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Философия экзастециализма: САРТР

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?aoa?ao ii oeeinioee

ia oaio

“Na?o? (Sartre)”

nooaeaioa th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai Oieaa?neoaoa

12 a?oiiu

Auoaineiai Aaeaioeia.

Iineaa, 1997

AEai Iieue Na?o? (?iaeeeny 21 ethiy 1905 aiaea) – o?aioeocneee oeeinio,
i?aaenoaaeoaeue yecenoaioeeaeecia (oae iacuaaaiiai aoaenoe/aneiai aai
aa?eaioa), ienaoaeue, ae?aiaoo?a e ynnaeno. Ii oaeaea aue iauanoaaiiui
aeayoaeai, o/anoieeii O?aioeocneiai aeaeaeaiey Nii?ioeaeaiey, a
iineaaiaiiua aiaeu – iiiai/eneaiiuo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo aeaeaeaiee e
i?aaiecaoeee. ssaeeny iniiaaoaeai e aee?aeoi?ii aeo?iaea “Les Temps
Modernes” (1945). Ia?aciaaiea iieo/ee a eeoeayo Ea-?ioaee, eii/ee
aunooth ii?iaeueioth oeieo a Ia?eaea, noaaee?iaaeny ai O?aioeocneii
einoeoooa a Aa?eeia (1934). I?aiiaeaaae oeeinioeth a ?acee/iuo eeoeayo
O?aioeee (1929-39 e 1941-44); n 1944 oeaeeeii iinayoee naay eeoa?aoo?iie
?aaioa. Ecaanoiinoue Na?o?o i?eianee ?iiai “Oioiioa” (1938) e nai?iee
?anneacia “Noaia”. Iniiaiay oeeinioneay ?aaioa – “Auoea e ie/oi”. Ii
iiioey?iinoue Na?o? i?eia?ae a iineaaiaiiua aiaeu.

Ie?iaicc?aiea Na?o?a neiaeeeinue iiae aeeyieai i?aaeaea anaai Aa?aniia,
Aonna?ey e Oaeaeaaaa?a. Yecenoaioeeaeueiay oeeinioey Na?o?a
iaia?oaeeaaao naay eae iaeii ec nia?aiaiiuo ioaaoaeaiee oaiiiaiieiaee
Aonna?ey, eae i?eeiaeaiea aai iaoiaea e “aeeaiio niciaieth”, e
noauaeoeaii-aeayoaeueiie noi?iia oiai niciaiey, n eaeei eiie?aoiue
eiaeeaeae, caa?ioaiiue a ie? eiie?aoiuo neooaoeee, i?aaei?eieiaao
eaeia-eeai aeaenoaea, anooiaao a ioiioaiea n ae?oaeie ethaeueie e
aauaie, no?aieony e /aio-eeai, i?eieiaao aeeoaeneea ?aoaiey, o/anoaoao a
iauanoaaiiie aeecie e oae aeaeaa. Ana aeou aeayoaeueiinoe
?anniao?eaathony Na?o?ii eae yeaiaiou ii?aaeaeaiiie oaiiiaiieiae/iie
no?oeoo?u e ?anoeaieaathony oaeoe/anee a caaeneiinoe io caaea/
ee/iinoiiai naiiinouanoaeaiey eiaeeaeaea. Na?o? ?anniao?eaaao ?ieue
“noauaeoeaiiai” (iiaeeeiii-ee/iinoiiai) a i?ioeanna /aeiaa/aneie
ia?niiaeecaoeee e enoi?e/aneiai oai?/anoaa. Ii Na?o?o, aeo niaoeeoe/anee
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe anoue aeo iaicia/aiey, i?eaeaiey niunea (oai
iiiaioai neooaoeee, a eioi?uo i?iaeyaeuaaao iauaeoeaiinoue – “ae?oaia”,
“aeaiiia”). I?aaeiaou eeoue ciaee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo /aeiaa/aneeo
cia/aiee, niuneiauo ia?aciaaiee /aeiaa/aneie noauaeoeaiinoe. Aia yoiai
iie – i?inoi aeaiiinoue, nu?ay iaoa?ey, ianneaiua e eia?oiua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa. I?eaeaaay ei oi eee eiia eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-/aeiaa/aneia
cia/aiea, niune, /aeiaae oi?ie?oao naay a ea/anoaa oae eee eia/a
i/a?/aiiie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe. Aiaoiea i?aaeiaou – caeanue i?inoi
iiaiae aeey “?aoaiee”, “auai?a”, eioi?ue aeieaeai auoue auai?ii naiiai
naay.

