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1. I?iaeaiu iioieiaee e oai?ee iiciaiey

1.1 *aeiaae e ie? eae i?aaeiao oeeinioee. Yecenoaioeeaeueiue niune
oeeinioneiai ?aciuoeaiey i ie?a. Oeeinioey eae oai?aoe/aneia iuoeaiey i
i?aaeaeueiuo aii?inao.

1.a) Oeeinioey – anoue ie?iaicc?aiea, oi anoue niaieoiiinoue acaeyaeia
ia ie? a oeaeii e ia ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e yoiio ie?o.

Oeeinioey ioee/aaony io eiuo oi?i ie?iaicc?aiey oai, /oi ioiineony,
i?aaeaea anaai, e iao/iie noa?a iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey(oioy ia oieueei e
iae), a aioo?e iaa eiathony niaoeeoe/aneee eaoaai?eaeueiue aiia?ao,
iie?athueeny a naiai ?acaeoee ia ia iaeo eaeoth eeai iao/ioth
aeenoeeieeio, a ia ana iaoee, ia aanue aaeeiue niaieoiiue iiuo ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/anoaa.

Nouiinoue oeeinioee – a ?aciuoeaiey iaae anaiaueie i?iaeaiaie, a nenoaia
«Ie?-*aeiaae».

Oeeinioey aunooiaao a aeaoo eiinoanyo:

1. eae eioi?iaoeey i ie?a a oeaeii e ioiioaiee /aeiaaea e yoiio ie?o.

2. Eae eiiieaen i?eioeeiia iiciaiey, eae anaiauee iaoiae iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe

Neaaeoao ?acaeaeaiea ooieoeee oeeinioee ia ie?iaicc?ai/aneea e
iaoiaeieiae/aneea.

Niioiioaiea iuoeaiey e auoeth, ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e ie?o.

i?iaeaiu oeeinioee anaiaue, i?aaeaeueiu – i?aaeaeueiu aeey auoey
/aeiaaea, aeey aai iauae i?ia?aiiu aeayoaeueiinoe, aeey anae
/aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u.

I?iaeaiu oeeinioneiai ie?iaicc?aiey ioaaouaatho ie? a oeaeii, aeeciue
/aeiaaea a oeaeii, ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e ie?o a oeaeii. Aieaa oe?ieeo
i?iaeai, /ai ie?iaicc?aiea ia auaaao.

Iiiyoea iaoa?ee, i?ino?ainoaa, a?aiaie, aeaeaeaiey, i?e/eiu,
aiciiaeiinoe, iaiaoiaeeiinoe e o.i. – i?aaeaeueiua. Oae eae iie
iaoiaeyony a iniiaaieyo ethaiai ?iaea /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A ea/anoaa i?aaeaeueiuo iiiyoee oeeinioneea eaoaai?ee e i?eioeeiu ia
iiaeeaaeao oyniaieth a nianoaaiiuo oa?ieiao. Eiaiii iiyoiio iie
enoi?e/anee yaeeenue i?aaeaeueiuie, iaeaieaa oieaa?naeueiuie iniiaaieyie
oeaeinoii- nayciie niaieoiiinoe iiiaiia?aciuo oi?i ioiioaiee /aeiaaea e
ie?o. Ionthaea noauaeoii-iauaeoiue niinia eo oyniaiey eae i?aaeaeueiuo
iniiaaiee eoeueoo?u. I?aaeaeueiay oe?ioa oeeinioneeo i?iaeai e iiiyoee
naycaiia, eae iu aeaeei, n eo ooiaeaiaioaeueiinoueth aeey iauaai
iiieiaiey ie?a, aeecie, ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e ie?o.

Aeaaiui i?aaeiaoii yecenoaioeeaeecia yaeyaony auoea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
/aeiaa/aneiai noauaeoa. Oeaio?aeueiie i?iaeaiie yecenoaioeeaeecia – ie?
/aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe.

Yecenoaioeeaeeci ia i?inoi «Ainnoaiaaeeaaao» a i?aaao i?iaeaio auoey,
aica?auaynue oai naiui e iaoa oeceea (a ioee/ea io iiceoeaecia): ii
o?ainoi?ie?oao i?iaeaio auoey a i?iaeaio niunea aii?inia i auoea, oi
anoue iaoiaeeo aiciiaeiinoue «Ia?aianoe oeaio?aeueiua oyaeanoe»
iaoaoece/iie i?iaeaiaoeee n iauaeoa ia noauaeoa- oae eae oieueei noauaeo
e yaeyaony «Aaia?aoi?ii niuneia».

(Ni aua 1.7 ?)

1.2 No?oeoo?a oeeinioneiai ciaiey. Oeaio?aeueiua oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu:
iioieiaey e aiinaieiaey.

Neioneay iaoeia iioa?ea iia aeaa aii?ina, iiyoiio eiiniaeoeaii.

Ana iiiaeanoai i?iaeai oeeinioneiai ie?iaicc?aiey iiaeao auoue

iauaaeeiaii a 5 a?oii: 1) iioieiaey; 2) aiinaieiaey; 3) aio?iiieiaey;

4) aeneieiaey; 5) i?aeneieiaey.

Iioieiaey — iioin – auoea — ia?aay oeeinioey, o/aiea i auoea eae
oaeiaii, iacaaeneii io aai /anoiuo aeaeia. ?aaiicia/ia iaoaoeceea eae
nenoaia oiic?eoaeueiuo anaiaueo ii?aaeaeaiee auoey. A n?. aaea
eniieueciaaee a?eno iaoaoec aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa ?aeeaeiciuo enoei, /oi
iacuaaee iio. A iiaia a?aiy iio — iniaay /anoue iaoaoeceee, o/aiea ia
naa?o/oanoaaiiie, iaiaoa?eaeueiie no?oeoo?a nouanoaothuaai. Caeii/aiiia
au?aaeaiea iio a yoii aeaea iieo/eea o Aieueoa, eiaaea oo?aoeea anyeoth
naycue n niaea?aeaieai /anoiuo iaoe e no?ieea iio iooai
aano?aeoii-aeaaeoeoeaiiai e a?aiiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca aa iiiyoee.
I?ioeaiiieiaeiay oaiaeaioeey o Nieiicu, Eieea, o?aioe. iaoa?eaeenoia,
iie?aynue ia aeaiiua iaoee, aiai?eee i nayce iio n eiaeeie e
aiinaieiaeae, iiae?uaay aa cia/aiea eae ia?aie oee. Eaio, Aaaaeue –
iauyaeyee i?ioeoth iio oaaoieiae/iie e aanniaea?aeaoaeueiie, caiaiyy aa
iiaie iio — noauaeoeaiui eaeaaeeciii Eaioa eee eiaeeie Aaaaey. Iiiuoee
iino?ieoue iiaoth iio ia iauaeo-eaeaaeeno iaoa?eaea – Oaeaeaaaa?.
Nenoaia anaiaueo iiiyoee auoey, iinoeaaaiuo n iiiiuueth naa?o/oanoaaiiie
e naa?o?aoeeiiaeueiie eiooeoeee. Iiaeoaa/aia iaioiienoaie.

Auoea eae enoiaeiia eioaa?aeueiia iiiyoea aaaeii e aanniaea?aeaoaeueii,
anee ia ?anniao?eaaoue aai a eiioaenoa ae?oaeo eaoaai?ee oeeinioee, oai
iii noaiiaeony eiie?aoii-anaiauei. Oaeei ia?acii, aieueoay /anoue oee
ioiineony e ?acaeaeo iioieiaee. A iioieiaee oee noaeeeaathony n ?yaeii
i?iaeai, ?aoaiea eio e ii?aaeaeyao ?acee/ea a ie?iaicc?aieyo. Oaeea
i?iaeaiu, eae

Iaeaaeaao ee ie? a naiai nouanoaiaaiee aaeeinoaii e /oi yaeyaony iniiaie
yoiai aaeeinoaa? ssaeyaony ee ie? a naiai nouanoaa iaeciaiiui eee ii
iinoiyiii eciaiyaony e ?acaeaaaony? Oii?yaei/ai ee ie? a naiai ?acaeoee
e eciaiaiee, iiae/eiyaony ee ii eaeei-eeai caeiiai eee ?acaeaaaony
niaa?oaiii i?iecaieueiui niiniaii? Iaeaaeaao ee ie? e a oeaeii e a naieo
ioaeaeueiuo o?aaiaioao nenoaiiie i?aaiecaoeeae eee ii nouanoaoao eae
i?inoie eiiaeiia?ao ?acee/iuo yeaiaioia? A /ai caeeth/aaony nouiinoue
ie?a? A caaeneiinoe io ?aoaiey yoeo aii?inia oee ?acaeaeythony ia
iaoa?eaeenoia e eaeaaeenoia, iiienoia, aeoaeeci e ieth?aeeci,
aeaoa?ieieci e eiaeaoa?ieieci. A caaeneiinoe io ia?ae/iinoe iaoa?ee eee
eaeae eaeao iniiaiia ?acaeaeaiea, i?eai iaa iai?aaeaiey eiatho naie
aaeeeea eiaia. Aiinaieiaey – aiinen -ciaiea — iaoea i iiciaiee, a
eioi?ii eco/aaony i?e?iaea iiciaiey, ioiioaiey ciaiey e ?aaeueiinoe,
auyaeythony oneiaey aeinoiaa?iinoe e enoeiiinoe ciaiee, aiciiaeiinoe
iiciaoue ie?. A ai a nenoaia ie?-/aeiaae ei??aeyoii aiinaieiaee yae
iiciaaaoaeueiua noauaeoeaii-iauaeoeaiua ioiioaiey. Eaoaai?ee ai —
enoeia, aeinoiaa?iinoue, niciaiea, iiciaiea , noauaeo e iauaeo,
/oanoaaiiia, ?aoeeiiaeueiia, eiooeoeey, aa?a. Ai eco/aao iauaa a
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe aacioiineoaeueii e oiio, eaeiaa yoa
aeayoaeueiinoue – iauaeaiiay, i?ioanneiiaeueiay eee ae?. Yienoaiieiaey
— oai?ey iao/iiai iiciaiey anoue /anoue ai. ?anniio?aiea niaoeeoeee
oiai eee eiiai iiciaiey ia naiioeaeue, eco/aiea aiciiaeiinoae e oi?i
aeinoeaeaiey enoeiu. iioieiaey aunooiaao i?aaeiinueeie oai?ee iiciaiey.
Ana oee nenoaiu oae eee eia/a naycaiu n ai, i?e/ai iaeioi?ua naiaeyo e
iae anth oeeinioeth, ioeac io iio.

Naiiii?aaeaeaiea ai eae ?acaeaea — Eaio, e?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia.
IOee/aaony io ineoieiaee oai, /oi aeey ineo i?ioeann iuoeaiey, iuouaiey,
eiooeoeey e oae naycaiu i?aaeaea anaai n aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoueth
eiaeeaeaea, a aeey ai — n?aaenoaa iinoeaeaiey enoeiu, iiciaaaoaeueiua
niiniaiinoe eee oi?iu nou-iey ciaiey.

Aiinaie i?iaeaiaoeea — niioiioaiea niciaoaeueiiai e iaoa?ee,
niioiioaiea /oanoaaiiiai e eiae/aneiai, i?iaeaia io?aaeaiey,
i?eioe?uaaao nouiinoue iici i?ioeanna /-ea.Anaaaea ea?aea nou ?ieue,

iaieaioeaio, iaoeci – aaeeinoaaiiay oeeinioey. Iiaay i?iaeaiaoeea –
iaoaiaoe/aneay eiaeea, eeiaaeno oee, naieioeea eae n?aaenoai
aeinoeaeaiey] enoeiu e iiciaiey, enneaaeiaaiea i?eioeeieaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae aaoiiaoecaoeee eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe /-ea.
Nicaeaiea oai?ee, ia eiathueo iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai /oanoa
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey. Aii?in eae ioiinyony iaoe iunee ia ie? ie?a e naiiio
yoiio ie?o? Iiaeai ee iu iieo/eoue eee aeinoe/ue aa?iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i
ie?a? Iiciaoue aiaoithth noi?iio yaeaiee e eo aioo?aiithth nouiinoue?
Eae aiciiaeia iaoaiaoeea, oeceea? Oaia?ue e IOI? Eiaao ee i?ia?ann
ciaiee a?aieoeu eee iao? Aaiinoeoeeci – iaiiciaaaaiinoue ie?a. A aeaeao
— iaiiciaaaaiu nouiinoe, eeai ie? anoue oieueei io?aaeaiea, iiciaaaaiu
eeoue yaeaiey. Ioaiea?a – iiciaaaaiu eeoue ioiioaiey, ii ia nouiinoe.
Iaaiciiaeii iiciaoue ie? oeaeeeii. Aeneieiaey — iaoea i oeaiiinoyo.
Noi?ie?iaaeanue a 19-20 aa. Oioy i?enoonoaiaaea eae /anoue n naiiai
ia/aea. Oeaiiinoe ioiaeaeanoaeyeenue n auoeai. Iie e yaeyeenue e?eoa?eai
enoeiiiai auoey, a iniiaa eae ain-aa Ieaoiia eaaeaea eaeay
ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Ia?iaieae — aunoea oeaiiinoe iinyo aan oa?aeoa?,
nioenou – ana oeaiiinoe ioiineoaeueiu, a /aeiaae anoue ia?eei anao
aauae. A?enoioaeue – anoue iane naiioeaiiinoae (/aeiaae, n/anouea,
ni?aaaaeeeainoue) e anoue ioiineo oeaiiinoe (a?ae, ethaiaue, e ae?)
Aic?iaeae —- oeaiiinoe aoiaiecia. Nenoaia oeaiiinoae yaiethoeeiie?oao
a iauanoaa e a eaaeaeii eiaeeaeaeooia. Aaaaeue ?aca?aie/ea oeaiiinoe ia
yeiiiie/aneea e aeooiaiua. N/eoaeanue, /oi i?iaeaia oeaiiinoae anoue
aiaiao/iia enneaaeiaaiea, naiaia?aciue niinia aeaeaiey ie?a. Oaia?ue
oai?ee 3 aeaeia. Iauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneea (iaieaio, eiooeoeaeci) —
oeaiiinoue anoue iioonoi?iiiy nouiinoue aia a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa.
Noauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneay (eia iiceoeaeci, eeiaa aiaeec,
aooaeoi-aieaaay oai?ey oeaiiinoae) — oeaiiinoue anoue yaeaiea
niciaiey, i?iyaeaiea ineoieiae/aneiai iano?iy, noauaeoeiiai ioiioaiey
/-ea e ?anniao?ea i?aaeiaoo. Iaoo?aeenoe/aneea oai?ee oeaiiinoe(oai?ey
eioa?ana, einie/aneee oaeaieiaeci)— oeaiiinoue eae au?aaeaiea
anoanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae /ae eee caeiiia i?e?iaeu a oeaeii. Oeaiiinoue
iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae i?aaeiao, oaeiaeao oo eee eioth
iio?aaiinoue, eae eaeaae, eae nioe ii?ia, iieiaeeoaeueiay eae
cia/eiinoue /aai-eeai aeey /-ea eee a?oiiu. Oeaiiinoue — oi, noi
aucuaaao eioa?an. Eaaeaeue /-e eiaao naith nenoaio oeaiiinoae e eo
ea?a?oeth. Anoue aaaeiaeoea, aaniethoiua oeaiiinoe eee oeaiiinoe-oeaee.
Aaniethoiay oeaiiinoue — /aeiaae e aai aeeciue. Oeaiiinoe-oeaee
ieacuaaao ia?ainoaiaiiia aeeyiea ia nioeeaeecaoeeth ee/iinoe. I?e yoii
eo ia?aaeecaoeey i?eaiaeeo e aeooaaiui iaoieiaeyi, iioa?a niunea aeecie,
naiioaeenoaai. Yoi auoeeiua oeaiiinoe, caeii, niune aeecie,
ni?aaaaeeeainoue, naiaiaea, e?anioa, enoeia.

Oeaiiinoe-n?aaenoaa anoue i?iiaaeooi/iua oe, ii aac ieo iaeuecy
aeinoe/ue AOeai. Iie aieaa iiaeaa?aeaiu aeeyieth eiie?aoiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa, eo auai? oe?ie. Niaoeeoe/aneea oeaiiinoe i?eiaaeeaaeao
ioaeaeueiui nioeeieoeueoo?iui oeiai iauanoaa, oeia ainoie eee caiaae,
naycaiiua ni niaoeeoeeie nouanoaiaaiey. Anoue oaeaea ?uii/iua oeaiiinoe,
e /aio iu aeaaiiieo/ii ia?aoiaeei. Ethaay ia?ai?eaioaoeey oeaiiinoae
anoue i?ioeann aieaciaiiue e i?iaeaiiue, ionthaea iiea aeayoaeueiinoe
aeey aen. Iia ia?ac?uaii naycaia n a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aiinaieiaeae e
ae?oaeie /anoyie oee

Iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee oeene?oao iioieiae/aneea e aiinaieiae/aneea
ioiioaiey iaoa?ee e niciaiey, aac eioi?iai ia iiaeao nou-oue ie iaeia
oee eiioeaioeey. Ae?oaea i?iaeaiu oeia ynoaoe/ eee yoe/ iioiio e
iacuaathony oee, /oi iiaoo auoue ?anniio?aiu /a?ac i?ecio aiinaieiaee e
iioieiaee.

1.3 Iioieiae/aneay i?iaeaiaoeea a oeeinioee. Noaiiaeaiey oeeinioneie
iioieiaee. Oeeinioneia o/aiea i auoee, aai ooiaeaiaioaeueiue niune.

IIOIEIAEss – o/aiea i auoee eae oaeiaii; ?acaeae oeeinioee, eco/athuee
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua i?eioeeiu auoey, iaeaieaa iauea nouiinoe e eaoaai?ee
nouaai. Eiiaaea I. ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n iaoaoeceeie, ii /aua
?anniao?eaaaony eae a? iniiaiiieaaathuay /anoue, o. n. eae iaoaoeceea
auoey. Oa?iei «I.» aia?aua iiyaeeny a «Oeeinioneii eaeneeiia»
?.Aieeaiiona (1613) e aue cae?aieai a oeeinioneie nenoaia X. Aieueoa.

I. auaeaeeeanue ec o/aiee i auoee oao eee eiuo iauaeoia eae o/aiea i
naiii auoee au? a ?aiiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee. Ia?iaieae e ae?. yeaaou
iauyaeee enoeiiui ciaieai oieueei ciaiea ia enoeiii nouanoaothuai,
eaeiaui iie iuneeee eeoue naii auoea — aa/iia e iaeciaiiia aaeeinoai;
iiaeaeae-iia iiiaiia?acea ie?a ?anniao?eaaeinue yeaeneie oeieie eae
iaiai/eaia yaeaiea. Yoi no?iaia ?acee/aiea auei niya/aii iineaaeothueie
iioieiaey, oai?eyie aeinie?aoeeia, i?aaeiaoii eioi?uo auei oaei ia
«/enoia» auoea, a ea/anoaaiii ii?aaeae?iiua ia/aea auoey («ei?ie»
Yiiaaeieea, «naiaia» Aiaenaai?a, «aoiiu» Aeaiie?eoa). Iiaeiaiia
iiieiaiea iicaieyei iauynieoue naycue auoey n eiie?aoiuie i?aaeiaoaie,
oiiiinoeaaaiiai n /oanoa, aini?eyoeai.

Ieaoii neioace?iaae ?aiiaa?a/aneay I. a nai?i o/aiee ia «eaeayo». Auoea,
ii Ieaoiio, anoue niaieoiiinoue eaeae — oiiiinoeaaaiuo oi?i eee
nouiinoae, io?aaeaieai eioi?uo yaeyaony iiiaiia?acea aauanoaaiiiai ie?a.
Ieaoii i?ia?e a?aieoeo ia oieueei iaaeaeo auoeai e noaiiaeaieai (o. a.
oaeo/anoueth /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiiai ie?a), ii e iaaeaeo auoeai e
«aacia/aeueiui ia/aeii» auoey (o. a. iaiinoeaeeiie iniiaie, iacuaaaiie
ei oaeaea «aeaaii»). A I. iaiieaoiieeia yoi ?acee/ea caoeene?iaaii a
niioiioaiee «aaeeiiai» e «oia». I. o Ieaoiia oanii naycaia n o/aieai i
iiciaiee eae eioaeeaeooaeueiii ainoiaeaeaiee e enoeiii nouei aeaeai
auoey. A?enoioaeue nenoaiaoece?iaae e ?acaee eaeae Ieaoiia, iaeiaei aai
aa?eaio I. yaeyaony nei?aa iienaieai oece/aneie ?aaeueiinoe n
iioieiae/aneay oi/ea c?aiey, /ai ecia?aaeaieai aaoiiiiiie ?aaeueiinoe
«eaeae». I. Ieaoiia e A?enoioaey (iniaaiii a? iaiieaoiie/aneay
ia?a?aaioea) iea-caea ii?aaeaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea ia anth caiaaeioth
Aa?iio iioieiae/aneoth o?aaeeoeeth.

N?aaeiaaaeiaua. iuneeoaee i?eniiniaeee aioe/ioth I. e ?aoaieth oaieiaey,
i?iaeai. Iiaeiaiia nii?yaeaiea I. e oaieiaee auei iiaeaioiaeaii
iaeioi?uie oa/aieyie yeeeienoe/aneie oeeinioee: noieoeeciii, Oeeiiii
Aeaenaiae?eeneei, aiinoeeaie, iaiieaoiieciii. A n?aaeiaaaeiaie iioieiaee
iiiyoea aaniethoiiai auoey ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n aiaii (i?e yoii
ia?iaieaeianeia-iiieiaiea auoey niaaeeiyaony n ieaoiiianeie o?aeoiaeie
«aeaaa»), iiiaeanoai /enouo nouiinoae naeeaeaaony n i?aaenoaaeaieai ia
aiaaeueneie ea?a?oee e iiieiaaony eae au-oea, iin?aaeoaiuaa iaaeaeo
aiaii e ie?ii. *anoue yoeo nou-iinoae (ynnaioeee), iaaeaeyaiuo aiaii
aeaaiaeaoueth auoey, oieeothony eae iaee/iia nouanoaiaaiea
(yecenoaioeey). C?aeay noieanoe/. I. ioee/aaony iiae?iaiie
eaoaai?eaeue-iie ?ac?aaioeie, aeaoaeueiui ?acee/aieai o?iaiae auoey
(noanoaioeiaeueiiai e aeoeeaeaioaeueiiai, aeooaeueiiai e
ii-oaioeeaeueiiai, iaiaoiaeeiiai, aiciiaeiiai e neo/aeiiai i o. i.).
?acee/iua iioieiai/. onoaiiaee i?iyaeeenue a nii?a noieanoia ia
oieaa?naeeyo.

Oeeinioey iiaiai a?aiaie eiioeaio?e?oao nai? aieiaiea ia i?iaeaiao
iiciaiey, iaeiaei I. inoa?ony iai?aiaiiie /anoueth oeein. aeieo?eiu (a
/anoiinoe, o iuneeoaeae-?aoeei-iaeenoia). O Aeaea?oa, Nieiicu, Eaeaieoea
I. iienuaaao acaeiiioiioaiea noanoaioeee i niiiae/eiaiea o?iaiae auoey,
nio?aiyy iae-?oth caaeneiinoue io noieanoe/. I. Iaeiaei iainiiaaieai
nenoai ?aoeeiiaeenoia yaeyaony oaea ia I., a aiinaieiaey. O
oeeinioia-yiie?eeia iioieiae/. i?iaeaiu iooiaeyo ia aoi?ie ieai (iai?.,
o THia I. eae naiinoiyo, aeieo?eia aiiaua ionoonoaoao) e. eae i?aaeei,
?aoaiea eo ia naiaeeony e nenoaiaoe/. aaeeinoao.

Iiai?ioiui ioieoii a enoi?ee I. yaeeanue «e?eoe/. oeeinioey» Eaioa,
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaoay «aeiaiaoecio» noa?ie I. iiaia iiieiaiea iauaeoeaiinoe
eae ?acoeueoaoa ioi?ieaiey /oanoa, iaoa?eaea eaoaai?eaeueiui aiia?a-oii
iiciathuaai noauaeoa. Ii Eaioo, aii?in i auoee na-iii ii naaa ia eiaao
niunea aia noa?u aeaenoaeo. eee aic-iiaeiiai iiuoa. I?aaeoanoaothuay I.
oieeoaony Eaioii eae aeiinoaci?iaaiea iiiyoee /enoiai ?annoaeea.

Oeooa, Oaeeeia e Aaaaeue aa?ioeenue e aeieaioianeie ?a-oeiiiaeenoe/.
o?aaeeoeee iino?iaiey I. ia iniiaa aiinai-eiaee: a eo nenoaiao auoea
yaeyaony caeiiiia?iui yoaiii ?acaeoey iuoeaiey, o. a. iiiaioii, eiaaea
iuoeaiea au-yaeyao nai? oiaeaeanoai n auoeai. Iaeiaei oa?aeoa?
ioiae-aeanoaeaiey auoey e iunee (e niioaaonoaaiii I. e aiinai-eiaee) a
eo oeeinioee, aeaeathuae niaea?aeao, iniiaie aaeeinoaa no?oeoo?o
noauaeoa iiciaiey, aue iaoneiaeai eaioiineei ioe?uoeai aeoeaiinoe
noauaeoa. Eiaiii ii-yoiio I. iai. eeanne/. eaeaaeecia i?eioeeieaeueii
ioee/a-aony io I. iiaiai a?aiaie: no?iaiea auoey iinoeaaaony ia a
noaoe/iii nica?iaiie, a a aai enoi?e/. i eiae/. ii?iaeaea-iee;
iioieiai/. enoeia iiieiaaony in eae ninoiyiea, a eae i?ioeann.

Aeey cai.-aa?ii. oeeinioee 19 a. oa?aeoa?ii ?aceia iaaeaiea eioa?ana e
I. eae naiinoiyo, oeein. aeenoeeieeia e e?eoe/. ioiioaiea e iioieiaecio
i?aaeoanoaothuae oeeinioee. N iaeiie noi?iiu, aeinoeaeaiey anoanoa. iaoe
iineoaeeee iniiaie aeey iiiuoie iaoeein. niioaoe/. iie-naiey aaeeinoaa
ie?a e iiceoeaenoneie e?eoeee I. N ae?. noi?iiu, oeeinioey aeecie
iuoaeanue naanoe I. (aianoa n a? enoi/ieeii — ?aoeiiiaeenoi/. iaoiaeii)
e iiai/iiio i?aaiaoe/. i?iaeoeoo ?acaeoey e??aoeeiiaeueiiai ia?aiia-/aea
(«aiee» o Oiiaiaaoy?a e Ieoeoa). Iaieaioeainoai e aeeceea e iaio
iai?aaeaiey ?acaeaaee aiinaieiae/. iiieiaiea i?e?iaeu I., iaia/aiiia au?
a eeanne/. iai. oeeinioee.

E eii. 19 — ia/. 20 aa. ia niaio ineoieiae/. e aiinai-eiae/. o?aeoiaeai
I. i?eoiaeyo iai?aaeaiey, i?eaioe-?othueany ia ia?aniio? aeinoeaeaiee
i?aaeoanoaothuae cai.-aa?ii. oeeinioee e aica?ao e iioieiaecio. A
oaiiiaiiei-aee Aonna?ey ?ac?aaaouaathony iooi ia?aoiaea io «/enoiai
niciaiey» e no?oeoo?a auoey, e iieaaaieth ie?a aac noau-aeoeaiuo
aiinaieiae/. i?eaianaiee. I. Aa?oiai a naiae I. no?aieony i?aiaeieaoue
o?aaeioe. ?ac?ua aano?aeoiiai oea?noaa iioieiai/. nouiinoae e aeaenoaeo.
auoey, ?anniao?eaay ?ac-ee/iua ie?u — /aeiaa/aneee, aauanoaaiiue e
aeooiaiue— eae aaoiiiiiua neie ?aaeueiinoe, ii ioiioaieth e e-?ui
iiciaiea aunooiaao ia ii?aaeaeythuei, a aoi?e/iui ia-/aeii. Iaioiieci
aic?iaeaeaao e nenoaiaoece?oao I. n?.-aae. noieanoeee (i?aaeaea anaai
Oiiu Aeaeineiai). ?ac-ee/iua aa?eaiou yecenoaioeeaeecia, iuoaynue
i?aiaei-eaoue ineoieiaeci a o?aeoiaea i?e?iaeu /aeiaaea, iienu-aatho
no?oeoo?o /aeiaa/. ia?aaeeaaiee eae oa?aeoa?enoe-ee naiiai auoey.
Oaeaeaaaa? a naiae «ooiaeaiaioaeueiie I.» au/eaiyao i?e iiiiue aiaeeca
iaee/iiai /aeiaa/. auoey «/enooth noauaeoeaiinoue» i no?aieony
inaiaiaeeoue a? io «iaiiaeeeiiuo» oi?i nouanoaiaaiey. I?e yoii auoea
ii-ieiaaony eae o?ainoeaiaeaioeey, ia oiaeaeanoaaiiay naiei
ii?aaeia/aiiui i?iyaeaieyi, o. a. nouaio. A nia?. ao?ae. oeeinioee
iiaeiaiui oaiaeaioeeyi i?ioeainoieo iaiiiceoeaeci, ?anniao?eaathuee ana
iiiuoee aic?iae-aeaiey I. eae ?aoeeaeeau caaeoaeaeaiee oeeinioee e
oaieiaee i?ioeiai. N o. c?. iaiiiceoeaecia ana aioeiiiee e i?ia-eaiu I.
?aoathony a ?aieao iaoee eee ono?aiythony io-o?i eiae/. aiaeeca ycuea.

Ia?enenonei-eaieineay oeeinioey ia iniiaa oai?ee io?aaeaiey e ?ane?uoey
aeeaeaeoeee noauaeoa e iauaeoa a i?ioeanna i?aeoi/. aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea i?aiaeieaea oa?aeoa?iia aeey aeiia?enenoneie e nia?. cai.
oeeinioee i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea I. e aiinaieiaee. Ooiaeaiaioaeueiue
i?eioeei aeeaeaeoe/. iaoa?eaeecia — niaiaaeaiea aeeaeae-oeee, eiaeee i
oai?ee iiciaiey: iaoa?eaeenoe/. aeeaeae-oeea eae iaoea i iaeaieaa iaueo
caeiiao ?acaeoey i?e?i-aeu, iauanoaa i iuoeaiey oiaeaeanoaaiia oai?ee
iiciaiey i eiaeea. Caeiiu iuoeaiey e caeiiu auoiy niaia-aeatho ii naiaio
niaea?aeaieth: aeeaeaeoeea iiiyoee yaeyao-ny io?aaeaieai aeeaeaeoe/.
aeaeaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiiai ie-?a (ni. O. Yiaaeuen, a ei.: Ia?en E. e
Yiaaeuen O., Ni/., o. 21 n. 302). Eaoaai?ee iaoa?eaeenoe/. aeeaeaeoeee
eiatho iioieiae/. niaea?aeaiea e iaeiia?aiaiii auiieiytho aiinaieiae/.
ooieoeee: io?aaeay iauaeoeaiue ie?, iie neoaeao nooiaiueeaie aai
iiciaiey.

Nia?. iao/. iiciaiea, aeey e-?iai oa?aeoa?ai aunieee o?iaaiue
aano?aeoiinoe, ii?iaeaeaao ?yae iioieiae/. I?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
aaeaeaaoiie eioa?i?aoaoeeae oai?aoe/. iiiyoee e iainiiaaieai oai?aoe/.
ooiaeaiaioa iiauo iai?aaeaiee e iaoiaeieiae/. iiaeoiaeia (iai?.,
eaaioiaay iaoaieea, einiieiaey, eeaa?iaoeea, nenoaiiue iiaeoiae). Ni.
oaeaea Auoea, Oai?ey iiciaiey.

1.4.Iniiaiua eaoaai?ee oeeinioneie iioieiaee: auoea, i?e?iaea, iaoa?ey,
i?ino?ainoai, a?aiy, ?acaeoea, yaiethoeey

(Iaoo i?e?iaeu, yaieeoeee)

Iioieiaey – o/aiea i auoee, ?acaeae oeeinioee, eco/athuee ooiaeaiaio.
i?eioeeiu, iaeaieaa iauea nouiinoe e eaoaai?ee nouaai. Auoea – naiia
oe?ieia (aano?aeoiia) iiiyoea, oa?iei «auoue» icia/aao iaee/anoaiaaoue,
nouanoaiaaoue. I?eciaiea oaeoa nouanoaiaaiey iiiaiia?aciuo aauae
ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa, naiiai /aeiaaea yaeyaony ia?aie
i?aaeiinueeie oi?ie?iaaiey ea?oeiu ie?icaeaiey. Ec yoiai auoaeaao aoi?ie
aniaeo i?iaeaiu auoey, eioi?ue ieacuaaao nou. aeeyiea ia ie?iaic?.
/ae-ea. I. Auoea (nouaa) i?ioeainoieo eaoaai?ey «ie/oi». O Aeaiie?eoa –
ionoioa, o Ieaoiia – /enoay aiciiaeiinoue, ianneaiinoue e caaeneiinoue.
O?aoee aniaeo i?iaeaiu – naycai n i?eciaieai aaeeinoaa ie?icaeaiey.
*aeiaae a naiae iianaaeiaaiie aeecie, i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo i naiae iauiinoe n ae?oaeie ethaeueie, nouanoaiaaiey
i?e?iaeu e o.ae. Ii a oi aea a?aiy aeey iaai ia iaiaa i/aaeaeiu e
?acee/ey, eioi?ua nouanoaotho i/ae ethaeueie, aauaie, i/ae iauanoaii e
i?e?iaeie, eoae. E, anoanoaaiii, aicieeaao aii?in i aiciiaeiinoe
anaiauaai, oi anoue iauaai aeey anao yaeaiee ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. Ana
iiiaiia?acea aauiuo e aeooiaiuo yaeaiee iauaaeeiyao oi, /oi iie anoue,
iaee/anoaotho, nouanoaotho, ianiio?y ia ?acee/ea oi?i naiaai
nouanoaiaaiey. E eiaiii aeaaiaea?y oaeoo naiaai nouanoaiaaiey iie
ia?acotho oeaeinoiia aaeeinoai ie?icaeaiey. Aaeeiia – ia/aei anyeiai
iiiaeanoaa, anyeiai auoey e oia, i?aaeoanoaothuaa ei e i?aainoiaeyuaa.
Nouanoaiaaiea e nouiinoue: A enoi?ee oeeinioee I. nouanoaiaaiey
oiio?aaeyeinue iau/ii aeey iaicia/aiey aiaoiaai auoey aaue, eioi?ia a
ioee/ee io nouiinoe iinoeaaaony ia iuoeaieai, a iiuoii. I. Nouiinoue a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiyoea nouanoaiaaiey iau/ii ioiaeaeanoaeytho n auoeai,
a I. nouiinoe neoaeeo aeey iaicia/aiey ia?aiiniiau, iniiaiie /a?ou e
enoi/ieea nouanoaiaaiey oie eee eiie aaue e a yoii niunea n?iaeie
eaoaai?ee noanoaioeee. Ia iniiaa eaoaai?ee auoey a O aeaaony naiay iauay
oa?-ea ie?icaeaiey: ana nouanoaothuaa – yoi e anoue ie?, e eioi?iio iu
i?eiaaeeaaeei. Yoa oa?aeoa?enoeea ia niaea?aeeo ieeaeeo
ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo ioeaiie. I?ioeai?a/ey i/ae O oeieaie – /oi neoaeeo
iauaaeeiythuei ia/aeii ie?icaeaiey.

I?ino?ainoai e a?aiy eae oeeinioneea eaoaai?ee.

I?ino?ainoai – iau/ii i?ioyaeaiiinoue, a?aiy – aeeeoaeueiinoue. I e a
iaeaaeatho naieie naienoaaie. I iaeaaeaao o?aoia?iinoueth, iii
neiao?e/ii, o a iao ia ia?aoeiuo i?ioeannia, i?ino?ainoai iaeii?iaeii
(eaaeaeay oi/ea i?ino?ainoaa i a acyoa ca ia/aei eii?aeeiao),
i?ino?ainoai ecio?iiii, o a iao i?eaaeeae?iaaiiuo iai?aaeaiee (a aa?o, a
iec, a eaai, a i?aai). A?aiy – aeeeoaeueiinoue, iii aneiiao?e/ii, o a ia
ia?aoeii. A?aiy iiaeao iiieiaoueny ii ?aciiio: oeeeee/aneia a?aiy
(eaeaiaea?e); a?aiy iiaeao oieeiaaoueny eae iaeioi?ay neiiao?ey, o e
?yae i?ioeannia ia yaeyaony ia ia?aoeiuie (niaaeeiaiea I e I2aeaao I2I e
ia?aoii, aiciiaeii ?aniaaeaiea); a?aiy iiaeao iiieiaoueny eae no?aea, o
a a?aiy ia ia?aoeii, iaeuecy aa?iooueny a i?ioeia. A?aiy ioee/aaony io
aa/iinoe, aa/iinoue ia iaiyaony e ia eiaao a?aiaie, aa/iinoue yoi
anaaaea ianoiyuaa. I?ino?ainoai e a?aiy aeieai a enoi?ee
?anniao?eaaeenue ?acaeaeueii. Aeaiie?eo iieaaae /oi anoue ionoioa –
a?aiy e aianoeeeua – i?ino?ainoai. Yoe acaeyaeu iiaeaea?aeeaae Iuethoii.
Eaeaieoe ii ae? iiaeioae e iiieiaieth a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa, eae e
naienoaai aeaeaeaiey.

Anoue aeaa oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe:

Niaoeeaeueiay. A iae auee iauaaeeiaiu iiiyoey aeaeaeaiea, i?ino?ainoai e
a?aiy. Iie eae naienoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia iaiythony io nei?inoe eo
aeaeaeaiey, eae e ianna , eioi?ay aicieeaao ni nei?inoueth aeaeaeaiey.
Iiyaeythony iiiyoey ianna iieiy e ianna aeaeaeaiey. I e a iaiythony a
caaen-e io nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey; ?eoi a?aiaie nie?auaaoy e eeiaeiua
?acia?u oaea nie?auathony. Neaaeiaaoaeueii ia nouanoaoao aaeeiie nenoaiu
eii?aeeiao e auei aaaaeaii iiiyoea – i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie eioa?aae
– yoi aaee/eia eioi?ay ia iaiyaony i?e ia?aoiaea io iaeiie nenoaiu
ion/aoa e ae?oaie. Yoio eioa?aae iicaieyao eciaiyoueny i?ino?ainoao e
a?aiaie a ?aciuo iai?aeaieyo, /oi iicaieyao aio inoaaaoueny iinoiyiiui.

Iauay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe naycaea a aaeeii iiiyoey oyaioathuae
iannu, i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. ?eoi a?aiaie caiaaeeyaony . I?ino?ainoai
ene?eaeyaony iiae aeaenoaeai iiey oyaioaiey. Iaaethaeaiey ai a?aiy
nieia/iuo caoiaiee iieacaee /oi i?ino?ainoai ene?eaeyaony. Ec yoiai auee
naeaeaiu neaaenoaey ia iniiaa aaiiao?ee Eiaa/aaneiai (io?eoeaoaeueiay
e?eaecia) e ?eiaia (iieiaeeoaeueiay e?eaecia), /oi i?e iieiaeeoaeueiii
ene?eaeaiee i?ino?ainoaa anaeaiiay caieiooa, a i?e io?eoeaoaeueiii
anaeaiiay aaneiia/ia.

?aoay o?aaiaiea Yiooaeia, O?eaeiai naeaeae auaiae, /oi iaoa anaeaiiay i
a noaoeeiia?iie, iia eee noaeaaony eee ?anoe?yaony. I?e niaeo?aeueiii
aiaeeca naaoa auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi iieinu naaoa niauathony a noi?iio
e?aniiai – cia/eo iauaeou oaeaeythony, anee aea e oeieaoiaiio, oi
iauaeou i?eaeeaeathony. Iaoa aea anaeaiiay ?anoe?yaony. O i 15-20 ie?ae
eao iacaae iaoa anaeaiiay auea neiioeaio?e?iaaia a caieiooie oi?ia
i?ino?ainoaa. O anaeaiiie anoue ai?eciio, e ca i?aaeaeu eaeie-oi noa?u o
/aeiaaea iao aiciiaeiinoe aueoe. Ioe?ue ?anoe?ythuothny nenoaio Oaaae.
Noaiiaeaiea anaeaiiie naycuaatho n /a?iuie aeu?aie naa?oieioiiai
ninoiyiey, eioi?ua ioee/athony oai /oi a iiea eo oyaioaiey ana en/acaao,
aeaaea eo/ naaoa. *a?iua aeu?u yoi yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu naeaoua
i?ino?ainoaii e a?aiaiai. A ?acoeueoaoa ac?uaa ec /a?iie aeu?u
auaeaeythony yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu, /oi i?eaiaeeo e noaiiaeaieth
oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee e noaiiaeaieth anaeaiiie.

Oeeinioneia iiieiaiea aeaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey.

A ie?a ana iaoiaeeony a aeaeaeaiee, io aoiiia aei anaeaiiie. Ana
i?aauaaao a aa/iii no?aieaiee e eiiio ninoiyieth, e ia ii
i?eioaeaeaieth, a ii nianoaaiiie i?e?iaea. Iineieueeo aeaeae anoue
nouiinoiue ao?eaoo iaoa?ee, oi iii, oaeaea eae e naia iaoa?ey,
ianioai?eii e iaoie/oiaeeii. Aeaeaeaiea – yoi niinia nou iaoa?ee. Aeaeae
caeeth/aii a naiie i?e?iaea iaoa?ee. Iaeie oi?iu aeaeae i?aa?au a
ae?oaea e ie iaeei aeae ia aa?aony ieieoaea.

Aeaeaeaiea iaoa?ee – ia oieueei iaoaie/aneia ia?aiauaiea oae a
i?ino?ainoaa, ii e ethaua acaeiiaeaenoaey, a oaeaea eciaiaiey ninoiyiee
iauaeoia, eioi?ua aucuaathony yoeie acaeiiaeaenoaeyie. Aeaeaeaiea – yoi
e acaeiiia i?aa?auaiea yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, e iaiai aauanoa a eeaoeao
i?aaiecia, e iaiai aeayo-oueth iaaeaeo ethaeueie a i?ioeanna eo
nioeeaeueiie aeecie.

Iniiaiua oeiu aeaeaeaiey: 1.- yoi aeaeaeaiea, eiaaea nio?aiyaony
ea/anoai i?aaeiaoa; 2.-oei aeaeaeaiey, naycaiiue n ia?aoiaeii io iaeiiai
ea/anoaa e ae?oaiio, n eciaiaieai ea/anoaaiiiai ninoiyiey i?aaeiaoa.Yoi
iiaeao auoue ?ac?ooaiea i?aaeiaoa, ?aniaae aai ia ninoaaeythuea
yeaiaiou, eio. i?aaenoaaeytho iniaua ea/-aa, aicieeathuea a ?ac-oa
i?aia?aciaaiey enoiaeiiai i?aaeiaoa.

I?ioeannu, naycaiiua n i?aia?aciaaieai ea/-aa i?aaeiaoia, n iiyaeaieai
iiauo ea/-uo ninoiyiee, eio. eae au ?acaa?ouaatho iioaioeeaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe, ne?uoua e ia?acaa?iooua a i?aaeoanoaothueo ea/-uo
ninoiyieyo, oa?aeoa?ecothony eae ?acaeoea. I?ioeann ?acaeoey – yoi
anaaaea ia?aoiae iaeiiai ea/anoaa a ae?oaia, iai?aaeaiiia oi?ie?iaaiea
iiauo nenoai, iiauo oeiia i?aaiecaoeee, eio. ?iaeaeathony ec
i?aaeoanoaothueo ei nenoai. Aeaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe i?ioeannia ?acaeoey: 1)
i?ioeannu ea/anoaaiiuo i?aa?auaiee, ia auoiaeyuea ca ?aiee
niioaaonoaothuaai aeaea iaoa?ee, ii?aae-ai o?iaiy aa i?aaiecaoeee. 2)
I?ioeannu ia?aoiaea io iaeiiai o?iaiy e ae?oaiio. A iaaeeaie i?e?iaea
y?eei i?eia?ii ia?aie ?aciiaeaeiinoe ?acaeoey iiaeao neoaeeoue
yaiethoeey caacae.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei ea/anoaaiii ?acee/iuo oi?i aeaeae iaoa?ee: iaoai,
oece/aneay, oei, aeieiae/aneay, nioeeaeueiay… Ea/anoaaiiia
?aciiia?acea iaeiiai o?iaiy ia i.a. iauyniaii ea/ ?aciiia?aceai
ae?oaiai. Oi/iia iienaiea aeaeae /anoeoe aicaeooa ia iiaeao iauynieoue
niune /ae ?a/e. Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo e iauea
caeiiiia?iinoe, naienoaaiiua anei o?iaiyi, a oaeaea eo acaeiiaeaenoaea.
Yoa naycue au?aae a oii, /oi aunoaa aeeth/aao iecoaa. (AeIE – oei
niaaeeiaiea) Iaeiaei aunoea oi?iu ia aeeth/aiu a iecoea. (iao aeecie a
oei niaaeeiaieyo)

?acaeoea, iaia?aoeiia, iai?aaeaiiia, caeiiiia?iia eciaiaiea
iaoa?eaeueiuo e eaeaaeueiuo iauaeoia. Oieueei iaeiia?aiaiiia iaee/ea
anao oeacaiiuo naienoa auaeaeyao i?ioeannu ? n?aaee ae? eciaiaiee:
ia?aoeiinoue eciaiaiee oa?-ao i?ioeannu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey; ionoonoaea
caeiiii?iinoe oa?aeoa?ii aeey neo/aeiuo i?ioeannia eaoano?ioe/ oeia; i?e
ionoonoaee iai?aaeaiiinoe eciaiaiey ia iiaoo iaeaieeaaoueny , e iioiio
i?ioeann eeoaaony oa?aeoa?iie aeey ? aaeeiie, aioo?aiia acaeiinaycaiiie
eeiee. A ?acoeueoaoa ?. aicieeaao iiaia ea/anoaaiiia ninoiyiea iauaeoa,
e-?ia aunooiaao eae eciaiaiea aai ninoaaa eee no?oeoo?u (o.a.
aicieeiiaaiea, o?ainoi?iaoeey eee en/aciiaaiea aai yeaiaioia e naycae).
Niiniaiinoue e ? ninoaaeyao iaeii ec anaiaueo naienoa iaoa?ee e
niciaiey.

IAOA?Ess

?aaeueiinoue – aauanoaaiiue, aeaenoaeoaeueiue. Iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue
– iaueoeaiue ie? nouanoaothuee ia caaeneii io /aeiaa/aneie aiee,
i?aaenoaaeaiee. Noauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue – iaiai?io. Iaoa?ey –
aaneiia/iia iiiaeanoai anao nouanoaothueo a ie?a iauaeoia e nenoai,
anaiauay noanoaioeey, noano?ao ethauo naienoa, naycae, ioiioaiee e oi?i
aeaeaeaiey. Aanue ie?oaeathuee ie? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaeaeouothny
iaoa?eth a aa aaneiia/iuo oi?iao e i?iyaeaieyo.

Oaea a ae?aaiinoe oeeiniou iuoaeenue i?aaenoaaeoue aeaeeiia iiiaiia?acea
aauae eae i?iyaeaiea aeaeeiiai ia/aea. Yoi iauaa, ianioai?eiay e ia
oie/oiaeeiay iniiaa anao aauae iieo/eea iacaaiea noanoaioeee.
Oi?ie?iaaiea noanoaioeee – yoi e oi?ie?iaaiea iao/iiai iiieiaiey
iaoa?ee. A ae?aaiae A?aoeee iiae noanoaioeeae iaoa?eaeenou iiieiaee
eiie?aoiia aauanoai. Ae?aaiaa?a/aneea aoiienou n/eoaee, /oi noanoaioeey
yoi aoii. Ana /oi ninoieo ec aoiiia e ionoiou. A oeeinioee e
anoanoaiciaiee iiaiai a?aiaie e a ?aaioao Iuethoiia, Eiiiiiniaa
aiaoiie/aneea eaeae iieo/eee ?acaeoea. N eiioea 16a.aei ia/aea 19a.
ainiiaenoaiaaea iaoaienoe/aneay ea?oeia ie?a. Iaoa?ey ?anniao?eaaeanue
eae niaieoiiinoue iaaeaeeiuo aoiiia, eioi?ua iaaeaeaiu aaiiao?e/aneeie e
iaoaie/aneeie naienoaaie: iannie, i?ioyaeaiiinoueth, oi?iie,
iai?iieoeaaiinoueth e niiniaiinoueth ia?aiauaoueny. Ii a yoi a?aiy auee
auneacaiu e ae?oaea eaeae i iaoa?ee:

i naiiaeaeaeaiee a iaoa?ee 2) iaoa?ey iiieiaeanue eae aano?aeoiia
iiiyoea, a eioi?ii ioia?aaeaiu naienoaa iiiaiia?aciuo aauanoa. 3)
Iaoa?ee i?enoua aioo?aiia iuneue. O?aeoiaea iaoa?ee eaeaaeenoe/aneeie
iai?aaeaieyie oee. Noauaeoeaiua eaeaaeenou ioiaeaeanoaeyee iaoa?eth n
niaieoiiinoueth iuouaiee. Iauaeoeaiua eaeaaeenou n/eoaee, /oi iaoa?ey
ianneaia, eia?oia. AEeciue ae i?eaeaao eaeath. Eoae e aeey iaoa?eaeecia
e aeey eaeaaeecia oa?aeoa?ii ioiaeaeanoaeaiea iaoa?ee n aauanoaii, n
eiie?aoiuie oi?iaie aa i?iyaeaiey; Ia i?iaiaeeony ?acee/ea i/o oee.
iiieiaieai iaoa?ee e anoanoaaiiienoi?e/aneeie acaeyaeaie ia
nouanoaothuee ie?. Ia?en e Yiaaeuen iiieiaee iiae iaoa?eae noanoaioeeth.
Iaoa?ey – yoi anaiauay iineoaeueieoea na-a, ioiioaiee, eciaiaiee
eiie?aoiuo aauae. Ii iaoa?ey ia nouanoaoao aia eiie?aoiuo aauae, a
oieueei /a?ac ieo. A ia/aea 19-20aa. a anoanoai ciaiee auei naeaeaii
?yae ioe?uoee, eioi?ua ii?iaa?aee noa?oth, iao. ea?oeio ie?a. Ioe?uoea
?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae iiae?uaaao eaeath iai?iieoeaaiinoe iaoa?ee. ssaeaiea
aeaoaeoa iannu, ioe?uoia Aaeea?aeai i?e eco/aiee ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai
?aniaaea. Aue naeaeai auaiae, /oi iaoa?ey i?aa?auaaony a iaoa?eth.
Iaoa?ey en/acaao. Iaoa?eaeeci eiaeai. Ioe?uoea Oiiiniiii yeaeo?iia
ioaa?aaao eaeath i oii, /oi aoii ia aeaeei. I?aaeiyy ea?oeia ie?a
?ooeeanue. A anoanoaiciaiee ianooiee iaoiaeieiae/aneee e?ecen. Iiaua
ioe?uoey ia aienuaaeenue a noa?oth ea?oeio ie?a. Ia?aae oee. noaea
caaea/a ooi/iaiey iiiyoey . Yoi naeaeae Eaiei a ?aaioa
. Iaoa?ey – oeeinioneay eaoaai?ey aeey
iaicia/aiey iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, eio. aeaia /-eo a iuouaieyo aai,
eioi?ay eiie?oaony, oioia?aoe?oaony, ioia?aaeaaony, iaoeie iuouaieyie,
nouanoaothuay iacaaeneii io ieo. A yoii ii?aaeaeaiee auaeaeaii 2
i?eciaea iaoa?ee: 1) I?eciaiea ia?ae/iinoe iaoa?ee ii ioiioaiee e
niciaieth (iauaeoeaiinoue iuouaiey) 2) I?eciaiea i?eioeeieaeueiie
iiciaaaaiinoe ie?a. Eaiei ?aca?aie/eaaao oeeinioneia iiieiaiea iaoa?ee e
anoanoaaiiiiao/iua ciaiey i nouanoaothuai ie?a. Eaiei niinianoaiaae
i?aiaeieaieth e?ecena a oeceea, naycaiiiai n aeeth/aieai i?eioeeia
no?oeoo?iinoe iaoa?ee e aeaeeiinoe aoiiia a iao/ioth ea?oeio ie?a. A
aeiia?enenoeie oeeinioee iaoa?ey ioiaeaeanoaeyeanue n eiie?aoiuie aa
aeaeaie, iai?. aoiiaie e oae. Ioiaeaeanoaeaiea ia e.-e. yoaia iiciaiey
oeein. iiiyoey I. eae iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe n eiie?aoiuie
ano.-iao/iuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie i aa no?oeoo?a e oi?iao ii nouanoao
i?eaiaeeo e eneeth/aieth aua iaecaanoiuo, ii ?aaeueii nouanoaothueo
iauaeoia e nenoai ec no?oeoo?u I., /oi i?ioeai?a/eo i?eioeeio
iaoa?eaeueiiai aaeeinoaa ie?a. Yoi aaeeinoai eiaao iiiaeanoai eiie?aoiuo
oi?i i?iyaeaiey, iineaaeia. ?ane?uaaaiuo iaoeie e i?aeoeeie. Anaiaueie
oi?iaie auoey I. yaeythony i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy, eioi?ua ia nouanoaotho
aia I., eae ia iiaeao auoue e iaoa?eaeueiuo, eioi?ua ia iaeaaeaee au
i?ino?ainoaaiii a?aiaiiuie naienoaaie.

1.5 Ia?ac i?e?iaeu a aeeiaieea aa?iiaeneie oeeinioneie e iauaeoeueoo?iie
o?aaeeoeee.

I?E?IAeA, 1) a oe?ieii niuenea—an? nouaa, aanue ie? a iiiaiia?acee aai
oi?i; iiiyoea I. a yoii cia/aiee noieo a iaeiii ?yaeo n iiiyoeyie
iaoa?ee, oieaa?noia, Anaeaiiie. 2) A aieaa oceii niunea — iauaeo iaoee,
a oi/iaa — niaieoiiue iauaeo anoanoaiciaiey («iaoe i I.»). I. a oeaeii
aunooiaao eae iauaa iiiyoea ia iauaeoa, caaeathuaa i?eioeeieaeueioth
noaio iiieiaiey e iauyniaiey oiai eee eiiai eiie?aoiiai i?aaeiaoa
eco/aiey (iai?., i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, aeaeaeaiee,
i?e/eiiinoe e ae?.). Oaeia iauaa iiiyoea I. ?ac?aaaouaaaony a ?aieao
oeeinioee e iaoiaeieiaee iaoee, e-?ua auyaeytho aai ini. oa?aeoa?enoeee,
iie?aynue i?e yoii ia ?acoeueoaou anoanoa. iaoe. Eae i?aaeaeueiay
aano-?aeoeey ini. oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e-?ie yaeythony oieaa?naeueiinoue,
caeiiiniia?aciinoue e naiiaeinoaoi/iinoue, iiiyoea I. auaeaeaaaony ia
ia?aua ?iee a nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?-iiyooeaia-a-yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey a
oneiaeyo ai?ueau i?ioea ?aeea. Aeiaiaoecia e n?.-aae. noieanoeee, ii
cae?aieyaony iii eeoue n ooaa?aeaeaieai iiuoiiai anoanoaiciaiey (16— 17
aa.). Nia?. anoanoaiciaiea ianeaaeoao o?aaeeoeee iiieiaiey I.,
au?aaioaiiua a iiaia a?aiy, ii iaeiia?aiaiii nouanoaaiii iaiaauaao eo.
Yoi au?aaeaaony a i?aaenoaaeaieyo i ?acaeoee I. e aai niaoeeoe/.
caeiiiia?iinoyo, i ?acee/iuo oi?iao aeaiaeaiey iaoa?ee e ?acee/iuo
no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiyo i?aaiecaoeee I., a ?anoe?aiee i?aaenoaaeaiee i oeiao
i?e/eiiuo naycae e o.i. Iai?., n nicaeaieai oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe
nouanoaaiii aeaeieciaieeenue acaeyaeu ia i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaii’oth
i?aaiecaoeeth iauaeoia I.; ?acaeoea nia?. einiieiaee iaiaauaao
i?aaenoaaeaiey i iai?aaeaiee anonnoa. i?ioeannia; aeinoeaeaiey oeceee
iee?iie?a niinianoaotho cia/eo, ?anoe?aieth iiiyoey i?e/eiiinoe;
i?ia?ann yeieiaee i?ea?e e iiieiaieth aeoaieeo i?eioeeiia oeaeinoiinoe
I. eae aaeeiie nenoaiu. 3) Iaeaieaa oiio?aaeoaeueii oieeiaaiea iiiyoey
I. eae niaieoiiinoe anoanoa. oneiaee nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaa/. iauanoaa. A
yoii niunea iiiyoea I. oa?aeoa?ecoao ianoi e ?ieue I. a nenoaia
enoi?e/anee iaiythueony ioiioaiee e iae /aeiaaea e iauanoaa. Iiiyoea I.
oiio?aaeyaony aeey iaicia/aiey ia oieueei anoanoaaiiuo, ii e nicaeaiiuo
/aeiaaeii iaoa?eaeueiuo oneiaee aai nouanoaiaaiey — «aoi?ie I.». Ii
neiaai E. Ia?ena, iinoiyiiia inouanoaeaiea iaiaia aauanoa iaaeaeo
/aeiaaeii e I.— caeii, ?aaoee?othuee iauanoa, i?iec-ai; aac oaeiai
iaiaia auea au iaaiciiaeia naia /aeiaa/. aeeciue (ni. E..Ia?en e O.
Yiaaeuen, Ni/., o. 23, n. 51, 514).

?aaeueioth iniiao ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e I. ia?acoao aai aeayoaeueiinoue,
e-?ay anaaaea inouanoaeyaony a eiia/iii n/?oa a I. e n aeaiiui ath
iaoa?eaeii. Iiyoiio e eciaiaiea ioiioaiey e I. ia i?ioyaeaiee enoi?ee
iauanoaa ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai eciaiaieai oa?aeoa?a e ianooaaia
/aeiaa/. aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aei ia/aea nia?. iao/ii-oaoie/. ?aaiethoeee yenieoaoaoeey I. iineea
I?aei. yenoaineaiue oa?aeoa?, o. a. iniiauaaeanue ia oaaee/aiee iau?ia e
?aciiaeaeiinoae iieo/aaiuo io I. ?ano?nia. I?e yoii ianooaau
aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa i?aeoe/anee ia auee ia?aie/aiu ecaia, ni noi?iie
I.— /aeiaae iia a?aoue o ia? «aac n/?oa», noieueei, neieueei iicaieyea
aai nianoa. i?iecaiaeeo, neea. E na?. 20 a. oaeie niinia yenieoaoaoeee
ia/eiaao i?eaeeaeaoueny e e?eoe/. oi/eai, i?e/?i n?aco a iane.
ioiioaieyo: ianooaau iio?aaeaiey o?aaeeoe. enoi/ieeia yia?aee, nu?uey e

iaoa?eaeia noaiiayony n?aaieiu n eo iaueie caianaii a caiiie I.; oa aea
ea?oeia au?eniauaaaony e a ioiioaiee anoanoa. aacu aeey i?iec-aa
i?iaeiaieuenoaey a nayce n auno?ui ?inoii ianaeaiey ieaiaou; niaieoiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue iauanoaa ieacuaaao an? aieaa caiaoiia aeeyiea ia I.,
iuooeii aoi?aaaony a a? anoanoa. iaoaieciu naii?aaoeyoeee, ?acei
aeaeieciaiyao oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey aeeaie iaoa?ee. An? yoi nicaea?o
iauaeoeaii-i?e?iaeioth iniiao e iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aoiaea io
yenoaineaiiai e eioaineaiiio niiniao yenieoaoaoeee I., o. a. aieaa
iieiiio, yooaeoeaiiio e ?aciinoi?iiiaio eniieueciaaieth a? ?ano?nia. Ni
noi?iiu naiiai iauanoaa yoa iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaee?aieyaony niioaaonoa.
eciaiaieai oa?aeoa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, e-?ay oaia?ue oaea ia iiaeao
?acaeaaoueny niiioaiii iiae aicaeaenoaeai naiae nianoa. aioo?. eiaeee, a
o?aaoao niaoe. ?aaoee?iaaiey, iineieueeo ieacuaaaony ia?aie/aiiie
niaieoiiinoue a? iaoa?eaeueiuo, i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee. A nia?. iauanoaa
oaeia ?aaoee?iaaiea a cia/eo, ia?a iie?aaony ia iaoeo — ae. i?oaeea
eioaineoeeaoeee i?iec-aa e ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee, iniuneaiiiai ia?aono?ienoaa
iaoa?eaeueiuo ioiioaiee /aeiaaea n I. Ia iaoeo an? aieaa
iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?eaioe?oaony e /aeiaa/. aeayoaeueiinoue. A eoiaa
ia/eiaao neeaaeuaaoueny iiaue oei ioiioaiey iauanoaa e I.— ioiioaiea
aeiaaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey, e-?in ioaaouaaao eae i?ioeannu a I., oae e
aeayoaeueiinoue iauanoaa a oeaeii e i?aaeiieaaaao ?ac?aaioeo
?aoeeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii yoie aeayoaeueiinoe, o/eouaathueo oa?aeoa? e
a?aieoeu aeiionoeiiai aicaeaenoaey ia I. e» iaiaoiaeeiinoue a?
nio?aiaiey e aini?iecaiaenoaa. I. ai an? aieueoeo ianooaaao noaiiaeony
nouanoaaiiui e ?acoiii oi?aaeyaiui eiiiiiaioii nioeeaeueiiai i?aaiecia.

Aeey ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea,. ii/oe iieiinoueth ?anoai??iiiai a I.,
oa?aeoa?ii a? iaeooioai?aiea. Ieoiei-ae/. iuoeaiea au? ia ?aniieaaaao
iniiaayeyie aeey /?oeiai i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey I. e /aeiaaea. Nianoaaiii
oai?aoi/. ioiioaiea e I. aia?aua neeaaeuaaaony n ioaeaeaieai oeeinioei
io ieoieiaee, o. a. n iiyaeaieai oai?aoe/. iuoeaiey eae oaeiaiai. A
oeaiiinoiii ieaia yoi ioiioaiea ieacuaaaony aeaienoaaiiui; oa /anoue I.,
e-?ay aiaea/aia a i?aeoo aeiyoneueiinoe /aeiaaea, oieeoaony n
ooeeeoa?ii-i?aaiaoe/. oi/ee c?aiey eae iio?aaeoaeueneay oeaiiinoue, eae
enoi/iee ?ano?nia aeey /aeiaaea e ianoi aai iaeoaiey (;)o.1 oeaiiinoiay
oeieioeiy nio?aiyaony iieioue aei ni?. 20 e.); I. aea e oeaeii aeieaia
a?aiy aunooiaao eae iaecia?eii i?aainoiaeyuay /aeiaaea neea e iioiio —
eae eaeaae aa?iiiee, ia?oeioai?iiai niaa?oainoaa. Yoio oei oeaiiinoiiai
oaaeioaiey ii?aaeaeyao O1 iai?aaeaiea oai?noe/. ?aciuoeaiee i II. *a?ac
anth aioe/. oeeinioeth i?ioiaeeo o?aeoiaea II. eae niaa?oai-noaa, eae
n?aaeioi/ey eiaina. Eioi/. iuoeaieth naienoaaiii ia?auaoueny e I. eae e
yoaeiio i?aai i.ooeee, ia?eeo ioae?inoe, a aeeciue a niaeanii n II. e n?
caeiiaie ?anoeaieaaaony caeanue iau/ii eae naiay aeaaay e aeaeaiiay.
Nouanoaaiii eiia ioiioaiea e I. neeaaeuaaaony n ooaa?aeaeaieai
o?enoeainoaa, e-?ia ?anniao?eaaao i? eae aiieiuaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai
ia/aea, eae «iec», aaea an? i?aoiaeyua e eciai/eai. Caiiiio, I. ?acei
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony aa/aeia, aan. aeooiaiia ia/aei — aia, aaconeiaii
noiyuee iaae I. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aioe/iinoe ini. eaeaae caeanue
yaeyaony ia neeyiea n I., a aicauoaiea iaae iath. Aic-yaeyaony ia
neeyiea n I., a aicauoaiea iaae iath. Aic?iaeaeaiea aiiaue ia?auaaony e
aioe/. eaeaaeai oieeiaaiey anaai anoanoaaiiiai, i?e?iaeiiai eae
aiieiuaiey aa?iiiee e niaa?oainoaa. Yoa iiceoeey e iicaeiaa iiiaie?aoii
aini?iecaiaeeony a naiuo ?aciuo eiioaenoao, a /anoiinoe a eiioeaioeee
anoanoa. i?aaa (?onni e ae?.), auaiaeeaoae i?aai ic aeaiiuo I.,
«anoanoa.» caeiiia /aeiaa/. Iauaaeeoey, a oaeaea a ?yaea oeie eeo-?u e
oeeinioee, aeoeaii i?iaiaeeaoeo eicoia «iacaae e I.» e oniao?eaaaoee a
i?i aaeeinoa. nianaiea io ?ac?ooeo, aeaenoaey ao?ae. ii?yaeeia

Yoio aea eaeaae ioiioaiey e I. a iiaia a?aiy nua?ae iaiaeoth ?ieue a
i?aa?auaiee I. a iauaeo iao/. eco/aiey. Aianoa n oai ?acaeoea iaoee e
aeoeaiiai inaiaiey I. ia aaca ?acaeoey i?ii-noe nouanoaaaii
o?ainoi?ie?ieaee ia?aiia/. noaio eaeaaiece?ia e iiyoece?ia. Ioiioaiey e
I. Iiuoiia anoanoaiciaiea auaeaeaaao eaeath «eniuoaiey» I. Ii ioiioaieth
e iiciaaao. Eoo?aeoe/. aeoeaeinoe /aeiaaea I. ia/eiaao aunooiaoue eae
iauaeo, eae iii?eua aeayoaeueiinoe, eae einiay e eia?oiay neea,
o?aaothuay Iiei?aiey, onoaiiaeaiey iaae iath ainiiaenoaa ?aaoia.

Oaeie oei ioiioaiey e I. nio?aiyaony aei oao ii?, iiea aeaenoaeo.
ainiiaenoai iaae iath ia ia/eiaao i?aa?auaoueny a ?aaeueiinoue. Eiaaea
ie?, nicaeaiiue aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea, noaiiaeony niecia?eiui n
ie?ii I., o. a. eiaaea aeayoaeueiinoue iauanoaa aeinoeaaao ieaiaoa?-iuo
ianooaaia, noaiiaeony ii naiaio iau?io n?aaieiie n ianooaaaie i?ioeannia
a I., ooieeoa?ii-i?aaiaoi/. ioyioaaya e I. iinoaiaiii ia?anoa?o auoue
naiiaeiaeathuei e aaaa?aae/iui, iii aeiiieiyaony iniciaieai ?anoouae
caaeneiinoe naiie I. io /aeiaaea e aai aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia yoie iniiaa
neeaaeuaaaony iiaue oei oeaiiinoiiai ioiioaiey e I., e-?ue iiaeii
iacaaoue nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneei e e-?ue eaoiaeeo ec ioeaiee I. eae
oieeaeueiiai e oaeaa?n. aianoeeeua /aeiaaea e anae aai eoeueoo?u. Oaeay
ioeaiea i?aaeiieaaaao ioaaonoa. ioiioaiea e I., iinoiyiiia niicia?aiea
ioaeae iauanoaa e aiciiaeiinoae I., o/?o oiai, /oi nai /aeiaae e
/aeiaa/anoai anoue /anoue I.

A iao/.-oai?aoe/. ieaia yoie oeaiiinoiie ia?ai?eaioaoeee niioaaonoaoao
ia?aoiae io eaeae aan. ainiiaenoaa aae I. e eaeaa ioiioaiee iauanoaa e
I. eae ioiioaiee ia?oi??ia, niecia?eiuo ii naiaio iioaioeeaeo. Ia?aui
oai?aoi/. au?aaeaieai yoie iiceoeee yaeeanue nic-aeaiiay A.E.Aa?iaaeneei
eiioeaioeey iiinoa?u. Nic-aeaiea iioaioeeaeueiiai (a a iae-?uo ioieoao e
aeooaeue-iiai) i?aainoiaenoaa iauanoaa iaae I. iinoaiaiii, oioy e ia
aacaieaciaiii, ?iaeaeaao iiaue iiaeoiae, iniiaaiiue ia eaeaa aaeeiiai,
naaeaine?iaaiiiai e ioaaonoa. oi?aa-eaiey nioeeaeueiuie e i?e?iaeiuie
i?ioeannaie e oneiaeyie. Ai 2-e iie. 20 a. yoio iiaeoiae ia/eiaao
iieo/aoue ?ani?ino?aiaiea e aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa iniiau ?aaoee?iaaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe e anae nenoaiu i?aeoe/. ioiioaiee iauanoaa e I., a o. /.
ia?ii?eyoee ii io?aia i?e?iaeu e caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

A i?aeoe/. ieaia, iaeiaei, ?aaeecaoeey oaeiai iiaeoiaea cao?oaeiaia, o.
e. iia i?aaeiieaaaao aanueia iniiaao. ec-iaiaein onoaiiaie iauanoa,
niciaiey, ioeac io oei?aiea-ieoay noa?aioeiia iio?aaeoaeueneiai
ioiioaiey e I.e ea?aeeiaeueioth ia?ano?ieeo ii. nia?. i?ii. e n.-o.
oaoii-eiaee. E?eceniua neooaoeee ai acaeiiaeninoiee iiuanoaa e I. iinyo
ia oieueei eieaeueiue e ?aaeiiaeueiue, ii e aeiaaeueiue, iauaieaiaoa?iue
oa?aeoa?. Ia yoii oiia ai ii. no?aiao ie?a cia/eo, iieeoi/. neeie
noaiiayony ianniaua aeaeaeaiey, e-?ua aaaeoo ai?ueao ca nio?aiaiea I. Eo
aeaenoaey e i?ia?aiiu ieacuaatho na?ue?ciia aeeyiea ia iauanoa.
niciaiea, a oaeaea ia ?acaeoea i?ii-noe, oaoieee e oaoiieiaee. A oeaeii
nio?aiaiea i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu i?aa?auaaony a iaeio ec aaaeiuo noa?
aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa, ioaaouaathuoth yeiiiie/., iieeoe/., i?aaiaua,
ainieoao. caaea/e.

