiiaeaiey,
eaeay aica?aoa e enoieai(aaaiaaeueneei e aioe/iui). N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
?aoi?iaoeey- yoi i?ioano i?ioea ?aiannainiiai aicaaee/eaaiey /aeiaaea.

Iunee ?aoi?iaoi?ia e aoiaienoia /anoi ia?aeeeeathony: yoi e
na?eanoe/aneee acaeyae ia i?eaeeaaee eaoiee/aneeo ea?a?oia, e caia/aiey
ii iiaiaeo iuneae aiaineiaia. Ii iie ?anoiaeyony a ioiioaiee e naiaiaea
aiee. Ethoa? ionoaeaaao iuneue i oii, /oi ia?aae eeoeii aiaa o /aeiaaea
iao ie aeee, ie aeinoieinoaa. Oieueei anee /aeiaae inicia?o, /oi ii ia
iiaeao auoue oai?oeii naiae noaeueau, ii iiaeao nianoenue. A
aaeeinoaaiiui e aeinoaoi/iui oneiaeai nianaiey yaeyaony aa?a. Aeey
aoiaienoia aea /aeiaa/aneay naiaiaea cia/eea ia iaiueoa, /ai aia.
Nayuaiiia Ienaiea aeey ieo- yoi i?ecua, ia?au?iiue aiaii e /aeiaaeo, e
iineaaeiee aieai ioeeeeiooueny ia iaai eee iao.

Aeaaiay eaeay oacenia Ethoa?a a oii, /oi any aeeciue /aeiaaea aeieaeia
auoue iieayieai, e iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe a iniauo iinooieao, niaoeeaeueii
i?aneaaeothueo oeaee nianaiey. *aeiaae ia aeieaeai eae iiiaoe aaaeaoue
io ie?a, iaiai?io, aio neaaeoao aeia?iniaanoii eniieiyoue nai? caiiia
i?ecaaiea. Yoi ei?aiiia ia?ainiuneaiea iieayiey i?eaaei e oi?ie?iaaieth
iiaie, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie yoeee. Ooaa?aeaeaiea yoeo iiauo ii?i e
oeaiiinoae, ii?aaeaeeaoeo “aeoo eaieoaeecia”, nua?aei ?aoathuoth ?ieue a
?aceiaeaiee iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa e noaiiaeaiee eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee.

5.

Ia iaiaa nie?ooeoaeueiue oaea? ii noieanoe/aneiio ie?iaicc?aieth e
oea?eae, /ai aoiaienoe/aneay iuneue, ?aoi?iaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu e
a?aoe/aneea ?annoaeaeaiey Iaeeaaaeee, aue iaian?i ?acaeoeai
anoanoaiciaiey, eioi?ia a 16a. aeiaeeinue cia/eoaeueiuo oniaoia.

No?aieaiea e oaeoae?iiiio e aeinoiaa?iiio iiciaieth i?e?iaeu iaoei
io?aaeaiea a oai?/anoaa Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e(1452-1519), Ieeieay
Eiia?ieea (1473-1543), Eiaaiia Eaiea?a(1571-1630), Aaeeeai
Aaeeeay(1564-1642). Eo oai?aoe/aneea ?ac?aaioee e yenia?eiaioaeueiua
enneaaeiaaiey niinianoaiaaee ia oieueei eciaiaieth ia?aca ie?a, ii e
i?aaenoaaeaiee i iaoea.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuo aeinoeaeaiee anoanoaiciaiey yoiai
a?aiaie auei nicaeaiea iieueneei ano?iiiiii Ieeieaai Eiia?ieeii
aaeeioeaio?e/aneie ea?oeiu ie?a(Caiey a?auaaony aie?oa naiae ine e
iaeiia?aiaiii aie?oa Nieioea, iaoiaeyuaainy a oeaio?a ie?a).

Yoi ioe?uoea i?iecaaei iienoeia ?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?aai?io, o.e.
ii?iaa?aei nouanoaiaaaooth aaioeaio?e/aneoth ea?oeio ie?a.

Oniaoe a ?acaeoee anoanoaiciaiey a iaiaeie noaiaie ii?aaeaeeee oa?aeoa?
oeeinioneeo ?aciuoeaiee. Aaaeouei iai?aaeaieai O. 16a. noaiiaeony
iaoo?oeeinioey. I?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae io i?aaenoaaeaiee i caieiooii ie?a
e eiioeaioeee aaneiia/iie Anaeaiiie.

Iiai?io e iiaie einiieiaee iaiaoeeny oaea a 15a. e aue naycai
oai?/anoaii Ieeieay Eocaineiai(1401-1464). Aia a O. Eocaineiai iieo/aao
iaeiaiiaai. aaniethoiiai iaeneioia, eee aaniethoa, eioi?ue ia yaeyaony
/ai-oi iaoiaeyueiny aia ie?a, a i?aauaaao a aaeeinoaa n iei. Aia,
ioaaouaathuee an? nouaa, niaea?aeeo ie? a naaa. Oaeay o?aeoiaea
niioiioaiey aiaa e ie?a oa?aeoa?ecoao O. Eocaineiai eae iaioaeci(pan-
an?, theos- aia), aaaeiaeoee i?eciae eioi?iai ninoaaeyao aacee/iinoue
aaeeiiai aiaeanoaaiiiai ia/aea e aai iaeneiaeueiay i?eaeeae?iiinoue e
i?e?iaea. A einiieiaee Eocaineiai ioaa?aaeinue o/aiea i Caiea eae
oeaio?a Anaeaiiie, a ionoonoaea iaiiaeaeaeiiai oeaio?a i?eaaei aai e
i?eciaieth aeaeaeaiey Caiee.

Iaeaieaa aeoaieea ?acoeueoaou iaoo?oeeinioey iieo/eea a oai?/anoaa
Aeaei?aeaii A?oii(1548-1600).

Oeaio?aeueiay eaeay einiieiae/aneie aeieo?eiu A?oii- oacen i
aaneiia/iinoe Anaeaiiie. Yoa Anaeaiiay ia nioai?aia, iia nouanoaoao
aa/ii e ia iiaeao en/aciooue. Iia iaiiaeaeaeia, “eai ie/aai ia eiaao aia
naay, eoaea au iiaea ia?aianoeoueny, aaeaeo oiai, /oi iia yaeyaony
anai”.A naiie aea Anaeaiiie i?ienoiaeeo iai?a?uaiia eciaiaiea e
aeaeaeaiea. Oa?aeoa?ecoy yoi aeaeaeaiea, A?oii oeacuaaao ia aai
anoanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?. Ii ioeacuaaaony io eaeae aiaoiaai
ia?aiaeaeaaoaey, o.a. aiaa, a iie?aaony ia i?eioeei naiiaeaeaeaiey
iaoa?ee.

Iieiaeaiea i aaneiia/iinoe Anaeaiiie iicaieeei A?oii iinoaaeoue aii?in i
oeaio?a ie?a, io?eoeay i?e yoii ia oieueei aaioeaio?e/aneoth, ii e
aaeeioeaio?e/aneoth nenoaiu. Oeaio?ii Anaeaiiie ia iiaeao auoue ie
Caiey, ie Nieioea, iioiio /oi nouanoaoao aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai ie?ia;
e o eaaeaeiai ie?a-nenoaiu anoue naie oeaio?-caacaea.

Ooaa?aeea aaneiia/iinoue Anaeaiiie, A?oii auioaeaeai au?aaioaoue iiaia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i aiaa. A?oii noieo ia iiceoeee iaoo?aeenoe/aneiai
iaioaecia. A?oii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi i?e?iaea anoue aia a aauao, ii ia
i?ioeainoieo ie?o eae aai oai?aoe, a iaoiaeeony a naiie i?e?iaea eae
aioo?aiiaa aeayoaeueiia ia/aei.

Iaoo?oeeinioey ioe?uea iooue aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth yenia?eiaioaeueiiai
anoanoaiciaiey, aicieeiiaaieth eeanne/aneie iaoaieee Iuethoiia,
nicaeaieth oeeinioneeo eiioeaioeee 17-18a.

