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Философия Г. Гегеля и Л. Фейербаха

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OEEINIOEss A. AAAAEss E E. OAEA?AAOA.

Ieai.

I. Anooieaiea. Iaiaoeeee eaeaaeeci a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea.

II. Iniiaiay /anoue. Oeeinioey A. Aaaaey e E. Oaea?aaoa.

1. Iauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa? oeeinioee Aaaaey.

2. I?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo iaoiaeii e nenoaiie a oeeinioee Aaaaey.

3. Aio?iiieiae/aneee iaoa?eaeeci E. Oaea?aaoa.

III. Caeeth/aiea. Cia/aiea oeeinioneeo o?oaeia Aaaaey e Oaea?aaoa.

Iaiaoeeee eaeaaeeci a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea.

Ioeac io o?aaeeoeee iaoaoeceee, eioi?ue i?iecioae a XVIII aaea, ?ac?ooee
iniiao aaeeinoaa anae nenoaiu ciaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iecioei ieeiaaea
i?aaeaea n oaeie ii?aaeaeaiiinoueth ia i?iaiaeeaoaany ?acaeaeaiea auoey
ia ie? i?e?iaeu e ie? /aeiaaea. Yoi ?acaeaeaiea iineaaeiaaoaeueii
inouanoaee Eaio, iniiaiiieiaeiee iaiaoeeiai eaeaaeecia. Aeaeiui
i?aaenoaaeoaeai iaiaoeeiai eaeaaeecia aue Aaaaeue (1770-1831).
Ioi?aaeyynue io oeeinioee Eaioa, ii a oi aea a?aiy iiaeaa?a ia?aniio?o
aai iiiyoea o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai noauaeoa, i?aaeeiaeea ?anniao?eaaoue
a ea/anoaa oaeiaiai enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa a oeaeii. Aaaaeue nicaeae ia
iauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneie iniiaa nenoaiaoe/aneoth oai?eth aeeaeaeoeee.
Iineaaeiaaoaeai Aaaaey ia?aiia/aeueii aue Oaea?aao (1804-1872), ii caoai
1839 aiaeo iiaeaa?a e?eoeea aaaaeaaneee eaeaaeeci, iieacaa aai naycue n
?aeeaeae. Oaea?aao auaeaeioe a oeaio? naiae oeeinioee /aeiaaea,
o?aeooaiiai eae aeieiae/aneia nouanoai, aano?aeoiue eiaeeaeae.

Iauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa? oeeinioee Aaaaey.

A iniiaa aeeaeaeoeee Aaaaey eaaeeo eaeaaeenoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea i
oii, /oi enoi/iee anyeiai ?acaeoey – eae i?e?iaeu, oae e iauanoaa, e
/aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey – caeeth/ai a naii?acaeoee iiiyoey, a cia/eo
eiaao eiae/aneoth, aeooiaioth i?e?iaeo. Niaeanii Aaaaeth, ”oieueei a
iiiyoee enoeia iaeaaeaao noeoeae naiaai nouanoaiaaiey”, e iiyoiio
aeeaeaeoeea iiiyoee ii?aaeaeyao niaie aeeaeaeoeeo aauae – i?ioeannia a
i?e?iaea e iauanoaa. Aeeaeaeoeea aauae, ii Aaaaeth, anoue, io?aaeaiiay,
”io/oaeaeaiiay”, ”iaiaoiaiiay” oi?ia iiaeeeiiie aeeaeaeoeee, i?enouae
”oieueei aeecie iiiyoey”, eee, eia/a aiai?y, aeecie aiaa, eae ii
nouanoaoao nai ii naaa, eae au a aai iuoeaiee. Nai aia iuneeony Aaaaeai
ia eae ee/iue aia o?enoeaineie ?aeeaee, a eae aacee/iue i?ioeann
naiiaeaeaeaiey iiiyoey, n iaoeeiiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?acaeaathuaai
naie ii?aaeaeaiey a aeeaeaeoe/aneii i?ioeanna – /a?ac ?acaa?ouaaiea
enoiaeiiai i?ioeai?a/ey e aai iineaaeothuaa i?aiaeieaiea.