Aeey ?aoaiey aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai o?aaoaony eiino?oeoeaiia iaaeaeoia?.
nio?oaeie/anoai. Iiaia iieeoe/. iuoeaiea ooaa?aeaeaao i?ei?eoao
iaua/aeiaa/. oeaiiinoae, aeeth/athueo e io?aio anoanoa. oneiaee
nouanoaiaaiey naiiai /aeiaa/anoaa. Ni. oaeaea noaouee Yeieiaey
nioeeaeueiay, Aeiaaeueiuai?iaeaiu.

1.6 Yaiethoeey iiiyoey iaoa?ee a eeane/eneie caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie
oeeinioee. Nia?aiaiiua anoanoaaiii iao/iua i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaoa?ee.

Iaoa?ey – ooiaeaiaioaeueiay enoiaeiay eaoaai?ey oee., io oiai eee eiiai
aa iiieiaiey caaeneo ?aoaiea i?aeo anao ae?oaeo o i?iaeai. Io eao
materia – aauanoai Yoi aauanoa cia/aiea oaea?aeeaaeinue aei 20a., eiaaea
i?iecioea ?aaie a oeceea.

Ia?aie nooiaiueth a iniciaiee iaoa?eaeueiinoe ie?a aue noeo
iaoa?eaeeci. Ia/aeii oi?i iiiyoey iaoa?ee yaeeny ia?aoiae io ea/anoa
?aciiia?acey nou aauae e iiiyoeth aaeeiie, iauaiethuae yoi ea/
?aciiia?acea iniiau ie?a – ia?aiiaoa?ee. Yoi aano?aae?iaaiea neiaeii.
Iiyoiio nia/aea ana ea/ ?aciiia? ie?aauaiaeeeinue ec eaeiai-eeai iaeiiai
oiaea ea/anoa ii?aaeaeaiiiai, yiie? aini?eieiaaiiai ye-oa. (iaiiue,
aiaea…) Ii oaea Aeaiie?eo caiaoee, /oi n iii. iaeiiai ea/ ii?aaeae.
a-aa iaaiciiaeii iauynieoue i?ienoiaeae ae?oaiai, oae eae ii ia
niaea?aeeo i?eioeeia naiaai i?aa?auaiey. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iunee
i?eaaei e aoiienoeea.

Aoiiu oiaea enoieeiauaaeenue eae aauanoai, eae ee?ie/e anaai
nouanoaothuaai. Oae ca?iaeeeanue aeene?aoiay ea?oeia ie?a. Iia auea
i/aiue ieiaeioai?iie aeey oee e iaoee a oeaeii. N yoie oai?eae naycaiu
iiiaea ioe?uoey a oeceea (oyaeanoue, oai? oaieiou, nio?aiaiea a-aa…).
Iaoaieea Iuethoiia iicaieyea iauyniyoue aieueooth /anoue yae e niauoee
ie?a ia iniiaa acaeiiaeaenoaey aoiiia. Eacaeinue aua /ooue-/ooue e oec.
ea?oeia ie?a iieo/eo iieioth caaa?oaiiinoue. A Ee?aio: “?acaa inoaeinue
aua /oi-ieaoaeue ioe?uaaoue?”

Iaeiaei aue ioe?uo yeaeo?ii, yaea?iue ?aniaae e i?aa?auaea aoiiia. Aoii
ieacaeny aiana ia iaeue/aeoae /anoeoeae a-aa. Ioe?uoea yeaeo?iiaai iieae
e yaea?iuo nee oiaea aianee naith eaioo. Iiea – i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/iia
io a-aa ninoiyiea iaoa?ee.

Ia?aiia/aeueii iiea iiieiaeinue eae ie?oae eaeie-ieaoaeue i?aaeiao
i?ino?ainoai, aeey eaaeaeie oi/ee eio iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aaee/eio e
iai?aae neeu acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo aeaiiui iauaeoii e ae?oaei. (iiea –
ao?eaoo a-aa) Ii caoai auei aeieacaii, /oi iiea ia oieueei ao?eaoo
iauaeoa, ii e naiinoiyo ?aaeueiinoue, o.a. iia aeae iaoa?ee, iniiaiui
naienoaii eio. yaeyaony iai?a?uaiinoue.

Ana yoi i?eaaei e oee e?eceno – “Iaoa?ey en/acea” Yoio e?ecen naycai n
oo?aoie i?aaenoaae i iaoa?ee eae i aauanoaa. Eciaiaiea iannu yeaeo? i?e
eciai oneiaee iiey eee nei?inoe, yaea?iua ?aaeoeee – i?aa?auaiea a-aa a
yia?aeth. Oaean…

Iaaiciiaeiinoue /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaoue iauaeou iee?iie?a canoaaeea
ia?aoeoueny e iaoai iiaeaeyi. Iaeioi?ua i?aaeaee i?e yoii iaoa?eth
caaaaieth = eaeaaeeci. E yoiio i?eaaei e oi, /oi iaoa?eaeeci
o?aaeeoeeiiii aue naycai n iaoaie/anee-aauanoaaiiui iiieiaieai iaoa?ee.

Aue yoio ie? aeoaieie oueiie ieooai./ Aea aoaeao naao!\ E aio yaeeny
Iuethoii.\ Ii naoaia iaaeieai aeaeae ?aaaioa.\ I?eoae Yeiooaei – e noaei
ana eae ?aiueoa\

Aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeeno iiiyoea iaoa?ee. Iaiaoiaeeii auei inaiaiaeeoue
eaoaai?eth iaoa?ee io aa aoaeoi au ia?ac?uaiie nayce n iiiyoeai a-aa.
Eaiei caia/ae, /oi en/acea ia iaoa?ey, a iaoaoec i?aaenoaaeaiea i iae.
Aaeeinoaaiiia naienoai iaoa?ee – “auoue iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoueth,
nouanoaiaaoue aia iaoaai niciaiey.” Ei?i/a “iaoa?ey anoue oee eaoaai?ey
aeey iaicia/aiey iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, eio aeaia /ae-eo a iuouaieyo
aa, eio eiie?oaony, oioia?aoe?oaony, ioia?aaeaaony iaoeie iuouaieyie
(eae iaiin?aaenoaaiii oae e iiin?aaeiaaii), nouanoaoy iacaaeneii io ieo”
– Aieueaao.

No?iaiea iaoa?ee – oece/ aii?in. A aii? ia ioiio iaoaai iiciaiey e ie?o
– yoi oee i?iaeaia. Iiyoiio iaeuecy aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiey oeaio? eaoaai?ee
oai?ee iiciaiey eae oiueei /a?ac aa niioianaiea n ae?, noieue aea oe?
eaoaai?eae – niciaieai e ii?aaeaeaieai oiai, /oi ec ieo aa?aony ca
ia?ae/iia. I?e/ai i?ioeaiiie iao e nici eiaao aanie cia/aiea oieueei a
i?aaeaeao i/aiue ia?aie/ iaeanoe: eneeth/eoaeueii a i?aaeaeao iniiaiiai
aiinaieia aii?ina i oii, /oi i?eciaoue i?aae/iui. Ca yoeie i?aaeaeaie
ioiineoaeueiinoue aeaiiiai i?ioeaiiieiaeaiey ianiiiaiia”.

1.7 Eiioeaioeey «*aeiaae-I?e?iaea» a naaoa eaeae aeiaaeueiiai
yaiethoeeiiecia. Aeneieiae/aneee aniaeo nia?aiaiiie yaiethoeeiiiie
ia?iaeeaiu.

Aicieeiiaaiea iauanoaa. Enoi?ey /aei iauanoaa a ii?aae niunea yaeyao
ea?oeio aai eciaiythuaainy acaeiiae n i?e?iaeie. Iaeiaei iauanoai ia nou
ecia/aeueii. Enoi?ey aai aicieeiia ia ioaeaeeia io enoi?ee noaiiaeaiey
naiiai /aeiaaea. ssaeyynue /anoueth i?e? /aeiaae iinoaiaiii, a iioeanna
o?oaea e iauaiey oi?ie? eae nioeeaeueiia nouanoai. Yoio i?ioe eiaao
naiei ia/aeii auaeaeaiea /ae ec aeeaioiiai ie?a, oi?ie? o iaai
nioeeaeueiuo iiaoaeeo iioeaia aiiaaaeaiee. A neeo anooiaao ia?yaeo n
anoanoa e nioeeaeueiue ioai?. (i?eiaieoaeueii e niiauanoaai) Auaeeaaee
oa niiauanoaa eio iiae/eiyeenue ii?aae nioeeaeueii cia/eiui o?aaiaaieyi:
niei/aiiinoe acaeiiiiiiue… Yoi nioeeaeueii cia/eiia cae?aieyeinue
anoanoa ioai?ii e ia?aaea/ae iiuoa. A i?aia?acia ia?aiauoiiai noaaea a
/aeia iauanoai ana aieueooth ?ieue ea?aee nioe caeiiiia?iinoe ia oiia
aeaenoaey aeieiae/. Yoi inou a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a i?ioe o?oaea.

Aeey o?oaea oa?aeoa?ai eieeaeoeaii i?aaieciaaiiue, oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue
iau niinia aeayoaeueiinoe.

O?oae anoue i?ioeann, niaa?oathueeny iaaeaeo /ae e i?e?iaeie, i?ioeann,
a eio /aeiaae naiae nianoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth iiin?aaeoao,
?aaoee?oao e eiio?iee?oao iaiai a-anoa iaaeaeo niaie e i?e?iaeie. O.i.
o?oae – oa aeaaiay iao neea , eio aaea e aicieeiia e oi?ie?iaaieth
nianoaaiii /aeiaa/aneie aeecie – iauanoaa. Iaeiaei aa aeaenoaea auei au
iaaiciiaeiui aac oi?ie?iaaiey ycuea., eio yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei n?aaenoaii
inou o?oaeiaiai i?ioeanna.

I?e? N?aaea – anoanoaaiiia oneiaea aeecie iauanoaa. Enoi?ey Caiee e
enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa – yoi aeaa aeaau iaeiiai ?iiaia”-Aa?oeai. Iauanoai
yae /anoueth aieaa iaoe?iiai oeaeiai- i?e?iaeu. *ae aeeaao ia caiea a
i?aaeaeao oiieie aa iaiei/ee – aaia?ao N?aaeu. Iia anoue ciia iaeoaiey
/ae e noa?a i?eeiae aai nee. Aaia?ao naaea – yoi oa /anoue i?, eio?ay
ninoaae aiaoiaeeiia oneiaea aeecie iauanoaa, aoaeo/e aiaea/aiiie a
i?ioeann iau i?iecaiaenoaa. Aia aa iaoa aeeciue aaiciiaeia.

N naiiai aicieeiia /aeia iauanoai eciaiyei ie?oae i?e?iaeo e naii
iaiyeinue iiae aa aicaeaenoaeai. Aicaeaenoaea iau ia i?e?
iaoneaaeeaaaony ?acaeoeai iao i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoee e oaoieee, iau
iio?aaiinoae. I?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo ?anoe?aiea ?aiie aaia? N?aaeu,
iaeiieaiea iiauo naienoa, ana aieaa ioaeaeythueo aa io aeaanoaaiiiai
ninoiyiey. Anee eeoeoue nia?ai aaia? n?aaeo aa naienoa, nicaeaiiuo
o?oaeii iiiaeo iieieaiee, e iinoaaeoue nia? iauanoai a eno i?e?iaeiua
oneiaey, oi iii ia niiaeao nouanoaiaaoue.

A naith i/a?aaeue e aaia? n?aaea aeeyao ia ?acaeoea iauanoaa. N?aaiei
?acaeoea ia?iaeia naaa?a e thaa, o?iieeia. Aaia? N?aaea ieacuaaao
aeeyiea ia oicyenoaaiioth niaoeeaeecaoeeth no?ai e?aeiiia. Oae, anee a
one ooiae?u ianae caieiaaony ieaiaaiaenoaii, a a noao?iieeao –
?acaaaeaieai oeeo?oniauo. Aeeyiea aaia? N?aaeu ia iauanoai – yaeaiea
enoi?e/aneia: /ai aeoaaea a aeoaue aaeia, /ai neaaaa neeu iauanoaa, oai
aieueoa aai caa0oue io aaia? N?aaeu.

Ia?aie/eaaaony ee N?aaea aeecie iauanoaaeeoue aaia?ao n?aaeie? Iao.
ea/anoaaiii eiie anoanoa n?aaeie aai aeecie yae noa?a anaai aeeaiai –
aeinoa?a. A ?-oa aeeeo yaiethoeee aeino neiaeeeanue eae aeeiaie/aneay,
aioo?aiia aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiay ?aaiiaaniay nenoaia. Iia ?acaeaaaony
aianoa n yaiethoeeae Anaeaiiie e anaai aeeaiai.

Iiieii anaai aeeaiai aeinoa?a aeeth/aao a naay e /aeiaaea. I?e/ai aai
aeeyiea neeueii iaiyao aeinoa?o. N ?acaeoeai /aeiaa/anoaa inouanoaeyaony
ia?aoiae e iiaiio ea/anoaaiiiio ninoiyieth – iiinoa?a, i?aaenoaaeythuoth
niaie noa?o aeeaiai e ?acoiiiai. Iiinoa?a o.i. iiaay iniaay
?aaeueiinoue, naycaiiay n aieaa aeoaieeie e ananoi?iiieie oi?iaie
i?aia?ac aicaeaenoaey iauanoaa ia i?e?iaeo.

Yeieiaey. – iaoea, eco/athuay caeiiiia?iinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey aeeaiai n
aiaoieie oneiaeyie aai iaeoaiey n oeaeueth iiaeaeaaeaiey aeeiai
?aaiiaaney nenoaiu “iauanoai-i?e?iaea”.

?acaeoea /aeiaa/anoaa, aai i?iecaiae nee noieeioee /aeia n i?iae
ia?aie/aiiinoe i?e? ?ano?nia, aiciiaeiiai ia?oo aeeiai ?aaiiaaney
nenoaiu iau-i?e?. “Ia noieo iaieueuaoueny iiaaaeaie iaae i?e?iaeie. Ca
eaaeaeoth oaeoth iiaaaeo iia inoeo. Eaaeaeay ec yoeo iiaaae iaao i?aaaea
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oa iineaaenoaey, ia eio iu ?an/eouaaee, ii ai aoi? e
a o?aoueth i/a?aaeue nianai ae?oaea, iai?aaeaeaeaiua iineaaenoaey, eio
i/aiue /anoi oie/oiaeatho cia/aiea ia?auo.” Iu ana aithai n i?e?iaeie, a
iaaei ie?ii nouanoaiaaoue a iae.

*ae, i?aa?auay ana aieueooth /anoue i?e?iaeu a n?aaeo naiaai iaeoaiey,
?anoe?yao a?aieoeu naiae naiaiaeu ii ioiioaieth e i?e?iaea, /oi aeieaeii
iaino?youe a iai /oanoai ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca i?aiaiacothuaa aicaeaenoaea
ia iaa. Caeanue iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea iauaoee i?ioeei: “/ai iieiaa
naiaiaea, oai auoa ioaaonoaaiiinoue”.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeiaaeueiinoue yeieia i?iaeai o?aaoao io /ae eiiai
niiniaa iuoeaey, iiaie oi?iu naiiniciaiey – Yeieiae/aneiai niciaiey. Yoi
i?aaeaea anaai icia/aao, /oi /aeia aeieaeii iniciaoue naay eae aaeeiia
oeaeia a naiai ioiioaiee e i?e?iaea. Naiia ia?aia e aeaaiia oneiaea
nio?aiaiea ?aaiiaaney e aa?iiiee n i?e?iaeie – yoi ?acoiiia
ninouanoaiaaiea ethaeae ae?oa n ae?oaii. Iaiaoiaeeii niaaeeieoue oneeey
anao ethaeae, anaai /aeiaa/anoaa a ?aoaieyo yoeo i?iaeai. A nia?ai
iauanoaa iio?aaeaey ?aoaiea yeieia i?iaeai iaaiciiaeii…

1.8 I?iaeaia acaeiiioiioaiey oeeinioee eiaoee. Iiiyoea iaoiaeieiaee e aa
?ieue a ?acaeoee iao/iiai ciaiey.

Yiie?e/aneia e oai?aoe/aneia. A iaoea ?ace yiie? e oai?ao o?iaie
enneaaeiaaiey. Yoi ?acee/aiea eiaao naiei iniiaaieai 1. – iaoiaeia
iiciaa aeoeaiinoe;2. – oa?aeoa? aeinoeaaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Yiie?
enneaaeiaaiea i?aaeiieaaaao au?aaioeo i?ia?aiiu enneaaeiaaiee, i?aaiec
iaaethaeaiey e yenia?eiaioia, iienaiea e iaiauaiea yenia? aeaiiuo, eo
eeanneoeeaoeeth, ia?ae/iia iaiauaiea. Neiaii aeey yiie? iiciaiey
oa?aeoa?ia oaeoioeene?othuay aeoeaiinoue. Oai?ao iiciaiea – yoi
nouiinoiia iiciaiea, inouanoaeyaiia ia o?iaa aano?aeoeee aunieeo
ii?yaeeia. Caeanue i?oaeeai aunooiatho iiiyoey, eaoaai?ee, caeiiu,
aeiioacu… Enoi?e/anee yiie? iiciaiea i?aaeoanoaoao oai?ao, ii oieueei
yoei iooai iaeuecy aeinoeaiooue iieiiai e enoeiiai ciaiey.

Yiie? enneaaeiaaiea, auyaeyao ana iiaua aeaiua iaaethae e yenia?ei,
noaaeo ia?aae oai?ao iuoeaieai iiaua caaea/e, noeioee?oao aai e
aeaeueiaeoaio niaa?oainoaiaaieth. Iaeiaei e iaiaauathuaany oai?ao ciaiea
noaaeo ia?aae iaaethaeaeai e yenia?ei ana aieaa neiaeiua caaea/e.

Anyeia iaaethaeaiea ia/ei ia ni nai?a oaeoia, a n iiiuoee ?aoaiey
eaeie-oi caaea/e, a iniiaa eio anaaaea eaaeeo ecaanoiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea,
aeiaaaeea, iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu.

Iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu e eneaaeia i?ia?aiia. Ethaee no?aiyony iiciaoue oi,
/aai iie ia ciatho. I?iaeaia – yoi aii?in, n eio iu ia?auaainy e naiie
i?e?iaea, e aeecie , e i?aeoeea e oai?ee. Iinoaaeoue i?iaeaio ii?ie ia
iaiaa o?oaeii, /ai iaeoe aa ?aoaiea: i?aaeeueiay iinoaiiaea i?iae a
ecaanoiie ia?a iai?aaeyao iieneiaoth aeoeaiinoue iunee, aa
ono?aieaiiinoue. Eiaaea o/aiue noaaeo i?iaeaio e iuoaaony ?aoeoue aa ,
ii iaecaaaeii ?ac?aaaouaaao e enneaaeia i?ia?aiio, noi?ieo ieai naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii ii enoiaeeo ec i?aaeiieaaaaiiai ioaaoa ia naie
aii?in. yoio i?aaeiieaa ioaao aunooiaao a aeaea aeiioacu.

Iaaethaeaea e yenia?eiaio. Iaaethaeaiea – yoi i?aaeiaia?aiiia,
iai?aaeaiiia aini?eyoea, eiathuaa oeaeueth auyaeaiea nou naienoa e
ioiioaiee iauaeoa iiciaiey. Iii i.a. iaiin?aaenoa e iiin?aaeiaaiui
i?eai?aie. Iaaethaeaiea i?eia?aoaao iao/iia cia/aiea, eiaaea iii a niioa
n enneaaeia i?iaaiie iicaieyao ioia?aceoue iauaeou n iaea oi/iinoueth e
iiaeao auoue iiiaie?aoii iiaoi?aii i?e aa?uee?iaaiee oneiaee.

Ii /ae ia iiaeao ia?aie/eoueny ?ieueth oieueei iaueethaeaoaey:
iaaethaeaiea oieueei oeene?oao oi, /oi aeaao naia aeeciue, a
enneaaeiaaiea o?aaoao yenia?eiaioa, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iauaeo eee
aini?iecaiaeeony eneonnoaaiii, eee noaaeony a ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
caaeaiua oneiaey, ioaa/athuea oeaeyi ennneaaeiaaiey. A oiaea yenia?
enneaaeiaaoaeue aeoeaii aiaoeaaaony a enneaae i?ioeann.

A i?ioeanna i iiciaiey i?eiaiyaony e iuneaiiue yenia?eiaio, eiaaea o/ a
oia iia?e?oao ii?aae ia?acaie, iuneaiii noaaeo iauaeo a ii?aae oneiaey.

Yenia? aeonoi?iiai. N iaeiie noi? ii niiniaai iiaeoaaaeeoue eee
ii?iaa?aiooue aeiioaco, a n ae? – niaea?aeeo aiciiaeiinoue auyaeaiey
iaiaeeaeaiiuo iiauo aeaiiuo.

O.i. yenia?ei aeayoaeueiinoue iaeaae neiaeiie no?oeoo?ie: oai?ao iniiau
yen – iao/iua oai?ee, aeiioacu; iao iniiaa – i?eai?u; iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
inou yenia?; yenia?ei iaaethaeaea; eiee/ e ea/ aiaeec ?ac yenia?ei, eo
oai?ao iaiauaiea.

Iaiaoiae oneiaeai i enneaaeiaaiey yae onoaiiaeaiea oaeoia. Oaeo, io
factum – naeaeaiiia, niaa?oeaoaany. Oaeo – yoi yaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai
eee aeooiaiiai ie?a, noaaoaa oaeinoiaa?aiiui aeinoiyieai iaoaai
niciaiey, caoeene?iaaiiinoue eaeiai-eeai i?aaeiaoa, yaeaiey, naienoaa
eee ioiioaiey. “Oaeou – yoi aicaeoo o/aiiai”, – aiai?ee Iaaeia. Naiia
oa?aeoa?iia aeey iao/iiai oaeoa – aai aeinoiaa?iinoue. Oaeo aeieaeai
auoue iniuneai, iainiiaai. Oaeou anaaaea ieacuaathony iiin?aaeiaaiiuie
iaoei iiieiaieai, eioa?i?aoaoeeae. Iai?eia? naeae iieacaiey.Ethaee
aiai?yo ia iaeiii e oii aea, ii eae ii ?aciiio. O.i. i/aaeaeiinoue
ioithaeue ia yaeyaony iieiie aa?aioeae ?aaeueiie aeinoiaa?iinoe oaeoa.

Oaeou naie ii naaa ia ninoaaeytho iaoee. Oaeou aeieaeiu auoue
iiaeaa?aioou ioai?o, eeanneo, iaiauaieth e iauyniaieth, oiaaea iie
aeeth/aony a oeaiue iaoee. Oaeo niaea?aeeo iaiaei neo/aeiiai. Iiyoiio
iniiaie aeey i aiaeeca yae ia i?inoi aaee oaeo, a iiiaeanoai oaeoia,
io?aaeathueo iniiaioth oaiaeaioeeth. Oieueei ai acaeiiie nayce e
oeaeueiinoe oaeou iiaoo neoaeeoue iniiaaieai aeey oai?ao iaiauaey. Ec
niioaaonoaaiii iiaeia? oaeoia iiaeii iino?ieoue ethaoth oai?eth.

Iienaiea, e iauyniaiea. A oiaea iaaethae e yenia?ei inouanoaeyaony
iienaiea, i?ioieiee?iaaiea. Iniiaiia i. o?aaiaaiea e iienaieth – aai
aeinoiaa?iinoue, oi/iinoue aini?iecaaaeaiey aeaiiuo iaaethaeaiee e
yenia?eiaioa.

Iauyniaiea – yoi iuneeo iia?aoeey, i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia auyaeaiea
i?e/eiiie caaeneiinoe iauaeoa enneaaeia, iinoeaeaea caeiiiia?iinoae aai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey e, iaeiiaoe, ?ane?uoea aai nouiinoe.
Iauynieoue – cia/eo iniuneeoue iauaeo a naaoa oaea nouanoaothueo,
enoi?e/anee iaeiieaiiuo ciaiee, ii?aae i?eioeeiia, caeiiia, eaoaai?ee.

Aeiioaca. Ie iaeia i oai?ey ia ?iaeeeanue a aioiaii aeaea. Nia/aea iia
nou eae aeiioaca. I?e yoii naia aei aicieeaao ia n?aco, iia i?ioiaeeo
ii?aae noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey. Nia/aea yoi i?aaeiieiaeaea, aeiaaaeea,
auoaeathuay ec iaaethae iiauo oaeoia. Iia iiaeao iiaeaa?aaoueny
eciaiaieyi, iiaeeoeeaoeeyi… A ?-oa oi?ie? naia aeiioaca eae iaeaiea
aa?iyoiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea. Aeiioaca anoue i?aaeiieiaeaea, enoiaeyuaa ec
oaeoia, oiicaeeth/aiea, iuoathuaany i?iieeiooue a nouiinoue aua
iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aiiie iaeanoe ie?a.

Iainiiaaiea e aeieac aeiioacu i?iaiaeeony ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca
iaeiieaiiiai ciaiey, niiinoaaeaiey aai n oaea ecaanoiuie oaeoaie, n
onoaiiaeaiuie iiauie oaeoaie e oaie oaeoaie, eio iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu
a aoaeouai. Eia/a aiai?y, iainiia aeiioacu i?aaeiieaaaao aa ioeaieo n
oi/ee c?aiey yooaeoeaiinoe a iauyniaiee eiathueony oaeoia e i?aaeaeaeaee
iiauo.

Aei aunooiaao eae ii?aae iaiauaiea eiathuaainy ciaiey. Ii iia
i?eioeeieaeueii iineo aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa. Noaiaiue oeaiinoe aeiioacu
ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaiai aa aa?iyoiinoe. (O?aeae. ssae?i Caiee ec
ia?iaeaaea).

Oai?ee. Oai?ey – yoi aunoay, iainiiaaiiay, eiae/anee iai?ioeai?a/eaay
nenoaia iao/iiai ciaiey, aeathuay oeaeinoiue acaeyae ia nouanoaaiiua
naienoaa, caeiiiia?iinoe, ie/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua nayce, ii?aaeaeythuea
oa?aeoa? ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey ii?aae iaeanoe ?aaeueiinoe.

Oai?ey iiaeao iaiyoueny iooai aeeth/aiey a iaa iiauo eaeae e oaeoia.
Eiaaea a ?aieao aeaiiie oai?ee auyae i?ioeai?a/ea, ia?ac?aoeiia a aa
?aieao, oi aai ?ac?aoaiea aaaeao e iino?iaieth iiaie oai?ee.
Na?aeoeaaeio i oai?ee ninoaaeytho aoiaeyuea a iaa caeiiu. A oai?ee
auaeaeytho oaeea nou iiiaiou: enoiaeioth yiie?e/ iniiao (oaeou, aeaiiua
yenia?ei,); ?acee/iiai ?iaea aeiiouaiey, iinooeaou, aeneiiu; eiaeeo
oai?ee, aeiionoeiua a ?aieao oai? i?aaeea eia auaiaeia e aeie-a;
niaieoiiinoue auaaaeaiiuo ooaa?aeaeaee n eo aeieacaoaeuenoaaie; caeiiu
iaoe, a oaeaea i?aaeaeaeaiea.

?acee/atho iienaoaeueiua oa?ee, iaoaiaoece?iaaiiua, eioa?i?aoaoeeiiiua
e aeaaeoeoeaiua oai?ee.

Iiai?ioiuie ioieoaie a enoi?ee iaoee noaiiayony i ?aaiethoee. ?aa a
iaoea au?aaeathony a ea/anoa eciaiaiee aa enoiaeiuo i?eioeeiia, iiiyoee,
eaoaai?ee, caeiiia, oai?ee., o.a. a niaia iao/iie ia?aaeeaiu. Iiae
ia?aaeeaiie iiieiatho: au?aaioaiiua e i?eiyoua a aeaiiii iao/iii
niiauanoaa ii?iu, ia?acoeu yiie? e oai?ao iuoeaiey, i?eia?aooea oa?aeoa?
oaaaeaeaee; niinia auai?a iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey e iauyniaiey ii?aae
nenoaiu oaeoia a oi?ia aeinoaoi/ii iainiiaaiiuo i?eioeeiia e caeiiia,
ia?ac eiae/anee iai?ioeai?a/eaoth oai?eth.

1.9 Oeeinioey iaoee eae iniaay oeeinioneay oaia. Einoeooaeecaoeey
iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaoea a nioeeieoeueoo?iii ecia?aieee.

A iauai aeaea iaoea — yoi aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea ii au?aaioea,
nenoaiaoecaoeee e i?iaa?ea ciaiee. ?acoiaaony /ae caieiaaony iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoueth ia neo/aeii. Ii iinoiyiii eiaao aeaei n i?iaeaiaie e
neiaeiuie caaea/aie, e aeey oiai, /oiau n ieie ni?aaeoueny, /ae
iaiaoiaeeiu en/a?iua ciaiey , au?aaioea eioi?uo e anoue oeaeue anyeie
iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iieo/aiiua ciaiey iicaieytho iauynieoue e
iiiyoue eco/aaiua i?ioeannu, inouanoaeoue i?aaeneacaiea ia aoaeouaa e
niioaaonoaothuea iao/iua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. Iaoea ca?iaeeeanue a
ae?aaiinoe. I?aaeiinueee iiyaeeenue ia Ae? Ainoiea: Aaeiao, Aaaeeii,
EIaeey, Eeoae. Caeanue iaeaieeaathony e iniuneeaathony yiie?e/aneea
ciaiey i i?e?iaea e iau, aicieeatho ca/aoee ano?iiiiee, iaoaiaoeee,
yoeee, eiaeee. Yoi aeinoiyiea aini?eiyoi e ia?a?aaioaii a no?ieioth
oai?aoe/aneoth nenoaio a Ae? A?aoeee, aaea iiyaeythony iuneeoaee,
niaoeeaeueii caieiathueany iaoeie, ioiaaeaaaaoenue io ieoieiae/aneeo e
?aeeaeiciuo o?aaeeoeee. N oao ii? aei naiie eiae ?aa aeaaiie ooieoeeae
iaoee auei iauyniaiea, a aa iniiaiie caaea/ae — iiciaiea n oeaeueth
?acaeaeiooue ai?eciiou ie?a, aeaeaiey i?e?iaeu, /anoueth eioi?ie yae nai
/ae. Ii oai ia iaiaa aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iao/iia ciaiea i?aauaaei a
yia?eiiaeueiii ninoiyiee. Noaiiaeaiea ?acaeoie iaoee

o?aaiaaei iinoiyiiie iii?u ia oaeou, oe?ieie ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe,
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee, aeiieie?iaaiey niioaaonoaothuaai
iaioaeeoaoa. Anaai yoiai ia auei ie a yiioo aioe/iinoe, ie a
n?aaeiaaaeiauea, eiaaea aiiaua ana niaea?aeaiea iaoee auei nio?aiaii

oieueei aeaaiaea?y iiianou?yi, o?aieaoei ?oeiiene aioe/iinoe. Neooaoeey
eciaieeanue e 16-17 a, a Iiaia a?aiy oi?iu iuoeaiey] e a oeaeii
iaioaeeoao /aeiaaea, auaoea ?aiaa eneeth/aieai, noaee aeinoiyieai

aieueoeinoaa ia?aciaaiiuo ethaeae. Iaoea noaea aaaeiui oaeoi?ii aeecie.
Aac yoiai noaiiaeaiea eiaeono?eaeueiiai iau aiiaua ia iiaei ninoiyoueny.
Anoanoaaiii, /oi iiiaea iaoee iiyaeeenue cia/eoaeueii iicaea, iai?eia?,
aaiaoeea, nioeeieiaey, eeaa?iaoeea. A iaoe aeie iaoea eiaao
?acaaoaeaiioth no?oeoo?o e iao/iuo ciaiee, e iao/ o/?aaeaeaiee. Iia
noaea aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii oi?ie?iaaiey aeoo aeecie iau, eoeueoo?u e
i?aeoeee iauaiey.

Iaoea ioii/eiaaeanue io iauaeaiiiai ciaiey e aianoa n oai iia i?aacioea
aai ii anai noaoueyi. Eacaeinue au, /oi iaoea iiaeao iaieoenue oaia?ue e
aac iaai. A oi aea a?aiy iaoea ia eiaao aaeeiiaeanoiiai iaiaeaoa ia
iiciaiea. IIa eiaao acaeiiaeiiieiythuea nayce n iianaaeiaaiui iiciaieai,
n oeeinioeae, yoeeie,eneonnoaii e ae?. Iaoea oiiaeiaeyaony aa?oiei
yoaaeai caeaiey, ii eo iao aac ieaeieo. Iaoea iaoiaeeo a iianaaeiaaiii
iiciaiee iaoa?eae aeey aeaeueiaeoae ia?aaioee, aac eioi?iai iia ia
iiaeao iaieoenue. I?eia?ii yoiio iiaeao neoaeeoue anoanoaaiiue ycue.
Oioue iaoea e au?aa naie ycue, a oiaea a?ai y ia iiaeao iaieoenue e aac
iianaaeiaaiiai. Iaoea eiaao naiae i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth iaaa?iia,
iai?aaeeueiia ciaiea, a ia oi ciaiea, eioi?ia, aoaeo/e i?aaeeueiui,
aeiauaaaony ca i?aaeaeaie iaoee, a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie, i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eneonnoaa.

Nia?aiaiioth iaoeo iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae noa?o
enneaaeiaaoaeueneieaeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiioth ia i?iecaiaenoai iiauo
ciaiee i i?e?iaea,iauanoaa e iuoeaiee, aeeth/athuoth a naay ana oneiaey
e iiiaiou yoiai i?iecaiaenoaa: o/aiuo n eo ciaieyie e niiniaiinoyie,
eaaeeoeeaoeeae e iiuoii, n ?acaeaeaieai e eiiia?aoeeae iao/iiai o?oaea;
iao/iua o/?aaeaeaiey, yenia?eiaioaeueiia e eaai?aoi?iia iai?oaeiaaiea;
iaoiaeu iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou; iiiyoeeiue e eaoaai?eaeueiue
aiia?ao, nenoaio iao/iie eioi?iaoeee, a oaeaea anth noiio iaee/iuo
ciaiee,

aunooiathueo a ea/anoaa i?aaeiinueee, eee n?aaenoaa, eee ?acoeueoaoa
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee. Yoe ?acoeueoaou iiaoo aunooiaoue eae iaeia ec
oi?i iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey. Iaoea ia ia?aie/eaaaony anoanoaiciaieai eee
oi/iuie iaoeaie, eae n/ iiceoeaenou. Iia ?anniao?eaaaony eae oeaeinoiay
nenoaia, aeeth/athuay enoi?e/anee iiaeaeaeiia niioiioaiea /anoae,
i?e?iaeiaaaeaiea e iauanoaiaaaeaiea, oeeinioey e anoanoaiciaiea, iaoiae
e oai?eth, oai?aoe/aneea e i?eeeaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey.

Iaoea anoue iaiaoiaeeiia neaaenoaea iau ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, iia
aicieeaao ca ioaeaeaieai oinoaaiiiai o?oaea io oece/aneiai, n
i?aa?auaieai iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe a iniaue ?iae caiyoee —
nia?aa i/aiue iaei/eneaiiie— a?oiiu ethaeae. N iiyaeaieai e?oiiiai
iaoeiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa nicaeathony oneiaey aeey i?aa?auaiey iaoee a
aeoeaiue oaeoi? naiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A ea/anoaa iniiaiie auaeaeaaaony
iiaay caaea/a — iiciaiea n oeaeueth ia?aaeaeee e i?aia?aciaaiey
i?e?iaeu. A nayce n yoie oaoie/aneie i?eaioaoeeae eeaee?othuei
noaiiaeony eiiieaen oeceei-oeie/aneeo aeenoeeieei e niioaaonoaothuea
i?eeeaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey. A oneiaeyo IO? i?ienoiaeeo iiaay ei?aiiay
ia?ano?ieea iaoee eae nenoaiu. *oiau iaoea iiaea oaeiaeaoai?youe
iio?aaiinoyi nia? i?iecaiaenoaa, ii i?aa?auaaony a nioe einoeooo, aeey
oiai, /oiau iao/i

ciaiey noaee aeinoiyieai aieueoie a?iee niaoeeaeenoia, i?aaiecaoi?ia,
eiaeaia?ia e ?aai/eo. a naiii i?ioeanna o?oaea io ?aai/aai o?aaoaony
oe?ieee iao/ii-oaoie/aneee e?oaici?, iaeaaeaiea iniiaaie iao/iuo ciaiee.
Iaoea i?aa?auaaony a iaiin?aaenoaaiioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth neeo, a
i?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey ?acoeueoaoia iaoee i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac aa
ee/iinoiia aiieiuaiea.

Iaoea i?ecaaia ana a aieueoae noaiaie i?eaioe?iaaoueny oaea ia ia
oaoieeo, a ia naiiai /ae, ia ?acaeoea aai eioaeeaeoa, aai oai?/aneeo
niiniaiinoae e eoeueoo?u iuoeaiey, ia nicaeaiea i?aaeiinueie aeey aai
oai?/aneiai ?acaeoey. A nayce n yoei nia? iaoea oaea ia neaii neaaeoao
ca ?acaeoeai oaoieee, a iaaiiyao aa , noaiiaeony aaaeouae neeie
i?ia?anna iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iia oi?ie?oaony eae oeaeinoiue
eioaa?aeueiue i?aaieci. Aanue o?iio iao/i enneaaeiaaiey (a anoanoa e iau
iaoeao) ieacuaaao noeioee? aicaeaenoaea ia iau i?iecaiaenoai. Anee
i?aaeaea iaoea ?acaeaaeanue eae ioaeaeueiay /anoue /anoue nioeeaeueiiai
oeaeiai, oi oaia?ue iia ia/eiaao i?iiecuaaoue ana noa?u aeecie. Iao/iua
ciaiey e iao/iue iioiae iaiaoiaeeiu a iaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa, a
iieeoeea e iau aeayoaeueiinoe, a oi?aaeaiee, a nenoaia ia?aciaaiey,
cae?aaiio?aiaiey, a noaeaaiie e ae? i?aeoeea. Iiyoiio iaoea ?aca aieaa
auno?uie oaiiaie, /ai ae?oaea io?anee.

Iaoea aeeyao aeaaea ia eneonnoai e aa oi?iu, i ?acoeueoaoao iao/i
enneaaeiaaiee oaia?ue auno?i ociaao eaaeaeue aeeoaeue Caiee e
eioa?anoaony eie, Iaoea aioea a eoeueoo?o eae aa iaiouaieaiay /anoue.
E?iia oiai, iaoea neoaeeo oi?ie?iaaieth iiaie yoeee e ynoaoeee. Ai anai
ie?a i?eciaia oeaiiinoue eiaiii aeieacaoaeueiiai ?annoaeaeaiey.
Iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea iaeioi?uo ?annoaeaeaiee ?ac-oaie iaoee n/eoaaony
iaycaoaeueiui. Caiyoea iaoeie au?aaaouaaao ii?aaeaeaiiia oeaiiinoiia
ioiioaiea e ie?o. Iiaeeeiiue o/aiue, eae i?aaeei, auniei oeaieo
eiae/aneoth aeenoeeieeio oia, niiniaiinoue iainiiauaaoue naeaeaiiua
auaiaeu, no?aieaiea e enoeia, aeinoieinoaa oai?ee e yenia?eiaioa. ?aii
eee iicaeii i?eoiaeeony ?aoaoue aii?in i i?aaeeueiii i?eiaiaiee
aeinoeaeaiee iaoee.Iii ia yaeyaony iaeo?aeueiui ie a iieeoe/aneii, ie a
nioeeaeueiii, ie a yeieiae/aneii, ie a ii?aeueiii ieaia. IAaea?ii
oaia?ue ?yaeii n eaaeaeui cia/eiui iao/iui ioe?uoeai ?acai?athony iau
aeeneonnee — i?eiaiyoue eee cai?aoeoue? Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?eiaiaiea
ianoo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue naie oai?oeu iaoee, o/aiua, oae eae ieeoi
eo/oa ieo ia iiaeao i?aaenoaaeoue iineaaenoaey, neaaua e neeueiua
noi?iiu ecia?aoaiey. Oioy a iieiie ia?a ia iiaoo yoi naeaeaoue e iie.
Aii?in ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe. I?ia?ann — ia naiioeaeue /aeiaa/anoaa, a
n?aaenoai ?acaeoey /aeiaaea, oeo/oaiey aai iaoa?eaeueiuo oneiaee, e
ieeoi ia ioiaiye oeaiiinoue oaeeo iiiyoee, eae naiaiaea,
ni?aaaaeeeainoue, n/anouea.

1.10 I?iaeaia iainiiaaiey ciaiey. Iaoiaeieiae/aneay no?iainoue e
iaoiaeieiae/aneee ieth?aeeci.

Niaoeeoeea iao/iiai ciaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iii a eiia/iii eoiaa
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue iaeioi?uo iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeaaeo? e
niiniaia i?aaiecaoeee iieo/aiiiai ciaiey, eioi?ua, ianiiiaiii, iinyo
eioaa?e?othuee oa?aeoa?.Yoa eioaa?aoeey, ?aaeec a iaoea, i?iyaeyaony a
oii, /oi aaneiia/iia iiiaiia?acea ?aaeueiuo yaeaiee, nouanoaothueo a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo e iaiiaoi?eiuo, aiieia oniaoii
iienuaaaony aeiaieueii aeanoeei e eiia/iui ycueii iaoee. Naaaeaiea
neiaeiiai e i?inoiio niioaaonoaoao nouiinoe iao/iiai ciaiey:

— aeaaea naiia i?inoaeoaa e yeaiaioa?iia ia?aciaaiea iaoee – iao/iue
oaeo — i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaeue eeann yaeaiee, iauaaeeiaiiuo ia
iniiaa iaeioi?iai o?iaiy aano?aeoeee;

— a yiie?e/aneie caeiiiia?iinoe iu aeaeei aua aieueoaa iaiuaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. A iae a aaeeiia oeaeia oaycuaathony oeaeua nenoaiu
oaeoia;

— a oai?eyo iu aeaeei nenoaiaoecaoeeth ia?iiiiai iiiaiia?acey
caeiiiia?iinoae. Caeanue iie iieo/atho aaeeiia enoieeiaaiea ia iniiaa
iaaieueoiai /enea enoiaeiuo i?eioeeiia.

Ai anao oi?iao i?aaiecaoeee iao/iiai ciaiey inouanoaeyaony iaiauaiiia
iienaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ia iniiaa eioi?iai aieaa aeoaiei
?ane?uaaaony nouiinoue yaeaiey e oai naiui inouanoaeyaony iiyoaiiay
?aaeoeoeey a iai?aaeaiea io iaeiaiaa iaiauaiiuo ei ana aieaa iaiauaiiui
oi?iai iienaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a iao/iii iiciaiee i?ienoiaeeo iinoiyiiia aeaeaeaiea
ei ana aieueoae iaiauaiiinoe, aianoa n oai iu eiaai ia?iiiia
iiiaiia?acea ?acee/iuo iaeanoae iaoe e ie a iaeiie iaeanoe iaoee yoi
aeaeaeaiea ia i?eaaei e en/aciiaaieth e ono?aiaieth iiiaiia?acey iao/iuo
oai?ee e eo ?aaeoeoeee e aaeeiie oai?aoe/aneie noaia. Naaiaeiy iaoea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eieinnaeueiia iiiaiia?acea ?acee/iuo iaoiaeia
iiciaiey e cia/eoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa iaoiaeieiae/aneeo
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii. iai?eia?, ?acee/iua iiaeoiaeu i?eiaiythony
e enneaaeiaaieth iaeiiai e oiai aea yaeaiey, a iaeieo neo/ayo
?anniao?eaathony iaeie aniaeou, a ae?oaeo — ae?oaea. I?e yoii iiaeao
auoue, /oi ?anniao?eaathony iaeie aniaeou, ii oa?aeoa?ecothony ?aciuie
aaee/eiaie eee eniieuecothony ?aciua iaoiaeu.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iaoee i?ienoiaeeo ia iniiaa
aicieeiiaaiey iiauo oai?ee, /oi naycaii n aieaa aeoaieei i?iieeiiaaieai
a nouiinoue enneaaeoaiiai iauaeoa. OI, /oi ?aiaa auei iaeiie iaoeie, n
oa/aieai a?aiaie ?anii/eiauaaaony ia oai?ee, eioi?ua ?acaeaathony aei
ioaeaeueiie iaoee. I?eia? iaoaiaoeee e oeceee, aaea iaeie niaoeeaeenou
oaea aiiaua ia i?eaioe?o thony a iaeanoe, aaea ?aaioatho ae?oaea. E?iia
?acaeaeaiey a ?acoeueoaoa eiie?aoecaoeee eeanne/aneeo iaoe, anoue e
?acaeaeaiea a iaoiaea eco/aiey. a aniaeoa eco/aiey. E?iia oiai, ii ia?a
?acaeoey iau aicieeatho iiaue yaeaiey, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a iau aeecie,
/oi i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth aua aieueoaai /enea iaoe, enoiee eioi?uo oaea
ia i?eoiaeeony eneaoue a i?ioeii. I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue ?acee/iay
nioeeiieea, oai?ey nenoai. Aeaeaa, iiaua iaoee aicieeatho ia nouea
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo, iai?eia?, aeioeceea, aeioeiey, no?oeoo?iue aiaeec,
iaoaiaoe/aneay eeiaaenoeea. Acaeiii?iieeiiaaiea iaoe i?eaiaeeo e eo
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, i?e yoii ?aaeecoaony iiaue acaeyae ia yaeaiea eee
i?aaeiao eco/aiey, /oi iicaieyao aieaa yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue aeaiiua
iaoee. Eioaa?aoeey a iaoea naycaia i?aaeaea anaai n oieoeeaoeeae
?aciiia?aciuo iaoiaeia iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey. ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeieiaee
iaoee i?eaaea e aaeeiiio iao/iiio noaiaea?oo, eiia/ii, yoe iaoiaeu anoue
o?iaaiue aano?aeoeee e a eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie iaeanoe iie eiatho
nianoaaiioth iauaeoeoeeaoeeth. E?iia oiai, anoue iauaiao/iua iaoiaeu
oeia i?eiaiaiey iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey iauaeoia ai anao
iaoeao aac eneeth/aiey. Eioaa?aoeey eaeao e a ieaia iauaaeeiaiey oai?ey
e aeaeaiey eo aioo?aiiae acaeiinayce ia iniiaa ioe?uoey
iniiaiiieaaathueo i?eioeeiia auoey. yoi ia icia/aao ioiaiu yoeo iaoe, a
yoi eeoue aieaa aeoaieee o?iaaiue i?iieeiiaaiey a nouiinoue enneaaeoaiuo
yaeaiee — nicaeaiea iaueo oai?ee, iaoaoai?ee e iaueo iaoiaeia
aeieacaoaeuenoaa. I?ienoiaeeo iauaaeeiaiea iaoe ia i?eioeeia iiaiai
o?iaiy aano?aeoeee, i?eia?ii /aio iiaeao iiyoue neoaeeoue oai?ey nenoai.

1.11 No?oeoo?a iao/iiai ciaiey: yiie?e/aneee e oai?aoe/aneee o?iaie.

Iao/iia ciaiea anoue neiaeiay nenoaia n ?acaaoaeaiiie ea?a?oeae
no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiae. Au/eaiytho o?e iniiaiuo o?iaiy: eieaeueiia ciaiea,
eioi?ia a ethaie iao/iie iaeanoe niioiineony n oai?eae; ciaiea,
ninoaaeythuaa oeaeoth iao/ioth iaeanoue; ciaiey, i?aaenoaaeythuea anth
iaoeo. i no?oeoo?a eie /ooue iicaea. 2 o?iaaiue. a iaoea anaaaea
inouanoaeyaony eioaa?aoeaiay ooeoe, oi anoue ethaay iao/i aeenoe
eioaa?e?oao ioaaouaaaiua ath ciaiey. Iia ninoieo ec oaeeo iao/i
iaeanoae, niaoeeoeea eioi?uo ioia?aaeaaony ioiineoaeueii caieioouie
nenoaiaie iiiyoee, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie oai?ee. Eiaiii iie
iauaaeeiytho aie?oa naay niioaaonoaothuee aeaiiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe
yiie?e/aneee iaoa?eae. 3o?iaaiue. Iaoea nou ia oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau
ioia?aaeaoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, ii e aeey oiai, /oiau ?ac-ou yoiai
io?aaeaiey iiee auoue eniieueciaaiu ethaeueie. Ia iaoeo ieacuaaao
aeeyiea ii?aaeaeaiiay oi?ia eoeueoo?u, a eioi?ie iia oi?ie?oaony. Noeeue
iao/iiai iuoeaiey au?aaaouaaaony ia aaca ia oieueei nioe -iao/iuo, ii e
oeeinioneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee, iaiauathueo ?acaeoea eae iaoee, oae e anae
/aeia i?aeoeee. IAiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ?acee/iua iaeanoe iaoee
auiieiytho ?acee/iua ooieoeee.

1 o?iaaiue. Auaeaeytho yiie?e/aneea e oai?aoe/aneea ciaiey. A iaoea ?ace
yiie? e oai?ao o?iaie enneaaeiaaiey. Yoi ?acee/aiea eiaao naiei
iniiaaieai 1. – iaoiaeia iiciaa aeoeaiinoe;2. – oa?aeoa? aeinoeaaaiuo
?acoeueoaoia. Yiie? enneaaeiaaiea i?aaeiieaaaao au?aaioeo i?ia?aiiu
enneaaeiaaiee, i?aaiec iaaethaeaiey e yenia?eiaioia, iienaiea e
iaiauaiea yenia? aeaiiuo, eo eeanneoeeaoeeth, ia?ae/iia iaiauaiea.
Neiaii aeey yiie? iiciaiey oa?aeoa?ia oaeoioeene?othuay aeoeaiinoue.
Oai?ao iiciaiea – yoi nouiinoiia iiciaiea, inouanoaeyaiia ia o?iaia
aano?aeoeee aunieeo ii?yaeeia. Caeanue i?oaeeai aunooiatho iiiyoey,
eaoaai?ee, caeiiu, aeiioacu… Enoi?e/anee yiie? iiciaiea i?aaeoanoaoao
oai?ao, ii oieueei yoei iooai iaeuecy aeinoeaiooue iieiiai e enoeiiiai
ciaiey.

Yiie? enneaaeiaaiea, auyaeyao ana iiaua aeaiiua iaaethae e yenia?ei,
noaaeo ia?aae oai?ao iuoeaieai iiaua caaea/e, noeioee?oao aai e
aeaeueiaeoaio niaa?oainoaiaaieth. Iaeiaei e iaiaauathuaany oai?ao ciaiea
noaaeo ia?aae iaaethaeaieai e yenia?ei ana aieaa neiaeiua caaea/e.
Anyeia iaaethaeaiea ia/ei ia ni nai?a oaeoia, a n iiiuoee ?aoaiey
eaeie-oi caaea/e, a iniiaa eio anaaaea eaaeeo ecaanoiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea,
aeiaaaeea, iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu.

Iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu e enneaaeia i?ia?aiia. Ethaee no?aiyony iiciaoue
oi, /aai iie ia ciatho. I?iaeaia – yoi aii?in, n eio iu ia?auaainy e
naiie i?e?iaea, e aeecie , e i?aeoeea e oai?ee. Iinoaaeoue i?iaeaio
ii?ie ia iaiaa o?oaeii, /ai iaeoe aa ?aoaiea: i?aaeeueiay iinoaiiaea
i?iae a ecaanoiie ia?a iai?aaeyao iieneiaoth aeoeaiinoue iunee, aa
ono?aieaiiinoue. Eiaaea o/aiue noaaeo i?iaeaio e iuoaaony ?aoeoue aa ,
ii iaecaaaeii ?ac?aaaouaaao eenneaaeia i?ia?aiio, no?ieo ieai naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii ii enoiaeeo ec i?aaeiieaaaaiiai ioaaoa ia naie
aii?in. yoio i?aaeiieaa ioaao aunooiaao a aeaea aeiioacu.

Iaaethaeaiea e yenia?eiaio. Iaaethaeaiea – yoi i?aaeiaia?aiiia,
iai?aaeaiiia aini?eyoea, eiathuaa oeaeueth auyaeaiea nou naienoa e
ioiioaiee iauaeoa iiciaiey. Iii i.a. iaiin?aaenoa e iiin?aaeiaaiiui
i?eai?aie. Iaaethaeaiea i?eia?aoaao iao/iia cia/aiea, eiaaea iii a niioa
n enneaaeia i?ia?aiiie iicaieyao ioia?aceoue iauaeou n iaea oi/iinoueth
e iiaeao auoue iiiaie?aoii iiaoi?aii i?e aa?uee?iaaiee oneiaee.

Ii /ae ia iiaeao ia?aie/eoueny ?ieueth oieueei iaaethaeaoaey:
iaaethaeaiea oieueei oeene?oao oi, /oi aeaao naia aeeciue, a
enneaaeiaaiea o?aaoao yenia?eiaioa, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iauaeo eee
aini?iecaiaeeony eneonnoaaiii, eee noaaeony a ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
caaeaiiua oneiaey, ioaa/athuea oeaeyi enneaaeiaaiey. A oiaea yenia?
enneaaeiaaoaeue aeoeaii aiaoeaaaony a enneaae i?ioeann.

A i?ioeanna i iiciaiey i?eiaiyaony e iuneaiiue yenia?eiaio, eiaaea o/ a
oia iia?e?oao ii?aae ia?acaie, iuneaiii noaaeo iauaeo a ii?aae oneiaey.

Yenia? aeaonoi?iiai. N iaeiie noi? ii niiniaai iiaeoaa?aeeoue eee
ii?iaa?aiooue aeiioaco, a n ae? – niaea?aeeo aiciiaeiinoue auyaeaiey
iaiaeeaeaiiuo iiauo aeaiiuo.

O.i. yenia?ei aeayoaeueiinoue iaeaae neiaeiie no?oeoo?ie: oai?ao iniiau
yen -iao/iua oai?ee, aeiioacu; iao iniiaa – i?eai?u; iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
inou yenia?; yenia?ei iaaethaeaiea; eiee/ e ea/ aiaeec ?ac yenia?ei, eo
oai?ao iaiauaiea. Yenia?eiaio iaeiia?aiaiii i?eiaaeeaaeeo e e
iiciaaaoaeueiie, e e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, eniieuecoao
oai?aoe/ ciaiey, yaeyynue /anoueth yiie?eee.Aeaeu yen :
enneaaeiaaoaeueneee eee iieneiaue, i?iaa?i/iue eee eiio?ieueiue,
aini?iecaiaeyuee, eciee?othuee, ea/anoaaiiue eee eiee/anoaaiiue,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee, ii?iaa?aathuee eee ?aoathuee. Iuneaiiue — iniaue
aeae iaaeaeo oai? e yiie?e/.

Iaiaoiae oneiaeai i enneaaeiaaiey yae onoaiiaeaiea oaeoia. Oaeo, io
factum – naeaeaiiia, niaa?oeaoaany. Oaeo – yoi yaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai
eee aeooiaiiai ie?a, noaaoaa oaeinoiaa?aiiui aeinoiyieai iaoaai
niciaiey, caoeene?iaaiiinoue eaeiai-eeai i?aaeiaoa, yaeaiey, naienoaa
eee ioiioaiey. “Oaeou – yoi aicaeoo o/aiiai”, – aiai?ee Iaaeia. Naiia
oa?aeoa?iia aeey iao/iiai oaeoa – aai aeinoiaa?iinoue. Oaeo aeieaeai
auoue iniuneai, iainiiaai. Oaeou anaaaea ieacuaathony iiin?aaeiaaiiuie
iaoei iiieiaieai, eioa?i?aoaoeeae. Iai?eia? naeae iieacaiey.Ethaee
aiai?yo ia iaeiii e oii aea, ii eae ii ?aciiio. O.i. i/aaeaeiinoue
ioithaeue ia yaeyaony iieiie aa?aioeae ?aaeueiie aeinoiaa?iinoe oaeoa.

Oaeou naie ii naaa ia ninoaaeytho iaoee. Oaeou aeieaeiu auoue
iiaeaa?aioou ioai?o, eeanneo, iaiauaieth e iauyniaieth, oiaaea iie
aeeth/aony a oeaiue iaoee. Oaeo niaea?aeeo iaiaei neo/aeiiai. Iiyoiio
iniiaie aeey i aiaeeca yae ia i?inoi aaeei oaeo, a iiiaeanoai oaeoia,
io?aaeathueo iniiaioth oaiaeaioeeth. Oieueei ai acaeiiie nayce e
oeaeueiinoe oaeou iiaoo neoaeeoue iniiaaieai aeey oai?ao iaiauaiey. Ec
niioaaonoaaiii iiaeia? oaeoia iiaeii iino?ieoue ethaoth oai?eth.

Iienaiea, e iauyniaiea. A oiaea iaaethae e yenia?ei inouanoaeyaony
iienaiea,

i?ioieiee?iaaiea. Iniiaiia i. o?aaiaaiea e iienaieth – aai
aeinoiaa?iinoue, oi/iinoue aini?iecaaaeaiey aeaiiuo iaaethaeaiee e
yenia?eiaioa.

Iauyniaiea – yoi iuneeo iia?aoeey, i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia auyaeaiea
i?e/eiiie caaeneiinoe iauaeoa enneaaeia, iinoeaeaiea caeiiiia?iinoae aai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey e, iaeiiaoe, ?ane?uoea aai nouiinoe.
Iauynieoue – cia/eo iniuneeoue iauaeo a naaoa oaea nouanoaothueo,
enoi?e/anee iaeiieaiiuo ciaiee, ii?aae i?eioeeiia, caeiiia, eaoaai?ee.

Aeiioaca. Ie iaeia i oai?ey ia ?iaeeeanue a aioiaii aeaea. Nia/aea iia
nou eae aeiioaca. I?e yoii naia aei aicieeaao ia n?aco, iia i?ioiaeeo
ii?aae noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey. Nia/aea yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea, aeiaaaeea,
auoaeathuay ec iaaethae iiauo oaeoia. Iia iiaeao iiaeaa?aaoueny
eciaiaieyi, iiaeeoeeaoeeyi… A ?-oa oi?ie? naia aeiioaca eae iaeaieaa
aa?iyoiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea. Aeiioaca anoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea, enoiaeyuaa ec
oaeoia, oiicaeeth/aiea, iuoathuaany i?iieeiooue a nouiinoue aua
iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aiiie iaeanoe ie?a.

Iainiiaaiea e aeieac aeiioacu i?iaiaeeony ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca
iaeiieaiiiai ciaiey, niiinoaaeaiey aai n oaea ecaanoiuie oaeoaie, n
onoaiiaeaiiuie iiauie oaeoaie e oaie oaeoaie, eio iiaoo auoue
onoaiiaeaiu a aoaeouai. Eia/a aiai?y, iainiia aeiioacu i?aaeiieaaaao aa
ioeaieo n oi/ee c?aiey yooaeoeaiinoe a iauyniaiee eiathueony oaeoia e
i?aaeaeaeaiee iiauo.

Aei aunooiaao eae ii?aae iaiauaiea eiathuaainy ciaiey. Ii iia
i?eioeeieaeueii iineo aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa?. Noaiaiue oeaiiinoe
aeiioacu ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaiai aa aa?iyoiinoe. (O?aeae. ssae?i Caiee ec
ia?iaeaaea).

Oai?ee. Oai?ey – yoi aunoay, iainiiaaiiay, eiae/anee iai?ioeai?a/eaay
nenoaia iao/iiai ciaiey, aeathuay oeaeinoiue acaeyae ia nouanoaaiiua
naienoaa,caeiiiia?iinoe, ie/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua nayce, ii?aaeaeythuea
oa?aeoa? ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey ii?aae iaeanoe ?aaeueiinoe.

Oai?ey iiaeao iaiyoueny iooai aeeth/aiey a iaa iiauo eaeae e oaeoia.
Eiaaea a ?aieao aeaiiie oai?ee auyae i?ioeai?a/ea, ia?ac?aoeiia a aa
?aieao, oi aai ?ac?aoaiea aaaeao e iino?iaieth iiaie oai?ee.
Na?aeoeaaeio i oai?ee ninoaaeytho aoiaeyuea a iaa caeiiu. A oai?ee
auaeaeytho oaeea nou iiiaiou: enoiaeioth yiie?e/ iniiao (oaeou, aeaiiua
yenia?ei,); ?acee/iiai ?iaea aeiiouaiey, iinooeaou, aeneiiu; eiaeeo
oai?ee, aeiionoeiua a ?aieao oai? i?aaeea eia auaiaeia e aeie-a;
niaieoiiinoue auaaaeaiiuo ooaa?aeaeaiee n eo aeieacaoaeuenoaaie; caeiiu
iaoe, a oaeaea i?aaeaeaeaiea.

?acee/atho iienaoaeueiua oai?ee, iaoaiaoece?iaaiiua, eioa?i?aoaoeeiiiua
e

aeaaeoeoeaiua oai?ee.

Ana o?iaie eieaeueiiai ciaiey acaeiinaycaiu: oai?aoe/aneia ciaiea
iie?aaony ia yiie?e/aneia, yiie?e/aneia ciaiea ieacuaaaony ianaiaiaeiui
io oai?aoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee, iii iaycaoaeueii iia?oaeaii a iaeee
oai?aoe/aneee eiioaeno, oeeinioneea i?aaenoaaeaiey i?iiecuaatho iaa
o?iaiy, o/aiua anaaaea ?aaioatho ia iniiaa iaeioi?uo oai?aoe/anee=o
i?aaeiinueie, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho iauoth iiceoeeth a enneaaeiaaiee.

Iaoiaeu iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey eiatho o?e aniaeoa:
i?aaeiaoii-niaea?aeaoaeueiue, iia?aoeeiiaeueiue e aeneieiae/aneee. 1—
iaoiae niaea?aeaoaeai, yoa oa aea oai?ey, ii iai?aaeaiiay ia iiciaiea e
i?aia?aciaaiea iauaeoa. 2— caaeneiinoue iaoiaea io noauaeoa, o?iaaiue
iao/iie iiaeaioiaee niaoe, aai oiaiea e iiuo. 3— noaiaiue
yooaeoeaiinoe, iaaeaaeiinoe, yeiiiie/iinoe iaoiaea. Aii?in i auai?a
iaoiaea. Iaoiaeu niaoeeaeueiua ioiinyony e eie ciaieyi, e
niioaaonoaothuei oai?eyi (iaoiae niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca, noao
iiaeaee?iaaiey, iaoiae Iiioa-Ea?ei e oae), iauaiao/iua iaoiaeu — ei
aoi?iio o?iaith ciaiee.Eo iauaeoeaiie iniiaie noaiiayony
iauaiaoiaeieiae/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe iiciaiey (iaoiae yenia? e iaae,
aeiioaoeei-aeaaeoeoeaiue, iaoiae ainoiaeaeaie]y io aano?aeoiiai e
eiie?aoiiio e oae). Oieaa?naeueiua iaoiaeu oa?aeoa?ecotho /ae iuoeaiea e
i?eiaieiu ai anao iae iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eo iniiaa —
iauaoee iiieiaiea e ie?iaicc?aiea, yoi i?eioeeiu iuoeaiey oeia
aeeaeaeoe/aneie i?ioeai?a/eainoe, i?eioeeia enoi?ecia eoae. I?eaiu iao/i
iuoeaiey. aiaeec e neioac. Aiaeec anoue ?aceiaeaiea ia /anoe,
?anniio?aiea anao noi?ii e niiniaia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, neioac —
?anniio?aiea niiniaa naycae e ioiioaiee /anoae. ii?iaeaeatho a eaaeaeie
iaeanoe niaoeeaeueiua iaoiaeu.

Aano?aae?iaaiea e eaeaaeecaoeey. Iauaiao/iue i?eai. Yoi a?aiaiiia
iuneaiiia au/eaiaiea ec iiiaeanoaa naienoa e aniaeoia yaeaiey
eioa?anothueo ian. ioaea/aiea io ae?oaeo naienoa e iino?iaiea
eaeaaeueiiai iauaeoa oeia oi/ee eee i?yiie. Neiaeiue aii?in, aeaao ee
yoio iaoiae e eaeei niiniaii aa?iia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe?
Eae ii aiiaua iiaeao ?aaioaoue? Caeanue aea aicieeaao iauaa iiiyoea i
eeanna i?aaeiaoia. a oiaea eaeaaeecaoeee e?iia aano? aua i?eai aaaaeaiey
iiauo naienoa a iauaeo.

Eiaeoeoeey, aeaaeoeoeey, aiaeiaey. EIaeoeoeey oa?aeoa?ia aeey iiuoiuo
iaoe, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iino?iaiey aeiioac , ia aeaao aeinoiaa?iiai
ciaiey, iaaiaeeo ia iuneue. I?e yoii nou e ioaeaeueiua no?iaea oi?iu
eiae eae iaoaiaoe/aneay. Aeaae auaiaeeo eo iaueo oai?ai niaoe auaiaeu.
Aeaao aeinoiaa?iia ciaiea, anee aa?ia iinueea. Aiaeiaey — auaeaeaeaiea
aeiioac i naienoaa iauaeoa ia iniiaaiee aai noiaenoaa n oaea eco/aiiui.
O?aaoao aeaeueiaeoaai iainiiaaiey.

Iiaeaee?iaaiea. Iaeei iauaeo caiaiyaony ae?oaei ni noiaeeie naienoaaie,
ii ia iieiinoueth noiaeeie. Iicaieyao iieo/aoue auaiaeu ia i?eaeiaea ia
iniiaaiee eco/aiey iiaeaee. I?e yoii aiciiaeii i?aaeiaoiia, oece/aneia,
iaoaiaoe/aneia, ciaeiaia, eiiiuethoa?iia iiaeaee?iaaiea a caaeneiinoe io
aeaea iiaeaee.Iaaethaeaiea yenia?eiaio, ecia?aiea a oiaea eo.

1.12 Eeanne/eaneia e ia eeane/aneia enoieeiaaiea iao/iie
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe.

Eeanne/.e iaeeanne/.oeeinioey – oa?ieiu, iiyaeaoeany ec anoanoaiciaiey.
Aaiiao?ey Aaeeeaea, Iuethoiiiaa oeceea n/eoathony eeanne/. A eiioea 19,
ia/.20aa.iaaethaeaeny iooiae io eeanneee- nicaeaiea iaeeanne/.oecee,
aaiiao?ee. Eeanne/aneea oai?ee iaeaaeatho ?yaeii iniaaiiinoae, a
/anoiinoe, iie iia?e?otho a iniiaiii n iai?a?uaiuie iauaeoaie, e?iia
oiai, ana i?aaeaeueiua ia?aoiaeu n/eoathony a neeo yoiai i/aaeaeiuie. A
eeanne/aneeo oai?eyo anoue ?yae /aoei caoeene?iaaiiuo aeneii, ec eioi?uo
auoaeath ana iieiaeaiey. Ana aeaoa?ieie?iaaii. Anee oece/aneee i?ioeann
i?ioaeaao a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee, oi iiaeai iiaa?iooue aai aniyoue.
Iaee/ea iaeiie iaoaieee, iaeiie aaiiao?ee, ia aaaeaony o/ao
iia?aoiinoae.

Noeeue iaeeanne/aneie iaoee ae?oaie. Ai-ia?auo, a nayce n i?eiaiaieai
iaoee a i?iecaiaenoaa aic?inea ?ieue ?acee/iuo iiiaioia, eae
enneaaeiaaiea ?ac?uaiuo iauaeoia, oae eae ?aceea nea/ee, i?a?uaiinoue
i?ioeannia eiatho aaaeiia cia/aiea. A nayce n iio?aaiinoyie iaoee
aaaeaony eco/aiea iia?aoiinoae, ?ac?aaioaia oai?ey iia?aoiinoae, caaea/a
aiiaua ia n/eoaaony ?aoaiiie, anee ia enneaaeiaaii, ianeieueei iia
onoie/eaa e aiciouaieyi e iaeui eciaiaieyi aa ia?aiao?ia. I?e yoii ana
ioeaiee aeieaeiu auoue i?eaaaeaiu.

Aanue noeeue iaoee ia?aoae e oi/iiio eiae/aneiio iainiiaaieth naieo
?acoeueoaoia, /oi, ii anae aeaeeiinoe naycaii n oai, /oi ioeaee a
nia?aiaiiie iaoea iiaoo aei?iai noieoue. Iiyoiio ai anao iaoeao
i?eiaiyaony iaoaiaoe/aneee iaoiae, iaoiae iiaeaee?iaaiey e oi/iuo
eiee/anoaaiiuo ioeaiie. Anee yoi iaaiciiaeii, oi i?eiaiyaony iyaeia
iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea. Oai?ey yaeyaony aieaa oeaiiie, anee a iae
i?eiaiaiu iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu. Yoi i?aaeuyaeyao iiaua o?aaiaaiey e
o/aiui.