O. iiaiai a?aiaie 17a.

17a. naycai n i/aiue aaaeiuie niauoeyie a eco/aiee ie?a(iao/iua ioe?uoey
Eiia?ieea, Aaeeeay e ae?.). Aicieeaao yenia?eiaioaeueiia anoanoaiciaiea-
iniiaaoaeue Aaeeeae.

Aeaaiay /a?oa a?aiaie- i?iaeaiu aiinaieiaee; aii?inu iiciaiey; iiene
iniiaiiai iaoiaea iiciaiey ie?a.

Oea?eiaue an? au? neeueia e aunooiaoue i?ioea ia? ia aaciianii. Aa?aeyaa
ca aiaiooeuenoai ioeo/?i io oea?eae e nineai a Neae?ue(oae?aoue niaa).

Eiii?iienn iaeaeai a oai?ee 2o. enoei- i?aaenoaaeoaeue Ayeii- nouanoaoao
oaieiaey e i?aaeiao a? eco/aiey- aia, a iaoiae- aa?a. N iiiiuueth aa?u
iiaeii iiciaoue aiaa. Ii nouanoaoao O. e iaoea, eioi?ua eco/atho caiiie
ie?. Iaoiae- iiuo, yenia?eiaio, ?acoi.

O?yinen Ayeii(17a.) iuneeoaeue. Nicaeae eiaeoeoeaiue iaoiae, aio
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ec?a/aiea “ciaiea- neea”. Oieueei ciaiea iicaieeo /aeiaaeo
iiei?eoue i?e?iaeo. “Iu noieueei iiaeai- neieueei ciaai”. Ioaeii
inaiaiaeeoue ?acoi /aeiaaea io caaeoaeaeaiee, i?aae?annoaeeia, i?ec?aeia
eee eaeieia niciaiey. Auaeaeyao 4 aeaea i?ec?aeia:

i?ec?aee ?iaea- naycaiiu n ianiaa?oainoaii i?aaiia /oanoa.

i?ec?aee iaua?u- naycaiiu n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui niciaieai /aeiaaea
(niio?eo eae au ec naiae iaua?u) noauaeoeaiinoue ciaiee. Iiiuoea
eieeaeoeaiie iunee.

i?ec?ae ?uiea- caaeoaeaeaiey, naycaiiua n i?eau/eie eniieueciaaoue
?anoiaeea i?aaenoaaeaiey aac aeieacaoaeuenoa, aiaeeca.

i?ec?ae oaao?a- naycaiiu n aa?ie a aaoi?eoaou.

Anoue ?aciua iaoiaeu iiciaiey enoeiu:

iaoiae iaoea- ia iiaeao iiii/ue /aeiaaeo a aeinoeaeaiee enoeiu.

iaoiae io?aauey- oua?aai, iaaeinoaoi/ai, iie?aaony ia oaeou ii aac
iainiiaaiey.

iaoiae i/aeu- enoeiiue; niae?aao oaeou, a iioii i?iecaiaeeo iiuou,
yenia?eiaiou n iineaaeothuei eo iainiiaaieai, o.a. eiaeoeoeaiue iaoiae.

Ayeii noi?iiiee yiie?ecia(yiie?ei- iiuo) a oai?ee iiciaiey. Enoeiiia
ciaiea iiaeao auoue iieo/aii eeoue n iiuoii e iin?aaenoaii iiuoa. Aiaan,
Eiee- ae?oaea i?aaenoaaeoaee yiie?ecia.

Ae?oaia iai?aaeaiea iiciaiey- ?aoeeiiaeeci, niaeanii eioi?iio enoeia
iiaeao auoue auaaaeaia oieueei ec ?acoia, a ia ec iiuoa. I?aaenoaaeoaee:
Aeaea?o, Nieiica, Eaeaieoe.

?aia Aeaea?o- iuneeoaeue e o/?iue. Auaeaeioe aeiioaco oneiaiiai ?aoeaena
(aeieacaiioth a iineaaenoaee Iaaeiaui). N/eoae /oi aeinoiaa?iinoue
ciaiey iiaeao auoue ii/a?iaii ec oia. “Ai an?i niiiaaaeny”. Iiaeaa?aae
ana ciaiey niiiaieth; iao enoeiiuo ciaiee e o.ae. “Iuneth cia/eo
nouanoaoth”.

Oaeia iiieiaiea enoeiu i?eaaei e neaaeothuaio ii?aaeaeaieth noanoaioeee.

Nouanoaoao aeooiaiay noanoaioeey, ii iacaaeneii io ia? nouanoaoao
ae?oaay- iaoa?eaeueiay noanoaioeey.

Aeoaeeci- ?aaiii?aaiia nouanoaiaaiea 2o. noanoaioeee.

Iiieci- i?ioeaiiieiaeai aeoaeecio; oeeinioneia o/aiea ooaa?aeaeathuaa
eeai aeooiaiia, eeai iaoa?eaeueiia ia/aea.

O?aioeocneia i?inaauaiea.

Aaeeeay O?aioeocneay ?aaiethoeey ii?aaeaeyea yoo yiioo. Naao ?acoia aeae
aiciiaeiinoue eciaieoue yoio ie?. Yiioa aaniethoecia. Iaino?aiea
nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee. I?inaaoeoaee n/eoaee, /oi aiciiaeii
i?inaaoeoue iiia?oia ia i?eaaaay e ?aaiethoeee. Ia eaeayo i?inaauaiey
auee anei?ieaiu o?aioeocneea ?aaiethoeeiia?u. 1718a.-iinoaiiaea a
Ia?eaea o?aaaaeee Aieueoa?a- Yaeei- ioe?uoea yiioe.

Oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou:

y?ei au?aaeaiiay aioeeea?eeaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue i?inaaoeoaeae
(nenoaia aicc?aiee iai?aaeaiiay i?ioea i?eoycaiee oea?eae ia
ainiiaenoai).

iii?a ia aeinoeaeaiea anoanoaaiii- iao/iie iunee.

aoiaienoe/aneay i?eaioaoeey o/aiey n i?aaaee?iaaieai aio?iiieiae/aneie
i?eaioaoeee.

a?aaeaeaineay iai?aaeaiiinoue acaeyaeia n i?eaioaoeeae ia eciaiaiea
nioeeaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iauanoaa aac ?aaiethoeee.

Any enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa aei 18a. yoi i?a/iia a?aiy, a 18a.- anieane
?acoia.

Aieueoa?- n iei naycaiii ia/aei ?acaeoey o?aioeocneiai
i?inaauaiey(18a.). I?e aeecie ecaeaii 19 ni/eiaiee. Aue iiioey?ai e
ecaanoai.

Oa?aeoa?ia aioeeea?eeaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue acaeyaeia(inaiaiaeaeaiea io
aeeyiey oea?eae, io i?aae?annoaeeia e o.ae.), ii ia aue aoaenoii. N aai
oi/ee c?aiey aeieaeai auoue enoiaeiue oai?aoe. Aieueoa? n/eoae
iaiaoiaeeiui nouanoaiaaiea aiaa aeey iaania/aiey i?aanoaaiiinoe: “Anee
au aiaa ia auei, aai au neaaeiaaei auaeoiaoue”. Aai iiceoeey iineo
iacaaiea aeaeci- oeeinioneay iiceoeey, eioi?ay i?ecia?o aiaa a ea/anoaa
oai?oea, ii aeaeaa ia aiaoeaaaony a aai nouanoaia.; iiaeeyoue ia aeeciue
/aeiaaea aia ia iiaeao. Aieueoa? ia?auaaony e i?iaeaiai ?aaainoaa. Ii
i?eciaaae ?aaainoai iieeoe/aneia, o.a. ?aaainoai ia?aae caeiiii.
Nouanoaiaaiea nioeeaeueiiai e eiouanoaaiiiai ia?aaainoaa(???) aeey
Aieueoa?a auei iainii?eii e ia i?ioeai?a/auei i?e?iaea /aeiaaea. N/eoae
/oi ie?ii i?aayo iiaiey ethaeae. Ia aeiaeee aei ?aaiethoeee, ii i/aiue
iiaeeye ia ia?.

AEai AEae ?onni- oeeinio, ienaoaeue.