Iineieueeo o Na?o?a /aeiaa/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue – a oie ia?a, a eaeie
iia naiaiaeiay e oai?/aneay, – eeoaia ei?iae a niaea?aeaiee
iauaeoeaiinoe, a oii /enea e a niaea?aeaiee oi?i ii?aaeia/aiiie
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe (oi anoue eoeueoo?u), oi niaea?aeaieai aa
ieacuaaaony iaoo?aeenoe/anee acyoia niaea?aeaiea i?e?iaeu naiiai
eiaeeaeaea, aai oieeaeueiua aeieiae/aneea caaeneiinoe, niauoey e o?aaiu
aeoaieiai aeaonoaa, aeiaeathuea iaae eiaeeaeaeii, eae ?ie. A yoie nayce
Na?o? ?acaeaaao iaoiae, iacuaaaiue ei yecenoaioeeaeueiui ineoiaiaeecii,
eioi?ue i?ecaai i?iynieoue iaeee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe iooai auyaeaiey oao
ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaonoaa e oao niaoeeoe/aneeo aeieiae/aneeo caaeneiinoae,
a ioaao ia eioi?ua iia naay no?ieo.

Oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey Na?o?a ?acaeaaaony ia iniiaa aaniethoiiai
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey e acaeiieneeth/aiey iiiyoee: “iauaeoeaiinoue” e
“noauaeoeaiinoue”, “iaiaoiaeeiinoue” e “naiaiaea”. Enoi/iee yoeo
i?ioeai?a/ee Na?o? oniao?eaaao ia a eiie?aoiii niaea?aeaiee nee
nioeeaeueiiai auoey, a ai anaiaueo oi?iao yoiai auoey (aauanoaaiiua
naienoaa i?aaeiaoia, eieeaeoeaiua e iaiauanoaeaiiua oi?iu auoey e
niciaiey ethaeae, eiaeono?eaeecaoeey, oaoie/aneay iniauaiiinoue
nia?aiaiiie aeecie e oae aeaeaa). Naiaiaea eiaeeaeaea eae iineoaey
aaniieieiie noauaeoeaiinoe iiaeao auoue eeoue “?acaeaoeai auoey”,
ia?aciaaieai a iai “o?aueiu”, “aeu?u”, ie/oi. Eiaeeaeaea nia?aiaiiiai
iauanoaa Na?o? iiieiaao eae io/oaeaeaiiia nouanoai, aicaiaey yoi
eiie?aoiia ninoiyiea a iaoaoece/aneee noaoon /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey
aiiaua. Anaiauaa cia/aiea einie/aneiai oaeana i?eia?aoatho o Na?o?a
io/oaeaeaiiua oi?iu /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey, a eioi?uo
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue noaiaea?oece?iaaia e io?aoaia io enoi?e/aneie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, iiae/eiaia ianniaui, eieeaeoeaiui oi?iai auoa,
i?aaiecaoeee, ainoaea?noaa, noeoeeiui yeiiiie/aneei neeai, i?eaycaia e
iei oaeaea e naiei ?aaneei niciaieai, aaea ianoi naiinoiyoaeueiiai
e?eoe/aneiai iuoeaiey caieiatho iauanoaaiii i?eioaeeoaeueiua noaiaea?ou
e eeethcee, o?aaiaaiey iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey e aaea aeaaea iauaeoeaiue
?acoi iaoee i?aaenoaaeyaony ioaeaeaiiie io /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaaiie aio
neeie. Io/oaeaeaiiue io naay /aeiaae, ia?a/aiiue ia iaiiaeeeiiia
nouanoaiaaiea, ia a eaaeo e n aauaie i?e?iaeu – iie aeooe e iaio, aeaayo
ia iaai naiei ayceei e nieeaeii-iaiiaeaeaeiui i?enoonoaeai, e n?aaee ieo
iiaeao naay /oanoaiaaoue aeaaiiieo/ii ono?iaiiui oieueei iauanoai
“iiaeiieia”, /aeiaae aea eniuouaaao “oioiioo”. A i?ioeaiaan anyeei
aiiaua “iauaeoeaiui” e iiin?aaeiaaiiui aauaie ioiioaieyi, ii?iaeaeathuei
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu, Na?o? ooaa?aeaeaao iniaua,
iaiin?aaenoaaiiua, iaoo?aeueiua e oeaeueiua /aeiaa/aneea ioiioaiey, io
?aaeecaoeee eioi?uo caaeneo iiaeeeiiia niaea?aeaiea /aeiaa/iinoe.