E?iia oiai, anaie iniciaia ioiineoaeueiinoue enoeiu, e aianoa n oai aa
aaniethoiinoue. Anee o oi?iaeueiie nenoaiu aiciiaeii i?iaa?eo
i?aaeeueiinoue aa aeieacaoaeuenoa, oi oaia?ue ieacuaaaony, /oi iiaeiaiuo
nenoai nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo eiaao naith oeaiiinoue
e i?eiaieiinoue. Oae, iaeia aaiiao?ey Aaeeeaea niaieeanue iiiaeanoaii
?acee/iuo aaiiao?ee, eiaeea A?enoioaey niaieeanue iiiaiia?aceai eiaee,
iino?iaiiuo ia ?acee/iuo i?eioeeiao. Yoi aiai?eo e i oii, /oi
ooaa?aeaeaiea, iaaa?iia eee iaaeieacoaiia a iaeiie nenoaia, iiaeao auoue

enoeiie a ae?oaie. Iiyaeeenue niia?aaeaiey i ?acee/iuo aiciiaeiuo
niiniaao nouanoaiaaiee enoeiu.

Aeaaiia aea ioee/ea ninoieo a nenoaiiii iiaeoiaea. Iii ia/aei
?acaeaaoueny y n i aoi?ie iieiaeiu OO aaea. Yoi iaoiaeieiae/aneia
iai?aaeaiea, iniiaiay caaea/a eioi?iai ninoieo a ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia
enneaaeiaaiey e eiino?oe?iaaiey neiaeii i?aaieciaaiiuo iauaeoia —
nenoai ?aciuo eeannia e oeiia. NI i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii?aaeaeaiiue yoai
a ?acaeoee iaoiaeia iiciaiey, iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaoaeueneie e
eiino?oeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe, niiniaia iauyniaiey e iienaiey i?e?iaeu
aiaeece?oaiuo ee eneonnoaaiii nicaeaaaaiuo iauaeoia. Enoi?e/anee ii
i?eoiaeeo ia niaio iaoaieoeecio e ii naiei caaea/ai i?ioeainoieo yoei
eiioeaioeeyi. Iaeaieueoaa i?eiaiaiea NI iaoiaeeo i?e enneaaeiaaiee
neiaeiuo ?acaeaathueony iauaeoia — iiiaio?iaiaauo, ea?a?oe/aneeo, eae
i?aaeei, naiii?aaiecothueony, aeieiae/aneeo, nioeeieiae/aneeo,
ineoieiae/aneeo, aieueoeo oaoie/aneeo nenoai, yeiiiie/aneeo e ae?. e
/eneo caaea/ N? ioiinyony:

1) ?ac?aaioea n?aaenoa i?aaenoaaeaiey enneaaeoaiuo e
eiino?oe?oaiuoiauaeoia eae nenoai;

2) iino?iaiea iaiauaiiuo iiaeaeae nenoaiu, iiaeaeae ?aciuo eeannia
eniaoeeoe/aneeo nenoai;

3) enneaaeiaaiea no?oeoo?u oai?ee nenoai e ?acee/iuo
nenoaiiuoeiioeaioeee e ?ac?aaioie.

A nenoaiiii enneaaeiaaiee iauaeo ?anniao?eaaaony eae ii?aaeaeaiiia
iiiaeanoai yeaiaioia, acaeiinaycue eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyao oeaeinoiue
oa?aeoa? yoiai iiiaeanoaa. Aeoeaio aeaeaaony ia auyaeaiea anaai
iiiaiia?acey naycae e ioiioaiee, eioi?ua eiatho ianoi eae aioo?e
iauaeoa, oae e a aai acaeiiioiioaieyo n aiaoiei ie?ii e n?aaeie.
Naienoaa iauaeoa eee nenoaiu ii?aaeaeythony ia eae i?inoia noiie?iaaiea
naienoa aai ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia, neieueei naienoaaie aai no?oeoo?u,
iniaaiiinoyie nenoaiiia?acothueo, eioaa?aoeaiuo naycae ?anniao?eaaaiiai
iauaeoa. Aeey iiieiaiey iiaaaeaiey nenoaiu, i?aaeaeaanaai
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai, e aiciiaeiinoae oi?aaeyoue ath, iaiaoiaeeii auyaeoue
?aaeecoaiua aeaiiie nenoaiie i?ioeannu oi?aaeaiea — oi?iu ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee io iaeieo iiaenenoai e ae?oaei, eii?aeeiaoeeth iecoeo
o?iaiae n aunoeie, aeeyiea ia inoaeueiua yeaiaiou nenoaiu.

Aicieeea neia?aaoeea. Yoi iaeanoue iao/iiai ciaiey, a eioi?ie
iin?aaenoaii iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuo enneaaeiaaiee auyaeythony iauea
caeiiiia?iinoe naiii?aaiecaoeee, noaiiaeaiey onoie/eauo no?oeoo? a
ioe?uouo nenoaiao. Yoi niaianoiue oeaeinoiue eiiia?aoeaiue yooaeo
acaeiiaeaenoaey aieueoiai /enea iiaenenoai a ioe?uouo nenoaiao. aeaiiue
yooaeo iiaeao eiaoue ianoi a ?acee/iuo oece/aneeo, oeie/aneeo, aeeauo e
ae? nenoaiao, niiniaiuo e naiii?aaiecaoeee. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii
auiieiaiea 2 oneiaee: nenoaia aeieaeia auoue ioe?uoie, oa acaei n ie?
n?aaeie; /enei iiaenenoai eee eiiiiiaioia, a ?acoeueoaoa acaei eioi?uo
aicieeaao eo eieeaeoeaiia oii?yaei/aiiia aeaeaeaiea, aeieaeii i?aauoaoue
iaeee o?iaaiue. Yooaeo aicieeiiaaiey ec oaina e aanii?yaeea onoie/eauo
naiii?aaiecothueony nenoai aue ioe?uo a oeceea aua a ia/aea OO aaea,
iaeiaei nooue yoeo i?ioeannia oaeaeinue ?ane?uoue cia/eoaeueii iicaea,
ia iniiaa i?eioeeiia iaonoie/eaie oa?iiaeeiaieee I?eaiaeeia. Ane?uaaaiua
neia?aaoeeie iaoaieciu naiii?aaiecaoeee iiaoo iauynieoue iaeiiaoe
aicieeiiaaiea aeecie, niciaiey e aiiaua oai?eth yaiethoeee. Oaeei
ia?acii, iaeiie ec iniaaiiinoae iaoee OO aaea aunooiaao nenoaiiue aiaeec
e enneaaeiaaiey oaina, aeeiaieea oaina.

Nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony oaeaea aa?iyoiinoiiio oa?aeoa?o
nenoaiu. Iniiaiua caeiiu i?eia?aee aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa?, e yoi oiaea
naycaii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n ia?aciaaieai naiii?aaiec nenoaiu ia iniiaa
ac iauaeoia. I?eia? — a?ioiianeia aeaeaeaiea, ia?aiaoeaaiea, caeii
Aieey -Ia?eiooa a aaciaeeiaieea. E?iia oiai, aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth
nenoaiu noaiiaeony oi, /oi ia oieueei iauaeo, ii e nai i?ioeann
enneaaeiaaiey aunooiaao eae neiaeiay nenoaia, caaea/a eioi?ie ninoieo a
niaaeeiaiea a aaeeiia oeaeia ?acee/iuo iiaeaeae iauaeoa.

Nenoaiiua iauaeou, iaeiiaoe, eae i?aaeei, ia aac?acee/iu e i?ioeanno eo
enneaaeiaaiey, e ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea ia iaai.
I?eioeei ioiineoaeueiinoe Aaecaiaa?aa. Iiaeai ecia?eoue eeai
nei?inoue,ii oiaaea ia ciaai eii?aeeiao, eeai eii?ae, oiaaea ia ciaai
nei?inoue. E?iia oiai, iniciaiea i?aaeaea i?eai?ia. I?eioeeieaeueiay
iaaiciiaeiinoue enneaaeiaaiea iee?i e iae?i iauaeoia n iiiiuueth
yenoaineaii ?acaeouo i?eai?ia, iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiin?aaeiaaiiiai eco/aiey
yoeo nenoai e iauaeoia. I?e/ai ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioa caaenyo io
eniieuecoaiuo i?eai?ia, aai iaaiciiaeii i/enoeoue io aeeyiea naiiai
i?eai?a.

1.13 O?ainoeeaeaioaeueiinoue eae ooiaeaiaioaeueiay no?aoaaey caiaaeii
aa?iiaeneiai oeeinioneiai e iao/iiai iiciaiey.

O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiue- ioiinyueeny e ai?ei?iui oneiaeyi iiciaiey. A
ioee/ee io o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai (iaeaieaa iauea, «Auoiaeyuee ca i?aaeaeu»
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo naienoa a oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaeiaoia, iai?eia? «Nouaa»,
«Enoeiiia»).

O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiia i?ioeaiiieiaeii yiie?ecio. O?ainoeaiaeaioiia –
Eiaiaioiiio.

O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiia niciaiea – niciaiea i/euaiiia io anao yeaiaioia
iiuoa.

Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiua i?aaenoaaeoaee o?ainoeaiaeaioaeecia iaiaoeea
oeeiniou Eaio(1724-1804) e Oaeeeia(1775-1854)

E.Eaio ai aoi?ii e?eoe/aneii ia?eiaea naiaai oai?/anoaa (iinea 1770a.)
no?aieony auyaeoue iaoaieciu ?aaiou /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey, eioi?ua
eaaeao a iniiaaiee oeeinioee («Iaoaoeceee»), iaoee, i?aanoaaiiinoe,
ynoaoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

A auyaeaiee yoeo iaoaieciia e ninoieo nooue «O?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai
iaoiaea» Eaioa – iaia?oaeeoue ca aiaoia aeaiiuie oaiiiaiaie niciaiey
(iao/iuie ciaieyie, iaoaoece/aneeie eiioeaioeeyie, iinooieaie….)
aioo?aiithth ?aaioo aeooa, no?oeoo?o aeayoaeueiinoe, ii?aaeaeythuoth
aiaoia aeaiiui ?acoeueoaoii.

A ?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey o. iaoiaea iiciaiea, ii Eaioo, aeieaeii
acyoue iiae naie eiio?ieue naie nianoaaiiua iayaiua i?aaeiinueee e
onoaiiaee, iaoneaaeeaathuea aai aeayoaeueiinoue.

Eaio oioy e i?eciaaae, /oi ana iaoa niciaiea ia/eiaaony n iiuoa, ii
oooaea ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iii ia enoiaeeo ec iiuoa.

Anaiauiinoue aeinoeaaaony eeuue ai?ei?iinoueth.

*aeaa/aneia iiciaiea nicaeaao anaiauea iaiaoiaeeiua enoeiiu, ii iie –
/enoua ai?ei?iua noaeaeaiey. E iei ioiinyony ana iieiaeaiey iaoaiaoeee e
oai?aoe/aneiai anoanoaiciaiey. Iiae ai?ei?iuie Eaio iiieiae ciaiey,
eioi?ui niaa?oaiii ia i?ieiaoeaaaony ie/oi yiie?e/aneia.

O.Oaeeeia. Aai oai?/anoai iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 4 ia?eiaea:
Iaoo?oeeinioey (90a aiaeu), o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiue eaeaaeeci (1800a),
oeeinioey oiaeaeanoaa, e oeeinioey ioe?iaaiey.

Aoi?ie Yoai oeeinioneiai ?acaeoey O. Ciaiaioaony ioaeeeaoeeae «Nenoaiu
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai eaeaaeecia» (1800a), a eioi?ie ii iuoaaony
iauynieoue i?aa?auaiey noauaeoeaiiai a iauaeoeaiia. I?e/ai
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiay oeeinioey aiana ia eneeth/aao iaoo? oeeinioeth, a
aeiiieiyao aa, eiay naiei i?aaeiaoii noauaeoeaiia yaeaiea, ia?ae/iia
yaeaiey, ec eioi?iai auaiaeeony iauaeoeaiia.

Niciaiea a naiai ?acaeoee i?ioiaeeo ?yae nooiaiae: iii ia/eiaaony n
iuouaiey, caoai /a?ac ?aoeaeneth iiaeieiaaony e aeoo aiee, e caeanue
ia/eiaaony i?aeoe/aneia yaeaiea. I?eaey aua /a?ac ?yae nooiaiae niciaiea
aeinoeaaao aunoae nooiaie ?acaeoey – i?aanoaaiii aeinoeaeaiea, eioi?ia
eiaao oeaeueth naiia naay, oi anoue niciaiea iaeiia?aiaiii iiciaao naay
e eae iaiaoiaeeiia e eae naiaiaeiia.

(Aonnaeue ni 3.14)

1.14 Oeeinioneia o/aiea i niciaiee. Iiiaiia?iinoue aai enoieeiaaiey.
«Iioieiae/aneee ?acai?io» oaiu niciaiey a oeeinioee OO aaea.

Naiua ia?uaua i?aaenoaaeaiey i niciaiee aicieeee a ae?aaiinoe. Oiaaea
aea aicieeee e i?aaenoaae i aeooa e auee iinoaaeaiu aii?inu: /oi
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeooa? eae iia niioiineony n i?aaeiaoiui ie?ii? N
oao ii? i?iaeieae nii?u i nouiinoe nici e aiciiaeiinoe aai iiciaiey.
Iaeie enoiaeeee ec iiciaaaaiinoe, ae?oaea /oi iiiuoee iiiyoue niciaiea
ouaoii oaeaea eae iiiuoea ec ieia oaeaeaoue naay eaeouei ii oeeoea.

Eaeaaeeci – niciaiea ia?ae/ii. Aeoaeeci – niciaiea e iaoa?ey iacaaeneiu
ae?oa io ae?oaa.

Iaoa?eaeeci – iaoa?ey ia?ae/ia e enoi?e/anee e aiinaieiae/anee. Iia
iineoaeue e i?e/eiaaai aicieeiiaaiey. niciaiea – i?iecaiaeiia io
iaoa?ee. Niciaiea aycaii ia ni anae iaoa?eae, a oieueei n /anoueth iicaa
e oieueei a ii?aae ia?eiaeu a?aiaie. I?e/ai iuneeo ia iica, a /ae. i?e
iiiiue iicaa.

Niciiea – yoi aunoay, naienoaaiiay oieueei /aeiaaeo e naycaiiay n
?a/ueth ooieoeey iicaa, caeeth/athuayny a iaiauaiiii e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiii
io?aaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Niciaiea iiaeii aaniethoii i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue iaoa?ee oieueei a ?aieao
iniiaiiai aii?ina, ca ieie – iao. Ca yoeie i?aaeaeaie i?ioeaiiinoaae
ioiineoaeueii., eai niciaiea ia anoue naiinoiyoaeueiay noanoaioeey, a
iaeii ec naienoa iaoa?ee e , neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?ac?uaii naycaii n
iaoa?eae. Aanie i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea iao e nici aaaeao e oiio, /oi nici
aunooiaao eae iaeay naiino noanoaioeey, nou ia?yaeo n iaoa?eae. Niciaiea
anoue iaeii ec naienoa aeaeae iaoa?ee, anoue iniaia naienoai aunieii?a
iaoa?ee. Yoi icia/aao, /oi iaaeaeo nici e iaoa?eae nou e ?acee/ea, e
naycue, e aaeeinoai.

?acee/ea – niciaiea ia anoue naia iaoa?ey, a eaeii ec aa naienoa.
Ninoaaeythuea niaea?aeaiea niciaiey ia?acu aiaoieo iauaeoia ioee/iu ii
oi?ia io yoeo iauaeoia, eae eaeaaeueiua eo eiiee.

Aaeeinoai e naycue – Ineo yaeaiey e iica oanii aycaiu eae naienoai e
iao noano?ao, eio yoi naienoai i?eiaaeeaaeeo e aac eio iii ia nou. N ae?
noi?iiu aicieeathuea a nici ineo ia?acu noiaeiu ii niaea?aeaieth n
aucuaathueie eo iaoa? iauaeoaie.

Nouiinoueth nici yaeyaony aai eaeaaeueiinoue,eio au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi
ninoaae nici ia?acu ia iaeaaeatho ie naienoaaie io?aaeaaiuo a iai
i?aaeiaoia, ie naienoaaie ia?aiuo i?ioeannia, ia iniiaa eio iie
aicieeee.

Eaeaaeueiia aunooiaao eae iiiaio i?aeoe/aneiai ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e
ie?o, ioiioaiey, iiin?aaeiaaiiiai oi?iaie, nicaeaiiuie i?aaeoanoaothueei
iieieaieyie – i?aaeaea anaai niiniaaiinoueth io?aaeaoue a iaoa? oi?iao
ycuea, ciaeia, e i?aa?auaoue eo iin?aaenoaii aeayoaeueiinoe a ?aaeueiua
i?aaeiaou.

Eaeaaeueiia ia yae /ai-oi naiinoiyoaeueiui ii ioiioaieth e nici a
oeaeii: iii oa?aeoa?ecoao nouiinoue niciaiey a ioiioaiee e iaoa?ee. A
yoii ieaia eaeaaeueiia iicaieyao aeoaaea iniuneeoue aoi?e/iinoue aunoae
oi?iu io?aaeaiey. Oaeia iiieiaieaeiaao niune oieueei i?e eco/aiee
niioiio iaoa?ee e nici, ioiio niciaiey e iao ie?o.

Eaeaaeueiia e iaoa? ia ?acaeaeaiu ia?ioiaeeiie a?aiueth, Eaeaaeueiia
anoue ie /oi eiia, eae iaoa?eaeueiia, i?a?naaeaiiia a /ae aieiao e
i?aia?aciaaiiia a ae. Oaeia i?aia? iaoa?eaeueiiai a eaeaaeueiia
i?iecaiaeeo iica.

Niciaiea nou ia anaaaea. Iii aicieeei a oiaea enoi? ?acaeoey iaoa?ee,
oneiaeiaiey aa oi?i, eae naienoai aunieii?aaiec iaoa? nenoai.

Iaoa?ee i?enoua naienoai, noiaeiia n nici – io?aaeaiea. Io?aaeaieai
iaeaae ana iao ia?aciaaiey. Iii yae iiiaioii ethaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey.
Io?aae – yoi eciaiaiea iaeiiai yaeaiey iiae aicaeaenoaeai ae?oaiai. A
iaaeeaie i?e?iaea ?ani?inoa?aiaiu eciii?oiua io?aaeaiey – ioia/aoee ,
neaaeu…

Eae naienoai aeea i?aaieciia aunooiaao ?acae?aaeeiinoue. Aeaeueiaeoee
yoai ?acaeoey oi?i io?aaeaiey iinea ?acae?aaeeiinoe naycai n
aicieeiiaaieai /oanoaeoaeueiinoe, o.a. niiniaiinoe eiaoue iuouaiey,
io?aaeathuea naienoaa i?aaeiaoia, aicaeaenoaothueo ia i?aaieci. Iuou
ninoaaeytho ia/ oi?io ineoeee.

Ineoeea – yoi niiniaiinoue ae nouanoa nicaeaaaoue /oanoaaiiua e
iaiauaiua ia?acu aiaoiae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e ?aaae?iaaoue ia ieo
niia?acii naiei iio?aaiinoyi.

Iiae ineoeeie /ae iiieiaaony any niaieoiiinoue yaeaiee e ninoiyiee aai
aioo?aiiaai ie?a.Niciaiea yaeyaony /anoueth ineoeee. Ineoeea ioaaouaaao
ia oieueei niciaoaeueiua, ii e iiaeniciaoaeueiua e aanniciaoaeueiua
i?ioeannu.

2. I?iaeaiu nieaeueiie oeeinioee

2.1 Iauanoai eae i?aaeiao oeeinioneiai aiaeeca

Iauanoai iiaeii aiaeece?iaaoue ii-?aciiio. ?on iuneeoaeue
A.A.Aiaaeaiia(1873-1928), iai?eia?, ?anniao?eaae iauanoai ni noi?iiu
i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey. “Anyeay /ae aeayoaeueiinoue yae i?aaiecaoeeae
eee aeaci?aaiecaoeeae. Yoi cia/eo: anyeoth /ae aeayoaeueiinoue – oao,
iauanoa, ooaeiaeanoa – iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae iaeee iaoa?eae
i?aaiecaoeeiiiii iiuoa e enneaaeiaaoue n i?aaiec oi/ee c?aiey” A iniiaa
nioe oee iiaoo eaaeaoue ?acee/iua iiaeoiaeu, oiaiaea niioa iieo/athony e
?acee/iua iiaeaee. ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua ec ieo.

A 17-18 aa. oe? ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea iaoo?aeenoe/aneay eiioeaioeey
oieeiaaiey iau aeecie. Yoa eiioeaioeey o?aaoao iauyni nioe yaeaiee
eneeth/eoaeueii aeaenoaeai i?e? caeiiiia?iinoe: oece/, aaia?ao,
aeieiae/…

Oa?eue Oo?uea (o?aioe nioeeaeeno-ooiieno) – iuoaeny nicaeaoue nioe
iaoee ec caeiia anaie?iiai oyaioaiey Iuethoiia. Nioe oai?ey – anue
/anoue oai?ee anaie?iiai aaeeinoaa, iniiaaiiie a i?eioeeia i?eoyae ii
no?anoe, anaiauae caeiiiia?iinoe, iaoneaae i?e? neeiiiinoue /ae e
eaeiio-eeai aeaeo eieeaeoeaiiai o?oaea.

Aunoea oi?iu auoey iaoo?aeeci naiaeeo e iecoei. *aeiaae naiaeeony aei
o?iaiy eneeth/ i?e?iaeiiai nou-aa. I?e yoii /aeia iiaaaeaiea aeanoei
aeeth/aaony a oeaiue i?e? i?e/ei e neaaenoaee, naiaiaea ia inoaaony
ianoa e eiioeaioeey nioe niauoee i?eieiaao oaoaeenoe/aneoth ie?aneo. A
nenoaia Aiaana Naiaiaea anaai-eeoue iiaeeoeeaoeey iaiaoiaeeiie i?e/eiu.
“Eaaeaeia aeia?iaieueiia aeaenoaea yae auioaeaeaiiui”, “ana aeaenoaey
iaiaoiaeeiu”.

Aua iaeiei iaaeinoaoeii iaoo? iiaeoiaea yae oi, /oi ii ?anni /ae-ea eae
iaeee nioeeaeueiue aoii, a iauanoai eae iaoaie/ aa?aaao oaeeo aoiiia,
caieioouo eneeth/ ia naieo eioa?anao.

Eiuie neiaaie iaoo?aeeci caia/aao a /ae oieueei i?e?iaeioth
noanoaioeeth. A ?-oa e /ae nayce ia?aoatho i?e? oa?aeoa?. Iauanoai
i?ecaaony, ii a ea/ oeaiaioe?othuaai ia/aea aa?aony eee iieueca
(i?inaaoeoaee 17-18aa), eee iieiaay ethaiaue (Oaa?aao). Iauanoai a
iaoo?ae oee oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae anaiauiinoue, naycothuay iiiaeanoai
eiaeeaeaeia eeoue i?e? ocaie. Ii a yoii neo/aa eaaeaeue aieai caueuaoue
naith i?e?iaeo aii?aee nou ii?aeueiui i?eioeeiai, eai iineaaeiea ia
auoaeatho ec i?e? /ae-ea. Oai? iainiiaaiea yoie eneeth/eo yaienoe/aneie
aeeci iiceoeee aeae iai oee Iaen Ooeia? a eieaa “Aaeeinoaaiiue e aai
nianoaaiiinoue”.

Eaeaaeeci iaiai?io neeoeii io?uaaao /ae io i?e?iaeu, i?aa?auay aeoo
noa?o iau aeecie a naiino noanoaioeeth. Ia i?aeoeea yoi icia/aao
neaaeiaaoue i?eioeeio “iiaiey i?aayo ie?ii”. Eaeaae a i?eioeeia ia
io?eoe iauaeoeaiiai oaeoi?a enoi?ee. Iaeiaei ?acaeoea iauanoaa
iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyaony aeaenoaeai ie?iaiai ?acoia eee aieaaay
aeoeaiinoue /aeiaaea. A ia?aii neo/aa a nioe oee aiineony oaoaeeci, a ai
aoi?ii – iainiiauaaaony /enoi noauaeoeaenoneia iiieiaiea enoi? oiaea.

A iaieio oee nenoaiao niaea?aeaeinue iieiae ia/aei a iiaeoiaea e /ae e
enoi?ee. Iii caee a iainiiaaiee naia noauaeoa, aai oai?/aneie
aeoeaiinoe.Eae au ie iiieiaeanue aeooiaiinoue, ieeoi ia iuneeo aa aac
i?aanoaaiiinoe, iineaaeiyy i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea naiaiaeu. Aeooiaii
i?aanoaaiiui iiaeao auoue oiueei naia /aeiaae.

A naaoa aeaiiie eiioeaioeee *aeiaae eae ii?aeueiia nouanoai ia
ioaeaeaaony ie a eaeeo i?eiaieao eee i?eioaeaeaiee, eai iiaeeeiii
i?aaoaiiue iioea ii?iaeaeaaony naia aieaecuyaeaieai ee/iinoe. Yoio iioea
caeeth/ a oii, /oiau /aeia auiieiee naie ii? aeiea, ia iaeeaeay
eiiiainaoeee ie a yoii , ie a eiii ie?a.

Aeaaiui iaaeinoaoeii eaeaae eiioeaioeee yae io?ua neiaa io aeaea,
oai?ee io i?aeoeee, eaeaaea io eioa?ana… A eiaaea neiaie ainiiaenoaoao
iaae auoeai (aoaeue yoi ia?ac naaoeiaoi aoaeouaai eee anaiiaouae
oaoieee), oeaeue iai?aiaiii iiaeiaiyaony n?aaenoaii, a ioae?inoue –
?annoaeeii.

Aeeae iaoa?eaeeci. Iau aeeciue – aunoay oi?ia aeaeae iaoa?ee. Oioue
iauanoai e yae aeeaie neno iii ea/anoaaiii ioee/ io ae? aeeauo nenoai,
aunooiaao e eae iauaeo e eae noauaeo iao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Aeeaeaeoeei – iaoa?eaeeno iiieiaiea enoi?ee ia/eiaaony n ?aoaiey
iniiaiiai aii?ina oee a i?eiaiaiee e iauanoao. “Niciaiea ethaeae caaeneo
io eo auoey”. Yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea auoaeaao ec i?inoiai oaeoa, /oi “ethaee
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeieaeiu anoue, ieoue, eiaoue aeeeeua e iaeaaaoueny,
i?aaeaea /ai auoue a ninoiyiee caieiaoueny iieeoeeie, iaoeie,
eneonnoaii, ?aeeaeae…” A aeey yoiai ioaeii o?oaeeoueny, i?iecaiaeeoue
iao aeaaa.

Eoae nouiinoue iao iiieiaiey enoi?ee inoieo a oii, /oi:

i?iecaiaenoai e aneaae ca iei iaiai aai i?iaeoeoia ninoaae iniiao
anyeiai iau no?iy.

enoi? i?ioeann, iau auoea iinyo iauaeo oa?aeoa?

aeaaiie aeaeae neeie, i?aia?ac aeeciue iauanoaa, yaeythony ia?iaeiua
iannu.

n?aaenoaa aeey eciai nou iieiaeaiey aauae ioaeii ioe?uaaoue a iaee/iuo
iaoa? oaeoi?ao i?iecaiaenoaa.

Nioe caeiiu e eaoaai?ee. Iauaeoeaiay iniiaa e a?aieoeu /ae naiaiaeu.

A ioee/ee io i?e?iaeiie nioeeaeueiay caeiiiia?iinoue eiaao ?yae niaoeeo
/a?o: 1.Iau ioiioaiey i?eiei oi?io iau eioa?ania, iio?aaiinoae, oeaeae.
A yoi cia/eo /oi nioe caeiiu – cae ia oieueei iao, ii e aeooiaiie
aeayoaeueiine. 2.Iineieueeo iauanoai iaeiia? yaeyaony e iauaeoii e
noauaeoii, nioe cae – yoi cae /aeia aeayoaeueiinoe. Aac /ae aeayo,
eioi?ay aaiaoe/anee i?aae/ia, iao e ia i.a. nioe caeiiiia?iine. Enoi?ey
– yoi aeayoaeueiinoue i?aneaaeothuaai naie oeaee /aeiaaea. 3.Nioe caeiiu
ii oa? naiae aeayo – noaoenoe/aneea. 4. Niaoeeoeeie nioe caeiiia yae eo
enoi?e/iinoue. Aneaaenoaee oiai, /oi nioe yaiethoeey i?ioaeaao aiea
auno?uie oaiiaie, /ai yaie i?e?iaeu, iau ioiioaiey e oi?iu eoeueoo?u
aieaa iiaeaeaeiu /ai aaieia ia?eiaeu. Nioe i?aaeci i/aiue aeeaie/ai, e
aai cae iicaieytho oeiaeoue eeoue iauoth oaiaeaioeeth ?acaeoey, a yoi
nicaeaao iaeoth aa?iyoiinoue onoaiiaeaey no?iaeo n?ieia ianooieaiey
niauoee.

Nioe caeiiu:

1. caeii ii?aaeaeythuae ?iee niiniaa ?iecaiaenoaa ii ioiio e ae? noa?ai
aeayoaeueiinoe.

2. caeii ii?aae ?iee yeiiii aacena ii ioiio e iaaeno?ieea

3.caeiiniioa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee o?iaith e oa?aeoa?o i?ieca nee.

4. caeii i?ia?anneaiie niaiu iau-yeiiii oi?iaoeee

5. caeii nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee

6.caeii aic?anoathuae ?iee ia? iann a enoi?ee

7. caeii ioiineoaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe iau niciaiey.

8. caeii aicauoaiey iio?aaiinoae.

Nou aieueoia eie-ai nioe caeiiia /anoiiai ii?yaeea, eio aeaenoaotho a
ii?aae noa?ao iauanoaa. Ii a etha neo/aa iacaaenii io ianooaaa aeaenoaey
nioe caeiiu io?aaeatho iaee/ea nioe iaiaoiaeeiinoe e iauaeo oiaea iau
aeecie.

Aeaenoaey nioe caeiiia eiie?aoece?othony oee eaoaai?eyie: nioe iaoa?ey,
nioe a?aiy, nioe i?ino?ainoai, nioe i?ioeai?a/ea, nioe io?eoeaiea, nioe
?aaiethoeey, iau auoea e iau niciaiea. Naiaiaea e iaiaoiaeeiinoue, aacen
e iaaeno?ieea, iau oi?iaoeey, niinia i?iecaiaenoaa…

E?eoaee iauaeoeaiinoe nioe aeecie caeeth/aaony a iaee/ee nioe
i?aainoaaiiinoe, oae eae eaaeaeia iieieaiea ia/eiaao n oie ?aaeueiie
iniiau, eio aio aeinoaeanue. “Ethaee a iatho naia a auai?a naieo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo neie, eio ia?acotho iniiao anae eo enoi?ee, oae eae
anyeay i?iecaiae neea anoue i?eia?aoaiiay neea, i?iaeoeo i?aaeoanoa
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oiaaea eiaao ee ianoi naiaaea a iauanoaa? A /ai aea iia au?aaeaaony,
anee nou nioe caeiiu, au?aaeathuea iauaeoeaiue, iaiaoiaeeiue oiae
enoi?ee? A i?e?iaea iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?ioeainoieo neo/aeiinoue. A iauanoaa
n ae niioiineony naiaiaea. Naiaiaea a?aaeaeaaiu ia caeiiu, a aaccaeiiea,
oain. E iaiaoiaeeiinoue e naiaiaea a ?aaiie noaiaie iauaeoeaiu, oioy eo
ooieoe iaa?ocea e ?acee/ia. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue io?aaeaao ia/oi onoie/eaia,
nio?aiythuaany, /oi au?aae a caeiiao nio?aiaiey. Naiaiaea aea io?aaeaao
?acaeoea, iiyaeaiea iiaiai, iiauo aiciiaeiinoae, ii ia aaca
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iaiaoiae au?aaeaao iaee/iia, a naiaiaea noaaouaaao
aoaeouaa, eaeei ie? aeieaeai eee iiaeao auoue.

Ie? enoi?ey – yoi i?ioeann aic?anoaiey noaiaie naiaiaeu, ii a eaaeaeue
enoi? ia?eiae iia eiaao naie a?aieoeu. Naiaiaea iiiaieeea, ii nouiinoue
aaeeia – iaee/ea ?aciiia?aciuo aiciiaeiinoae.

2.2 Iauanoai eae nenoaia. Noa?a iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

1. Nenoaia – niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia, iaoiaeyueony a ioiioaieyo e naycyo
ae?oa n ae?oaii, eioi?ay ia?acoao ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaeinoiinoue,
aaeeinoai.

Iniiaiua nenoaiiua i?eioeeiu:

Oeaeinoiinoue

Ianaiaeeiinoue naienoa nenoaiu e noiia naienoa ninoaaeythueo aa
yeaiaioia e iaauaiaeeiinoue ec iineaaeieo naienoa oeaeiai.

Caaeneiinoue ethaiai yeaiaioa, naienoaa e ioeeiiaiey nenoaiu io aai
ianoa, ooieoeee e o.ae. aioo?e oeaeiai.

No?oeoo?iinoue:

Aiciiaeiinoue iienaiey nenoaiu /a?ac onoaiiaeaiea aa no?oeoo?u, o.a.
naoe naycae e ioiioaiee.

Iaoneiaeaiiinoue iiaaaeaiey nenoaiu ia noieueei iiaaaeaieai ioaeaeueiuo
yeaiaioia, neieueei naienoaaie aa no?oeoo?u.

Acaeiicaaeneiinoue nenoaiu e n?aaeu (Nenoaia oi?ie?oao e i?iyaeyao naie
naienoaa a i?ioeanna acaeiiaeaenoaey ni n?aaeie, yaeyynue i?e yoii
eaeouei aeoeaiui eiiiiiaioii acaeiiaeaenoaey).

Ea?a?oe/iinoue (Ethaie eiiiiiaio nenoaiu a naith i/a?aaeue iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae nenoaia, eioi?ay aoaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie iaeei
ec eiiiiiaioia aieaa oe?ieie nenoaiu.

Iiiaeanoaaiiinoue iienaiey nenoaiu (a neeo i?eioeeieaeueiie neiaeiinoe,
aaeaeaaoiia iiciaiea nenoaiu o?aaoao iino?iaiey iiiaeanoaa ?acee/iuo
iiaeaeae)

2. Iauanoai anoue neiaeiia no?oeoo?iia oeaeia. Oneiaii aai iiaeii
?acaeoue ia 4 aieueoea noa?u:

Yeiiiie/aneay (iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiay) aaeeinoai i?iecaiaenoaa,
iio?aaeaiey, iaiaia, ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, iaoa?eaeueiuo
oneiaee aeecie ethaeae:

Eiiiiiaiou:

I. O?oae eae eiiieaeniia nioeeaeueiia yaeaiea (nioeeaeueiay
?aaeueiinoue, a eioi?ie e /a?ac eioi?oth aeaenoaotho, ooieoeeiie?otho
caeiiu iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u)

II. Niinia i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa (?ane?uaatho nouiinoue
iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea)

III. Iaoaieci ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u a
oeaeii (i?iaeaia oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia, i?eaioe?ia, iaueo oeaeae
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa)

Nioeeaeueiay – yoie/aneay iauiinoue ethaeae (?iae, ieaiy,
iaoeeiiaeueiinoue, iaoeey …), ?acee/iua eeannu (?aai/ea, ao?aeoacey,
e?anoueyia).

O.a. yoo noa?o ia?acotho ?acee/iua nioeeaeueiua iauiinoe. Nioeeaeueiay
oeeinioey eco/aao caeiiu, niaeanii eioi?ui a iauanoaa neeaaeuaathony
onoie/eaua, aieueoea a?oiiu ethaeae, ioiinyueany iaaeaeo yoeie a?oiiaie,
eo nayce e eo ?ieue a iauanoaa.

Yoe caeiiu e ninoaaeytho niaea?aeaiea iniaie iaeanoe iauanoaaiiie aeecie
aai nioeeaeueiie noa?u.

Iieeoe/aneay

ia eaeie au noaaeee ia ieacaeinue iauanoai, aai aeeciue, ?acaeoea
ieeiaaea ia inouanoaeyaony aac ii?aaeaeaiiiai niciaoaeueii oi?aaeythuaai
ia/aea, aio i?enoua anaaaea e aacaea ii?aaeaeaiiua oi?iu oi?aaeaiey.

Naie yoe oi?iu a ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu iauanoaaiiie enoi?ee eiatho ?acioth
noaiaiue ?acaeoinoe.

Ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo yoaiao iie ia?acotho oeaeoth niaoeeoe/aneoth nenoaio
iauanoaaiiuo einoeoooia oi?aaeaiey, aeeth/athuea a naay naiua ?acee/iua
i?aaiu.

Niaieoiiinoue yoeo einoeoooia io?aaeaaony a eaoaai?ee iieeoe/aneie noa?u
iauanoaa.

Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey eco/aao iauea caeiiu, neeaaeuaaiea oi?i, aeaeia,
oeiia e o.ae. iieeoe/aneiai e ae?. oi?aaeaiey iauanoaii, nayce yoeo oi?i
n ae?oa ae?oaii, ia?aciaaiea oeaeinoiie nenoaiu iieeoe/aneiai
oi?aaeaiey, caeiiu aa ?acaeoey, ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, ianoi iieeoe/aneiai
oi?aaeaiey a iauanoaa, aai naycue n iei.

Aeooiaiia

iia aeeth/aao oeeinioeth, ?aeeaeth, ooaeiaeanoaaiiua, i?aaiaua
iieeoe/aneea, yoe/aneea e ae?oaea aicc?aiey ethaeae, a oaeaea eo
iano?iaiea, yiioeee, i?aaenoaaeaiey ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a, o?aaeeoeee,
iau/ae e o.ae.

ana yoe yeaiaiou iaoiaeyony ai acaeiiie nayce e acaeiiaeaenoaee.

Yeaiaiou aeooiaiie noa?u oa?aeoa?ecothony o?aiy ioee/eoaeueiuie
i?eciaeaie.

iniiauaathony ia oi?iao iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey.

Aeeth/atho ii?aaeaeaiiua oeiu aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Anoue einoeoooieece?iaaiiua iiaenenoaiu iauanoaa.

3. Yoe noa?u iauanoaaiiie aeecie acaeiinaycaiu e acaeiiiaoneaaeeaatho
ae?oa ae?oaa

iie iinoiyiii iaiythony, niaa?oainoaothony, ?acaeaathony

?aciua noa?u auiieiytho ?aciua ooieoeee

noa?u aeeytho ae?oa ia ae?oaa, neaaeiaaoaeueii e ia ana enoi?e/aneia
?acaeoea

4. Noa?u iauanoaaiiie aeecie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iniiaiua yeaiaiou
iauanoaa, a eo acaeiinayce ia?acotho aai iniiaioth no?oeoo?o.

iaaeaeo oai iauanoaaiua i?aaiecaoeee aeeooa?aioee?othony ia oieueei ia
iniiaiua noa?u

a aai ninoaaa eiathony e aieaa iaeeea ia?ae/iua caaiuey, naiaai ?iaea
yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu

?anniio?aiea yoeo /anoeoe iicaieeo oaeoaeoue e eiie?aoece?iaaoue
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia iauanoaa, i aai no?oeoo?a.

I?eciaee yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe:

ioiineoaeueiay i?inoioa e iaaeaeeiinoue

eiatho eneeth/eoaeueii oe?ieee a?aae iauanoaaiiiai nouanoaiaaiey (o.a.
i?iiecuaatho iiiaea noa?u)

iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie «ee?ie/eee», ec eioi?uo ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
«no?iyony», aini?iecaiaeyony aieaa neiaeiua iauanoaaiiua i?aaiu

Iaeaieaa /anoi auaeaeaathony oaeea yeaiaioa?iua /anoeoeu:

iauanoaaiiua noauaeou

aai aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe

iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey

5. Oeaeue nenoaiiiai aiaeeca caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee oai?aoe/aneie
iiaeaee iauanoaa, io?aaeathuea aai nouiinoiua /a?ou /a?ac ?ane?uoea
acaeiinayce e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoe aai iniiaiuo yeaiaioia, ?iee ethauo
ec ieo a aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiee e ?acaeoee.

2.3 Iauanoai a enoi?e/aneii ecia?aiee

AEeciue /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa yoi ia oieueei nio?aiaiea e
aini?iecaaaeaiea iauanoaaiiuo no?oeoo?, iia ?acaa?iooa ai a?aiaie e
nioeeaeueiii i?ino?ainoaa e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann.
Yoio i?ioeann ia eiaao ieeaeeo aio?aeoia, ioaaouaaao anth enoi?eth
/aeiaa/anoaa, ia/eiay io ia?auo oaaia iaacueyiiiiaeiaiuo i?aaeeia e
eii/ay neiaeiuie ceacaaaie XX-ai aaea. Anoanoaaiii aicieeaao aii?in: /oi
niaie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa?

Iai?aaeaiiinoue e niune /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee

Ii eaeei caeiiai i?ienoiaeeo ?acaeoea

Eoi aeaeaao enoi?eth?

I iai?aaeaiiinoe e niunea enoi?ee, i?ia?anneaai ee i?ia?ann?

aeaa?aaeaoeey n ?acaeoeai oeeaeeecaoeee aa?ao ia/aei n ae?aaiinoe,
o?enoeainoai: o?aeoiaea anaie?iiai iioiia eae iaeacaiea ca a?aoe.

Oeeeee/iinoue – io Aa?aeeeoa. ?acee/iua iauanoaa iiiaie?aoii i?ioiaeyo
caieiooua oeeeeu ca?iaeaeaiey, iiaeuaia, oiaaeea e aeaaee.

Ainoiaeyuaa iinooiaoaeueiia ?acaeoea enoi?ee: Eaio, Aaaaeue, Ia?en.

Ai eiy /aai niaa?oaaony enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann, o.a. niune enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna e oeaeue.

Oeaeue noaaeo /aeiaae e a niioaaonoaee n iae ii ii?aaeaeyao niune.

Nae/an oeaeue:

onoaiiaeaiea iiaiai ie?iaiai ii?yaeea, iniiaaiiiai ia i?aaa

naiaiaea /aeiaaea e iniciaiea eiaeeaeaeii aai naiaiaeu; eae
iaania/eaaoue iaeaieueooth aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeu aeey anao

iaiauaeoe?iaaiiua oi?iu nouanoaiaaiey ethaeae, a a noauaeoeaiii ie?a
/aeiaaea – eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai n/anouey

Oi?iaoeeiiiue e oeeaeeecaoeiiiue iiaeoiaeu e iiieiaieth enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna:

Oi?iaoeeiiiue: Ia?en, Yiaaeuen.

Enoi?ey – iauaeoeaiue, anoanoaaiiue enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann niaiu
oi?iaoeee. Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e a?aiy nouanoaiaaiea oi?iaoeee caaeneo io
?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia?en ia ooaa?aeaeae
aeiaaeueiinoe oaeiai oa?aeoa?a, yoi naeaeaee aai iineaaeiaaoaee.
Iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue oi?iaeueiui iiieiaieai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna,
ec-ca oiai, /oi a oi?iaoeee yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey ii?aaeaeytho ana
ae?oaea (iiieiaiea a aeooa yeiiiie/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia).

Oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue.

Ia oieueei yeiiiie/aneea iiiaiou, ii e nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua ecia?aiey
iauanoaa, aeooiaiia ioiioaiea. Ia?a?uaiinoue yaiethoeeiiiinoue ?acaeoey.

Anee a 1) – anoue i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoue, iai?aaeaiiinoue, oi a 2) –
iiiaiaa?eioiinoe enoi?ee

A neo/aa oi?iaoeeiiiiai /aeiaae ieacuaaaony ia o aeae, ia?anoaao auoue
aeaenoaeoaeueiui noauaeoii enoi?ee, ii iae?aiei i?eaycuaaaony e iaeiae
iauaeoeaiinoe eae e niaieoiiinoe yaeaiee e i?ioeannia, caeiiia eo
?acaeoey, nouanoaothueo «iacaaeneii io aiee e niciaiey ethaeae».
Naiaiaea /aeiaaea ia?aie/eaaaony ?aieaie yeiiiie/aneie iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

Enoi?ey – i?iaeoeo aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
i?aneaaeoao naie oeaee e eioa?anu.

Enoi?ey – aaeeinoai noauaeoeaiiai e iauaeoeaiiai,

iacaaeneia io aiee e aeaeaiey ethaeae,

eo enoi?ey (Aeaeueoa o Ieueae)

Eoi aeaeaao enoi?eth? (Iiiai eoi caaeoiuaaaony iaae yoei).

ia?iae

?ieue ee/iinoe: eaaeaeay ee/iinoue, nicaeathuay iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa eee
aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe, ea?aao ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue

auaeathueany ee/iinoe. (Yoi iieeoeee e ainoaea?noaaiiua aeayoaee,
iieeiaiaeoeu, aaeeeea o/aiua, aeayoaee eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa).

2.4 ?aeeaey eae nioeeaeueiue oaiiiai: nouiinoue niaoeeoeea ooieoeee

Acaeiiioiio iaaeaeo ?aeeaeae e oee enoi?e/anee eciai/eau e
?aciiia?aciu. Anee iao eeiey oee i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao naay ?aeea
ie?iaicc?aieth, oi ?acee/iua iai?aae eaeaaeeno oee iaiaeiie?aoii
anooiaee a nithc n oaieiaeae, /oi au?aaeaaony a oi?ie?iaaiee ooii/aiiuo,
?aoeie?iaaiiuo oi?i ?aeeaee. Iaeaieaa oaniui yoio nithc ieacaeny a
o?aaeeoeeyo ainoi/iie eoeueoo?u, a eio ia anaaaea aeaaea i?ecaaony
?acee/ea iaaeaeo oee e ?ae eae ioaeaeueiuie oi?iaie iau niciaiey. Oae,
aoaeaeeci ia?aaeei o?aeooaony eae ?aeeaeiciay oeeinioey.

Iaeiaei e a Aa?ii eoeueoo?a acaeiiioiio iaaeaeo ?ae e oee
iaiaeiicia/iu. A aioe/iinoe ?ae i?aaenoaaeaiey aoiaeeee a ninoaa oee a
ea/anoaa aa iaiaoiae eiiiiiaioa, a n?aaeiea aaea, iai?ioea, neooaoeey
auea oaeiaa, /oi oaea ?aeeaey aeeth/aea a naay oee.

Aeaenoaeo ?an/eaiaiea oee e ?ae ia iainiaeaiiua oi?iu i?iecioei eeoue
ia ?oaaaea n?aaeiaaaeiauey e iiaiai a?aiaie. Oee, eae e ca?iaeeaoayny a
oi aea a?aiy iiaiaa?ii iaoea, a n?aco anooieea a eaeaieia eiieo?aioeeth
n ?ae, iaaeaeo ieie eae au auee ?acaeaeaiu noa?u aeeyiey. i?e nio?aiaiee
iaiaei aa?oiaiiai aaoi?eoaoa ?aeeaee. Auea ioeoeeaeueii i?eiyoa
eiioeaioeey 2 enoei. Iaeia io aiaa, a ae? io /aeiaaea. Oae aiciee aeaeci
– o/aiea i oii, /oi aia, nioai?ea iaoa?eth e onoaiiaea i?aanoaaiiua
aaniethou, a aeaeueiaeoai a aiaoeaaaony a niauoey ie?a, e iiyoiio /ae
iiaeao e aeieaeai iiciaaaoue i?e? e oeeinionee ?aciuoeyoue i eiie?aoiuo
aiieiuaieyo aaniethoa a enoi? ?aaeueiinoue aia caa-oe io aiaa.

Aiineaaenoaee oee iinoaiaiii i?eia?aea iiuiue iioaioeeae e noaea
?aaeueii i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia caiauaiea oeaio?aeueiiai ianoa ?aeeaeee.
Niaeanii iaenecio, ?aeeaey anoue inoaoi/iay oi?ia iau niciaiey, eio
aoaeao nio?aiyoueny aei oao ii?, iiea aneaaenoaee ?acaeoey nioe-yeiiii
no?oeoo? iauanoaa ninoi?iiu ae? oi?i iau niciaiey e i?aaeaea anaai ni
noi? naiie oee ia aoaeao i?aaeeiaeaa nenoaia oeaiinoae, iaiaoiaeeiay
aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauaeoeaiuo iio?aaiinoae aeooa, eaaeaueo a
iniiaaiee onoie/eauo ?aeea i?aaenoaaeaiee.

Cia/eo /anoue eaeaaeeno oa/aiee oee no?aieony e neioaco ?ae e oee.
Iiaeii auaeaeeoue 2 i?e/eiu oaeiai no?aieaiey: aiinaieiae/aneoth e
aeneieiae/aneoth.

Aiinaieia i?e/eiu aycaiu n o?oaeiinoyie enoieeiaaiey ooiaeaiaio
aeinoeaeaiee anoanoa iaoe eiioea 20a. Iaaea?ii iiiaea oeceee 20 a
neeiiyeenue e eaeaaeecio a iaia ?eineee iaiaeiie?aoii i?iiiaaaeuaae, /oi
aeinoeae nia?aiaiie oeceee i?yiiiieacuaatho nou aiaa. Nia?ai oaieiae
iiaeaa?aatho oaeno aeaeee ana iiaui oieeiaaieyi, /oiau naycaoue aa n
iao/iuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie.

Iaeiaei iniiaiie yaeyaony aeneieiae/aneay i?e/eia. E?ecenu iaoaai aaea
n aai 2 ie?iauie aieiaie, iianoiinoue yaea?iie aieiu, e enoiuaiey
?ano?nia, iai?aaeneacoaiua i?iyaeaiey ianniaie ineoieiaee, iioa?yaoae
oaa?aeoth nenoaio aeoo oeaiiinoae – ana yoi ia iiaei ia neacaoueny ia
oee eneaieyo. Ia iiaee?aieaiiue iiauie oeaiiinoyie oeac io ?aeeaee
aei?iai iaioaeny /aeiaa/anoao. *aeiaae ii/oanoaiaae naay iaeeiieei a
ie?icaeaiee, iioa?ye i?aanoa iniiao, iuooee naay ineoieiae/anee
iaaeaeaiiui a ie?iaicc?aee.

Eaeaaeeno oee 20a no?aieony ainiieieoue yoo yiioeeiiaeueii-aeooaaioth
ionoioo, ainnoaiiaeoue naienoaaiioth ?aeeaee onoie/eaia ineoieia
?aaiiaanea. Oaeiau oee aeecie (A.Aa?anii), yecenoaioeeaeeci
(I.Oaeaeaaa?, E.ssnia?n…), o/aiea I.Oaea?a aea Oa?aeaia – o? o/aiiai
oee e oaieiaa, no?aieaoaainy iniuneeoue /ae eae oeaeue yaie ?acaeoey
i?e?iaeu. Iieacaoaeai oio oaeo, /oi eiaii a 20 a. ia/aea ao?ii
?acaeaaoueny aeneieiaey – o/aiea i oeaiiinoyo. (I.Oaea?, I.Aaaa?), o.a.
oee iai?aaeaiea, niaoeeaeueii iinayu iainiiaaieth a ninoaaa oee ciaiey
aeooiaiuo aaniethoia e ii?i.

2.5 Iauanoai e i?e?iaea. Nia?aiaiiay yeieiae/aneay neooaoeey

Oa?iei «I?e?iaea» neoaeeo aeey iaicia/aiey iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe,
anaai oiai, /oi nouanoaoao. Aunoaa aa ii?iaeaeaiea e /anoue – /aeiaae.
I?e?iaea aeaeeony ia 2 /anoe: Naycaiioth n aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea e
ia naycaiioth n iae.

Iauanoai – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue enoi?e/anee eciaiythueony
oi?i niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii naycaiiuo
iaaeaeo niaie e ia?acothueo iaeioi?oth oeaeinoiinoue ia iniiaa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a eioa?anao aa (yoie
oeaeinoiinoe) naiinio?aiaiey, naii i?iecaiaenoaa e naii?acaeoey.

I?e?iaea eae oeaeia – aa/ia e aaneiia/ia. *aeiaa/aneia iauanoai
enoi?e/anee ia?aie/aiii eae a i?ino?ainoaa oae e ai a?aiaie.

*aeiaa/aneia iauanoai ia iiaeao aicieeiooue, nouanoaiaaoue e
?acaeaaoueny aia e iacaaeneii io i?e?iaeu.

I?e?iaea eae oneiaea aeecie e ?acaeoea iauanoaa ia yaeyaony iinoiyiiie e
iaeciaiiie aaee/eiie.

Oi?iu aini?eyoey i?e?iaeu.

Aioe/iinoue: I?e?iaea iiieiaeanue eae iiaeaeaeiia , eciaiythuaany
oeaeia; /aeiaae iuneeeny eae iaeia ec aa /anoae.

N?aaeiaaaeiaay o?enoeaineay eoeueoo?a: Ie?oaeathuay /aeiaaea i?e?iaea
eanniao?eaaeinue eae ia/oi nioaa?aiiia aiaii e aieaa ieceia /ai nai
/aeiaae, oae eae oieueei ii iaaeaeai aiaeanoaaiiui ia/aeii – aeooie.
Aieaa oiai , i?e?iaea ia ?aaeei iuneeeanue eae enoi/iee cea, eioi?ue
ioaeii i?aiaeieaoue eee iiae/eieoue, a aeeciue /aeiaaea aunooiaea eae
aiaeanoaaiiia ia/aea (aeooe) n a?aoiaiui i?e?iaeiui ia/aeii (oaeii). E
yoi neoaeeei ii?aaaeaieai aeey iaaaoeaiiai ioiioaiey e i?e?iaea.
I?e?iaea ia/eiaeanue eae ia/oi iaiaeooaaeaiiia, i?ioeainoiyuaa /aeiaaeo
e /aeiaa/aneiio iauanoao.

Yiioa aic?iaeaeaiey: ioiioaiea e i?e?iaea iaiyaony, /aeiaae ioe?uaaao
aeey naay e?anioo e aaeeeieaiea ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeu, ia/eiaao aeaeaoue
a iae enoi/iee ?aaeinoe, ianeaaeaeaiey, aaeioiiaaiey.

Ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaeecia: I?e?iaea ia/eiaao
iiieiaoueny eae iauae eioaineaiie i?aia?aciaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe e
eae eeaaeiaay ec eioi?ie /aeiaae iiaeao /a?iaoue aac ia?u e aac n/aoa.
Yoe aicc?aiey i?aiaeaaeaee aei na?aaeeiu 20 aaea, eiaaea ia/aee
iiieiaoue anth iianiinoue oaeiai ioiioaiey e i?e?iaea.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu

Caaeneiinoue /aeiaaea io i?e?iaeu, io anoanoaaiiie n?aaeu iaeoaiey
nouanoaiaaea ia anao yoaiao /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu, ii ia inoaaaeanue
iinoiyiiie, a eciaiyeanue aeeaeaeoe/aneei i?ioeai?a/eaui ia?acii.

*aou?a oeia acaeiiaeaenoaey iauanoaa n i?e?iaeie:

I?enaaeaathuee (aeey ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa)

I?iecaiaeyuee (N ia/aei aa?a?iay yeiiiieea caoai eiaeono?eaeueiia
i?iecaiaenoai)

Iiae/eiythuee (Eaieoaeenoe/aneee no?ie)

IO? (Aoi?ay iieiaeia 50o aiaeia 20ai aaea)

Aeiaaeecaoeey nioeeaeueiuo, eoeueoo?iuo, yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo
i?ioeannia a ie?a, ii?iaeeea ?yae na?ueaciuo i?iaeai, iaeiie ec eioi?uo
yaeyaony yeieiae/aneay i?iaeaia.

Nouiinoue yeieiae/aneie i?iaeaiu ninoieo a io/aoeeai iaia?oaeeaoainy e
oaeoaeythuainy i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth
/aeiaa/anoaa e noaaeeueiinoueth i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu aai iaeoaiey. Eae
ioia/ae iniiaaoaeue ?eineiai Eeoaa A. Ia//ae: «Enoeiiay i?iaeaia
/aeiaa/aneiai aeaea a oii /oi ii ieacaeny ianiiniaiui a eoeueoo?iii
ioiioaiee eaeoe a iiao e i?eniiniaeony e oai eciaiaieyi, eioi?ua nai
aian a yoio ie?». Yoe eciaiaiey yaeythony ieiaeii anae
eoeueoo?ii-i?aia?aciaaoaeueiie, e i?aaeaea anaai, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ianna anao eneonnoaaiii nicaeaiiuo /aeiaaeii
iaiaeooaaeaiiuo i?aaeiaoia e aeeauo i?aaieciia iacuaaaony oaoiiiannie.
?an/aou o/aiuo iieacaee, /oi oaoiiianna i?iecaiaeeiay /aeiaa/anoaii ca 1
aiae ninoaaeyao 10 a 13-14 noaiaie, a aeiianna i?iecaiaeeiay ia nooa 10
a 23. Ec yoeo ?an/aoia neaaeoao, /oi /aeiaa/anoai nicaeaei
eneonnoaaiioth n?aaeo, eioi?ay a 10 ?ac i?iaeoeoeaiaa anoanoaaiiie
n?aaeu. Yoi iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia, iaoneaaeeaathuee iinoaiiaeo
ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii yeieiae/aneie i?iaeaiu. A yoie nayce iniaoth
ino?ioo i?eia?aoaao ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ie? n?aaea i?iecaiaenoa e
i?iaeoeoeee, e iniaaiii caa?yciythueo, aucuaathueo eaoaeeeciu. Oaea a
iaic?eiii aoaeouai aiciiaeii iaeeaeaiea iioaieaiey e oayiey eaaeieeia,
/oi iineoaeeo i?e/eiie aeey ieeeeiiia /aeiaae i?aa?aoeoueny a
yeieiae/aneeo aaaeaioeaa.

O/aiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi anyeee aeieiae/aneee aeae niiniaai
auaeeoue a i?aaeaeao aeinoaoi/ii oceie yeieiae/aneie ieoe, o.a.
niaieoiiinoe ?acee/iuo oneiaee e oaeoi?ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. *aeiaae
yoi aeieiae/aneee aeae, oioy e aieaa oieaa?naeueiue, aieaa aaeaioeaiue e
eciaiaieyi a ie? n?aaea. Iaeiaei e aai ?ano?nu a neeaaeuaathuaeny
neooaoeee en/a?iuaathony. I?e/ai aicaeaenoaotho ia oieueei oece/aneea
oaeoi?u (caa?yciaiea), ii e ineoieiae/aneea. ?eineee eeoa i?eoae e
auaiaeo, /oi aeaaiie i?e/eiie yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai yaeyaony IOI,
i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia aacoaea?aeiue ?ino iio?aaeaiey. A /anoe
eioaeaaaioiiai ianaeaiey ?acaeouo no?ai iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ainieoaiea
aeaoae iai?aaeaii ia ia no?aieaiea au?anoeoue ethaeae no?iyueony e
aacoaea?aeiiio iaiaauaieth, a iaiai?io e iaua/aeiaa/aneei oeaiiinoyi,
nei?aa iaiai?io neaaua e ?acaeoua no?aiu ii?iaeaeatho aeoe eiia?eaeecia.
Yoi niioaaonoaoao oai i?aaeeiaeaieyi oeeinioia eioi?ua aunooiatho ca
ia?ai?eaioaoeeth ethaeae n ie?neeo oeaiiinoae ia oeaiiinoe aeooiaiua.

2.6 Ieoieiae/aneia niciaiea

I?ienoiaeaeaiea neiaa «ieo» – (a?a/.) «?a/ue», «neiai», «?acaiai?».
I?inoaeoea oi?iu ieoa iiaoo niaiaaeaoue ni neiaii. Iaeiaei, ieo aeaeaei
auoiaeeo ca ?aiee neiaaniuo au?aaeaiee, iiaanoaiaaiey, nthaeaoia.

Ia?aay aaoa ia iooe ?acaeoey ieoe/aneiai niciaiey io ia?aiauoiiai noaaea
e iaueia – nicaeaao iauiinoe ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo
naycae. Oe?aieaiea eo aioo?e iaueiu e ioaeaeaiea aa io ae?oaeo iauei. A
oneiaeyo eiaaea ionoonoaiaaee eiua iaoaieciu oaea?aeaiey, o?aiaiey e
ia?aaea/e eieeaeoeaiiai iiuoa, aaeeinoaaiiui niiniaii eiiioieeaoeee aue
?eooae e neiai (ieo).

Iiaoi?yynue ec iieieaiey a iieieaiey ia?aiia/aeueiue niune ieoia
caauaaeny, iie i?eieiaeenue ia aa?o, i?aaeei niaethaeaiey ?eooaea e
niaea?aeaiey ieoa i?eia?aoaee aaniethoiia cia/aiea. Aa?a – yoi ia
?aeeaeiciay aa?a, a, aeiaa?ea /a?ac aiooaiea, eioi?ia oiaeaeanoaaiii
/oanoao i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eiaeeaeaea e eieeaeoeao iaueiu.

Ieo oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie nouiinoiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie:

i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue: ieo anaaaea i /ai-oi (i ie?icaeaiee, i /aeiaaea, ia
iauanoaa, i nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaieyo, i oeaiiinoyo)

neie?aoeci: a ieoa ionoonoaoao yaiia e io/aoeeaia ?aca?aie/aiea iunee i
i?aaeiaoa e naiiai i?aaeiaoa, eaeaaeueiiai e aauanoaaiiiai, ciaiee e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ia?acia. A ieoa ana yoi neeoii e ia ?an/eaiaii
niaea?aeaiea ieoa – i?aaeiao aa?u. Iii e?eoeea ia iiaeaeanoii e a
eiae/aneeo iainiiaaieyo ia ioaeaeaaony.

sscue: ieo eiaao naie nianoaaiiue ycue, eioi?ue iaeaaeaao aeaoiy
naienoaaie:

aeeaiiienothuee (yaeaiea iienuaathony a eiie?aoiuo aeaoaeyo
iienuaaaiiai)

ionoonoaea eiie?aoiie aeinoaoi/ii aunieie noaiaie oi/iinoe (yoi iuneue a
ie?a au?aaeaao iauaa /a?ac ioaeaeueiia, iniaaiiia).

ooieoeeiiaeueiinoue: ieo auiieiyao ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee:

iiciaaaoaeueiia – ieo iienuaaao, ?anneacuaaao eioa?anothuaa /aeiaaea.

Eiiioieeaoeaiia – /a?ac onaiaiea ieoa eiaeeaeae i?eiauaaony e oie eee
eiie iauiinoe

Aeneieiae/aneia – ieo ia?aaeaao, cae?aieyao, aini?iecaiaeeo
ii?aaeaeaiioth nenoaio oeaiiinoae, i?eiyooth a oie eee eiie iauiinoe

?aaoeyoeaiay – ieo /a?ac ?acee/iua ia?acu ia?aaeaao, cae?aieyao
iauanoaaiiua ii?iu iiaaaeaiey, aeaenoaee. Ieo – yoi i?aeoe/aneia
?oeiaiaenoai e aeaenoaeth.

Ia?aiauoiue /aeiaae inaaeaaao naia auoea naiaioe/anee – yiioeeiiaeueii.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ieoe/aneia niciaiea ia i?iecaiaeeo ciaiey a iauaeoeaii
aeinoiaa?iie oi?ia e ia no?aieony e yoiio.

Iaeiaei, nia?aiaiiay enneaaeiaaoaeueneay iuneue oii?ia a naiai
no?aieaiee i?eienaoue ieoo ii?aaeaeaiioth eiaeeo.

Eaae-No?inn:

ia/aeueiua e eiia/iua noaaeee ?annoaeaeaiey i?ioeaiiieiaeiu e
iaeiicia/iu, a i?iiaaeooi/iua – iin?aaeiee iaaeaeo ieie.

A ieoe/aneii iuoeaiee ?aaioaao oa aea eiaeea, /oi e a ii?iaeueiii

I?ia?ann ia a iuoeaiee, a a oii ie?a, a eioi?ii aeeei /aeiaa/anoai.

Ieoieiae/aneia niciaiea nae/an

Ieoieiae/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea – oaeia ie?iaicc?aiea, eioi?ia iniiaaii ia
ia oai?aoe/aneeo aeiaiaeao e ?annoaeaeaieyo, a eeai ia
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-yiioeeiiaeueiii ia?aaeeaaiee eeoea, eeai ia iauanoaaiiuo
eeethceyo, ?iaeaeaiiuo iaaaeaeaaoiui aini?eyoeai aieueoeie a?oiiaie
ethaeae (eeannaie, iaoeeyie) nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia e naiae ?iee a ieo.

eaeae i ?aniaii e iaoeeiiaeueiii i?aainoiaenoaa

eaeae i iaiia?aoeiinoe iaeioi?uo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e aaneiia/iie
ioae?inoe aiaeaeae.

2.7 *aeiaae – i?aaeiao oeeinioneiai aiaeeca

Aio?iiii?eaioe?iaaiiinoue oeeinioneiai ciaiey:

ia anoue i/a?aaeiay i?iaeaia,

eaeay /aeiaaea – noa?aeaiue oeeinioneiai eiioaenoa a oeaeii.

Iia i?iieeea a ?acee/iua oeeinioneea iaeanoe ciaiee.

Ia?ae/iinoue aio?iiieiaee a aaiacena oeeinioee. *oiau ia/aoue iiciaaaoue
ie?oaeathuee ie? (aiinaieiaey), no?ieoue aai iioieiae/aneoth ea?oeio
(iioieiaeth), ioeaieaaoue (aenaieiaey), /aeiaae i?aaeaea anaai aeieaeai
aue iainiiaaoue naith nianoaaiioth ioaeaeueiinoue io ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, caaeyiooue a naay e caoai oaea n iiceoeee
naiiniciaiey i?iaoee?iaaoue nianoaaiioth nouiinoue ia ?aaeueiue ie?.

Oeeinioey aeieaeia ioaaoue ia aii?in: «*oi anoue /aeiaae?» – eiaiii iia.

Niaoeeoeea ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in:

oeacaoue nouiinoue /aeiaaea

oeeinioeth eioa?anotho ioee/ey /aeiaaea io ae?oaeo nouiinoae, a neieueei
ii anoue nai ii naaa

Oeeinioneia cia/aiea anaaaea o?ainoeaiaeaioii, neaaeiaaoaeueii /aeiaae a
i?e?iaea aeieaeai i?aaenoaoue eae aano?aeoiay eaeay /aeiaaea. ?aoeaeney
(iaaethaeaiea) iaae /aeiaaeii – naii?aoeaeney.

Oeeinioneia iiieiaiea noe?aao ?aceoth a?aiue iaaeaeo ie?ii e /aeiaaeii,
nicaeaaay ea?oeio ie?a a /aeiaaea e /aeiaaea a ie?a.

*aeiaae a aai ioiioaiee e ie?o:

iauaeoeaenoneay eiioeaioeey:

ie? iauaeoeaai, ia caaeneo a naiai nouanoaiaaiee e ea/anoaao io aeaeaiee
noauaeoia e /aeiaa/aneeo niiniaia aeaeaiey.

Aaaaeue, Ia?en

O/aiey yoiai oeia i/aiue auniei oeaiyo ?ieue iiciaiey a aeecie ethaeae,
oae eae n/eoatho, /oi ?aoeeiiaeueiia ciaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycuaaao
ian n enoeiie e iieacuaaao ie? oaeei, eae ii anoue.

noauaeoeaeci:

ie?, iauee aeey anao aeeaoueo, caiaiyaony ia iiiaeanoai «ie?ia».

ss nai naaa anaeaiiay

Any eiay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue i?aeiieyaony /a?ac iia oieeaeueiia «ss».
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, o?oaeii neacaoue, anoue ee /oi eeai iauaeoeaiia.

ia?iiiia i?ino?ainoai iaaeaeo aeaoiy e?aeieie iiethnaie e ninoaaeyao
iiea oeeinioneiai iienea:

/oi a ie?a io ian e /oi io naiiai ie?a?

*oi anoue io noauaeoeaiinoe e /oi io iauaeoeaiinoe?

*oi caaeneo io /aeiaaea e /oi iao?

oeeiniou, aeaeay iiiyoue ie?, iaeiia?aiaiii noa?athony ?acia?aoueny a
oii, aiciiaeii ee aiiaua aai iinoeaeaiea e eae eiaiii aiciiaeii? O.a.
iiaeai ee iu iieo/aoue iauaeoeaiua ciaiey i ie?a eee ana iie
noauaeoeaiua?

Aeaa iiaeoiaea:

ieeaeeo iaueo oi/ae c?aiey ia ie? e noaeueau /aeiaaea aiiaua auoue ia
iiaeao.

Aiciiaeii acaeiiiiieiaiea iaaeaeo ethaeueie, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeii
oi?ioee?iaaoue aaeeiua iauacia/eiua i?aaenoaaeaiey.

Ie? – nieaa noauaeoeaiiai e iauaeoeaiiai.

?acee/iua ii?aaeaeaiey iiaeaee /aeiaaea:

aaeeiiai eae aaniethoii aa?iiai iao e, aa?iyoii, ia aoaeao. (Iiiaea
oeeiniou iuoathony ioaaoeoue.)