Iniiaiay i?iaeaia- ?aaainoai.

Iniiaiua eiioeeeou iauanoaa naycaiiu n yoie i?iaeaiie. ?anniao?eaaao
ianeieueei nooiaiae ?acaeoey ia?aaainoaa, ii ia?a ia?anoaiey:

1 nooiaiue naycaiia n iiyaeaieai nianoaaiiinoe, /aeiaae noaiiaeony
ia?aaiui(a iaoa?eaeueiii niunea).

2 no. naycaiia n aicieeiiaaieai ainoaea?noaa. Aicieeatho i?ioeai?a/ey e
?acee/ey iaaeaeo iiaeaeaiiuie e aeanoaothueie.

3 no. onoaiiaeaiea oe?aiee(o?aioeocneee aaniethoeci- ei?ieue oe?ai).

I?yii cayaeye i ?aaeeeaeueiii eciaiaiee iauanoaa; i?ecuaae e
?aaiethoeee, e ono?aiaieth ia?aaainoaa a ia?o o?aaieoaeueiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey- YAAEEOE?ECI. E a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ono?aiaiey
eiouanoaaiiiai ia?aaainoaa, n/eoay /oi yoi iniiaa. I?aaeeaaae
ia?aie/eoue ia?aoiae nianoaaiiinoe ii ianeaaenoao; ioiaieoue iaeiae n
e?anoueyi(yoi an? ooiie/aneea ia?u).

Eiiaei?na- auaeaeioe eaeath enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa, o.a.
iinooiaoaeueiia, i?ia?anneaiia ?acaeoea.

I?ia?anneaiia ?acaeoea naycaiii n eaeaae i?inaauaiey.

Eaiao?e- i?aaenoaaeoaeue o?aioeocneie iaoa?eaeenoeee. ?anniao?eaae
/aeiaaea eae iaoa?eaeueioth nouiinoue, noanoaioeeth. Aeooa- niiniaiinoue
iuneeoue, ii ia n/eoae a? iaeiie ec nouiinoae. An? ii?aaeaeyaony
caeiiaie iaoaieee. I?e ?anniio?aiee i?e?iaeu iie?aeny ia iaoaie/aneea
caeiiu. ?anniao?eaae /aeiaaea eae /aeiaa/aneoth iaoeio, eae
aeieiae/aneia nouanoai. A noi?iia(aoi?inoaiaiiuie) inoathony i?iaeaiu
niciaiey, naa?o niciaiey, aeooa.

Aeeae?i- ecaanoai oai, /oi aue eieoeeaoi?ii nicaeaiey e iaienaiey
aaeeeie “Yioeeeeiiaaeey eee oieeiaue neiaa?ue eneonnoa e ?ai?nae”. Aue
ca ?acaeoea iaoee aac ?aeeaeiciiai ianeiaiey. Ae?oaea aaoi?u
yioeeeeiiaaeee: ?onni, Eiiaeeeueye, Eaiao?e e ae?. Ecaeaaaeanue a
oa/aiee 30 eao(n 50o.- aei 80o. a.), i/aiue aei?iaia, iau?iiia ecaeaiea.
E yioeeeeiiaaeee i?iyaeyeny ia?iiiue eioa?an.

Aaaeiaeoee ao?eaoo iaoa?ee aeey Aeeae?i yaeyaony aeaeaeaiea. Aeeae?i-
iaoa?eaeeno. Oi/ii ioaeaeee aeaeaeaiea io i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ia?aiauaiey.
Aeaeaeaiea nouanoaoao ia oieueei a ia?aiauathueiny oaea, ii e a
iieiyueiny.

Ai acaeyaeao ia i?iaeaiu iauanoaa Aeeae?i aue noi?iiieeii aoaecia, o.a.
io?eoeae ?aaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea naa?o anoanoaaiiiai.

Aeeae?i aunooiae i?ioea oi/ee c?aiey Aieueoa?a: “Noieo eeoue aeiionoeoue
eaeath aiaa eae yoi ?acaeaaaony a ?aeeaeth”. N/eoae /oi aeey
i?aanoaaiiinoe /aeiaaea “iiaeii?ea” aiaa ia ioaeia; nioeeaeueiay
ni?aaaaeeeainoue aio /oi aeaaiia aeey i?aanoaaiiinoe. ?aoiaae ca
nieaeaiea e niya/aiea nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee, oiaaea eaeay aiaa ia
ioaeia.

IAIOAECI- iiceoeey, niaeanii eioi?ie aia ?anoai??i a i?e?iaea.

Iieue Ai?e Aieueaao- o?aioeocneee i?inaaoeoaeue(ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth
iaiaoe). Aue iaania/ai, niaea?aeae eioaeeaeooaeueiue naeii. Ecaanoai
o?aeoaoii “Nenoaia i?e?iaeu”. Iaoa?ey- aeaeaeouay noanoaioeey, aa/ia,
eciai/eaa.

Oa?aeoa?ecoao iaoa?eth- an? oi /oi eaeei-eeai niiniaii aicaeaenoaoao ia
iaoe /oanoaa.

ssaeyeny aeaoa?ieienoii. Eiioeaioeey: oeeinioneee oaoaeeci; ionoonoaea
neo/aeiinoae e neo/aeiuo yaeaiee. *aeiaae a oa/aiee aeecie iaiaoiaeeiui
ia?acii niaa?oaao oieueei iaiaoiaeeiua iinooiee e aeaenoaey.

Eiaiii o?aioeocneea i?inaaoeoaee caeiaeeee iniiao Aaeeeie O?aioeocneie
?aaiethoeee. Iie ooaa?aeeee i?iaeaiu ii?aeueiinoe, ?aaainoaa,
i?aanoaaiiinoe.

Iaiaoeeay eeanne/aneay O.

2ay iie. 18- 1ay iie.19a. Iieo/aao oeooe eeanne/aneie, o.a. niiinoaaeia
n aioe/iie O. 18-19a.- aa?oeia aeooiaiiai, eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey
Aa?iaiee. I?aaenoaaeoaee: Eaio, Oeooa, Oeeeeia, Aaaaeue.

Iniaaiiinoe iaiaoeeie iunee:

i?eaioaoeey n iauaeoa ia noauaeo(?anniao?eaay i?e?iaeo iaaei ia?auaoue
aieiaiea ia oa eciaiaiey, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeeo /aeiaae).

aianoi oa?aeoa?iie iii?u, i?eaioaoeee ia iaoeo, iie iie?aeenue ia aanue
ie? eoeueoo?u(eneonnoai, ycue, enoi?ey e o.ae.).

aianoi ainiiaenoaothueo iaoioece/aneeo iaoiaeia iiciaiey iie iie?aeenue
ia aeeaeaeoe/aneea eaeae

iaiaoeeea iuneeoaee ioee/aeenue e?aeia neiaeiui ycueii(aeoaieea
iuneeoaee, ii iaeiiiiyoiua/ yaeythony aaoi?aie iiiaeo nianoaaiiuo
oa?ieiia).

iiaaoi?neee oa?aeoa? iaiaoeeie O.

Iniiaaoaeue iaiaoeeie O. Eiiaioee Eaio(oia? a 1804a.).

AEee a Eaieanaa?aa. Ecaanoai naiae iaaeaioe/iinoueth. I?aiiaeaaae a
ianeieueeeo oieaa?neoaoao. A oai?/anoaa auaeaeytho 2 ia?eiaea:

1746-80a.- aei e?eoe/aneee: i?iaeaiu ie?icaeaiey.

81-1804a.- e?eoe/aneee ia?eiae: i?iaeaiu iiciaiey e /aeiaaea.

O. Eaioa iiaeao auoue oa?aeoa?eciaaia eae o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay – oi,
/oi aioo?aiia i?enoua niciaieth, iiaeao auoue iiciaii e iicia?ony.

O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiue- oi, /oi ia iiaeao auoue iiciaii, iaoiaeeoueny ca
i?aaeaeaie /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey.

