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Этические взгляды И. Канта

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OOEINEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE IAOOssIIE

OAOIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

Eaoaae?a oeeinioee

?AOA?AO

yoe/aneea acaeyaeu E. eaioa

Auiieiee Aeaaeaoiaa A.?.

I?iaa?ee Aaaeiiei A.I.

OOA 1997

Niaea?aeaiea

n.

Aaaaeaiea

Yoeea aeieaa

naiaiaea e yoeea

caeeth/aiea

eeoa?aoo?a

2

3

10

18

19

aaaaeaiea

“N?aaee iaoeo iiiyoee … iiiyoea i?aanoaaiiinoe aaaeiaeoaa”

E.Eaio

Yoeea yaeyaony iaeiie ec ae?aaiaeoeo oeeinioneeo aeenoeeieei, iauaeoii
eco/aiey eioi?ie neoaeao ii?aeue, i?aanoaaiiinoue. N o?aoniouo aiaeia
aei i.y., eiaaea yoeeo aia?aua iaicia/eee eae iniaoth iaeanoue
enneaaeiaaiey, aei naaiaeiyoieo aeiae eioa?an e aa iniuneaieth ia
ineaaaaaao. A ?aciia a?aiy e i?iaeaiai yoeee ia?auaeenue oaeea oeeiniou,
eae A?enoioaeue, Nieiica, Eaio, Ia?en.

N?aaee oeeinioneeo o?aeoaoia ii yoeea iniaaiii auaeaeythony o?oaeu
E.Eaioa. Yoeea Eaioa ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo yaeeanue aa?oeiie oeeinioee
ii?aee iiaiai a?aiaie. N?aaee eeanneeia iaiaoeeie oeeinioee Eaio oaeaeee
iaeaieueoaa aieiaiea i?aanoaaiiinoe (i?e/ai eiaiii aa niaoeeoeea), e aai
yoe/aneay eiioeaioeey, iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?acaeoay a oeaeii ?yaea
niaoeeaeueiuo o?oaeia, auea iaeaieaa ?ac?aaioaiiie, nenoaiaoe/aneie e
caaa?oaiiie. Eaio iinoaaee oeaeue ?yae e?eoe/aneeo i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
ii?aaeaeaieai iiiyoey i?aanoaaiiinoe. Iaeia ec caneoa Eaioa ninoieo a
oii, /oi ii ioaeaeee aii?inu i nouanoaiaaiee Aiaa, aeooe, naiaiaeu —
aii?inu oai?aoe/aneiai ?acoia — io aii?ina i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia: /oi y
aeieaeai aeaeaoue? I?aeoe/aneay oeeinioey Eaioa ieacaea ia?iiiia
aicaeaenoaea ia neaaeothuea ca iei iieieaiey oeeinioia (A. e A.
Aoiaieueaeou, A. Oiiaiaaoy?, O. Oaeeeia, O. Aaeueaea?eei e ae?.).

Eco/aiea yoeee Eaioa i?iaeieaeaao ?acaeaaoueny n 20-o aiaeia.
Nouanoaoao iiiai ?aciiia?aciuo ioeaiie yoeee Eaioa. N oi/ee c?aiey
iaoaoeceee, iaeaieaa oeaiiuie yaeythony eaeae Eaioa i naiaiaea e ia
aaoiiiiee yoeee.

Nia?aiaiiua enneaaeiaaiey eaioianeie yoeee yaeythony iiiuoeie aeaoue
iiaua niiniau aa ia?ainiuneaiey e iiaua iiaeoiaeu ?aeiino?oeoeee
e?eoe/aneie yoeee. E?eoe/aneay yoeea Eaioa naiei enoiaeiui ioieoii eiaao
iniciaiea i?aeoeee, a eioi?ie aiieiuaaony ?acoiiia iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea.
Iiaeiaii oiio eae oai?aoe/aneay oeeinioey auyniyao aii?in i aiciiaeiinoe
enoeiu e iao/iiai ciaiey, any i?aeoe/aneay oeeinioey iinayuaia
/aeiaa/aneie i?aeoeea, i?e/ai ?anniio?aiea niioiioaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiie
naiaiaeu e ii?aeueiiai caeiia yaeyaony iaeiie ec nouanoaaiiuo i?iaeai
iniuneaiey eaioianeie i?aeoe/aneie oeeinioee. Ii Eaioo, aaeeinoai
e?eoe/aneie oeeinioee n eaioianeie oeeinioeae ii?aee neaaeoao eneaoue a
ooiaeaiaioaeueiii iieiaeaiee /aeiaaea a ie?a e a iiieiaiee aaeeinoaa aai
e ?acaeaeaathuaai a?aieoeu ciaiey iiaaaeaiey. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
ii?aeueiia iiaaaeaiea o?aaoao ia oieueei iniciaiey aeieaeainoaiaaiey, ii
e i?aeoe/aneiai auiieiaiey aeieaa.

Naycue yoeee Eaioa n aai oai?aoe/aneie oeeinioeae, aaiacen aai
yoe/aneeo eaeae, noaiiaeaiey aai iunee a ?aieao o/aiey i naiaiaea e
yoeea, aeieaeainoaiaaiea (oeaio?aeueiay eaoaai?ey aai ii?aee) – yoe
i?iaeaiu iaoiaeyony a oeaio?a aieiaiey i?e eco/aiee aai yoe/aneie
eiioeaioeee.

Yoeea aeieaa

“*enoia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeieaa eiaao ia /aeiaa/aneia na?aeoea …
ai?acaei aieaa neeueiia aeeyiea, /ai ana ae?oaea iioeau”

E.Eaio

Aaeeinoaaiii, /oi ecia/aeueii i?aaeii?aaeaeaii a /aeiaaea, — yoi aai
no?aieaiea e n/anoueth; naiua ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iio?aaiinoe e eioa?anu
ethaeae a eiia/iii n/aoa naiaeyony e aeinoeaeaieth aeaaeainoaa. Ii anee
aeaaea yoo ooiaeaiaioaeueioth i?e?iaeo /aeiaaea iiaeii ioee/eoue io
iaee/iie ineoieiaee ethaeae e i?aaeienaoue /aeiaaeo iaeee “enoeiiue”
eioa?an e no?aieaiea a ioee/ea io aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo, oaeoe/aneeo
neeiiiinoae e aeaeaiee, oi ana ?aaii a yoii neo/aa ii?aeue aoaeao
naaaeaia e iaeioi?iio “?acoiiiio yaiecio”. Eaio ?annoaeaeaao caeanue
i?aaeaea anaai eae ii?aeeno, n oi/ee c?aiey naiiai i?aanoaaiiiai
niciaiey, iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iaiaey nianoaaiioth eiaeeo. A aeaiiii
neo/aa ii ionoaeaaao /enoioo ii?aeueiiai iioeaa. I?eioeei n/anouey,
aiai?eo Eaio, “iiaeaiaeeo iiae i?aanoaaiiinoue iioeau, eioi?ua, nei?aa,
iiae?uaatho e oie/oiaeatho aanue aa aicauoaiiue oa?aeoa?, niaoeaay a
iaeei eeann iiaoaeaeaiey e aeia?iaeaoaee e iiaoaeaeaiey e ii?ieo e
iao/ay oieueei iaeiiio — eae eo/oa ?ann/eouaaoue, niaoeeoe/aneia aea
ioee/ea oiai e ae?oaiai niaa?oaiii noe?atho”[2, o.4, /.1, n.285-286].
Anee i?aanoaaiiinoue iniiauaaoue ia no?aieaiee /aeiaaea e n/anoueth, oi
iiaoaeaeaiea e aeaenoaeth, ionoue aeaaea i?aaeeueiiio, aoaeao ia?aiaiaii
eii?iaeiuie, “aaoa?iiiiiuie”, ia naienoaaiiuie naiie ii?aee iioeaaie —
iaaeaaeaeie ia aeinoeaeaiea oniaoa, ia ia?aoaiea aeaaeainoaa a yoii eee
iioonoi?iiiai ie?a, ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea aeia?iaeaoaee, iaeiiaoe, ia
iieo/aiea aioo?aiiaai oaeiaeaoai?aiey io niciaiey i?aaeeueiinoe naieo
iinooieia. Iiaeeeiii aea ii?aeueiue iano?ie /aeiaaea aeieaeai ninoiyoue
a oii, /oiau ia iaeeaeaoue iaa?aae ie a yoii, ie a eiii ie?a, a
eniieiyoue naie aeiea aacioiineoaeueii e eaeei-eeai iaaeaaeaeai, ionoue
aeaaea aeaeaiea n/anouey — iaenei?aieiia anoanoaaiiia no?aieaiea
/aeiaaea.