Naiaia?aciui aaaaeaieai a aaaaeaaneoth nenoaio yaeyaony ”Oaiiiaiieiaey
aeooa” (1807), iaeia ec iaeaieaa neiaeiuo e iaeaieaa niaea?aeaoaeueiuo
?aaio iaiaoeeiai oeeinioa. A iae ii noaaeo caaea/o i?aiaeieaiey oi/ee
c?aiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai niciaiey, aeey eioi?iai, ii aai
ooaa?aeaeaieth, oieueei e nouanoaoao i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue noauaeoa e
iauaeoa. Niyoue yoo i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iiaeii eeoue iooai
iinooiaoaeueiiai ?acaeoey niciaiey, a oiaea eioi?iai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia
niciaiea i?ioiaeeo aanue oio iooue, ana oa yoaiu, eioi?ua i?ioei
/aeiaa/anoai ia i?ioyaeaiee naiae enoi?ee. I?e yoii Aaaaeue aeaao
oeeinioneoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth anaai oiai aiaaonoaa enoi?e/aneiai ciaiey
eaeei iaeaaeae nai. Oai naiui Aaaaeue i?aaeeaaaao eae au eanoieoeo,
iiaeieiaynue ii eioi?ie eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue /aeiaae i?eiauaaony e
aeooiaiiio iiuoo, iaeiieaiiiio /aeiaa/anoaii, i?eiauaaony e anaie?iie
eoeueoo?a e iiaeieiaaony n oi/ee c?aiey iauaeaiiiai niciaiey aei oi/ee
c?aiey oeeinioneie. Ia aa?oeia yoie eanoieoeu ethaie eiaeeaeae a
ninoiyiee, ii iiaieth Aaaaey, iiniio?aoue ia ie? e ia naay n oi/ee
c?aiey caaa?oeaoaeny ie?iaie enoi?ee, ”ie?iaiai aeooa”, aeey eioi?iai
aieueoa iao i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe noauaeoa e iauaeoa, ”niciaiey” e
”i?aaeiaoa”, a anoue aaniethoiia oiaeaeanoai, oiaeaeanoai iuoeaiey e
auoey.

Aeinoeaioa aaniethoiiai oiaeaeanoaa, oeeinioey iieeaeaao oi/eo c?aiey
iauaeaiiiai niciaiey e oieueei oaia?ue iiiaaeaao a naith iiaeeeiioth
noeoeth – noeoeth /enoiai iuoeaiey, aaea, ii Aaaaeth, ana ii?aaeaeaiey
iunee ?acaa?ouaathony ec iaa naiie. Yoi – noa?a eiaeee, aaea i?ioaeaao
ie/ai noauaeoeaii ia caiooiaiiay aeeciue iiiyoey.

I?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo iaoiaeii e nenoaiie a oeeinioee Aaaaey.