Aioeiiiey- i?ioeai?a/ey ?acoia(e iei ia?auaaony Eaio), aicieeatho eiaaea
/aeiaae ia/eiaao iuneeoue i?aaeiaoii, oi, /oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
i?aaeiaoii ia yaeyaony(aia, niaanoue, /anoue, aeiea, aaneiia/iinoue e
o.ae.); a yoii neo/aa aicieeatho i?ioeai?a/ey ?acoia.

*oiau ?ac?aoeoue aioeiiiee Eaio aaiaeeo ?aca?aie/aiey aeaoo ie?ia: ie?a
yaeaiee e ie?a aauae a naaa. Yoi iicaieyao ?ac?aoeoue i?ioeai?a/ey.

yaeaiey, /oanoaaiiua ia?acu- yoi oi, /oi aeinooiii iiciaieth /aeiaaea.
Iie eiatho i?aaeiaoiue oa?aeoa?.

aauue a naaa(naia ii naaa)- yoi aanietho, oi /oi ia ioaeaeaaony a nai?i
iainiiaaiee, ooaa?aeaeaiee. Iaaeinooiii /aeiaa/aneiio iiciaieth. *aeiaae
aeieaeai eae au aueoe ec naiae iaiei/ee, /oiau iiciaoue.

?acaeaeea yoe aeaa ie?a Eaio ii/oanoaiaae aeoo nia?aiaiiie iaoee,
anoanoaiciaiey.

Aii?inu caaeaaaaiua Eaioii:

*oi y iiao ciaoue?

Ciaiea eae i?iaeoeo iiciaiey- neioac /oanoa e ?annoaeea.

*oanoaaiiinoue- niiniaiinoue ?acoia nica?oeaoue.

?annoaeie- niiniaiinoue ?acoia aiaeece?iaaoue ?acoeueoaou /oanoaaiiiai
nica?oeaiey.

Ciaiea- eoia yoeo aeaoo iiciaiee.

*oiau ec oaina i?aaenoaaeaiee /aeiaaea ninoaaeoue /oi-oi onoie/eaia,
iaaei no?oeoo?e?iaaoue iiciaiey.

Ai?ei?iue- aei iiuoiue, naa?o iiuoiue(ia naycaiii n iiuoii);
(i?ino?ainoai, a?aiy- ai?ei?iua oi?iu /oanoaaiiinoe/ ai?ei?iua oi?iu
?annoaeea-eaoaai?ee iiciaiey: anaiauiinoue, iaiaoiaeeiinoue, nouiinoue).

*aeiaae caaea?o aii?inu i?e?iaea e iieo/aao ia ieo ioaaou. Ioaeii
oieueei oiaoue iinoaaeoue aii?in.

Eaio oeacuaaao ia noauaeoeaiinoue iiciaiey. Iicia?o /aeiaae, eioi?ue ia
niaa?oaiai. Oeacae ia ia?aie/aiiinoue iauaeoeaiiai ?acoia /aeiaaea.
Noaaeoue a?aieoeu iiciaiey, /aeiaae an? a?aiy eo i?aaeiieaaaao; ii ia
iiaeao neeoueny n enneaaeoaiui iauaeoii.

(i?aanoaaiiue) *oi y aeieaeai aeaeaoue?

?acoi i?aeoe/ai. Noa?a i?aanoaaiiinoe aauue a naaa, yoi ia
aeayoaeueiinoue.

Eaio oi/ao iaeoe yae?i i?aanoaaiiinoe, nooue iinooieia /aeiaaea.

Aaoiiiiey aiee- iacaaeneiinoue aiee e iinooieia /aeiaaea io eaeie-eeai
aiaoiae oi?iu onoaiiaeaiey. Auaeaeyao 2 iniiaiuo i?eioeeia:

iaeneia- yoi i?aanoaaiiue i?eioeei aeey iaeiiai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea

i?aanoaaiiue caeii- i?eioeei eiathuee neeo aeey eaaeaeiai ?acoiiiai
nouanoaa. Eiaiii caeii iacuaatho eiia?aoea- aeieaeainoaiaaiea.

Eaio ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ii?aeue noieo ia iooaieao aeieaeainoaiaaiey.
Eaoaai?e/iinoue- iaycaoaeueiinoue i?e anao oneiaeyo.

Eaoaai?e/aneee eiia?aoea iineo iooaiie e aeieaeainoaiaaiey, e
iaycaoaeueiinoe.

Caeii Eaioa: iinooiae oae, /oiau iaeneia oaiae aiee iiaea eiaoue neeo
anaiauaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Eaio ia aoaeno. Ii ioiioaieth e aiinaieiaee o iaai auei iiiai
e?eoe/aneeo caia/aiee.

A 1806a. auoiaeeo o?oae Aaaaey(oia? a 1831a.). ssaeyaony caaa?oathuei
oo?eoii iaiaoeeie O. Aai oeeinioneay nenoaia iineo eaeaaeenoe/aneee
oa?aeoa?. Oeaio?aeueiia iiiyoea- ie?iaie ?acoi(iauaeoeaiia, aacee/iia
ia/aei, eioi?ia aunooiaao a ?iee oai?oea ie?a).

Noauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci- oeeinioneia iai?aaeaiea eioi?ia naycaiii n
niciaieai /aeiaaea. Aanue ie? caaeneo io iuneyuaai ss.

Aaniethoiay eaeay- aeooiaiia ?acoiiia ia/aei, eioi?ia
aeayoaeueii(aeoeaii) e aai aeayoaeueiinoue ninoieo a naiiiiciaiee.

No?oeoo?e?iaaiiay oeeinioneay nenoaia; o?eaaea- aeeth/aao 3 nooiaie:

eiaeea

i?e?iaea

aeoo

Iniaaiiinoue nenoaiu: ia/aei eaeaaeueiia, eioi?ia iaoiaeeony a
aeaeaeaiee e eciaiaiee. Ia i?inoi i?iaeaia aeaeaeaiey, a n oi/e c?aiey
aeeaeaeoeee.

Aaaaeue noi?ioee?iaae iniiaiua i?eioeeiu aeeaeaeoeee.

“Aaeeinoai e ai?ueaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae”

I?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue- noi?iiu oa?aeoa?ecothuea iaeei i?aaeiao, 2 noi?iiu
yaeaiey eioi?ua iaeiia?aiaiii acaeiii?aaeiieaaatho e acaeiieneeth/atho
ae?oa ae?oaa.

I?ioeann ?acaeoea a aeaea o?eaaeu

ooaa?aeaeaiea- oacen

aioeoacen- io?eoeaiea ooaa?aeaeaiey

io?eoeaiea io?eoeaiey

O. nenoaia Aaaaey:

o/aiea i auoea, i nouiinoe e i iiiyoee(?anniao?eaaao ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
aii?inu noaeaeaiey).

iaoaieea, oeceea, i?aaieea(iiyaeyaony a nenoaia /aeiaa/aneeo ciaiee).

Oeeinioey aeooa(eanaaony aii?inia iauanoaaiiiai, oeeinioneiai niciaiey).

Oeeinioey aeooa:

o/aiea i noauaeoeaiii aeooa:

a- ineoieiaey(enneaaeoao aii?inu aeooe).

a- oaiiiaiieiaey(enneaaeoao aii?inu naiiniciaiey).

a- aio?iiieiaey(enneaaeoao i?iaeaiu ee/iinoe).

o/aiea i iauaeoeaiii aeooa:

a- i?aai

a- ii?aeue

a- i?aanoaaiiinoue:

ainoaea?noai

a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai

naiuey

o/aiea i aaniethoiii aeooa:

a- eneonnoai

a- ?aeeaey

a- oeeinioey

O/aiea i noauaeoeaiii aeooa eanaaony aii?inia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
niciaiey.

O/aiea i iauaeoeaiii aeooa- ?a/ue eae?o i iauanoaaiiii niciaiee, o.e.
/aeiaae nouanoai iauanoaaiiia.

I?aai- aiieiuaiea naiaiaeu aiee. Naiaiaeo iiaeao aa?aioe?iaaoue eeoue
th?eaee/aneia ioi?ieaiea. Iniiaiie aniaeo ooaa?aeaeathuee naiaiaeo
yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoue.