Ii?aeue, eae n/eoaao Eaio, iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue eeoue eae niinia
aeinoeaeaiey eaeiai-oi ?acoeueoaoa. I?e oaeie eioa?i?aoaoeee
i?aanoaaiiinoue i?aa?auaaony a /enoi oaoie/aneoth, i?aaiaoe/aneoth
caaea/o, a aii?in i “aeaai?acoiee”, oiaiee e niiniaiinoe yooaeoeaii
aeinoeaaoue iinoaaeaiiua oeaee. Oaeea i?eioeeiu aeaenoaey, eiia/ii,
eiatho ianoi a /aeiaa/aneie aeecie; Eaio iacuaaao eo oneiaiuie,
aeiioaoe/aneeie eiia?aoeaaie: anee aeaeaaoue aeinoe/ue oaeiai-oi
?acoeueoaoa, neaaeoao iinooiaoue oae-oi. Ii ana aeaei a oii, /oi oaeea
i?aaeea, ii?aaeaeyy n?aaenoaa (iaoiaeu, niiniau, iooe, oaoieeo)
inouanoaeaiey eneiiie oeaee, inoaaeytho a noi?iia aii?in ia ii?aaeaeaiee
naieo oeaeae. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ii?aeueiua o?aaiaaiey e /aeiaaeo iaeuecy
naanoe e eaeei-oi oaoie/aneei i?aaeienaieyi, eioi?ua oeacuaatho eeoue
oi, eae iiaeii iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii aeinoeaiooue i?aneaaeoaioth oeaeue.
Ai-ia?auo, aeaeaei ia eaaeaeay oeaeue iiaeao auoue i?eciaia
i?aanoaaiiie; oniaoiia aeaenoaea iiaeao eiaoue e i?ioeaiii?aeueioth
iai?aaeaiiinoue. Ai-aoi?uo, aeaaea ai eiy aeaaie oeaee iiaoo auoue
i?eiaiaiu n?aaenoaa, i?eoii yooaeoeaiua, eie iiaoo auoue aii?aeueiuie.
Oaeei ia?acii, aeiioaoe/aneee eiia?aoea, aoaeo/e ?oeiaiaenoaii e
aeaenoaeth oaoie/aneiai ii?yaeea, aua ie/aai ia aiai?eo i i?aanoaaiiii
oa?aeoa?a aeaenoaey. Oeaeaniia?aciinoue aiana ia anaaaea niaiaaeaao n
o?aaiaaieai ii?aee — aio eaeay i?iaeaia aicieeaao a aeaiiii neo/aa.
?aoaiea aa naiaeeony e neaaeothuaio: a aeecie ethaee i?aneaaeotho
?acee/iua oeaee, ii ec yoeo — iniaaiiuo, /anoiuo, “yiie?e/aneeo” —
oeaeae aua iaaiciiaeii auaanoe i?aanoaaiiinoue. Iai?ioea, yoi
i?aanoaaiiinoue i?eciaao i?aaiia?iuie iaeie e inoaeaeaao ae?oaea oeaee.
Noaei auoue, ia iiiyoea oeaee iainiiauaaao ii?aeueiia aeieaeainoaiaaiea,
a iaiai?io, yiie?e/aneea oeaee iiaoo auoue iainiiaaiu eee ioaa?aioou n
oi/ee c?aiey ii?aee. Iiyoiio “oeaeue, eioi?oth noaayo, oaea
i?aaeiieaaaao i?aanoaaiiua i?eioeeiu. Iai?eia?, eaeay aunoaai aeaaa a
ie?a… neaaeoao ec ii?aee, a ia anoue aa iniiaa”[2, o.4, /.2, n.9].

Eaio noi?iiiee i?ei?eoaoa aeieaeainoaiaaiey iaae oeaiiinoueth a ii?aee,
a yoii ii aeaeeo niaoeeoeeo i?aanoaaiiinoe, e?iia oiai, ii ia?aui a
enoi?ee yoeee ia?aoee aieiaiea ia anaiauee oa?aeoa? i?aanoaaiiuo
o?aaiaaiee, ia oi, /oi iie a naiai iaycothuai cia/aiee ?ani?ino?aiythony
ia anao ethaeae, a eiia/iii n/aoa ia /aeiaa/anoai a oeaeii. Eaio
ia?auaao iniaia aieiaiea ia oi, /oi a ii?aee /aeiaae aeieaeai nai
iniciaaaoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue (aeieaeainoaiaaiea) ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaenoaee
e nai iiioaeaeaoue naay e yoiio. A yoii ii e aeaeeo niaoeeoeeo
ii?aeueiinoe, ioee/ay aa io eaaaeueiinoe (i?inoi eniieiaiey aiaiyaiuo
/aeiaaeo o?aaiaaiee, aiaoiaai iiae/eiaiey). Ii?aeue ia auaiaeeony Eaioii
ec aiaeeca /aeiaa/aneiai auoey, enoi?ee, iauanoaa, a i?inoi
iinooee?oaony eae ia/oi ecia/aeueii aeaiiia ?acoiii e eae iaeia iniaia
ecia?aiea ie?a. Ec ioiaeaeanoaeaiey Eaioii ii?aee e naiaiaeu (eae
niiniaiinoe /aeiaaea aeaaaoue naaa naiiio caeiiu) auoaeaao aai oi?iaeeci
a iiieiaiee i?aanoaaiiinoe. Ii Eaioo “aaconeiaii aeia?ay aiey,
i?eioeeiii eioi?ie aeieaeai auoue eaoaai?e/aneee eiia?aoea,
iaii?aaeaeaiiay a ioiioaiee anao iauaeoia, aoaeao niaea?aeaoue a naaa
oieueei oi?io aieaiey aiiaua, e i?eoii eae aaoiiiieth”[2, o.4, /.1, n.
288]; yoi e anoue “aaeeinoaaiiue caeii”, ia eiathuee ieeaeiai ae?oaiai
niaea?aeaiey. Ii n/eoaao, /oi ec /enoi oi?iaeueiiai caeiia a ?aoaiee
ethaie eiie?aoiie ii?aeueiie i?iaeaiu anaaaea neaaeoao oieueei iaeei
aiciiaeiue auaiae, i?aaeienaiea e aeaenoaeth, i?eioeei.