Anyeia ?acaeoea i?ioaeaao, niaeanii Aaaaeth, ii ii?aaeaeaiiie noaia:
ooaa?aeaeaiea, eee iieaaaiea (oacen), io?eoeaiea yoiai ooaa?aeaeaiey
(aioeoacen) e, iaeiiaoe, io?eoeaiea io?eoeaiey, niyoea
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae (neioac). A neioaca eae au i?eia?ythony iaaeaeo
niaie oacen e aioeoacen, ec eioi?uo aicieeaao iiaia ea/anoaaiiia
ninoiyiea. Iaeiaei ia neaaeoao aeoiaoue, /oi a yoii o?aoueai iiiaioa
iieiinoueth oie/oiaeaiu aeaa ia?auo. Aaaaeaaneia niyoea icia/aao a oaeie
aea ia?a i?aiaeieaiea, a eioi?ie e nio?aiaiea oacena e aioeoacena, ii
nio?aiaiea a iaeioi?ii aunoai, aa?iiiece?othuai aaeeinoaa. Eaaeaeia
iiiyoea, a noaei auoue, e eaaeaeia yaeaiea a i?e?iaea, iauanoaa e
aeooiaiie aeecie /aeiaaea i?ioiaeeo, ii Aaaaeth, oaeie o?ienoaaiiue
oeeee ?acaeoey – ooaa?aeaeaiea, io?eoeaiey e io?eoeaiey io?eoeaiey, eee
iiaiai ooaa?aeaeaiey, aeinoeaioa eioi?iai aanue i?ioeann
aini?iecaiaeeony aiiaue, ii ia aieaa aunieii o?iaia; e oae aei oao ii?,
iiea ia aoaeao iieo/ai aunoee neioac. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai oeeeea Aaaaeue i?eaiaeee ii/eo ?anoaiey: ”Ii/ea
en/acaao, eiaaea ?anioneaaony oeaaoie, e iiaeii auei au neacaoue, /oi
iia ii?iaa?aaaony oeaaoeii; oi/ii oae aea i?e iiyaeaiee ieiaea oeaaoie
i?eciaaony eiaeiui iaee/iui auoeai ?anoaiey, a a ea/anoaa aai enoeiu
aianoi oeaaoea aunooiaao ieiae. Yoe oi?iu ia oieueei ?acee/athony
iaaeaeo niaie, ii e auoaniytho ae?oa ae?oaa eae ianiaianoeiua. Iaeiaei
eo oaeo/ay i?e?iaea aeaeaao eo a oi aea a?aiy iiiaioaie i?aaie/aneiai
aaeeinoaa, a eioi?ii iie ia oieueei ia i?ioeai?a/ao ae?oa ae?oao, ii
iaeei oae aea iaiaoiaeei, eae e ae?oaie; e oieueei yoa iaeeiaeiaay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue e ninoaaeyao aeeciue oeaeiai”.

A ”Iaoea eiaeee” (1812-16) Aaaaeue noaaee naiae caaea/ae iieacaoue
naiiaeaeaeaiea iiiyoey. Ii aiai?ee, /oi iaaei caiyoue oaeoth iiceoeeth
ii ioiioaieth e iiiyoeth, eiaaea noauaeo iieiinoueth ono?aiyaony, ia
aiaoeaaaony a aeaeaeaiea iiiyoee, aai caaea/a – oieueei iaaethaeaoue ca
iiiyoeai, i?aaeinoaaea aio naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeyoue naith aeeciue.
I?e yoii iaaethaeaoaeue-oeeinio caia/aao, /oi o eaaeaeiai iiiyoey anoue
naiy iaeiinoi?iiiinoue, a neeo eioi?ie iii ieacuaaaony eiia/iui e a
ea/anoaa oaeiaiai n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth oie/oiaeaao naay, ia?aoiaey a
naith i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue. I?e yoii nouanoaaiii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi
eaaeaeia ec iiiyoee ieacuaaaony iaeiinoi?iiiei eiaiii a oii ioiioaiee, a
eaeii e iaia?oaeeaaaony aai nouiinoue; oi/iaa, aai nouiinoue e anoue yoa
naiay iaeiinoi?iiiinoue. Ionthaea ynii, /oi o eaaeaeiai iiiyoey – naiy
iaeiinoi?iiiinoue, aiieia eiie?aoiay; eiaiii iiyoiio eaaeaeia iiiyoea
ia?aoiaeeo ia ai ana ae?oaea iiiyoey, a a naia ae?oaia. Yoi iineaaeiaa
iiyoue-oaee iaia?oaeeaaao naith eiia/iinoue, a iioiio ia?aoiaeeo a naith
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue, e oae aei oao ii?, iiea ia aoaeao aeinoeaioo aunoee
neioac, ia aoaeao ia?aoaia ”aaniethoiay e iieiay enoeia, iuneyuay naiia
naay eaeay”.