Ii?aeue- aioo?aiiyy, noauaeoeaiay naiaiaea /aeiaaea, eioi?ay i?iyaeyaony
a iinooieao. *oiau iinooiie aue ii?aeueiui ii aeieaeai oaeiaeaoai?youe 3
o?aaiaaieyi:

aeieaeai eiaoue naie oiunae.

aeieaeai eiaoue aeaai.

aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue aeia?o.

I?aanoaaiiinoue- iauaeoeaiay aiey e naiaiaea /aeiaaea, oa eioi?ay
naycaiia n aeeciueth /aeiaaea a iauanoaa.

naiuey – i?e?iaeii?aanoaaiiue nithc, nicaeathueeny ?aaee i?iaeieaeaiey
?iaea. Iniiaa- eiouanoaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue.

a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai – /anoiay noa?a /aeiaaea; noa?a naiaiaeiay io
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey. Noa?a yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania. Ainoaea?noai
eeoue iiiiaaao, a ia ?aaeaiaioe?oao.

ainoaea?noai- neioace?othuee. Iiaeaea?aeeaaao e io?aiyao naiueth e
a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai.

Aaaaeue ia aeaeeo ie? ia oeeaeeeciaaiiue e ia oeeaeeeciaaiiue. Auaeaeyao
niaoeeoeeo: ethaia ainoaea?noai ?acoeueoao enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey
ia?iaea (niioaaonoaoao aeooo e iaioaeeoaoo ia?iaea).

Ia?auaaony e aii?inai ie?iaiai ?acoia. Oeo?inoue e eiaa?noai ie?iaiai
?acoia caeeth/athony a neaaeothuai:

niaa?oaao aeaenoaea, ii iieo/aao ?acoeueoao ia eioi?ue ii ia
?ann/eouaae. Anee /aeiaae i?ioeai?a/eo eiaeea- aai aeaenoaey ioaeiiai
?acoeueoaoa ia i?eianoo(?aaiethoeey- iaeii aeaei oeaeue, ae?oaia
?acoeueoao). (Yoi e anoue eiaa?noai e oeo?inoue ie?iaiai ?acoia).

anoue ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ua /aeiaae nicaeae ?aaee oii?yaei/aiey,
no?oeoo?e?iaaiey aeecie. Ainoaea?noai- iieeoe/aneay no?oeoo?a ia/eiaao
?aaioaoue i?ioea /aeiaaea(ainoaea?noaaiiua eioa?anu). Iauanoai ?aaioaao
ia ainoaea?noai. Aaee/aeoea iieeoe/aneea aeayoaee (Iaiieaii) auiieiyee
eaeea-oi oeaee e ie?iaie ?acoi caoai eo ioa?anuaae.

O/aiea i aaniethoiii aeooa- o/aiea i iauanoaaiiii niciaiee. Io eneonnoaa
(/oanoaaiiia nica?oeaiea) e i?aaenoaaeaieth ?aeeaee, e io ?aeeaee e
aano?aeoiiio iuoeaieth oeeinioee.

Ia?enenoneay O.

Iiyaeeanue a 40-o aa. 19a. Iniiaiiieiaeieee Ea?e Ia?en e O?eae?eo
Yiaaeuen. Noi?ie?iaaeanue iiae aeeyieai i?aaeaea anaai
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie oeeinioneie, iao/iie e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie
iunee. Ii iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ieacaee: iaiaoeeay eeanne/aneay O.,
aiaeeeneay iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey, a oaeaea o?aioeocneee e?eoe/aneee
ooiie/aneee nioeeaeeci.

Niaaeeiaiea iaoa?eaeecia e aeeaeaeoeee.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie aea oai?aoe/aneeie i?aaeiinueeaie ia?enenoneie O.
iineoaeeee aeeaeaeoeea Aaaaey e iaoa?eaeeci Oaea?aaoa. Nai? ioiioaiea e
O. yoeo iuneeoaeae E. Ia?en e O. Yiaaeuen au?aceee a oeaeii ?yaea ?aaio.

Ia?en e Yiaaeuen oianeaaeiaaee ?aoeeiiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea eo o/aiee(
aeeaeaeoeeo Aaaaey e iaoa?eaeeci Oaea?aaoa, inaiaiaeae?iiua
niioaaonoaaiii io eaeaaeecia e iaoaoeceee.

Ii?aaa n eaeaaeeciii Aaaaey, iie nio?aieee e ?acaeee a nai?i o/aiee aai
aeeaeaeoeeo eae oai?eth e aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae iiciaiey e iuoeaiey. Ii
yoi auea oaea iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay aeeaeaeoeea; a iae /aeiaa/aneea iiiyoey
enoieeiauaathony eae io?aaeaiea ?aaeueiuo aauae, eo iiiaiia?aciuo naycae
e ioiioaiee. Oaeia niaaeeiaiea aeeaeaeoeee e iaoa?eaeecia iieiaeeei
ia/aei nicaeaieth iiaie O( aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia.

Iniiaiiieiaeieee ia?enecia a naieo ?aaioao noaaeee e ?aoaee i?iaeaio
?ani?ino?aiaiey aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneeo aicc?aiee ia iauanoai.
O.a. i?eaeaoue i?eaeaoue aeeaeaeoe/aneiio iaoa?eaeecio caeii/aiiue aeae.
A aeaiiii neo/aa aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee iaoiae iiciaiey
i?aaenoa?o eae oieaa?naeueiue, i?eiaieiue ia oieueei e yaeaieyi
i?e?iaeu, ii e iauanoaa. Caaea/a ninoiyea a oii, /oiau niaeaniaaoue
iaoeo ia iauanoaa n “iaoa?eaeenoe/aneei iniiaaieai” e ia?ano?ieoue a?
niioaaonoaaiii yoiio iniiaaieth. N oi/ee c?aiey ia?enecia oaeei
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneei iniiaaieai iaoee ia iauanoaa yaeyaony i?aeoeea eae
iauanoaaiiay i?aia?acothuay aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae. Ioi?aaiiay io
i?aeoeee oai?ey aunooiaao eae iaai? eaeaaeenoe/aneeo niaeoeyoeee,
oiic?eoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee, i?aa?auaaony a ienoeeo.

Ia?en ii-naiaio ?ane?uaaao aeeaeaeoe/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea oai?ee e
i?aeoeee. Oi?ie?oynue iiae aeeyieai oneiaee i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
ethaeae, oai?ey a naith i/a?aaeue ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia i?aeoeeo. E yoi
aeeyiea iiaeao auoue aanueia nouanoaaiiui. Yoi ioiineony e oeeinioneei,
anoanoaaiiiiao/iui, nioeeaeueiui e ae?. oai?eyi. Ia?en iaiaeiie?aoii
auneacuaae iuneue i oii, /oi oai?ey noaiiaeony iaoa?eaeueiie neeie,
eiaaea iia iaeaaeaaaao iannaie; a yoi i?ienoiaeeo a oii neo/aa, anee
oai?ey au?aaeaao eioa?anu iann. I?aeoe/aneia iacia/aiea naiae oai?ee
Ia?en au?acee aiieia ii?aaeae?iii: “Oeeiniou eeoue ?acee/iui ia?acii
iauyniyee ie?, ii aeaei caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau eciaieoue aai”.
Eciaieoue ie? a naieo eioa?anao, ii Ia?eno, aeieaeai i?ieaoa?eao.
Aii?oaeeoue aai iao/iie oai?eae ?aaiethoeeiiiiai ia?aono?ienoaa iau-aa(
a yoii caeeth/aaony iniiaiay nioeeaeueiay o-oeey ia?enecia e aai O.

Aeaa noi?iiu iniiaiiai aii?ina O.

“Iniiaiie aii?in anae, iniaaiii iiaaeoae, O. anoue aii?in ia ioiioaiee
iuoeaiey e auoeth”,( ooaa?aeaeae Yiaaeuen. Oeeiniou, ienae ii,
?acaeaeeeenue ia aeaa aieueoeo eaaa?y naiaia?acii oiio, eae iie ioaa/aee
ia aeaiiue aii?in. “Oa, eoi ooaa?aeaeae, /oi aeoo nouanoaiaae i?aaeaea
i?e?iaeu- ninoaaeee eaeaaeenoe/aneee eaaa?ue. Oa aea, eioi?ua iniiaiui
ia/aeii n/eoaee i?e?iaeo, i?eieioee e ?acee/iui oeieai iaoa?eaeecia”.