A ieoieiaece?othuai ooiie/aneii iuoeaiee Na?o?a ana aea ia ia?aue ieai
aunooiaao iai?eyoea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa e aai
eoeueoo?u, au?aaeathuaa neeueioth no?oth nia?aiaiiiai nioeeaeueiiai
e?eoeoeecia. AEeoue a yoii iauanoaa, niaeanii Na?o?o, eae aeeaao a iai
“aeiaieueiia niaie niciaiea”, iiaeii eeoue ioeacaaoenue io naay, io
ee/iie iiaeeeiiinoe, io “?aoaiee” e “auai?a”, ia?aeiaeea iineaaeiea ia
/ueth-eeai aiiieiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue – ia ainoaea?noai, iaoeeth, ?ano,
naiueth, ae?oaeo ethaeae. Ii e yoio ioeac – ioaaonoaaiiue aeo ee/iinoe,
eai /aeiaae iaeaaeaao naiaiaeie aiee.

Eiioeaioeey naiaiaeu aiee ?acaa?ouaaaony o Na?o?a a oai?ee “i?iaeoa”,
niaeanii eioi?ie eiaeeaeae ia caaeai naiiio naaa, a i?iaeoe?oao,
“niae?aao” naay a ea/anoaa oaeiaiai. Iiyoiio o?on, iai?eia?,
ioaaonoaaiai ca naith o?oninoue, e “aeey /aeiaaea iao aeeae”.
Yecenoaioeeaeeci Na?o?a no?aieony canoaaeoue /aeiaaea iniciaoue, /oi ii
iieiinoueth a ioaaoa ca naiiai naay, naia nouanoaiaaiea e ie?oaeathuaa,
eai enoiaeeo ec ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi, ia aoaeo/e /ai-oi caaeaiiui, /aeiaae
iinoiyiii no?ieo naay iin?aaenoaii naiae aeoeaiie noauaeoeaiinoe. Ii
anaaaea “aia?aaee, iicaaee naay, ieeiaaea – nai”. Ionthaea oi
au?aaeaiea, eioi?ia Na?o? aeaao iauaio i?eioeeio yecenoaioeeaeecia: “…
nouanoaiaaiea i?aaeoanoaoao nouiinoe…” Ii nooe yoi icia/aao, /oi
anaiauea, iauanoaaiii-cia/eiua (eoeueoo?iua) iauaeoeaaoeee, eioi?ua
aunooiatho eae “nouiinoe”, “i?e?iaea /aeiaaea”, “anaiauea eaeaaeu”,
“oeaiiinoe” e oae aeaeaa, yaeythony eeoue ioeiaeaieyie, canouaoeie
iiiaioaie aeayoaeueiinoe, n eioi?uie eiie?aoiue noauaeo ieeiaaea ia
niaiaaeaao. “Yecenoaioeey” e anoue iinoiyiii aeeaie iiiaio
aeayoaeueiinoe, acyoue a aeaea aioo?eeiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ninoiyiey,
noauaeoeaii. A aieaa iicaeiae ?aaioa “E?eoeea aeeaeaeoe/aneiai ?acoia”
Na?o? oi?ioee?oao yoio i?eioeei eae i?eioeei “ianaiaeeiinoe auoey e
ciaieth”. Ii yecenoaioeeaeeci Na?o?a ia iaoiaeeo eiie iniiau, ec eioi?ie
/aeiaae iia au ?acaeoue naay a ea/anoaa iiaeeeiii naiiaeayoaeueiiai
noauaeoa, e?iia aaniethoiie naiaiaeu e aioo?aiiaai aaeeinoaa
“i?iaeoe?othuaai y”. A yoii naiai aiciiaeiii ?acaeoee ee/iinoue iaeeiiea
e eeoaia iii?. Ianoi aeoeaiie noauaeoeaiinoe a ie?a, aa iioieiae/aneoth
iniiao Na?o? iaicia/aao eae “ie/oi”. Ii iunee Na?o?a, “… /aeiaae, aac
anyeie iii?u e iiiiue, inoaeaeai a eaaeaeue iiiaio ecia?aoaoue /aeiaaea”
e oai naiui “/aeiaae inoaeaeai ia naiaiaeo”. Ii oiaaea iniiaie
iiaeeeiiinoe (aooaioe/iinoe) iiaoo auoue oieueei e??aoeeiiaeueiua neeu
/aeiaa/aneiai iiaeiieuey, iiaeneacee iiaeniciaoaeueiiai, eiooeoeee,
aacio/aoiua aeooaaiua ii?uau e ?aoeeiiaeueii ia iniuneaiiua ?aoaiey,
iaieioaii i?eaiaeyuea e ianneiecio eee e aa?anneaiiio naiaaieeth
eiaeeaeaea: “Enoi?ey ethaie aeecie anoue enoi?ey ii?aaeaiey”. Iiyaeyaony
iioea aano?aeiinoe nouanoaiaaiey: “Aano?aeii, /oi iu ?iaeaeaainy, e
aano?aeii, /oi iu oie?aai”. *aeiaae, ii Na?o?o, – aaniieaciay no?anoue.