Aanue iooue naiiaeaeaeaiey iiiyoey inouanoaeyaony aeeaeaeoe/aneei iooai.
Caeeth/aiiay a eaaeaeii iiiyoee ”io?eoeaoaeueiinoue”, eioi?ay eae ?ac e
ninoaaeyao aai ia?aie/aiiinoue, iaeiinoi?iiiinoue, ieacuaaaony i?oaeeiie
naii?acaeoey yoiai iiiyoey. Iiea iiiyoea ia aeinoeaiao aunoaai ioieoa –
aaniethoiie eaeae, aei oao ii? eaaeaeay ec nooiaiae aai ?acaeoey aeaao
oieueei ioiineoaeueioth, ia iieioth enoeio.

Aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae Aaaaey anooiaao a i?ioeai?a/ea n o?aaiaaieai
nenoaiu, eioi?ay iaycaoaeueii aeieaeia auoue caaa?oaia, a yoi cia/eo,
/oi aaniethoiay enoeia aeieaeia auoue a eiioea eiioeia aeinoeaiooa.
Aaaaeue ?anniao?eaae naith nenoaio eae oeeinioeth, aai/athuoth niaie
?acaeoea anaai /aeiaa/anoaa, a eioi?ie aeinoeaiooa aaniethoiay enoeia.

Aio?iiieiae/aneee iaoa?eaeeci E. Oaea?aaoa.

A na?aaeeia XIX aaea n ino?ie e?eoeeie eaeaaeecia aunooiee iaiaoeeee
oeeinio Ethaeaea Oaea?aao. N oi/ee c?aiey Oaea?aaoa, eaeaaeeci anoue ia
/oi eiia, eae ?aoeeiiaeece?iaaiiay ?aeeaey, a oeeinioey e ?aeeaey ii
naiiio eo nouanoao, n/eoae Oaea?aao, i?ioeaiiieiaeiu ae?oa ae?oao. A
iniiaa ?aeeaee eaaeeo aa?a a aeiaiaou, oiaaea eae a iniiaa oeeinioee –
ciaiea, no?aieaiea ?ane?uoue aeaenoaeoaeueioth i?e?iaeo aauae. Iiyoiio
ia?aaeooth caaea/o oeeinioee Oaea?aao aeaeae a e?eoeea ?aeeaee, a
?aciaea/aiee oao eeethcee, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho nouiinoue ?aeeaeiciiai
niciaiey. ?aeeaey e aeeceay e iae ii aeooo eaeaaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey
aicieeatho, ii iiaieth Oaea?aaoa, ec io/oaeaeaiey /aeiaa/aneie nouiinoe,
iin?aaenoaii i?eienuaaiey aiao oao ao?eaooia, eioi?ua a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?eiaaeeaaeao naiiio /aeiaaeo.

Niaeanii Oaea?aaoo, aeey inaiaiaeaeaiey io ?aeeaeiciuo caaeoaeaeaiee
iaiaoiaeeii iiiyoue, /oi /aeiaae – ia oai?aiea aiaa, a /anoue – e i?eoii
iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiay – aa/iie i?e?iaeu. Ii ienae: ”Iia o/aiea eee
aicc?aiea iiaeao auoue iiyoiio au?aaeaii a aeaoo neiaao: i?e?iaea e
/aeiaae. N iiae oi/ee c?aiey, nouanoai, i?aaeoanoaothuea /aeiaaeo,
nouanoai, yaeythueany i?e/eiie eee iniiaie /aeiaaea, eioi?iio ii iaycai
naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai e nouanoaiaaieai, anoue e iacuaaaony ia aia –
ienoe/aneia, iaii?aaeaeaiiia, iiiaicia/auea neiai, a i?e?iaea – neiai e
nouanoai yniia, /oanoaaiiia, iaaeaoniuneaiiia. Nouanoai aea, a eioi?ii
i?e?iaea aeaeaaony ee/iui, niciaoaeueiui, ?acoiiui nouanoaii, anoue e
iacuaaaony o iaiy – /aeiaae”. O. Yiaaeuen ienae i ni/eiaiee Oaea?aaoa
”Nouiinoue o?enoeainoaa”: ”I?e?iaea anaaaea nouanoaoao iacaaeneii io
eaeie au oi ie auei oeeinioee. Iia anoue oa iniiaa, ia eioi?ie au?inee
iu, ethaee, naie i?iaeoeou i?e?iaeu. Aia i?e?iaeu e /aeiaaea iao ie/aai,
e aunoea nouanoaa, nicaeaiiua iaoae ?aeeaeiciie oaioaceae, yoi – eeoue
oaioanoe/aneea io?aaeaiey iaoae nianoaaiiie nouiinoe”.