*aua anaai nnueathony ia ioee/athuoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo ia aai ?acoi

Eiiaoe 19-ai – ia/aei 20-ai aaeia – oeeinioey aeecie. *aeiaae –
aaniethoece?iaaiea e??aoeeiiaeueiiai ia/aea.

A oi aea a?aiy, oeeinioneay aio?iiieiaey:

Ioaoe-Oeeea?: /aeiaae a ioee/ea io anaai inoaeueiiai iaaeaeai aeooiaiie
aeeciueth, /oi aeaao aio «aioo?e naay auoea»

Ieania?:

aai nianoaaiiia auoea ne?uoi io iaai

iiaeao nicaeaaaoue nianoaaiiua ?aoeaeneaiua oi?iu niciaiey – iaoea,
eneonnoai, oeeinioey, ?aeeaey …

oi?ioee?oao naie aioo?aiiee ie?.

Naiay i/aaeaeiay niaoeeoeea – i?eniiniaeaiiinoue /aeiaaea e aeecie n
iiiiuueth nicaeaiey ei aoi?ie i?e?iaeu.

Iaeiaei, ia?a/eneaiea ioee/eoaeueiuo /a?o ia ?aoaao i?iaeaiu
ii?aaeaeaiey, eai anaaaea aoaeao inoaaaoueny aii?in: ia iieneaoue ee aua
eaeoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo?

*oiau niyoue yoe aii?inu, iaaei n naiiai ia/aea caaeaoue iniiaaiea,
e?eoa?ee, ii eioi?ui ana oa?aeoa?enoeee aoaeoo iacia/aoueny. A ea/anoaa
oaeiai iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaaony n/eoaoue oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi
/aeiaaea iaeuecy iiaeaanoe iiae aieaa oe?ieia ?iaeiaia iiiyoea (iiae
?iae aeeaouaai). Noauaeoeaiinoue auaiaeeo /aeiaaea ec i?e?iaeu.

Iiaeaeue oeeinioneiai iauyniaiey /aeiaaea.

Yecenoaioeeaeeci. A oeaio?a aai aieiaiey i?aeoe/anee iaeia aieueoay
i?iaeaia – i?iaeaia ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea. *aeiaae ?anniao?eaaaony aia
nayce n aiaoiei, nioeeaeueiui ie?ii.

Ia?eneci. *aeiaae – oieeaeueiue oaiiiai. Ii iaeiia?aiaiii e i?e?iaeiia e
iauanoaaiiia nouanoai. Niinia auoey /aeiaaea – aai i?aaeiaoiay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Enoiaeiua ea/anoaa /aeiaaea, eae noauaeoa, ioe?uaathony
a i?aeoeea.

2.8 Auoea /aeiaaea: nouiinoue e niaoeeoeea

Iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee – aii?in ia ioiioaiee iuoeaiey e auoeth. Aai
?aoaiea caaeneo io ?anoeo?iaee iiiyoey auoey, ?anniio?aiey aai oi?i.

Iniiaiua oi?iu auoey:

Auoea aauae

Auoea /aeiaaea.

A ie?a aauae

Niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneia auoea

Auoea aeooiaiia

Auoea nioeeaeueiia

Auoea /aeiaaea a ie?a aauae

Auoea ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea e /aeiaaea a oeaeii niaoeeoe/ii e
oieeaeueii. Iaeiaei a yoii auoea anoue noi?iiu nouanoaiaaiey, iauea e
aeey /aeiaaea e aeey ethaie ia?aoiaeyuae aaue i?e?iaeu. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ii?aaaeai iiaeoiae iaoa?eaeecia e anoanoaaiiuo iaoe: «/aeiaae eae aauue
n?aaee aauae e oaei n?aaee oae», ii oieueei anee nouiinoue /aeiaaea ia
naiaeeony e aeecie e i?iyaeaieyi aai oaea.

Oaei /aeiaaea – oaei i?e?iaeu, e yoi aeaeaao /aeiaaea eiia/iui,
ia?aoiaeyuei (nia?oiui) nouanoaii. E auoeth /aeiaa/aneiai oaea ioiineony
ana oi, /oi ioiineony e aeeaeaeoeea auoey: aicieeiiaaiea – noaiiaeaiea –
aeaaeue ia?aoiaeyueo oae i?e?iaeu. Ioiineony e oaeo /aeiaaea e oi, /oi
iii iiaeaioa, ia en/acaao ec aaneiia/iie e iaia?aoiaeyuae i?e?iaeu, a
ia?aoiaeeo a ae?oaia ninoiyiea 1-ie i?e?iaeu. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iaeaia
/aeiaa/aneiai auoey aeeth/aia a aii?in ia yaaethoeee i?e?iaeu e
aaiacena, aicieeiiaaiee naiiai /aeiaaea.

*aeiaae nouanoaoao eae oaei a ie?a aauae, neaaeiaaoaeueii ia?ae/iay
i?aaeiinueea – nouanoaiaaiea oaea (nouanoaiaaiea a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiaie aeecie, oeeeeaie ?acaeoey e aeaaee i?aaieciia, n oeeeeaie
i?e?iaeu…) oaeiaeaoai?aiea aai /aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae (ieua, caueoa
io oieiaea) aac yoiai aiiaua iaaiciiaeii /aeiaa/aneia nouanoaiaaiea.

Iaoa?eaeeci i?eaeaaae aieueoia aieiaiea aeaiiiio oaeoo:

Iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony eaeay ia?ae/iinoe iaoa?eaeueiiai ii ioiioaieth e
aeooiaiiio

Ionthaea auoaeatho aaaeiua neaaenoaey ioiineoaeueii i?aa eaaeaeiai
ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaa (auea/eaaiea, nio?aiaiey aeecie,
i?aai eiaoue ieuo, iaeaaeaeo, aeeeeua)

Iiaeaeanoiinoue /aeiaaea anai caeiiai aeecie, e ia?aeaea anaai
ianeaaenoaaiiinoe

Oeeinioey ii?aaaeaiii eneaea e euao naycue iaaeaeo oaeii /aeiaaea e aai
ineoeeie

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, auoea ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea – aeeaeaeoe/aneia aaeeinoai
oaea e aeooa:

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea oaea oanii naycaia n ?aaioie iicaa e ia?aiie nenoaiu,
neaaeiaaoaeueii n ineoeeie, n aeooiaiie aeeciueth eiaeeaeaea

?aaioa aeooa caaeneo io caei?iauey oaea /aeiaaea

*aeiaae aeey naiiai naay ia oieueei 1-ay ii e 2-ay i?e?iaea. Iunee e
yiioeee – aaaeiaeoay noi?iia oeaeinoiiai auoey /aeiaaea

Nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea eae aaue a ie?a i?e?iaeu (iuneyuae e /onoaothuae)
– iaeia ec ia?auo i?aaeiinueie, iiaoaeeaoeo ethaeae e i?iecaiaenoao e
iauaieth (oa?aeoa?ii aeey ia?enenoneie oeeinioee)

Niaoeeoeea /aeiaa/aneiai auoey

Iniaaiiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey ninoieo a aicieeiiaaiee
niaoeeoe/aneie, oieeaeueiie aeey aeeaie i?e?iaeu «iaaeanoeie» e
iaoieaa?naeueiie aeaoa?ieiaoeee auoey /aeiaaea ni noi?iiu aai oaea.

Iaaeanoeinoue

Niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea ?aaoee?iaaoue, eiio?iee?iaaoue naie
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iio?aaiinoe, oaeiaeaoai?yy eo ia a i?inoii
niioaaonoaee n iiaaeaieyie i?e?iaeu, a a i?aaeaeao e oi?iao,
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iauanoaii, enoi?eae, nianoaaiiie aieae e naiiniciaieai
eiaeeaeaea.

Iaoieaa?naeueiinoue

Iiiaea aeaenoaey /aeiaaea i/aiue /anoi ?aaoee?othony ia yaieciii
oaeaniuo iio?aaiinoae, a aeooiaiuie, nioeeaeueiuie iioeaaie.

Niaoeeoeea nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaaea: a niaaeeiaiee ia?ana/aiee
acaeiiaeaenoaey 3-o ioiineoaeueii ?aciuo auoeenoaaiiuo ecia?aiee.
*aeiaae yoi:

Aeaiiay iuneyuay e /oanoaothuay «aauue» (oaei)

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay iniaue, yaaethoeeaie?iaaaoay e aeaeo homo sapiens e
acyoay ia aeaiiii aeoea aai ?acaeoey, nouanoaothuaai ie?a

Nioeeaeueii – enoi?e/aneia nouanoai

Ana 3 ecia?aiey, acyoua a aaeeinoaa – enoiaeiua oa?aeoa?enoeee auoey
/aeiaaea.

AEeciue /aeiaaea naycaiia n aeeciueth ?iaea, neaaeiaaoaeueii aeey
eaaeaeiai ec eiaeeaeaea anoue ianoi ia aaeeiii “aaiaaeiae/aneii” ae?aaa
/aeiaa/anoaa; eaaeaeia ia?aoiaeyuaa nouanoaiaaiea aeeth/aii a
iaia?aoeioth enoi?e/aneoth oeaiue /aeiaa/aneiai auoey e oeaeue auoey
i?e?iaeu a yaaethoeee nioeeaeueiiai ie?a e ia?acoao iaeii ec caaiueaa
nioeeaeueii – enoi?e/aneiai auoey.

*aeiaa/aneia auoea – ?aaeueiinoue, iauaeoeaiay ii ioiioaieth e niciaieth
ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae e iieieaiee. Ethaee nouanoaotho aei, aia e
iacaaeneii io niciaiey eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea. Eaaeaeue ec ian
– ?aaeueiinoue aeey naiiai naay: iu nouanoaoai, a aianoa n iaie ?aaeueii
nouanoaoao iaoa niciaiea.

Eaeiai aea ianoi e cia/aiea auoey /aeiaaea a oeaeinoiii aaeeinoaa auoey?

Auei iaiaei oeeinioneeo eaeae e eiioeaioeee, iauee niune eioi?uo:

*aeiaae ia aieaa /ai ian/eiea a iaiaic?eiii ie?a. Aeaaea auoea
/aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea – «e?aoeee» yieciae a aaca?aie/iie aeeeoaeueiinoe
ie?a

Nae/an aeooaeece?othony ae?oaea eaeae: iei.eao, noieaoey e aeaaea
aeanyoeeaoey aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa – aaaeiua «iiaiiaaiey», eai iie
aeeth/aiu a oieeaeueiue «/aeiaa/aneee yenia?eiaio», ethaee ia oieueei
nouanoaotho a ie?a, ii niiniaiu e aeeyoue ia ie? e ia naieo naay. Ii iie
niiniaiu iiciaaaoue nianoaaiiia auoea e auoea eae oaeiaia. Iiyoiio
/aeiaae aeieaeai iniciaaaoue naith i?ioeai?a/eaoth ?ieue a aaeeiie
nenoaia auoey e eniieiyoue aa n aieueoie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

Iniaaiii o?aaiaeii noieo aii?in ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea ca
noaeueau /aeiaa/anoaa, ca auoea /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea e /aeiaa/aneie
oeeaeeecaoeee, ca ieaiaoo caiey.

2.9 Aeieiae/aneia e nioeeaeueiia a /aeiaaea

1. *aeiaae- /anoue i?e?iaeu e ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?yaeii aeieiae/aneeo
i?eciaeia

a) Aiioiie/aneea iniaaiiinoe eae aeieiae/aneiai aeaea:

I?yiay iioiaeea: iicaieyao /aeiaaeo ioaaouaaoue acaeyaeii ie?oaeathuoth
ianoaiiaeo, inaiaiaeaeaao ia?aaeiea eiia/iinoe

Oeaieea ?oee iicaieytho auiieiyoue neiaeiua e oiieea ooieoeee

Acaeyae, iicaieythuee aeaeaoue a 3-o ecia?aieyo

Aieueoie iica e neiaeiay ia?aiay nenoaia

Neiaeiue iaoaieci aieiniauo naycie, no?iaiea ai?oaie, aoa, niinia ?a/e,
ycuea

Aeeeoaeueiay caaeneiinoue aeaoae io ?iaeeoaeae

Ieanoe/iinoue a?iaeaeaiiuo eiioeuenia e iio?aaiinoae, aiciiaeiinoue
i?eniiniaeaiey iio?aaiinoae e n?aaenoaai eo oaeiaeaoai?aiey.

A) AEeciue /aeiaaea iiae/eiyaony aeieiae/aneei caeiiai

Aeii?aaiecaoeey /aeiaaea anoue ?acoeueoao ?acaeoey aeeeiiiai ?yaea aai
i?aaeeia (aeeaioiia, iaacuyia-ethaee, aiiaieaeu, nia?aiaiiue /aeiaae)

*aeiaae, a ioee/ea io aeeaioiuo, eiaao oaeea aeieiae/aneea no?oeoo?u,
eioi?ua neoaeao iaoa?eaeueiuie i?aaeiinueeaie aeey ?acaeoey /enoi
/aeiaa/aneeo iniaaiiinoae: aicieeatho i?aaiu, iicaieythuea /aeiaaeo
o?oaeeoueny (?oea, iica e i?yiay iioiaeea)

2. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, /aeiaae – nioeeaeueiia nouanoai. *aeiaae iaeaaeaao
ea/anoaaiiuie iaaeaeieiae/aneeie ia?aciaaieyie, eioi?ua oi?ie?otho
nioeeaeueioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo /aeiaaea. E iei ioiinyo: o?oae, iuoeaiea,
niciaiea, yiioeee, aiey.

3. Ia i?iyaeaiea iiiaeo aeieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia iiaoo aeeyoue e
nioeeaeueiua ia?aiao?u, iai?eia? i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie.

4. Aeeth/aiiinoue /aeiaaea n?aco a 2 ie?a – a ie? iauanoaa e a ie?
i?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeu – ii?iaeaeaao iaiaei i?iaeai, eae eanathueony
aeooaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey ethaeae, oae e naycaiiuo n iauyniaieai naiie
i?e?iaeu /aeiaaea.

Eaeia ec yoeo ia/ae yaeyaony aeiieie?othuei, ii?aaeaeythuei a
oi?ie?iaaiee niiniaiinoae, /oanoa, iiaaaeaiey, aeaenoaee e eae
inouanoaeyaony acaeiinaycue aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai a /aeiaaea

Eaeia cia/aiea a aeecie iauanoaa eiatho aeieiae/anee iaoneiaeaiiua
?acee/ey iaaeaeo ethaeueie e a?oiiaie ethaeae

5. A oiaea aeeneonnee i niioiioaiee aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai a
/aeiaaea auneacuaaaony oe?ieee niaeo? iiaiee, caeeth/aiiue iaaeaeo 2
iiethnaie:

Eiioeaioeeyie /aeiaaea, eioi?ua i?eiyoi iacuaaoue aeieiaaoaoa?neeie
(iaoo?aeenoe/aneeie) noi?iiieee eioi?uo aaniethoece?otho ?ieue
anoanoaaiiuo, aeieiae/aneeo ia/ae a /aeiaaea (iai?eia? ?aneci – a
aeaaiii i?e?iaea /aeiaaea ii?aaeaeyaony ?anniaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth,
nioeeae-aea?aeieci – iiiuoea iauynieoue yaeaiey nioeeaeueiie aeecie,
iie?aynue ia o/aiea Aea?aeia)

Nioeeieiaaoaoi?neeie eiioeaioeeyie, a eioi?uo /aeiaae i?aaenoaaeai eae
anaai eeoue neaiie n ie?oaeathueo aai nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, eo
ianneaiia ii?iaeaeaiea (ia?eneci)

2.10 *aeiaae a ie?a iianaaeiaaiinoe

Iianaaeiaaiue ie?

1.

Ia caia/aaony ethaeueie, i/aiue i?eau/ai

Anaaaea eaii?e?iaaeny

A aai ?aieao: e eneonnoai, e iaoea, e ia/oa

2. Iianaaeiaaiinoue noaea iauaeoii aieiaiey oeeinioia oieueei a OO aaea.
Iniiaiiieiaeiee – Yaeioiae Aonna?eue – «aeeciaiiue ie?»

3.

Noa?a iiiyoee, oai?ee, /aua aeaaea «aieaa enoeiiay»

Ii ia naiii aeaea, «ie? oai?ee» – eeoue /anoue iianaaeiaaiinoe,
au?anoathuay ec iaa e noaiiayuaeny aa nianoaaiiie.

Aiaeiae/ii «ie? eneonnoaa», «ie? ia/ou e a?acu», «ie? iioonoi?iiiaai».

Iianaaeiaaiinoue enoi/iee e aianoeeeua ethauo ae?oaeo aa?eaioia
?aaeueiinoe

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ie? iianaaeiaaiinoe – aaeeiue oieaa?noi, iaeaaeathuee
naieie aioo?aiieie caeiiaie e oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

4. Eioa?noauaeoeaiinoue – eeoue a iauaiee, eeoue a eiioaeoa n ethaeueie

5. Iauaeaiiay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue nioeaia ec cia/aiee, eioi?ua iu
i?eaeaai aauai e ioiioaieyi.

6. Eioa?i?eoaoeey e ia?aeioa?i?eoaoeey

I?iaeaia iiieiaiey

Neiaeiay aioo?aiiyy no?oeoo?a

7. Oioy e neiaeiay no?oeoo?a, ii aaeeiue ooieoeeiie?othuee i?aaieci.
Iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai eiaa?eaioia, ii?aaeaeaiiia aeooaeueiia ioiioaiea
aieueoeinoaa /eaiia iauanoaa e i?e?iaea, e iioonoi?iiiaio e o.ae… Iie
nicaeatho iauaa ie?iaicc?aiea, enoiaeioth a iniiaiuo /a?oao ea?oeio ie?a

8. Iauaeaiiue ie? – ie? i?iaiaoe/aneee:

Ethaee caaioyony i nianoaaiiie auaiaea, i ea/anoaa aeecie e o.ae.

Oeaeaaeinoeaeaiey, naycaiiua n iaae/aeiaa/aneeie ioiioaieyie

C-e i?aeoe/aneeo naii?aaeecaoeee a ?aciuo noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe

9. ?aoeaiooa?iinoue, noaiaea?oiinoue – aaaeiaeoea /a?ou iauaeaiiiai
niciaiey

Aaiaeueiinoue

10. Niaoeeoeea iauaeaiiiai niciaiey

Ia aa?o «iauea ianoa», «i/aaeaeiinoe»

«aie?oa noauaeoa» – a i?ioeai?a/ea n oai, /oi iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneia
iiciaiea oi/ao iieo/eoue ciaiea eae ia iauaeoa

cae?aaue niune => ioeaieaaoue iaiythuothny neooaoeeth

Iauaeaiiia niciaiea ia naiaeeony oieueei e eiiiiiaioo ciaiey. Yoi ie?
ia?aaeeaaiey. Yiioeeiiaeueii-ie?aoaiiia ninoiyiea aioo?aiiaai ie?a

1. Yeceno. i?iaeaiu ?iaeaeathony a oiaea iianaaeiaaiie aeecie eaaeaeie
ee/iinoe. Iianaaeiaaiue ie? ieeiaaea ia iaania/eaaao iieiie
aaceiioeeeoiinoe ?acaeoey niciaiey, o.e.

Iaai? onoaiiaie iauaeaiiiai niciaiey aeeth/aao a naay iiiaeanoai
i?ioeai?a/eauo ae?oa ae?oao ooaa?aeaeaiee => iaiaoiaeeiinoue auai?a

AEeciue ii?iaeaeaao iiaua neooaoeee, ia i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeeoaeneie
ioae?inoueth

Iaiaoiaeeii ee/iia i?i/onoaiaaiea e iniuneaiea

2. Iianaaeiaaaiay aeeciue – ia oieueei i?eau/iia nouanoaiaaiea

Ioe?uoey, iio?ynaiey, ?aci/a?iaaiea

«aunoea oi/ee» auoey

ia?aae eeoeii ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai auai?a: «auoue eee ia auoue?»

3. Niaeo? yeceno. i?iaeai

aeeciue, aa iioieiae/aneay aiaae?aiiinoue a ae?oaeo ecia?aieyo
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, auoiae ca iianaaeiaaiue ie?

nia?oue

Eoi ss? Nia?oai eee iao? Eae neeaaeuaaaony iia ss?

eiiioieeoeey, iaaeee/iinoiia iauaiea

oaiu no?aoa, nouaea, ethaae, naiaiaeu e o.ae.

Oeeinioey a iianaaeiaaiii ie?a i?aaeaea anaai i?eaeaeatho yeceno.
i?iaeaiu, eai iie oanii naycaiiu n ia?aaeeaaieai /aeiaaeii nianoaaiiiai
i?aauaaiey a ie?a, naiaai auoeenoaiaaiey, eae aeeoue, ca/ai aeeoue? *oi
cia/eo aeeoue n/anoeeai? E o.i. Eiaiii yecaeo.i?iaeaiu iianaaeiaaii
?aoaaiua ethaeueie ia o?iaia iauaeaiiiai niciaiey e aeeaiai ia?aaeeaaiey
noaiiayony i?aaeiaoii niaoeeaeueiiai eco/aiey

Eoi ia?auaaony e yeceno.i?iaeaiai a enoi?ee oeeinioee.

Nie?ao – i?iaeaia aeia?iaeaoaee, aiceaaae iaaeaaeaeo ia nianathuoth
?ieue ciaiey

Yieeo? – i?iaeaia n/anouey

N?aaeiaaaeiauea – ie? iauaeaiiinoe, oaeaeaiiue /a?ac aiaa

Aic?iaeaeaiea – /aeiaae – aeeaie, «nui naiaai a?aiaie»

Iiaia a?aiy – Ianeaeue, THi, ?onni

19.a – Oaeoa?aao, Euea?eaai?

20.a – yecenoaioeeaeeci, Oaeaeaaa?, O.I?oaaa, Aannao.

2.11 *aeiaae: naiaiaea e ioaaonoaaiiinoue

Eiaeeaeae — aaeeie/iue i?aaenoaaeoaeue /aeiaa/anoaa, aacioiineoaeueii
e aai ?aaeueiui eee aio?iiieiae/aneei iniaaiiinoyi. ?iaeeaoeeny ?aa –
eiaeeaeae, ii ia ee/iinoue, oae eae ia iaeaaeaao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoueth.
Eiaeeaeae noai ee/iinoueth ii ia?a oiai, eae ia?anoaao auoue aaeeieoeae
/ae ?iaea e i?eia?aoaao ioiineoaeueioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. Ei anoue
nouanoai iauanoaaiiia e anyeia i?iyaeaiea aai aeecie ya i?iyaeaieai iau
aeecie. Yoi iiiyoea iaua?iaeiaiai i?eciaea. Ii aacee/ai. Ia/eiay
auneacuaaoue eaeea-oi ea/anoaa, iu ia/eiaai auaeaeyoue a?oiiu. *ai
iiiyoea eiie?aoiaa, oai iii aiaa/a ii niaea?aeaieth e iaiueoa ii iauaio.
A eiioea iu i?eaeai e aaeeinoaaiiiio i?aaenoaaeoaeth /ae ?iaea,
ia?niieoeeaoeee. Yoi e anoue ee/iinoue.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue — iaiiaoi?eiue, naiiauoiue niinia nouanoaiaaiey
eiie?aoiie ee/iinoe a ea/anoaa noauaeoa naiinoiyoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
ee/iinoue nioeeaeueia ii nooe e eiaeeaeaeoaeueia ii niiniao au?aaeaiey.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue au?aaeaao nianoaaiiue ie? eiaeeaeaea, iniaue
aeeciaiiue iooue, ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth e oi?ia iineo eiae oa?aeoa?.
Nouiinoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe ?ane?uaaaony a naiiauoiinoe eiaeeaeaea,
aai niiniaiinoe auoue niaie a ?aieao ie? nioe n?aaeu. A ?acaeoee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe aaaeia ?ieue a?iaeaeaiiuo ea/anoa e niiniaiinoae, ii
iia iiin?aaeiaaia nioe oaeoi?aie.eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue anoue oeaeinoiay
nenoaia, aeeaeaeoe/aneiai acaei ea/anoa iaueo, oeie/aneeo
(iaua/aeiaa/aneeo i?e?iaeiuo e nioe i?eciaeia), iniaaiiuo
(eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneeo, oi?iaoeeiiiuo) e aaeeie/iuo (iaiiaoi?eiinoue
oaeaniuo e ineoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee).Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue anoue aunieay
oeaiiinoue, oae eae eo iiiaiia?acea, ninoycaoaeueiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie oneiaea i?ia?anna. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue iaiyaony a i?ioeanna
aeecie /ae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy nou 2 eiioeaioeee ee/iinoe: ee/iinoue eae
ooieoeeiiaeueiay (?ieaaay) oa?aeoa?enoeea /ae e ee/iinoue eae aai
nouiinoiay oa?aeoa?enoeea.

Ia?aay eiioeaioeey iie?aaony ia iiiyoea nioe ?iee /aeiaaea. Yoa
eiioeaioeey iaeiaei ia iicaieyao ?ane?uoue aioo?aiiee ie? /ae, oeene?oy
oieueei aai aiaoiaa iiaaaeaiea, eio ia anaaaea io?aaeaao nouiinoue /ae.

Nouiinoiay eiioeaioeey yae aieaa aeoaieie. Ee/iinoue –
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia au?aaeaiea iau ioiioaiee e ooieoeee ethaeae, noauaeo
iiciaiey e i?aia?aciaaiey ie?a, i?aa e iaycaiiinoae, yoe/aneeo,
ynoaoe/aneeo e anao eiuo nioe ii?i.

Ee/iinoiua ea/ /ae a oaeii neo/aa anoue i?iecaiaeiia io aai nioe ia?aca
aeecie e naiiniciathuaai ?acoia. Ee/iinoue iiyoiio anoue anaaaea
iauanoaaiii ?acaeoue /aeiaae.

Ee/iinoue oi?ie? a i?ioeanna aeayoaeueiinoe, iauaiey. Eia/a aiai?y,
oi?ie? aa a nouiinoe anoue i?ioeann nioeeaeecaoeee eiaeeaeaea. Yoio
i?ioe o?aaoao io /ae i?iaeoeoeaiie aeoeaiinoe, au?aae. a iinoiyiiie
ei??aeoe?iaea naieo aeaenoaee, iiaaaeaiee, iinooieia. Yoi aucuaaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?acaeoey niiniaiinoe naiiioeaiee, /oi naycaii n
?acaeoeai naiiniciaiey. Naiiniciaiea e naiiioeaiea a niaieoiiinoe
ia?acotho oio iniiaiie noa?aeaiue ee/iinoe, aie?oa eio neeaaeuaaaony
iaiiaoi?eiay niaoeeoeea ee/iinoe. I?e yoii oieueei a aeayoaeueiinoe
eiaeeaeae aunooiaao e naiiooaa?aeaeaaony eae ee/iinoue, eia/a ii
inoaaony aauueth a naaa. *ae iiaeao no?ieoue ethaua eeethcee ia naie
n/ao, ii oi, /ai ii yaeyaony a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iiaeao auoue
iaia?oaeaii oieueei a aeaea. E eiaiii ii iaio ae?oaea ethaee iiaoo
ioeaieoue aai ee/iinoue.Nioe-aeayoaeueiay nouiinoue eaaeeo a iniiaa
nioeeaeecaoeee eiae, a i?ioeanna eioi?iai e oi?ie?oaony ee/iinoue.

Nioeeaeecaoeey anoue i?ioeann onaiaiey nioeeaeueiiai iiuoa, /a?ac
aeeth/aiiinoue a aeeciue iau. Nioe inou a oeeiaaiaca (oi?ie?iaaiea
?iaeiauo na-a e ea/anoa /aeiaa/anoaa) e iioiaaiaca (oi?i eiie?aoiie
ee/iinoe). Ee/ — anaaaea a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey, canouaoay e/ anoue
aeaa?aaeaoeey.

Ee/iinoue anoue niaie o?ao aa iniiaiuo ninoaaeythueo: aeiaaiaoe/aneeo
caaeaoeia, aicaeaenoaey nioe oaeoi?ia e aa ineoinioeeaeueiiai yae?a –
“ss”. Yoi ss ii?aaeaeyao oa?aeoa? ineoeee /ae, noa?o iioeaaoeee, niinia
niioianaiey naieo eioa?ania n iauanoaaiiuie, o?iaaiue i?eoycaiee, iniiao
oi?ie?iaaiey oaaaeaeaiee, oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee, ie?iaicc?aiey. Iii
aea yae iniiaie oi?ie? nioe /oanoa /aeiaaea: nianoa aeinoieinoaa,
aeieaa, ioaaonoaaiiinoe, niaanoe, ni?aaaaeeeainoe… Noauaeoeaii, aeey
eiaeeaeaea, ee/iinoue aunooiaao eae ia?ac aai ss – ii oi e neoaeeo
iniiaie aioo? naiiioeaiee e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi, eaeei eiaeeaeae
aeaeeo naay a ianoiyuai, aoaeouai, eaeei ii oioae au auoue. *aeiaae eae
ee/iinoue anoue i?ioeann, o?aaothuee iaonoaiiie aeooaaiie ?aaiou.

Aeaaiui ?acoeueoe?othuei naienoaii ee/iinoe yae ie?iaicc?aiea. *aeiaae
aii?ioaao naay: eoi y? ca/ai y? a /ai niune iiae aeecie? Oieueei
au?aaioaa oi eee eiia ie?iaicc?, ee/iinoue, naiiii?aaeaeyynue a aeecie,
iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue iniciaii, oeaeaiai?aaeaiii aeaenoaiaaoue,
?aaeecoy naith nouiinoue.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n oi?ie? ee/iinoe neeaaeuaaaony e oa?aeoa? ee/iinoe –
ineoieia noa?aeaiue /aeiaaea. “Oieueei a oa?aeoa?a eiaeeaeaeooi
i?eia?aoaao naith iinoiyiioth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue” – Aaaaeue.

Neiai oa?aeoa? eae i?aaeei icia/aao ia?o ee/iinoiie neeu, o.a. neeo
aiee. Ethaee n neeueiie aieae iaeaaeatho neeueiui oa?aeoa?ii.
I?eciaaony, /oi aaeeeei oa?aeoa?ii iaeaaeaao oio, eoi naieie iinooieaie
aeiaeaaaony aaeeeeo oeaeae, niioaaonoaoy o?aaiaaieyi iauaeoeaiuo,
?acoiii iainiiaaiiuo e nioeeaeueii cia/eiuo eaeaaeia. Anee aea oa?aeoa?
/ae ?aciaieaaaony ia ionoua e iaeeea oeaee, oi ii ia?aoiaeeo a
oi?yinoai.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue ia oieueei iaeaaeaao ?ace. niiniaiinoyie, ii aua e
i?aaenoaaeyao eo oeaeinoiinoue. Anee iiiyoea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe
iiaeaiaeeo aeayoaeueiinoue /-ea iiae ia?o naiaia?acey e iaiiaoi?eiinoe,
iiiainoi?iiiinoe e aa?iiie/iinoe, anoanoaaiiinoe e iai?eioaeaeaiiinoe,
oi iiiyoea ee/iinoe iiaeaea?ae. a iae niciaoaeueii-aieaaia ia/aei.

*-e eae eiaeeaeaeo aeueiinoue au?aae.naay a i?iaeoeoeaiuo aeaenoaeyo, e
iinooiee aai eioa?anotho ian eeoue a oie ia?a, a eaeie iie iieo/atho
i?aaie/iia i?aaeiaoiia aiieiuaiea. I ee/iinoe

iiaeii neacaoue ia?aoiia: a iae eioa?aniu eiaiii iinooiee.

Aac aiee iaaiciiaeiu ie i?aanoaaiiinoue, ie a?aaeaeainoaaiiinoue,
iaaiciiaeii aiiaua iauanoaaiiia naiiooaa?aeaeaiea /aeiaa/aneiai
eiaeeaeaea eae ee/iinoe.

Iniaui eiiiiiaioii ee/iinoe yae aa i?aanoaaiiinoue Nioe ianoiyoaeuenoaa

ia?aaeei i?eaiaeyo e oiio, /oi /ae, iinoaaeaiiue ia?aae auai?ii, ia
anaaaea neaaeoao naiiio naaa, yoe/aneiio eiia?aoeao naiae ee/iinoe. E
oieueei aunieii?aanoa ee/iinoe eniuouaatho aeoaieia /oanoai o?aaecia io
niciaiey naiae “ia-ee/iinoe”, o.a ianiiniaiinoe niaa?oaoue oi, /oi
aeeeooao nie?iaaiiue niune “ss”.Ee/iinoiua ea/anoaa iaoneiaeaiu ia
oieueei aiaoiei, ii e aioo?aiiei, aeooiaiui niaea?aeaieai.Ee/iinoue
anoue eaoaai?ey ?aeea-aeooiaiay, eiaeeaeae
iaoo?aeenoe/anee-aeieiae/aneay.

O.i., ee/iinoue – ia?a oeaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, aac aioo?aiiae oeaeueiinoe
iao ee/iinoe.

Eeoaiea eiaeeaeaea iauaiey e aiciiaeiinoe auai?a io?eoe neac ia ?acaeoee
ee/iinoe. Ecieyoeey — no?aoiia iaeacaiea. Aua no?aoiaa anoue
iaaycuaaiea /oaeie aiee.*aeiaae, iieiinoueth iiae/eiaiiue ae?oaiio oaea
ia anoue ee/iinoue. Aiaeiae/ii ia ee/iinoue, eeoaiiue ?annoaeea eee
?acoia. Iie ia iiaoo ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca naie aeaenoaey. naiaiaea
e ioaaonoaaiiinoue anoue iaiouaieaiua ao?eaoou ee/iinoe.

Ethaee iaeaaeatho cia/ naiaiaeie a ii?aaeaeaiee oeaeae naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, n?aaenoa aeey aeinoeae yoie oeaee. Naiaiaea
neaaeiaaoaeueii ia aaniethoia e i?aoai?yaony a aeeciue eae inou
aiciiaeiinoe iooai auai?a ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee e ieaia aeaenoaee.

Naia aiee anoue iaiaoiae oneiaea ethaie oeaeaiai?aae aeayoaeueiinoe,
noauaeoo eio iaiouaieaii i?enoua /oanoai ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Ioaaonoa
i?aaeiieaaaao n 1 noi?iiu iniciaiea aeieaeiiai, a n ae? – aici naia
auai?a iooae aai ?aaeecaoeee. Naiaiaea anoue niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneee
niinia auoey: “Ia?a naiaiaeu aoiaeeo a iiiyoea /aeiaaea”. Ia?a naia eae
oai?/aneiai naiiaiieiuaiey /ae ii?aaeae o?iaiai ?acaeoey i?iecaiae nee e
iau ioiioaiee, a oaeaea noai iiciaiey e iaeaaeaiey i?e?iaeiuie e nioe
caeiiaie. E anee iauai /ae naiaiaeu yae ia?ie iau i?ia?anna, oi nai
i?ia?ann caaeneo io noai naiaiaeu, eio ethaee ?aniieaa a naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ee/iinoue, eae oaeiaay, iaeaae ?aaeueiinoueth naiae
naia, au?aaeathuaeny a naiaiaea auai?a ec niaieoiiinoe aici,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ae iauanoaii. Ii naiaiaea aeey iaeiiai anoue ianaiaiaea
aeey ae?oaiai (aeeeoaoo?a). Naiaiaea anoue ioiineoaeueiia iiiyoea.

Iiaay yoe/ i?iaeaia niioiioaiey naiaiaeu e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ee/iinoe. A
oaoiiaaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee /aeiaae iiaeao naeaeaoue aieueoa, /ai ii eiaao
i?aa. Eicoia naiaiaeu “Ia iaoaeoa aeaenoaiaaoue!” ainoiaeeo e yiioa
ao?ae ?aa. Yoi e?eoeea ?aciuo oaiae ?aaeaiaioaoeee. ?acaeoea eaieoaeecia
nii?iaiaeaeaaony o?aaiaaieyie ?ace naiaiae. Na noaea iniiaiie
oeaiiinoueth. Yeceno, Na?o?: iu i?eaiai?aiu e naiaiaea, /aeiaae anaaaea
eiaao aiciiaeiinoue auai?a e iuoaaony ia?aeiaeeoue ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia
ae?oaeo.

1979 a Eiian oeacaiea ia ioiineoaeueiue oa?aeoa? naiaiaeu eae oeaiiinoe.
Aeaa oeia ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Eeanne/aneay, ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
iineaaenoaey. Aeieaeai i?aaeoniio?aoue ?acou, a yoi aiciiaeii, anee ii
aeaenoa naiaiaeii e naiinoiyo. Ioaa/aoue i?eoiaeeony ia?aae noaeii,
ethaeueie,

aiaii, /oi noaaeo ee/iinoue a iieiaeaiea iaaeiyaiiai. Yoeea
eiino?oeoeaiinoe, ii eae au eiino?oe?oao naie aeaenoaey.

Iaeeanne/aneay. Iaaiciiaeiinoue i?aaeoniio?aoue iineaaenoaey.
Ioaaonoaaiai ia ecia/aeueii ca iaoaea/e aeaenoaee a ?aieao i?ano?oeoo?u,
a ca ii?o/aiiia aeaei, ca oniao iineaaeiaai. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue oaia?ue
naycaia ia n aan naiaiaeie, ii n ii?iaie e ooieoeeyie aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
iau. Yoi iiiyoea eaeao ia?aeeaeueii ?acaeoeth naiaiaeiiai iau.Iia
ianuuaia i?iaeaiaie, a /anoiinoe, a?oiiiaay ioaaonoaaiiinoue e noaiaiue
ioa eaaeaeiai.

2.12 Niune /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey

Yoei aii?inu caaeathony eiiiaea

iniaaiii ino?i ec-ca oiai /oi ?aii eee iicaeii aaeecie eaaeaeiai
/aeiaaea ianooiaao iiiaio, eiaaea ii iniciaao, /oie aeeciue eiia/ia.

*oiau aeeoue e aeoeaii aeaenoaiaaoue, /aeiaae aeieaeai eiaoue
i?aaenoaaeaiea i niunea aeecie, aeieaeai aa?eoue a niune naieo iinooieia
e aeaenoaee; aeieaeai eiaoue naith aieaa eee iaiaa ynioth aeeciaiioth
caaea/o.

Iiaeaaaeytho ia oioyo eneaoue,

ciatho oaea n ?iaeaeaiey

Euoo e ia iaoiaeyo

Euoo e iaoiaeyo

O?e iiaeoiaea e ?aoaieth yoie i?iaeaiu:

Ecia/aeueii i?enouee aeecie a aa aeoaeiiuo iniiaaieyo

Ca i?aaeaeaie aeecie

Niceaeaaony naiei noauaeoii – iao iaeiaaeaeu caaeaiiiai niunea

AEeciue i?ae?ania naia ii naaa. Oaea niciaiea yoiai iaiieiyao iaoo
aeeciue niuneii.

?aaeinoue, iaaeaaeaea, ethaiaue, niaanoue, ioaeanoai, aeia?i, aa?iinoue
a ae?oaeaa, oaaaeaiea e noa?oei, niiniaiinoue ai?ioueny n nianoaaiiuie
iaaeinoaoeaie e ii?ieaie… Ana yoe aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe iaiieiytho iaoo
aeeciue niuneii, aunooiay a niaieoiiinoe.

Ioaeaeueiiacyoua, iie iiaoo eneaceoue, iauaaeaieoue niune aeecie.

Aaoa: «Iao oaeie aeia?iaeayoaee ec eioi?ie iaeuecy auei au naeaeaoue
ii?ie e iaiai?io»

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ono?aieaiiinoueue eeoue e ?aaeinoe e ianeiaeaeaieth
iiaeao iaa?iooueny yaieciii; Aa?ieci, ioaeanoai iiaoo ii?iaeeoue
aeanoeinoue… AEeciue ninoieo ec i?ioeai?a/ee. Oiaieai i?aiaeieaaaoue –
aio /oi iaiieiyao aa aeoaieei niuneii.

Aeaaiua aeooiaiua oaeoi?u, i?eaeathuea aeecie aunieee niune:

Naiaiaea iiauaeaeaao ian e ai?ueaa, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, e ioeaco io anao
/aeiaa/aneeo ?aaeinoae e ianeaaeaeaiee. Naiaiaea aeaaea /a?ac
no?aaeaiey, ?ene, iioa?e eii?aaeaiey – aeaeaao iaoo aeeciue i?ae?aniie.
Oieueei naiaiaeiue /aeiaae iiaeao aeaeaoue auai?.

Oai?/anoai, niceaeaiea a oneiaeyo naiaiaeu: N/anouea caeeth/aaony ia a
naiii ninoiyiee n/anouey, a aaai aeinoeaeaiee.

Aeayoaeueiay, oai?/aneay aeeciue anaaaea auea naiaiaeiay, anaaaea
n/anoeeaay, anaaaea iieia niunea.

Eaaeaeue /aeiaae euao a aeecie /oi – oi aeaaiia, ?aoathuaa, aaeeeia, /oi
inaauaao aai aeeciue. Eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeeaao ?aaee /aai-oi aieueoaai,
/ai nianoaaiiay aeeciue, a eiia/iii n/aoa- ?aaee ae?oaeo ethaeae.

Yeiooaei: AEeciue ?aaee ae?oaeo – yoi ieieiaeueiia e iaeaunoaa oneiaea
aiciiaeiinoe aeinoeaeaiey iiaeeeiiiai niunea aeecie.

AEeciue ia?aaeoay niune ia no?aoeony nia?oe.

2.13 *aeiaae, eiaeeaeae, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, ee/iinoue.

Eiaeeaeae – iaicia/aiea aaeeie/iiai a ioee/ea io niaieoiiinoe, iannu:
Ioaeaeueiia aeeaia nouanoai, iniaue, ioaeaeueiue /aeiaae – a ioee/ea
ioeieeaeoeaa, nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu, iauanoaa a oeaeii (a yoii niunea
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea eiaeeaeaea e iauanoaa ia?acotho enoiaeiue ioieo
?acee/iuo eiioeaioeee eiaeeaeaeoaeecia).

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue – iaiiaoi?eiay naiaia?acea eaeiai eeai yaeaiey,
ioaeaeueiiai nouanoaa, /aeiaaea. A naiii iauai ieaia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue a ea/anoaa iniaaiiiai, oa?aeoa?ecothuaai aeaiioth
aaeaie/iinoue (Eiaeeaeaea) a aa ea/anoaaiiuo ioee/eyo,
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony oeie/iiio eae iauaio, i?enouaio anai yeaiaioai
aeaiiiai eeanna eee cia/eoaeueiie /anoe eo. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue
ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue o?aaeeoeeiiiui iauanoaaiiui
naycyi e onoaiiaeaieyi noaiiaeony enoiaeiie oi/eie iiaiaa?iiaeneiai
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia. A ?aciuo iaoeao iiiyoea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe iieo/aao
?aciue niune a caaeneiinoe io oie eee eiie aai eiie?aoecaoeee. A
aeieiaee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue oa?aeoa?ecoao niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou aeaiiie
iniae, caeeth/athueany a naiaia?acee ni/aoaiey ianeaaenoaaiiuo e
i?eia?aoaiiuo naienoa. A ineoieiaee i?iaeaia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe
noaaeony a nayce n oeaeinoiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea a
naiiauoiii iiiaiia?acee aai naienoa (Oaiia?aiaioa, oa?aeoa?a e o.i.).

Ee/iinoue – iauaaeeoaeneee e iao/iue oa?iei, iaicia/athuee:

Onoie/eaoth nenoaio nioeeaeueii cia/eiuo /a?o, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
eiaeeaeaea eae /eaia oiai eee eiiai iauanoaa eee iauiinoe.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iineoaey yoeo /a?o eae naiaiaeiiai e ioaaonoaaiiiai
noauaeoa niciaoaeueiie aieaaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iiiyoea ee/iinoe, oiio?aaeyaiia a yoii cia/aiee, ioaeii ioee/aoue io
iiiyoey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, iiae?acoiaaathuaai naiaia?acea, iniaaiiinoe
aeaiiiai eeoea.

I?iaeaiu ee/iinoe a oeeinioee – yoi i?aaeaea anaai aii?in i oii, eaeia
ianoi caieiaao /aeiaae a ie?a, /ai ii oaeoe/anee yaeyaony e /ai ii
iiaeao noaoue, eaeiau a?aieoee aai naiaiaeiiai auai?a e nioeeaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Oioy ioaeaeueiue /aeiaae ia aeanoai iaae ?acoeueoaoaie
niaieoiiie iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii anaaaea iaeaaeaao naiaiaeie
auai?a. E eiaiii yoio auai? eiinoeooe?oao aai eae ee/iinoue.

A oiaea ?acaeoey oeeinioneiai iuoeaiey ooi/iyeenue e
aeeooa?aioee?iaaeenue ioaeaeueiua i?iaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey ee/iinoe: aa
aeieiae/aneea e nioeeaeueiua aeaoa?ieiaiou, noaiaie naiaiaeu ee/iinoe ii
ioiioaieth e i?e?iaea, iauanoao e naiie naaa.

Ioi?aaiay oi/ea a nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo ee/iinoe –
iaeiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe /aeiaaea, a oa nioeeaeueiay nenoaia, a
eioi?oth ii aeeth/ai, e oa nioeeaeueiua ooieoeee, ?iee, eioi?ua ii a iae
auiieiyao.

Nioeeieiaey ee/iinoe eiaao ?aciua o?iaie enneaaeiaaiey:

Eciaiaiey nioeeaeueiiai oeia ee/iinoe e noaiaie aa naiaiaeu a
caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a iauanoaaiiiai no?iy;

Niioiioaiey aaoiiiiiuo oaeoi?ia nioeeaeecaoeee ee/iinoe a ?aciuo
nioeeaeueiuo nenoaiao;

Ee/iinoue a i?aaiecaoeee;

Iio?aaiinoe, iioeau e oeeiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee ee/iinoe.

*aeiaae – anoue aeeaay nenoaia, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie aaeeinoai
oece/aneiai e aeooiaiiai, i?e?iaeiiai e nioeeaeueiiai, ianeaaenoaaiiiai
e i?eaeeciaiii i?eiaiaoaiiiai.

*aeiaae e?enoaeecoao a naaa ana, /oi iaeiieaiii /aeiaa/anoaii a oa/aiee
aaeia.

Enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeany ii?iu i?aaa, ii?aee, auoa, i?aaeea iuoeaiey e
ycuea, ynoaoe/aneea aeonu e o.ae. oi?ie?otho iiaaaeaiea e ?acoi
/aeiaaea, aeaeatho ec ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea i?aaenoaaeoaey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?aca aeecie, eoeueoo?u e ineoieiaee. Iniciaiea /aeiaaea
naay eae oaeiaiai anaaaea iiin?aaeiaaiii aai ioiioaieyie e ae?oaei
ethaeyi. Eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue /aeiaae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaiiaoi?eioth
eiaeoaeaeoaeueiinoue. E aianoa n oai ii ianao a naaa iaeoth ?iaeiaoth
nouiinoue. Ii aunooiaao eae ee/iinoue, eiaaea aeinoeaaaio naiiniciaiey,
iiieiaiey naieo nioeeaeueiuo ooieoeee, iniuneaiey eae noauaeoa
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.

2.14. Nioeeaeecaoeey ee/iinoe

a) ec 2.13

a) Nioeieiaey – aeoeaiia aiaea/aiea eiaeeaeaea a aeayoaeueiinoue
?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo eieeaeoeaia e iauiinoe ethaeae, a oiaea eioi?iai
eiaeeaeae onaaeaaao nioeeaeueiua e ii?aeueiua ii?iu, eoeueoo?iua
oeaiiinoe, iieaciua iaauee i?aeoe/aneie ?aaiou e eiie?aoiua ciaiey, o.a.
eiaaea o iaai oi?ie?othony nioeeaeueii-cia/eiua /a?ou (nioeeaeueiay
ninoaaeythuay ee/iinoe).

A) nioeeaeueiay ee/iinoue – iaeia ec oi?i ee/iinoe.

A) nioeeaeueiua oeiu ee/iinoe.

2 oacu nioeeaeecaoeee eiaeeaeaea:

aeaioaoeey, i?eniiniaeaiea e nouanoaothuei oneiaeyi (n iiiaioa
?iaeaeaiey)

eioai?ecaoeey – onaiaiea nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo e ii?aeueiuo ii?i e
oeaiiinoae, i?aa?auaiea eo a ee/iua oaaaeaeaiey (aeiieie?oao a i?ioeanna
nioeeaeecaoeee ee/iinoe a thiiiii aic?anoa, eiaaea eaeao aeoeaiia
noaiiaeaiea nianoaaiiiai aicc?aiey ia ie?).

No?iaeo a?aieoe iaaeaeo yoeie oacaie iao.

– nioeeaeueiay oeiieiaey ee/iinoe aanueia ?aciiia?acia, ia eaaeaeie
nooiaie enoi?e/aneiai iauanoaa iia iaoneaaeaaaony a eiia/iii n/aoa
iauanoaaiiui ?acaeaeaieai o?oaea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oanii naycaiiie n
iei, nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?ie iauanoaa.

aeey eaaeaeiai nioeeaeueiiai oeia oa?aeoa?ai ii?aaeaeaiiue iaai?
nioeeaeueiuo ooieoeee, eiie?aoiuo aeaeia nioeeaeueii cia/eiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ui aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue eiaeeaeae, i?eiaaeeaaeauee e
aeaiiiio nioeeaeueiiio no?ith.

Nioeeaeueiua oeiu ee/iinoe (ni 2.13.)

A Nioeeieecaoeee o/anoaotho i?aeoe/anee ana nioeeaeueiua einoeooou e
i?aaiecaoeee.

Nioeeieecaoeeth eiaeeaeaea ai anao aa oiieinoyo eco/aao eiie?aoiay iaoea
– nioeeieiaey. A nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee oi?eae ee/iinoe ?anniao?eaaaony
aieaa oe?ieee e?oa a?iaeai, aaea aii?inu oai?ee nioeeaeecaoeee iinyo
iiae/aiaiiue oa?aeoa? e ?aoathony n iiceoeee noaiiaeaiey ee/iinoe eae
naiaiaeiie e oai?/aneie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe.

Oeaeue nioeeaeecaoeee – aeiaaaeaiea aei niciaiey /aeiaaea ia?u
aeicaieaiiiai. Nioeeaeecaoeey o/eo oiaieth aeeoue a iauanoaa, a niaeanee
n iei.

Iaeiaei, anoue ia?aoiay noi?iia iaaeaee. AEanoeay nenoaia nioeeaeecaoeee
ianao a naaa ?aaeueioth oa?ico aa aeaia?niiaeecaoeee (noaiiaeony eae
ana)

2.15 I?iaeaia aeecie e nia?oe a aeooiaiii iiuoa /aeiaaea.

Nia?oue – anoanoaaiiue eiiaoe anaai aeeaiai. AEeciue – oi?ia
nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee, aicieeathuay i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo a iiiaio
aa ia?aciaaiey. Io anao ae?oaeo aeeauo nouanoa /aeiaae ioee/aaony aieaa
anaai oai, /oi ia i?ioyaeaiee anae naiae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aeecie ii
ieeiaaea ia aeinoeaaao “oeaeae” aeecie ?iaeiaie, enoi?e/aneie; a yoii
niunea ii iinoiyiii ia ?aaeecoaiia aaeaeaaoiia nouanoai. *aeiaae ia
oaeiaeaoai?yaony neooaoeeae. E yoa iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue niaea?aeeo a
naaa i?e/eiu oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia caeeth/aiiua a
iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo aa iioeaao. Iiyoiio i?ecaaiea, caaea/a eaaeaeiai
/aeiaaea – ananoi?iiia ?acaeaaoue ana naie niiniaiinoe e ii ia?a
aiciiaeiinoae aiineoue naie ee/iue aeeaae a enoi?eth, a i?ia?ann
iauanoaa, aai eoeueoo?u. A yoii e caeeth/aaony niune aeecie ioaeaeueiie
ee/iinoe, eioi?ue iia ?aaeecoao /a?ac iauanoai, ii oaeia aea e niune
aeecie iauanoaa e /aeiaa/anoaa a oeaeii.

Aoaeaeeci: /aeiaae aeeaao aeey oiai, /oiau i?a?aaoue oeaiue
ia?a?iaeaeaiee e ieeiaaea aieueoa ia aic?iaeaeaoueny. O?enoeainoai –
ainoiaeaeaieai /aeiaaea e aiao. Iniiaiay ienney /aeiaaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony
eae nianeoaeueiay, eniuoaoaeueiay, e iaceaeaoaeueiay. Eneai: /aeiaae
aeeaao aeey oiai, /oiau iioii aine?aniooue. N?aaeiaaaeiaay O. –
oaioeaio?eci, a aeaeee iaeia ec aeaaiuo i?iaeai aeeciue iinea nia?oe.
AEeciue /aeiaaea ioea. Caoai yiioa ?aoeeiiaeecia – /aeiaae iaoaieci –
nia?oai. Caaea/a ia oia?aoue ?aiueoa a?aiaie, au?aaioaoue iaeneiaeueii
naie ?ano?n; a caoai yiioa i?inaauaiey – nia?oai – ?oeiaiaenoaoeny anaie
oeaiiinoyie(!) – iiaoaeaeaao e aeoeaiinoe. O. nouanoaiaaiey aeaaiay
i?iaeaia nia?oe e aannia?oey. I?aeoe/aneee niune i?iaeaiu: ii?aaeaeyao
nenoaio oeaiiinoae e iai?aaeaiey iiaaaeaiey.

A aeecie eaaeaeiai ii?iaeueiiai /aeiaaea ?aii eee iicaeii ianooieo
iiiaio, eiaaea ii caaeanony aii?inii i eiia/iinoe naiaai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey. (a anee eo/oa ia yoii ia aeoiaoue?).
*aeiaae aaeeinoaaiiia nouanoai eioi?ia iniciaao naith nia?oiinoue (oae
ee?). Ia?aie ?aaeoeeae, neaaeothuae ca iniciaieai naiae nia?oiinoe,
iiaeao auoue /oanoai aaciaaeaaeiinoe e ?anoa?yiiinoe. I?aiaeieaaay yoi
/oanoai /aeiaae nouanoaoao ioyaiuaiiue ciaieai i a?yaeouae nia?oe,
eioi?ia noaiiaeony iniiaiiieaaathuei a iineaaeothuai aeooiaiii ?acaeoee
/aeiaaea. Iaee/eai oaeiai ciaiey a aeooiaiii iiuoa /aeiaaea e
iauyniyaony ino?ioa, n eioi?ie ia?aae iei anoaao aii?in i niunea e oeaee
aeecie. A nayce n yoei ia no?aieoeao oeeinioneie eeoa?aoo?u /anoi
oeao?e?otho aii?inu: eiaao ee aeeciue /aeiaaea eaeie eeai niune e
oeaiiinoue? Noieo ee aeeciue oiai /oiau aeeoue? I?e iieiaeeoaeueiii
ioaaoa auooth neaaeothuea oi/ee c?aiey: niune aeecie – a niaeanee n
nianoaaiiie i?e?iaeie e oaeiaeaoai?aiee iio?aaiinoae, a iieo/aiee
ianeaaeaeaiey e ?aaeinoe, a ?acaeoee oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae e o?oaea ia
aeaai iauanoaa. E iaeiiaoe iiaeii ano?aoeoue acaeyae, niaeanii eioi?iio
niune aeecie – a naiii nouanoaiaaiee. Yoi iiiaiia?acea acaeyaeia
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, ia neieueei i?ioeai?a/eau ioeaiee oeaee aeecie.

2.16 *aeiaa aeooiaiue. Aeooiaiinoue eae /aeiaa/aneay nouiinoue.

*aeiaaea, ?anniao?eaaaiiai ai acaeiinayce iauanoaa, iiaeii
aiaeece?iaaoue iiae ?acee/iuie oaeaie c?aiey.

Eaaeaeay ec a?aiae iauannoaaiiiai auoey iiaeao auoue acyoa ca oi/eo
ion/aoa i?e aiaeeca /aeiaaea.

N o/aoii yoie iiiaicia/iinoe iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue eaeia-oi iniiaiia
ea/anoai /aeiaaea, oi /oi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeaeaao aai /aeiaaeii

Oaeei iniiaiiieaaathoei oaeoi?ii yaaeyaony aeooiaiinoue.

Aeooiaiue iioaioeeae /aeiaaea:

Iniiaiua aniaeou aeooiaiinoe:

a) aeooiaiay aeeciue iiiaia?aiia, aeeth/aao a naay ana a?aie aeecie
/aeiaaea (?aoeeieiaaeeueiia, yiioeeiiaeueiia, iiciaaaoaeueiia…).
I?e/ai ana yoe a?aie oeene?othony a aeooiaiinoe oeene?othony ia i?inoi a
naiai iicae/iii iiiaiia?acee, a a naiai aaeeinoaa, acaeiinayce.

A) aeooiaiinoue /aeiaaea eae eaeaaeueiinoue:

*aeiaae aeeaao, iia?e?oth eaeaaeueiuie oi?iaie (i?aaeiao onaaeaaaony aac
naiiai i?aaeiaoa). ?aoathuoth ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee e ?acaeoee
eaeaaeueiinoe ea?aao ycue, eaoaa?eaeueii-iiiyoeeiue aiia?ao.

A) aeooiaiinoue eae noauaeoeaiue ie? /aeiaaea: aeooiaiinoue nouanoaoao
eae aioo?aiiyy aeeciue /aeiaaea. Aeooiaiinoue ?acaa?ouaaaony a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. I?aaenoaaeyao niaie
nianoaaiiia «ss» /aeiaaea, aunooiaao eae auoea (Iniaaiiinoue yoiai
«ss»).

Niune, cia/aiea e ?ieue aeooiaiinoe

Auaeaeythony neaaeothuea ieanou aiaeeca (7 oo.):

a) aeooiaiinoue eae oi?ia iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, naiieiaeaioeoeeaoeee.

A) eae iniiaa eiinoeooe?iaaiey /aeiaaea eae noauaeoa ioiioaiey.:

auaeaeyao «y»,

ioiioaiea a aeaoo iniiaiuo iai?aaeaieyo – ai aia, e iauanoao e aioo?ue e
naaa.

A) aeooiaiinoue eae oi?ia eioai?ecaoeey (ia?aoiaea ec aia aioo?ue),
inaiaiea nioeeaeueiiai iiuoa.

yeiiiie/iinoue – inaiaiea nioeeaeueiiai iiuoa

aieueoie e?oa inaiaiey

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, /aeiaae n?aaiei n iauanoaii ii naiaio iioaoeeaeo.

A) aeooiaiinoue /aeiaaea eae aeaoa?ieieoeeiiii eiia?aoeaiue eiiieaeo
/aeiaa/aneiai auoey.

iai?aaeyao, i?aaiecoao, ei??aeoe?oao aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea.

eiia?aoea (i?eeac) ei anae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. aeanoue aeooa.

Ae) aeooiaiinoue eae eioeueniue aiaeia e niaea?aeaiea oai?/aneie iennee
/aeiaaea.

A) aeooiaiinoue /aeiaaea eae i?yaeaiea aai naiaiaeu.

naiaiaeai io aeaaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiie i?aaeiaoiinoe, nioeeaeueiuo naycae.

ii naiue neiaeiue aa?uea? – nai /aeiaae

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeooiaiinoue e ia?aie/eoaeue, ii naiaiaea – oiaea
i?aaie/eoaeue.

AE) aeooiaiinoue eae iaioaeeoao (onoie/eaia ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e ie?o e
naaa, eae aeooiaiia iniiaa eaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea e ethaeyi,
iauanoao).

Aeooiaiinoue eae /aeiaa/aneay nouiinoue.

Eae ioeaieoue aeooiaiinoue a ieaia /aeiaa/aneie nouiinoe? Ioiaoei o?e
iaoiaeieiae/aneeo iiiaioa:

eaeea au noi?iiu /aeiaa/aneie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ia o?aeoiaaeenue eae
nouiinoiua, iie oae eee eia/a, aoi?e/iu, iie anoue ao?eaoou ?aaeueiiai
eiie?aoiiai iaoa?eaeueii-aeooiaiiai noauaeoa.

Eiaaony a aeaeo eiie?aoiue aaeeinoaaiiue /aeiaae.

nenoaiiay, eiiieaeniay i?e?iaea /aeiaaea. Anee aoaeao auaeaeaii
nouiinoiia ea/anoai, oi ia aoaeao aai aaniethoecaoeee,
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey ae?oaei ea/anoaai. Oieueei i?eciaiea aai i?ei?eoaoiuo
a ?yaeo n ae?oaeie. Iiae?acoiaaaaony, /oi iii neiaeeeinue e
ooieoeeiie?oao ia iniiaa eeoue ia?ac?uaiie nayce n ae?oaeie.

Aeooiaiinoue iaeaieaa iieii au?aaeaao e oa?aeoa?ecoao /aeiaa/aneoth
nouiinoue aiiaua.

a aeooiaiinoe aeeoioee?oaony ana iiiaiia?acea /aeiaa/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey. Eiaiii, a aeayoaeueiinoe aiieiuai ia?iiue iioaioeeae,
aeaeythuee aai n?aaieiui n iauanoaii.

aeooiaiinoue niaea?aeeo eiioeuen aeoeaiinoe, eiaiii a iae noai?/aneia
ia/aei /aeiaaea e aai naiaiaea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iie i?ieiecuaatho anth
/aeiaa/aneoth aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeytho aai, aeanoaotho iaae
iae.

Aeooiaiinoue ?ane?uaaao nouiinoue /aeiaaea eae iaioaeaeeioth io
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai auoey /aeiaaea.

Ii/aio aeayoaeueiinoue ia yaeyaony nouiinoueth?

Oacen i aeooiaiinoe /aeiaaea eae aai nouiinoe niaea?aeeo a naaa
io?eoeaiea aiaeiae/iie nooiinoe ae?oaeo ea/aona /aeiaaea, o.a.
i?ieoaai?a/eo ae?oaie nouiinoe /aeiaaea a aai aeayoaeueiinoe.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii e aicieeaao ai?in 3..

Io?eoeaoue cia/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe o?oaeii, ia aoaeue /aeiaae
aeaenoaothuei, ia auei au naiiai /aeiaaea, ie iauanoaa.

Ii caeanue ?a/ue eaeao i ae?oaii: ia i oii, aaaeia eee iao
aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea e aiciiaeai ee ii aac iaa, a oii eaeay aai
oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiiieaaathuay.

*oi iiaeii ioiaoeoue i aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea:

aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea iineo eieaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Iia anaaaea
ia?aie/aia ?acee/iuie oaeoi?aie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii eiia/ia e i?aaeaeueia.
Aeooiaiinoue /aeiaaea – yoi e /anoue iauanoaa e aai oeaeia, a
aeayoaeueiinoue oieueei /anoue iauae aeayoaeueiinoe.

oeie/inioue, iaeeiaeiainoue /aeiaa/anee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ia/aei
niacuaaaony, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aiiaua ieacuaaaony ianouaonaaiiui.

aeayoaeueiinoue eae oaeiaay, aunooiaao eae iaeioi?ia i?iyaeaiea /aeiaaea
ai aia; ii?aaeaeaiiia ii?aaeia/eaaaiea, ?aaeecaoeey aai nee.

2.17 *aeiaae nioeeaeueiue. Aeayoaeueiay nouiinoue /aeiaaea.

Aeayoaeueiinoue – yoi aanueia neiaeiia, iiiaiia?iia yaeaiea,
aeeth/athuaa a naay yeaiaiou, ?acei ?acee/athueany ii naiae i?e?iaea.

Aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe:

I?aia?aciaaoaeueiay (o?oaeiaay),

Iiciaaaoaeueiay

Aeneieiae/aneay eee oeaiiinoiay (iauaeoo i?eienuaaaony oeaiiinoue)

Eiiioieeaoeaiay (Acaeiiaeaenoaea noauaeoa n noauaeoii).

Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay (Ynoaoe/aneay)

Ooiaeaiaio /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe – aeieiae/aneee, yoi aeoeaiinoue
eae niiniaiinoue inouanoaeyoue eaeea eeai aeaenoaey. Iia oa?aeoa?ia aeey
anao aeeauo nouanoa, e iia – io ?iaeaeaiey. Iaeiaei, iia oaeaea
nioeeaeueii noi?ie?iaaiia e eoeueoo?ii i?aaieciaaiia.

Aeayoaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony aeaaiui ia?acii ia enoi?e/aneeie
iio?aaiinoyie, a enoi?e/anee noi?ie?iaaiiuie nioeeieoeueoo?iuie
i?ia?aiiaie.

Yoe i?ia?aiiu aeeiaie/iu e iiaoo auoue eciaiaiu e oniaa?oainoaiaaiiu
(oi?ioee?othony ia io ?iaeaeaiey)

Aeayoaeueiinoue ecia/aeueii nioeeaeueia. Nioeeaeueiia a aeayoaeueiinoe
iiaeao aunooiaoue eae:

Iauaeoeaiia, iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiia (I?oaeea aeayoaeueiinoe,
oaoiieiae/y, aa i?iaeoeou)

Iauaeoeaiia iaaauanoaaiiia(Oi?iu iauaiey, ?acee/iua ioiioaiey,
nioeeaeueiua einoeooou)

?ieue niciaiey a aeayoaeueiinoe:

Oeaeaiieaaaiea (iaeia ec nouanoaaiiuo ioee/eoaeueiuo /a?o a
aeayoaeueiinoe) – aac oeaee iao aeayoaeueiinueoe.

Au?aaioea eaeaaeueiie noaiu inouanoaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eiio?ieue ca ?aaeecaoeeae yoie noaiu.

Aa ai??aeoe?iaea.

N?aaiaiea ?acoeueoaoia n iinoaaeaiiie oeaeueth.

Aeayoaeueiinoue – yoi aeeiaie/aneia aaeeinoai noauaeoa e iauaeoa.

Noauaeoeaiia:

Eiaeeaeae eae iineoaeue aeoeaiinoe.

Ii?aaeaeyaiua eiaeeaeaeii oeaee aeayoaeueiinoe, aa iioeau.

Inouanoaeyaiue /aeiaaeii auai? n?aaenoa e iooae ?aaeecaoeee
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ciaiea, iaauee, iiuo, eioi?uie ii ?aniieaaaao.

Iauaeoeaiia (N?aaenoaa aeayoaeiinoe, e aa ?acoeueoaou):

Aeuanoai i?e?iaeu, aa neeu, i?ioeannu

?acee/iua i?ioeannu e yaeaiey iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

*aeiaae (Anee aeoeaiinoue iai?aaeaiia ia naiiai naay, ia naia ss)

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeeay aeayoaeueiinoue eiaao aeaieioth aeaoa?ieiaoeeth:
Caaeneo e io iauaieoeaiiai ie?a e iaoneiaeaiii naiei nuauaeoii.

Eoae aeayoaeueiinoue – aaeeinoai iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiiai e
aeooiaiiai; aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai; iauaeoeaiiai e
noauaeoeaiiai.

Iiiaianiaeoiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe, neaaeiaaoaeueii,iiiaiieaiiaue oa?aeoa?
aeaoa?iaiaoeee /aeiaa/aneiai auoey:

A i?e?iaeiie noa?a:

Eae /anoue i?e?iaeu.

Aeayoaeueiinoue iaaiciiaeia aac acaeiiaeaenoaey n i?e?ieaeiuie
oaeoi?aie.

A nioeeaeueiie noa?a: A i?ioeanna aeayoaeueiinoe aeeth/aaony a yoo
noa?o.

Aia aeayoaeueiinoe iao auoey eae iiaeeeiii /aeiaa/aneiai.

*aeiaae eae noauaeo aeayoaeueiinoeth Aio i?enoue:

Naiiaeayoaeueiinoue, niiniaiinoue e oai?/anoao.

Ee/iinoiia «ss» eae iniciaiea e iiieiaiea naiaai ioiioaiey e ie?o.

Naiaiaea eae niiniaiinoue nicaeaaaoue iiaia, eae aiciiaeiinoue
naii?aaeecaoeee.

Ithuanoaaiiua ioiioaiey: *aeiaae anooiaao a ioiioaiey a i?ioeanna
aeayoaeueiinoe. Eo niaoeeoeea:

Noauaeo – iauaeo eee noauaeo- -noauaeo.

Iayaeythony oece/aneie ?aaeueiinoueth, ii i?aaenoaaeytho ia?iiioth neeo.

Aeeth/atho ioeaii/iua iiiaiou (Neaaeiaaoaeueii iinyo ii?iaoeaiue
oa?aeoa?).

Iinyo aiin?aaeiaaiiue oa?aeoa? – ia ioaeai iaiin?aaenoaaiiue eiioaeo
iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeaie.

Iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey e aeayoaeueiinoue iaoiaeyony a a?aiie/aneii
aaeeinoaa:

Aeayoaeueiinoue anaaaea aeeth/aia a nenoaio iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee: Aac
ieo iia iaaiciiaeia.

Iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey – i?iaeoeo aeayoaeueiinoe.

*aeiaa/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue oi?ie?oao /aeiaaea eae neiaeiiai
iiiaiia?iiai oaiiiaia. Aeayoaeueiinoue – yoi oa noa?a, aaea
?aciiia?aciua naienoaa /aeiaaea eioaa?e?othony, iaiacoy ii?aaeaeaiiia
aaeeinoai.

Aeayoaeueiue iiaeoiae e i?iaeaia /aeiaaea iaeaieaa niioaaonoaoao
oa?aeoa?o iinoaiiaee yoie i?iaeaiu a oeeinioee.

Nouiinoue /aeiaaea ia caaeaiia ecia/aeueii, a oi?ie?oaony a i?ioeanna
aeayoaeueiinoe e aeaaiaea?y ae nouiinoue /aeiaaea iineo aeayoaeueiinoiue
oa?aeoa?.