Ana yoe oaiu naiae oeeinioee Na?o? ?acaeaaao a aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiie
ineoieiae/aneie aeeaeaeoeee aeecie eiaeeaeaea a iauanoaa, noaiu eioi?ie
ii ia?aaiaeeo oaeaea e ia ycue ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa (aeey
yecenoaioeeaeecia oa?aeoa?ii aiiaua neeyiea oeeinioee n oi?iaie
eneonnoaa). Ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth yoa oeeinioey i/aiue aeecea e
?aeeaeiciiio ia?aaeeaaieth, aini?iecaiaeeo aai
ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneoth noaio e naiaia?acioth eiaeeo, ii
inaiaiaeaeaiioth io oaenoe/aneiai aiia?aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee e ?eooaeia, io
aiaa. Iai?yaeaiiinoue aoiinoa?u, oea?yueo a ?iiaiao e oeeinioneeo
o?aeoaoao Na?o?a (eae e ae?oaeo yecenoaioeeaeenoia), /anoi auaeyaeeo eae
au?aaeaiea yiioeee iioa?e aiaa a io/oaeaeaiiii ie?a (ia/oi a?iaea
?aeeaee iaiai?io), a naiia aa niaea?aeaiea eaaei iiaeao auoue
?anoeo?iaaii a oa?ieiao “a?aoa”, “a?aiiinoe nouanoaiaaiey”, “no?aaeaiey
e eneoieaiey”, aieaciaiii iuouaaiie “aeiu”, “ioaaonoaaiiinoe” e oae
aeaeaa. Oaeia ni/eaiaiea yecenoaioeeaeecia e ?aeeaee naycaii n iaueie ei
yeaiaioaie nioeeaeueiiai ooiiecia. Iniaaiii yanoaaiiuie yoe yeaiaiou
noaee o Na?o?a a iineaaiaiiua aiaeu. Oai?ey, noi?ioee?iaaiiay a “E?eoeea
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai ?acoia”, inoaaony yecenoaioeeaeenoneie. A yoie ?aaioa
Na?o? oaea aeeth/aao a “i?iaeo” iaoa?eaeueioth iaoneiaeaiiinoue
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e iuoaaony, enoiaey ionthaea, aeaoue ea?oeio
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna eae oeaeiai. I?iaeo iaeaaeaao
no?oeoo?ie i?aeoeee. Eiaeeaeae i?aeoe/anee “oioaeece?oao” aunooiathuea a
iiea “i?iaeoa” iaoa?eaeueiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa e ioiioaiey n ae?oaeie
ethaeueie e nai oai?eo enoi?eth – a oie aea ia?a, a eaeie iia – aai.
No?iaiea iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna aeieaeii auoue iiiyoi e
auaaaeaii ec oeaeueiinoe eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey, ec aai eiaeee. Ii
caaeneiinoue eiaeeaeaea a aeeaeaeoeea aai i?iaeoa io auoey,
iaoa?eaeueioth aai iaoneiaeaiiinoue Na?o? iiieiaao eae noaio
io/oaeaeaiey e i?iaeieaeaao a ea/anoaa /aeiaa/aneiai ?anniao?eaaoue
eeoue noauaeoeaiinoue eiaeeaeaea e aai “ioiioaiey aioo?aiiaai” n
ae?oaeie ethaeueie. Iauaeoeaiua yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua no?oeoo?u
aunooiatho a oeaeii eae io/oaeaeaiiay iaaeno?ieea iaae
aioo?aiia-eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie yeaiaioaie “i?iaeoa”.
Iauaeoeaii-iaoa?eaeueiia eae oaeiaia ieacuaaaony /oaeaeui,
“eieaeianeei”, aai yeaiaioii, i?eaiaeyuei e e??aoeeiiaeueiiio
ioeeiiaieth anao /aeiaa/aneeo iaia?aiee e oeaeae. Iii –
“aioe/aeiaa/aneia”. “…Iaoa?eaeueiinoue aaue eee einoeoooa anoue
?aaeeeaeueiia io?eoeaiea ecia?aoaiey eee oai?/anoaa…” e “/a?ac
nioeeaeueioth iaoa?eth e iaoa?eaeueiia io?eoeaiea eae eia?oiia aaeeinoai
/aeiaae eiinoeooe?oaony a ea/anoaa ae?oaiai, /ai /aeiaae”. Oaeei
ia?acii, enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann ?anniao?eaaaony a ieaia
yecenoaioeeaeenoneie aioeoacu nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee e ioiioaiee
iaiin?aaenoaaiii “/aeiaa/aneeo”, a iauaeoeaii-nioeeaeueiia auoea
aaaaeaii a no?oeoo?o eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai i?iaeoa a aeaea ieoieiae/aneie
neeu. Noiia ioiioaiee, neeaaeuaathueony a yoie iaeanoe, i/a?/aiiie
acaeiiaeaenoaeai e ai?ueaie iaaeaeo “/aeiaa/aneei” e “aioe/aeiaa/aneei”
aioo?e i?iaeoa, e yaeyaony, ii Na?o?o, enoi/ieeii enoi?e/aneeo noaeaa
ethaeae, ne?uoui aeaeaaoaeai enoi?ee. Ii yoi nei?aa aeaeaeaiea noaeueau.