Iaoa?eaeeci Oaea?aaoa nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io iaoa?eaeecia XVIII aaea,
iineieueeo, a ioee/ea io iineaaeiaai, ia naiaeeo anyeoth ?aaeueiinoue e
iaoaie/aneiio aeaeaeaieth e ?anniao?eaaao i?e?iaeo ia eae iaoaieci, a
nei?aa eae i?aaieci. Ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae aio?iiieiae/aneee, oae eae a
oeaio?a aieiaiey Oaea?aaoa – ia ioaea/aiiia iiiyoea iaoa?ee, eae o
aieueoeinoaa o?aioeocneeo iaoa?eaeenoia, a /aeiaae eae ineoioece/aneia
aaeeinoai, aaeeinoai aeooe e oaea. Enoiaey ec oaeiai iiieiaiey /aeiaaea,
Oaea?aao ioaa?aaao aai eaeaaeenoe/aneoth o?aeoiaeo, i?e eioi?ie /aeiaae
?anniao?eaaaony i?aaeaea anaai eae aeooiaiia nouanoai. Niaeanii
Oaea?aaoo, oaei a aai oeaeinoiinoe eae ?ac e ninoaaeyao nouiinoue
/aeiaa/aneiai ”ss”. Aeooiaiia ia/aei a /aeiaaea ia iiaeao auoue
ioaeaeaii io oaeaniiai, aeoo e oaei – aeaa noi?iiu oie ?aaeueiinoe,
eioi?ay iacuaaaony i?aaieciii. *aeiaa/aneay i?e?iaea, oaeei ia?acii,
oieeoaony Oaea?aaoii i?aeiouanoaaiii aeieiae/anee, e ioaeaeueiue
eiaeeaeae aeey iaai – ia enoi?e/anee-aeooiaiia ia?aciaaiea, eae o
Aaaaey, a caaii a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea.

E?eoeeoy eaeaaeenoe/aneoth o?aeoiaeo iiciaiey e aoaeo/e iaaeiaieai
aano?aeoiui iuoeaieai, Oaea?aao aiaeee?oao e /oanoaaiiiio nica?oeaieth.
Iieaaay, /oi iuouaiea ninoaaeyao aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee iaoaai iiciaiey.
Oieueei oi, /oi aeaii iai /a?ac i?aaiu /oanoa – c?aiea, neoo, inycaiea,
iaiiyiea, – iaeaaeaao, ii Oaea?aaoo, iiaeeeiiie ?aaeueiinoueth. N
iiiiuueth i?aaiia /oanoa iu iiciaai eae oece/aneea iauaeou, oae e
ineoe/aneea ninoiyiey ae?oaeo ethaeae. Oaea?aao ia i?eciaaae ieeaeie
naa?o/oanoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoe e ioaa?aae aiciiaeiinoue /enoi ioaea/aiiiai
iiciaiey n iiiiuueth ?acoia, n/eoay iineaaeiaa ecia?aoaieai
eaeaaeenoe/aneie niaeoeyoeee.