2.18 *aeiaae e aeanoue.

Iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo eiiiaiaio iieeoe/aneie noa?u- aeanoue. Iiiyoea
aeanoe o?aeooaony ii ?aciiio. A iianaaeiaaiie aeecie iinoiyiii
ano?a/aaony yoi neiai (iai?eia? aeanoue iooea iaae nuiii, aeanoue
i?e?iaeu).

A niaoeeoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a nouanoaoao ianeieueei iiaeoiaeia e
iiieiaieth aeanoe:

Aeoaaea?enoe/aneee: Aeanoue ?anniao?eiao?eaaaony eae iniaue oei
iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ue iniiaai ia aiciiaeiinoe eciaiaiey iiaaaeaiey ae?oaeo
ethaeae (oi?aaeaiey).

Oaeaieiae/aneee: Aeanoue – oi, /oi niinianoaoao aeinoeaeaieth,
?aaeecaoeee ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Ana oaeea ii?aaeaeaiey oeene?otho aieiaiea ia eaeie-eeai ioaeaeueiie
/a?oa oaeiai oaiiiaia eae aeanoue. Aianoa n oai iie ia iicaieytho
oeiaeoue nioeeaeueioth i?e?iaeo aeanoe. Niyoue yoio iaaeinoaoie e
i?aaeeaaaao nioeeieiae/aneee iiaeoiae.

A ?aieao yoiai iiaeoiaea iiieiaaony: A eiaao aeanoue iaae A anyeee ?ac e
oieueei oiaaea, eiaiaea niaeanii ii?iai iauanoaa, eioi?ui i?eiaaeeaaeao
A e A, A eiaao i?aai i?eeacuaaoue A, a A iaycai iiae/eiyoueny i?eeacai
A.

A yoii ii?aaeaeaiee auaeaeytho /aiou?a ninoaaeythuea aeanoe:

Iaee/ea ia?oia?ia aeanoe (Ieieiaeueiia eiee/anoai – 2, ia?oia?ii iiaeao
auoue eeoei, i?aaiecaoeey e o.i.).

I?eeac inouanoaeythuaai aeanoue (i?eeac eae i?aaeei – au?aaeaie aiee,
eioi?ia nii?iaiaeaeaaony oa?icaie, nieoeeyie a neo/aa iaiiaeiiaaiey).

Iiae/eiaiea oiai iaae eai inouanoaeyaony aeanoue, oiio eoi aa
inouanoaeyao.

Iauanoaaiiua ii?iu. Iie onoaiaaeeaatho ii iaiueoae ia?a:

Ioaeathuea i?eeacu eiatho ia yoi i?aai.

Oio eiai yoe i?eeacu eanathony iaycai iiae/eieony i?eeacai,
inouanoaeythuaai aeanoue.

Iieeoe/aneay aeanoue.

Yoi ii?aaeaeaiiue aniaeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aieueoeie nioeeaeueiuie
a?oiiaie. Aeey aa inouanoaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiu ana oa yeaiaiou, eioi?ua
aiiaua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey aeanoe. Aeiaaaeytho aua 2 naienoaa o aeanoe.

Iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea iaaeaeo a?oiiie inouanoaeythueo aeanoue e
a?oiiie, ii ioiioaieth e eioi?ie yoa aeanoue inouanoaeyaony.

I?aaieciaaiiia i?eioaeaeaiea eae iniiaa inouanoaeaiey aeanoe.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue:

Yoi yaeaiea enoi?e/aneia. Iia inouanoaeyaony niiiiuo niaoeeaeueiiai
aiia?aoa e iaae ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?eae.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue eiaao aiciiaeiinoue ia?auaoueny e n?aaenoaai
i?aaieciaaiiiai ecaeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ianeeey.

Iniiaiua ia?aaeeaiu (Niune) nioeeaeueiiai iiieiaiey aeanoe.
Oa?aeoa?enoeea aeanoe caaeaaony o?aiy ia?aaeeaiaie:

Eiio aeanoue neoaeeo, eaeei eioa?anai?

Iinoaiiaea e ioaao ia yoio aii?in i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi aeanoue eiaao
eino?oiaioaeueiue oa?aeoa?, o.a. aeanoue neoaeeo ?aaeecaoeeae oeaeae,
ioaa/athueo ii?aaeaeaiiui eioa?anai.

Eoi oi?aaeyao?

Yoa ia?iaeeaia niaea?aeeo ianeieueei ?aciuo aniaeoia:

Eaeiaa eiinoeoooeeiiiay nenoaia aeanoe?

Yoi iaeanoue aaaeaiey niaoeeaeenoia ii i?aao, ii nioeeieiae oiaea yoei
caieiathony.

Ec eiai neeaaeuaaaony a?oiia iieeoe/aneeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e aunoeo
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe?

Eaeiau ineoieiae/aneea /a?ou e iniaaiiinoe yoiai ?oeiaiaeyuaai ninoaaa?

Eae aeanoue inouanoaeyaony?

Yoa ia?iaeeaia eiaao niaoeeaeueiue oa?iei – nioeeioaoieea inouanoaeaiey
aeanoue. Eiaaony 2 aeiieie?othueo iiiaioa:

i?ioeann i?eiyoey iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee.

I?ioeann i?iaaaeaiey a aeeciue oaea i?eiyouo ?aoaiee.

2.19. *aeiaae a enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iii eiioaenoa.

«Oeeinioey e enoi?ey ?acaeaathony ii ioaeaeueiinoe» – yoa
?acaeaeaiiinoue auea i?aiaeieaia oieueei a 18-i aaea (noaiiaeaiea
enoi?e/aneiai niciaiey). Noaaeeenue aii?inu i iai?aaeaiiinoe e niunea
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, i?aaeiacia/aiee e ?iee /aeiaaea a yoii
i?ioeanna, eae enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann io?aaeaaony a yoii i?ioeanna.

«Oeeinioey – enoi?ey» – oa?iei aaaaeai Aaaaeai. *aeiaae enoi?e/ai eae
i?e?iaeiia e nioeeaeueiia nouanoai, oieueei aeaaiaea?y yoiio enoi?ey
noaiiaeony iiaeeeiii /aeiaa/aneie.

Ai eiy /aai niaa?oaaony enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann, o.a. niune, oeaeue
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna? Oeaeue noaaeo /aeiaae e a niioaaonaee n iae ii
ii?aaeaeyao niune. Enoi?ey i?iaeoeo aeayaoeueiinoe ethaeae, eaaeaeue ec
eioi?uo i?aneaaeoao naie oeaee e eioa?anu.

Eoi aeaeaao enoi?eth? Ioaao:

ia?iae

?ieue ee/iinoe: eaaeaeay ee/iinoue, nicaeathuay iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa, eee
aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe, ea?aao ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue.

auaeathueany ee/iinoe: iieeoe/aneea e ainoaea?noaaiiua aeayoaee, o/aiua,
aeayoaee eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa.

*oi anoue auaeathuayny ee/iinoue?

Aaaaeue:

aaeeeea ethaee iiyaeythony, eiaaea nic?aaatho iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey aeey
i?eiyoey ?aoeoaeueiuo aeaenoaee, eiathueo anaie?iia enoi?e/aneia
cia/aiea.

aianoa n oai iie iaeaaeatho aeanoyuei oiii e iiieiatho oi, /oi ioaeii a
aeaiiue iiiaio iauanoao e aeaeatho yoi.

iiyaeaiea aaeeeeo ethaeae iaiaoiaeeii e iaecaaaeii – iie nianatho ie?.

ia ana aeiaieueiu eo aeayoaeaeueiinoueth, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e?eoeea, ii
Aaaaeue n/eoae, /oi yoi ia oianoii

*a?iuoaaneee:

auaeathuayny ee/iinoue aeieaeia enoiaeeoue ec iaueo eioa?ania,

aeieaeai auoue /anoiiu, aeia?ui e o.i.

ssnia?n: oa ee/iinoue «eioi?ay /oanoaoao ioaaonaaiiinoue ca naiaiaeo».

Auaiae: nouanoaotho ?acee/iua ioaaou ia aii?in i oii, eiai n/eoaoue
auaeathuaeny ee/iinoueth.

enoi?e/aneay iaiaoiaeeiinoue,

o/ao iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania,

?aaeecaoeey naiaiaeu.

Yoe oi/ee c?aiey ia i?ieoeai?a/eau, anee eo ?anniao?eaaoue a eiie?aoiie
enoi?e/aneie neooaoeee.

Auaeathueany ee/iinoe ia ?iaeaeathony, iaiaoiaeeiu:

eneeth/eoaeueiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua aicieeatho ia e?oouo iiai?ioao
enoi?ee e ieacuaatho ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea.

ee/iinoiua ea/anoaa.

nioeeaeuei-iieeoe/aneia iieiaeaiea.

ninoiyiea oeeaeeeciaaiiinoe ia?iaea.

Eoeueo ee/inioe:

Yoi iaiaeanoaeaiea /aeiaaea, neaiay aa?a a aai naa?oanoanoaaiiua
niiniaiinoe e oae eae naycaii n ee/iinoiui aeiaa?eai e i?aaeaiiinoueth
eeaea?o, ii eeaea? iieiaeeoaeai.

Eoeueo ee/iinoe a ?acee/iua yiioe enoi?ee

Ia?aiauoiua:

auaeoiuaaee naa?oanoanoaaiiua neeu

eoeueo yaeaiee i?e?iaeu, ?anoaiee, aeeaioiuo

eoeueo aiaeaeae – o?aieoaeae iau/aaa e o?aaeeoeee.

Aicieeiiaaiea /aeiaa/anoaa: – /aeiaa/aonai nin?aaeioa/eaaao a naieo
?oeao ia?iiioth aeanoue, aai aeayoaeiinoue i?eia?aoaao eae au
naa?oanoanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?. Neaaeiaaoaeii, iieeiiaiea eeaea?ai eae
aiaai. (Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee o?aaiaae, /oiau aai iaiaeanoaeyee).

Oaiaeaeueiue no?ie: – ?aeeaeiciay ie?anea, iiia?oe/aneay oi?ia
i?aaeaiey, neaaeiaaoaeueii eoeueoiaay ie?anea oe?aieyaony. N/eoaaony,
/oi ethaee iaoiaeyony ia aa?oeia aeanoe, oai?yo enoi?eth. Yoi ec-ca:

a) caeinoiaaiey ?aeeaeiciiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i eoeueoa i?aaeoaeae e
ainiiaenoaa eoeoiaiai niciaiey.

A) aaniethoecaoeey ee/iinoe a enoi?ee.

A) ?anniao?eaaiea enoi?ee eae aeene?aoiiai i?ioeanna.

Eaieoaeenoe/aneee no?ie:

iaiineony neeueiue oaea? ii eoeueoiaiio niciaieth,

iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaeneiaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa => aaniethoiue
eoeueo oiaa?a.

eoeueo ee/iinoe oieueei neo/aai, a ia?aeiiiua iiiaiou (aieia), eiaaea
ethaee ia oaa?aiu a caao?aoiai aeia.

Nioeeaeeci:

eoeueo iaecaaaeii aicieeaao, anee ia?aoiae e iaio i?ienoiaeeo i?e
ia?acaeoinoe iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, i?aaiauo ioiioaiee, o.ae.

neaii aa?yo aiaeaeyi, oae eae naie ia iiaoo ?acia?aoueny a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Auaiae: eoeueo ee/iinoe aiciee enoi?e/anee a oao nioeeaeueiuo nenoaiao,
aaea auee ia ?acaeou iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, aaea i?aai ia i?eia?aei
oieaa?naeueiue oa?aeoa? e aaea naiiniciaiea ia?iaea eiaei ieceee
o?iaaiue. Eoeueoa ee/iinoe a noaaeeueiii auniei?acaeoii iauanoaa iao, ii
e aeinoeaiooue yoie noaaeeueiinoe oaeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii. Ei?ie
eoeueoiaiai niciaiey caeeth/athony a oii, /oi ie?oaeathuee ie? /aeiaaea,
nioeeaeueiue e i?e?iaeiue neiaeai e i?ioeaa?a/ea. *aeiaae noaeeeaaony n
o?oaeiinoyie, neaaeiaaoaeueii euao iiiiue. Oae eae /aeiaae iiciaao ie?
anaaaea, eoeueoiaia niciaiea oaeaea aoaeao nouanoaiaaoue anaaaea.

?ieue naiiniciaiey a enoi?e/aneii i?ioeanna

naiiniciaiea ee/iinoe – iniciaiea noauaeoii naieo eioa?ania, eaeaaeia,
naaai ianoa a enoi?ee iauanoaa.

naiiniciaiea ia?iaea – iniciaiea ia?iaeii naiaai ianoa e ?iee a enoi?ee.

1) e 2) oanii naycaiu e aeytho ae?oa ia ae?oaa.

Enoi?e/aeia niciaiea oanii naycaii n naiiniciaieai ia?iaea. Yoi
iiuneaiea ia?iaeii naiaai iieiaeaiey ai a?aiaie, nayce ianoiyuaai n
i?ioaaeoei e aoaeouei.

Enoi?e/aneia niciaiea – iaiouaieaiay /anoue anao oi?i iauanoaaiiiai
niciaiey.

3 o?iaiy enoi?e/aneiai niciaiey:

iaiin?aaenoaaiiay ano?a/a n enoi?eae.

ii?aaeaeaiiay nenoaia ciaiee i i?ioeii.

oai?aoe/aneia iniuneaiea enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeiai.

Enoi?e/anee: ia iecoeo o?iaiyo ?aaceoey naiiniciaiey ia iaaethaeaeinue.

2.20 ?onneay e caiaaeiay o?aaeeoeee a iniuneaiee /aeiaaea

Ia?yaeo n iauei aeey ?acee/iuo eoeueoo? e yiio iaeciaiiui a ?acee/iia
a?aiy iiieiaieai /aeiaaea nouanoaoao e na?ueaciay niaoeeoeea,
ii?aaeaeythuay ?aciua aicc?aiey ia nouiinoue /aeiaaea, aai oi?ie?iaaiea,
aai ee/iinoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Yoa niaoeeoeea iaoneiaeaiia aicaeaenoaeai eiie?aoiuo enoi?e/aneeo,
aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, aaiiieeoe/aneeo, aeooiaiuo e o.ae. oneiaee. Ana yoe
aicaeaenoaey oi?ie?otho ia?iae, yoiin, iaoeeth.

Caiaae:

*aeiaae- eae ioaeaeueiia «ss»; auaeaeaiea ec iauanoaa, iniciaiea yoie
ioaeaeaiiinoe; oi?ie?iaaiea naiaai eeoea n?aaee oaeeo -aea «ss».

Yoiio niinianoaiaaei:

Yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey: oi?ie?iaaiea einoeoooa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe,
aeoeaiia ?acaeoea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee.

Iieeoe/aneea ioiioaiey: ?aiiaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a aa?iia ?eineiai i?aaa
aeey ioaeaeueii nouanoaothueo «ss» (Auea iaiaoiaeeeiay i?aaiaay
?aaoeyoeey).

Ioaeaeueiia e ioaeaeaiiia nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea, cae?aieaiiia a i?aaa.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, einoeooo aeaiie?aoee.

Ana niinianoaiaaei caaeaieth ai?ei?iie o?aaeeoeee:

Eaeaae i?aaei?eei/eaiai aeaeiaiai /aeiaaea ni ciaieai aua?aiiie
i?ioannee.

Ia?aaeoay iaiaoiaeeiinoue: aeaeiaie oniao, aiaaonoai, iaoa?eaeueiia
aeaaiiieo/ea.

Ana ?aoeeiiaeece?iaaiii: ioiioaiey e iauanoao, e i?e?iaea, e ae?oaiio
/aeiaaeo.

Ianeo/aeii, /oi a aa?iia ca?iaeaeaaony iaoea.

?inney:

Aeoeaio ia aeooiaiinoue, aeooiaiinoue eae nouiinoue auoey /aeiaaea.
Aeooa – iniiaiia yaeaiea e iiiyoea, eioi?ia enneaaeoaony ?onneeie
iuneeoaeyie.

Niinianoaiaaei i?aaineaaea, /aeiaae ooaa?aeaeai a nouanoaiaaiee Aiaa,
aai nouiinoue- aiai/aeiaa/ia, ii – nui aiaeee.

Yoi neiaeeeinue iiae aeeyiei eiie?aoiuo yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee.

*aeiaae ?aaeeciauaae naay a nii?e/anoiinoe e ae?oaei, a niaianoiinoe n
ieie.

*aeiaae ia i?ioeaiiinoaaeye naay i?e?iaea, a iaiai?io oioae i?eiaueoueny
e Aiao, i?e?iaea; /aeiaae – aeeaouee iiae ciaeii aa/iinoe e
niaa?oainoaothuee naay a aiaeanoaaiiii i?eiauaiee.

?acaeoea:

Aa?iia: ?acaeoea eae i?ia?ann: niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, aai oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe, iaeiieaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo
aeaa e iaania/aiea iaoa?eaeueiiai aeaaiiieo/ey.

?inney – Iuneeoaee 19 aaea: niaa?oainoaiaaiea aeooe /aeiaaea,
i?aaineaaea.

Naiaiaea:

C.: Naiaiaea «ss» – eae ioaeaeaiiinoue io iauanoaa.

?.: Nii?e/anoiinoue. Yeaeaaeaio naiaiaeu- aiey, iniiaaiiay ia a ?aieao
caeiiiinoe: ioe?uoia iauaiea, aoiou.

A ?innee: Niai?iinoue eae ee/iinoiay oa?aeoa?enoeea. «Iu ia noiia
ioaeaeueiuo «ss», ii eo aioo?aiiaa aaeeinoai. *aeiaae i?eiauai ei anae
anaeaiiie.

Auaiae: *a?ou iiieiaiey /aeiaaea.

?inney Caiaae

O?ainoeaiaeaioiinoue Yecenoaioeeaeueiinoue

Oaioeaio?eci Aio?iiioeaio?eci

Oieaa?naeueiinoue Aoiia?iinoue

Aiey Naiaiaea

2.21. Eoeueoo?a – i?aaeaeiao oeeenioneiai aiaeeca

Neiai «eoeueoo?a» – iaeii ec iaeaieaa iiioey?iuo a ?annoaeaeaieyo i
aa/iuo oeeinioneeo i?iaeaiao. Eco/aieai eoeueoo?u caieiathony iiiaea
iaoee (enoi?ey, a?oaieiaey, eneonnoaiaaaeaiea…). Nouanoaotho
ianeieueei ?acee/iuo ii?aaeaeaiee oiai, /oi iiaeii iacuaaoue eoeueoo?ie,
iiiaeanoai iiaeouiaeia e aa ecoa/aieth, iiaeaeae eoeueoo?u.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii ioeac io eaeae iienea e ooaa?aeaeaiey eaeiai-eeai
iniuneaiey eoeueoo?u eae aaeeinoaaiii aa?iiai.

A iniiaa noaiiaaeiey iiiyoey «eoeueoo?a» eaaeeo iio?aaiinoue a
oai?aoe/aneii iniuneaiee nouaonaaiiuo naeaeaia a iauanoaaiiii auoea
/aeiaaea, eioi?ua ia/aeenue a iiaia a?aiy e aucaaee aeoaieea eciaiaiey a
ioiioaiee /aeiaaea e i?e?iaea, iauanoao, e naiiio naaa.

Aoi?ay iieiaeia 18 a.: eoeueoo?a au?aaeaea noaiaiue ?acaeoinoe ?acoiiiai
ia/aea, iinooiaoaeueiiai enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey, aiieiuaiey a ?aeeaee, e
iaoee, eneonnoaa, i?aaa, a ii?aea.

Iniiaiua iiaeaee eoeueoo?u a enoi?ee oeeinioneiai iniuneaiey eoeueoo?u.

iaoo?aeenoe/aneay:

aeaeaea a eoeueoo?a /aeiaa/aneia i?iaeieaeaiea i?e?iaeu.

aeaaiaea?y eoeueoo?a /aeiaaea ia eneeth/aaony ec i?e?iaeu, a i?acoao
aunoaa caaii (Aieueoa?, ?onni)

eeanne/aneay (19 a.):

/aeiaae eae noauaeo eoeueoo?u aunooiaao oai?oeii eoeueoo?u.

aeanoeia ?acaeaeaiea iauaeoa e noauaeoa iiciaiey.

i?aaeiao iiciaiey – iaaeeiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ?aaeueiinoue, ec eioi?ie
auaiaeeony eoeueoo?a ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea.

yoa iiaeaeue eaeaaeenoe/ia, oae eae aeaaiay ii?aaeaeythuay noa?a
?acaeoey – aeooiaiia oai?/anoai

eoeueoo?a – /enoi aeooiaiia ia?aciaaiea

3) iaeeanne/aneay (iiaea?ienoneay):

i?eaoe?oaony ia iianaaeiaaioth aeeciue /aeiaaea.

eoeueoo?a ee/iinoe, yoiina, nioeeoia ?anniao?eaaaony eae yeaiaiou
eoeueoo?iie ?aaeueiione, acaeiiaeaenoaothuae iaaeaeo niaie e
aini?eieiaaiie /aeiaaeii a i?ioeanna ia?aaeeaaiey, a ia ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
iniuneaiey naiaai auoey.

iinoiiaea?ienoneay.

Oeeinioneia iniuneaiea eoeueoo?u – aac noauaeoa.

Iiiyoea «eoeueoo?a» eae i?aaeaeueii iauaa ia iiaeao auoue au?aaeaii
/a?ac eaeia-oi ii?aaeaeaiea, iieo/aiiia n iiiiuueth auaeaeaiey
eaeie-eeai niaieoiiinoe i?eciaeia.

Neaaeiaaeoaeueii, ii?aaeaeaiey «eoeueoo?u» aunooiatho eae aa
eioa?i?aoaoeee a caaeneiinoe io oiai eee eiiai aniaeoa ?anniio?aiey
eoeueoo?u. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue ?yae aeinoaoi/ii ?ac?aaioaiiuo iiaeoiaeia e
iniuneaieth eoeueoo?u:

aenaieiae/aneee (oeaiiinoiue) iiaeoiae:

auaeaeaiea noa?u auoey, iacuaaaiie ie?ii oeaiiinoae. Eiaiii, e yoiio
ie?o e i?eiaieii iiiyoea «eoeueoo?a».

eoeueoo?a – eoia anaai iiiaia?acey aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea eae
niaieoiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae.

Aeaaiua i?iaeaiu yoiai iiaeoiaea – iiieiaiea i?e?iaeu oeaiiinoae, eo
i?ienoiaeaeaiea iauacia/eiinoe.

aeayoaeueiue:

eoeueoo?a aunooiaao niaoeeoe/aneei niiniaii /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

a aeayoaeiinoe ?aaeecoaony aaeeinoai noauaeoeaiiai e iauaeoeaiiai.

eoeueoo?a – niinia ?aaoeyoeee, nio?aiaiey, aini?iecaaaeaiey e ?acaeoey
iauanoaa, iniiaa oai?/aneie aeoeaiinoe /aeiaaea.

no?oeoo?aeenoe/aneee: eoeueoo?a – niaieoiiinoue nioeeaeueiuo yeaiaioia,
iineoaeae oeaiiinoiuo ioiioaiee, ?aaoee?othueo /aeiaa/aneoth
aeayoeaiinoue (a?ae, naiuey, iau/ae, oaenou, neiaieu…), ii aac o/aoa
ee/iuo oaeoi?ia.

nioeeieiae/aneee: – eoeueoo?a – nioeeaeueiue eino?oiaio, eioi?ue
iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue iauanoai eae onoie/eaoth oeaeinoiinoue,
ioee/ioth io i?e?iaeu.

aoiaieoa?iue: aieiaiea aeoeaioe?oaony ia niaa?oainoaiaaiee /aeiaaea eae
aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiiai noauaeoa eoeueoo?u.

Auaiae: Ana yoe iiaeoiaeu acaeiiaeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa. Iaeiaei,
nio?aiyaony iio?aaiinoue a oi?ie?iaaiee iaiiuaiiiai iiieiaiey eoeueoo?u.
Oeeinioey ?anniao?eaaao eoeueoo?o eae iniaue iauaeo, iiaeeaaeauee
enneaaeiaaieth ia?yaeo n i?e?iaeie, /aeiaaeii, iauanoaii, a eae
anaiauoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo ie?a eae oeaeiai. N oi/ee c?aiey oeeinioee
eoeueoo?a anoue aanue ie?, a eioi?ii /aeiaae iaoiaeeo naay.

2.22 Eoeueoo?a e oeeaeeecaoeey: Iauaa e niaoeeoe/aneia.

Niaieoiiinoue iaoa?. e aeoo. oeaiiinoae, a oaeaea niiniaia eo
niceaeaiey, oiaiea eniieueciaaoue eo aeey i?ia?anna /aeiaa/anoaa,
ia?aaeaaaoue io iieieaiey e iieieaieth e ninoaaeyao eoeueoo?o. Eoeueoo?a
– ana nicaeaiiia /aeiaaeii; niaieoiiinoue nicaeaiiuo e nicaeaaaaiuo
/aeiaaeii oeaiiinoae; ea/anoaaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea o?iaiy ?acaeoey i-aa.
Oeaiiinoue – oaeo eoeueoo?u, e iia nioeeaeueia ii naiae nooe. Ia?iiiue
ieano ec yoeo eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae e aiiaua nouanoaaiioth oi?io eo
au?aaeaiey ninoaaeyao nenoaia neiaieia. Noa?aeaiue eoeueoo?iuo
oeaiiinoae – iiiyoea i?aanoaaiiinoe. Oai, aaea anoue /aeiaae, aai
aeayo-noue, ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie, oai eiaaony e eoeueoo?a.
Eoeueoo?a: iaoa?eaeueiay e aeooiaiay (ia i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue!).
Oeeaeeecaoeey = ieoeueoo?aiiay i?e?iaea + n?aaenoaa ieoeueoo?eaaiey +
/aeiaae, onaieaoee yoo eoeueoo?o, niiniaiue aeeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue a
ieoeueoo?aiiie n?aaea naiaai iaeoaiey + iauanoa. ioiioaiey (oi?iu
nioeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee eoeueoo?u), iaania/eaathuea nou-a Oe. e aa
i?iaeieaeaiea. Oe. – nioeeieoeueoo?iia ia?aciaaiea. Ia Oe., a E. –
aaeeinoaaiiue e?eoa?ee nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa. Iiiaiia?aciuie
niiniaaie aeeth/aaony eoeueoo?a a aeaeaeaiea enoi?ee. Iia au?aae.
ee/iinoioth noi?iio aeayoaeueiinoe /-ea a iauanoaa, auiiei. F
o?aineyoeee iiuoa, ciaiee, ?ac-oia /ae. aeayo-noe. Iia. eaeae
aeeth/athony caoai a enoi?e/. i?ioeann, aiiny a iaai iiaua yeaiaiou.
Ethaia ecia?aoaiea /aeiaaea iiaeao i?aa?aoeoueny a oaeoi? enoi?e/.
?acaeoey e ia/aoue ieacuaaoue ia iaai aicaeaenoaea. I?eia? – ecia?aoaiea
yaea?i. i?oaeey, eioi?ia n iiiaioa naiaai ecia?aoaiey ia/aei aeeyoue ia
oiae iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Aeey ono?aiaiey yoie no?aoiie oa?icu
auee nicaeaiu ?acee/iua eiieoaou ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a.Oae nicaeaiea
iao/ii-oaoie/. iunee aioei a nioeeaeueioth aeeciue, ieacuaay aeeyiea ia
i?ioaeathuea a iauanoaa nioeeaeuei., yeiiiie/. e iieeoe/. i?ioeannu. Ii
ia ana, /oi auei ?iaeaeaii /aeiaa/aneie iuneueth aioei a iauanoa.
aeeciue, a eoeueoo?o, noaei iiiaioii enoi?e/. i?ioeanna. Iiiaea
ecia?aoaiey ia auee ?aaeeciaaiu ii ?acee/iui i?e/eiai, iai?. ecia?ao.
Iiecoiiaui a 18 aaea ia?iaie iaoeiu (?inney ia auea e yoiio aioiaa);
?aaiou a iae. aaiaoeee niaaoneeo o/aiuo. A oiaea iauanoa. enoi?e/.
i?ioeanna ec oao “i?aaeeiaeaiee”, eio. eaeoo ni noi?iiu eoeueoo?u,
aeaiiui i-aii inouanoaeyaony “nioeeaeuei. ioai?” yoeo i?aaeeiaeaiee e
oi, eaeei ii aoaeao io oaeou. ninoiyiey ?aca-y i-aa.

Neiai «oeeaeeecaoeey» iiyaeeinue ai o?aioeooeii youea a na?aaeeia 18 a.
A ?onea oai?ee i?ia?anna e oiio?aaeyeinue oieueei a aaeeinoaaiiii /enea.
A /anoiinoe, i?inayoeoaee iacuaaee oeeaeeecaoeeae eaeaaeueiia iauanoai,
iniiaaiiia ia ?acoia e ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

*aou?a iiaeoiaea a eioa?i?aoaoeee iiiyoe «oeeaeeecaoeee»:

eoeueoo?ieiaiae/aneee (o.a. nioeeieoeueoo?iia ia?aciaaiea)

Aaaa?, Oaeiae: oeeaeeecaoeey – iniaue nioeeieoeueoo?iue oaiiiai,
ia?aie/aiiue ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiuie ?aieaie, iniiao
eioi?uo ninoaaeyao ?aeeaey.

Oaeei?: Oeeaeeecaoeey – ciaiey, aa?iaaiey, eneonnoai, i?aanoaaiiinoue e
i?eau/ee, onaiaiiua /aeiaaeii eae /eaiii iauanoaa.

nioeeieiae/aneee (o.a. nioeeaeueiia ia?aciaiaea)

Oeeeeinii: Nioeeaeueiia ia?aciaaiea, eiathuaa iauee a?aiaiiie e
i?ino?ainoaaiiue ia?aiao?, nin?aaeioi/aiiia aie?oa ai?iaeneeo oeaio?ia,
aeaaiaea?y aeaenoaeth iaoaieciia eo naycae, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo.

yoiiineoieiae/aneee

naycue iiieyoey oeeaeeecaoeee n iniaaiiinoyie yoie/aneie enoi?ee (E.
Aoieeaa)

niaoeeoeea eoeueoo?u e ineoieiaee ia?iaea

aaia?aoe/aneee

aeeyao aaia?aoe/aneay n?aaea

A oeaeii i?aiaeaaeaao eoeueoo?ieiae/aneee iiaeoiae.

Oeeaeeecaoeey – yoi eoeueoo?a iaoa?eaeueiay (oceee niune).

Oeeaeeecaoeey – yoi niaieoiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo aeinoeaeaiee
(oe?ieee niune)

Aua a 19 a. Aeoeaii i?ioeaiiinoaaeyeenue oa?ieiu: «eoeueoo?a» e
«oeeaeeecaoeey» (Eaio, Oeeea?)

Iiiaea enneaaeiaaiey noiaeyony ia oii, /oi oeeaeeecaoeey – aiaoiee
ii-ioiioaieth e /aeiaaeo ie?, a oi a?aiy eae eoeueoo?a – aiaoiee. Ii yoi
oianoii oieueei a ?aieao aeayoaeueiinoiiai iiaeoiaea e iiieiaieth
eoeueoo?u, a i?e oeaiiinoiii ia iainiiaaiii.

Aianoa n oai iaiaoiaeeii niaeaneoueny, /oi oeeaeeecaoeey – aiaoiee ie?.
Iaeiaei, i?e yoii ia neaaeoao i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue iiiyoey «eoeueoo?a» e
«oeeaeeecaoeey», eai eoeueoo?a eae iaaeeiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ?aaeueiinoue
oaeaea yaeyaony aiaoiae.

Anoue 5 iiaeoiaeia e iiieiaieth, iniuneaieth eoeueoo?u: (ni. Aii?in
2.21)

3. Aii?inu ii enoi?eei-oeeinioneiio oeeeeo

3.1 Aicieeiiaaiea oeeinioee: io ie?a e eiaino

Aioe/iue eee (ae?aaiee)

Ae?aaiee ie?: Iaeaecey, Naaa?iay ao?eea, Eoaeey, Aoeiu, Aioe/iay a?aoeey

Ca?iaeaeaiea aioe/iie oeeinioee: 7-6aa. aei i.y. E nouanoaiaaiea aei 5 a
i.y.

Ainoi/iue ie? e aioe/iue ie?.

I?iaeaia noaiiaeaiey (a?a/) oeeinioee e aa ioaeaeaiea io ieoa, ?aeeaee e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa yaeythony iaeiie ec aaaeiuo i?iaeai enoi?ee
aioe/iie oeeinioee

Iauanoaaiiiyeiiiie/aneie iniiaie a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u ia?eiaea ?aiiae
eeanneee yaeeny i?aeiouanoaaiiii o?oae naiaiaeiuo a?aaeaeai, eioi?ua a
yoio ia?eiae ia aue aua auoaniai o?oaeii ?aaia.

Nioeeaeueii iieeoe/aneie i?aaeiinueeie ?acaeoey e ?anoeaaoa a?a/aneie
eoeueoo?u yaeeanue iieeniay aeaiie?aoey . N iaaeaieai aioe/iiai iieena
iaaeaao e naia aioe/iay eoeueoo?a.

ia?aiia/aeueiua oeeinoneea e aei iao/iua i?aaenoaaeaiey i ie?a e aeecie
auee oanii naycaiiu n Ieoii e ?aee aee aicieeee a eo eiia.

Ieo anoue iniaue oei ie?iiuouaiey, niaoeeoe/aneia, /oanoaaiiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i yaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aicieeoaa a ae?aaiaeoea
a?aiaia.

A Ieoieiaee ioi?aceeenue /ayiey e ia/ou ethaeae, caia/aoeaeenue eo
i?aaenoaaeaiey iie?a e naiie aeecie.

Iiciaiea nii?iaiaeaeaao ieo, ii ia ninoaaeyao aai ia?ae/iiai yae?a:
Nouiinoue ieoa ia a iauyniaiee, a a iauaeoeae?iaaiee noauaeoeaiuo
aia/aoeaiee e ia?aaeeaaiee, i?e eioi?ii i?iaeoeou aiia?aaeaiey eae
?acoeueoao yoiai aiauaeoeae?iaaiey i?eieiathony ca iiaeeeiiua
?aaeueiinoe aiaoiaai ie?a.

Ioiaeaeanoaeyy aia?aaeaaiia n ?aaeueiinouanoaothuei, eaeaaeueiia n
iaoa?eaeueiui…, ieo i?aiaeieaaaao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue a ia?acao
oaioacee.

*oanoai aaeeinoaa n neeaie i?e?iaeu e iaeaaeaiea eie a aiia?aaeaiee
niea/eaaei ia?aiauoiue eieeaeoea, aeoeaece?iaaei aai aeayoaeueiinoue.

N aicieeiiaaieai yiina e iiycee ieoieiae/aneia ioiaeaeanoaeaiea
i?aa?aoeeinue a ooaeiaeanoaaiiia n?aaiaiea.

N?aaiaiea yaeeinue ia oieueei n?aaenoaii ooaeiaeanoaaiii – ynoaoe/aneiai
inaiaiey ie?a, ii e i?oaeeai aai iiciaiey, niiniaii naiiniciaiey e
onoaiiaeaiey /aeiaaeii naiaai ianoa a ie?oaeathuae aai
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ec ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo n?aaiaiee a iineaaenoaee
aicieeee ia?aua iao/iua aiaeiaee (Iaoo?oeeinioey).

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey i i?ienoiaeaeaiee oeeinioee- ec ieoa
e ?aeeaee, ec ciaiey.

Ia?aoiae io ?aeeaeicii ieoieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i ie?a e
oeeinioneiio aai iiieiaieth (Io ieoa e eiaino) icia/ae caiaio
i?iecaieueiiai (oaioanoe/aneiai, auiuoeaiiiai) «?anneaca» iainiiaaiiie
a?aoiaioaoeeae, ?acoiii eiae/aneeie niia?aaeaieyie, o.a. oai, /oi
a?aeaie auei iaicia/aii oa?ieiii «eiain».

Ia anai i?ioyaeaiee naiae ouny/eeaoiae enoi?ee a?a/aneay oeeinioey
eniuouaaea aeeyiea ieoieiaee, eniieueciaaea aa ia?acu, aaeioiiaeyynue aa
oaiie.

Oeeinioneia iiciaiea, iniiaaiiia iaeiia?aiaiii ia /oanoaa e ?acoia, ia
eiooeoeee e eiaeea (ia «Eiaina») naycaiii (ea eethaia iiciaiea) n
ecaanoiui ?eneii (e auai?ii), ii a ioee/ee io ?aeeaee, ia?aeathuae
/aeiaaea ia aacio/aoiue auai?, oeeinioey no?aieony e iniuneaiiiio ?eneo
e ?acoiiiio auai?o, o.a. e i?aiaeieaieth neaiie aa?u e iniiaaiiuo ia iae
neaiiai ?enea e auai?a i?iecaieueiiai oa?aeoa?a.

?aeeaey ia aeiioneaao naiaiaeu e?eoeee e ai?ueau iiaiee, neaaeiaaoaeueii
oaiaoeci e iaoa?ieiinoue. Oeeinioey aea ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aia
yoiai.

A noauaeoeaii-ineoieiae/aneii ieaia a?a/aneay oeeinioey e iaoea
ca?iaeeeenue oiaaea, eiaaea Oaean iiiuoaeny ana iiiaiia?acea
oaeeaeoaeueiuo iianaaeiaaii iaaethaeaaiuo yaeaiee iauynieoue ec aaeeiiai
ia/aea («Ana anoue aiaea»).

A oai?aoe/anei-iiciaaaoaeueiii ieaia aicieeiiaaiea a?a/aneie oeeinioee
yaeyaony i?ioeannii ia?aoiaea io ieoieiae/aneiai ioiaeaeanoaeaiey
(ia?aca e aaue, /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu…) e onoaiiaeaieth ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
ieie. Yoio ia?aoiae niaa?oeee ia?aua a?a/aneea iaoo? oeeiniou (ii yoio
?ac?ua n i?e?iaeie aue o ieo ia iieiue = i?aaenoaaeaiea ia
iaeooaaeaiiinoe ia?aiia/aea aauae- aiaea, aicaeoo, i ie?a eae i aeeaii…)
.

A eo o/aiee i?a?aieaoathony ?aeeaeicii ieoieiae/aneea e iao/ii
oeeinioneea acaeyaeu.

A nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneii ieaia ia?aoiae io ieoa e eiaino aue
iaoneiaeai niaiie ia?aiauoii iaueiiiai no?iy a eeanniaii iauanoaii.

7. A ?aiia a?a/aneie oeeinioee iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee noaaeeny aua ia
eae aii?in ia ioiioaiee aeooa e iaoa?ee, a eae aii?in i oii ia?aiia/aea,
ec eioi?iai aicieeatho ana aaue e a eioi?ua iie ni a?aiaiai
i?aa?auathony.

3.2 Oeeinioey Ieaoiia

Aei eiioea 5 a aeiy iniiaiui oeiii ae?aaiaa? oee aue iaoa?eaeeci.

Ieaoii (427-347aeiy). Aoeiyiei, aue i?ioeaieeii ao aeaiie?aoee. Oee
?acaeoea ia/aeinue a oeiea Nie?aoa. A ai?iaeao th. Eoaeee e Neoeeeee ii
i?iaeieaeee iciaeiieaiea n oee yeaeoeaa e ieoaai?aeoeaa. A 387a ii
aa?ioeny a Aoeiu e iniiaae oeieo (aeaaeaiey).

Ii-aeaeeiiio naith eeo aeayo ia/ae n iaaieueoeo aeeaeiaia ii aii?
yoeee. A c?aeue ia?eiae ei aue iaienai o?aeoao Ain-ai, caoai aeeaeiae
Ie?, Oayoao, Oaaeii. Eiicaeiei ?aaioai ioiineonyaeeaeia “Caeiiu”. O.
o/aiea I ioaaouaaao oe? e?oa aii?inia – i auoee, ie?a e aai
i?ienoiaeaeaiee, aeooa e iiciaiee, iauanoaa, ?acaeae o?oaea,
ainieoaieeTH eneonnoaa.

Ie? /aanoa aauae ia anoue ie? iiaeeeiii nouaai: /oanoa aaue aiciee e
iiaeaatho, eciaiythony e aeaeaeoony, a ieo iao ie/aai enoeiiiai.
Iiaeeeiie nouiinoueth aauae eo i?e/eiaie yae aanoaeaniua ia/oanoa oi?iu
(eaeae eee aeaeu), iinoeaaaiua oiii. Ii ioiio e /oano aauai eaeae e
i?e/eiu e ia?acoeu e oeaee, eio no?aiyony aaue, e iiiyoey ia iauae
iniiaa aauae eaaeaeiai eeanna.

O.e. /oano aaue i?aoiaeyue oi iie aeieaeiu auoue iaoneiaeau ia ieueei
auoeai, ii e iaauoeai. Yoi iaauoea anoue iaoa?ey. (iae ia?ae?au
aeaeaeaiey, aicieeiiaaiey e eciaiaiey) Iaoa? i?eieiaao ia naay eaeae e
i?aa?au eo ai iiiaeanoai /. aauae, ?acaeaeaiiuo i?ino?ainoaii.

Iaeanoue eaeae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ie?aieaeo, ia aa?oeia eio eaeay
aeaaa. Iia iaoneaaeeaaao iiciaaaaiinoue, nou i?aaeiaoia, io iaa iie
iieo/ naith nouiinoue. Eaeay aeaaa yae ia oieueei aa?oiaiie i?e/eiie
auoey, ii e aai oeaeueth (oaeaieiaey – o/aiea i oeaeaniia?aciinoe)

Eaeae aa/iu, ieaciaiiu, oiaeaeanoaaiiu, ia caa io oneiaee i?ino?ainoaa
e a?aiaie.Ie? / aauae – ie? aa/iiai aicieeiia e aeaaee, aeaeae e
eciai/eainoe, a iai ana naienoaa ioiineoaeueiu, ia?aie/aiu one
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie.

Ciaiea anoue i?eiiieiaiea. Aei naiaai anaeaiey a iaiei/eo aeooa
i?aauaaea ia iaaa e nica?oeaea oai enoeiii nouaa. Niaaeeieaoenue n oaeii
aeooa caauaaao oi, /oi ciaea, ii a aeoaeia yoe ciaiey inoathony.
Aeni?eyoey iao i?aaeiaoia iaiiieiatho aeooa iicaauoua ae ciaiey.

Eaeae iiciathony iooai eiooeoeee, iacaaeneiie io /oano aini?eyoey,
/oanoa aaue io?aaeathony eeoue ai iiaieyo, eio ia aeatho iiaeeeiiiai
ciaiey. Na?aaeeio iaaeaeo ii e iiaeeeiiui ciaieai caieiatho iaoaiao
ciaiey.Iie eiatho ia/oi ?iaenoaaiiia /oano aauai e eaeayi.

Auoea – oiaeaeanoaaiiia e iaeciaiiia, iaeiaei a aeeaeiaao Nioeno e
Ia?iaieae I. i?eo e auaiaeo, /oi aunoea ?iaeu nouaai – Auoea, aeaeae.,
iieie, oiaeaeanoai e eciaiaiea – iiaoo iuneeony oieueei oaeei niiniaii,
/oi eaaeaeue ec ieo e anoue e ia anoue, e ?aaa naiiio naaa e ia ?aaai.,
e oiaeaeanoaaiai naaa e i?aoiaeeo a eiia. Oae auoea iineieueeo iii
?anniao? naii ii naaa – aaeeii, aa/ii, oiaeaeanoaaiii, iaeciaiii,
iaiiaeaeaeii, ii iii aea iineieueeo iii ?anni ii ioiio e eiiio,
niaea?aeeo a naaa ?acee/ea, eciai/eai , iiaeaeaeii. Iiyoiio auoea
niaea?aeo a naaa i?ioeai?a/ey: iii aaeeii e iiiaeanoaaiii, aa/ii e
i?aoiaeyua, iaeciaiii e eciai/eai.

I?ioeai?a/ey anue iaiaoi oneiaea aeey iiaoaeaeaieth aeooe e iuoeaieth.
Eneonnoai iiaoaeaeaoue e ?aciuoeaieth iin?aaenoaii auyaeaiey
i?ioeai?a/ee, oayueony a iianaaeiaaiuo iiaieyo, anoue , ii I., eneonnoai
aeeaeaeoeee.

A einiiaiie/aneii o/aieeI ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iineaaeieie ye-oaie anao
aauae yae iaaeaeeiua o?aoaieueieee eee aaiiao?e/aneoa aanoaeaniua aoiiu.

*ae aeooa iacaaeneia io oaea e aannia?oia. Aeooa ninoieo ec 3 /anoae:
?acoiiie, eio nicaeaaony naiei oai?oeii, aooaeoeaiie e aiaeaeaeathuae,
eio nicaeathony iecoeie aiaaie. Iiaaaea ?acoiiie /anoe iaae no?anoyie e
aiaeaeaeaieyie aici i?e niioa ainieoaiee. O.e. ethaee ia iiaoo ee/iuie
oneeeyie i?eae e niaa?oainoao oi iaiaoiaeeii ain-ai e caeiiu. Ain-ai
iniiaaii ia ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea iaaeaeo ?ac?yaeaie naia a?aaeaeai.

A o/. i aeaeaiee a?aaeaeai ia ?ac?yaeu I ?oeiaiaenoaoaony naiae eeanneo
/anoae aeooe. ?ac /anoe aeieaeai niioa ?ac?yae i?aaeoaeae-oeeinioia,
aooaeoiie – aieiia, aiaeaeaeaiiie – ?aianeaiieeia. Eaaeaeue ?ac?yae
aeieaeai auoue ia?aie/ai auiiei naieo iaycaiiinoae e aicaea?aeea io aiao
a aeaea ae?oaeo.

*anoiay nianoa e naiuey – iiae?uaatho oneiaey iauanoaa. Iiyoiio I
?ac?aaioae ieai iauaaeeoey, iniiaaiiiai ia ono?aiaiee aeey i?aaeo e
aieiia – ee/iie nianoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea o/aiea i iauiinoe aeai e ain
ainieoaiee aeaoae.

IE?.

Oaae?: Y?io – ae?aaiaeoee aia., ia?aienoi/iee aaee/aeoeo aeaa. Ethaiaue
aeieaeia o/eoue nouaeeoueny iinouaeiiai eno?aieoueny e i?ae?aniiio.
Iaaeinoieiue iinooiie …nouae ia?aae aicethaeaiiui. Aienei eee ain-ai
ec aethaeaiiuo. Anee Aiia? aiai?eo, /oi iaeio aa?iyi ioaaao aiooaao aia,
oi ethaycei aa aiooaao Y?io. Ethayuea aioiau oia?aoue ae?oa ca ae?oaa
(Aeeanoeaea ?aoeeanue oia?aoue ca naiaai ioaea) Aiae oiaea auniei /ooo
i?aaeaiiinoue e naiiioa a ethaae.

Iaanaiee: Y?ioia 2 – iaaaniue e iioeue. Ethaia aeaei naii ii naaa ia
auaaao i?ae? eee aacia?aciui, a niio?y ii oiio eae iii aeaeaaony. Oio
y?io i?ae?anai, eio iiaoaeaeaao i?ae?anii ethaeoue. Iioeue y?io: yoi oa
ethaiaue eio ethayo ethaee cao?yaeiua – ethayo aeaiuei aieueoa /ai
thiioae e aieueoa oaei, /ai aeooo.

Iaa y?io – iaea?aeeiua yoei y?ioii ia?auathony e thiioai, ioaeaaay
i?aaeii/oaiea oiio, /oi neeueiae io i?e?iaeu e iaaeaeaii aieueoei
?acoiii. Oae eae ethaia aeaei ia e i?ae? e aacia?aciui, oi iaa ethaiaue
aicieeaao, eiaaea iieeiiiee n/eoaao ni?aaaaeeeaui ieauuaaoue onooieaoaio
thiioa ethaua oneoae, a thiioa n/eoaao ni?aa ie a /ai ia ioeacuaaoue
/ae, eioi?ue aeaeaao aai ioae?ui e aeia?ui., oiiui e aeiaeanoiui.

Y?eeneiao (a?a/): Aeaienoaaiiue y?io caeeth/ai a naiie i?e?iaea
oaea(aieueiia ia/aei e caei?iaia) oaiaeaeaoue ia/aeo oi?ioaio – oi?ioi,
ieioiio-ieioi.. Aa?iiiey A?a/aaaiea, iocuea, iiaiaea, caieaaeaeea.

A?enoioai: Ethaee ia ciatho aaee/aeoae neeu y?ioa, eia/a aio au
aicaeaeaee o?aiu. Eia-/oi i /ae i?e?iaea. Auei 3 iiea. Iaeei niaaeeiye e
ioaeneia e aeaineia ia/aei. Ethaee auee ?anna/aiu iiiieai aiaaie. N yoeo
ii? naienoaaiii ethaeyi ethaiaiia aea/aiea, eioi?ia niaaeeiyy iieiaeiu,
iuoaaony naeaeaoue ec 2 iaeii e oai naiui enoeaeeoue /aeia i?e?iaeo.
Ethaiaue yoi aeaaeaea oeaeinoiinoe e no?aieaiea e iae.

Aaaoii. Oi/ao ainoaaeeoue naiiai Y?ioa , a ia aai aea?u eae aeaeaee
i?aaeiea i?aoi?u. Y?io naiue iieiaeie, oae eae ii iaoiaeeo noa?inoue e
ia?aceo/ai n iieiaeuie. Ii iaaeai. Aiia? – iaaeiu noiiu o iaa: ia
eanaaony eie I?aoa caiiiai; iia ii aeaaai /aeiaa/aneei oiaeeo. ( i
aiaeia Aoa) Ii aeaie. Ni?aaaaeeea, ieeiaaea ia iaeaeaao ie aiaia ie
ethaeae. Aeaai?acoiai. O?aa? e oae.

Nie?ao: Y?io-yoi ethaiaue e eiio-ieaoaeue. Ethaiaue aiaeaeaeaao e
naiaio i?aaeiaoo. Aiaeaeaeaao, eiaaea ia iaeaaeaao (nii?iue aii?in…)
=Aiaeaeaeaiea aucuaaao oi, /aai iaaeinoaao. Anee caei?iaue /aeiaae oi/ao
auoue caei?iaui, oi ii oi/ao auoue caei?iaui a aoaeouai. A yoi icia/aao
ethaeoue oi, /aai aua iao, anee oi/aoue nio?aieoue ia aoaeouaa oi, /oi
eiaaoue oaia?ue. Y?io – ethaiaue e e?anioa. Cia/eo ii ia eiaao e?aniou e
ioaeaeaaony a iae.

?a/ue, oneuoaiiay io aoeiyiee.Iaaeaeo ioae?inoueth e iaaaaeanoaii anoue
ia/oi n?aaeiaa. Aa?iia, ii ia iiaee?aie aeiaiaeaie i?aaenoaaeaiea – ia
anue ciaiea. Anee iao iauyniaiey, eaeia aea yoi ciaiea. (ii e ia
iaaaaeanoai) Y?io neaaeiaaoaeueii ii na?aaeeia iaaeaeo e?aeiinoyie. Y?io
ia aia, oae eae iaaeaeai e?anioie. Ii ia nia?oiue e ia aannia?oiue. – ii
aeaiii, iin?aaeiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie e aiaaie. Ii caiieiyao i?iiaae
iaaeaeo ieie e naycuaaao ie? aioo?aiiae naycueth.

Y?io – oeeinio oae eae ii ethaeo i?ae?aniia, a ioae?inoue i?ae?ania.
Oeeinio caieiaao i?iiaae iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo ioae?aoeii e iaaaaeaeie.

Ana ethayo aeaai e oioyo auoue n/anoeeauie, ii iu aiai?ei ia iai anao,
/oi iie ethayo. Iu aa?ai oieueei iaeio ?aciiaeaeiinoue ethaae e
cae?aieyai ca iae iauaa iiiyoea, a ae? ?aciiaeaeiinoe eiaioai eia/a.

ethaiaue – yoi ethaiaue e aa/iiio iaeaaeaieth aeaaii. *oiau no?aieaiea e
aeaao iiaeii auei iacaaoue ethaiaueth iaiaoiaeeii ?iaeeoue a i?ae?aniii
eae oaeanii oae e aeooiaii. ?iaeaeaiea – yoi aeiey aannia?oey e
aa/iinoe, eio ioiouaia nia?oiiio nouanoao. Ethaiaue yoi e no?aieaiea e
aannia?oeth.

Nia?oiay i?e?iaea iiaeao noaoue aannia?oiie oieueei aeaoi?iaeaeaieai,
inoaaeyy eaaeaeue ?ac iiaia aianoi noa?iai. *aeiaae io ?iaeaeaiey aei
noa?inoe n/eoaaony iaeiei eeoeii, ii ii ieeiaaea ia auaaao iaeiei e oai
aea. Ana nia?oiia nio?aiyaony onoa?aaay e ooiaey, ii a oi aea a?aiy
inoaaeyy naia iiaia iiaeiaea.

Aeiaeanoue – ?aaee aannia?oiie neaau.

Aunoea oaeinoaa ethaae. Nia/aea /aeiaae aeieaeai iiethaeoue i?ae?aniia
oaei e ?iaeeoue i iai i?ae?aniua iunee. Caoai ii noaiao ethaeoue ana
i?ae? oaea, a e iaeiiio ioeaaeaao eai ni/oao oaeoth ethaiaue iaeeie.
Iinea yoiai ii ia/iao oeaieoue e?anioo aeooe auoa /ai e? oaea. iinoeaiao
e?anioo ianouiuo aeae e iau/aaa. Io ianou aeae ii aeieaeai ia?aeoe e
iaoeai, /oiau oaeaeaoue eo e?anioo e no?aiynue e e?anioa oaea ai anai aa
iiiaiia?acee ia auoue ?aaii i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe eiai-oi eee /aai-oi, a
iiaa?iooue e ioe?uoiio ii?th e?aniou e nica?oeay aai a iaoeeiiiii
no?aieaiee e ioae?inoe, iaeeueii ?iaeaeaoue aaeeeieaiiua ?a/e e iunee.,
iiea ii ia oaeaeeo oie aaeeinoaaiiie iaoee, eio eanaaony e?aniou.

E?ANIOA: Oio eoi i?ieaeao aanue iooue oaeaeeo a eiioea yoiai iooe ia/oi
oaeeaeoaeueii i?ae?aniia, ia/oi, ai-ia?auo aa/iia, o.a. ia ciathuaa ie
?iaeaeaiey ie nia?oe, ie ?inoa, ie ineoaeaiey, ai-aoi?uo ia a /ai-oi
i?ae?aniia, a a /ai-oi aacia?aciia. E?anioa i?aaenoaiao i?aae iei naia
ii naaa, /a?ac naay naiia, anaaaea iaeeiaeiaay, ana ae?oaea
?aciiaeaeiinoe i?ae?aniiai i?e/anoiu e iae oaeei ia?acii, /oi iie
aicieeatho e aeaioo, a aa ia noaiiaeony aieueoa eee iaiueoa. Ii oaeaeeo
aa /enoie, aac i?eianae, aac eneaaeaiee, ia ia?aiaiaiioth /ae ieioueth.
Yoi aiaeanoaaiiay e?anioa.

*ae oaeaeaaoee yoo e?anioo noiaao ?iaeeoue ia i?eciaee niaa?oainoaa, a
niaa?oaiii enoeiiia, iioiio /oi iinoeaaao ii enoeio, a ia i?ec?ae.

3.3 Oeeinioey A?enoioaey

?iaeeeny a O?aeeeneii ai?iaea Noaae?, iao/aeny a ieaoiiianeie
aeaaeaiee. (384-322 aeiy). Iinea nia?oe Ieaoiia i?iaeeaae a Aoa?iaa
(ino?ia Eanain) a caoai i?e aeai?a iaeaaeiineiai oea?y Oeeeiia a
ea/anoaa ainieoaoaey aai nuia – Aeaenaiae?a. A 335 aiaeo aica?aoeeny a
Aoeiu, aaea iniiaae oeieo – aeiianee (Eeeae).

Aei ian aeioee ia ana oaenou A.. Iiiaea ec aeioaaeoeo ii aeaeeiiio ia
yae. oaenoaie naiiai A.. Iai?eia? “Iaoaoeceea” ii-aeaeeiiio
i?aaenoaaeyao ninoaaeaiiua neooaoaeyie naiaeu ?acee/iuo ii a?aiaie
eo?nia A. I/aiue aaaeiu aeey iiiei. A. aai ni/ei.: “I aeooa”, “Oeceea”,
“eaoaai?ee”. O. A. ioaaouaaao aii?inu eiaeee, ineoieiaee oai?e iiciaiey,
O/aiey i auoee, einiieiaee, oeceee, ciieiaee, iieeo. yeiiiiee, iieeoeee,
yoeee, iaaeaaiaeee, ?eoi?eee, ynoaoeee. Ii ianoaeaeaao e e?eoeeoao
ioaeaeueiua iieiaeaiey I., aoiienoia, ieoaai?aeoeaa, ?aiieo
iaoa?eaeenoia. Yoe e?eo. aaaaeaiey i?aaenoaaeytho a. oeaiiinoue.

E?eoeea I. oai?eee “eaeae”, Eiaeea. O/aiea A. – iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci.
Iii neiaeeeinue a ?ac. e?eoeee o/ai.I. ia eaeayo. Yoa oai?.(ia eaeayo)
ianinoiyo. ii ?yaeo i?e/ei:

1. Eaeae I nooue i?inoua eiiee, eee aeaieieee, /oanoaaiiuo aauae e ia
ioee/athony io ieo ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth.

2.Oae eae I. ioaeaeee ie? eaeae io ie?a aauae, oi eaeae ie/aai ia iiaoo
aeaoue nouanoaiaaieth aauae. E oioy I. ooaa?aeaeaao, aoaeoi aaue
i?e/anoiu e eaeayi, yoa eo i?e/anoiinoue i?inoi iaoaoi?a. O/aiea I ia
iiaeao iauynieoue ioiio eaeae e aauai aua e iioiio, /oi I. io?eoeaao
niiniaiinoue eaeae auoue iaiin?. nouiinoyie aauae.

3.Ooaa?aeaeay , aoaeoi eaeae ioiinyony e ae?. eaeayi, eae iauaa e
/anoiiio I. aiaaeaao a i?ioeai?a/ea. I?e oaeii iiieiaiee eaaeaeay eaeay
anoue iaeiia?aiaiii e nouiinoue, oae eae aoaeo/e iauae, iia i?enoonoaoao
a iaiaa iauae, e ianouiinoue, o.e. naia iia a naith i/a?aaeue i?e/anoia
e noiyuae iaae iath aieaa iauae eaeaa, eio. e aoaeao aa nouiinoueth.

4.I. o/aiea i nou. eaeae iacaaeneiuo ii ioiio e aauai /oanoa ie?a
i?eaiaeeo e iaeaiiio auaiaeo: oae eae iaaeaeo eaeayie e aauaie anoue
noiaenoai e oae eae ii I., aeey anaai noiaeiiai aeieaeia nou aaeay, oi
e?iia eaeae , iai?ei. /ae. e e?iia niioa ae aauae, aeieaeia nou eaeay
oiai noiaeiiai , /oi nou iaaeaeo ieie. Aeaeaa aeey yoie iiaie eaeae /ae
e aeey iao iiae iath ia?aie eaeae e aa aauae aeieaeia nou aua iaeia –
o?aouey – eaeay…

5.Iainiaea eaeae a ie? aa/iuo nouiinoae, ioee/iue io eciai/eaiai /oanoa.
ie?a, I. eeoee naay aici. iauynieoue oaeou ?iaeaeaiey, aeaaee e
aeaeaeaiey.

Ii A. eaaeaeay aaeei. aauue anoue aaeeinoai iaoa?ee e oi?iu. Oi?ia
iaiaoa?eaeueia, ii iia ia anoue e iioonoi?iiiyy nouiinoue. Oae iaaeiue
oa? anoue aaeeinoai aauanoaa – iaaee – e oi?iu – oa?iaeaeiinoe, eio.
i?eaeaia iaaee ianoa?ii, ii a ?aaeueii nou. oa?a iia ninoaaeyao iaeii n
aauanoaii.

I?ioeaiiie. iaoa?ee e oi?iu iaaaconeiaiay. Iaaeue anoue iaoa?ey ii
ioiioaieth e oa?o, ii iia aea e oi?ia ii ioiio. e oec. yeaiaioai,
niaaeeiaieai eio., ii A. yaeyaony iaaeue. Iaaeue eeoaia oi?io o.e. aua
ia yae. oa?ii e a oi aea a?aiy iia anoue aiciiaeiinoue oi?iu. Oi?ia
anoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue oiai aiciiaeiinoueth /aai yae. iaoa?ey.
Niaeanii . a i?aaeaeao ie?a /oanoa. aauae aiciiaeai iineaaeia. ia?aoiae
io iaoa?ee e niioiineoaeueiie ae oi?ia e iaiai?i. Eaoaai?eee yoe o.i.
noaiiayony oaeo/eie.

eaaeaeay oi?ia iiaeio ?anni. e eae iaoa?ey aeey eio. aeieaeia nou
niioa. ae aunoay oi?ia. Iai?eia? anee ee?ie/, yae. oi?iie aeeiu, ?anni.
eae iaoa?eth, oi oi?iie yoie iao. aoaeao aeii. Iaeiaei oae iu
iiaeieiaainy aei oi?iu, eio. oaea iaeuecy ?anni eae iaoa?eth. Oaeie
i?aaeaeueiie oi?iie yae. ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue eee aia. – eaeaaeeci. Ii
aiiaua ii A. /oanoaaiii- aini?ei aaue anoue aaeeinoai iaoa?ee e oi?iu.

Oai?ey iiciaiey. Enoiaeiay oi/ea – nouanoa. iacaaeneiie io noauaeoa
iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iuou. /ae. yaeythony io?aaeaieyie,
eiieyie i?aaeiaoia ai. ie?a. O. i. enoi/ieeii iiciaiey yae. /oanoa iiuo,
a iuou. i?aaeiieaaaao iacaaeneiue io niciaiey i?aaeiao aini?eyoey. E
oioy ii iieaaaao , /oi a ?acoia iao ie/aai, /oi a auei au ?aiueoa a
iuou., ooaa?aeaeaiea yoi ii ia ?ani?inoaiyao ia iineaaeiea aeneiiu
iaoee, eio ii aai iiaieth ia iiaoo auoue auaaaeaiu ec aunoeo ii
ioiioaieth e iei iieiaeaiee e eio. aeieaeiu auoue i?eciaiu
oiic?eoaeueiuie, a ia iiuoiuie i?aaeiinueeaie ciaiee.

Eiaeea ii A. – iaoa i aeieacaoaeuenoaa, a oaeaea i oi?iao iuoeaiey,
iaiao aeey iiciaiey. Nayce iuneae yae. ii A. io?aaeaieyie iauaeo. nou
naycae. A. ?anni. eia. no?iaiea noaeaeaiee, aii?inu i oa?ieiao, ia
ii?aaeaeaiee no?iaiee e i i?aa oiicaeeth/aiee e aeie-a. A oeaio?a anao
yoeo enne. eaaeeo oai?ey oiicaeeth/aiee. A niioa. n niaoeeoeeie
aioe/iiai ciaiey, ia?aie/. i?yiui iaaethaeaieai e iino?iaieai oiic?eo.
aeiioac, A. aeaaiia cia/. i?eaeaao aeinoiaa?iui e iaiaoiaeeiui auaiaeai,
a ia auaiaeai aa?iyoiinoe e aiciiaeiinoe. Iiyoiio ii ia ia?aue ieai
uaeaeaaao aeaeae iunee io iauaai e /anoiiio (aeaaeoeoeey) a ia
eiaeoeoeethia?au. iaei aieiaiey.

Einiieiaey e oeceea. Einiieiaey – aaioeaio?e/aneay. Caiey – oa?.
Enoi/iee aeaeaeaiey – aia (ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue).

Oeceea. Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo i?eioeeiia yae. o/aiea i oeaeaniia?. a
i?e?iaea. Yoio i?eioeei ?ani?ino?ai. ia ana auoea e aeaaea ia aiaa. Yoa
oeaeaniia?. yaeyaony aioo?aiiae e aanniciaoaeueiie oeaean. i?e?iaeu.
I?eia?u oeaeaniia?. aeaeae a ?inoa i?aaieciia.

Iauanoaaiii iieeo. oai?ee A. Iao/iia nica?oeaiea anoue aunoay
aeiaeanoue, iaeaieaa niaa?o. aeae aeaaeainoaa. Nica?oe aeayoaeueiinoue
?acoia nou. ?aaee naay naiie, ia no?aieony ie e eaeie aiaoiae oeaee e
caee. a naaa ae iaeiie naienoaaiiia ianeaaeaeaiea. Iaeeo/oee ec anao
eeannia – caieaaeaeue/aneee., iaeiaei iie a neeo naiaai ia?aca aeecie e
oa??eoi?. ?aniueaiiinoe ia iiaoo aeoeaii aiaoeaaoueny a aii?.
oi?aaeaiey, Yoei aeaeii aeieaeiu caiei n?aaeiacaaeeoi/ioa eeannu
iauanaa.

A ?acea/aao 3 oi?. e 3 ieioeo oi?iu oi?aaeaiey ain-aii. Oi?ioeie ii
n/eoaao oi?iu, i?e eio. eneeth/aia aiciiaeiinoue ei?unoiiai
eniieueciaaiey aeanoe, a naia aeanoue neoaeeo iauanoao a oeaeii – oaeiau
iiia?oey, a?enoie?aoey e iieeoey (aeanoue n?aaeiaai eeanna, iniia. ia
niaoaiee ieeaa?oee e aeaiie?aoee). Ieioea eee au?iaeeaoeany oi?iu – yoi
oe?aiey, ieeaa?oey e e?aeiyy aeaiie?aoey.

3.4 N?aaeiaaaeiaay oeeinioey. Iiieiaeeci, ?aaeeci Oiia Aeaeineee.

Aicieeei oaiae. iauanoai (e?aiinoiia i?aai). Cia/. ?ieue ea?aei
aeooiaainoai. Iiianou?e auee e e?aiinoyie e oeaio?aie caieaaeaeey e
i/aaaie i?inaauaiey e eoeueoo?u. Oea?eiaue noaea o?aieoaeueieoeae
ienueiaiiinoe e ia?aciaaiiinoe a Aa?iia. ?aiiaa n?aaeiaaaeiauea
oa?aeoa?. Noaiiaeaieai o?eno. aeiaiaoeee a oneia. oi?ie?iaaiey aa?.
aioae. a ?-oa iaaeaiey ?eineie eiia?ee. A oneiaeyo aeanoeiai aeeeoaoa
oea?eae e ain aeanoe o. auea iauyaeaia neoaeaieie aiaineiaey, eio.
aeieaeia auea eniieueciaaoue naie ?aoeeii. Aiia?ao aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey
aeiaiaoia o?enoeainoaa. Yoa oee. iieo/eea iacaaiea
“noieanoeee”.(iie?aeanue ia oi?i. eiaeeo A?enoioaey)

Aua a 5 a.(o?enoeainoai oaea ain. ?aeeaey a A?aoeee e ?eia) auei
neeueii aeeyiea oee. iaiieaoiiecia, a?aaeaeaaiiai o?enoeainoao.
(Iao?eno. o. Oeieu auee cae?uou ii aeae?aoo eii. THnoeaia a 529a.) I?e
yoii iaeie o?. Eaeaieiae neeiiyeenue e io?eoeaieth, ae?oaea e
eniieueciaaieth o/aiee o. Eaeaaeenoia ae?aaiinoe. Oae aicieeea eeo-?a
aiieiaaoia (caueoieeia) o?enoeainoaa, a ca iae aici. iao?enoeea – ni/.
iooeia oea?eae, ienao., caeiaeeaoeo iniiau o. o?enoeainoaa.

Ni 2a. A?. aiieiaaou ia?au e eiia?aoi?ai, i?aneaaeiaaaoei o?. Iie no?ai
aeieacaoue, /oi o?. iiaeieiaao oaeea aii?. eio. noaaeea e i?aaeoanoa.
a?. oee., ii aeaao aieaa niaa?o eo ?ac?aoaiea. Aeaeiue aiieiaao –
Oa?ooeeai (ec Ea?oaaaia, 2a.) – nou. iai?eie?eiia ?aciiaeanea iaaeaeo
?aeeaeae, aiae. ioe?iaaieai, nayu. ienaieai e /ae. ioae?inoueth. Ia
nicaeaa o. nenoai ai. iaeiaei iaiaoeee e?oa aii?inia, eio. noaee
iniiaiuie aeey o?. o. (i aiaa, i oai?aiee ie?a, i i?e?. /ae e aai
oeaeyo). Aiieiaaoeea eniieuecoao eiae/aneea aeiaiaeu, ia?auaiiua e
?acoio, aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa auoey aiaa, aannia?oey aeooe. ?acae?aao
aeiaiaeu, ia?auaiiua i?ioea ?aeeaee e ioaeaeueiuo aeiaiaoia.
I?ioeai?a/ea a oii, /oi aoaeo/e ?aoeeiiaeueiie ii oi?ia, aiieiaaoeea
e??aoeeiiaeueia ii niaea?aeaieth, o. a. ia?auaynue e ?acoio, aiai?eo i
iaiinoeaeeiinoe ?acoiii ?aeeaeiciuo aeiaiaoia. Neeiiia e nioenoeea e
aeiaiaoecio.