Ia?enenoneay O. ?aoaao i?iaeaio niioiioaiey auoey e iuoeaiey, i?e?iaeu e
aeooa, iaoa?ee e niciaiey aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/anee. I?eciaaay
ia?ae/iie iaoa?eth e aoi?e/iui niciaiea, iia ?anniao?eaaao eo neiaeiua e
i?ioeai?a/eaua acaeiiaeaenoaey, oeacuaay i?e yoii ia aeoeaioth ?ieue
niciaiey, aai aicaeaenoaea ia i?e?iaeo e iauanoaaiiia auoe? ethaeae a
i?ioeanna eo aeayoaeueiinoe.

Yiaaeuen e Ia?en oa??aei enoiaeeee ec oiai, /oi ie? iiciaaaai, /oi
iauaeoeaiua yaeaiey e i?ioeannu iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a aieaa eee iaiaa
i?aaeeueii io?aaeathony a niciaiee ethaeae. Oi?ie?othueany o.i. ciaiey i
ie?a iiiiaatho ei i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e iaio e i?aia?aciauaaoue aai a
niioaaonoaee ni naieie iio?aaiinoyie e eioa?anaie. Oeacuaay ia
nouanoaothuea oi?iu aaiinoeoeecia (agnostos- iaaeinooiiue iiciaieth),
o.a. ?aciiai ?iaea acaeyaeu i iaiiciaaaaiinoe ie?a, ia?enenoneay O.
ii?iaa?aaao eo. I?e yoii iia iie?aaony ia aeinoeaeaiey nia?aiaiiiai
anoanoaiciaiey e iauanoaaiiuo iaoe, eioi?ua iieacuaatho, /oi ethaee
ociatho i ie?a(i?e?iaea, iauanoaa, /aeiaaea) an? aieueoa e aieueoa,
iinoeaatho nouiinoue yaeaiee e caeiiu eo ?acaeoey.

Auoe?, iaoa?ey, niciaiea.

N oi/ee c?aiey ia?enenoneie O., ie? a oeaeii iai?aoiaeyu, ii nouanoaoao
aa/ii e aaneiia/ii ai a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa. A yoii niunea ii iaeaaeaao
aa/iui auoe?i. Eanaaii ioaeaeueiuo yaeaiee, iie iiyaeythony e en/acatho
a ?aciuo iaeanoyo Anaeaiiie. O.a. eo auoe? a?aiaiii. Ii ioiioaieth e iei
oianoii i?eiaiyoue iiiyoea “auoe?” e “iaauoe?”.

Auoe?i iaeaaeatho eae iaoa?eaeueiua, oae e aeooiaiua yaeaiey a oii
niunea, /oi iie nouanoaotho. Ia?enenoneay O. i?eaea?aeeaaaony
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai acaeyaea ia niioiioaiea auoey e niciaiey, auoey e
iuoeaiey. Auoe?, iiieiaaiia a oceii niunea, ia?ae/ii, niciaiea e
iuoeaiea aoi?e/iu, i?iecaiaeiu io auoey, ii?aaeaeythony ei, oioy, a
naith i/a?aaeue iiaoo ieacuaaoue ia iaai aeoeaiia e aanueia nouanoaaiiia
aicaeaenoaea.

Eaiei aeae neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey iaoa?ee: “Iaoa?ey anoue
oeeinioneay eaoaai?ey aeey iaicia/aiey iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, eioi?ay
aeaia /aeiaaeo a iuouaieyo aai, eioi?ay eiie?oaony, oioia?aoe?oaony,
ioia?aaeaaony iaoeie iuouaieyie, nouanoaoy iacaaeneii io ieo.
Aaeeinoaaiiia naienoai iaoa?ee, n i?eciaieai eioi?iai naycai oeeinioneee
iaoa?eaeeci, anoue naienoai auoue iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoueth,
nouanoaiaaoue aia iaoaai niciaiey”.

N oi/ee c?aiey aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie O, iaoa?ey iaoiaeeony a
aa/iii e iai?a?uaiii aeaeaeaiee. Iao iaoa?ee aac aeaeaeaiey e aeaeaeaiey
aac iaoa?ee. Aeaeaeaiea anoue oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee.

Aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci eae O. ia?enecia enoiaeeo ec i?aaenoaaeaiee
ia iauaeoeaiii aaeeinoaa iaoa?ee, aeaeaeaiey, i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie.
I?ino?ainoai e a?aiy enoieeiauaathony eae naienoaa naieo iaoa?eaeueiuo
yaeaiee, eae oi?iu eo nouanoaiaaiey. Oaeay oi/ea c?aiey aace?oaony ia
aeinoeaeaieyo iaoaiaoeee e anoanoaiciaiey. Eiaa/aaneee aeieacae, /oi
naienoaa i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie ia oieueei naycaiiu ni naienoaaie oao
eee eiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee, ii e i?yii caaenyo io ieo. Yeiooaei
aiai?ee, /oi anee au eaeei-oi ia?acii en/acee ana oaea, oi en/acei au
i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy. Ia?enenoneay O. aace?oaony ia auaiaeao oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniuneeaathony ia oieueei
oece/aneia, ii e aeieiae/aneia e nioeeaeueiia i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy,
au?aaeathuea niaoeeoeeo nouanoaiaaiey aeieiae/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo
yaeaiee.

Iiiyoey “auoe?” e “iaoa?ey” niioiinyony a O. n iiiyoeai “niciaiea”. A
ia?enenoneie O. niciaiea oieeoaony eae naienoai ethaeae io?aaeaoue e oai
naiui iniuneeaaoue ie?oaeathuae eo ie? iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo
yaeaiee. I?aaeiinueee aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey niciaiey aeaeyony ia
anoanoaaiiua e nioeeaeueiua. Anoanoaaiiua- niiniaiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai
iicaa io?aaeaoue yaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe; nioeeaeueiua- /aeiaa/aneay
i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue e ?a/ue.

Niciaiea, ii neiaai Eaieia, ia oieueei io?aaeaao iauaeoeaiue ie?, ii e
oai?eo aai. Eiaaony a aeaeo aeoeaiay oai?/aneay ?ieue niciaiey, aai
eiino?oeoeaiia, niceaeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia yaeaiey i?e?iaeu,
iauanoaa. Iiae aeeyieai iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, au?aaeathuaeny a
ioe?uoeyo, ecia?aoaieyo, ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e eiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aia?acoaony i?e?iaea e iauanoai.

Aeeaeaeoeea i?ioeanna iiciaiey.

A ia?enenoneie O. iiciaiea o?aeooaony eae aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae,
iai?aaeaiiay ia iinoeaeaiea naienoa i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee iauaeoeaiiai
ie?a- i?e?iaeu, iauanoaa, /aeiaaea, a oaeaea naienoa /aeiaa/aneiai
niciaiey e nooe naiiai iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. Iauaeoii iiciaiey
aunooiaao eae iauaeoeaiay, oae e noauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoe.

Iineieueeo iiciaiea e niciaiea ia?ac?uaii naycaiiu iaaeaeo niaie e
iinoiyiii ia?aoiaeyo ae?oa a ae?oaa, oi ia?aaeei oi e ae?oaia
oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae io?aaeaiea /aeiaaeii yaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Oai
naiui oeene?oaony eo iauee iniiaiiieaaathuee i?eciae.

A ia?enenoneie aiinaieiaee oeacuaaaony ia neiaeiue e i?ioeai?a/eaue
oa?aeoa? i?ioeanna iiciaiey. Auaeaeythony oaeea “nooiaie iiciaiey”, eae
/oanoaaiiay (iiciaiea /a?ac iuouaiey, aini?eyoey, i?aaenoaaeaiey) e
?aoeeiiaeueiay (iiciaiea ioo?i iiiyoeeiiai iuoeaiey, noaeaeaiee,
oiicaeeth/aiee).