Oaniaa anaai i?aanoaaiiinoue o Eaioa nieaoaia n i?aaii. Anee eaeiai-eeai
/aeiaaea aeiea canoaaee naeaeaoue auai? ia a iieueco naiaai aeeaeiaai,
oi aeey Eaioa yoi neoaeeo naeaeaoaeuenoaii aai i?aanoaaiiinoe. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe caeanue i?iyaeyaony eeoue aano?aeoiue aoiaieci —
aaaeue ioithaeue ia anaaaea yoi ni?aaaaeeeai ia naiii aeaea, oi anoue
ioithaeue ia anaaaea “ethaiaue e aeaeueiaio” i?aanoaaiiaa “ethaae e
aeeaeiaio”. Eaio i?aa a oii, /oi i?aanoaaiiue eiia?aoea o?aaoao
ieacaiey ethaeyi ioaeiie iiiiue, ii nianai ia auioaeaeaao ethaeoue eo ca
yoi. “Niaa?oaiii iaeaii auei au aiai?eoue: au aeieaeiu ethaeoue ae?oaeo
ethaeae. Neaaeiaaei au neacaoue: o aan anoue ana iniiaaiey ethaeoue
naiaai aeeaeiaai, e yoi ni?aaaaeeeai aeaaea a ioiioaiee aaoeo a?aaia”[2,
o.2, n.139]. E, aeaenoaeoaeueii, /oanoai aeieaa eae aoaeoi eneeth/aao
/oanoai ethaae, eai ethaeoue ii iaycaiiinoe iaaiciiaeii. Ii Eaio ia
i?aa, n/eoay, /oi iie ieeiaaea ia iiaoo niaianoue, iineieueeo iiaeeeiiay
/aeiaa/iinoue i?aaeiieaaaao ethaiaue ei anai ethaeyi, a oiaaea e
nino?aaeaiea, e aeaeinoue aoaeoo aaeaeaaoiuie aeieao (nei?aa aeaaea
aoaeoo caiaiyoue aeiea). “Ethaeae, iinooiathueo niaeanii i?eioeeiai,
nianai iaiiiai, /oi, ai?i/ai, i/aiue oi?ioi, oae eae eaaei iiaeao
neo/eoueny, /oi a yoeo i?eioeeiao ieaaeaony ioeaea, e oiaaea a?aae,
ionthaea i?ienoaeathuee, ?ani?ino?aieony oai aeaeueoa, /ai aieaa iauei
aoaeao i?eioeei e /ai aieaa iai?aeeiiiui eeoei, eioi?ia ei
?oeiaiaenoaoaony. Ethaeae, aeaenoaothueo ec aeia?uo iiaoaeaeaiee,
ai?acaei aieueoa e yoi i?aainoiaeii”[2, o.2, n.150]. Ii Eaio nieaeaao
oeaiiinoue oaeeo aeia?uo iiaoaeaeaiee: yoi nei?aa einoeieou, eioi?ua ia
neaaeoao ia?aioeaieaaoue, oioy e ioaeii oaaeeoue, eai aieueoa anaai ia
naaoa ethaeae, iaeciaiii eiathueo “ia?aae aeacaie naia ethaeiia ss eae
aaeeinoaaiioth oi/eo i?eeiaeaiey naieo oneeee”[2, o.2, n.150] e
aeiaeaathueony oiai, /oiau ana a?auaeinue aie?oa naiaei?unoey.

A yoeea Eaio ?acaeaaao o/aiea ia aaoiiiiee ii?aee: ooaa?aeaeay
naiaiaeo, /aeiaae aunooiaao oai?oeii nianoaaiiiai i?aanoaaiiiai ie?a, ii
nai naaa i?aaeienuaaao caeii aeaenoaee. Eaio i?iaicaeaoaao i?aanoaaiioth
onoaiiaeo, oa?aeoa? e caeiiu eioi?ie, nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io oao,
/oi i?aiaeaaeatho a ia?eiaeu niieieiiai e ?acia?aiiiai iinoaiaiiiai
?acaeoey, ioee/athony ?aaeeeaeeciii i?aaeuyaeaiiuo o?aaiaaiee: “yoe
caeiiu iiaaeaaatho aaconeiaii, eaeia au ie aue enoiae eo eniieiaiey,
aieaa oiai, iie aeaaea canoaaeytho niaa?oaiii ioaea/ueny io iaai“,
ethaeyi “aeinoaoi/ii oiai, /oi iie eniieiytho naie aeiea, /oi au ie auei
n caiiie aeeciueth e aeaaea anee au a iae, auoue iiaeao ieeiaaea ia
niaiaaeaee n/anouea e aeinoieiinoue aai” [ 1, n.81-82]. A ioee/ea io
oneiaiuo i?aaee iiaaaeaiey aeiea aunooiaao ii naiae nouiinoe aaniethoiui
o?aaiaaieai, neaaeiaaoue eioi?iio iaaeeaaeeo aaconeiaii. A ianoaiiaea
a?iieeo o?aaiaaiee i?aa /aeiaaea e aai naiaiae Eaio naiei eaoaai?e/aneei
eiia?aoeaii iaiiiiee ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe, o?aaiaaiey anaaaea iinooiaoue
oae, /oiau iaeneia iinooiea iiaea a oi aea a?aiy noaoue i?eioeeiii
anaiauaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Aeaenoaea ia “ niia?acii n aeieaii”, a “
ec /oanoaa aeieaa” — aio /oi eiaao enoeiii i?aanoaaiioth oeaiiinoue.
*aeiaae iienoeia i?aanoaaiai oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea eniieiyao aeiea ia
?aaee eaeie-eeai aiaoiae oeaee, a ?aaee naiiai aeieaa. Ie iaeii ec
iaiin?aaenoaaiii-niiioaiiuo /oanoa — aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiinoue,
ni/oanoaea, nino?aaeaiea, neiiaoey, o/anoea — naie ii naaa aua ia anoue
enoeiiay aeia?iaeaoaeue. Eai yoe aeooaaiua ii?uau iiaoo oieeiooue
/aeiaaea ioithaeue ia oieueei ia iooue aeia?a, ii e e niaa?oaieth cea.
Eaio i?eciaao iioeau /aeiaaeiethaey i?aanoaaiiuie i?e oneiaee, /oi iie
ia i?inoi au?aaeatho ineoe/aneea neeiiiinoe /aeiaaea, a iinoaaeaiu iiae
eiio?ieue aeieaa, ii?aaeaeaiu ii?aeueiui caeiiii eae eo iauaeoeaiui
e?eoa?eai. Aaeeinoaaiii i?aanoaaiiui iioeaii aoaeao oieueei oaeie,
eioi?ue “no?iai iaiiieiaao iai iaoo nianoaaiioth iaaeinoieiinoue”, a
eiai iao ie/aai, “/oi euenoeei au ethaeyi”, iiiu?yei au a ieo
“naiiiiaiea” e “naiiaeiaieuenoai”.

Iiaaaeaiea, caeii eioi?iai niaiaaeaao n caeiiii i?e?iaeu, ia eiaao, ii
Eaioo, ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e i?aanoaaiiiio caeiio. Oi, /aai iao a
anoanoaaiiii caeiia, — yoi aioo?aiiaa i?eioaeaeaiea. Ii?aeueioth
niiniaiinoue “naiaiaeiiai naiii?eioaeaeaiey” Eaio iacuaaao
aeia?iaeaoaeueth, a iinooiie. enoiaeyuee ec oaeiai oiiiano?iaiey (ec
oaaaeaiey e caeiio), — aeia?iaeaoaeueiui (yoe/aneei) iinooieii.
“Aeia?iaeaoaeue anoue oaa?aeinoue iaeneiu /aeiaaea i?e niaethaeaiee
naiaai aeieaa — anyeay oaa?aeinoue ociaaony /a?ac oa i?aiyonoaey,
eioi?ua iia iiaeao i?aiaeieaoue, aeey aeia?iaeaoaee aea oaeea
i?aiyonoaey — yoi anoanoaaiiua neeiiiinoe, iiaouea i?eeoe a
noieeiiaaiea n i?aanoaaiiui iaia?aieai… anyeee aeiea niaea?aeeo
iiiyoea i?eioaeaeaiey ni noi?iiu caeiia, yoe/aneee aeiea niaea?aeeo
oaeia i?eioaeaeaiea, aeey eioi?iai aiciiaeii oieueei aioo?aiiaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai”[2, o.4, /.2, n.329].