Na?o? caaa?oee eo?n oeeinioee a 1929, eiaaea ?ac?aceeny ie?iaie
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen. Ii aue noaiaiaeeaoii O?aioeocneiai einoeoooa a
Aa?eeia a 1934, eiaaea aeoea?eci oa?iaeae ie?o ?ac?ooaieai anao
/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae. Ai o?aioeocneie oieaa?neoaoneie eoeueoo?a
oiaaea ainiiaenoaiaae aano?aeoiue eaeaaeeci A?thinaeea.

Ie?iiiieiaiea Na?o?a noi?ie?iaaeinue a ie?a, caoaaeoai a ooiee,
aano?aeiii, aaea ana o?aaeeoeeiiiua oeaiiinoe ?ooioee. Ia?aue aeo
oeeinioa aeieaeai aue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, auoue io?eoeaieai, ioeacii,
/oiau aua?aoueny ec yoiai oaioe/aneiai ie?a aac ii?yaeea, aac oeaee.
Iono?aieoueny io ie?a, ioaa?aiooue aai – yoi e anoue a /aeiaaea
niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneia: naiaiaea. Niciaiea – yoi eiaiii oi, /oi ia
oaycaao “a naaa”, yoi i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue “a naaa”, aeu?a a auoee,
ionoonoaea, ie/oi. Yoi niciaiea naiaiaeu /aeiaaea anoue a oi aea a?aiy
niciaiea iaeeii/anoaa /aeiaa/anoaa e aai ioaaonoaaiiinoe: ie/oi a
“Auoee” ia iaania/eaaao e ia aa?aioe?oao oeaiiinoe e aiciiaeiinoe oniaoa
aeaenoaey. Nouanoaiaaiea – yoi eiaiii ia?aaeeaaaiue iiuo noauaeoeaiinoe
e o?ainoeaiaeaioiinoe, naiaiaeu e ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Aini?iecaiaey oi?ioeo
Aeinoiaaneiai “Anee aiaa iao, ana iicaieaii”, Na?o? aeiaaaeyao: “Yoi
ioi?aaiay oi/ea yecenoaioeeaeecia”. Yoio niinia aini?eyoey ie?a,
iiaee?aieaiiue o Na?o?a eco/aieai Euea?eaai?a, Oaeaeaaaa?a e Aonna?ey,
iaoae au?aaeaiea i?aaeaea anaai a aai ineoieiae/aneeo yothaeao e
?iiaiao. Ii eco/aao i?aaeaea anaai aiia?aaeaiea, a eioi?ii ioe?uaaaony
nouanoaaiiue aeo niciaiey: nooue aai a oii, /oiau iono?aieoueny io
aeaiiiai ie?a “a naaa” e ieacaoueny a i?enoonoaee oiai, /oi ionoonoaoao.
“Aeo aiia?aaeaiey – iaae/aneee aeo: yoi eieaeianoai, canoaaeythuaa
iiyaeoueny aauue, eioi?ay aeaeaoaeueia”.