*oanoaaiiay nooiaiue iiciaiey ?anniao?eaaaony eae iecoay nooiaiue
io?aaeaiey /aeiaaeii iauaeoeaiiai ie?a n iiiiuueth i?aaiia /oanoa:
c?aiey, neooa, inycaiey…. Iuouaiey oa?aeoa?ecothony eae io?aaeaiey
ioaeaeueiuo naienoa i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee. A aini?eyoee yoe naienoaa
i?aaenoatho a eo acaeiinayce, a neeo /aai nicaea?ony oeaeinoiue ia?ac
i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee. I?aaenoaaeaiea aea au?aaeaao niaie oio oaeo, /oi,
aeaaiaea?y naiae iaiyoe, /aeiaae iiaeao aini?iecaiaeeoue a nai?i
niciaiee ionoonoaothuea a aeaiiue iiiaio i?aaeiaou, anee ?aiaa ii eo
aeaeae.

E oi?iai ?aoeeiiaeueiiai(eiae/aneiai)iuoeaiey ioiinyony iiiyoey,
noaeaeaiey, oiicaeeth/aiey. Iiiyoea i?aaenoa?o eae iaiauaiea, auaeaeaiea
iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo naienoa oao eee eiuo yaeaiee. Oaeiau iiiyoey
oi?iu, aeaeaeaiey, yia?aee, iauanoaa, eoeueoo?u e o.ae. Niune iiiyoee
?ane?uaaaony a noaeaeaieyo, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie ii?aaeae?iioth naycue
iiiyoee, ninoaaeythuoth iaeia ooaa?aeaeaiea eee io?eoeaiea(einiin
aaneiia/ai). Oiicaeeth/aiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae eiae/aneia aeaenoaea, a
oiaea eioi?iai ec iaeieo noaeaeaiee(iinueie) auaiaeyony ae?oaea.
Oiicaeeth/aiey aeaeyony ia eiaeoeoeaiua(ec ianeieueeeo noaeaeaiee
aeaeaaony iauee auaiae) e aeaaeoeoeaiua(ec iaueo iieiaeaiee aeaeathony
/anoiua auaiaeu).

*oanoaaiiia iiciaiea iinoaaeyao ia?ae/iue iuneeoaeueiue iaoa?eae-
aeaiiua iuouaiee, aini?eyoey, eioi?ue caoai iniuneeaaaony a oi?iao
eiae/aneiai iiciaiey. Iiae aeeyieai eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey
niaa?oainoaoaony i?ioeann /oanoaaiiiai io?aaeaiey i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

I?e aiaeeca i?ioeanna iiciaiey iaecaaaeii anoa?o aii?in ia enoeia. Nooue
aii?ina a oii, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue, ianeieueei iieo/aaiua ciaiey
niioaaonoaotho aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, o.a. i?ienoiaeyuei a ie?a ?aaeueiui
i?ioeannai. Ciaiey i ie?a io?aaeatho naienoaa naiiai yoiai ie?a, aai
i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee, eo nayce e ioiioaiey. Iiyoiio niaea?aeaiea yoeo
ciaiee ia caaeneo ie io ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae, ie io /aeiaa/anoaa. (O/?iue
ioe?uaoee caeii i?e?iaeu, ia auaeoiae aai, io?acee oi, /oi anoue a naiie
i?e?iaea). Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi niaea?aeaiea /aeiaa/aneeo ciaiee i
ie?a iauaeoeaii. Yoi e au?aaeaaony a iiiyoee iauaeoeaiay enoeia.

A ia?enenoneie O. enoeia oieeoaony eae i?ioeann. O.a. ciaiey i ie?a
iinoiyiii ?acaeaathony. Yoio i?ioeann io?aceeny a iiiyoeyo
ioiineoaeueiie e aaniethoiie enoeiu. Ioiineoaeueiay enoeia- anoue
/anoe/iia, iaiieiia ciaiea. A i?ioeanna iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
iii aeiiieiyaony, a /?i-oi eni?aaeyaony, noaiiaeony aieaa aeoaieei e
iieiui. Aaniethoiay enoeia( en/a?iuaathuaa ciaiea ia iauaeoa eee
eaeie-oi aai noi?iia. Yoi ciaiea ia ii?iaa?aaaony aeaeueiaeoei ?acaeoeai
iaoee.

N o.c. ia?enecia iniiaie e oeaeueth iiciaiey yaeyaony iauanoaaiiay
i?aeoeea. Iia iai?aaeyao iiciaaaoaeueiue i?ioeann a niioaaonoaee n
iio?aaiinoyie e eioa?anaie ethaeae. I?aeoeea aunooiaao e eae e?eoa?ee
enoeiu. Auaeaeythony oaeea oi?iu i?aeoeee, eae iao/iue
iiuo(yenia?eiaio), i?iecaiaenoaaiiay e a oeaeii iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae.

Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea enoi?ee.

Aaaeiui ?acaeaeii ia?enenoneie O. yaeyaony iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea
enoi?ee (?acaeoea iau-aa e enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna). Caeeth/aaony a
iaia?oaeaiee e iainiiaaiee iaoa?eaeueiie iniiau ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e
?acaeoey iau-aa, eaeiaie, ii iiaieth Ia?ena, yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai
iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa. O.a. i?iecaiaenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey a
eiia/iii n/?oa ii?aaeaeytho ana eiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie, a o./.
iieeoe/aneea, i?aaiaua e eaeaieiae/aneea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo eeannaie e
nioeeaeueiuie a?oiiaie.

Iau-ai i?aaenoa?o eae nioeeaeueiue i?aaieci( iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneay
oi?iaoeey, ?acaeaathuayny ii caeiiai ?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeaea anaai yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
ethaeueie. Aeaiiua ioiioaiey ?anniao?eaathony eae iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea
iauanoaaiiiai auoey ethaeae, ia aaca eio oi?ie?othony ?ace oi?iu eo
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey( iieeoe/aneia, i?aaiaia, i?aanoaaiiia,
ynoaoe/aneia, ?aeeaeiciia, a oaeaea oeeinioneia.

Nia?aiaiiay Caiaaeiay oeeinioey.

E na?- eiioeo 19 a. aicieeea iio?aaiinoue a ia?aniio?a oeeinioneeo
acaeyaeia. Oneiaii iiaeii iacaaoue yoio ia?eiae (Iiaui a?aiaiai(.
Nia?aiaiioth Caiaaeioth O iacuaatho iaeeanne/aneie. Aa ini iai?aaeaiey:

Iiceoeaeci( oeeinioneia iai?aaeaiea, eio a ea/-aa aaeeinoaaiiiai
enoi/ieea ciaiey i?eciaao eiie?aoiua (anoanoaaiiua) iaoee.
Aicieeiiaaiea ioiineony e 1830-1850a. Iniiaaoaeue iai?aaeaiey: Iathno
Eiio. Ae?. i?aaenoaaeoaeue( aiaee/aiei Niaina?. Iiceoeaeci noieo ia
iiceoeeyo io?eoeaiey niaeoeyoeaiiai ciaiey. Niaeoeyoeey( onoaiiaea,
iniiaaiiay ia ciaieyo, iieo/aiiuo aac ia?auaiey e i?aeoeea. Aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth iiauo iai?aaeaiee. N iiiaioa
aicieeiiaaiey aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ana iai?aaeaiey iiceoeaecia
iauaaeeiyao ?anniio?aiea niioiioaiey O e iaoee.

Yiia?eie?aoeoeeci( aicieeiiaaiea ioiineony e 70-90a 19a. I?aaenoaaeoaee:
Iao, Aaaia?eon. Oa?aeoa?ii enneaaeiaaiea i?iaeaiu iao/iiai ciaiey,
auaeaeaiea ioiineoaeueiinoe iao/iiai iiciaiey. Neeiiythony e io?eoeaieth
iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe. Aaniethoece?iaaiea( iaoee ia niiniaiu aeaoue
/ae iiiyoea i aeaenoaeoaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe.