Eaio caaioeony i /enoi eioaeeaeooaeueiii “no?iaii ia?aca iuneae”,
iiae/eiythuai yiie?e/aneea noaeaeaiey e aeaenoaey “i?eioeeio eneeth/aiey
iaaeaeo aeia?ui e ceui”. Ii ieoao: “Aeey o/aiey i i?aanoaaiiinoe aiiaua
i/aiue aaaeii ia aeiioneaoue, ianeieueei aiciiaeii, ieeaeie ii?aeueiie
na?aaeeiu ie a iinooieao, ie a /aeiaa/aneeo oa?aeoa?ao, oae eae i?e
oaeie aeaienoaaiiinoe anai iaeneiai a?iceo iianiinoue oo?aoeoue
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue e onoie/eainoue”[2, o.4, /.2, n.23]. Ii Eaioo, ec aeaoo
aeia?iaeaoaeae, anee iie eiioeeeootho ae?oa n ae?oaii, aeaenoaeoaeueii
aeia?iaeaoaeueth iiaeao auoue oieueei iaeia, oa, /oi ninoaaeyao aeiea.
Eeai aeiea ia iiaeao i?ioeai?a/eoue aeieao, eeai ii ia anoue enoeiiue
aeiea e iiaeao ioiineoueny e iaeanoe ii?aee oieueei eae iaaaoeaiia,
aii?aeueiia. ?a/ue caeanue eaeao i aeeeoaoo?a aeieaa, eioi?ay iiaeao
aanoe e iaino?aieth “?aci?aaiiinoe” /aeiaaea, a?ac?ac aai oeaeinoiinoe,
a?ac?ac aoiaiiinoe. Ii Eaio ciaao i ?ac?ooathuae aaeaiea aeieaa
anoanoaaiiie aeeaeaeoeea, iiae eioi?ie ii ?acoiaao “iaeeiiiinoue
oinoaiaaoue iaia?aei? no?iaei caeiiai aeieaa e iiaeaa?aaoue niiiaieyi eo
neeo, ii e?aeiae ia?a eo /enoioo e no?iainoue, a oaeaea, aaea yoi
oieueei aiciiaeii, aeaeaoue eo aieaa niioaaonoaothueie iaoei aeaeaieyi e
neeiiiinoyi, oi anoue a ei?ia iiae?uaaoue eo e eeoaoue anaai eo
aeinoieinoaa, /oi a eiioea eiioeia ia iiaeao iaeia?eoue aeaaea
iauaeaiiue i?aeoe/aneee ?acoi”[2, o.4, /.2, n.240]. Eaio ciaao e
“ae?oaoth aeeaeaeoeeo, eioi?ay aicieeaao a iau/iii i?aanoaaiiii
niciaiee, oiaaea iii ?acaeaaao naith eoeueoo?o e ainoiaeeo e
i?aeoe/aneie oeeinioee, /oiau ecaaaeoueny io aeaoniuneaiiinoe,
?anniao?eaathuae i?aanoaaiiua i?eioeeiu”[2, o.4, /.2, n.242].

Aeey Eaioa i?aanoaaiiia ia/aei naiaeeony eeoue e noauaeoeaiiio
niciaieth aeieaa. Aeiea anoue aeiea — /enoue aeiea, eniieiyoue aai
neaaeoao aaeeinoaaiii ec oaaaeaiey e iaio. Iainiiauaay yoi o?aaiaaiea
Eaio aiaeee?oao e niaanoe. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, niaanoue /aeiaaea yaeyaony
iaeeo/oei noaeueae a aii?inao ii?aee, aunoae niiniaiinoueth iaoiaeaeaiey
ii?aeueiie enoeiu e au?aaioee i?aaeeueiiai ?aoaiey e iiaeeeiii
i?aanoaaiiie oi/eie c?aiey, anee iia ia oieueei noauaeoeaia, ii e
niaaeeiaia ni ciaieai iauaeoeaiie enoeiu. Ii o Eaioa, eae yoi aeaeii a
“E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia”, niaanoue eae ?ac e iiyaeyaony oai, aaea aiein
?acoia oiieeaao, aaea iuoeaiea ia ni?aaeyaony n iiciaaaoaeueiuie
i?iaeaiaie. Oae /oi niaanoue o Eaioa oaea a naiai iiyaeaiee ii
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ieacuaaaony noauaeoeaiie. A o/aiee Eaioa iiiyoea niaanoe
ia?ac?uaii naycaii n aeoaeeciii aai oeeinioneie nenoaiu, eioi?ui
i?iieeiooa any /aeiaa/aneay aeeciue e eioi?ue ii iiae/a?eeaaao, ?acee/ay
aio?iiieiaeth e aio?iiiiiieth. Ii yoio aeoaeeci ia oiaeyao cia/aiea
ii?iaoeaii-e?eoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia aeey ?aaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea, e
iiaoaeaeaiey niaanoe yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiie ninoaaiie /anoueth
oa?aeoa?enoeee ee/iinoe. Aeayoaeueiue i?aeoe/aneee ?acoi,
?anniao?eaaaiue Eaioii a o/aiee i aeia?iaeaoaee, ianao a naaa niciaiea
“aioo?aiiaai noaeeeeua”, eioi?ia e anoue niaanoue. Yoi niciaiea
au?aaeaaony a ecia/aeueiuo ii?aeueiuo caaeaoeao e auaiaeao ?acoia, a
eaeaaeueiuo, /anoi iniiaaiiuo ia ?aeeaeiciie aa?a oeaeyo e, iaeiiaoe a
?acoiiii aieiaiee, oi anoue a ii?aeueiii i?eioeeia eee iniiaiiieiaeaiee
?acoia, noi?ioee?iaaiiii Eaioii aua a 1788 aiaeo a “E?eoeea
i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia” e eaaoai a iniiao “Iaoaoeceee i?aaia”. A
eaioianeii o/aiee ia?yaeo n ynoaoe/aneie e ?acoiiie iio?aaiinoueth
/aeiaaea a niaanoe eiaao cia/aiea e noa?a ?aeeaeiciiai iiuoa, naiaai
?iaea “?aeeaeicii-niaanoeeaay” onoaiiaea. ?a/ue eaeao i ia?aiia/aeueiuo
caaeaoeao ii?aeueiinoe, a eioi?uo neeiiiinoe, ii?ua e aeaenoaeth, naii
aeaenoaea o?aaotho aieaiey, ia iaoiaeyuaainy aac niaanoe; a?aiaiiua
nooiaie au?aaeaiey yoeo caaeaoeia, a oaeaea oi?iu eo iniciaiey (niooiay,
io/aoeeaay e ?aeeaeicii-aa?othuay) i?eaeatho o/aieth i niaanoe
caeii/aiiue aeae. O/aiea i niaanoe — yoi, ii nooe aeaea, o/aiea i
aeaaa, eiathuai anaiauaa cia/aiea; yoi — aeayiea, aiey e niciaiea
ii?aeueiiai /aeiaaea.

I?eioeei “oaaaeaiey e ii?aeueiiio caeiio” yaeyaony na?aeoeaaeiie
eaioianeie yoeee, iineieueeo a iai ioe?uaaaony ecia?aiea aoiaiiiai
iiaaaeaiey. Oieueei ee/iinoue, niaeanii Eaioo, iiaeao au?aaeaoue yoi
oaaaeaiea, eioi?ia yaeyaony ai?ei?iui /oanoaii; iniciaiea yoiai
oaaaeaiey eaeaioe/ii iniciaieth caeiiiia?aciiai aeieaa e eiaao oa?aeoa?
iaiaoiaeeiie anaiauiinoe. Oaaaeaiea e caeiio anoue aaeeinoaaiiay
aeaeaeouay neea ii?aeueiiai aeieaa. *aeiaae, ii Eaioo, ia i?inoi
?acoiiia nouanoai, ii i?ecaai iiaoaeaeaoueny ?acoiii e ii?aeueiiio
iiaaaeaieth, /oi au?aaeaaony a ii/eoaiee ii?aeueiiai caeiia. Eacaeinue
au, caeanue iao ?a/e i ee/iii no?aieaiee e n/anoueth. Ii i?ioeai?a/ea
aeieaa e no?aieaiey e n/anoueth — eeoue eaaeouaany. Eaio i?aiaeieaaaao
aai, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi n/anouea ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea e aeaaeainoai anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa aeinoeaeeii eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea eo iiaaaeaiea iiae/eiyaony
ii?aeueiiio caeiio. Niune aeecie — a nayce aeia?iaeaoaee e aeaaeainoaa.
Oieueei oaeie aeiea, eioi?ue niinianoaoao n/anoueth /aeiaaea e
/aeiaa/anoaa, eiaao yoe/aneoth oeaiiinoue. O/aiea Eaioa i aeieaa, oaeei
ia?acii, anoue caaioa i aeinoieinoaa /aeiaaea e i n/anouea /aeiaa/anoaa.
Aeiea — “iino” iaaeaeo ee/iui n/anoueai e iauanoaaiiui aeaaii, oi/ea
iioeiaeueiiai eo niaaeeiaiey.