?iiaiu Na?o?a ia?aaiaeyo oio aea iiuo a ieai ii?aee eee iieeoeee: a
“Oioiioa” Na?o? iieacuaaao, /oi ie? ia eiaao niunea, “ss” ia eiaao
oeaee. *a?ac aeo niciaiey e auai?a “ss” i?eaeaao ie?o cia/aiea e
oeaiiinoue. Aeieoi?neay aeenna?oaoeey Na?o?a “Auoea e ie/oi” –
eceiaeaiea a oeeinioneie oi?ia ia?aaeeoiai iiuoa. Ioi?aaeyynue io
iniiaiie eaeae yecenoaioeeaeecia – nouanoaiaaiea i?aaeoanoaoao nouiinoe,
– Na?o? iuoaaony ecaaaeaoue iaeiia?aiaiii e iaoa?eaeecia, e eaeaaeecia.
Eaeaaeecia iioiio, /oi ii i?aaenoaao ia?aae iei oieueei a aaaaeeaineie
oi?ia: “Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue ecia?yaony niciaieai” e iioiio, /oi, neaaeoy
a yoii Aonna?eth, ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi niciaiea anoue anaaaea niciaiea
/aai-eeai (eaeie-eeai aaue). Iaoa?eaeecia – iioiio, /oi, ii aai iiaieth,
auoea ia ii?iaeaeaao niciaiea, “aeey naay” ia iiaeao auoue ii?iaeaeaieai
“a naaa”.

A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eiioeaioeey Na?o?a yaeyaony yeeaeoe/iie: ii aeaao a
ea/anoaa ioi?aaiiai ioieoa iaeia “a naaa”, i eioi?ii iu ie/aai ia ciaai,
e?iia oiai, /oi iii “iaoeaeaiiia” niciaieai e yaeyaony aai iniiaie. Ii
anee niciaiea anoue oeaeue, oi eae iii iiaei ?iaeeoueny, iineieueeo a
naaa, ii enoiaeiiio ii?aaeaeaieth, ie/aai ia i?ienoiaeeo.

Yoi i?ioeai?a/ea Na?o? ieeiaaea ia iia i?aiaeieaoue, oioy ia inoaaeye
iiiuoee yoi naeaeaoue. I?e/eia yoiai a oii, /oi aai ioi?aaiay oi/ea
aeoaiei eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneay. Na?o? inoaaony ieaiieeii
yecenoaioeeaeenoneie, noauaeoeaenoneie iano?iaiiinoe. Ii i?e/eia naieo
enoiaeiuo iinooeaoia Na?o? ia iiaeao aueoe ca ?aiee iiceoeaecia,
aaiinoeoeecia e noauaeoeaiinoe. Aeaaea a naiae iineaaeiae oeeinioneie
?aaioa “E?eoeea aeeaeaeoe/aneiai ?acoia” ii i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao
“iiceoeaenoneee ?acoi”, eioi?ue aeieaeai aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny i?aaeaeaie
anoanoaaiiuo iaoe, “?acoio aeeaeaeoe/aneiio”, aaeeinoaaiii aeinoieiiio
iacuaaoueny ?acoiii, iineieueeo ii iicaieyao iiieiaoue, a ia oieueei
i?aaeoaaaeuaaoue, ii eioi?ue i?eiaiei oieueei aeey iaoe i /aeiaaea.

A iaeanoe ii?aee Na?o? ia niia aueoe ca i?aaeaeu naiaai ecia/aeueiiai
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia. Ii iiaeao i?aaiciineoue e ioaaonoaaiiinoue e naiaiaeo
eiaeeaeaeooia, ii ii ia iiaeao ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, /oi aea ioaeii
aeaeaoue n yoie naiaiaeie.

Na?o?, aaconeiaii, caiaoiay oeao?a a ienaoaeueneii e oeeinioneii ie?a.
Ii oaeaea iiyaeyeny e ia iieeoe/aneie a?aia. Iai?eia?, aunooiae eae
noi?iiiee ie?a ia Aaineii eiia?anna ia?iaeia a caueoo ie?a a 1952 aiaeo,
a 1953 aiaeo aue eca?ai /eaiii anaie?iiai niaaoa ie?a. Oeeinio caeii/ee
naie aeeciaiiue iooue nianai iaaeaaii, a 1980 aiaeo.

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