Aio?iiieiae/aneee i?eioeei Oaea?aaoa a oai?ee iiciaiey au?aaeaaony a
oii, /oi ii ii-iiaiio eioa?i?aoe?oao naii iiiyoea ”iauaeo”. Ii
Oaea?aaoo, iiiyoea iauaeoa ia?aiia/aeueii oi?ie?oaony a iiuoa
/aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey, e iiyoiio ia?aue iauaeo aeey anyeiai /aeiaaea –
yoi ae?oaie /aeiaae, ”Ou”. Eiaiii ethaiaue e ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo anoue
iooue e i?eciaieth aai iauaeoeaiiai nouanoaiaaiey, a oai naiui e
i?eciaieth nouanoaiaaiey aiiaua aiaoieo aauae.

Ec aioo?aiiae nayce ethaeae, iniiaaiiie ia /oanoaa ethaae, aicieeaao
aeueo?oenoe/aneay ii?aeue, eioi?ay, ii oaaaeaeaieth Oaea?aaoa, aeieaeia
anoaoue ia ianoi eeethci?iie nayce n aiaii. Ethaiaue e aiao, niaeanii
iaiaoeeiio oeeinioo, anoue eeoue io/oaeaeaiiay, eiaeiay oi?ia iiaeeeiiie
ethaae – ethaae e ae?oaei ethaeyi.

Cia/aiea oeeinioneeo o?oaeia Aaaaey e Oaea?aaoa.

Aaaaeaaneee aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae iinee ?aaiethoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?,
oiaaea eae nenoaia Aaaaey, i?aaeiieaaathuay aeinoeaeaiea aaniethoiie
enoeiu, ieacaeanue eiina?aaoeaiie.

Aio?iiieiae/aneee iaoa?eaeeci Oaea?aaoa aiciee eae ?aaeoeey ia
eaeaaeeci, e i?aaeaea anaai ia o/aiea Aaaaey, a eioi?ii ainiiaenoai
anaiauaai iaae aaeeie/iui auei aeiaaaeaii aei i?aaeaeueiie noaiaie. Aei
oaeie noaiaie, /oi ioaeaeueiay /aeiaa/aneay ee/iinoue ieacaeanue
en/acathua-ie/oiaeiui iiiaioii, eioi?ue iaaeeaaeaei iieiinoueth
i?aiaeieaoue, /oiau anoaoue ia anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneoth oi/eo c?aiey
”aaniethoiiai aeooa”. Oaea?aao anoae ia caueoo eiaiii
i?e?iaeii-aeieiae/aneiai ia/aea a /aeiaaea, io eioi?iai a aieueoie ia?a
aano?aae?iaaeny iaiaoeeee eaeaaeeci iinea Eaioa.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Ie? oeeinioee. *.1,2.-I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1991.

2. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth: O/aaiee aeey aocia. *.1 /Iiae iau. ?aae.
E.O.O?ieiaa.-I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1989.

3. Yiaaeuen O. Ethaeaea Oaea?aao e eiiaoe eeanne/aneie iaiaoeeie
oeeinioee. N i?ee.: E. Ia?en. Oacenu i Oaea?aaoa.-I.: Iieeoecaeao,
1985.

4. Niaaoneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue/ Ae. ?aae. A. I. I?ioi?ia. –
4-a ecae. – I.: Nia. yioeeeeiiaaeey, 1986.

Aaaaeue. Ni/. I., 1959. O.4. N. 3.

Aaaaeue. Ni/. I., 1959. O.4. N. 2.

Aaaaeue. Ni/. I.-E., 1929. O.1. N. 340.

Oaea?aao E. Nouiinoue ?aeeaee // Eca?aiiua oeeinioneea i?iecaaaeaiey.
I., 1955. O. 2. N.515.

Yiaaeuen O. Ethaeaea Oaea?aao e eiiaoe eeanne/aneie iaiaoeeie
oeeinioee. N i?ee.: E. Ia?en. Oacenu i Oaea?aaoa.-I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1985.
N.27.

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