Eaio aeaeeo aacaeio iaaeaeo oai, /oi aeieaeii auoue niioaaonoaaiii
aaconeiaiiio i?aanoaaiiiio caeiio e /oi anoue a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
Eaeaae aeia?a iainouanoaei a i?aaeaeao yiie?e/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey a
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie. *aeiaae nia?oai. Aii?aee “E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia”,
aaea nouanoaiaaiea Aiaa e aannia?oiie aeooe i?eciaii iaaeieacoaiui, Eaio
a yoe/aneii o/aiee iinooee?oao nouanoaiaaiea Aiaa e aannia?oioth aeooo
ii ia?aco e iiaeiaeth Aiaeueth — ?aaee i?eaeaiey iauaeoeaiinoe
i?aanoaaiiiio caeiio. Caeanue aicieeaao i?ioeai?a/ea: Aia e aannia?oiay
aeooa auaiaeyony ec i?aanoaaiiinoe, a naia i?aanoaaiiinoue iaoneiaeaia
Aiaii e aannia?oiie aeooie. Aiiaua Eaio naycuaaao ii?aeue n aa?ie
/aeiaaea a aiaa. Eaio n/eoaao, /oi ?aeeaey aeieaeia auoue i?aanoaaiiie,
oi anoue iniiaaiiie ia i?aanoaaiiinoe e i?eciaaaoue naiioeaiiinoue e
naiicaeiiiinoue i?aanoaaiiinoe Oiiaaiea ia aaniethoii ni?aaaaeeeaiai
oai?oea, eioi?ue nicaeaao anai?aaaaeiue iioonoi?iiiee ie?iii?yaeie, aaea
aeia?iaeaoaee e ii?ieo aoaeao a eiioea eiioeia aicaeaii ii caneoaai,
anoue iaiaoiaeeiue iinooeao i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia, aac eioi?iai
i?aanoaaiiinoue ineoieiae/anee iaaiciiaeia aeey ethaeae. Iaeiaei a
iaeiie ec naieo iicaeieo ?aaio “?aeeaey a i?aaeaeao oieueei ?acoia” Eaio
ooi/iyao acaeiinaycue ii?aee e ?aeeaee. Oiiaaiea ia eiia/iia
inouanoaeaiea ananiaa?oaiiiai ie?iii?yaeea, yaeyynue ineoieiae/anee
iaiaoiaeeiuie neaaenoaeyie ii?aeueiiai oiiiano?iaiey eneaaeatho /enoioo
i?aanoaaiiiai iioeaa. Naia aea ii?aeue — aa iauaeoeaiua i?aanoaaiiua
caeiiu — “ia ioaeaeathony a eaeaa i ae?oaii nouanoaa” iaae /aeiaaeii;
“ii?aeue ia ioaeaeaaony a ?aeeaee”. Eiuie neiaaie, i?aanoaaiiinoue
aeieaeia auoue auaaaeaia aiieia naiinoiyoaeueii e iacaaeneii io ?aeeaee,
iia, eae aiai?eo Eaio, “aeiaeaao naia naaa”. Ii?aeue eiaao naie
niaoeeoe/aneea iioeau, ia naiaeeiua e niia?aaeaieyi caiiiai eee
?aeeaeiciiai i?aeoeoeecia. Ii?aeue nei?aa anaiauee /aeiaa/aneee iaaeaee
aiaeanoaaiiue noae.

Io ?aeeaee ii?aeue ioee/aaony nouanoaaiii; eiia/ii, Aia — yoi aa?aioey
niaiaaeaiey n/anouey e aeieaa (a ie?a eiii), ii aeey Eaioa aaaeii oi,
/oi i?aanoaaiiia /oanoai niaa?oaiii aaoiiiiii, ?iaeaeaaony ia ec aa?u, a
naii ii naaa. A 60-a aiaeu Eaio i?eoiaeeo e oaaaeaeaieth, /oi a Aiaa
neaaeoao aa?eoue, ii aeieacaoue aai nouanoaiaaiea o?oaeii, a iiaeao
auoue, e ia ioaeii; oai?aoe/aneea e ?aeeaeiciua i?eioeeiu ia niaiaaeatho
n i?aanoaaiiuie. A ?aaioa “I aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiii aeieacaoaeuenoaa
auoey aiaa” (1763) ii iaieoao: iaiaoiaeeii, ioaeii auoue oaaaeaeaiiui a
nouanoaiaaiee aiaa, ii aiana ia noieue iaiaoiaeeii aeieacaoue yoi. Anee
/aeiaae niaa?oaao eaeie-eeai i?aanoaaiiue iinooiie ec-ca aiycie
aicaeayiey ca a?iaii, oi, ii iunee Eaioa, ia naiii aeaea yoi
aaci?aanoaaiii, oae eae aiao oiaaea iiae/eiythony, eae iiae/eiythony
aeaniioo; “oiaaea yoi aiana ia a?ao, a iieeoe/iia iaaeaai?acoiea” [2,
o.1, n.508]. Ia iiaeiaiia ei?unoiia aeaai?acoiea e iai?aeoe/aneia
aeaai?acoiea yaeythony enoi/ieeii i?aanoaaiiinoe. I?aanoaaiiue eiia?aoea
(oae a yoe aiaeu oaea iacuaaao i?aanoaaiiua o?aaiaaiey iaiaoeeee
oeeinio) oeaiai nai ii naaa e iiyoiio aaconeiaai: ”Oeaeue i?e ii?aeueiii
eiia?aoeaa a nouiinoe iaii?aaeaeaia, iinooiie ii?aaeaeyaony ia oeaeueth,
a ainoiaeeo e naiaiaeiiio auai?o, oeaeue aea iiaeao auoue eaeie oaiaeii.
Ii?aeueiue eiia?aoea iiaaeaaaao, oaeei ia?acii, aaniethoii, iaace?ay ia
oeaeue”[2, o.1, n.569]. Ii?aeue oeacuaaao, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia
aioo?aiithth aaniethoioth /aeiaa/aneoth naiioeaiiinoue; iia auoiaeeo ca
a?aieoeu iiciaaaoaeueiiai ioiioaiey, ia aeeth/aaony a eiiiaoaioeeth
oai?aoe/aneiai ?acoia. A ?aiiea aiaeu Eaio i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo i
ianiaianoeiinoe i?aanoaaiiinoe e n/anouey: eo neioac — aeaai, ii yoi
eeoue eaeaae, e, “iineieueeo oaeiaie ia iiaeao auoue aeinoeaioo
ethaeueie”, “ii iniiaai ia aa?a a aiaeanoaaiiia niaeaenoaea”, yoi —
eaeaae, eioi?ue ia iiaeao auoue aeinoeaioo. Oae ?iaeaeaaony ciaiaieoay
i?aanoaaiiay eaioianeay aioeiiiey.

Niaeanii Eaioo, nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai oi?ioeo i?aanoaaiiuo ea/anoa,
i?aanoaaiiuo /oanoa, eioi?ua iiaeii aeaaea ioeaieoue eae aeaai?iaeiua,
oioy a nianoaaiiii niunea neiaa iie ia ioiinyony e ianoiyuei
aeia?iaeaoaeyi. Iai?eia?, /oanoaa nino?aaeaiey eee aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiinoe
i?ae?aniu e, iaeiaei, neaiu e neaau. “Iai?ioea, anee aeaai?aniieiaeaiea
ei anaio /aeiaa/aneiio ?iaeo aiiaua noaei aeey aan i?eioeeiii, eioi?iio
au anaaaea iiae/eiyaoa naie iinooiee, oi ethaiaue e ioaeaeathuaiony
inoaaony, ii oaia?ue iia n iaeioi?ie aunoae oi/ee c?aiey iinoaaeaia a
enoeiiia ioiioaiea ei anae niaieoiiinoe aaoeo iaycaoaeuenoa”[2, o.2, n.
137]. Aaaeue iaaiciiaeii, /oiau iaoa na?aeoea eniieiyeinue iaaeiui
o/anoeai e eaaeaeiio, eia/a aeia?iaeaoaeueiue /aeiaae, aa/ii i?ieeaay
neacu, i?aa?aoeeny au a iyaeina?aea/iiai aacaeaeueieea; oneoaeeeainoue,
nino?aaeaiea, iyaeina?aea/ea ii ioiioaieth e iaeiei i?aa?auaaony a
iani?aaaaeeeainoue ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei ethaeyi. Aio ii/aio, niaeanii
Eaioo, “enoeiiay aeia?iaeaoaeue iiaeao iie?aoueny oieueei ia i?eioeeiu,
e, /ai aieaa iaueie iie aoaeoo, oai aicauoaiiaa e aeaai?iaeiaa
noaiiaeony aeia?iaeaoaeue” [2, o.2, n.138]. Yoe-oi iauea i?eioeeiu Eaio
e yaeythony enoeiiie aeia?iaeaoaeueth, a oi a?aiy eae nino?aaeaiea,
oneoaeeeainoue e o. i. caneoaeeaatho iacaaiea eeoue aaeaioe?iaaiiie (oae
neacaoue, iaeaa/aiiie) aeia?iaeaoaee. Oae ?iaeaeaaony aioeiiiey /oanoa e
?acoia, n/anouey e aeieaa.