Iaeaieaa aeeyo. ec iooeia oea?eae – yoi Aaaonoei (354 -430, ?iae. a
Oaaanoa -ao?ee. Ioieaeey) Aeieacuaae, /oi aia yae. aunoei auoeai, Aia
nioai?ee ie? ec ie/aai ii naiae aeia?ie aiea, a ia ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe.
Eaeae Ieaoiia — yoi iunee oai?oea ia?aae aeoii oai?aiey. Ie?
i?aaenoaaeyao niaith ai?a?. eanoieoeo nouanoa, ainoiaeyuoth e
nicaeaoaeth. Iniaia ianoi caieiaao /ae., eio niaaeeiyao i?e?. iao oaea e
iaeaaeaao ?acoii. aeooie e naia. aiee. Aeooa iaiaoa?, aannia?ia.
Noauaeoeaii /ae aeaenoaoao naiaiaeii, ii ia naiii aeaea ana, /oi ii
aeae., aeaeaao /a?ac iaai aia. Iinoaaee i?iaeaio aeeiaieee ee/iinoe e
aeeiaieee iaua/aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee. ?acaee o?enoeaineoth eiioeaioeeth
anaie?iie enoi?ee, i?ioeaiiinoaaea a?aae

/aeiaa/aneee – a?aoiaiia naaoneia ainoaea?noai, a?aaeo aiaeueaio –
anaie?iia ainiiaenoai oea?eae. Aaae ?yae eaeae iaiieaoiiecia.

Noieanoeea. Ae. iai?aaeaiea a ?aca o. n?aaeiaa. Iia i?aiiaeaa a oeieao
e oieaa?neoaoao. 3 ia?eiaea: 1.?aiiyy noie.(9-12a) 2.ia?eiae
c?aeinoe(13a) 3.oiaaeie (14-15a) Oeaio?. aii?in – i ioiioaiee ciaiey e
aa?a. N/eoaeinue , /oi enoeia oaea aeaia a aeae. oaenoao e iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeeueii enoieeiaaoue eo. O.e. a. oaenou ioee/aeenue eiineacaoaeueiui
oa?., oi aeey eo oieeiaaiey ?aaia. eciu?aiiay eiaeea.

Aii?in: aia aaeei, ii o?ie/ai a o?ao eeoeao – ioaoe, nui e nayoie aeoo.
Ionthaea aii?in ia ioiioaiee iauaai e aaeeie/iiio. Nii? ii yoiio iia.
ecaanoai eae nii? i oieaa?naeeyo, o.a i i?e?. Iaueo iaeia e iiiyoee.
Nou. 2 iniiaiuo ?aoaiey yoiai aii?ina. 1. iauea ?iaeu (oiea.) nou.
?aaeueii, iacaaeneii io /ae. – ?aaeeci.(Eiaii Neio Y?eoaaia, Oiia
Aeaeineee) 3 aeaea nou. oieaa?naeee: (o?iyeinoue nouanoaiaaiey) “aei
aauae” a aiae. ?acoia, “a naieo aauao” eae eo nouiinoue eee oi?iu e
“iinea aauae” – a /ae. ?acoia eae ?-o aano?aeoeee. – oia?aiiue ?aaeeci (
nou e e?aeiee ?aae. – iauaa nou. oieueei aia aauae -Ainaeuei). I. Aaaey?
– nou. oieueei aaeei. aaue. Ii iie iiaoo auoue noiaeiu iaaeaeo niaie, ia
yoii no. e iniia. aiciiaeiinoue oieaa?naeee. Eiaaea iu ooaa?aeaeaai
/oi-oi ii ioiio e iiiaei aauai, iaoa ooaa?aeae. ioiineony ia e aau., a e
neiao (yoi iiieiaeeci). Ii ia?yaeo n yoei ii i?aaeiie. ?aaeueiinoue
iaueo iiiyoee a oia aiaa. Yoi ia?acoeu ii eio aia oai?eo aaue. Ca/aoee
eaeaaeecia e iaiieaoiieci.

Oieaa?naeee ia nou. ?aaeueii, iacaa io /aeia. Iie nooue oieueei
eiaia.(?inoeaeei). Nou. oieueei eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia e oieueei iii iiaeao
auoue i?aaei. iiciaiey. – iiieiaeeci. I?aaenoaaeoaeue Oeeueyi Ieeai.
Ioaeaeee ciaiea io aa?u, aa?a oai neeueiaa, /ai neeueiaa ?aoeeiiaeueiay
iaaeieacoaiinoue aeiaiaoia Caaea/a ciaiey – iinoeaeaiea /anoiiai,
aaeeie/iiai. Iauaa nou. oieueei a oia /ae.. A naieo aauao iao ie iauaai
ie aaeeie/iiai. E oi e ae?. i?enoua oieueei iaoaio niiniao ?anniio?aiey
iaeiie e oie aea aaue. Aeey iauyniaiey ia?aoiaea iunee e iauaio I.
aaiaeeo iiiyoea eioaioeee, o.a. i iai?aaeaiiinoe iunee, i eia. E ineo.
aeoao eee ciaeao. Ana iauea iiiyoey – yoi ciaee, eiae/anee iaicia/athuea
iiiaea iauaeou. iiieiaeeci – ca/aoee iaoa?eaeecia.

Eiaii Y?eoaaia— I?e?iaeo ?acaeaeyao ia /aou?a /anoe

1) i?e?iaea ianioai?aiiay e oai?yuay (aia);

i?e?iaea nioai?aiiay e oai?yuay (eaeae, iaiin?aaenoaaiiua i?e/eiu
aaeeie/iuo aauae);

i?e?iaea nioai?aiiay e iaoai?yuay(eiia/iue ie? e caiiia auoea /aeiaaea);

i?e?iaea iaoai?yuay e ianioai?aiiay (aia eae oeaeue ie?iaiaii?ioeanna).

Ie? aa/ii iuneei aiaii. Ia oiia iauae ea?oeiu ie?iiiieiaiea Y aieaa
aeeiaie/ii e aeeaeaeoe/ii. A ?acoeueoaoa a?aoiiaaeaiey /aeiaaea nicaeaiu
aaeeie/iua aaue, a ?acoeueoaoa eneoieaiey ana aica?auaaony a ie? eaeae e
a aiaa. A aio?iiieiaee – /aeiaae iaeaaeaao naiaiaeie aiee,
i?aaeii?aaeaeaiea anoue iauee aiaee/iinoiue ie?iaie caeii. aiinaieiaey –
iaiiciaaaaiinoue aiaa, a naiiiiciaiea /aeiaaea anoue oneiaea iiciaiey
aa?u e ie?a. Inoaeaeai oea?eiaueth e i?eaiai?ai e niaeaeaieth.

AAAEss? – aeeaeaeoeea, enneaaeiaaiea enoeiu iooai ianoaeaeaiey
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo noaeaeaiee. Iuoaeny i?eie?eoue ciaiea e aa?o. Oia?aiiue
iiieiaeeci, iuoaeny i?eie?eoue ?inoeaeeia (e?aeiee iiieiaeeci) e
Aeeueiia e Oaiii (?aaeeci). Aiai?ee i eaeaa iaiaoiaeeiinoe a
aiaeanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

AeOIN NEIOO EIAII – ioaeaeeoue oeeinioeth (eae ?aoeeiiaeueii
iinoeaathuoth ie?, oai?aoe/aneia ciaiea) io oaieiaee (i?aeoe/aneay
aeenoeeieeia aeey nianaiey aeooe). Naiaiaea aiee e iiae/eiaiea ?acoia
aiea – aeaaea o aiaa, a aia anoue aaniethoiay naiaiaea.

Oiia Aeaeineee(1225-1274). Ini. oeaeue io?aaioea iniiaiuo aeiaiaoia o?.
aa?io/aiey a oi?iao cae?aaiai niunea. Iie?aynue ia iicaeiaai A?eno.
eaiiiece?iaae o?. iiiei. niioiioaiey eaeaaeueiiai e iaoa?. eae niioi.
ecia/aeueiiai i?eioeeia oi?iu n iaonoaiiaeao. i?eioeeiii
iaoa?ee.(neaaaeoei aeaeii auoey). Neeyiea ia?aii?eioeeiia oi?iu e iaoa?.
?iaeaeaao ie? eiaeea. yaeaiee. Aeooa /ae. Anoue oi?iiia?ac i?eioeei,
iaeiaei naia iieiia eiaeea. aiieiuaiea iia iieo/aao oieueei i?e niaaeei.
n oaeii.

Oae aue ?ac?aoai iaeei ec naiuo ino?uo aii?. o? noie. Noie aeieaeia
auea enoieeiauaaoue naia ioiio. e iaoa?ee o.e. Eenon O?enoin aue yaeai a
aeaea /aeia., o.a iauaaeeiee a naaa aiae.(eaeaae) e /ae. (iaoa?)
i?e?iaeo. Yoio oaeo ia aeaaae aiciiaeiinoe o?aeoiaaoue iao. eae ie/oi
(/aai o?aaiaae aeiaiao i oai?aiee ie?a ec ie/aai). Iiyoiio eaaeeo
iaoa?ee O.A. n iii. Oeaeie nenoaiu ooii/aiiuo ?annoaeaeaiee a ea/anoaa
“neaaaeoaai aeaea auoey” auea aini?eiyoa oea?eiaueth eae auoiae ec
ooieea.

Aaaei cia/aiea eiaei o/aiea i ?acee/ee nouiinoe e nouanoaiaaiey. Iie
niaiaaeatho oieueei a aiaa. Nouanoaia. auoa nouiinoe, ioiineony e iae
eae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue e aiciiaeiinoe.

Aeie-ai nou. aiaa. Eaaeaeay yae eiaao i?e/eio. Iiaeieiaynue ii
eanoieoea i?e/ei iu i?eoiaeei e iaiaoiaeeiinoe nou. aiaa – aa?oiaiie
i?e/eiu.

Ee/iinoue — naiia aeaai?iaeiia ai anae i?e?iaea yaeaiea, eioaeeaeo
iaeaaeaao i?aainoiaenoaii iaae aieae. Ii iiciaiea aiaa ana aea ieaea,
/ai ethaiaue e aiao. I?iaeaia aeaoo caeiiia – aiaeanoaaiiue, eioi?ue
ii?aaeaeyao ainiiaenoai oea?eae iaae ainoaea?noaii, e anoanoaaiiue – /oi
aia aeiaeee a oiu ethaeae. I?e/eneai e eeeo nayouo.

3.5 Iaoiaeieiaey O.Aaeiia

O?ainen Ayeii

Ia?aui o. , niciaoaeueii iinoaaeaoei ia?aae niaie caaea/o ?ac?aaioee
iao/iiai iaoiaea ia iniiaa iao. iiieiaiey i?e?iaeu, aue O.Ayeii (1561 –
1626). Anoanoaiciaiea – enoeiiay iaoea, a oeceea, iie?. ia /oanoa iiuo –
aaaeiaeoay /anoue anoanoaiciaiey. *oanoaa iaiia?aoeiu e anoue enoi/iee
anyeiai ciaiey. Iaoea anoue iiuoiay iaoea e ninoieo a i?eiaiaiee
?aoeeii. iaoiaea e /oanoaaiiui aeaiiui. Eiaeoeoeey, aiaeec, n?aaiaiea,
iaaethaeaiea, yenia?eiaio nooue aeaaiua oneiaey ?aoe. iaoiaea. Aeaaiue
o?oae – “Iiaue I?aaiii”. A yoii i?iecaaae A. niciaoaeueii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao naia iiieiaiea iaoee e aa iaoiaea oiio iiieiaieth, ia
eio. iniiaai “I?aaiii” A?enoioaey.

A. ?acee/aao 2 aeaea iiuoia: 1. “ieiaeiiiniua” – oeaeue – i?eianaiea
iaiin?. iieuecu /aeiaaeo 2. “naaoiiiniua” – oeaeue ia iaiin?. iieueca, a
iiciaiea caeiiia e naienoa aauae

I?aaeiinueea i?aia?ac iaoee – e?eoeea anae nou noie. e niiiaiea a
enoeiiinoe anaai, /oi aei neo ii? eacaeinue enoeiie. Iaeiaei niiiaiea
eeoue n?aaenoai iaoiaeaeaiey aei?iae e enoeia. Iaaeinoiaa?iinoue
ecaanoiiai aeinaea ciaiey iaoneiaeaia iaiaaeaaeiinoueth oiic?eoaeueiiai
iaoiaea oiicaeeth/aiee e aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Ia?aui oneiaeai ?aoi?iu iaoee
yae. oniaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeia iaiauaiey – eiaeoeoeee. Neaaeothuei
oaaii aeieaeii auoue i/euaiea ?acoia io caaeoaeaeaiee. A. ?acee/aao 4
aeaea oaeeo caae. eee eaeieia – ?iaea, iaua?u, ?uiea , oaao?a.

Eaeieu ?iaea – i?ai, iaone i?e?iaeie /aeiaaea. *ae noaeeo i i?e? ii
aiaeiaee n nianoaaiiuie naienoaaie. Ionthaea aiciee oaeaieiae/aneia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?e?iaea, ioeaee, i?ienoaeathuea ec ianiaa?oainoaa /ae
/oanoa, iiae aeeyieai ?acee/iuo aeaeaiee, aea/aiee.

Iaua?u – ioeaee, aici. aneaaenoaea noauaeo i?aaeii/oaiee, neiiaoee,
aioeiaoee o/aiuo: iaeie aieueoa aeaeyo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo i?aaeiaoaie,
ae?. – eo noiaenoaa. Iaeie neeiiiu aa?eoue a iaiia?ao aaoi?eoao
ae?aaiinoe, ae?, iaiai?io, ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea oieueei iiaiio.

?uiea – i?ai, aiciee aneaaenoaea iauaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie iin?aaenoaii
neia. Ii ai iiiaeo ne. cia/aiey neia auee onoaiiaeaiu ia ia iniiaa
iiciaiey nouiinoe i?aaeiaoa, a ia iniiaa nia. neo/ aia/aoeaiey io yoiai
i?aaeiaoa.

Oaao?a – i?ai, ii?iaeaeaaiua iae?eoe/anee onaiaiiuie eiaeiuie iiaieyie.
eaeieu. o. ia a?iaeaeaiu iaoaio oio? iie aicieeatho aneaaenoaea
iiae/eiaiey oia ioea iiaieyi.

Ciaiea aeaeia i?aiyonoaee iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue ioeaie. Iaeiaei yoi
ciaiea eeoue io?eoe. noi?iia caae. nicaeaiey iao/iiai iaoiaea. iaiao
oaeaea iieiae o/aiea i iaoiaea enneaaeia. A enoi?ee iaoee /aoei
aunooiatho 2 iooe eee iaoiaea enneaaeia: aeiaiaoe/aneee e yiie?e/aneee.
Aeiai iaoiae ia/ei n iaueo oiic? iieiaeaiee e no?ai auaanoe ec ieo ana
/anoi neo/ae. Aeiaiaoee iioiae ia

iaoea, eio ec naiiai naay oeao iaooeio.

O/, neaaeothu yiie? iaoiaeo iioiae ia io?aauey, eio aanii?yaei/ii oaueo
ana, /oi ie iiiaaeaony aio ia iooe. Enoeiiue iaoiae ninoieo a oinoaaiiie
ia?a?aaioea iaoa?eaeia, eio aeinoaaeyao iiuo.( i/aea)

Aei neo ii? ioe?uoey aeaeaeenue neo/aeii. Eo auei au aieueoa, anee au
enneaaeia. auee aii?oaeaiu i?aa iaoiaeii. Iaoiae – yoi iooue, aeaaiia
n?aaenoai ene. E iaio ioiinyony i?oaeey, niaa?o. niiniaiinoue iaoaai
aini?eyoey, e i?oaeey, niaa?o. naio /aeia iuneue. Iaoeo ?anoe?yao ia
ianneaiia nica?oeaiea, a yenia?eiaio, o.a aeoeaiia eniuoaiea i?e?iaeu.

Aeaaiia oneiaea i?ia?anna ciaiey – niaa?oainoaiaaiea niiniaiinoe
oiicaeeth/aiey, aaaeiaeoae oi?iie eio. yaeyaony i?aaeeueiay eiaeoeoeey.
Aei A. oee, ienaaoea i eiaeoeoeee ia?auaee aieiaiea ia oa neo/ae, eio
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho aeieacuaaaiua eee iaiu. eie iieiaeaiey. A. iiae/a?eioe
cia/aiea oao neo/aaa, eio. ii?iaa?aatho iaiauaiea, i?ioeai?a/ao aio. Yoi
oae iacua. Io?eoeaoaeueiua einoaioeee.

Iaoa?ey — niaieoiiinoue /anoeoe, i?e?iaea — niaieoiiinoue oae n
iiiaiia?aciuie ea/anoaaie. Iaoa?ey eiaao aeaeoecio, oaieioo, oyaeanoue e
o.ae.Ia niaeanai n ionoioie, oaeoe/anee i?ino?ainoai naycaii n ianoii,
caieiaaiui iaoa?eae (i?ioyaeaiiinoue), a a?aiy —- iauaeoeaiay ia?a
nei?inoe iaoa?eaeueiuo oae (iieo/aaony, /oi yoi anoue aioo?aiiaa
naienoai iaoa?ee).aeaeaeaiea anoue i?e?iaeaeaiiia naienoai iaoa?ee. Iii
aa/ii. Iacaae 19 oi?i aeaeaeaiey.

3.6 Aa?iiaeneee ?aoeeiiaeeci 17-18aa. ?aia Aeaea?o, Aaiaaeeeo Nieiica,
Aioo?eae Eaeaieoe

?AIA AeAEA?O – INIIAIIIEIAEIEE ?AOeEIIAEECIA (?ANNOAEAe. I IAOIAeA)

?iaeeeny a 1596 a ai O?. a naiuea aeai?yieia. Neoaeee a a?iee. Iiiai
iooaoanoaiaae. Aeieaea aiaeu aeee a Ieaea?eaiaeao, aaea caieiaeny
iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth. A 1649a. ia?anaeeeny a Noieaieuei, aaea e
oia? a 1650a.

Ini. /a?oa o. ie?iaicc?aiey – aeoaeeci. Ae. aeiioneaao 2 iacaaeneiuo
ae?oa io ae?. ia?aiia/aea: iuneyuoth noanoaioeeth e iaoa?eaeueioth
“i?ioyaeaiioth noanoaioeeth”. Ia?aoth eco/aao iaoaoeceea, a aoi?oth —
oeceea. Iaoaoeceea — aii?inu aeooiaiua, iiciaiey e auoey. Oeceea —
i?e?iaeo. A a?aieoeao aai oeceee iaoa?ey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoa.
noanoaioeeth, aaeeinoaaiiia iniiaaiea auoey e iiciaiey. A oi aea a?aiy a
ineoieiaee, oai?ee iiciaiey, a o/aiee i auoee Ae. – eaeaaeeno. A oai?
iici. Ae. iauyaeyao naiie aeinoiaa?iie enoeiie enoeio i nou. niciaiey,
iuoeaiey:

“ss iuneth neaaeiaaoaeueii ss nouanoaoth”. A o/. i auoee ii ia oieueei
i?eciaao nou aeooiaiie noanoaioeee, ii e ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iaae ieie
iaaeie a ea/anoaa aunoae noanoaioeee i?aauaaao aia.

Aeaea?o – auaeathueeny o/aiue. Ii oai?aoe aiaeeo. aaiiao?ee, aaae
iaoiae eii?aeeiao, aeaaeae iiiyoeai i ooieoeee. Io Aeae. aaaeao ia/aei
neno aeaaa?ae/aneeo iaicia/aiee. A iao. Ae. oeacae ia ioiineoaeueiinoue
aeaeaeaiey e iieiy, noi?ioee?iaae c-i aeaenoaey e i?ioeaiaeaenoaey, a
oaeaea c-i nio?aiaiey iieiiai eie-aa aeaeae. i?e nioaea?aiee aeaoo
iaoi?oaeo oae. A einiiaiiee auaeaeioe eaeath anoanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey
nieia/iie nenoaiu; iniiaiie oi?iie aeaeaeaiey einie/aneie iaoa?ee,
ii?aaeaeythuae no?iaiea iaaaniuo oae, ii n/eoae aeo?aaia aeaeaeaiea aa
/anoeoe. I?e yoii iiieiaiea auei aua iaoaienoe/aneia.

Ae. ioiaeaeanoaeye iaoa?eth n i?ioyaeaieai, eee i?ino?ainoaii, n/eoay,
/oi /oanoa. aini?eieiaaiua ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoia naie ii naaa, o.a
iauaeoeaii ia nou. Auaiaeu ec yoiai : ie?iaay iaoa?ey (=i?ino?ainoai)
aani?aaeaeueia, iaeii?iaeia, ia eiaao ionoio e aaneiia/ii aeaeeia.
ieioiinoue e aaiiao?e/aneea naienoaa yaeythony nouiinoueth oaeaniinoe.
Naiaeeo ana ea/anoaaiiia ?aciiia?acea i?e?. yaeaiee e :

iaoa?ee, oiaeae. n i?ino?ainoaii e

e aa aeaeaeaieth. Aea. aicieeaao a ?-oa oie/ea. ia?aii. oie/ie aeae aia.
Aia nicaeae iaoa?eth, aeaeaeaiea e iieie. I?e yoii i?ioeai?a/ea –
ionoiou iao, ii i?e yoii anoue ioiineoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea, /oi icia/aao
einaaiiia i?eciaiea ionoiou.

I?iaeaia iaoiaea. Ae. euao aaconeiaii aeinoiaa?iue enoiaeiue oacen aeey
anaai ciaiey e iaoiae, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai iiaeii, iie?aynue ia yoio
oacen, iino?ieoue noieue aea aeinoiaa?iia caeaiea iaoee. Ca eno ioieo ii
i?eieiaao niiiaiea a iauai?eiyoii ciaiee ( oae eae oaeiai oacena ii ia
iao a noieanoeea). Yoi niiiaiea anoue oieueei i?aaeaa?eo. i?eai. Iiaeii
niiiaaaoueny ai anai, iaeiaei naii niiiaiea ai anyeii neo/aa nouanoaoao.
Niiiaiea anoue iaeei ec aeoia iuoeaiey. ss niiiaaathnue, iineieueeo y
iuneth. Anee o.i niiiaiee – aeinoia. oaeo, oi iii nou. eeoue iineieueeo
nou iuoeaiea, eeoue iine y nai nou a ea/anoaa iuneyuaai. (ss iuneth
neaaeia. y nou) Yoi iieiaeaiea e anoue eneiiay aeinoiaa?iay iii?a
ciaiey. Yoio auaiae ia o?. eiae/aneiai aeie-aa, ii anoue ?-o eiooeoeee
oia.

ssniinoue e io/aoeeainoue iuoeaiey Ae ioeai/ii iauyaeyao iaiao e
aeinoaoi/iuie i?eciaeaie anyeiai aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey. E?eoa?ee
enoeiiinoe ciaiey o.i ia a i?aeoeea, a a /aeia. niciaiee.

Eaeaaeeci Ae. onoaoaeeny ?aeeaeiciuie i?aaeiin. aai nenoaiu. A neeo
yoiai aeey aeie. ?aaeueiiai nou. ie?a iaiaoiaeeii aeie. nou. aiaa. A
/enea i?i/eo eaeae a oia nou eaeay aiaa. Eae iiiyoea i nou.
ananiaa?oaiiii, eaeay aiaa iaeaaeaao aieueoae ?aaeueiinoueth /ai ana
ae?. eaeae. A i?e/eia aeieaeii auoue ii e?aeiae ia?a noieueei aea
?aaeueiinoe neieueei aa iao. a neaaenoaee. O.e. iu nou e o.e. iu nooue
neaaenoaey ia?aii?e/eiu, oi nou e naia ia?aii?e/eia o.a. aia. Ii anee
ananiaa?o. aia nou, oi yoei eneeth/aaony aiciiaeiinoue, /oiau ii ian
iaiaiuaae. Yoei iaoneiaeaia naia aiciiaeiinoue iiciaiey.

*aeiaae anoue niaaeeiaiea aacaeooiiai, aaciuneaiiiai oaeaniiai iaoaiecia
n aieaaie e iuneyuae aeooie (aeaa noanoaioeee) iin?aaenoaii oeoeiaeaeiie
aeaeacu.

Aici enoeiu iaoneiaeaia nou. a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeae eee enoei
(i?aae?aniieiaeaiey oia e ecaanoiui aeneiiai e iieiaeaieyi) e eio. ii
ioiineo i?aaeaea anaai iao. aeneiiu.

A iiciaiee aeaaioth ?ieue ea?aao ?acoi – ?aoeeiiaeeci. Ae. iieaaae, /oi
enoi/ieeii aeinoiaa?iinoe ciaiey iiaeao auoue oieueei nai ?acoi.

A i?ioe. iiciaiey eneeth/. ianoi ioaae aeaaeoeoeee. Enoiaeiua
iieiaeaiey – aeneiiu. Anaiauee e iaiaoiaeeiue oa?aeoa? iaoaiaoe/aneiai
ciaiey auoaeaao ec naiie i?e?iaeu /aeiaa/aneiai oia.

A eia oeaie aeaaeoeoeee, neaae. ca aeneiiaie, eaaeaeia neaae caaii
aeinoiaa?ii. Iaeiaei aeey yniiai e io/aoeeaiai i?aaenoaaeaiey anae oeaie
ioaeia neea iaiyoe. Iiyoiio iaiin?. i/aaeaeiua enoiaeiua iieiaeaiey, eee
eiooeoeee, eiatho i?aeiouanoai n?aaieoaeueii n ?annoaeae. aeaaeoeoeee.

Aii?. eiooeoeeae e aeaaeoeoeeae ?acoi iiaeao aeinoe/ue aeinoiaa?iiai
ciaiey a neo/aa anee aoaeao aii?oaeai iaoiaeii. Iaoiae Ae. ninoieo ec 4
o?aaiaaiee:

1.aeiioneaoue a ea/. enoeiiuo oieueei oaeea iieiaeaiey, eio i?aaenoaae.
oio ynii e io/aoeeai, ia iiaoo aucaaoue ieeaeeo niiiaiee a enoeiiinoe;

?an/eaiyoue eaaeaeoth neiaeioth i?iae. ia ninoaaeythuea aa /anoiua
i?iae;

iaoiaee/anee ia?aoiaeeoue io ecaanoiiai e aeieacaiiiai e iaeca. e
iaaeie.;

ia aeiioneaoue ieeaeeo i?iioneia a ia. caaiueyo enneaaeiaaiey.

Aaiaaeeeo Nieiica.(iaoa?eaeeno) – (1632 – 1677). ?iaeeeny a Ainoa?aeaia
a aa?aeneie naiuea. Ciaeiinoai N. n eaeayie Aeae. i?eaaei e ?ac?uao n
eoaeaeciii. N. aue ioeo/ai io iaueiu e auioaeaeai aue iiaeeaaoue a
n?aaea naeoaioia e aeiauaaoue naie oeaa oeeoiaeie eeic aeey oaeaneiiia.
Oia? io ooaa?eoeaca. I?aaenoaaeyao iiieci a oi?ia iaioaecia.

Iniiaiay oeaeue oee. – caaiaaaiea ainiiaenoaa iaae aiaoiae i?e?iaeie e
niaa?o. /aeia. i?e?iaeu. ?acaeaay yoe eaeae i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, ii
aeiiieiee eo o/aieai i naiaiaea.

N. o/ee, /oi nou eeoue iaeia noanoaioeey – i?e?iaea, eio yaeyaony
i?e/eiie naiie naay. I?e?. yaeyaony n iaeiie noi?iiu i?e?iaeie oai?yuae,
a n ae?. – i?e?iaeie nioai?aiiie. Eae i?e?iaea oai?yuay iia anoue
noanoaioeey, eee, /oi oiaea naiia – aia. Ioiaeaeanoaeyy i?e? e aiaa, N.
io?eoeaao nou. naa?oi?e?iaeiiai nouanoaa, ?anoai?yao aiaa a i?e?iaea e
oai naiui iainiiauaaao iaoa?eaeeno. iiieiaiea i?e?iaeu.

Iainiiauaaao aaaeiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo nouiinoueth e nouanoaiaaieai. A
aaeeie/iuo, i?aoiaeyueo aauao noui. ia niai. n nouanoa., ii a aa/iie e
aaneiia/iie noanoaioeee ec nouiinoe n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth neaaeoao aa
nouanoaiaaiea. Iiyoiio auoea aiaa (eee noano) iiaeao auoue aeieacaii,
o.a nouanoaiaaiea aiaa i.a. auaaaeaii ec iiiyoey i nouiinoe aiaa
(i?e?iaeu).

Auoea noano. iaeiia?aiaiii e iaiaoiaeeii e naiaiaeii o.e. ia nou.
Ieeaeie i?e/eiu, eio. iiaoaeaeaea au noano e aeaenoaeth,e?iia aa nianoa.
nouiinoe. Aaeeie/iay aauue ia neaaeoao ec noano eae ec naiae aeeaeaeoae
i?e/eiu. Iia iiaeao neaaeiaaoue oieueei ec ae?. eiia/iie aaue. Iiyoiio
anyeay aae. aauue ia iaeaaeaao naiaiaeie.

Io noano. neaaeoao ioee/aoue ie? eii. aauae, eee niaieoiiinoue
iiaeonia. Iiaeon

yoi oi, /oi nou. ia naii ii naaa , a a ae?oaii. Noano – aaeeia, aa
nouiinoue eneeth/aao anyeia iiiaeanoai. Iiaeonia aea aaneiia/iia
iiiaeanoai. Iie ioiinyony e noano eae aan/eneaiiua oi/ee, eaaeauea ia
i?yiie ioiinyony e naiie i?yiie. Iiaeonu aeaoo aeaeia — aaneiia/iua e
aa/iua (ao?eaoou) e eiia/iua.

I?e?. nou. naia ii naaa, iacaaeneii io oia e aia oia. Aaneiia/iue oi
iia au iinoeaaoue aane noano. ai anao aa aeaeao e aniaeoao. Ii iao oi ia
aaneiia/ai. Iiyoiio ii iinoeaaao nou. noanoaioeee eae aaneiia/ioth eeoue
a 2 aniaeoao: eae i?ioyaeaiea e eae iuoeaiea. ( ao?eaoou noanoaioeee). A
anaai ao?eaooia aaneiia/iia iiiaeanoai. Iaoa?ey anoue i?e/eia naiie
naaa. Noanoaioeey eeoaia aeaeaeaiey e a?aiaie, a aeaeaeaiea anoue aa/iue
e aaneiia/iue iiaeon.

N — iineaaeiaaoaeueiue aeaoa?ieieno. I?e/eiiinoue aeaiyeiai ?iaea:
aioo?aiiyy (eiiaiaioiay) e aiaoiyy (iaoaie/aneay). I?e eco/aiee iiaeonia
i?eciaaae cia/aiea neo/aeiinoe.

*ae eae i?aaeiao iiciaiey, ia ninoaae ieeaeiai eneeth/aiey. *ae. Anoue
nouanoai, eio. iiaeono i?ioyaeaiey – oaeo, niioa iiaeon iuoeaiey –
aeooa. A ethaii neo/aa /aeiaae – /anoue i?e?iaeu. Iiaeon aeooe naae e
?acoio e aooaeoai(?aaeinoue, ia/aeue, aiaeaeaeaiea). Iiaaaeaieai
aeaeaeao no?aieaiea e auaiaea e naiinio?aiaieth. Aiey caaeneo io
iioeaia, ii naiaiaea aiciiaeia eae iiaaaeaiea, iniiaaiiia ia iiciaiee
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Naiaiaeai iiaeao auoue ia ia?iae, a ioae?aoe.

?aoeeiiaeeci. I?eiecee ?ieue iiuoa, aicaunee eioaeeaeo. Eiooeoeey —
aunoee aeae, iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ciaiea. E?eoa?ee i?aaeeueiinoe —
yniinoue e io/aoeeainoue.Niinianoaiaae aoaecio e naiaiaeiiuneeth. Ii aai
iiaieth, iaeeo/oaa iauanoaaiiia ono?ienoai — aeaiie?aoe/aneia
i?aaeaiea, anaaeanoea ainoaea?noaa ia?aie/aii o?aaiaaieai a?aaeaeaineeo

naiaiae.

Aioo?eae Aeeueaaeuei Eaeaieoe (1646 – 1716) Caeii/ee Eaeioeeaneee
oieaa?neoao eae th?eno. ?aaioae i?eaeai?iui enoi?eia?aoii e aeeieiiaoii.
Noa?aeny niaaeeieoue oai?eth n i?aeoeeie. Ioe?ue iacaaeneii io Iuethoiia
aeeooa? e eioaa?. en/eneaiea, ecia?ae n/aoioth iaoeio (iiaea aeaaea
ei?ie au/eneyoue). Ecia?aoae e no?iee iaeueieoeu Ianinu. Aii?inu oaoieee
e oaoiieiaee ii noaaee a naycue n i?eioeei aii?inaie iaoee.

?acaeaaao o/aiea i auoee a oi?ia o/aiey i noanoaioeee. Aeaea?o naae
iaoa?eaeueiinoue e i?ioyaeaieth. E. iieaaae, /oi ec i?ioyaeaiey iiaoo
auoue auaaaeaiu eeuue aaiiao?, ii ia oec na-aa oae: eo aeaeaeaiea,
aeaenoaea , nii?ioeaeaiea… Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeiieaaaoue a noano
oaeea na-aa, ec eio iiaee au auoue auaaaeaiu iniiaiua oec oa?-ee oae.

Iaoa?ey i?ioyaeaiia e a neeo yoiai aeaeeia, noanoaioeey aeieaeia auoue
aaniethoii i?inoie. Iiiaaea anoue iaaeaeeiay aeooaaiay noanoaioee,
nicaeatho oiiiinoeaaaiue ie?, i?iecaiaeiay io eioi?iai – oece/aneee ie?.
Iiiaaeu ia iaoiaeyony a i?ino?ainoaa e ia eiatho i?ioyaeaiiinoe. Aa/iu,
iaoie/oiaeeiu, ia eciaiythony iiae aiaoiei aicaeaenoaeai.

*enei yaeyaony aiaoiei au?aaeaieai aeooiaiie nouiinoe iiiaaeu.
Aeayoaeueiinoue e aeaeaeaiea — nouiinoue iiiaaeu. eaaeaeay iiiaaea
anoue e iainiiaaiea naieo aeaenoaee, e eo oeaeue. aeooa — oeaeue oaea.
acaeiiaeaenoaea aeooe e oaea iiiaaeu anoue Aiaii i?aaeonoaiiaeaiiay

aa?iiiey. aia anoue aaniethoiay iiiaaea.

Eaaeaeay iii iaeiia?aiaiii – oi?ia e iaoa?ey, eai ethaia iao oaei
iaeaaeaao ii?aae oi?iie. Oi?ia – iaiaoa?eaeueia e i?aaenoaaeyao
oeaeaniia?acii aeaenoaothuoth neeo, a oaei – yoi iaoai. neea. Iiyoiio
i?e?. iaeuecy iauyniyoue oieueei c-iaie iaoaieee, iaiaoiaeeii aaanoe
iiiyoea i oeaee. Iiiaaea anoue n?aco e iniiaaiea anao naieo aeaenoaee e
eo oeaeue.

Eae noanoaioeee iiiaaeu iacaaeneiu ae?oa io ae?oaa. Iaaeaeo ieie iao
oec acaeiiaeaenoaey. Iaeiaei, aoaeo/e iacaaeneiu, iii. ia eciee?iaaiu: a
eaaeaeie iiiaaea io?aaeaaony aanue ie?iaie no?ie, any niaie. iiiaae.
Iiyoiio E. Iacua i. “aeeaui ca?eaeii” anaeaiiie.

O.e. aeaenoaey i. – yoi aeou, oi iie iiae/eiythony i?e?iaea oaea e
o?aaotho iao. iauyniaiey, o.a. iauyni. /a?ac “aeaenoaothuea i?e/eiu”. A
o.e. aeaenoaey yoe anoue aeaenoaey ?acaeaathuaeny iiiaaeu, oi iie
iiae/eiythony i?e?iaea aeooe, o?aaotho iauyni. I?e iiiiue
oeaeaniia?aciinoe, o.a “eiia/iua”(oeaeaaua) i?e/eiu.

Iiiyoea ?acaeoey o E. i/aiue oe?iei. A i?e?iaea ana iao. a ?acaeoee.
?acaeoea anoue eeoue eciaiaiea ia?aiia/. oi?i iooai aaneiia/ii iaeuo
eciaiaiee (iao ie i?ienoiaeaeaiey ie oie/oiaeaiey). Io?eoeaao aici
nea/eia eee ?ac?uaia iai?a?uaiinoe a ?acaeoee.

Aeaeae neea ?acaeoey. A iii. i?ieno iai?a?. eciaiaiea, auoaeathuaa ec
aa aioo?. i?eioeeia. Aaneii ?aciiia?acea iiiaioia, ?ane?uaathueony a
?acaeoee iiiaaeu, oaeony a iae ia iaoa?eaeueii, a eeoue eaeaaeueii, o.a.
eae i?aaenoaaeaiea.

O.i. neea, eaae. a iniiaa ?acaeoey anao iiiaae anoue neea
i?aaenoaaeaiey – ia?oeaioeee. I?aaenoaaeaiea ia ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n
niciaieai. Niciaiea i?enoua eeoue nouanoao, iaaeaeaiiiio niin.
naiiniciaiey – aiia?oeaioeee – /aeiaaeo.

O.e. niiniaiinoue i?aaenoaae. i?enoua anai iii, E. aeaeaao auaiae i
oii, /oi i?e?. iaeooaaeaia. Iii.E. ia oieueei iiaeiaea aoiia, ii e
iiaeiaea iee?ii?aaiecia – yoi “naeaoay anaeaiiay”.

A oai? ?acaeoey E aeaao noaio ia?aoiaea iai?a. ie?a a i?aaie/aneee. Iii
i?aaenoaaeytho ?ace. nooiaie ?acaeoey, ii?aaeaeyaiua ?ace. a niiniaiinoe
i?aaenoaaeaiey. Ia iecoae nooiaie noiyo iii, iaeaaeathuea oaiiui
i?aaenoaaeaieai (ia ioee/aao i?aaenoaaeyaiiai ie io naay, ie io anaai
inoaeueiiai)— iiiaaeu aeecie(iai?aaie/aneay i?e?iaea). Caoai iii n
niooiui i?aaenoaaeaieai (ioee/atho io anaai inoaeueiiai , ii ia io
naay)—iiiaaeu aeooe(aeeaioiua). Auno. nooiaiue – io/aoeeaia
i?aaenoaaeaiea—iiiaaea aeooa (/aeiaae).

Oeaio? iiiyoea oai?ee E. – iiiyoea i “iaeuo ia?oeaioeeyo”, o.a i aaneii
iaeuo ?aciinoyo iaaeaeo nooiaiyie ?acaea niciaiey. Ionthaea E. auaiaeeo,
/oi anyeia ianoiyuaa nino iii. anaaaea: 1. /?aaaoi aoaeouei e 2.
ia?aiaiaii anai aa i?ioeui. Aoae. iii. caeeth/aii oieueei a iae naiie, e
?acaeoea iiaeao ninoiyoue oieueei a iineaaeia. ?acaa?ouaaiee aa ia/.
ninoiyiey.

Nicaeaaae oi?iaeueii–eiae/aneoth nenoaio iaiiaeiaea a?enoioaeaaneie.
Iuoaeny aaanoe ycue, ia eioi?ii ana noi?ioee?iaaiiua i?aaeeiaeaiey anoue
i?aaeeueiua oai?aiu. Enoi/ieeii ciaiee iiaeao auoue nai ?acoi (?acaeoea
o/aiey i a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeayo)

3.7 Nainoaeeci Aeaei?aeaea Aa?eee e neaioeoeeci Aeaaeaea THia

Aiaeey, eiiaoe 17 ia/ 18 a. Eaeao i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey ao?ae iauanoaa a
cai Aa?iia. ?ani?ino?aiythony eaeae i?inayuaiey. A oeaio?a aii?. oee.
i?inayuaiey noiye aii?. ia ioiio. ciaiey e aa?a, ia ioiio. iiaiai
anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai ie?iaicc?aiey e naa?oanoanoa. niauoeyi, i eio
aiai?eei nayu ienaiea. Eni?ey aiaeeeneiai i?inayuaiey ieacaeanue a cia/.
ia?a enoi?eae?acaeoey ?aeeaeiciiai naithiaeiiuneey, a eaeaeiie oi?iie
yoiai naiaiaeiiune. noae aeaeci.

Aeaeciii iacua acaeyae ia ?aeeaeth eae ia aa?o, eio ia?aie/eaaaony
eeoue i?eciaieai aiaa a ea/anoaa ia?aii?e/eiu, ia?aioie/ea, ioeacuaaynue
ioanao ino iieiaeaaiee ?aeeaee, EIO. ?ANNIAO?EAATHONss EAE
I?IOEAI?A*AUEA ?ACOIO.

Aoee.ioiioaiee aeaenou eieaaaeenue iaaeaeo iaiineaaeia. iaoa?eaeeciii e
eaeaaeeciii.

Aeaeii Oieaiae. Ioaa?aaao iaiiaeaeaeiinoue Nieiicianeie noanoaioeee.
Ie? eae oeaeia aa/ai, ii iinoiyiii eciaiyaony. AEeciue e aeaeaeaiea
oa?aeoa?ecotho ia oieueei ioaeaeueiua aaue, ii e noanoaioeeth.
“aeaeaeaiea anoue nouanoaaiiia na-ai iaoa?ee.., noieue aea iaioaeaeeiia
io aa i?e?iaeu , neieue iaioaeaeeiu io iaa iai?iieoeaaiinoue e
i?ioyaeaiea.” Iaoa?ey eaaeeo a iniiaa iuoeaiey.

Aeaeci e ?aeeaeiciia naiaiaeiiuneea i?aaenoaaeyee na?ueacioth
iianoiinoue aeey eaeaieiaee oaiae. iauanoaa. Eiaiii a yoi a?aiy ia/eiaao
?aaioaoue eaeaeiue ai?aoe i?ioea i?inayuaiey Aeae. Aa?eee

Aeaei?ae Aa?eee (1684 – 1753)- noauaeoeaiue eaeaeeeci. ?iaeeeny a
E?eaiaeee, aeai?yiei. Ieii/ee Aeoaeeineee oieaa?neoao. N 1734 ii 1752 a
A. aue aieneiiii.

A. ioa?anuaaao iaoa?eaeeno. enoiaeiue ioieo o. Eieea e iauyaeyao
iuouaiey aaeeinoaaiiie aini?eieiaaiie /ae. ?aaeueiinoueth. Eiee
no?aieeny auynieoue iaoiae, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai iu i?eoiaeei e eaeayi
i iaoa?ee e i?ino?ainoaa. Yoio iaoiae anoue ii E. – aano?aeoeey. A.
iuoaaony anaie aeinooiiuie n?aaenoaaie aeieacaoue , /oi oi /ae. ia
niiniaai e ia?aciaaieth iien. E aano?aeoeee. Iauay aano? eaeay
i?ioyaeaiey, eee i?ino?ainoaa iaaiciiaeia. Iia aano?aeia e aioo?aiia
i?ioeai?a/eaa. Oi aea naiia e n aano?. iaoa?ee. Aeie-ao yoiai A iinayoee
“O?aeoao i ia/aeao /aeia ciaiey” , “O?e ?acaiai?a iaaeaeo Aeeanii e
Oeeiionii”, aaea ii ia ne?uaaao, /oi aai aeaaiay oeaeue- ai?ueaa i?ioea
iaoa?eaeecia e anao aai i?iyaeaiee a iaoea.

Ii A., a iniiaa iiiyoey i iao.(e i i?ino?ainoaa) eaaeeo aeiiouaiea,
aoaeoi iu iiaeai ioaeaeaynue io /anoiuo na-a aauae, aini?eieiaaiuo
iin?aaenoaii iuouaiee, ia?aciauaaoue ioaea/aiioth eaeath ia iauai aeey
ieo aau. noano?aoa. Ii yoi iaaiciiaeii. O ian iao /oano. aini?eyoey
iaoa?ee eae oaeiaie. Iu aini?ei. eeoue ioaeaeueiua aaue e eaaeaeia ec
yoeo aini?eyoee anoue noiia ioaeaeueiuo iuouaiee eee “eaeae”. “iu aeaeei
ioaeaeueiua oeaaoa, a ia ie?aoaioth iaoa?eth”…

Ia iiaeao auoue e iauae ioaea/aiie eaeae i iaoa?ee e i?ino?ainoaa.
Neiai noaiiaeony iauei ia iioiio, /oi iii anoue ciae ioae. iauae eaeae,
a iioiio, /oi iii niiniaii auoue ciaeii iiiaeo /anoiuo eaeae. Oi /ae.
iiaeao ia?aciauaaoue iauoth eaeath i aaue, ii ia iauoth ioaea/. eaeath.
Ioae. eaeay iao ia iiaeao i?eaaaeoue e na-aai aauae ie iaeiiai naienoaa
naa?o oao, eio. ioe?uaathony a ieo a iuouaiee.

O/aiea yoi- noauaeo. eaeaaeeci. I?eciaaony nou. eeoue /aeia. niciaiey,
a eio. A. ?acee/aao eaeae e aeooe. Eaeae – yoi aini?eieiaaiua iaie
noauaeo ea/anoaa. Aeooe – aini?eieiathuea, aeayoaeueiua iaiaoa?eaeueiua
noauaeou aeoo. aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eaeae- ianneaiu; yoi eeoue ninoiyiey. Aeooe aea aeoeaiu. A. iuoaaony
aeieacaoue, /oi aaue aicieeatho aeaaiaea?y aini?eyoeth e en/acatho,
eiaaea i?ae?au. aini?eyoea.

A. iooaaony ecaaaeaoue nieeinecia, o.a. auaiaea i oii, /oi nou. eeoue
iaeei aini?eieiathuee noauaeo. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi noauaeo nou. a ie?a
ia iaeei. Aauue , eio. ia?anoae aini?eieiaoue iaeei noauaeo iiaeao auoue
aini?eiyoa ae?oaeie. Ii aeaaea anee au ana noauaeou en/acee, aaue ia
i?aa?aoeeenue au a ie/oi. Iie i?iaeieaeeee au nou. eae noiia eaeae a oia
Aiaa. Aia ia iiaeao en/aciooue. Iiyoiio ia iiae en/aciooue e aanue
nioai?. ei ie?.Aia aeeaaeuaaao a niciaiea ioaeaeueiuo noauaeoia
niaea?aeaiea iuouaiee. – Yoi oaea oaa ii iai?. e iauaeo eaeaaeecio.

Aeaaeae THi. (1711 – 1776) Nui iaaiaaoiai Oioeaiaeneiai iiiaueea. THi –
neaioee, aaiinoee. Ieii/ee Yaeeiao?aneee oieaa?neoao. Iinea iiacaeee ai
O?. ecaeae “O?aeoao i /ae. i?e?iaea”, “Iiuou i?aanoaaiiua e
iieeoe/aneea”. A 1963 THi niiaa ai O?.. Ii aue ciaeii n O?.
i?inaaoeoaeyie (Aeaeaiaa?, Aaeueaaoeee, Aeeae?i…)

Caaea/a ciaiey auoue ?oeiaiaenoaii aeey i?aeo i?eaioaoeee. I?e yoii
aaeeinoa. i?aaeiaoii aeinoia ciaiey n/eoaao iauaeou iaoaiaoeee. Ana ae?.
iauaeou enneaaeia. eanathony oieueei oaeoia, eio ia iiaoo auoue
aeieacaiu eiae/anee, a auaiaeyony eneeth/. ec iiuoa.

Iiuo iaeiaei iiieiaaony eaeaaeenoe/anee. Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue – iioie
aia/aoeaiee. I?e/eiu, ii?aaeae. yoe aia/aoeaiey – iaiiciaaaaiu. Iu ia
iiaeai aeaaea ciaoue nou. ee aaoiee ie?. Nou aia/aoeaiey iaoeo /oanoa
(iuou) e aia/aoe. aioo?aiieo aeayoaeueiinoae aeooe (?aoeaenee) Io yoeo 2
aeaeia ia?aii. iuou caaenyo eaeae iaiyoe e aiia?aae. Ie iaeia eaeay ia
iiaeao auoue ia?aciaaia aac i?aaeoanoa. ae aia/aoeaiey.

Ioiioaiea iaaeaeo i?e/eiie e aeaenoaeai ia iiaeao auoue auaaaeaii ie
eiooeoeaii ie iooai aeie-aa. Aiciiaeii i?e/eiiay naycue e nou.
Aiciiaeii, /oi ec 2 niauoee, neaae. iaeii ca ae?. , i?aaeuae niauoea
aeaenoaeoaeueii i?e/eia, a iineaae. – neaaenoaea. Ii oae yoi eee ia oae
– onoaiiaeoue iaaiciiaeii. I?e/. naycue anee e nou – iaiiciaaaaia.
Iaeiaei ethaee neeiiiu aeaeaoue caeeth/aiey io iaaethae. a i?ioeii
aeaenoaee e iiaeiaiui aea aeaenoaeyi yoeo iauaeoia a aoae. (ca aaniie
neaaeoao eaoi) Iie aeaenoaotho enoiaey ec oaa?aiiinoe, /oi oa aea iine
aoaeao e aoaeouai.

Ii/aio ethaee aeaenoa iiaeiaiui ia?acii? yoi ?-o i?eau/ee. Iaeiaei
aeaenoaea i?eau/ee ieeiaaea ia iiaeao i?aa?aoeoue iaoa iaeeaeaiea
ecaanoiiai ii?yaeea a aeinoiaa?iinoue enoeiiiai ciaiey. – neaioeoeeci.

Iioie iaoeo aia/oeaiee ana aea ia oaioe/ai. Aia/aoeaiey ia ?aaiioeaiiu
e yoiai aiieia aeinoaoi/ii aeey i?eaioaoeee a ie?a.

A iioieiaee(o/ i auoee) THi io?eoeaao nou eaoaai?ee noanoaioeee e
naiaeeo eaeath noano. e eaeaa niaieoiiinoe ioaeaeueiuo ea/anoa.

A o. ?aeeaee ii ia?aie/eaaaony aaeeinoaaiiui aeiiouaieai, aoaeoi
i?e/eiu ii?yaeea ai Anaeaiiie eiathoii?aaeaeaiioth aiaeiaeth n /ae
?acoiii. Ioaa?aaaoanyeia aiaineiaea. ?aeeaey ia iiaeao auoue iniiaie
ii?aee.

3.8 Oeeinioey E.Eaioa

Eiiaioee Eaio ?iaeeeny a 1724a a Eaieanaa?aa. Caeanue aea o/eeny, noae
?aeoi?ii oieaa?neoaoa , ienae naie o?oaeu e oia? a 1804. Ii aue ia
oieueei oee, ii oaeaea e?oiiui o/aiui a iae anoanoaiciaiey. I?aiiaeaaae.

Oee ?acaeoea E. aeaeeony ia 2 ia?eiaea. A ia?a. Aeie?eoe/aneee ia?eiae
(aei ia/. 70-o aa)

iuoaeny ?aoaoue o i?iae – i auoee, oee i?e?iaeu, ?aeeaee, yoeee, eiaeee
enoiaey ec oaaaeaeaiey, /oi o. i.a. ?ac?aaioaia e iainiiaaia eae
oiic?eoaeueiay iaoea. (aac ia?au e iiuoiui aeaiiui). ?anniio?ae iiaoth,
iaiaoaie/aneoth ea?oeio anaeaiiie.Ana oaea ninoiyo ec aoiiia, eioi?ua
iaeaaeatho i?enouei ei neeaie i?eoyaeaiey e iooaeeeaaiey. Ia iniiaa yoeo
nee no?ieony einiiaiie/aneay oai?ey i?ienoiaeaeaiey ieaiao e caacae.
Eaeay iinoiyiiiai aicieeiiaaiey e oie/oiaeaiey iaoa?ee. E?eoe/aneiai
ioiioaiea e oi?iaeueiie eiaeea, io?eoeaaoae i?ioeai?a/ey, anee ?aaeueiue
ie? eie iieii. ?ac?aaioae eaeath i caiaaeeaiee nooi/iiai a?auaiey Caiee
a ?acoeueoaoa i?eeeaia. Aeeaeaeoeea. Aaae ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iniiaaieai
eiae/aneei e ?aaeueiui,aaae iiiyoea ia io?eoeaoaeueiuo aaee/eiao. ?ieue
oi?iaeueii–aeaaeoeoeaiuo iaoiaeia ia?aie/eaaaony a iieueco iiuoa.

Ai 2-e ia? (e?eoe/aneee) iuoaaony no?iai ioaeaeeoue yaeaiey io aauae a
naaa. Iineaaeiea ia iiaoo auoue aeaiu a iiuoa. Aaue iaiiciaaaaiu. Iu
iici. eeoue yaeaiey eee oio niinia, eio. yoe aaue a naaa aeaenoaotho ia
ian. Yoi o/aiea – aaiinoeoeeci. Eaio iacuaae aai “e?eoeeie ?acoia”. Yoi
o/aiea ia?aie/eaaao ?acoi, iineieueeo iii ioeacuaaao aio a iiciaiee
nouiinoe aauae. ?acaeaay yoo e?eoeeo Eaio iuoaeny 1. auynieoue enoi/ieee
?acee/iiai aeaea ciaiee – iao/iiai e oeeinioneiai 2. auynieoue ia /ai
iniiauaaaony aeinoiaa?iinoue ciaiee. 3. enneaaeiaaoue oi?iu e eaoaai?ee
iao/iiai iuoeaiey…I?e enneaaeiaaiee aii?ina i a?aieoeao e oi?iao
/aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey cayaeyao, /oi ie? nouiinoae aeieaeai auoue
i?aaeiaoii aa?u. aaue a naaa o?ainoeaiaeaioiu, iioonoi?iiie, aia a?aiaie
e i?ino?ainoaa. Ionthaea aai o/aiea — o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiue eaeaaeeci.

O/aiea “E?eo oee” noi?ie?iaaeinue e ia/aeo 80-o aa. Iii eceiaeaii a
o?aeo. ” E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia” – 81, “E?eoeea i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia” –
88 e “E?eoeea niiniaiinoe noaeaeaiey” – 90. (oai? iiciaiey, yoeea e
ynoaoeea (o/aiea i oeaeaniia?. a i?e?iaea) niioaaonoaaiii)

Iiciaiea ia/eiaaony n oiai, /oi “aaue a naaa” aicae. ia iaoe i?aaiu
/oanoa e aucua iuouaiey. Yoi eiia/ii iaoa?eaeeci. Ii aeaeueoa E. –
eaeaaeeno. Eaeaaeeci ninoieo a oaaaeaeaiee, /oi ie iuouaiey iaoae
/oanoaaiiinoe, ie iiiyoey e noaeae. iaoaai ?annoaeea, ie iiiyoey ?acoia
ia iiaoo aeaoue iai oai?ao. ciaiey i “aauao a naaa” (aan). Aeinoiaa?iia
ciaiea nou – yoi iaoaiaoeea e anoanoaiciaiea. Enoeiu yoeo iaoe anaiauea
e iaiaoiaeeiua. Ii yoi ia anoue ciaiea i aan, a oieueei i naienoaao aau.
e eio. I?eeiaeeiu oi?iu iaoaai niciaiey: iuou, iiiyoey. Aan
i?eioeeieaeueii iaiiciaaaaiu.

O/aiea i ciaiee. Aeaeeo ciaiea ia iiuoiia (ianoa?ei?iia) e aeiiiuoiia
(ai?ei?iia). Ia?aia auaiaeeony eiaeoeoeaii, ia iniiaa iaiauaiee iiuoa. A
iai aiciiaeiu caaeoaeaeaiey e ioeaee. ” Ana eaaaaee aaeua”. Ii iiuo
ieeiaaea ia caeai/eaaaony, iiyoiio anaiauaa ciaiea ii aeaoue ia iiaeao.
Anyeia anaiauaa ciaiea anoue ai?ei?iia, aiaiiuoiia ii naiaio i?eioeeio.

Iie?aaony ia oai?eth noaeaeaiey. Ciaiea anaaaea au?aae a oi?ia
noaeaeaiey, a eio iuneeony naycue iaaeaeo aeaoiy iiiyoeyie – noauaeoaie
e i?aaeeeaoaie noaeaeaiey. Nou 2 aeaea yoie nayce. A iaeieo noaeaeaieyo
i?aaeeeao ia aeaao iiaiai ciaiey i i?aaei n?aaieoaeueii n oai ciaieai,
eio oaea iuneeony a noauaeoa. Yoi aiaeeoe/aneea noaeaeaiey. I?eia?: ana
oaea eiatho i?ioyaeaiey (i?aaeeeao – eiatho i?io)

Anee i?aaeeeao ia auaiaeeony ec noauaeoa, a niaaeeiyaony n noa., oi yoi
neioaoe/aneea noaeaeaiey. I?: iaeioi?ua oaea oyaeaeu. Anoue 2 eeanna
neio noaeaeaiee. 1. naycue i?aaeeeaoa n n. iuneeony iioiio, /oi
iaia?oaeeaaaony a iiuoa (iae eaaaaee /a?iu) – aiinoa?ei?iua 2.yoa naycue
ia iiaeao iniia ia iiuoa.Iia iuneeony eae naycue, i?aaeoanoa iiuoo e
iacaaenyu io iaai – ai?ei?iua noaeaeaiey.( ana, /oi neo/aaony eiaao
i?e/eio). Ai?. noaeaeaieyi E. i?eaeaao a. cia/aiea. Aii?in i ai?ei?i.
neio noaeaeaieyo ii noaaeo a neaae oi?ia: 1. eae aici oaeea noaeaeaiey a
iaoai 2.eae aici iie a oai?ao anoanoaiciaiee 3.aiciiaeiu ee iie a
iaoaoeceea. ?aoaiea yoeo aii?. Ii naycuaaao n enneaaeia. 3 iniiaiuo
niiniaiinoae iiciaiey: /oanoaaiiinoe, ?annoaeea, ?acoia.

*oanoaaiiia iiciaiea. Aii?in i aici ai?. neio noaeaeaiee a iaoai E
?anni a o/aiee i oi?iao /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey.. Ii E ye-ou iaoai ciaiey
– ia iiiyoey, a iaaeyaeiua i?aaenoaaeaiey. A noaeae. iaoai neioac
noauaeoa n i?aaeee iniiauaaaony eeai ia /oanoa nica?oeaiee i?ino?ainoaa,
eeai a?aiaie. I?ino?ainoai – ai?ei?iay oi?ia aiaoiaai /oanoa nica?oeaiey
(a?aiy -aioo?aiiaai), /oi e i?eaeaao nica?oe. i?ino?. eo aaconeiaioth
anaiauiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

O.i. o E i?ino? e a?aiy ia?anoatho auoue oi?iaie nou aauae. Iie
noaiiayony ai?ei?iuie oi?iaie iaoae /oanoaaiiinoe.

Ai?ei?iua oi?iu ?annoaeea. ?annoaeie anoue aiciiaeiinoue ciaiey.
Oneiaeai aici ai?. neio noaeae a oai?ao anoanoaiciaiee yae eaoaai?ee.
Yoi iacaaeneiua io iinoaaeyaiiai iiuoii niaea?aeaiey iiiyoey ?annoaeea,
iiae eio ?annoaeie iiaeaiaeeo anyeia niaea?ae, iieo/aaiia ec iiuoa. O.a.
eaoaai?ee ia oi?iu auoey, a iiiyoey ?annoaeea. Yoi oieueei oi?iu, iiae
eio ?annoaeie iiaeaiaeeo aeinoaaeyaiue /oanoaaiiinoueth iaoa?eae.
Eaoaai?ee ai?ei?iu. Ii E ie iuou ie iiiyoey naie ia aeatho ciaiey.

Iuou aac iiiyoee- neaiu, a iiiyoey aac iuou – ionou. Ciaiea anoue neioac
iuou n iiiyoeyie. Aicieeaao aii?in: eaeei ia? ?aciiia?acea /oanoa
nica?oeaiee i?aa? iin?aaenoaii ai?ei?iuo oi?i a aaeeinoai? Oneiaeai
oaeiai aaeeinoaa ninoieo a aaeeinoaa naiiniciaiey. eaoaai?ee

eiee/anoai: aaeeinoai, iiiaeanoai, niaieoiiinoue;

ea/anoai: ?aaeueiinoue, io?eoeaiea, ia?aie/aiea;

ioiioaiey: i?enouiinoue, naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, nouanoaiaaiea;

4) iiaeaeueiinoue: aiciiaeiinoue-iaaiciiaeiinoue, iaiaoiaeeiinoue
-neo/aeiinoue, nouanoaiaaiea-ianouanoaiaaiea.

?annoaeie, ia?yaeo n eaoaai?eyie, iuneeo i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey ia iniiaa
caeiiia. Ia yoeo iniiaao ?ac?aaioae ioaao ia aii?in i aiciiaeiinoe
oai?ao anoanoaiciaiey. A iniiaa anao noaeae anoanoa iaoe eaaeao iauea e
iaiaoiaeeiua caeiiu. Iao/iui ciaieai i?aaei e yaeaiey iaoe iiaoo auoue
i?e oneiaee, anee ?annoaeie iuneeo i?aaeiaou e yae eae iiae/eiaiiua 3
caeiiai:

1 nio?aiaiey noanoaioeee

2.i?e/eiiinoe e

3.acaeiiaeaenoaey noanoaioeee.

Yoe cae. i?eiaaeeaaeao ia naiie i?e?iaea a oieueei iaoaio ?acoio. Iaoa
niciaiea naii no?ieo i?aaeiao ia a oii niunea, /oi iii ii?iaeaeaao aai
eee aeaao aio auoea, a a oii, /oi iii i?eaeaao iiciaaaaiiio i?aaei oo
oi?io, iiae eio ii oieueei e iiaeao iiciaaaoueny – oi?io anaiauaai e
iaiaoiae ciaiey. O.a. ia oi?iu iaoaai oia niia?acothony n aau i?e?, a
iai?ioea, aaue i?e? – n oi?iaie oia.

Ionthaea auaiae , /oi aaue naie ii naaa iaiiciaaaaiu. Ie oi?iu
/oanoaaiiinoe, ie eaoaai?ee ?annoaeea, ie yoe 3 caeiia ia ninoaae
ii?aaeaeaiey naieo aauae a naaa. I?e?iaea eae i?aaeiao anaiauaai e iaiao
ciaiey no?ieony naiei niciaieai.

Niciaiea naii nicaeaao i?aaeiao iaoee. Anoanoaiciaiea niaaeeiyao aeeaia
nica?oeaiea n ?annoaei/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth. I?e?iaea ?aaeueia oieueei
a yiie?e/aneii niunea — ea ie? yaeaiee, oaiiiaiia.Iioiai – yoi ia
iauaeo /oanoaaiiiai nica?oeaiey, a oiiiinoeaaaiue iauaeo.

O/aiea i ?acoia e aioeiiieyo. ?acoi iai?aaeai ia ?annoaeie e n iiuoii
nianai ia naycai. A ?acoia caeiaeaii no?aieaiea e aunoaio ciaieth,
enoaeathuaa ec aunoeo yoe/aneeo caeiiia. Iiae aeaaeaieai yoiai /ae
?annoaeie no?aieony e ?aoaieth aii?ina i a?aieoeao eee aani?aaeaeueiinoe
ie?a a i?ino?ainoaa, i nouanoaiaaiee iaaeaeeiuo yeaiaioia, i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe e neo/aeiinoe, i nouanoaiaaiee aiaa eae iaiaoiaeeiiai
nouanoaa. i?aaeiao iaoaoeceee anoue i?aaeiao ?acoia. Iaeiaei i?e iiiuoea
aeaoue iao/iia niaea?aeaiea nouiinoe yoeo aii?inia, ?acoi aiaaeaao a
i?ioeai?a/ey. auoiae – a ia?aie/aiee ciaiey a iieueco aa?u, a
?acaeaeaiee nouiinoae e aauae a naaa. Aioeiiiee

1) Ie? eiaao ia/aei ai a?aiaie e ia?aie/aiey a i?ino?ainoaa; (eee

aaneiia/ai)

2) anyeay no?oeoo?a ninoaaeaia ec i?inouo yeaiaioia (a ie?a aiiaua ia

nouanoaoao ie/aai i?inoiai, ana neiaeii);

3) i?e/eiiinoue ii caeiiai i?e?iaeu ia anoue aaeeinoaaiiay i?e/eiiinoue,
ec

eioi?ie auaiaeyony ana yaeaiey ie?a. Iaiaoiaeeii aeiaaaeoue naiaiaeioth

i?e/eiiinoue (ana aeaoa?ieie?iaaiii, naiaiaeu iao).

4) e ie?o i?eiaaeeaaeeo (eee /anoue ie?a).

Aioeiiiee nua?aee aaaeioth ?ieue aeey ?acaeoey aeeaeaeoeee.

Yoeea. I?ioeai?a/ea iaiaoiaeeiinoe e naiaiaeu – ia ianoiyuaa: /ae
iinooiaao iaiaoiaeeii a iaeiii ioiioaiee e naiaiaeii a ae?oaii.
Iaiaoiaeeii, oae eae /ae anoue yaeaiea n?aaee ae? yae i?e? e a yoii
ioiio iiae/eiai iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Ii /ae oaeaea e i?aanoaaiiia nou,
noauaeo i?aanoaaiiiai niciaiey. Eae i?aanoa nou /ae i?eiaaeeaaeeo e ie?o
oiiiinoeaaaiuo aan. E a yoii ea/anoaa ii naiaiaeai. I?aanoa. caeii E
iiieiaao eae aaconeiaiia i?aaeienaiea eee “eaoaai?e/aneee eiia?aoea.”

C-i yoio o?aaoao, /oiau eaaeaeue iinooiae oae, /oiau i?aaeei aai
ee/iiai iiaaaeaiey iiaei noaoue i?aa aeey anao. Iinooiie i.a. ii?aeueiui
oieueei anee ii niaa?o ec oaaaeaiey e i?aano c-io.

?acaeaeye iaeneiu (noauaeoeaiua i?eioeeiu aiee iaeiiai aeaiiiai eeoea) e
caeiiu(au?aaeaiea iauacia/eiinoe, i?eioeei aieaecuyaeaiey, eiathuee neeo
aeey eaaeaeie ee/iinoe). Yoi eiia?aoea. Auaatho aeiioaoe/aneea, eioi?ua
auiieiythony i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo, e eaoaai?e/aneea, auiieiyaiua
i?e ethauo oneiaeyo. Niaieoiiinoue aeia?iaeaoaeae

caaioa i nio?aiaiee aeecie e caei?iauey;

i?aaaeeainoue, /anoiinoue, ene?aiiinoue, aeia?iniaanoiinoue o.ae.
Aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea eiaao niaanoue eae i?aanoaaiiia noaeeeeua. Aeaaiua
iaycaiiinoe – ethaiaue e oaaaeaiea.

Yoe/aneia o/aiea — aoiaienoe/ii, aiai?eo i oeaiiinoe ee/iinoe e
iaeuecy i?eiineoue aa a aea?oao aeaaea ?aaee aeaaa iauanoaa.

E no?aieeny ineaaeoue caaeneiinoue yoeee io aa?u. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
ia i?aanoaaiiinoue iniiaaia ia ?aeeaee, a iaiai?io. Iiuo iieac, /oi
iaaeaeo ii? eee aii? iiaaaeaieai /ae e aai n/anoueai ia nou
iaiaoiaeeiiai niioaaonoaey. I?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo ii? iiaaae /ae e
?acoeueoaoii yoiai iiaaaeaiey a yiie? aeecie ia ie?eony n iaoei
i?aanoaaiiui niciaieai, eio o?aaoao ni?aaaaeeeaiai niioaaonoaey. Ia
iaoiaey aai a ie?a yaeaiee, i? niciaiea auioaeaeaii aa?eoue, aoaeoi
niioa inou a ie?a “oiiiinoeaaaiii”. Nou iiiyoee eae naiaiaea, aannia?oea
e aia iauyni ii E. aa?ie a “oiiiinoea” ie?. Eo auoea ia anoue enoeia,
aeieacoaiay oai?aoe/anee, ii anoue iaiao iinooeao eee o?aaiaaiea
“i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia”. I?aeoe/aneee ?acoi — /aeiaae anee ia
i?eo/aaony auoue ii?aeueii aeia?ui, oi noaiiaeony ii e?aeiae ia?a
oi?ioei a?aaeaeaieiii. ?anniio?aii ia?aainoai ii?aee ii ioiioaieth e
iieeoeea, oi anoue iaeuecy auoue aii?aeueiui iieeoeeii. N?aaenoai
ai?ueau i?ioea yoiai — aeaniinoue. Oiae enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna —
aioaaiieci.

3.9 Oeeinioey Aaaaey

Auaeathueiny i?aaenoaaeoaeai iai ee oee yaeyaony Aai?a Aeeueaaeuei
O?eae?eo Aaaaeue. ?iaeeeny a Ooooaa?oa a 1770a a naiuea e?oiiiai
/eiiaieea. Eco/ae oee e oaeaieiaeth a Othaeiaaineii oi. Iinea aai
ieii/aiey iaeio a?aiy ?aaioae aeii o/eoaeai. A 1801 a caueoee
aeieoi?neoth e noae i?io Eaineiai oi. Ia?aui auaeathueiny o?oaeii A yae
aai “oaiiiaiieiaey aeooa” (1806) A 1818 a A aue i?eaeaoai a Aa?eeineee
oi, aaea ii ?aaioae i?io e aeaaea ?aeoi?ii.

Oiaeaeanoai auoey e iuoeaiey – enoiaeiue ioieo o/aiey Aaaaey.