A 20-30a 20a ?acaeoea iiceoeaecia i?eaiaeeo e oi?ie?iaaieth
iaiiiceoeaecia. Naycaii n eiaiai (Aaineiai e?oaeea(. I?aaenoaaeoaee:
Oeee, Ea?iai. Ini caaea/a( ono?aiaiea iaoaoece/aneiai acaeyaea a O. e
iiiuoea nicaeaiey aaeeiiai ycuea iaoee. Nicaeaiea ycuea iaoee
caeii/eeinue iaoaea/ae.

A ?aieao iaiiiceoeaecia iac?aaaao e?ecen e a 60-a aiaeu aicieeaao
iinoiiceoeaeci. I?aaenoaaeoaee: Iiiia?, Eoi. Eo iauaaeeiyao:

ia?aoee io aiaeeca ycuea iaoee e aiaeeco i?iaeai enoi?ee iaoee.

ioeac io aeanoeiai ?acaeaeaiey yiia?e/aneiai (anoanoaaiiua iaoee) e
oai?aoe/aneiai (iai?, O) ciaiee.

?anniio?aiea enoi?ee iaoee ia n iiceoeee eiioeyoeaecia (i?ioeann
aeiaaaeaiey ciaiee), a ia?aoee ia i?ioeei ?aaiethoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee a
iaoea.

O. aeecie eii19- ia/ 20a. O enoieia noiyee Ieooa e Oiiaiaaoy?.
I?aaenoaaeoaee: Aa?anii, Ceiiaeue, Oiaiaea?, Aeeeueoae. Iniaaiiinoe:

O aeecie aace?oaony ia ooaa?aeaeaiee ae iiiyoey( AEecie (i?e?iaeu e
/ae). Ioee/eoaeueiue aniaeo a oii, /oi eeanne/aneay O ?anniao?eaaea
aeeciue ia a oua?a ae?oaei aii?inai O.

noi?iiieee O aeecie no?ieee naie ?aciuoeaiey ia e?eoeea noeeaioecia
(o/-a, eio n/eoaao iao/iua ciaiey aeaaiui aeinoeaeaieai e ooaa?aeaeaao,
/oi iaoea niiniaia ?aoeoue ana i?iaeaiu /ae). Iniaaiiinoue a oii, /oi
iie noaayo iiae niiiaiea e iuoathony ii?iaa?aiooue eeanne/aneia
anoanoaiciaiea. Aunooiaee i?ioea eaeae iaoaieoeecia (ia?aiin
iaoaieoeecia ia iau-ai).

ia?auaynue e anoanoaaiiui iaoeai, noi?iiieee O aeecie aieueoa aeaee aeey
?acaeoey aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe: ineoieiaee, enoi?ee, ycueiciaiey e o.ae.

iie ia?auaeenue ia oieueei e i?iaeaiai ?acoia, a e e i?iaeaiai
iiaeniciaoaeueiiai, aanniciaoaeueiiai, o.a. ooaa?aeaeaee eaeae
eiooeoeee.

ia?auaynue e enoi?ee iau-aa, i?aaei?eieiaee. iiiuoee oeiieiaece?iaaoue
enoi?eth n iiceoeee eoeueoo?u. (a iniiaiii Aa?anii e Oiaiaea?).

Aa?anii. Eeth/aaia iiiyoea aeeciue ?acaa?iooi ia ii?aaeaeyao.
Ii?aaeaeyao aeeciue eae iioie, aaca?aie/iia nouanoaiaaiea, i?i?ua,
aaca?aie/iia oai?/anoai. Oa?aeoa?iui na-aii aeecie n/eoaao
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue. AEeciue yoi oaeia yaeaiea, aei eioi?iai iaoea
aeia?aoueny ia iiaeao. Aeieiaey ia iiaeao aeieiiaoueny aei nooe aeecie,
iioiio /oi iuoaaony oeiaeeoue aa a ?aiee caeiiiia?iinoe; a yoi
aanniuneaiii, o.e. aeeciue iaiiaoi?eia (eiaeeaeaeoaeueia). Noaaeo
i?iaeaio eioaeeaeoa. Eioaeeaeo anaaaea aeieaeai i?aaeiieaaaoue ae?oaoth
aeooiaioth niiniaiinoue( einoeieo. Yoi 2 iaeeiaeiai e?aneaua aeooiaiua
niiniaiinoe, ?aoathuea iaeio i?iaeaio. Eeanne/aneay O aace?oaony oieueei
ia ?acoia, a O aeecie i?eciaao nouanoaiaaiea einoeieoa. Eioaeeaeo, oi
/oi iiiiaaao /ae nicaeaaaoue eneonnoaaiiua i?oaeey e eciaiyoue
ie?oaeathuoth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Einoeieo iie?aaony ia anoanoaaiiua
i?oaeey. Einoeieo ianeaaeoaony, ?acoi( iao. Einoeieo iiaoi?yao, ?acoi(
ecia?aoaao.

Yecenoaioeeaeeci (Yecenoaioeey( cia/eo nouanoaiaaiea)( O nouanoaiaaiey.

Iai?aaeaiea aicieeei iaaeaeo 20- 40a. 20a. I/aiue ?aciiia?acii e
iiiaineieii(iaoe./?one., iai.,…/;?aeea/aoaenoe/., ?ae./).

I?aaenoaaeoaee: aiae. ssnia?n, iai. Oaeaeaiaa?, o?. Na?o?, Eaith,
Ia?ei-Iiioe, ?one. Aa?aeyaa, Oanoia.

Iniiaiay eaeay- aioieiaey- o/aiea i auoea. ?aaeueiii /ae. auoea, a
ia i oii eae iaaei aeeoue(i /?i aiai?eea eeanne/aneay O.). O.a. auoea
naii ii naaa.

*ae. yaeyaony oai, /ai ii anoue aeaaiaea?y naaa. Io?eoeatho aiaoiea
neeu, oai?yuea /aeiaaea(aia, noaeueaa). Neaaenoaea: oieueei nai /ae.
ioaaonoaaiai ca naith aeeciue, ia iaaei ia?aeeaaeuaaoue i?iaeaiu
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia iauanoai.

Ae?oaay i?iaeaia- eaeay io/oaeaeaiey /ae. io iauanoaa. ?anniao?eaaeanue
e aei ieo, ii ?aiueoa iia aiaeece?iaaeanue n iiceoeee ii?aaeae?iiiai
iauanoaa(o Ia?ena ?anni. n iiceoeee ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa). Io/oaeaeaiea
/ae. ia caaeneo io nioe. I?iaeai e a?aiaie, iii aicieeaao aioo?e /ae.
aia caaeneiinoe io iauanoaa. Neiaieu eniieuecoaiua aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
iiiyoey io/oaeaeaiey: yecenoaioeeaeueiay o?aaiaa, oioiioa, no?ao(ia
aiyciue, ia i?e?iaeiue, ia eiie?aoiue). *ae. iaoiaeeony a iia?aie/iii
ninoiyiee iaaeaeo aeeciueth e nia?oueth(?iaeaeaiea /ae. anoue ia?aue oaa
aai nia?oe). Anee Yieeo? ecaaaeyao /ae. io no?aoa nia?oe, oi
yecenoaiiiaeenou aeaeatho oii? ia eaeath nia?oe, o.e. n/eoatho, /oi
oieueei i?e yniii iuouaiee nia?oe /ae. iiaeao y?/a, oi/iaa iiiyoue niune
aeecie.

Oaiiiaiieiaey. I?aaenoaaeoaeue Aonna?eue.

No?oeoo?aeeci. I?aaenoaaeoaeue Eaae-No?inn.

Iinono?oeoo?aeeci. I?aaenoaaeoaee: Eaioa? e Aea??eaea.

Iinoiiaea?ienoneay neooaoeey. Aicieeioa eae io?eoeaiea eeanne/aneie O.
O. Iiaiai a?aiaie ia iiaeao caaa?oeony iieiui io?eoeaieai. Eae oieueei
io?eoeaiea ia?anoaao, aicieeatho O. iai?aaeaiey ia?auathueany ia?aoii e
eeanne/aneei iiceoeeyi.

PAGE 15

PAGE \# “‘No?: ‘#’

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020