Iaaiciiaeii caieiooue ana iiiaiia?acea i?iaeai, iinoaaeaiiuo Eaioii a
yoeea, ia aeayoaeueiinoe /enoiai ?acoia. Iiyoiio a iineaaeiea aiaeu
ioia/aaony oaiaeaioeey ?anniao?eaaoue oece/aneea, nioeeaeueiua,
oa?ieiieiae/aneea aniaeou aai i?aeoe/aneie oeeinioee. A /anoiinoe,
aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aiaeeco i?iaeaiu aeayoaeueiinoe, oneiaey
?aaeecaoeee naiaiaeu.

Naiaiaea e yoeea

“Aeey oiai, eoi i?eaue e naiaiaea, iao aieueoaai ian/anouey, /ai auoue
ioaeaiiui ai aeanoue oaeiai aea nouanoaa, eae ii, eioi?ia iiaeao
i?eioaeeoue aai ioeacaoueny io naiae aiee e aeaeaoue oi, /oi ii oi/ao”

E.Eaio

Naiaiaea — “ia?a oeeinioee Eaioa” , iia “yaeyaony iaeiei ec
e?aaoaieueiuo eaiiae ii?aee e ?aeeaee, a oaeaea eeth/ii aeey
nenoaiaoe/aneiai iino?iaiey /enoiai ?acoia e ?acoia niaeoeyoeaiiai” —
oae oa?aeoa?ecoao cia/aiea i?iaeaiu naiaiaeu a oeeinioee Eaioa
iaoaoece/anee i?eaioe?iaaiiua eaioiaaaeu. Eaio ia ecaaaaao ycuea
iaoaoeceee a ?anniio?aiee iiiyoey naiaiaeu. Ii nouanoao, ii ia
?ane?uaaao niaea?aeaiey aa aaconeiaiinoe, ia?aie/eaaynue ooaa?aeaeaieyie
i iaaaoeaiie naiaiaea, oi anoue “naiaiaea io…”, oioy ia?auaaony n
iiiyoeai “naiaiaea” oae, eae anee au ciaiea i iae auei aeinoeaiooi.
?acoi ia iiaeao iauynieoue, eae aiciiaeia yoa naiaiaea. A “E?eoeea
/enoiai ?acoia” Eaio iieacae oieueei eae iu iiaeai aa iiiuneeoue , ia
aiaaeay a i?ioeai?a/ea. aeieacaoaeuenoai aa ?aaeueiinoe ii inoaaee aeey
?acoia i?aeoe/aneiai. I?eciaaay i?e?iaeiia ianiaa?oainoai /aeiaaea, Eaio
a oi aea a?aiy aeaeae a iai ?acoiiia nouanoai, eioi?ia niiniaii n
iiiiuueth nianoaaiiiai ?acoia e i?aanoaaiiiai eiia?aoeaa ia?aie/eaaoue e
i?aiaeieaaaoue nianoaaiiua aeaeaiey. “Ethaee eiatho aeinoaoi/ii oia aeey
naiieiio?iey e ii?aeueiiai iiaaaeaiey”.

Eaio, eae aeoaeeno, ciaao oieueei aeaa o?iaiy i?e/eiiinoe — a ?aieao
i?e?iaeu e naiaiaeu, i?e/ai a ia?aii iia iiieiaaony iaoaienoe/anee, ai
aoi?ii — iaoaoece/anee, a iineieueeo /aeiaa/aneay naiaiaea eneeth/aaony
ec i?e?iaeiie, iinoieueeo i?e?iaea, oaei e aeoo aaniethoii ioaeaeaiu
ae?oa io ae?oaa, oai naiui eaeae e aeiioacu i ieo ieeiaaea ia iiaoo
?acee/eoue o Eaioa i?aaeeueiiai ?acee/aiey. Eae aiciiaeia naiaiaea
?acoiiiai nouanoaa a ie?a, aaea i?aaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoue, oi anoue
ainiiaenoaoao iaiaoiaeeiay, a ia naiaiaeiay i?e/eiiinoue? Eaio iacuaaao
iiiyoea naiaiaeu “eeth/ii e iauyniaieth aaoiiiiee aiee”. Eaeath
oieaa?naeueiie aiee ?acaeaaao eaoaai?e/aneee eiia?aoea, ii ii o?aaoao
o?aoueaai naycothuaai caaia iaaeaeo ooaa?aeaeaaiie ei aieae /aeiaaea e
oieaa?naeueiui ii?aeueiui caeiiii. Yoei o?aoueei caaiii e yaeyaony
iiiyoea naiaiaeu. Aeaaiaea?y Eaeaa naiaiaeu Eaio auyaee iniaaiiinoue
i?e?iaeu /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia — aai “aeiiaiinoue”, eioi?ay ianao a naaa
?ieiaia ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo o?aaiaaieyie i?e?iaeu e o?iaiai aai
aiciiaeiinoae. Ana iiiuoee ?aoaiey niuneiia?acothueo aeeciaiiuo aii?inia
yaeytho niaie iaoaoece/aneoth eanoieoeo /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey,
eioi?ia iia?oaeaii a o?aae/aneoth neooaoeeth. Eaio aeaeeo auoiae a
iienea iooae e iiaie iaoaoeceea. Eiaiii n yoie oeaeueth aai iiceoeaiay
e?eoeea noaea iiiuoeie i?aaenoaaeoue niaeoeyoeaioth oeeinioeth eae
“i?aaeoa/o” ii?aee, eae iooue e i?aeoe/aneie oeeinioee. Eaioianeay
oeeinioey ioaa?aaao niaeoeyoeaioth iaoaoeceeo, ii eeoue n oai, /oiau
ioe?uoue aeaa?e iaoaoeceea “yoece?iaaiiie”, iia “ia?aie/eaaao i?aoaicee
niaeoeyoeaiiai ?acoia, iicaieyy aaca?aie/ii ?acaeaaoueny ?acoio
i?aeoe/aneiio; …ei?i/a, iia ioe?uaaao iaoaoeceea iiaue iooue…”[2,
o.3,n. 190].

A ?aiieo iaa?ineao e naiae ii?aeueiie oeeinioee Eaio enoiaeee ec
eiiieaeniiai iiiyoey i?aeoeee, au?aaeaaiiai o?aiy ?acee/iiai ?iaea
i?aeoe/aneeie oeaiiinoyie: oiaieai, aeaai?acoieai e ioae?inoueth.
Niioaaonoaaiii eaaeaeay ec ieo eaaeeo a iniiaa eeanneoeeaoeee aeaeia
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe — oaoie/aneie, i?aaiaoe/aneie, ii?aeueiie.
Ia iniiaa oaeiai iiieiaiey i?aeoeee Eaio inouanoaeyao ?acaeaeaiea aeaeia
aeaaa ia i?iaeaiaoe/iia, i?aaiaoe/iia e ii?aeueiia, eae ec yoie o?eaaeu
auaiaeeony ?acee/ea aeiioaoe/aneiai, i?aeoe/aneiai e eaoaai?e/aneiai
eiia?aoeaia. Oiaiea, ii Eaioo, o?aaoao i?aaiaoe/aneiai ecia?aiey
i?aeoeee, yoi naiaai ?iaea “oaeoe/aneia” oiaiea, iai?aaeaiiia ia
nianoaaiiia aeaai. Ioae?inoue oaea iai?aaeaia ia inouanoaeaiea
ii?aeueiiai caeiia. “Eiia?aoea i?aanoaaiiinoe niaea?aeeo
ia?aie/eoaeueiua oneiaey anao eiia?aoeaia aeaai?acoiey” [2, o3,
n.274].Caeanue aicieeaao aiciiaeiinoue eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo aeaai?acoiiui e
ioae?ui iinooieii, i?e/ai oieueei a ii?aeueiii ecia?aiee /aeiaae iiaeao
ia?anoe iieioth naiaiaeo e eioaineaiinoue.

A eae auoue a oii neo/aa, eiaaea /aeiaae auae?aao iinooiie,
i?ioeai?a/auee aeieao?