Ia iauaeoeaii eaeaaeeno iniiaa ii ?acaee o/aiea i cae e eaoaai?eyo
aeeaeaeoeee, aia?aua a nenoaiaoece?iaaiiii aeaea ?ac?aaioae ini
i?eioeeiu aeeaeaeo eiaeee e iiaeaa?a e?eoeea iaoao niinia iuoeaiey,
ainiiaenoaiaaaoee eae a eaeaaeeno oae e iao oa/aieyo oee. Eaioianeie
aaue “naiie ii naaa” ii i?ioeaiiinoaaee aeeae i?eioeei : nouiinoue
i?iyaeyaony, yaeaiea nouanoaaiii. Aaaaeue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi eaoaai?ee
nooue iauaeoeaiua oi?iu aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a iniiaa eio eaaeeo ie?iaie
?acoi, aan eaeay eee ie? aeoo. Yoi – aeayoaeueiia ia/aei, aeaaoaa
eiioeuen e aicieeiiaaieth e ?acaeoeth ie?a. Aeayoaeueiinoue aan eaeae
caeeth/aaony a iuoeaiee. Oeaeue – a naiiiiciaiee. A i?ioe naiiiiciaiey
?acoi ie?a i?ioiaeeo 3 yoaia : i?aauaaiea naiiiiciathuae aan eaeae a aa
nianoaaiiii eiia, a noeoee /enoiai iuoeaiey ( eiaeea, a eio eaeay
?ane?uaaao naia niaea?aeaiea a nenoaia eaoaai?ee e caeiiia aeeaeaeoeee);
?acaeoea eaeae a oi?ia eiiauoey a aeaea yaeaiee i?e?iaeu (?acaea ia naia
i?e?iaea, a eeoue eaoaai?ee); ?acaeoea eaeae a iuoeaiee e a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa (enoi?ey aeooa). Ia yoii iineaaeiai yoaia aan eaeay
aica?auaaony e naiie naaa e iinoeaaao naay a oi?ia /aeia niciaiey e
naiiniciaiey.

EIAEEA. I?aaeoanoaoao enoi?ee e i?e?iaea, oai?eo eo. Aeaeeony ia o?e
/anoe: o/aiea i auoea, i nouiinoe e i iiiyoee. Auoea e nouiinoue —
nooiaiueee, ii eioi?ui acae?aaony iiiyoea, caoai i?aaenoaao a
anaiauiinoe e iieiioa. a eiaeea ?acaeoea aaniethoiie eaeae i?ienoiaeeo a
oi?ia aano?aeoiuo eiae/aneeo eaoaai?ee. Ioi?aaiay oi/ea – /enoay
aano?aeoiay iuneue i auoea. no?aieony iieo/eoue naia niaea?aeaiea /a?ac
ia/oi, /oi anoue oaea ia /enoia auoea, a ii?aaeaeaiiia auoea. ia/eiaaony
i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey aaniethoiie eaeae. Ii?aaeaeaiiia auoea ia neaae
nooiaiueea aunooiaao eae ia/oi ii?aaeaeaiii nouaa eee ea/anoai.
Eaoaai?ey ea/anoaa ?acaeaaaony a aaeeinoaa n eaoaai?eae eiee/anoaa –
ia?a. Ia?aoiae eiee/anoaa a ea/anoai, nea/eiia?aciinoue i?ioeanna
?acaeoey, i?a?uaiay iinoaiaiiinoue.

Io auoey, iiieiaaiiai eae yaeaiea, ia?aoiae e aeoaieei aioo?aiiei
caeiiiia?iinoyi – nouiinoe.Caeanue caeii i acaeiii?iieeiiaaiee
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, eo aaeeinoaa, oiaeaeanoaa e ai?ueaa. I?ioeai?a/ea
anoue niioiioaiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, eioi?ia ioaeaeaaony a ?ac?aoaiee
eee niyoee. ?acoeueoao anoue niyoea i?ioeai?a/ey. I?ioeai?a/ey :
niioiioaiea iniiaaiey e neaaenoaey, aiciiaeiinoe e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
neo/aeiinoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, i?e/eiiinoe e acaeiiaeaenoaey.
I?ioeai?a/ey anoue ?acaeoea yaeaiey. Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue anoue aaeeinoai
nouiinoe e nouanoaiaaiey. Nouiinoue aea naia iniiaaiea nouanoaiaaiey.
Ioaa?aaao i?aaenoaaeaiey i aa iaiiciaaaaiinoe.

Oa iaiaoiaeeiinoue, n eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeo ?acaeoea a iaeanoe auoey e
nouiinoe, iniciaaony a iiiyoee. Oaeay iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aa?auaaony a
naiaiaeo, eioi?ay anoue iniciaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue. E?eoeeoao
oi?iaeueioth eiaeeo e iaoaoeceeo, ?acaeaaao aeeaeaeoeeo iauaai,
iniaaiiiai e aaeeie/iiai. Enoeia anoue i?ioeann niaiaaeaiey iunee n
iauaeoii, /oi aeinoeaaaony a eaeaa. Eaeay anoue aaconeiaiia aaeeinoai
iiiyoey e i?aaeiaoa.

EIIAUOEA eee i?e?iaea. nicaeaoaeueieoea i?e?iaeu — iuneue. Nooiaie
?acaeoey i?e?iaeu — iaoaieci, oeieci, i?aaieci. auneacae oeaiiua
aeiaaaeee ia eo acaeiinayce. I?e?iaea ia anoue naii?acaeoea, a eeoue
i?iyaeaiea naii?acaeoey eiae/aneeo eaoaai?ee, ninoaaeythueo aa
aeooiaioth nouiinoue.

AeOO – o?aouey nooiaiue. I?ioiaeeo o?e noaaeee. Noauaeoeaiue aeoo —
aeooa eee aeoo a naaa, aeey naay, eae oaeiaie. Iauaeoeaiue aeoo —
noa?a i?aaa. Ii yaeyaony naiaiaeiui aieaecuyaeaieai, a nenoaia i?aaa—
oea?noai naiaiaeu.Iaoiaeeo naia au?aaeaiea a i?aanoaaiiinoe e
aiieiuaaony a naiuea, iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa. Aaniethoiue aeoo —aa/ii
aeaenoaeoaeueiay enoeia. I?ioiaeeo o?e noaiaie ?acaeoey:
eneonnoai(iaiin?aaenoaaiiay oi?ia ciaiey aan enoeiu), ?aeeaey
(niaea?aeeo iiiyoea aiaa), oeeinioey(aunoay nooiaiue ?acaeoey, iieiia
?ane?uoea enoeiu, niaea?aeauaany a ene e ?ae. Eaeay iiciaao naio naay,
aicauoaaony aei /enoiai i?eioeeia, niaae eiiaoe aan eaeae n aa ia/aeii).

A eoiaa nenoaia Aaaaey anoue iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci, aan eaeay nou aei
i?e?iaeu, ii?iaeaeay aa e iauanoai. Oiaeaeanoai auoey e iuoeaiey neoaeeo
iainiiaaieai aaeeinoaa caeiiia aiaoiaai ie?a e iuoeaiey (i?ioea
aaiinoeoeecia Eaioa).Iino?iaia ia aaeeinoaa o?eaaeu
oacen-aioeoacen-neioac. Aai nenoaia aae?aao eiaeeo e oeeinioeth
i?e?iaeu, aio?iiieiaeth e ineoieiaeth, oee i?aaa e yoeeo, oee
ainoaea?noaa e a?aaeaeaineiai iau, oee ?aeeaeee e ynoaoeeo, enoi?eth
oeeinioee e oee enoi?ee e o.ae.

Oee acaeyaeu A. i?iieeioou eaeaae ?acaeoey. Ii n/eoae, /oi iaaiciiaeii
iiiyoue yaeaiea, ia oyniea anaai iooe, eio iii niaa?oeei a naiai
?acaeoee, /oi ?acaeoea i?ieno ia ii caieiooiio e?oao, a iinooiaoaeueii
io iecoeo oi?i e aunoei, /oi a yoii i?ioe niaa?oaaony ia?aoiae io eiee/
eciaiaiee a ea/anoaaiiua, /oi enoi/ieeii ?acaeoey yaeythony
i?ioeai?a/ey: i?ioeai? aeaeaeao ie?ii, iii anoue ei?aiue anyeiai
aeaeaeaiey e aeeciaiiinoe, ninoaaeyao i?eioeei anyeiai naiiaeaeaeaiey. A
oee nenoaia A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue i?aaenoaaeaia eae oeaiue aeeaeaeo
ia?aoiaeia. Eaaeaeia iiiyoea e eaoaai?ey o iaai ai aioo?aiiae
iaiaoiaeeiie nayce ni anaie inoaeueiuie, acaeiii ia?aoiaeyo ae?oa a
ae?oaa. eaoaai?ee anoue /enoua iunee, e a neeo oiaeaeanoaa auoey e
iuoeaiey, aeeaeaeoeea eaoaai?ee anaiaua, nouanoaoao ia oieueei aeey
oeeinioneiai iiciaiey, ii e a iauaeaiiii iiuoa. Nicaeae nenoaio
ii?aaeaeaiee eaoaai?ee.

Iniiaiua caeiiu aeeaeaeoeee. Caeii ia?aoiaea eiee/anoaa a ea/anoai.
Aauue anoue oi, /ai iia yaeyaony aeaaiaea?y ea/anoao. eiee/anoai anoue
aiaoiyy aeey auoey ii?aaeaeaiiinoue, aeii anoue aeii, aieueoie ii eee
iaeaiueeee. I?a?uaiia nea/eiia?aciia ?acaeoea. Caeii Acaeiii?iieeiiaaiey
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae – eaeay naii?acaeoey a aaeeinoaa e ai?ueaa
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae. Caeii io?eoeaiey io?eoeaiey – ?acaeoea ia oieueei
aan eaeae, ii e eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie aaue. I?e?iaea aeeaeaeoe/aneiai
io?eoeaiey — ia oioaeueiia io?eoeaiea, a nio?aiaiea iieiaeeoaeueiiai.
Ooo oai?ey iiciaiey, ?ac?aaioea aaniethoiie e ioiineoaeueiie enoeiu.
eaaeaeay nooiaiue aeaao ea?oeio aaniethoiiai, ii iaiieioth,
iacaeii/aiioth.

Iaeiaei aaa oee i?iieeiooa aeoaieei i?ioeai?a/eai. *oi aea yoi ca
i?ioeai?a/ea? Iaoiae, ?ac?aa A., iai?aaeai ia aaneiia/iinoue iiciaiey.
Iineieueeo aea iauaeoeaiie iniiaie aai yae aan aeoo, a oeaeueth –
naiiiiciaiea yoiai aan aeooa, iinoieueeo iiciaiea eiia/ii, ia?aie/aii.
Oi anoue nenoaia iiciaiey, i?ieaey oeeee iiciaaao nooiaiae, caaa?oeony
iineaaeiae nooiaiueth – naiiiiciaiea, ?aaeecaoeeae eioi?iai yae naia oee
Aaaaey. O.i., i?ioeai? iaoiaeii e nenoaiie A. anoue i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo
eiia/iui e aaneiia/iui. Aeaiiia i?ioeai? o A. ioithaeue ia aeeaeaeoe/ii,
eai ia yae enoi/ieeii aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey. Oee A ieacaeinue
ia?auaiiie a i?ioeia — io?aaeaiea iooe, i?ieaeaiiiai /aeiaa/anoaii, i?e
yoii ianoiyuaa anoue aa?oeia, eiia/iay nooiaiue. E oiio aea iao
aeeaeaeoeee iaoa?ee — iao aa ?acaeoey ai a?aiaie. oae eae yoi i?inoi
?acoeueoao iaoa?eaeecaoeee eaeae eee aa io/oaeaeaiey.

Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey. Iiae/a?eeaae ?ieue i?oaeee i?iecaiaenoaa,
yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, aaia?aoee. Enoi?ey iineo
caeiiiia?iue oa?aeoa?, a eioi?ii i?iyaeyaony ie?iaie ?acoi. Ethaee,
i?aneaaeoy naie oeaee, inouanoaeytho a oiaea a?aiy enoi?e/aneoth
iaiaoiaeeiinoue, aaeeeea ethaee— aiieiuaiea aeooa naiaai a?aiaie.
Niune enoi?ee— i?ia?ann a niciaiee naiaiaeu.

?acee/aao a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai e iieeoe/aneia ainoaea?noai. A? iau —
noa?a ?aaeecaoeee /anoiuo oeaeae. O?e iiiaioa

nenoaia iio?aaiinoae;

ioi?aaeaiea i?aainoaeey;

iieeoeey e eiiia?aoeey. Aeey a? iau iaiaoiaeeia ia oieueei /anoiay
nianoaaiiinoue, ii e caueoa aa ni noi?iiu caeiia, noaea e iieeoeee.
Aaaeia oaeaea aeaniinoue e ioaee/iinoue. A? iau e ainoaea?noai
niioiinyony eae ?annoaeie e ?acoi. A? iau – aiaoiaa ainoaea?noai, a
iiaeeeiiia ain — ?acoiii e anoue iniiaaiea a? iau Ainoaea?noai anoue
?acaeaeaiea aeanoae eae aai /eaiia. Iainiiauaaao ianeaaenoaaiioth
eiinoeoooeeiiioth iiia?oeth.

3.10 O?aaeeoeey aa?iiaeneiai e??aoeeiiaeecia (A.Oiiaiaaoy?, O.Ieoeoa).

E??aoeeiiaeeci — oeeinioneia o/aiea, ianoaeaathuaa ia ia?aie/aiiinoe
iiciaaaoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae ?acoia e iuoeaiey, i?eciathuaa iniiaiui
?iaeii iiciaiey /oanoai, eiooeoeeth, einoeieo e o. ae.
Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue n/eoaaony oaioe/iie, iiaeaa?aeaiiie ea?a neo/ay. Ia
?oaaaea 19-20aa. Yoi oeeinioey aeecie, iuoaaoayny i?aiaeieaoue
ia?aie/aiiinoue iaoaienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia n eaeaaeenoe/aneeo
iiceoeee. A oeaio?a eaaeaei iiiyoea aeecie eae aaniethoiiai,
oieaa?naeueiiai,aaneiia/ii oieeaeueiiai ia/aea aeecie, eioi?ia, a
ioee/ea io iaoa?ee e niciaiey, aeoeaii, iiiaiia?acii, aa/ii aeaeaeaony.
aeeciue iaeuecy iiciaoue /oanoaii eee ?acoiii, iinoeaaaony oieueei
eiooeoeaii, aeinooiia eeoue ia?aaeeaaieth.

A?oo? Oiiaiaaoy?(1788–1860) iineaaeiaaoaeue Eaioa, iniaaiii aai o/aiey
ia ai?ei?iuo oi?iao /oanoaaiiinoe. auaeaeye aeaa aniaeoa iinoeaaiey
noauaeoa eee ss: oio, eioi?ue aeai a ea/anoaa iauaeoa aini?eyoey, e ioi,
eioi?ue nai ii naaa, oi anoue i?iyaeaieai aiee. Ie? iaoneiaeai noauaeoii
e ia?aie/ai noa?ie aeaeeiinoe. Noi?iiiee aiethioa?ecia, Niciaoaeueiay
aiey o iaai iiae/eiaia neaiie, ia?acoiiie, aanoeaeueii aeaenoaothuae
ie?iaie aiea.E?eoeea eaioianeie aaue a naaa o?ainoi?ie?iaaeanue a
ooaa?aeaeaiee aiee e aeecie a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai aeaeaeouaai oaeoi?a
?acaeoey e aaconeiaiiai ia?aiia/aea ie?a.Ana yaeaiey nooue ?aciua
nooiaie iauaeoeaaoeee aiee. Iiciaiea, a o./. iao/iia, eiaao
i?eniiniaeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Aiey, aoaeo/e oaiiie e oaeinoaaiiie neeie,
e?aeia yaioeaio?e/ia, /oi icia/aao aeey ethaeae aaniieienoai, eiioeeeou
eoae.Yoe/aneee eaeaae O – ie?aaia, iieiue aneaoeci, oia?uaeaiea
aiee.Ae?oaie iooue inaiaiaeaeaiey io no?aaeaiee — eneonnoai,
ooaeiaeiee nica?oeaao naio nouiinoue aiee e aa aaeaeaaoiua aa/iua
iauaeoeaaoeee (eaeae), /oi iicaieyao oie?ioai?eoue iaenoianoai aiee.

Ieoeoa O?eae?eo (1844-1900).I?aoa?iae yaiethoeeth io ?iiaioe/aneie
ynoaoecaoeee iiuoa eoeueoo?u /a?ac “ia?aioeaieo anao oeaiiinoae” e
e?eoeeo aa?iiaeneiai ieaeeecia e anaiauaiethuae eiioeaioeee
aiethioa?ecia. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey:

1) ana nouanoaothuaa anoue aiey e aeanoe e iiaouanoao;

2) ia?niaeoeaeci — nai ie? anoue iiiaeanoai ai?thueony ae?oa n ae?oaii
ea?oei ie?a (ia?niaeoea), enoiaeyueo ec oeaio?ia aeanoe(neeu). I?ioeaiee
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey enoeiiiio ie?o ie?a yiie?e/aneiai.A iniiaa ii?aee ii
aeaeeo aeaeaiea (ca/anooth, aanniciaoaeueiia) oeceieiae/anee neaauo
eiaeeaeaeia ainiiaenoaiaaoue iaae neeueiuie e caei?iauie. Aiaeeyoeey e
?acoio e i?aaaea anoue caiaia oece/aneiai ianeeey, niinia iaeiie aiee
aeiieie?iaaoue iaae ae?oaie. A oii aea niunea cia/eia e ethaay
?aoeeiiaeueiay a?aoiaioaoeey. A ethaie oee iieaieea ?a/ue eaeao ia i
iienea enoeiu, a i aeeciaooaa?aeaeaiee iaeiie noi?iiu ca n/ao
i?ioeaiai?noaothuae. Aiaeiae/ii iaoea, oeaiiinoe. ana yoi nooue
noauaeoeaiua eioa?i?aoaoeee aiaoiaai ie?a, ca eioi?uie noieo oeaeue
nio?aiyoue iaeea oi?iu aeecie..

Oaycuaaao e?eoeeo iaoaoeceee n e?eoeeie aa ycuea.Iiae/a?e
ianiecia?eiinoue eaoaai?eaeueiie noaiu iienaiey ie?a ?aaeueiiio
iieiaeaieth aeae, ionthaea ianiiniaiinoue ycuea, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e
iuoeaiey i?aaenoaaeoue eaeea-eeai ciaiey iacaaeneii io ycuea eee
iuoeaiey. Oaaaeaeaiey a oaeueneoeoee?othuae i?e?iaea ycuea e iuoeaiey
i?eaiaeeo aai e iunee i aeiieie?othuae ?iee aeaenoaey e aiee. Ana
anaiauea e iaiaoiaeeiua enoeiu e oae. anaai eeoue oaea/iua iaoiaeee a
ai?ueaa ca aeeciue e aeanoue, a oiaea a?aiy ii ia nianai i?iecaieueiu,
oae eae ii?aaeaeythony i?aaie/aneeie /a?oaie /aeiaaea eae aeaea e aai
?ano?naie, i?e/ai iie iinoiyiiu. Anyeea iiiyoey ii?aaeaeaiu
iieaciinoueth a ?aieao o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai aeeciaiiiai i?ioeanna.

Aaiaeeony iiiyoea “?iaeiaiai noauaeoa”, oeaee e eioa?anu eioi?iai ne?uou
io ioaeaeueiiai eiaeeaeaeooia. Aeey iaai i?aae?annoaeee ?acoia e oi?iu
aeecie yaeythony ai?ei?iuie e i?eioaeeoaeueiuie, ii ia iiaeao ia
neaaeiaaoue ei. Ionthaea oaoaeenoe/aneay eaeay i aa/iii aica?auaiee
iaeieo e oao aea caaeoaeaeaiee, aiei, eeethcee, I?ioeainoieo yoiio eaeay
naa?o/aeiaaea, iaiaoiaeeiinoue( a o/ e /a?ac ainieoaiea, e /a?ac
naeaeoeeth) i?aiaeieaiey

naienoa /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu, iai?eia?, no?oeoo?u /oanoaaiiinoe.

3.11 Aa?iiaeneee ?aoeeiiaeeci 19-20 aa. (iiceoeaeci, iaieaioeainoai)

Ai anoi?ie iie 19a iiceoeaeci noaiiaeony iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiui oa/aieai
cai oee. I. iauyaee aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii enoeiiiai ciaiey
eiie?aoiua, /anoiua iaoee e aunooiee i?ioea o. eae iaoaoeceee, ii ca o.
eae iniaoth iaoeo. Iiae iaoao. iie iiieiaei oiic?eoaeueioth o. auoey
(iioieiaeth,aiinaieiaeth)

I – oee iiceoeaiiai ciaiey, ioaa?aathuay oai?ao niaeoeyoeee e oiic?aiey
eae n?aaenoaa iieo/ ciaiey.

Iie aiai?eee, /oi oieueei niaieoiiinoue iaoe aeaao i?aai aiai?eoue i
ie?a a oeaeii. O.i. anee o. iao/ia oi iia aeieaeia ?ani?iuaoue ny n
iiiuoeie noaeeoue i ie?a a oeaeii.

3 yoaia a yaiethoeee iiceoeaecia:

1.Nianoaaiii iiceoeaeci (30-70aa 19a) – Iathno Eiio, Aeae.No.Ieeue,
Niaina?

2. Yiie?eie?eoeoeeci (eiiaoe 19a) – Iao, Aaaia?eon.

3. Iaiiiceoeaeci (n na? 20o aa20) – Oeee, Ea?iai ,Iae?ic , Aeoaaiooaei,
A.?annae.

Iniiaaoaeue iic I.Eiio (1798-1857). aai ?aaioa: “Eo?n iiceoeaiie oeein”
Iniiaiua eaeae yoie ?aaiou:

1.Iiiuoea eeanneo iaoe. Eaa?oey iaoe aeieaeia auoue auno?iaia io
i?inoiai e neiaeiiio, i?e eio eiae/aneia i?iecaiaeeo enoi?e/aneia.
Iecoay nooiaiue – iaoea iaeaieaa aano?aeoiay e iaeaaeathuay iaeaieueoae
anaiauiinoueth (iaoaiaoeea, aeaeaa: ano?iiiiey, iaoaieea, oeceea, oeiey,
oeceieiaey, nioeeaeueiay oeceea – nioeeieiaey)

2.Iuoaeny ii?aaeaeeoue iaoeo ii aa i?aaeiaoo. Iaeiaei ii enoiaeee i?e
yoii ec eaioianeiai eaeaaeecia, i?aaeiieaaay, /oi iaoee eiatho aeaei n
iaoaoeceea n aauueth. Oae eae aaue iaeuecy iiciaoue, oi iaoao aeieaeia
auoue ioaa?aiooa.

3 Iuoaaony auyaeoue caeii 3 noaaeee ?acaeoey iiciaiey e niioaaonoa oeiu
ie?iaicc?aiey. a)Oaeaieiae/aneay eiaaea iiaaaeaiea /ae ii?aaeaeyaony
aoenoaii oaioacee, aa?ie a aiaia… a)Iaoaoece/aneay – aia noaiiaeony
noaunoaioeeae… a) Iiceoeaiay noaaeey – yoi noaaeey noaiiaeaiey
iao/iiai acaeyaae ia aaue. Ia/eiaaony n niaaeeiaiey iiuoa n aano?
iuoeaieai.

4.Iiceoeaiua iaoee – iiiuoea nicaeaiey iao/iie ?aeeaee. Aunoaa iiiyoea
yoie ?ae – /aeiaa/anoai eae oeaeia. I?ioeia, ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa
/aeiaa/anoaa iauaaeeiaiu ienoe/aneie naycueth. Ii nouanoao aaeeiia
/ae-ai ?acoeueoao, ii ia i?aaeiinueea enoi? i?ioeanna.

Aeaeii Notha?o Ieeeue (1806-1883) Iniiaaoaeue iiceoeaiie eiaeee e
iaoiaeieiaee iaoee. ?aaioa: “Neneoaia eiaeee neeeiaenoe/aneie e
eiaeoeoeaiie”. Eaeae Ieeey eiatho nioeeaeueioth ono?aieaiiinoue. Ii
iuoaaony ?ac?aaioaoue oaeoth oai? ciaiey, /oiau ciaiey auee au iao/iuie
(eae a anoanoa iaoeao). Nouanoaoao eiio?ano iaaeaeo ninoiyieai
anoanoaici e iauanoaiciaiey. Ia?aia a oeaaoouai ninoiyiee, ai aoi?ii –
oiioaiea ia ianoa, iaeie neno niaiythony ae?. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaieciaaoue iiiiuue nioeeieiaee ni noi? anoanoaiciaiey. Iaaei iaoiaeu
anoanoa i?eiaieoue a nioeeieiaee. Eaeea aea yoi iaoiaeu? Iniiaiie iaoiae
– oeceea. Oec.-yoi oai?ao ciaiea, eio iicaieyao eiio?iee?iaaoue
i?ioeannu, Iniaaiiinoue oec. – niaaeeiaiea iiuoa e oai?ee, eiaeoeoeee e
aeaaeoeoeee. ?acaeoay oec i?aaeiieaa 2 o?iaiy ciaiey: 1.Yiie?e/aneea
iaiauaiey 2.Iauyniythuay oai?ey. Iaaeaeo yoeie o?iaiyie nou no?iaay eia
naycue – Yiie? iaiauaiea anoue eia auaiae ec iauyni oai?ee. Iaiaoiaeeii
eoacaeiiiiaee?aieaiea.

Iaoiae nioe iaoee aeieaeai noaoue oi/iie eiieae iaoiaeia oec.

Aa?aa?o Niaina? (1820-1903) Ii iiaeiaii Eiioo iinoaaee caae nicaeaoue
neioaoe/aneoth oee aac naiie oee. Ii Ni yoi anyoee , ii aac iaoaoeceee.
(o.e. iaoao – yoi iiiyoea noaeeouei ie?a aauae, eio iaiiciaaaaiu).
Noa?aeiai aaeeinoaa ciaiee ethaeae yae eaeay yaiethoeee. I?ioeann yaie
icia/aao aic?anoaiea ii?aaeaeaiiinoe aeaea. Ni auaiaeee yaiethoeeth ec
caeiia nio?aiaiey e i?aa?auaiey yia?aee, a iineaaeiee ec cae niciaiey.,
o.a. ineo i?eau/ee /aeiaaea.

*ae eiaao aeaei ni nieioiui iioieii aia/aoeaiee – yoio iioie – iniiaa
caeiia nio?aiaiey.

Ii iuoaaony i?eiaieoue eaeath yaiethoeee i?e ?anniio? oai? iiciaiey: Ii
iieaaaao, /oi iaoa eeethcey a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeae anoue ?-o iaeiieaiiie
ianeaaenoaaiiinoe. Oi, /oi aeey aeaea aiinoa?ei?ii aeey eiaeeaeaea
ai?ei?ii. O.a a enoi? ?acaeoee iiuo i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiia iia ci., a
caoai yoi iiaia oneeeaaaony e ia?aaeaaony eae ai?ei?iia.

Yiie?eie?eoeoeeci – oai?ey e?eoeee iiuoa. Aeaaiia iacia/aiea yoie
e?eoeee – auyniaiea nouanoaa aeae. AA oeaeue – i/enoeoue iiuo io
iaoaoeceee. Iniiaaoaee Aaaia?eon e Iao n/eoaee ini caeiiii iiciaiey –
yeiiiieth iuoeaiey.

Iuoaeenue i/enoeoue iiieiaiea iiuoa io oaeeo iiiyoee eae iaoa?ey,
noanoaioeey, iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?e/eiiinoue e ae? ?annoaei/iuo iiiyoee. A
eoiaa yiie?eie?. auaeaeaaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i ie?a eae nia-oe
iaeo?aeueiuo ye-oia e ie/ueeo iuouaiee. Ie? – yoi iiuo, a no?oeoo?o
iiuoa ninoaae iuouaiey.

Naie ii naaa ye-ou ie?a iaeo?aeueiu (e iaoa?ee niciaieth), ?acee/ea eo
ooieoeeiiaeueii: iaeie e oa aea ye-ou ie?a ninoaae oec ?aaeueiinoue, e a
yoii neo/aa iie nayc oeaiueth oec i?e/eiiinoe. Ineoieia ye-ou naycaiu
oeaiueth iiaiiie/aneie i?e/eiiinoe e i?iyae a oii, /oi iu iac iaiyoueth.

O.i. Y. enoiaeeo ec oaiiiaiieiae/aneiai iiieiaiey ineo e oece/aneiai
iiieiaiey oiai, /oi iaiino?aaenoaaiii aeaii iaoaio niciaieth, ii ia
o/eouaaao aaiacen naiiai niciaiey.

– noauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci.

Iaiiiceoeaeci. eee eiae/aneee yiie?eci – ?annae, Aeoaaiooaei, Oeee,
Ea?iai, O?aie, Iae?ao. Ae eaeaeiui enoi/ieeii ii. aue iaoeci. Ii anee
iaoenou ionoaeaaee “aeieiai -yeiiiie/aneoth” oai?eth iiciaiey e aeaeaee
a iaoea iaoiae oii?yaei/eaaiey iuouaiee(yeaiaioia), oi ii auaeaeioee
iiaia iiieiaiea iao/iiai iiciaiey, eae eia eiino?oeoeee ia iniiaa
/oanoaaiiuo niaea?aeaiee.(/oanoa aeaiiuo). Ecaiiyee ec o. iaoaoeceeo.
Oee eiaao i?aai ia nou ia eae iuoeaiea i ie?a, a eae “eiae/aneee aiaeec
ycuea.”

Iiceoeaenou n/eoaee iniiaiie aii? oee a oaeaea ae? ei?aiiua aii? oee
ia?ac?aoeiuie ec-ca neaainoe /ae ?acoia, iaoenou – /oi ini aii?in o.
nieiaaony e ?ac?aoaaony o/aieai i iaeo? yeaiaioao, ii.- cayaeytho, /oi e
ini aii?in o. e aiiaua i?iae, n/eoaaoeany ?aiaa oee, – yoi iieiua
i?iaeaiu, eio ioaeii ioa?ineoue eae eeoaiiua iao/iiai niunea.

Ana iaoa ciaiea i ie?a aeatho oieueei eiie?aoiua iaoee. Oee ia iiaeao
auneacaoue i ie?a ie iaeiiai iia iieiaeaiey, ia iiae nicaeaoue ieeaeie
ea?oeiu ie?a. Aa caaea/a – eia aiaeec e i?iyniaiea iieiae iaoee, a eio
au?aaeathony ciaiey i ie?a.

Naaaeaieth oee e eia aiaeeco ii iaycai A ?annaeo, eio ainiieueciaaeny
i?e yoii aeinoeae iaoai eiaeee. Iiiuoaaoeue aeaoue no?iaea ii?aaeae
iaoai iiiyoee ii i?eoae e uaiaeo , /oi any iaoai i.a naaaeaia e eiaeea.
Aeaeaa ? i?eaeae aieaa oe? cia/aiea iaoiaeo eia aiaeeca e iauyaee, /oi
“eiaeea – yoi nouiinoue oee”. Aeoaaiooaei ?acaee yoo eaeath, oeacaa, /oi
oee ninoieo a eia aiaeeca ycuea.

Ioiaeaeanoaeyy anth oee n eia aiaeecii yc, ii eneeth/atho ec noa?u oee
ii/oe any o. i?iaeaiaoeeo e oai naiui i?aeo eeeaeaee?otho oee.

Iaeiie ec aaaei caaea/ yae ioaeaeaiea i?aaeeiae eioi?ua eiatho niune,
io oao eio eeoaiu aai n iao/iie oi/ee c?, e o.i i/enoeoue iaoeo io
aanniune i?aaeeiaeaiee. Ii ?acee/atho 3 oeia iniune i?aaeeiaeaiee
1.auneacuaaiey ia yiie? oaeoao (anee aiai?yo i oaeoao e ie i /ai aieaa)
2. i?aaeeiae, niaea?aeauea eia neaaenoaey yoeo auneacuaaiee e
iino?iaiiua a niioa n eia i?aaeeaie (iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu e aune i yiie?
oaeoao) 3. i?aaeeiaeaiey eiaeee e iaoai ( ia niaea?aeao aune i oaeoao,
ia aeatho iiaiai ciaiey i ie?a, iaiaiaeeiu aeey oi?iaeueiiai i?aia?ac
oaea eiathuaainy ciaiey)

*oiau auynieoue eiaao ee i?aaee niune iaiaoiaeei niaoe iaoiae –
aa?eoeeaoeey Nooue a n?aaiaiee i?aaeeiae n aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth,
oeacaiee eiie?aoi oneiaee, i?e eio iii enoeiii eee eiaeii. Iaoiae
i?iaa?ee aua e onoaiaaeeaaao niune i?aaeeiaeaiey “cia/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey
caee a iaoiaea aai i?iaa?ee” Oaeoe/aneay enoeia ninoieo a niioa
auneacuaaiey oaeoo. I?aaeeiaeaiey aea oeia “aeooa /ae aannnia?oia”
aanniuneaiu o.e. ia iiaoo auoue i?iaa?aiu.

Iiae oaeoaie ii iiieiatho iuouaiey, ia?aaeeaaiey/, neiaii nino
niciaiey. Ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii, /oi ?ica, a?iiao eio y aaeuoath,
iaoa?eaeueia, ?aaii eae ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi iia eeoue ieiae iiaai
aiia?aaeaiey – iaeeiaeiai eeoaiu niunea. Aoaeo ee y n/eoaoue aa iao eee
eaeaaeueiie yoi ia iiaeeyao ia oaeo , /oi y /oanoaoth aa a?iiao e iia ia
noaiao io yoiai iaoiooue eo/oa eee ooaea”. Cia/eo a i?ioe aa?eoeeaoeee
iiaeii n?aaieoue i?aaeeiaeaiea oieueei n /oanoaaiiuie niaea?aeaieyie e
aeaiiuie iuouaiee eee i?aaeeaaiee. Ieacaeinue ,/oi ie iaeei iao/iue
caeii, ie iaeii iauaa ooaa?aeaeaiea oeia “ana ethaee nia?oiu” ia i.a.
aa?eoeoee?iaaiu, oae eae aa? anaaaea ioiineony e eiie?. yiie? oaeoo. A
neeo noauaeaoeaecia aa?eo enoeiu iieiae iaoee ieacaeenue a caaeneiinoe
io ioeaiee eaaeaeiai noauaeoa, i?iecaiae aa?eo. Iiyoiio auei
i?aaeeiaeaii n/eoaoue i?aaeeiae aa?eoeoee?iaaiiui, anee ianeieueei
aaoi?eoaoiuo enneaaeia niaeaniu n/eoaoue aai oaeiaui. O.a e?eoa?ee
enoeiu – niaeanea enneaaeiaaoaeae.

Caoai auei i?aaeeiaeaii aeey auyni enoeiiinoe i?aaee. n?aaieaaoue aai n
ae?oa i?aaeeiaeaieyei. Iiieiaiea enoeiu eae niioa oaeoai ia/aei
onooiaoue ianoi acaeyaeo ia enoeio eae ia niaeianiaaiiinoue
i?aaeeiaeaiey n nenoaiie ae? i?aaeeiaeaiee., /oi ia ia iniiaie ciaiey

Iaieaeaaeenoe/aneea oa/aiey. (Iaieaioeaionoai, iaiaaaaeueyinoai)

iaeaioeineia oeeinioneia oa/aiea, aicieeoaa a 60-o aa. XIX aa. a
Aa?iaiee, ?acaeaathuaa ioaeaeueiua iieiaeaiey eaioianeie oeeinioee a
aeooa iineaaeaiaaoaeae eaeaaeecia.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu iaieaioeainoaa naiaeyony e:

o?aeoiaea oeeinioee eneeth/aoaeueii eae e e?eoeea iiciaiey

ia?aie/aieth iiciaiey noa?ie iiuoa e ioeaco io i?eoycaiee aioieiaee ia
noaoon iao/iie aeenoeeieeiu

i?eciaieth iaoneaaeeaathueo iiciaiey ai?ei?iuo oi?i.

aicieeiiaaiea I. naycaii n aeaoiy eieaaie (1865 a.): Eeaiaia «Eaio e
Yieaaea», Eaiaa «Iacaae e Eaioo»

A i?ia?aiiao ?aiiaai I. (Eaiaa) auea noi?ioee?iaaia caaea/a –
i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue ?ani?ino?aieaoaiony a oi a?aiy iaoa?eaeecio
e?eoe/aneee eaeaaeeci Eaioa niioaaonaothuei ia?acii ia?a?aaioaiiue e
aeiiieiaiiue ?acoeueoaoaie oeceieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee.

Iniiaioth caneoao Eaioa E. aeaeeo a auaeaeaeaiee iieiaeaiey i oii, /oi
ia iaoe i?aaenoaaeaiey niaeanothony n iiciaaaaiuie i?aaeiaoaie, a
iaiai?io => iaoa?eaeeci ia i?aaiii/ai eae oeeinioneia o/aiea i i?e?iaea
iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oae eae oaeea aai iiiyoey eae iaoa?ey,
aoii, neea e o.ae. yaeythony eeoue aniiiiaaoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie,
eioi?ua iu naie nicaeaai n oeaeueth iiiyoue ie?. Ii iiaieth E.,
oeceieiaey i?aaiia /oanoa iieacaea, /oi oi, /oi Eaio iacuaae ai?ei?iuie
i?aaiaie iiciaiey, auoaeaao ec ineoi-oeceieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
/aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iao iniiaaiee i?aaeiieaaaoue,
/oi aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue oaeiaa eaeie iu aa aini?eieiaai.

3.12. Oaiiiaiieiae/aneay o?aaeeoeey (Y.Aonna?eue, I.Oaeaeaaaa?).

Oaeaeaaaa? (1879-1977) (ni. Ei. No?. 255)

Y. Aonna?eue (1859-1938) – iaiaoeeee oeeinio – iniiaiiieiaeiee
oaiiiaiieiaee

Aonna?eue oeacuaae, /oi iinayoee naay iainiiaaieth /aeiaa/aneiai ciaiey.

I?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi eiaeeo e iaoaiaoeeo neaaeoao o?aeoiaaoue eae
iaoee, eioi?ua niaa?oaiii iacaaeneiu io iiuoa e iioiio niaa?oaiii
ioee/iu io ineoieiaee.

?acaee «/enooth oaiiiaiieiaeth» – i?ioeaaeo?o, iniiauaathuothny
enneaaeiaaiee niaea?aeaiey nianoaaiiiai niciaiey noauaeoa.

ii?aaeaeee a naieo eiae/aneeo enneaiaeaaieyo iniiaiie iauaeo
oeeinioneiai enneaiaeiaaiey – iao/iia ciaiea. No?aieeny iino?ieoue iaoeo
i iaoea. – Auynieoue aii?in ia iauaeoeaiinoe iiciaiey – aio aeaaiay
i?iaeaia oai?ee iiciaiey.

Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue oi, /oi ii iacuaaao
oaiiiaiieiae/aneei iaoiaeii. Ii enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi oeeinioey aeieaeia
auoue eiaeeie iao/iiai iiciaiey, o/aieai i iaoea. A oae eae iaoea
iai?aaaia ia eco/aiea ciaiey, a eioi?ii niaea?aeeony enoeia, neaaeoao,
aii?in, /oi oaeia enoeia?

A. Iiieiaao enoeio eae ia/oi aaniethoiia, eae ia/oi enoeiiia «naii ii
naaa»

Aeey auyniaiey enoeiu o?aaoaony oaiiiaiieiae/aneee aiaeec, eioi?uoee
ninoieo a iniuneaiee oiai, /ai aiiaua yaeyaony iuoeaiea e iiciaiea.

A. Ia niiiaaaaony a nouaonaiaaiee ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. Yoi ii iacuaaao
«anoanoaaiiie onoaiiaeie», eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iaiin?aaenoaaiioth oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi nouaonaoao iauaeeoaiue ie? e
iu a ninoiyiee iienuaaoue oiae iaoa?eaeueiuo i?ioeannia, o.a. eiaoue
naie iiuo.

Iiaeiaii ie?o, eioi?ue ?anniao?eaaaony ai a?aiaie, nouanoaoao ai?eciio,
aaneiia/iue a iaieo iai?aaaeieyo.

Oeaeue Aonna?aey – «Oaiiiaiieiae/aneay ?aaeoeoeey» anoanoaaiiie oi/ee
c?aiy:

Yoi aeaeaaony iin?aaenoaii «caeeth/aiey a neiaee» eee eaii?e?iaaiey
iaoae aa?u a oioaeueiinoue iauaeoia e aauae, e eioi?ui iu ioiineiny n
anoanoaaiiie oi/ee c?aiey, e aianoi yoiai ia?auaiey aieiaiey ia iaoe
ia?aaeeaaiey eo.

caeeth/aoue aaue «a neiaee» ia icia/aao, /oi iu niiiaaaainy a eo
nouanoaiaaiee, a oieueei oi, /oi iu ?acuaaeaiaiu n ieie, iii anoue
ii?aaeaeaiiia aicaea?aeaiea io noaeaeaiey.

yoi «caeeth/aiea a neiaee», eee aicaea?aeaiea, A. Iacuaaao oa?ieiii
«yiioa»

Inouanoaeaiea oaiiiaiieiae/aneiai yiioa aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iia auoue
naiaiaeiui io eniieueciaaiey eaeeo-eeai noaeaeaiee, eioi?ua eanathony
ii?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiiai nouanoaiaaiey. A yoii ninoieo ia?aue yoai
?aaeoeoeee.

Aoi?ie yoai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau iienaoue no?oeoo?u, inoathueany
iinea oiai, eae i?ioeaaeo?a, «caeeth/aiey a neiaee» i?ioea.

Oaeei ia?acii, iin?aaenaii oaiiiaiieiae/aneie ?aaeoeoeee aicieeaao
oaiiiaiieiae/aneia (/enoia) niciaiea.

aai ioee/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe ii?aaeaeaiiua nouiinoiua no?oeoo?u,
eioi?ua aunooiatho aiioo?aiiei caeiiiia?iinoyie niciaiey, aai
i?eioeeiaie, iaoaieciaie ooieoeeiia?iaaiey.

?anniao?eaay niciaiea eae niaieoiiinoue nouiinoae A. Iiieiaao aai eae
iioie, eae ia?ooeioth oeaeinoiinoue.

Niciaiea aunooiaao a aeaea iioiea ia?aaeeaaiee. Yeaiaiou ia?aaeeaaiee
iacuaathony oaiiiaiieiaeae

Iiiyoue oaiiiai eae oeaeinoiinoue, eiooeoeeae, o.a. iaiin?aaenoaaiii
aieoe a iioie niciaiey.

Aaaeiui aeey oaiiiaiieiaee yaeyaony iiiyoea eioaioeeaeueiinoe, eioi?ay
oa?aeoa?ecoao ineoe/aneea oaiiiaiu. A iai auaeaeytho ?aciua aniaeou:

a) i?aaeiaoiue aniaeo niciaiey = iiyia (aicieeiiaaiea i?aaeiaoa ninoieo
ec na?ee ainii?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ua niaaeeiythony a aaeeinoai
aeayoaeueiinoe naiiniciaiey)

a) aeo niciaiey a oie eee eiie oi?ia = iiynen – niinia aeaiiinoe
eioaioeeaeueiiai i?aaeiaoa niciaiey.

Aaeeinoai iiyiu e iiynena ii?aaeaeyaony neioace?othuae aeayoaeueiinoueth
niciayiey, i?e eioi?ie oeaeinoiinoue i?aaeiaoa iaania/eaaaony
oeaeinoiinoueth niciaiey.

Iineaaeiay aeneiia A. «e?ecen aa?iiaeneeo iaoe»

A. ?anniao?eaaao aii?in i oii, a /ai ninoieo e?ecen nia?aiaiiie iaoee.

Iaoea ia iiaeao ioaa/aoue ia naiua aaaeiua aeeciaiiua cai?inu, oae eae
inoaaeyao a noi?iia i?iaeaiu, eiathuea aieueoia cia/aiea a aeecie –
aii?inu i niunea e aanniuneaiiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey.
Neaaeiaaaoeueii A. Noaaeo aii?in i nayce oeeinioee e iaoee,
neaaeiaaoaeueii iiiyoea «aeeciaiiiai ie?a» – noa?a ecaanoiiai anai
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai, i/aaeaeiiai. «AEeciaiiue ie?» aunooiaao naiaai ?iaea
ai?eciioii, i?aaeiinueeie aeaenoaeoaeueniioe e aiciiaeiie i?aeoe/anee.
«AE. Ie?» ia?ae/iaa ethaiai iiuoa e iao/iiai iiciaiey.

OAEAeAAAA? Ia?oei (1889-1976) -iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia e ae.
i?aaenoaaeoaeue iaiaoneiai yecenoaioeeaeecia. Caueuae aeenna?oaoeeth o
?eeea?oa, aue annenoaioii Aonna?ey, i?aiiaeaaae a Ia?ao?aa, O?aeao?aa. A
1933 a ?a/e i?e anooieaiee ia iino ?aeoi?a O?ae-ao?aneiai oi-oa i?eciae
eaeaieiaeth iaoeeiiae-nioeeaeecia. Ini. eaoaai?eae eaeaaeenoe/aneie
oeeinioee X. yaeyaony „a?aiaiiinoue”, iiieiaaiay ei eae aioo?aiiaa
ia?aaeeaaiea /aeiaaea. Ia?ae/iui X. n/eoaao „iano?iaiea”, o. a. oi?iu
noeoeeiiai, ia?acaeoiai niciaiey. Ai?ei?iuie oi?iaie /aeiaa/aneie
ee/iinoe, ii X., yaeythony caaioa, o?aaiaa, no?ao e o. ae. Yoe oi?iu
ninoaaeytho noauaeoeaiia auoea /aeiaaea, e-?ia X. iacuaaao
„auoeai-a-ie?a”. O/aiea ia ai?ei?iuo oi?iao ?ac?aaaouaaeinue X. eae
o/aiea i auoee („ooiaeaiaioaeueiay iioieiaey”). *oiau iinoe/ue ,,niune
auoey”, /aeiaae aeieaeai io?aoeoueny io anao i?aeoe/anee-oeaeaauo
onoaiiaie, iniciaoue naith „nia?oiinoue”, „a?aiiinoue”. Eeoue /oanoaoy
naay iinoiyiii „ia?aae eeoeii nia?oe”, /aeiaae, niaeanii X., a ninoiyiee
oaeaeaoue cia/eiinoue e iaiie-iaiiinoue eaaeaeiai iiiaioa aeecie e
inaiaiaeeoueny io „eaeieia iauanoaaiiiai auoey” — oeaeae, „eaeaaeia”,
„iao/iuo aano?aeoeee”. ?anniao?eaay ycue eae „aeii auoey”, enoeiiia
n?aaeioi/ea eoeueoo?u, X. ?ac?aaaouaae eaeae „niaeoeyoeaiie oeeieiaae” n
oeaeueth i?iyniaiey „enoei auoey” (i?aaeaea anaai a i?ieca.
iiyoia-?iiaioeeia e neiaieenoia). Oeeinioey X. naiaeeo aiaaeeii
e??aoeeiiaeenoe/aneea oaiaeaioeee, eiaaoeany o Euea?eaai?a, a oeeinioee
aeecie, oaiiiaiieiaee Aonna?ey. Ini. ni/.: „Auoea e a?aiy” (1927), „Eaio
e i?iaeaia iaoaoeceee” (1929), „Aaaaeaiea a iaoaoeceeo” (1953).

3.13 Oeeinioey E.Ia?ena e aa ?acaeoea a 20a.

Iauay oeeinioey — aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci, a ?aieao eioi?iai
?acaeoa oai?ey enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna— enoi?e/aneee iaoa?eaeeci.
Iniiaiuie nenoaiiia?acothueie i?eioeeiaie yaeythony neaaeothuea :

— i?eioeei aaeeinoaa e oeaeinoiinoe auoey eae ?acaeaathuaeny
oieaa?naeueiie nenoaiu, aeeth/ay ana oi?iu aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe io
iauaeoeaiie (iaoa?ey) aei noauaeoeaiie (iuoeaiea).

— i?eioeei iaoa?eaeueiinoe ie?a, ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi iaoa?ey ia?ae/ia
ii ioiioaieth e niciaieth, io?aaeaaony a iai e ii?aaeaeyao aai
niaea?aeaiea;

— i?eioeei iiciaaaaiinoe ie?a, ia?a aai iiciaiiinoe, ii?aaeaeythuae
noaiaiue niioaaonoaey iaoeo ciaiee iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, yaeyaony
i?aeoeea;

—- i?eioeei ?acaeoey. Aanue ie? iaoiaeeony a iai?a?uaiii, iinoiyiiii
aeeaeaeoe/aneii ?acaeoee, enoi/iee eioi?iai — aicieeiiaaiea e
?ac?aoaiea i?ioeai?a/ee;

— i?eioeei i?aia?aciaaiey ie?a a oeaeyo aeinoeaeaiey naiaiaeu ee/iinoe
ia iniiaa i?aia?aciaaiey aeecie iauanoaa e aeinoeaeaiey ?aaainoaa e
a?aonoaa.

Aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci aia?aua ?ani?ino?aiyao iao iiieiaiea ia
oieueei ia i?e?iaeo, ii e ia iauanoai. Ionthaea oai?ey i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe e oai?ey enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.

Oai?ey iiciaiey. Iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneay i?aeoeea anoue iniiaa,oeaeue
e e?eoa?ee iiciaiey. I?aeoeea ii?iaeaeaao oai?eth, oai?ey neoaeeo
i?aeoeea I?aeoeea anoue aaeeinoai noauaeoeaiiai e iauaeoeaiiai, niciaiey
e auoey, ii?aaeia/eaaiey e ?ai?aaeia/eaaiey. Aeey Ia?ena iauaeo — yoi
i?aaeiao i?eeiaeaiey /aeiaa/aneeo nee, oi anoue noauaeoa (/ae, iau,
ain).Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue aa?aony ia nica?oeaoaeueii, a a oi?ia
i?eeiaeaiey /aeiaa/aneie /oanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iniiaiua aeaeu
i?aeoeee: ia?aaioea i?e?iaeu ethaeueie(iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue) e ia?aaioea ethaeae
ethaeueie(nioeeaeueii-i?aia?acothuay aeayoaeueiinoue). Any iauanoaaiiay
aeeciue yaeyaony i?aeoe/aneie. I?aeoeea naycaea oai?eth enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna n aiinaieiaeae, auea e a iioieiaee. Oae eae nouiinoue niciaiey
anoue io?aaeaiea a iai iaoa?eaeueiie aeecie e oneiaee, oi i?ioeann
oeaeaiieaaaiey o /aeiaaea anoue i?ioeann io?aaeaiey ie?oaeathuaai ie?a a
oi?ia ia?aca i?aaenoiyuae i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Enoi?e/aneee iaoa?eaeeci. Eaeay aianoe iaoa?eaeeci a iiieiaiea iauanoaa
anoue iniiaa anao iauanoaaiiuo iaoe oeia nioeeieiaee. Enoiaeiue ioieo:
iniiaa ethaiai /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa — aeiauaaiea n?aaenoa e aeecie.
Ionthaea aacenii yaeythony oa ioiioaiey, a eioi?ua ethaee anooiatho i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa naiae aeecie, eioi?ue iaeaeaaony iaaeno?ieeie – iieeoeei
th?eaee/aneie, iauanoaaiiie e ae?. Eaaeaeay nenoaia i?iec ioiio
aicieeaao ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nee. eiaaea
anoue niioaaonoaea, oi i?iecaiaenoaaiiua neeu eiatho aieueoea
aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaeoey (i?aaeiaou i?iecaiaenoaa, ciaiey e iiuo,
/aeiaae). Eiaaea i? ioi ionoatho, oi yoi ii/aa aeey nioeeaeueiuo
?aaiethoeee. Iaaeno?ieea-niaieoiiinoue aeooiaiuo ia?aciaaiee (oai?ee,
o/aiey, ?aeeaey, eneonnoai), ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie- eaeaieiaey e
o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee -noaeu, ia?oee, oea?eiaue e o.ae.Iaaeno?ieea
aia/aea neoaeeo oe?aieaieth aacena, ii a oiaea ?acaeoey e aicieeiiaaiey
i?ioeai?a/ee aicieeaao iiaua iaaeno?ia/iua oi?iu, aeoeaii aicaeaenoaoy
ia aacen. Iiaue aacen auc?aaaao a ?aieao noa?iai, e eie ia?ao a ea/,
?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?aoiae i iaeiie iuanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee e
ae?oaie.

Iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneee oi?iaoeee – ia?aia, ?aaiaeaae?, oaiaeae,
eaieoae, eiiioieci ia?aay noaaeey — nioeeaeeci. Yoa oai?ey iicaieyao
enneaaeiaaoue enoi?e/aneia niauoey a ?aieao enoieeiaaiey ii?iaeeaoeo eo
ii, eneaoue iauea /a?ou ?aciuo no?ai ia iaeiie nooiaie iau ?acaeoey,
o.a. eniieueciaaoue iauaiaoiue e?eoa?ee iiaoi?yaiinoe. E oiio aea
/aeiaa/ iauanoai ?anniao?eaaaony eae aaeeiue nioe i?aaieci en aanoe
no?aieaiey ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae e aeaenoaeyi aieueoeo a?oii, eeannia a
?aieao iaeiie oi?iaoeee. Iniiaiie aeaeaeouae neeie enoi?ee aunooiatho
ia?iaeiua iannu, oioy ?ieue ee/iinoe ia io?eoeaaony. Niciaiea yaeyaony
ia aaniethoii naiinoiyoaeueiie neeie, ii eiaao naia iainiiaaiea a
iaoa?eaeueiii aeeciaiiii i?ioeanna. Ethaee naie oai?yo enoi?eth, ii ia
ii i?iecaieo, oae eae iaoiaeyony a iaeioi?uo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo.,
/oi iaoneaaeeaaao iioeau eo aeaenoaee.

Io/oaeaeaiea— i?ioeann i?aa?auaiea aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea e
i?iaeoeoia yoie aeayoaeueiinoe a naiinoiyoaeueioth, aeiaeathuoth iaae
/aeiaaeii neeo. Neaaenoaea yoiai— oaoeoecaoeey i?aaeiaoiiai ie?a.
Noauaeo i?aa?auaaony a iauaeo iaieioeyoeee, /oi iiyaeyaony a aiaoee,
ao?ioee aoiaieoa?iuo oeaiiinoae. oi?iu io/oaeaeaiey:

iionoioaiea e iaaaeiaiea o?oaeaieea a i?ioeanna o?oaea;

io/ oneiaee aeayoaeueiinoe io aeayoaeueiinoe – i?ioeainoiyiea oneiaee
o?oaea (nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iec, oi?aaeaiea, i?aaiecaoeey) –
noauaeoo o?oaea;

io/ ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe io noauaeoa;

io/ oai?ee io i?aeoeee, /oi aeaao ioeeiiaiey a niciaiee e iiaaaeaiee
/eaiia iauanoaa;

nioe no?oeoo? e einoeoooia io o?oaeyueony — ath?ie?aoe/aneay iaoeia.

Io/oaeaeaiiue o?oae I ?anni a 4 aniaeoao.

1.?aai/ eniieuecoao iaoa?, acyoua o i?e?iaeu e iieo/aao a eoiaa ioaeiua
aeey aeecie i?aaeiaou, i?iaeoeou o?oaea. Ie eno iaoa?eae, ie i?iae aio
ia i?eiaaeeaaeao – iie aio /oaeea. *ai aieueoa ?. ?aaioaao, oai aieueoa
ie? i?aaei, ia i?eiaaee aio. I?e?iaea aeaeaaony aeey ?aa oieueei
n?aaenoaii o?oaea, a i?aaeiaou, eio nicaeathony a i?iecaiaenoaa –
n?aaenoaii aeecie, oec nouanoaiaaiey. ?aa iieiinoueth io ieo caaeneo.

2. I?ioeann o?oaea aeey ? i?eioaeeoaeai. Ii oaeie o?oae – yoi ia
oaeiaeaoai? iio?aaiinoe a o?oaea, a oieueei n?aaenoai aeey oaeiaeaoai?
ae? iio?aaiinoae. Oieueei aia o?oaea ?. ?anii?yaeaaony niaie – o.a.
naiaiaeai. O.i ii naiaiaeai oieueei inou. aeeciaiiua ooieoeee, iauea o
/ae n aeeaioiuie. A o?oae – oi?ia aeayo, niaoeeo aeey /ae, aeey ?aa
i?aaenoaaeyaony oieaeaieai a naaa /aeiaaea.

3. O?oae iiaeiaaieueiue ioieiaao o /ae aai “?iaeiaoth” aeeciue. ?iae
/aeia. AEeaao a i?e?iaea. AEeciue /ae ia?ac?uaii naycaia n i?e?. Yoa
naycue – aeayoaeueiue eiioaeo n i?e?, a eio aeaaiia – o?oae,
i?iecaiaenoai: “…i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeeciue e anoue ?iaeiaay aeeciue”.
Ii aeey ?aa o?oae – eeoue n?aaenoai aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey nianoaaiiie
aeecie, a ia ?iaea. ? ioiineony e i?e? e i?iecaiaenoao ia eae naia
/aeiaae, a eae ?aai/ee, o.a io/oaeaeaiii. Yoi e cia/eo,/oi o ?aa
ioia?aiu e ?iaeiaay aeeciue e /ae nouiinoue.

4.Iiaeiaaieueiue o?oae ii?iaeaeaao io/oaeae iaaeaeo ethaeueie. ?aa
/oaeaeu ae?oa ae?oao, iineieueeo iie eiieo?e?otho ca aici o?oaeeoueny.

Ia oieueei ?. ii e ana ethaee yaeythony io/oaeaeaiiuie. Ioiio iaaeaeo
ethaeueie oiaea io/oaeaeaiiua e ?acee/ey oieueei a aeaeao e o?iaiyo io/.
I oeacuaaao ia nou ia?ae/iuo e aoi?e/iuo o?iaiae io/. Ii/aio aea /ae
noaiiaeony io/oaeaeaiiui?

Io/ o?oae ?aaiicia/ai nou /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. * nianoa – iniiaa yeii
aeecie. Ia /anoiinianoaaiie/aneie yeiiiieea aea?aeeony any enoi?ey. Yoi
cia/eo, /oi yeiiii enoi?ey – eeth/ e iiieiaieth /aeia aeecie eae
oaeiaie. “?aeeaey, naiuey, ain-ai, i?aai, ii?aeue, iaoea, eneonnoai…
nooue eeoue iniaua aeaeu i?iecaiaenoaa e iiae/eiythony aai anaiauaio
caeiio”. AEeciue ethaeae a one io/oaeaeaiey eaea/eo eo, aeaeaao
“/anoe/iuie eiaeeaeaeaie” eee ia?acaeouie, iaaei/aeia nouanoaaie.
“*anoiay nianoa naeaeaea ian ianoieueei aeoiuie e iaeiinoi?iiieie, /oi
eaeie-ieaoaeue i?aaeiao yae iaoei eeoue eiaaea iu iaeaaeaai ei… eiaaea
iu ei iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaaeaai, aaeei aai, iueai – oiio?aaeyai…
Iiyoiio ia ianoi anao oec e aeooiaiuo /oanoa noaei i?inoia io/oaeaeaiea
anao yoeo /oanoa – /oanoai iaeaaeaiey”.

Ono?aiaiea io/oaeaeaiey. Oieaa?naeueiue /aeiaae. I?ioeann, ia?aoiue
io/oaeaeaieth, – i?enaiaiea /ae nianoaaiiie iiaeeeiiie nouiinoe. I
naycuaaao aai n iau i?aia?aciaaieyie, n inaiaiaeaeaieai eio a iniiaa
eiaao oie/oiaeaiea io/oaeae o?oaea. *oi aoaeao , anee /ae ia/iao
i?iecaiaeeoue eae /aeiaae, o.a. ia iiaeiaaieueii. A yoii neo/aa o?oae
noaiao n?aaenoaii naii?acaeoey /aeiaaea, a ?aaeecaoeeth /aeiaaeii naieo
eo/oeo noi?ii.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?enaiaiey /aeia nianoaaiiie nouiinoe, eee i?aa?au
o?oaea ec i?eioae a /aeiaa/aneee ?anniao? I ii oai aea ia?aiao?ai, /oi e
i?ioeann io/oaeaeaiey: 1. ii i?enaiaieth i?aaei o?oaea e aai ?acoeueoaoa
2. Ii inaiaiaeaeaieth naiie aeayoaeueiinoe 3.i?ena /aeiaaeii o?oaea
iauae ?iaeiaie nouiinoe 4.aa?iiiecaoeee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie.

Caeanue I nicaeaao a?aiaeeicioth ii naiaio iaoino ea?oeio /aeia,
aeeaouaai a aaeeinoaa n i?e?iaeie, i?aia?acothuaai i?e? a niioaaonoaee n
aa caeiiaie. Aa?iiiey n aiaoiae i?e? inou a aeayoaeueiinoe, a eio
/aeiaae ?aaeecoao naie oeaee ia ii caeiiai ooeeeoa?iie iieuecu, a ii cae
e?aniou. Aioo?aiiyy i?e? /ae oaeaea i?aia?acoaony. Aianoi io/oaeaeaiiiai
iaaei/aeiaaea iiyaeyaony /aeiaae, naii i?e?iaeiia ?acaeoea anoue
aa?iiie/iue ?-o anae enoi?ee /ae iauanoaa. A /aeiaaea ia/ioo
?aaeeciauaaoueny niiniaiinoe, iiea aua ?aaeecothueany ia o anao (iocue
ooi, ooaeiaeanoaaiii ?acaeoue aeac). – oai?/aneea niiniaiinoe.

Oieaa?naeueii ?acaeoue, aeea a aaeeinoaa e aa?iiiee n aiaoiae e
aioo?aiiae i?e?iaeie /ae – oaeia eaeaaeueiue oee ia?ac, ?enothueeny I a
ea/anoaa yae?a eiiioieno eaeaaea. Oie/oiaeaiea / nianoaaiiinoe
iaiaoiaeeii, ii iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey i?enaiaiey ethaeueie /aeia nouiinoe.

3.14 Iinoiiceoeaeci. Iiene iiaie ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe eae iiiueea
i?aiaeieaoue neaainoue noeeaioecia e e??aoeeiiaeecia

Iinoiiceoeaeciii iacuaaaony iiiaeanoai eiioeaioeee, eioi?ua i?eoee ia
niaio iiceoeaecio. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony ?aoeeiiaeueiui iaoiaeai
iiciaiey.

EA?E IIIIA?. Iaoiaeieiaey aa?eoeeaoeee a iaoea iino?iaia ia oaaaeaeaiee
aaniethoiinoe enoeiu, a yoi eeethci?iia i?aaenoaaeaiea. ?aii eee iicaeii
ia ianoi noa?ie oai?ee i?eoiaeeo iiaay, e noa?ia ciaiea i?eciaaony
caaeoaeaeaieai. Iiyoiio caaea/a yienoaiieiaee, oa oai?ee e oeeinioee
iao/iiai iiciaiey, caeeth/aaony ia a iienea enoeiu, a a i?iaeaia ?inoa
ciaiee. ?ino ciaiee aeinoeaaaony a i?ioeanna ?aoeeiiaeueiie aeeneonnee,
eioi?ay iaeciaiii aunooiaao e?eoeeie nouanoaothuaai ciaiey. Ionthaea
iacaaiea oai?ee E?EOE*AEEE ?AOeEIIAEECI. Iiiia? n/eoaao, /oi o/aiua
aeaeatho ioe?uoey, ainoiaey ia io oaeoia e oai?ee, a io aeiioac e
aaeeie/iui auneacuaaieyi. O/aiua iieuecothony
aeiioaoe/anee-aeaaeoeoeaiui iaoiaeii. Ec aeiioac iauaai oa?aeoa?a
auaiaeyony i?aaeiieiaeaiey, eioi?ua n?aaieaathony iaiin?aaenoaaiii n
i?ioieieueiuie ooaa?aeaeaieyie. Anee ioiineoaeueii oai?ee e
i?ioieieueiuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee, a oaeaea eo n niaiaaeaiey o/aiua i?eoee e
niaeaneth, oi oai?ey n/eoaaony a?aiaiii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiie. Oae eae ie
iaeia oai?ey ia iiaeao auoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaia ieii/aoaeueii, oi iia ii
ii?aaeaeaieth eiaao aeiioaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, aa ia?acotho ia caeiiu, a
i?aaaeiiiaeiaiua ooaa?aeaeaiey. anyeay oai?ey iaiaaeaaeia e iiaeaa?aeaia
ioeaeai (i?eioeei oaeeeaaeecia). Ieii/aoaeueii iiaeoaa?aeeoue oai?eth
iaeuecy, caoi aa iiaeii ii?iaa?aiooue (oaeueneoeoee?iaaoue). Oai?ey
oaeueneoeoee?iaaia, anee iia i?ioeai?a/eo iiuoiui aeaiiui, eiiaaea anaai
eeoue iaeiiio iiuoiiio oaeoo. Oaeueneoeoee?iaaiiay oai?ey caiaiyaony
iiaie, ia eioi?oth ia?ooeaaaony a?aae ?aoeeiiaeueiie e?eoeee. Ioeacaeny
io oceiai yiie?ecia e eiaeoeoeaecia eiae/aneeo iiceoeaenoia, caiaiea eo
i?eioeeiaie i?aaie/aneie nayce oai?aoe/aneiai e yiie?e/aneiai o?iaiy
ciaiee.

?ino iao/iiai ciaiey iiaeii au?aceoue noaiie enoiaeiay i?iaeaia —-
iiiaeanoai a?aiaiiuo ?aoaiee iniiaiie i?iaeaiu — yeeieiaoeey,
eni?aaeaiea iaia?oaeaiiuo ioeaie— iiaay i?iaeaia. Aeey iainiiaaiey
naiae eiioeaioeee ii iieuecoaony iaueie eaeayie yaiethoeeiiecia (?ino
iao/iiai ciaiey aeey iaai yaeyaony /anoiui neo/aai iaueo yaiethoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia, niaa?oathueony a ie?a). ?acee/iua aeiioaoeei -aeaaeoeoeaiua
no?oeoo?u ioee/athony naiae auaeeaaaiinoueth. A ie?a i?aaieciia
auaeeaaao iaeaieaa i?eniiniaeaiiua, a iaoea — naiua iai?ioeai?a/eaua.
Iao/iie i?eciaaony eiioeaioeey, eioi?ay iiaeaeaaony niiinoaaeaieth n
iiuoiuie aeaiiuie, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iia a ethaie iiiaio iiaeao auoue
noaeueneoeoee?iaaia. a ioee/ea io iaoee, oee ia iiaeaeaaony
oaeueneoeeaoeee, oi anoue ia eiaao iao/iiai oa?aeoa?a. Ii, ia iaeaaeay
iao/iui noaoonii, iia iaeaaeaao niuneii, aac iaa ia iaieoenue. ?aoaao
i?iaeaio aeaia?eaoeee iaoee e oee. Oee anoue iniuneaiea ?inoa iao/iiai
ciaiey, aeeth/aao a naay i?eioeeiu ?aoeeiiaeueii-e?eoe/aneee aeeneonnee,
oaeeeaaeecia e oaeueneoeeaoeee.

Oai?ey o?ao ie?ia: 1) oeeinioneee eee oece/aneee; 2) iaioaeueiue; 3) ie?
iauaeoeaiie enoeiu aac iiciathuaai noauaeoa. Yoi ie? /aeiaa/aneiai
aeooa, ie? ?inoa iao/iiai ciaiey, aeiioac, oai?ee. I?iaeaia iiieiaiey
enoeiu ?anniao?eaaaony ananoi?iiia — eae niioaaonoaea iauaeoa e
ethaiai aai iaicia/aiey, eae i?iaeaia iaoaycuea iaoee. Aeaaea naia eaeay
ioeaee niaea?aeeo eaeath iauaeoeaiie enoeiu, iaoaieci ?inoa — iaoiae
i?ia e ioeaie, i?aaeiieiaeaiee e ii?iaa?aeaiee. Iaoinii aai oai?ee
yaeyaony oaaaeaeaiea a iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey oai?ee iao/iie
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe, iaeie nenoaiu noaiaea?oia e ii?i ?inoa iao/iiai
ciaiey, inouanoaeaiey aeaia?eaoeee iao/iiai ciaiey io iaiao/iiai, Yoa
oai?ey iicaieeo ?aoeoue o?e caaea/e : 1) ecaaaaoue iaeaiiai yiie?ecia;
2) ia aeiioneaoue niaeoeyoeaiuo ?annoaeaeaiee a aeooa iaiaoeeie
eeanne/aneie oeeinioee; 3) ia aiaaeaoue a e??aoeeiiaeeci.