Eiioeaioeey naiaiaeu o Eaioa aeiioneaao iaiaeiicia/iia oieeiaaiea e
iiaeao iiieiaoueny, ai-ia?auo, eae “iieiaeeoaeueiay naiaiaea”, i?e
eioi?ie /aeiaae naiaiaeai oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea aai aeaenoaey
ii?aaeaeythony ii?aeueiui caeiiii, e, ai-aoi?uo, eae “iaeo?aeueiay
naiaiaea”, eiathuay ianoi a neo/ayo auai?a /aeiaaeii i?aaeeueiuo eee
iai?aaeeueiuo aeaenoaee eiaiii oiaaea, eiaaea ii i?aaeii/eoaao iinooiie,
i?ioeai?a/auee aeieao. Aeey oai?ee Eaioa iaa yoe aniaeoa naiaiaeu
aanueia nouanoaaiiu, oae eae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, oieueei iaoneiaeaiiinoue
aeaenoaey eaoaai?e/aneei eiia?aoeaii, oi anoue /enoi ?aoeeiiaeueiia
aeaenoaea niaeanoaony n enoeiiui oa?aeoa?ii iioiaiaeueiuo nouiinoae, a n
ae?oaie — iaiaoiaeeiinoueth inoaaeoue aiciiaeiinoue ii?aeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeey ethaeae, aeaenoaothueo aii?aee caeiio
i?aanoaaiiinoe, aeaeay nouanoaaiiie eiioeaioeeth iaeo?aeueiie naiaiaeu.
Iaeiaei yoe aeaa eiioeaioeee naiaiaeu ianiaianoeiu, eiaaea noauaeo
aeaenoaoao aii?aee aaeaieth aeieaa, ii aoaeao naiaiaeai a iaeo?aeueiii
niunea e ianaiaiaeai a iieiaeeoaeueiii.

Iiaeiaiay o?aeoiaea i?iaeaiu naiaiaeu eeoue io/anoe iiaeao auoue
iniiaaia ia yoeea Eaioa iooai ?acee/aiey iiiyoee aiee e i?iecaiea.
I?e/ai anee a ?aiieo ?aaioao iiiyoea aiee eniieueciaaeinue aeey
iaicia/aiey eae aiee, oae e i?iecaiea, oi a iicaeieo ?aaioao aiey anoue
/enoue i?aeoe/aneee ?acoi enoi/iee iauaeoeaiiai caeiia i?aanoaaiiinoe, a
i?iecaie niaeaenoaoao auai?o iaaeaeo aee?aeoeaaie aiee e /oanoaaiiinoe.
Oiio?aaeyy iiiyoea aiee a aeaoo ?acee/iuo cia/aieyo eae aiee e eae
i?iecaiea Eaio ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iaa yoe, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?ioeainoiyuea
ae?oa ae?oao eiioeaioeee aiieia i?eie?eiu e /oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
/aeiaae oai?aoe/anee iaeaaeaao naiaiaeie auai?a. I?iaeaia aiee e
i?iecaiea naycuaaaony n iiiuoeie Eaioa iauynieoue ecia/aeueiia cei a
/aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaea, ia ioaa?aay i?e yoii naiaiaeu /aeiaaea.
Neeiiiinoue ei ceo, oioy e eiaao naith iniiao a naiaiaea, anoue
i?iyaeaiea i?iecaiea. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, Eaio i?eoiaeeo e aioeiiiee
aeiiaiinoe /aeiaaea ec-ca “anoanoaaiiie neeiiiinoe /aeiaaea ei ceo”[1,
n.99]. Yoi i?ioeai?a/ea aini?iecaiaeeo aeoaeeci eaioianeiai o/aiey i
naiaiaea.

A “E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia” naiaiaea aianoa n aannia?oeai aeooe e
nouanoaiaaieai Aiaa ieacuaaaony ioianaiiie e oie iaeanoe, eioi?ay eaaeeo
aia iiciaiey, oi anoue iaoiaeeony ca i?aaeaeaie e /oanoa, e ?acoia.
?acoi i?aanoaaiiue — yoi ?acoi iniaiai ?iaea, ?acoi i?aeoe/aneiai,
iaiiciaaaoaeueiiai ono?aieaiey, e eioi?iio /oanoaa ia eiatho ieeaeiai
ioiioaiey. Aneaaenoaea yoiai aicieeaao aioeiiiey /oanoa e i?aanoaaiiiai
?acoia, n/anouey e aeieaa.

A Eaeoeeyo ii yoeea Eaio ia/eiaao ioee/aoue aeaenoaea io iaia?aiey, a
/ai neaaeoao aeaeaoue ca?iaeuo iineaaeothuaai i?eioeeieaeueiiai
?acee/aiey nouaai e aeieaeiiai: “naiaiaeiua iinooiee yaeythony aeia?uie:
1) a naieo neaaenoaeyo (niioaaonoaaiii eo noaiaie) — oece/anee aeaaea;
2) ii naiaio iaia?aieth (niioaaonoaaiii eo noaiaie) — ii?aeueii
aeaaea… ii?aeueii naiaiaeiua iinooiee eiatho aeaainoue, eioi?ay
oeaieony ia a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaeai, a a niioaaonoaee n iaia?aieai.
Eia/a ii?aeueiia auei au iaiueoa, /ai oece/aneia”. Eaio iioiio e
ioaeaeyao noa?o naiaiaeiie i?aanoaaiiinoe io i?e?iaeu, /oi caeanue eiaao
cia/aiea ia i?e/eiiia aeaenoaea, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia aeaenoaea aiiaua
(iineieueeo iineaaeiaa ia auaaao aac i?e/eiu), ii iaia?aiea, iioea,
aeieaeiia. Yoi iaia/aao iooue iniiaaoaeueiie i?i?aaioee Eaioii i?eioeeia
naiaiaeu, eai naiaiaea — yoi inouanoaeaiea naiaiaeiiai auai?a e
naiaiaeiiai aeaenoaey iacaaeneii io o?aaiaaiee iaee/iie, /oanoaaiii
aini?eieiaaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Ia /oanoai, ia i?e?iaea, a ?acoi a eiia/iii n/aoa, — iniaue,
iaiiciathuee ?acoi ii?aaeaeyao i?aanoaaiiua iinooiee /aeiaaea. A enoie
i?aanoaaiiuo iinooieia noauaeoa — naiaiaea eae iaeei ec ii?aaeaeythueo
aniaeoia i?aanoaaiiiai ?acoia. Naiaiaea, auoea Aiaa e aannia?oea aeooe —
oa o?e eiinoane i?aanoaaiiinoe, eioi?ua a “e?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia”
noaiiayony aaoaie, ia?aie/eaathueie ciaiea: ia?aay ec ieo — yoi
naiaiaea. Iiae/eiaiea /aeiaaea i?e?iaea, ieoao Eaio, anaaaea iaeaaei, ii
iii iaecaaaeii. “ Ai?acaei aieaa aeanoieei e iaanoanoaaiiui, /ai yoi
a?aiy iaiaoiaeeiinoe, yaeyaony iiae/eiaiea iaeiiai /aeiaaea aiea
ae?oaiai. Aeey oiai, eoi i?eaue e naiaiaea, iao aieueoaai ian/anouey,
/ai auoue ioaeaiiui ai aeanoue oaeiai aea nouanoaa, eae ii, eioi?ia
iiaeao i?eioaeeoue aai ioeacaoueny io naiae aiee e aeaeaoue oi, /oi ii
oi/ao”[2, o.2, n.218]. Iio?aaiinoue a naiaiaea oae aaeeea, /oi, anee
i?aaeinoaaeoue auai? iaaeaeo nia?oueth e ?aanoaii, aieueoeinoai, eae
aeoiaao Eaio, i?aaeii/oao nia?oue. Aaaeue aiey eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea anoue
i?iaeoeo oieueei aai nianoaaiiuo ono?aieaiee, neeiiiinoae e niaeanoaony
n aai nianoaaiiuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie i aeaaiiieo/ee. “A iiae/eiaiee
ae?oaiio anoue ia oieueei ia/oi e?aeia iianiia, ii e ia/oi
ioa?aoeoaeueiia e i?ioeai?a/eaia, oeacuaathuaa a oi aea a?aiy ia aai
iai?aaiia?iinoue…”[2, o.2, n.219]. AEeaioiia, iiae/eiythuaany
/aeiaaeo, iuouaao, eiia/ii, naith aaaeo, anee yoio /aeiaae iaaeia?, ii,
ii iiaieth Eaioa, iuouaaony yoi ia a eaaeaeia iaiiaaiea, aea e ia ciaao
aeeaioiia ie/aai i naiai nouanoaiaaiee a oeaeii. *aeiaae aea, “caaenyuee
io ae?oaiai, oaea ia /aeiaae; ii yoi caaiea oo?aoee, ii ia /oi eiia, eae
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue ae?oaiai /aeiaaea”[2, o.2, n.220]. Oaeei ia?acii, Eaio
i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo i naiaiaea eae oaeie nouanoaaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeea
niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneiai auoey, eioi?ay aicauoaao aai iaae anai
aeeaioiui ie?ii. Naiaiaea — yoi noa?a ia aiaoiaai, ii aioo?aiiaai
/oanoaa, aai iiaeii iacaaoue /oanoaii /aeiaa/aneiai aeinoieinoaa e
/aeiaa/aneie aaoiiiiee. Iiea aua naiaiaea ia i?eciaaony iaeanoueth
eioaeeeaeaaeueiie, ii oaea iauyaeyaony noiyuae auoa aeeaioiiai oea?noaa
e yaeythuaeny i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth ?acoia, i?e/ai iniaiai ?acoia.