Aai eiioeaioeey iiaeaa?aaaony e?eoeea. Naae ?ino iao/iiai ciaiey e
aeoyee aeiioac, oaeoia iaaethaeaiee. Eaii?e?oao iiiyoea enoeiu, ana
caiaiaii ?annoaeaeaieyie i i?aaaeiiiaeiaiuo ooaa?aeaeaieyo,E?iia aeiioac
e oaeoia, anoue aua nioeeaeueiue e oaoie/aneee ie?u, niaieoiiinoue
iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua aeeytho ia ?ino iao/iuo ciaiee. I?e iao/iie
e?eoeea e aeaaea oaeueneoeeaoeee oai?ee o/aiua ia niaoao ioeacaoueny io
aa oneoa, ni iaoaieeo Iuethoiia. Aai eiioeaioeey o?ao ie?ia eiaao
iauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

EI?A EAEAOIN. ?aaeueiu eeoue oa iaoee, eioi?ua iicaietho eco/aoue naay n
oi/ee c?aiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiae/aneeo o?aaiaaiee. I?e yoii i?aaeeiaeee
i?eaeiaeueiue aa?eaio eiaeee aeiaaaeie e ii?iaa?aeaiee. Aaaeiinoue
n?aaiaiee ?aciuo oai?ee ae?oa n ae?oaii. E oiio aea iaaei n?aaieaaoue ia
oai?ee, a iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee i?ia?aiiu. Eaaeaeay niaea?aeeo
ianeieueei oai?ee, oaa?aeia yae?i i?ia?aiiu ia?aoiaeeo io iaeiie e
ae?oaie, a caueoiue iiyn iiaeao /anoe/ii ?ac?ooaoueny. Ia?aoiae e iiaie
i?ia?aiia i?ienoiaeeo, eiaaea ?ac?ooaieth iiaeaa?aaaony oaa?aeia yae?i.
Iiaay i?ia?aiia aeieaeia auoue ianuuaia iiaui yiie?e/aneei niaea?aeaieai
ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeoanoaaiieoeae. Noiae auaeaeeoue aaaeiua iiiaiou a
i?ioeanna ?acaeoey ciaiee. Nouanoaaiii ?acee/aoue oai?ee e i?ia?aiiu e
iniciaaaoue, a ?aieao eioi?ie ou iaoiaeeoueny. Anee ia ciaoue i?i
ae?oaea i?ia?aiiu, oi naia i?ia?aiia , a eioi?ie ou iaoiaeeoueny,
i?eciaaony ca aan ciaiea e enoeio,/oi i?eaiaeeo e iaeiiaieinoe e
iaeniieueciaaieth aeinoieinoa ae?oaeo i?ia?aii.

IIE OAEA?AAAIAe. Eiioeaioeey yienoaiieiae/aneiai aia?oecia. I?e
noieeiiaaiee oai?ee n iao/iui oaeoii aeey aa ii?iaa?aeaiey ioaeia aua
iaeia oai?ey. Aeey yoiai ii auaeaeaaao e ?ac?aaaouaaao i?eioeei
iieeoa?iaoeee — ?aciiiaeaiea oai?ee. Ionoaeaaao i?aaiia?iinoue ethaie
iiaie oai?ee. Eaaeaeue o/aiue aeieaeai oai?eoue naiaiaeii, eae ii oi/ao.
I?e yoii neaaeoao auaeaeaaoue aeaaea iaiiaeoaa?aeaeaiiua e iai?iaa?aiiua
caeiiu e aeiioacu. Enoi/ieeii aeueoa?iaoeaiuo eaeae iiaoo auoue
ciaoa?noai. ienoeea, aino eoeueou, cae?aaue niune. iaaey e ae?. Ana iie
eiatho nianoaaiioth oeaiiinoue. IAo iaueo ii?i oieaa?naeueiuo e?eoa?eaa
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe eee iao/iinoe, anaaaea iaeaeoony oaeou eee
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, i?e eioi?uo iiaoo i?eaiaeeoueny ii?iu, noaiaea?ou e
eiioeaioeee, ioaa?aaaiua a ae?oaeo oneiaeyo. Ethaay oai?ey i?eaieaia.
Caneoaa a ioeaca io i?eia?aooeo onoie/eaua /a?ou eaeaaeia eeanne/aneie
iaoee, i?e yoii iaoea i?aaenoaao eae i?ioeann ?aciiiaeaiey oai?ee, iao
aaeeiie eeiee e aeaaea onoie/eauo oaiaeaioeee, a yoi iai?aaaea. Iiiai
aieiaiey oaeaeyao i?iaeaia oa?ieiieiaee. Eaaeaeay oai?ey nicaeaao
nianoaaiiue ycue aeey iienaiey oaeoia. i?e yoii onoaiaaeeaaao naie
noaiaea?ou e ii?iu, eioi?ua iiaoo aeaaea i?ioeai?a/eoue ae?oa ae?oao.
iae?eoe/aneea caeinoaiaaiey eo oa?ieiieiaee e ycuea iiaoo iia?aaeeoue
o/aiiio. Ii ia aeieaeai iiaeaeaaaoueny ii?iai, a aeieaeai enneaaeiaaoue
oaeou nai, ia iiaeaeaaaynue aeaaeaieth.

OIIAN EOI. Eieaa “No?oeoo?a iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee” ?ac?aaioae eiioeaioeeth
iao/iuo ia?aaeeai, ii?iaeueiie iaoee e iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee. Ia?aaeeaia
— niaieoiiinoue oai?aoe/aneeo e iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?aaeiinueie,
ii?aaeaeythueo eiie?aoiia iao/iia enneaaeiaaiea, eioi?ay aiieiuaaony a
iao/iie i?aeoeea ia aeaiiii yoaia. Ia?aaeeaia yaeyaony iniiaaieai auai?a
i?iaeai, iiaeaeueth e ia?acoeii aeey ?aoaiey enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo caaea/.
Niaeanii aai eiioeaioeee, ia ia?aii yoaia iao/iie aeenoeeieeiu
ionoonoaoao nenoaia oeaiiinoae e niaeanea ioiineoaeueii oeaeae,
oai?aoe/aneeo onoaiiaie, iauai?eiyouo iaoiaeia e oaeoia. Nicaeaiea
ia?aaeeaiu icia/aao aeinoeaeaiea oaeiai niaeaney ia iniiaa iauai?eiyouo
ia?acoeia oai?aoe/aneeo eee yiie?e/aneeo ciaiee, enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo
iaoiaeieiaee. I?e yoii o/aiua iie?athony ia iniaua oeaiiinoe,
eniieuecotho caieiooue ycue e ia?acotho caieiooia niiauanoai. Ia?aoiae
io iaeiie ia?aaeeaiu e ae?oaie nii?iaiaeaeaaony eieeaeoeaiui eciaiaieai
aeaeaiey, eioa?i?aoaoeee yiie?e/aneeo oaeoia. iieo/aiiua a ?aieao ?aciuo
ia?aaeeai ciaiey ianiiinoaaeiu e ian?aaieiu, eiatho ?acee/iue niune.
N?aaiaiea ia?aaeeai i?ienoiaeeo ia ia iao/iii, a ia anoanoaaiiii e
oeeinioneii iaoaycuea. Ii?iaeueiay iaoea, ?aca a ?aieao iaeiie
ia?aaeeaiu, aaaeao e niaa?oainoaiaaieth oai?ee e ?inoo yiie?e/aneeo
oaeoia. IOe?uoea aiiiaeueiuo oaeoia, iaiauynieiuo a ?aieao
ainiiaenoaothueo aicc?aiee, i?eaiaeeo e iao/iui ?aaiethoeeyi, a oiaea
eioi?uo neeaae iiaua ia?aaeeaiu. Iaeiaei iauaeoeaiiai i?ia?anna,
naycaiiiai n aic?anoaieai iauaeoeaiie enoeiu, ii ia i?eciaao, iieaaay,
/oi oaeea ciaiey iiaoo auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu eae aieaa eee iaiaa
yooaeoeaiua aeey ?aoaiey niioaaonoaothueo caaea/. eaaeaeay ia?aaeeaia
iaeaaeaao naieie e?eoa?eyie ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe. Iie ianiecia?eiu, a ieo
iao eiae/aneie i?aainoaaiiinoe. Iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi iaoea anoue ?ac
aeaenoaey iao/iuo eieeaeoeaia, oeie. Ia?aoee ia iniaoth cia/eiinoue
nioeeaeueiuo e ineoieiae/aneeo iiiaioia.

I?iaeaia ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe.

Oceia iiieiaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe eae niioaaonaea eiaeei
iaoiaeieiae/aneei noaiaea?oai iiaeaa?aeinue a iinoiiceoeaecia e?eoeea e
auei caiaiaii aieaa ?anieua/aoui iiiyoeai ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe, cia/aiea
eioi?iai aeineoii? ia aiieia ynii.

Noeeaioeci.

Iiiyoea ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe iineo oeaiiinoiue oa?aeoa?: iao/iay
?aoeeiiaeueiinoue iiieiaaony eae aunoee e aoaeaioe/iue oei niciaiey e
aeayoaeueiinoe, ia?acaoe aeey anao noa? nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u. Neaaeoao
iao/iay ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue, eae oieaa?naeueiia n?aaenoai i?aaiecaoeee
aeayoaeueiinoe ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n oeaeaniia?aciinoueth.

Eoeueo iao/iioaoie/aneiai ?acoia

E??aoeeiiaeueiay o?aeoiaea ?aoeeiiaeueiinoae- ooaa?aeaeaiee i “e?ecena”
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe ?aaiii?aaea iao/iie ?aeeaeiciie, iaae/aneie e ae?oaeo
oeiia ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe.

E??aoeeiiaeueiia – eaaeauaa ca i?aaeaeaie aeinaaaaiinoe ?acoia,
iaaeinooiiia a ?aieao eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey, i?ioeaiiieiaeiia
?aoeeiiaeecio.

3.15 Yecenoaioeeiiaeeci. Enoi/ieee e niune.

Yecenoaioeeaeeci – Oeeinioey nouanoaiaaiey. E??aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay oee.
Iaeaieaa e?oiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee: I. Oaeaeaaaa?, E ssnia?n, A.Ia?naeue,
AE.I.Na?o?, A.Eaith, I.Aaaaiueyii.

A Aa?i y. noae neeaaeuaaoueny iinea 1 ie? aieiu (ianoaiiaea iceiaeaiey
e oiuiey) Iia aieia – O?aioeey a?aiai ieoiaoeee e iinea 2 ie? aieiu.

Y. iinoaaeee aiiin i niunea aeecie, i noaeueaa /ae, i auai?a e ee/iie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Enoiaeiue ioieo oee. Y. – eciee?iaaiiue, iaeeiieee eiaeeaeae, ana
eioa?anu eioi?iai nin?aaeioi/aiu ia iai aea naiii, ia aai nianoaaiiii
iaiaaeaaeiii e a?aiiii nouanoaiaaiee. Yecenoaioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu – yoi
oaeea i?iae, eioi?ua aicieeatho ec naiiai oaeoa nou /aeiaaea. Aeey Y
eiaao cia/aiea oieueei aai nianoaaiiia nou e aai aeaeaeaiea e iaauoeth.

Y iauyae i?aaeiaoii o. – auoea. “Nia?aiaiiay oee, eae e a i?ioeua
a?aiaia caiyoa auoeai”- (Na?o?). Iie ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iiiyoea auoey
yae iaii?aaeaeeiui., e /oi ieeaeie eia aiaeec aai iaaiciiaeai. Iiyoiio
o. ia i.a. iaoeie i auoee e aeieaeia eneaoue eiuo, iaiao/iuo,
e??aoeeiiaeueiuo iooae aeey i?iieeiiaaiey a iaai.

Oioy auoea aauae niaa?o iaiiiyoii, ii anoue 1 aeae auoey ioee/ii iai
ciaeiiue – yoi iaoa nianoaaiiia auoea. Caeanue oi e ioe?uaaaony aeinooi
e auoeth eae oaeiaiio, ii eaeao /a?ac iaoa nouanoaiaaiea. Ii yoi nou.
ia/oi aioo?aiiaa e iaau?aceiia a iiiyoeyo: “nou anoue oi, /oi ieeiaaea
ai noaiiaeony iauaeoii”, eai iu ieeiaaea ia iiaeai acaeyiooue ia naay ni
noi?iiu.

Y – yoi oee, aaeeinoaaiiue i?aaeiao eio – /aeiaa/aneia nou-a, oi/iaa
i?aaeeaaiea nou-y. N?aaee anao niiniaia auoey nouanoaiaaiey Y euoo
oaeie, a eio nou ?ane?ueinue au iaeaieaa iieii – yoi no?ao. No?ao – yoi
enoiaeiia ia?aaeeaaiea, eaaeauaa a iniiaa anaai nou-y. A eii/iii n/aoa
yoi no?ao ia?aae nia?oueth.

Aeey Na?o?a ana aaue, e?iia /aeiaaea anoue”auoea a naaa”, a /ae. nou.
anoue “auoea aeey naay” eee ie/oi. Iineieueeo anyeia auoea aici ec auoey
e ia iiaeao i?aa? a ie/oi, oi aeeo /ae nou-y, iiieiaaiiai eae
ia?aaeeaaiea, ia iiaeao iaeoenue oaeiai auuoey, ec eio iii iiaei au
aicieeiooue e eoaea oeoe. Cia/eo auoea /ae anoue ie/oi. Iniciaaay naia
ie/iaeanoai /ae eniuouaaao no?ao “/aeiaae anoue aai no?ao”.

ssnia?n iieaaaao, /oi /ae nou ?ane?uaaaony eeoue a “iia?aie/iuo
neooaoeee” – no?aaeaiea, ai?ueaa, nia?oue.

Naiaiaea. *aeia nai naiaiaeii auae?aao naith nouiinoue, ii noaiiaeony
oai, eai ii naay naeaeaao. *ae – yoi iinoiyiiay aiciiaeiinoue, caiunae ,
i?iaeo. Ii naiaiaeii auae?aao naay e ianao iieioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
naie auai?. Naiaiaea ninoaaeyao naii /ae. nouanoaiaaiea, /ae e anoue
naiaiaea.

Iaeiaei naia iiieiaaony eie eae ia/oi iaecuynieiia, ia iiaeaeathuany
au?aae a iiiyoeyo, e??aoeeiiaeueiia. Naia iie iuneyo eae naia aia
iauanoaa. Yoi aioo? ninoiyiea, iano?iaiiinoue, ia?aaeeaaiea eiaeeaeaea.
Naiaiaea i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Oaeay naiaiaea, i?ioeaiiino
iaiaoiaeeiinoe e io?aoaiiay io iauanoaa, – anoue ionoie oi?iaeueiue
i?eioeei. Naiaiaea – yoi naiaiaea auai?a ioiioaiey e ie?oae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. ?aa iiaeao auoue naiaiaeiui, niioaaonoaaiii
naiiii?aaeaeyy ioiioaiea e naiaio auoeth. Naiaiaea noaiiaeony
iaioa?aoeiui ?ieii. “*aeiaae inoaeaeai auoue naiaiaeiui” naiaiaea anoue
io/eoaeueiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

Oa?aeo /a?oie /ae nou yaeyaony oi, /oi ii ia nai auae?aao oneiaey
naiaai nou, ii caa?ioai a ie? e iiaeaeanoai noaeueaa. Io /aeiaaea ia
caaeneo a?aiy aai ?iaeaeaiey e nia?oe. Yoi i?eaiaeeo eo e iunee, /oi
iiieii /ae nou-y nou iioonoi?iiiyy ?aaeueiinoue, eio iiieiaaony eae
niinia nou /ae, ninoiyuee a icaai/aiiinoe /ae, iai?aaeaiiie eoaea-oi aia
aai. Ai ie? i?aaenoaaeyao n?aaeo, ie? caaiou /ae, ie?oaeathuee /ae nou-a
e iaoiaeyueeny a ia?ac?uaiie nayce n iei. I?ino?ainoai e a?aiy anoue
niiniau /ae nou-y. A?aiy – yoi ia?aaeeaaiea nou-ai naiae ia?aie/aiiinoe,
a?aiaiiinoe. I?aaenoaae i a?aiaie aei iiaai ?iaeaeaiey e iinea nia?oe –
i?iecaieueiay yeno?aiieyoeey. Aiai?eoue i oii, /oi aoaeao iinea iiae
nia?oe aanniuneaii.

Ee/iinoue e iauanoai Iauanoai – anaiauay aacee/iay neea, iiaeaaeythuay
e ?ac?oo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, ioieiathuay o /ae aai auoea., iaaycua
ee/iinoe o?aoa?aoiua aeonu, i?aau,acaeyaeu… *aeiaae, i?aneaaeoaiue
no?aoii nia?oe, euao i?eaaaeeua a iauanoaa. ?anoai?yynue a iai ii
ooaoaao naay oai, /oi ethaee nia?oiu. Ii aeeciue a iauanoaa ia enoeiia.
A aeoaeia /ae ne?uoi enoeiiia, iaeeiieia nou-a. Eaaeaeue oie?aao a
iaeeii/eo.

3.16 Nouiinoue, iniiaiua /a?ou e iioeau ?acaeoey ?onneie oeeinioee.

Oee. iuneue a ?. oi?ie?iaaeanue iiae aeeyieai iauaie?iaie oee. Iaeiaei
niaoeeo ? oee ai iiiaii neeaaeuaaeanue iiae aeeyieai nioeeaeueii
eoeoo?iuo i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeeaoeo ia ?one. O?enoeaiecaoeey ?. nua?aea
ia?iiioth ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee ?on. oee iunee.

Ia?aui ? iuneeoaeai ie? o?iaiy aue eiia/ii aea Eiiiiinia (1711 – 1765).
– aaieaeueiue o/aiue-yioeeeeiiaaeeno.

A.I. ?aaeeuaa (1749 – 1802). – ionoaeaae iaoa?eaeeno oee iiceoeee,
n/eoay, /oi “auoea aauae iacaaeneii io neeu iiciaiey i ieo e nouanoaoao
ii naaa”. Aia?aua a ?on. iunee neneoaiaoe/anee ?ac?aaaouaae i?iae
/aeiaaea.

Auaeathueiny ?on oee e nioeeaeueiui iuneeoaeai aue I.ss. *aiaeaaa
(1794-1856). Aai iauaoee eiioeaioeey – aeoaeenoe/aneay. Oec ie? iino?iai
ec aoiiia e iieaeoe, o.a. ye-oia iaoa?eaeueiuo, ec eio ia?acothony ana
oaea. Oaea nou a i?ino?, eio anoue iauaeoeaiay oi?ia ai ie?a, e ai
a?aiaie, eio noauaeoeaii. Aeaeae e acaeiiaeaenoaea ?anniao?eaaeinue ei a
aeooa iaoaienoeecia, eio, iaeiaei, ia?aie/eaaeny ie?ii oec yaeaiee.
Niciaiea /ae ia iiae/ei iao caeiiiia?iinoyi i?e?iaeu, a yae. ?-oii aiae
oai?aiey. Iiciaiea ii *. oiaea aeoaeenoe/ii: a iae anoanoaiciaiey
aeaenoaotho ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneea e yiie?. iaoiaeu, a a aeoo ie?a, iauaeou
eio iaeaaeatho naiaiaeie, aeaenoaoao ioe?iaaiea.

*aeiaae anoue iauaeoeaiia aaeeinoai 2 ie?ia – oec e aeooiaiiai, eae
nouanoai naiaiaeiia, eio a naiai enoi? auoeee iiae/eiaii aeeaeaeoeea
iaiaoiaeeiinoe e naiaiaeu. Ia iiieiaiee niioiioaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe e
naia ai iiiaii no?ieony e eiioeaioeey oee enoi?ee *, naycaiiay i?aaeaea
anaai n caaioie i noaeueaa ?innee. Caeanue aai acaeyaeu
yaiethoeeiie?iaaee. A ia/ ia?eiae ii n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui oioaeueiia
aaeeinoai ?iaea /aeiaa/aneiai (i?eiaieoaeueii e ? – aaeeiaiea ? n ae?
ia?iaeaie) Caoai acaeyaeu * a ioiioaiee noaeaa ? eciaieeenue. Ii noae
?anni ioi?aaiiinoue ? io ie? enoi? i?ioeanna eae i?aeiouanoai, eio
iicaieeo auno?i iaeaaeaoue aeinoeae cai oeeaeeecaoeee, ecaaaioa i?e yoii
i?enoueo ae ii?ieia.

Naiaia? iai?aaeaieai a ? oee yaeeenue aicc?aiey neaayiioeeia.
A.N.Oiiyeiaa (1804-1860) e E.A.Ee?aaaneiai (1806-1856). A oeaio?a eo
aieiaey iao noaeueau ? e aa ?ieue a ie? enoi? i?ioeanna. A naiiauoiinoe
enoi? i?ioeiai iie aeaeaee caeia ana/aeiaa/aneiai i?ecaaiey ?., oai
aieaa, /oi ii eo iiaieth, cai eoeueoo?a oaea caaa?oeea e?oa naiaai
?acaeoey e eeiieony e oiaaeeo, /oi au?aae a ii?iaeaeaiiii ath /oanoaa
iaiaiooie iaaeaaeaeu e aacio?aaeiie ionoiou. Neaayiio. ?acaeaaee
iniiaaiiia ia ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaenoaaeaieyo o/aiea i /ae e iauanoaa.
Oiiyeia – o/aiea ia eaa?oe/aneie no?oeoo?a aeooe e aa “oeaio?aeueiuo
neeao”. Ee?aaaneee – “aioo?aiiaa n?aaeioi/ea aeooa”. Aeinoeae
oeaeinoiinoe /ae e naycaiiia n yoei iaiiaeaiea iau aeecie iie aeaeaee a
eaeaa iaueiu, aeoo iniiaa eioi?ie – oea?eiaue. Ia?aiia/aei anaai nouaai
– aia. Enoi? i?ia?ann naycai n iouneaieai “aeoo niunea”. Nouiinoue ie?a
i.a. iiciaia eeoue neioacii anao aeooiaiuo ooieoeee /ae, oae iacuaaaiie
“?acoiiie C?y/anoueth” eee “aeeaiciaieai”, enoiaeiia ia/aei eio –
?aeeaey.

Iaoa?eaeenou A.A.Aaeeineee(1811-1848). A.E.Aa?oeai (1812-1870),
I.A.*a?iuoaaneee (1828-1889), I.A.Aeia?iethaia (1836-1861), Ae.E.Iena?aa
(1840-1868). Iie yaeyeenue ia oieueei oeein oai?aoeeaie, ii e
eaeaieiaaie ?. ?aa aeaiie?aoee. ? o i?ioee iio/eoaeueioth oeieo iai eean
oee e O? i?inaauaiey. Iinea aeoaieiai oaea/aiey aaaaeueyinoaii ? oee
iiaa?ioeanue a noi? iao-ia (ia aac iiiiue Oaa?a), no?aiynue iaeiaei
nio?aieoue aeeaeaeoe/iinoue. Iie iainiiaaee i?eioeei aaeeinoaa niciaiey
e auoey, ia?ae/iinoue iaoa? ii ioiio e niciaieth, eaeath i oii , /oi
nici anoue na-ai ia anae, a oieueei aunieii?aaiec iaoa?ee – iicaa.

A i?e?iaea, ii *a?iuoaaneiio, ia/aai eneaoue eaeae: a iae eeoue
?aciiioi?ieaiiay iaoa?ey n ?acii?iaeiuie ea/anoaaie, a ?-oa noieeiiaaiey
eio e ia/eiaaony aeeciue i?e?iaeu.

Iainiiaaee i?eioeei iinoiyiie yaiethoeee iauanoaaiiie enoi?ee. Aa?oeai:
i?e?iaea e /aeia enoi?ey aa/ii e iai?a?uaii eciaiythony, iie oa/aiea,
i?aeea, aeaeaeaiea, i?e/ai aeaeae i?ienoiaeeo iin?aaenoaii ai?ueau 2
i?ioeaiiie oaiaeaioeee: aicieeiiaaiey e ?ac?ooaiey. ?acaeoea eaeao /a?ac
i?ioeai?a/ey, ai?ueao iiaiai ni noa?ui, io?eoeaieai ioaeeaoaai
ia?iaeaeathueiny.

Naiiauoiui ? iuneeoaeai aue Eaa Oienoie(1828-1910). Iiaeaa?aay e?eoeea
iau-iieeo ono?ienoai ?, O oiiaae ia i?aanoaaiii-?aeeaeiciue i?ia?ann a
niciaiee /ae. Eaeath enoi? i?ia? ii naycuaae n ?aoaieai aii? i
iacia/aiee /ae e niunea aeecie, ioaao ia eio aeieaeia aeaoue nicaeaiiay
ei enoeiiay ?aeeaey. A iae ii i?eciaaae eeoue yoe/aneoth noi?iio,
io?eoeay aiaineianeea aniaeou. Ioeac io ethaie ai?ueau, iai?ioeaeaiea
ceo, i?iiiaaaeue anaiauae ethaae. “Oea?noai aiaeea aioo?e ian” – ii
iai?eaieeeiau/iia ?ae iiieiaiea aiaa. Anyeay aeanoue – ianeeea —
io?eoeaiea ain-aa. O.e. ii ioaa?aae ai?ueao oi oi?acaeiaiea ain aeieaeii
i?iecieoe iooai ioeaca eaaeaeiai io auiieiaiey iau e ain iaycaiiinoae.

O.I.Aeinoiaaneee. (1821-1881). A naieo iauanoa-iieeo eneaieyo ii
ia?aaeee ianeieueei ia?eiaeia. Oaeaeaeny eaeayie ooiie/aneiai
nioeeaeeciao (a e?oaeea Iao?aoaaoeaa). Caoai a aai acaeyaeao i?iecioae
ia?aeia, nayc n onaiaieai ?aeeaeicii-i?aanoa eaeae. Eniiaaaeuaae eaeae
ii/aaie/anoaa, ey eio oa?-ii ?aeea i?eaioe?iaaiiinoue oee iniuneaiey
noaeaa ?on enoi?ee. Any enoi?. /aeiaa/anoaa n yoie oi/ee c?aiey
i?aaenoaaeyeanue eae ai?ueaa ca oi?aeanoai o?enoeainoaa. ? ia?iae –
ienney, iineoaeue aunoae aeoo enoeiu.

A ?onne. einiecia – 3

oa/.: ano.-iao/iia (Aa?i., Oeeiee.), ?aeea.-oee. (Oaaei?ia, Nieiaueaa,
Aa?aeyaa), iiyo.-ooaeiae. (Iaeiaaneee, Nooiai-Eia.). Ini. i?iaeaiu
einiecia: naycue /ae. niciaiey (aeooe) e einiina, ianoi ?acoia ai
Anaeaiiie, iiiaeanoai ?acoiiuo ie?ia e aaeeinoai anao neiaa auoey,
oeaeinoiinoue aini?eyoey ie?a e i?iae. iiieiaiey e ae?.

Iniiaaoaeue -Iee. Oaae. Oaaei?ia. Ini. o?oae – “Oee-y iauaai aeaea”. A
iniiaa o.i.ae. eaaeeo niaoeeoe/. iiiei-a /-ea. Aii?inu – ethaeneay
?aciauaiiinoue e iaaiciiaeiinoue caauoue oao, eoi ooae. Enoiee /ae.
auoey ei?aiyony ai Anaeaiiie. *-e – nouanoai aa?oeeaeueiia, ia?auai e
iaao, ne. aeieaeai noaoue naiaiaeiui. *-e – nou-ai ?iaeiaia, aeieaeai
iniciaaaoue, /oi ii – nui /ae-neee. *-e – aa?oeia yaiethoeee, ii e
oua?aai, o.e. nia?oai. N/anouea iaaiciiaeii aei oao ii?, iiea
ainiiaenoaotho ?ac?ooeo. i?ioeannu e ethaee ?aciauaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii.
Nia?oue – auno. i?iyae. ?ac?oo. Ono?aiea nia?oue, /-e iiaaaeeo cei.
I?e/eia cea – ia?aaiiia?i. i?aanoa. e IO i?ia?anna. *anoay niaia iieie.
ia iica. inaieoue ciaiey i?aaeo. iie. Ioaeii i?iaeeeoue aeeciue. *-e
aeieaeai noaoue nianeoaeai ie?a. Iauaa aeaei ninoieo a i?aiaeieaiee
nia?oe e anaiauai nianaiee. Ineoie?aoey- iaueia aeaoae aeey aine?aoaiey
iooeia. Ii?iee ei a?aiaie aine?aoaiey aoaeoo ecaeeou. Iniiaa ii?aee —
ioaaonoaaiiinoue /aeiaaea ia?aae i?aaeuaeoueie e aoaeoueie iieieaieyie.

Iaeiei ec auaeathueony ? oee. aue Ae. Nieiaueaa (1853-1900). Ia aai
acaeyaeu a. aeeyiea ieacaea o?eno eeoa?, eaeae iaiieaoiiecia, oainioee,
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ienoeoeecia, iai eean oee e io/anoe neaayiioeeia.
Iauanoaaiii-enoi? caaea/a o – nianaiea /aeia e /aeiaa/anoaa. Enoiaeeo ec
oeeinioee i?aanoaaiiinoe, y nouaeonue, neaaeia. y nou. Iniiaa
i?aanoaaiiinoe — ia?anoi?aeeiay naycue iieieaiee a aeaea iiaeaioiaee e
yaeaieth oea?noaa Aiaeey. Ec aeia?a ii auaiaeeo iiiyoea Aiaa (ia
iaiai?io). Aeaeaa oeeinioey ethaae eae aunoaa iiiyoea i?aanoaaiiinoe.
Yaieci anoue io?eoeaiea ethaae, ethaiaue anoue naiiiiaea?oaiaaiea.
Aunoay oi?ia ethaae — aiaeanoaaiiay. *-e, anoaaoee ia yoio iooue –
Aiai/aeiaae. yoi anoue nouiinoue ae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, ana inoaeueiia
aoi?inoaiaiii. *a?ac aiae ethaiaue inouanoaeyaony niaaeeiaiea n Aiaii
— anaaaeeinoai.

Iaiaoiaeeii

iiaeaioiaeoue /ae e aini?eyoeth o?eno oeaiiinoae Oeaio? eaeay o/aiey –
eaeay iieiaeeoaeueiiai anaaaeeinoaa eee “anaaaeeiiai nouaai”. Yoi
anaaaeeinoai yaeyao niaie niaa?oaiiue neioac enoeiu, aeia?a e e?aniou.
Anaaaeeiia nouaa – noa?a aanie, aiaeanoaaiiiai – iaeaaeaao i?eciaeaie
aaconeiaiinoe e anaoeaeinoe. Yoi e anoue aeaenoaeoaeueiue ie?, a
?aaeueiue ie? aauanoaaiiia auoea anoue eeoue io?aaeaiea aai. Oeaeue
enoi? i?ia?anna — i?eaeeceoue ?aaeueiinoue e aiae ie?o, oae eae
?aaeuei ?acae?iaeaia, e aa anaaaeeinoai caeeth/aaony ia a
aauanoaaiiinoe, a a eaeaa. ?aaeueiue ie? – naiiii?aaeaeaiea eee
aiieiuaiea aaniethoai-nouaai., iin?aaeiee iaaeaeo ieie – Nioey
(ioae?inoue aiaeey). Ienoe/aneee ia?ac anaaaeeinoaaiiinoe e aa/iie
aeainoaaiiinoe. Iia aea enoeia, iinoeaaaiay /a?ac aiae ethaiaue.

Iaoa?eaeueiue ie? iaoiaeeony a oaioe/aneii ninoiyiee. *aeia yaeyaony
oeaio?ii anaiauaai niciaiey i?e?iaeu. Aai ?ieue – ?ieue inaiaiaeeoaey e
nianeoaey i?e?. *aeiaa/anoai – iin?aaeiee iaaeaeo i?e? e aiaeanoaii. *ae
aeieaeai eciaiyoue i?e? aei aa iaeooioai?aiey. Ionthaea oeaeue ie?
enoi?ee – aaeeinoai aiaa e aiaaiaeanoaaiiiai ie?a, aicaeaaeyaiiai
/aeiaa/anoaii. I?aanoaaiiue niune ee/iinoe, yaeythuaeny nayc caaiii
iaaeaeo aiae. e i?e?iaeiuie ie?aie, ?aaeecoaony a aeoa ethaae e ae?
/aeiaaeo, e i?e?iaea, e aiao. Enoeiiue i?aaeiao ethaae – Aa/iay
AEainoaaiiinoue, aaeeiue ia?ac anaaaeeinoaa. *aeiaae i?aanoaaiai, anee
naiaiaeii iiae/eiyao naith aieth neoaeaieth aiao e onoaiiaeaieth
aiai/aeiaa/aneiai oea?noaa. Eaeae i?iaeaeaioeeiiaeecia.

A iauanoaa eaeay “anaaaeeinoaa” ?ane?uaaaony eae aiai/aeiaa/aneee nithc
ethaeae, eae iaeay anaeaineay oea?eiaue, iauaaeeiythuay anao e
niinianoaothuay onoaiiaeaieth ia caiea oea?noaa aiaeueaai. Caeiaii
oaeiai anaaae yae iauaaeeiaiea eaoie e i?aaine oea?eaae. ?onneay eaeay
— enoi?e/ aeiea ?innee a nicaeaiee nioe o?ieoeu (aiaeia aiae)-
aaeeiaiea oea?eae, ain e iau.

Oei?aineee — i?iaeieaeaoaeue, no?aieeny nicaeaoue eioaa?aeueioth
nenoaio acaeyaeia nn ni/aoaieai ?aeeaee e iaoee, oaoieee e eneonnoaa.
Ioe?iaaiea eae niinia noaaouaaiey enoeiu e aeaeueiaeoaa aa iaiaauaiea
iaoeie e o.ae.Aa?a ii?aaeaeyao eoeueo, eoeueo — ie?iiiieiaiea, a
ionthaea eoeueoo?a.

A enoi?ee ? oee eaeaaeecia N ieacae a. aeeyiea ia oeaeoth ieayaeo
?aeeaeicii oee iuneeoaeae (I.A.Aa?aeyaa, A.N. e N.I. O?oaaoeeea,
I.A.Oei?aineee, N.E.O?aie, EInneee.) eioi?ua ninoaaeee oa/aiea
aiaieneaoaeuenoaa ni naienoaaiiui aio e??aoeeiiaeeciii, ia?niiaeeciii e
ienoe/aneei iiieiaieai naiaiaeu e oai?/anoaa.

Aiaieneaoaeuenoai. Oeaeue iau ?acaeoey a inouanoaeaiee i?aaeeueii
iiieiaaiiai iiaiai o?enoeainoaa. ?aeeaeiciay ?aoi?iaoeey, nicaeaiea
aiai/aeiaa/anoaa, i?e/ai ?aeeaeiciua eaeaaeu – aa/iay aeeciue,
nayoinoue, iiaoo auoue aiieiuaiu ia caiea.

Aa?aeyaa

Aa?ae. i?eoae e ?aeea. yecenoaioeeaeecio. Ini. ?aaiou: “Niune
oai?/anoaa”, “Niune enoi?ee”, “Aeoo e ?aaeueiinoue”, “Yeceno. aeeae-ea
aiaeanoaaiiiai e /ae-neiai”. A oeaio?a — i?iaeaia /aeiaaea. enoiaeiue
ioieo — i?eiao naiaiaeu iaae auoeai, naiaiaeo ia ii?aaeaeyao aeaaea
Aia, iia anoue naiiaeiaeathuee oa?aeoa?. Noieo a iaeiii ?yaeo n Aiaii,
oai?/anoaii, aeooii. Iioieiaey A. no?ieony ia i?ioeaiiino. aeooa e
i?e?iaeu. Aeoo – noauaeo, aiieiu. a naaa naiaiaeo, oai?/. ia/aei, aeoo.

Aeoo – yoi Aia, I?e?iaea – ana, /oi ia iaoiaeeony a aeooa, /oi
iauaeoeaii, iiiaeanoaaiii e aeaeeii a i?ino?. Yoi iauaeou, aaue. Ioi.
aeooa e i?e?. A. ii?aaeaeyao aeoaeenoe/anee: 2 iainiae. ie?a, eiathuea
iauee enoi/iee, ia?ae/i. i?eioeei. Auoea i?iyaeyaony e ?ane?uaaaony a
/aeiaaea e

/a?ac /aeiaaea.

*aeiaae anoue iee?ieini e iee?ioain, ii iiaeiaeth Aiaa, iioiio ii
nouanoai aani?aaeaeueiia, naiaiaeiia e oai?/aneia. A oi aea a?aiy ii
nou-ai i?e?iaeiia e ia?aie/aiiia.*-e — ia?ana/aiea aunoaai e iecoaai
ie?a. Ionthaea ioee/ea ee/iinoue anoue eaoaai?ey aeooiaii-?aeeaeiciay,
eiaeeaeae — iaoo?aeenoe/anee- aeieiae/aneay, /anoue i?e?iaeu e iau .
Noaiiae. /-ea A. iiiei. eae i?eae. e aiai/aeiaaeo, aaeeiaiea n Aiaii.
Aia anoue niune e enoeia ie?a e aeooa. Iiyoiio /-e nai ii naaa, aac aiaa
ia naiiaeinoaoi/ai. Anee /aeiaae nai anoue Aia, oi iooue io?eoeaiey
aoiaiecia, eae o Ieoeoa. A aiaineiaee oiaea caeeth/aii ?aanoai a aeaea
eaeieiiieeiiie/anoaa, ioiioaiee e Aiao eae e Ainiiaeo. ?ac?aoaiea
i?iaeaiu aeoaeecia /-ea aiciiaeii eeoue a oea?noaa Aiaeueai.

A aiinaieiaee A. ioaa?aaao caiaaeiiaa?. iiiei. iiciaiey. Iau. oee.
iiciaiey – ie?iaua oaeiu, iai?. oaeia naiaiaeu. oai?/anoaa. Ini. oi?iu
iiciaiey – ienoe/. iiuo, eioaeeaeo. eiooeoeey, ?aeea. ioe?iaaiea. Oee.
aio?iiieiaey – a oeaio?a ?annoaeae. A. I?ioea aaaaeaaneie eiioeaioeee.
Aieiaiea o. aeieaeii auoue ia?. e ee/iinoe, a ia e aano?. /-eo. Naiia
cia/eo. a /-ea eaeao ia io nioeeaeuei. aeeyiee, a ecioo?e. Nioeeaeuei.
eiioeaioeey – ianneainoai, nianaiea /ae-aa. 3 neeu a enoi?ee: Aia,
noaeueaa, naiaiaea. ?aaiou A. au?. iaaeaaeaeo ia ainnoaiea ee/iinoe
i?ioea ie?a ia?oauo iauaeoia, io/oaeaeaiey. Ie? – cei, /-e aeieaeai
i?eaeeceoue eiiaoe ie?a. A. iineaae. ionoaeaae eaeath naiioeaiiinoe
eiie?. ee/iinoe. Oeaiiinoue ee/iinoe auoa aano?. eaeae iauaai aeaaa,
eioa?ania eieeaeoeaa. I?iyaeaiea /ae nouiinoe iiaeao auoue iiiyoi
oieueei a aa ioiioaiee e Aiao.

Nioe oeeinioey. Iauanoai anoue iauaeoeaaoeey /ae ioiioaiee, /oaeaeay /ae
aeooo. Ia ee/iinoue anoue /anoue iau, a iau— /anoue ee/iinoe. A iauaeo
iau oea?eo ?aciauaiea, i?e iaee/ee eiiioieeaoeee ainiiaenoaoao anaiauaa
io/oaeaeaiea, aeanoue oaoieee e ain. Eaeaae – eiiithiioa?iinoue, i?ioea
eciee?iaaiiiai eiaeeaeaeoaeecia e iaoaienoe/aneiai eieeaeoeaecia. Iniaue
oei iauanoaa, au?aa a ?innee. I?aaeaea anaai aeooiaiia aic?iaeaeaiea
?innee, ?aeea ianneaieci, eaeay a?aonoaa anao ia?iaeia. Iniaay ?ieue
?innee – naycue Caiaea e Ainoiea.

Einneee. Eiooeoeaeci. Ie? anoue i?aaie/aneia oeaeia, nouiinoue
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ninoaaeytho “noanoaioeeaeueiua aeayoaee” (oeia
iiiaaeu), iai?yioth naycaiiua n Aiaii=naa?oie?iaia ia/aei. Iiciaiea
i?ienoiaeeo iooai iao/iie, ienoe/aneie eee /oanoaaiiie eiooeoeee (a o/ e
?annoaeie). i?e/ai a niciaiee i?enoonoaoao nai i?aaeiao a
iiaeeeiieea.Yoeea e ynoaoeea ia iniiaa i?eciaiey oea?noaa aiaeueaai n
aai aaniethoiuie oeaiiinoyie. Iniaaiiinoue ?onneie oee — aa
?aeeaeiciinoue.

3.17 Oeeinioey anaaaeeinoaa A.N. Nieiaueaaa

A.N Nieiaueaa (1853 – 1900) – e?oiiaeoee ?onneee oeeinio, caeiaeeaoee
iniiau ?onneie ?aeeaeiciie oeeinioee. Ii iuoaeny nicaeaoue oeaeinoioth
ie?iaic?ai/aneoth nenoaio, eioi?ay naycaea au aiaaeeii cai?inu
?aeeaeiciie e nioeeaeueiie aeecie /aeiaaea. Iniiaie oaeiai ie?iaic?aiey
ii Nieiaueaao, aeieaeii noaoue o?enoeainoai. Iniaaiiinoue iiaeoiaea
Nieiaueaaa a oii, /oi ii ?aoiaae ca iauaaeeiaiea anao o?enoeaineeo
eiioannee (i?aaineaaey, eaoieeoeecia e i?ioanoaioecia). Ae?oaay aai
iniaaiiinoue a oii, /oi ii iuoaeny aeeth/eoue a o?enoeaineia
ie?iaic?aiea iiaaeoaa aeinoeaeaiea anoanoaiciaiey, enoi?ee e oeeinioee,
nicaeaoue neioac ?aeeaee e iaoee.

Oeaio?aeueiay eaeay aai oeeinioee – eaeay anaaaeeinoaa. Ii aai o/aieth,
nouaa anoue aaeeiia, anaiauaiethuaa. Iecoee e aunoee o?iaaiue auoey
acaeiinaycaiu, o.e. iecoaa iaia?oaeeaaao naia oyaioaiea e aunoaio, a
eaaeaeia aunoaa aae?aao a naay iecoaa. Iioieiae/aneie iniiaie
anaaaeeinoaa o Nieiaueaaa aunooiaao aiaeanoaaiiay o?ieoea a aa nayce ni
anaie aiaeanoaaiiuie oai?aieyie e, aeaaiia, n /aeiaaeii. Iniiaiie
i?eioeei anaaaeeinoaa: «Ana aaeeii a aiaa». Anaaaeeinoai – yoi aaeeinoai
oai?oea e oai?aiey. Aia ii N «einie/aneee ?acoi», « iniaay i?aaiecothuay
neea, aeaenoaothuay a ie?a».

Ie?oaeathuee ie? ii N ia iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae niaa?oaiiia
nicaeaiea, iaiin?aaenoaaiii enoiaeyuaa ec aiee iaeiiai aiaeanoaaiiiai
ooaeiaeieea. Aiaeanoaaiiue oi, i?aaie/aneay neea ii Nie ?aniaaeaaony ia
iiiaeanoai yeaiaioa?iuo nouiinoae eee aa/iuo e iaeciaiiuo i?e/ei,
eioi?ua eaaeao a iniiaaiee anyeiai i?aaeiaoa eee yaeaiey. Yoe
yeaiaioa?iua nouiinoe ii iacuaaao aoiiaie, eioi?ua naieie aeaeaeaieyie e
eieaaaieyie ia?acotho ?aaeueiue ie?. Naie aoiiu Nieiaueaa o?aeooao eae
iniaua i?iyaeaiey Aiaeanoaa, aeeaua yeaiaioa?iua nouanoaa eee eaeae.
Eaaeaeay eaeay iaeaaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiie neeie, /oi aeaeaao aa
aeayoaeueiui nouanoaii. Nieiaueaa aue noi?iiieeii aeeaeaeoe/aneiai
iiaeoiaea e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iauee i?eciae anaai aeeaouaai ninoieo a
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eciaiaiee. Aeey iainiiaaiey iai?a?uaiie aeeiaieee
auoey Nieiaueaa aaiaeeo oaeia aeoeaiia iaa/aei eae ie?iaay aeooa.,
eioi?ay aunooiaao noauaeoii anao eciaiaiee e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
yia?aeth eioi?ay iaeooioai?yao ana nouanoaothuaa. Ii aeaenoaoao iia ia
naiinoiyoaeueii, iia ioaeaeaaony a aiaeanoaaiiii eiioeuena. Eiioeuen –
aia aeaao ie?iaie aeooa eaeath anaaaeeinoaa eae ii?aaeaeythuoth oi?io aa
aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoa eaeay iacuaaaony Nioey-ioae?inoe. Iiiyoea Nioee
aaiaeeony aeey oiai, /oiau cayaeoue /oi ie? – yoi ia oieueei oai?aiea
aiaa. Iniiaie ie?a yaeyaony «aeooa ie?a» – Nioey – naycothuaa caaii i/o
oai?oeii e oai?aieai, i?eaeathuay iauiinoue aiao, ie?o e /aeiaa/anoao.

Iaoaieci naeeaeaiey Aiaa, ie?a e /aeiaa/anoaa ?ane?uaaaony /a?ac
eiioeaioeeth aiai/aeiaa/anoaa, ?aaeueiui e niaa?oaiiui aiieiuaieai
eioi?iai yaeyaony Eenon O?enoin. Aai ia?ac neoaeeo ia oieueei eaeaaeii
aeey eiaeeaeaeia, ii e yaeyaony oeaeueth ?acaeoey anaai enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna. Ia yoie oeaee aace?oaony nieiaueaaneay enoi?einioey. Oeaeueth
e niuneii anaai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna yaeyaony iaeooioai?aiea
/aeiaa/anoaa, niaaeeiaiea /aeiaaea n aiaii, aiieauaiea aiai/aeiaa/anoaa.
Ia?ae/iui oneiaeai ia iooe e aiai/aeiaa/anoao yaeyaony o?enoeaineia
ia?auaiea. E O ioe?ue ii?aeueiua oeaiiinoe, nicaeae oneiaey aeey aai
i?aanoaaiiiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey. I?eiauaynue e o/aieth O?enoa, /aeiaae
eaeao ii iooe naiaai iaeooioai?aiey. Yoio i?ioeann ninoaaeyao aanue
enoi?e/aneee ia?eiae aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa. *aeiaa/anoai i?eaeao e
oi?aeanoao aa?u e ni?aaaaeeeainoe, eiaaea aai iauaaeeiythuei ia/aeii
noaiao aiieiuaiiue a /aeiaaea aia.

A aiinaieiae/aneii aniaeoa i?eioeei anaaaeeinoaa ?aaeecoaony /a?ac
eiioeaioeeth oeaeueiiai ciaiey, i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie ia?ac?uaioth
acaeiinaycue o?ao ?aciiaeaeiinoae yoiai ciaiey: yiie?e/aneiai
(iao/iiai), ?aoeeiiaeueiiai (oeeinioneiai) e ienoe/aneiai
(nica?oeaoaeueii-?aeeaeiciiai). A ea/anoaa iniiaiiieiaathuaai i?eioeeia
oeaeueiia ciaiea i?aaeiieaaaao a nouanoaiaaiea aaniethoiiai ia/aea –
Aiaa. Yiie? ciaiea ?ane?uaaao aiaoithth noi?iio yaeaiee, ?aoeeiiaeueiia
– iniaaiiinoe iuoeaiey. Iaeiaei enoeia iinoeaaaony /a?ac
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia nica?oeaiea, eiooeoeeth.

Eaeaaeueiia iauanoai iuneeeinue Nieiaueaaui eae anaiauaiethuay
oea?eiaii-ainoaea?noaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey, neioac anaeaineie oea?eae e
anaie?iie iiia?oee iiae yaeaeie eaoiee/aneiai ?eia.

3.18. Oeeinioey Ae?aaiae Eiaeee.

Eiaeeeneay oeeinioneay iuneue – ae?aaiaeoay a ie?a. Aa enoi?ey
ia/eiaaony n Aaae. (Io «Aaaeaiea», «Ciaiea») – 2-1 ouny/aeaoea ae.i.y.

Aaaeu ninoiyo ec /aou?ao nai?ieeia aeiiia (Naioeo) a /anoue aiaia.
Eaaeaeay aeaea iicaeiaa ia?anea A?aiaiie – Iienaieai, eiiaioa?eai,
a?aiueyeaie e oiaieoaaeaie.

Oeeinioneea aicc?aiey Ae?aaiae Eiaeee iaeaieaa iieiia io?aaeaiea
iieo/eee a oiaieoaaeao, ii ia?aua aai aicc?aiey eiathony oaea a aaaeao,
iniaaiii a ae?aaiaeoeo ec ieo….

Aeaaiia niaea?aeaiea … – ianiiiaiey, iioeau, ia?auaiiua e aiaeanoaai,
ii oaea eiathony ?aciuoeaiey i ia?aiia/aea auoey, i i?ienoiaeaeaiee
ie?icaeaiey, i?e/eiao nioeeaeueiuo ?acee/ee …

Aaaeu iieiaeeee ia/aei oeeinionei?e o?aaeeoeee a Ae?aaiae Eiaeee,
eioi?ay au?inea ec eiiiaioe?iaaiey aaae. Aeaaiia aa caaii – oiaieoaaeu
(a iniiaiii, yoi aeeaeia ioae?aoea-o/eoaey n o/aieeii, eee /aeiaaeii,
euouei enoeio).

A oiaieoaaeao ?aeeaeicii-ieoieiae/aneia niciaiea oa?yao oaea naie
ainiiaenoaothuea iiceoeee. Aiai?eony oaea i nouanoaiaaiee ianeieueeeo
naiinoiyoaeueiuo aeaeia ciaiey. N?aaee ieo iaae/aneea eneonnoaa,
o?iiieiaee, eiaeea/?eoi?eea, yoeiieiaey, a?aiaoeea, iaoea /enae,
ano?iiiiey, aiaiiay iaoea.

A iniaoth iaeanoue ciaiey neeaaeuaaaony e oeeinioey (ii
naiinoiyoaeueiiai oa?ieia aua iao), nio?aiyy (a oiaieoaaea) nieueioth
caaeneiinoue io ?aeeaee – ieo niciaiey. Ia ia?aia ianoi a oiaieoaaeao
auaeaeaaaony aoi?inoaiaiiia aiaeanoai aaaee/aneiai iaioaiia – a?aoiai.
Niaea?aeaieai oeeinioee a oiaieoaaeao noaiiaeony ianoaeaeaiea oaeeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo i?iaeai, eae ianoi e iacia/aiea /aeiaaea a noa?a
ie?oaeathuaai auoey, a?aieoeu e aiciiaeiinoe aai iiciaaaoaeueiuo
niiniaiinoae, ii?iu iiaaaeaiey.

Niaea?aeaony oaeea naaaeaiey e ia o/aieyo, neeiiyaoeony e iaoa?eaeecio e
aoaecio, ii iau/ii iie iauyaeythony ioeai/iuie.

N?aaee anao aii?inia aeiieie?oao i?iaeaia ia?aii?e/eiu, ia?aiia/aea
auoey, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iauyniyaony i?ienoiaeaeaiea anao yaeaiee
i?e?iaeu e /aeiaaea.

Enoi?e/aneee oiae oi?ie?iaaiey oaeeo iiiyoee i?eia?ii auaeyaeeo oae:

Ieua (aiia), eae iniiaa ethaie aeecie, naia aeeciue;

oio eee eiie eiie?aoiue aauanoaaiiue yeaiaio, /aua anaai aiaea, eee
niaieoiiinoue aiaea-aioaeoo-caiey-iaiiue-yoe?;

aioo?aiiy i?e?iaea aauae a ianeieueeeo ianoao aiai?eony i auoee aiiaua
(Nao) e iaauoee (Anao),

yieciaee/anee oiiieiaaony iaoa?ee (i?aaeoaia).

Ainiiaenoaothuaa ianoi a oiaieoaaeao caieiaao o/aiea, iieaaathuaa a
ea/anoaa ia?aii?e/eiu e ia?aiiniiau aeoo ia/aea – A?aoiai, eee Aoiai.
A?aoiai – aeey au?aaeaiey iauaeoiiai aniaeoa eiia/iie ?aaeueiinoe (Aia,
aacaeanouee aeoo), Aoiai – noauaeo aa aniaeoa (aeooa). Ii eiathony
neeueiua ?anoiaeaeaiey i?e aeaoaeueiii ?ane?uoee i?e?iaeu
A?aoiaia-Aoiaia (/enoue aeoo eiiaaea iaaeaeyaony aio?iiiii?oiuie
ea/anoaaie – auoeai, niciaieai, aeaaeainoaii e o.ae.)

?anniio?aieth nianoaaiii iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a a oiaieoaaeao oaeaeyaony
n?aaieoaeueii iaei aieiaiey. Iaeaieaa iauei caeanue yaeyaony i?eciaiea
eciai/eainoe, iaiinoiyinoaa anao iaoa?eaeueiuo i?ioeannia eo a?aiaiiiai,
i?aoiaeyuaai neaaeiaaoaeueii iaenoeiiiai oa?aeoa?, Iie iauyaeythony
eeoue i?iyaeaieai, iiaeeoeeaoeeae aeooiaiiai aaniethoa e ?acee/athony
eeoue ii eiaie e oi?ia.

Aiai?eony ia eneeth/eoaeueiinoe auoey (aicieeiiaaiea, niceaeaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ?anoai?aiea a A?aoiaia-Aoiaia). Ie? a oeaeii e ana
eiie?aoiua aaue a iai ninoiyo ec iyoe aauanoa ia?aiyeaiaioia (iaiiue,
aiaea…) I?eioeei ie?iaie caeiiiia?iinoe au?aaeaaony a eiioeaioeee
aeoa?iu.

?anniio?aiea ineoe/aneeo, aeooaaiuo yaeaiee caieiaao a oiaieoaaeao
aeiaieueii aeaeiia ianoi. I?eciaaony neiaeiinoue no?oeoo?u /aeiaa/aneie
ineoeee, ?ane?uaathony ?acee/iua aa eiiiiiaiou (niciaiea, aiey, iaiyoue,
/oanoai…), eo niioiioaiea, acaeiiaeaeonaea.

Oeaio?aeueiue aii?in a oai?ee iiciaiey oiaieoaae – ?acaeaeaiea ciaiey ia
2 aeaea: iecoaa e aunoaa. Iecoaa ciaiea – yoi ciaiea yiie?e/aneie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, io?uai/iia o?aaiaioa?iia, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iaenoeiiia. Aunoaa ciaiea – yoi niciaiea aeooiaiiai aaniethoa. Eiaiii,
yoi ciaiea aeaao aeanoue iaae ie?ii.

A iaeanoe yoeee a oiaieoaaeao i?aiaeaaeaao i?iiiaaaeue
ianneaii-nica?oeaoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e ie?o: aunoei n/anoueai
i?iaicaeaoaaony ecaaaeaiea aeooe io anao ie?neeo i?eaycaiiinoae.

Aia?aua a oiaieoaaeao aieueooth ?ieue ia/eiatho ea?aoue eiioeaioeee
ia?anaeaiey aeoo e aicaeayiea ca i?ioeua aeayiey (Ea?ia). Iiaaaeaiea
/aeiaaea ii?aaeaeyaony i?aanoaaiiui caeiiii aeoa?iu.

Nioeeaeueiia aiccc?aiey a oiaieoaaeao i?aaenoaaeaiii e?aeia neoaeii.
Aeaaiia a ieo i?eciaiea iacuaeeiinoe aa?iiaiai (eanoiaiai) aeaeaiey
ethaeae. Oiaieoaaeu ea?aee ia?iiioth ?ieue ai anae enoi?ee eiaeeeneie
oeeinioee, noaa ooiaeaiaioii aeey anao iineaaeothueo oeeenioneeo o/aiee.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii oeeinioeie iunee aieaa iicaeiaai – eiia?e/aneiai
ia?eiaea – yaeyaony yie/aneay iiyia «Iaoaaoa?ioa». Caeanue iiyaeythony
oaea ?acaa?iooua e oeaeueiua oeeinioneea eiioeaioeee, aeathuea aieaa eee
iaiea aaeeioth o?aeoiaeo iniiaiuo ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo i?iaeai.

Aeaaiia cia/aiea n?aaee yoeo eiioeaioeee a yiina i?eia?aoaao o/aiea
Naieouee e oanii naycaiiue niae Eiae. Iniiao eo ninoaaeyao iieiaeaiea i
i?ae?eoa eee i?aaeoaia (iaoa?ey, i?e?iaea), eae enoi/ieee anaai
iaee/iiai auoey (a oii /enea ineoeee e niciaiey) e iacaaeneiii io iaa e
iacao?aaeaaaiii aa iiaeeoeeaoeeyie /enoii aeooa – io?ooa.(= A?aoiai,
aoiiai).

«Aoaaaaaae-*eoa» (= «Aiaeanoaaiiay ianiy», – iaeei ec oaenoia
«iaoaaoa?iou») ia/eiaaony n iieniiey oiai eae ia?aae ia/aeii ?aoathuae
aeoau aeaoo a?aaeaeothueo eeaiia, ia?aae yie/aneei aa?iai (A?aeaeoiii)
anoaao aii?in i aeecie e nia?oe, i niunea e nooe auoey, aai ioaaouaatho
niiiaiey a oeaeaniia?aciinoe e aeiionoeiinoe a?aoioaeenoaaiiie aieiu.
Niiiaiey e eieaaaiey A?aeaeoiu ?annaaaaao aia E?eoia, eioi?ue iauyniyao
aio ?acee/ea iaaeaeo enoeiiui auoeai e caiiui ie?ii. Aai ii?o/aiey e
aeiaiaeu e ninoaaeytho ii nooe aeaea iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea
«Aoaaaaaae-*eou».

Aaaeiay iniaaiiinoue eiaeeeneeo ?aeeaee – eo eio?iaa?oeaiinoue, o.a.
yanoaaiiay ia?auaiiinoue aiaioo?ue, aeoeaio ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iiene,
ia no?aieaiea e aiciiaeiinoue ee/iinoe iaeoe nianoaaiiue iooue e oeaee,
nianaiea e inaiaiaeaeaiea aeey naay. Ionoue eaaeaeue /aeiaae – eeoue
ian/eiea, caoa?yaoayny n?aaee iiiaeo ie?ia. Iaeiaei yoa ian/eiea, aa
aioo?aiiaa “y”, aa aeooiaiay noanoaioeey (i/euaiiay io aoeueaa?iie
oaeaniie iaiei/ee) noieue aea aa/ia, eae e aanue ie?. E ia oieueei
aa/ia, ii e niiniaia e o?ainoi?iaoeee: iioaioeeaeueii iia eiaao oainu
noaoue ?yaeii n iaeaieaa iiaouanoaaiiuie neeaie ie?iaicaeaiey, aiaaie e
aoaeaeaie. Ionthaea aeoeaio ia oii, /oi eaaeaeue – eociaoe naiaai
n/anouey. Iniiau ?aeeaeiciuo nenoai Eiaeee auee ?acoeueoaoii neioaca
i?eieoeaiuo aa?iaaiee i?ioieiaeeeoeaa. Oeaio? oyaeanoe eo ?aeeaeiciie
aeoeaiinoe i?eoiaeeony ia ?eooaeu aea?oaii?eiioaiee a /anoue aiaia e ia
naycaiiua n yoei eoeueoiaua ioi?aaeaiey. Neiaeiay e ni a?aiaiai ana
oneiaeiyaoayny i?aeoeea aea?oaaiiiai ?eooaea auea oai eiioeuenii,
eioi?ue aucaae e aeecie nayuaiiua oaenou a?eaa, ioi?ieaiiua a
eaiiie/aneie oi?ia a aeaea aaae. Ni a?aiaiai ?aeeaey aaae caiaiyaony
a?aoiaieciii. A?aoiaieci eae nenoaia ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneeo acaeyaeia e
?eooaeueii-eoeueoiaie i?aeoeee – i?yiie ianeaaeiee aaaee/aneie ?aeeaee.
A a?aoiaiao-eiiiaioa?eyo aeaeaeny aeoeaio ia nouanoaiaaiea i?yiie nayce
iaaeaeo aeieaieaoeai e aannia?oeai, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e eiee/anoaii e
ea/anoaii aea?oa – n ae?oaie: aea?oaaiiay aaea yoi e anoue ieua
aannia?oey. Aue ?ac?aaioai ia?yae aeeeoe, oeaeue eioi?iai – ?acaeaeeoue
eiaeeaeaea ia iaoa?eaeueioth iaiei/eo e aeooiaioth, aania?oioth
noanoaioeeth. N/eoaeinue, /oi oio, eoi niaa?oee yoio ia?yae, oai naiui
iieo/ae i?aai ia aoi?ia ?iaeaeaiea. A eiiaioa?eyo-a?aoiaiao ia?yaeo n
iienaieyie ia?yaeia e iaae/aneeo neiaieia iaiaeia ianoi caieiaee
oiic?eoaeueiua aano?aeoeee, yeaiaiou oeeinioneiai aiaeeca. Aua aieueoa
oaeiai ?iaea aano?aeoeee niaea?aeaeinue a i?eiueaaoeo e a?aoiaiai
a?aiueyeao (eaniuo eieaao), oaenoao aeey iooaeueieeiaaneaoia.

A?aiueyee auee oai enoieii, n eioi?iai ia/aeanue eeoa?aoo?a oiaieoaae –
oeeinioneeo oaenoia Ae?aaiae Eiaeee. I eaeeo aea i?iaeaiao oea ?a/ue a
oiaieoaaeao? A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, i i?iaeaia aeecie e nia?oe, i
ie?iaicaeaiee e einiiaiiee, i oaniuo acaeiinaycyo /aeiaaea e einiina,
ethaeae e aiaia. *oi anoue iineoaeue aeecie? Aiaea, aac aa/iiai
e?oaiiai?ioa eioi?ie iao e ia iiaeao auoue aeeaiai? Ieua, aac eioi?ie
aeeaia ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue. Iaiiue, oaiei, yaeythueany oneiaeai
aeecie? Eee, iaeiiaoe, aeuoaiea, i?aia – aaaeue aac iaai iaeuecy
iaieoenue ie ,(-cbk? A oiaieoaaeao na?ueaciia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue
i?iaeaia nia, i?e/ai ninoiyiea aeoaieiai nia ?anniao?eaaeinue eae ia/oi
a?iaea a?aie iaaeaeo aeeciueth e nia?oueth. Ia yoie a?aie aeeciaiiia
ia/aei /aeiaaea (aeaeeaa) e “aeinoeaaao naiiai naay” e “inaiaiaeaeaaony
io ooiieaiey”, a aeooiaiay noanoaioeey /aeiaaea, aai aeooa eae au
ioaeaeyaony io iaai. A /oi aea ii oo noi?iio aeecie, oai, aaea aeooa
ieii/aoaeueii iieeaeaao a?aiiua inoaiee iaeiaaea aeeaouaai /aeiaaea? *oi
oaeia nia?oue? Eaeay aa/iiai e?oaiai?ioa aeecie, aeeciaiiiai ia/aea
iiaeoieeioea, aeaeeii, ae?aaiaeiaeeeneeo oeeinioia e iunee i
caeiiiia?iii e?oaiai?ioa aeecie e nia?oe aiiaua e /aeiaaea a /anoiinoe.
Nooue yoie eiioeaioeee a oii, /oi nia?oue – yoi ia eiiaoe e oai aieaa
aeinoeaeaiea aeaaeainoaa eee oniieiaiey. Yoi i?inoi iaeee ?ac?ua
iai?a?uaiinoe, yeaiaio aaneiia/iiai e?oaiai?ioa, ca eioi?ui ?aii eee
iicaeii neaaeoao iiaay aeeciue.

?aeeaeiciay oeeinioey oiaieoaae a na?aaeeia I ouny/aeaoey aei i.y. eae
au ii?aaeaeeea iniiaiua ia?aiao?u ie?iaini?eyoey anae nenoaiu
oeaiiinoae, aeooiaiie i?eaioaoeee a ?aieao o?aaeeoeeiiiie eiaeeeneie
oeeaeeecaoeee. Oe?ieia ianniaia aini?eyoea eaeae oiaieoaae ni a?aiaiai
ii?iaeeei oio eiaeoeci, eioi?ue noae oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiie ?aeeaeae a
N?aaeiaaaeiaie Eiaeee. Iaeiaei aei aicieeiiaaiey eiaeoecia eiaeeeneay
?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneay iuneue i?ioea /a?ac ia?aoiaeiua yoaiu,
oa?aeoa?eciaaaoeany nouanoaiaaieai ?acee/iuo nenoai. ?a/ue eaeao i oanoe
nenoaiao – aea?oaiao. O?e ec ieo (iueyy – eiaeea; aaeoaoeea –
einiieiaey; ieiaina ?eooae) aoi?inoaiaiiu. Ae?oaea o?e ieacaee iaiaeia
aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea ?aeeaeicii-eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeee Eiaeee.

Naieouey – iaeia ec yoeo o?ao. A oeaio?a nenoaiu – aeaa aacia/aeueiuo
aeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaothueo ia/aea: i?ae?eoe (ia?ae/iue iaoa?eaeueiue
noano?aeo, iaoa?ey, yia?aey) e io?ooa (aeooiaiia ia/aei). Io?ooa ninoieo
ec ie?eaaeia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeoo, yoi niciaoaeueiia, ii eia?oiia
ia/aei. Io?ooa aicaeaenoaoao ia i?ae?eoe, eeoaiioth niciaiey iaoa?eth,
i?eaeaao ae oi?io e aeooiaioth noanoaioeeth. Yoi acaeiiaeaenoaea
niaeanii nenoaia naieouey, e yaeyaony ia?aii?e/eiie aicieeiiaaiey e
nouanoaiaaiey anaai oaiiiaiaeueiiai ie?a. Oeaeue, iniiaiie niune
oeeinioee naieouee naiaeeony e oiio, /oiau iiii/ue io?ooa inaiaiaeeoueny
ec ieaia iaoa?ee, ecaaaeoueny io ninoiyiey naina?u (caiiie aeecie e
ia?a?iaeaeaiee), iieeiooue oaea, a eioi?uo ii caeeth/ai, e ia?anoe
ninoiyiea aeaaeainoaa e inaiaiaeaeaiey.

E /eneo iaoiaeia e niiniaia, eioi?ua iicaieytho aeinoe/ue yoie oeaee,
ioiinyony e oa, /oi aiineaaenoaee iieo/eee ?ac?aaioeo a ?aieao ae?oaie
nenoaiu – eiaa. Iniiaiay oeaeue oa aea, /oi e a nenoaia naieouey:
ioaeaeeoue io?ooo io i?ae?eoe e oai naiui aeiaeoueny inaiaiaeaeaiey.
Iioiio-oi e aanue oa?aeoa? eiae – a ioee/ee io naieouee – iai?aaeai ia
noieueei a iaeanoue niaeoeyoeaiuo aano?aeoeee, ooiaiiuo ?annoaeaeaiee i
neeyiee e ?aaeecaoeee, neieueei a iaeanoue i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee
iinoaaeaiiie oeaee. Aeaaiia a nenoaia eiae – i?aeoeea, iaoiaeu,
oi?aaeiaiey, eiia/iue niune eioi?uo a oii, /oiau eiaeeaeae iao/eeny
iiaeaaeyoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue naia iauaeaiiia niciaiea, naie /oanoaa,
iuouaiey, naith oece/aneoth e aiiaua aeoeaiinoue e oaeei ia?acii
iiaeaioiaeoue naay e ano?a/a n Io?ooae.

O?aoueae nenoaiie yaeyaony aaaeaioa, i?eiaaeeaaeauae e /eneo iaeaieaa
oeeinionee ianuuaiiuo e aieeo. Niune nenoaiu ae?aooea naiaeeony e
neaaeothuaio. Enoi/iee anaai nouaai, oaiiiaiaeueiiai e eeethci?iiai ie?a
– Aaniethoiay ?aaeueiinoue, A?aoiai, yaeythueeny aunoei aeooiaiui
aaeeinoaii, e Oio – “iaau?aceiia, aunoaa aeaaeainoai”. Yoio enoi/iee –
aia ea/anoa e ao?eaooia, ii aaeei e iaaeaeei. A eieue oae, oi e
aeooiaiia “ss” eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaea, aai Aoiai, oiaeaeanoaaiii aio. A oi
aea a?aiy yoi aeooiaiia “ss” a aaaeaioa ia i?ioeainoieo oaeo, eai a
ioee/ee io naieouee aaaeaioa io?eoeaao aeoaeueiinoue ie?a, ia aeaeeo
?acee/ee iaaeaeo io?ooae e i?ae?eoe. Caeanue ana aaeeii, ana A?aoiai.
Oaei aea e aeaaea iuneue, eae e aanue iaoa?eaeueiue oaiiiaiaeueiue ie?,
iieiu, eeethci?iu.

Eoae, A?aoiai – aaeeinoaaiiay ?aaeueiinoue. Iaoa?eaeueiay ?aaeueiinoue
iieia, iia yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii aeaenoaey iaee, yiaiaoeee A?aoiaia.
Aeey ?aaeecaoeee eiia/iiai ioiaeaeanoaeaiey n A?aoiaiii oio, eoi
no?aieony e yoiio, aeieaeai i?aanoaaiii e iaoa?eaeueii i/euaoueny,
ioeacuaaoueny io aeaeaiee e no?anoae e auoue aioiaui io?eiooue ana ai
eiy aaeeeie oeaee. Iiciaa naie Aoiai, /aeiaae aeinoeaae iieiy; aai
aioo?aiiaa “ss” ioiaeaeanoaeyeinue n A?aoiaiii. Nenoaia aaaeaioa nua?aea
i/aiue aaaeioth ?ieue a enoi?ee eiaeeeneie ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneie iunee.
Aa iino?iaiey auee aini?eiyou a iaoeeiiaeueiie o?aaeeoeee Eiaeee,
iiaeeyee ia iaeee eiaeoecia e aeaaea yaeyeenue iaeiie ec aeooiaiuo iniia
a ia?eiae aic?iaeaeaiey ae?aaieo o?aaeeoeee, a yiioo e?eoe/aneiai
ia?ainiuneaiey iniia eiaeeeneie oeeaeeecaoeee.

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Eaiaeeaeaoneee ieieioi

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