Eae aea aiciiaeiu naiaiaea e i?aanoaaiiinoue? *aeiaae, aiai?eo Eaio,
i?eiaaeeaaeeo a iaeii e oi aea a?aiy e aeaoi ie?ai. Iaeei — ie?
i?e?iaeu, yaeaiee yiie?e/aneiai auoey, i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, aiaoiae
iaiaoiaeeiinoe; ae?oaie aea — ie? iioiaiaeueiue, aia i?ino?ainoaa,
a?aiaie e anaai nouaai, ie? eioaeeeaeaaeueiue, iuneeiue eeoue a
eaoaai?eyo i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia, ie? naiaiaeu. Niioaaonoaaiii ana
iuneeiua caeiiu iiae?acaeaeythony Eaioii ia “caeiiu i?e?iaeu” e “caeiiu
naiaiaeu”, eee i?aanoaaiiinoe. Naiaiaea aeey Eaioa icia/aao ia
aani?e/eiiinoue, a niiniaiinoue ?acoiiiai nouanoaa naiiio onoaiaaeeaaoue
aeey naay caeii a ea/anoaa iaiaoiaeeiiai e oieaa?naeueiiai. Eiaaea
/aeiaae nai iaeaaaao ia naay caeii, ii i?e oii oaeie, eioi?ue iiaeao
auoue iaeiia?aiaiii caeiiii anaiauei, ?ani?ino?aiythueiny ia ana
/aeiaa/anoai (ciaiaieoue eaioianeee “eaoaai?e/aneee eiia?aoea”), oiaaea
ii naiaiaeai. Yoi e anoue i?aanoaaiiinoue, oiaeaeanoaaiiay naiaiaea. A
oii, /oi yoio caeii ii?aaeaeyaony naiaiaeiui, nianoaaiiui oniio?aieai
eiaeeaeaea, eioi?ia a naith i/a?aaeue ia i?aaeii?aaeaeaii ieeaeeie
i?e?iaeiuie aeaoa?ieiaioaie, ie/ai eiui, e?iia naiiai /aeiaa/aneiai
?acoia, i?iyaeyaony noauaeoeaiue e aaoiiiiiue oa?aeoa? ii?aee; a oii
aea, /oi yoio caeii ia iiaeao auoue i?inoui ecuyaeaieai ee/iiai
i?iecaiea, a iiaeao auoue oieueei anaiauei, i?iyaeyaony aai
iauaeoeaiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue, — iauaeoeaiinoue ia yiie?e/aneiai, a
iioiaiaeueiiai, o?ainoeaaeaioaeueiiai ieaia, iaiaoiaeeiinoue, auaiaeyuay
/aeiaaea ca a?aieoeu ie?a i?e?iaeu. Eaio auneacuaaao aeiaaaeeo i oii,
/oi naiaiaea ia i?aaeoanoaoao ii?aee eae aa ecia/aeueiay i?aaeiinueea, a
yaeyaony au?aaeaieai niaoeeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a i?aanoaaiiiai
aeieaeainoaiaaiey.

N aii?inii i naiaiaea oanii naycaia eaioianeay oeeinioey enoi?ee n aa
eaeaae i?ia?anna, aai o/aiea i aa/iii ie?a, i ainoaea?noaa, i i?aaa.
Cia/aiea eaeaaea iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey Eaio aeaeae “a oi?aeanoaa
anaiaueo oi?i i?aaa”, a i?aiaeieaiee aioaaiiecia yoeee e iieeoeee ia
iooyo aa/iiai ie?a. ?aaeueiiio aiieiuaieth yoiai eaeaaea iiaeao
neoaeeoue eaioianeee eicoia “aeenoeeieeie?iaaoue, eoeueoeae?iaaoue,
oeeaeeeciaaoue”.

O Eaioa iaiaeiicia/iinoue iiieiaiey naiaiaeu eiaeeaeaea a
oai?aoe/aneie e yoe/aneie /anoe o/aiey ii n?aaiaieth n aai iieeoe/aneie
oai?ee aicieeaao i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo oai iieiaeaieai eaioianeie yoeee,
a eioi?ie ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi /aeiaae yaeyaony oeaeueth naiie ii naaa, e
iieeoe/aneie oai?eae, aaea /aeiaae ?anniao?eaaaony eae caaeneiue io
aiaoieo aeey iaai oaeoi?ia, oaeeo, iai?eia? eae iaeaaeaiea
nianoaaiiinoueth. Eaio aeiioneae ia?aie/aiea iieeoe/aneeo i?aa aeaiuei,
aeaoae, a oaeaea oae iacuaaaiuo “ianneaiuo a?aaeaeai”. A yoii aeaeii
nioeeaeueii ia?aie/aiiia iiieiaiea Eaioii aeaiie?aoe/aneeo naiaiae
eiaeeaeaea. Ii a oi aea a?aiy a eaioianeie iieeoe/aneie oai?ee eiaaony
/aoei au?aaeaiiay iuneue i oii, aaea eiaiii neaaeoao eneaoue iooe
niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?aaiauo ii?yaeeia. Eaio inoaeaeae aeaniioeci,
i?aaeaiea “ioa/aneia, i?e eioi?ii iiaeaeaiiua, eae ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea,
ia a ninoiyiee ?acee/eoue, /oi aeey ieo iieacii, a /oi a?aaeii (ca ieo
yoi ?aoaao aeaaa ainoaea?noaa), — oaeia i?aaeaiea anoue aaee/aeoee
aeaniioeci. I?aaeaiea aeieaeii auoue ia “ioa/aneei”, a ioa/anoaaiiui,
iauaaeeiythuei i?aainiiniaiuo a?aaeaeai. Caeanue — iniiaiie iaoin
eaioianeie ?aaiou.

Eaeia aea ianoi iiaeao caieiaoue i?aanoaaiiue iiaeoiae i?e aiaeeca
yaeaiee /aeiaa/aneie aeecie?

Eiaiii iaeanoue enoi?ee iiaeaa?aaao i?aanoaaiiue iiaeoiae eniuoaieyi ia
aai i?aaiia?iinoue e ninoiyoaeueiinoue. O Eaioa a /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee
aeaenoaaiiu iioeau yaienoe/aneea, iie aeaeaeoo iinooieaie ethaeae e
?aaeecotho enoi?eth. Oeaeua ia?iaeu a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo niaie “aaaeoo
naay” oae aea, eae ioaeaeueiua eiaeeaeaeu, oi anoue a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa ana i?ienoiaeeo ia ii ii?aeueiui caeiiai. Yoa oi/ea c?aiey
a “Eaeaa anaiauae enoi?ee ai anaie?ii-a?aaeaeaineii ieaia”: “Ioaeaeueiua
ethaee e aeaaea oeaeua ia?iaeu… eaaeaeue ii naiaio ?acoiaieth e /anoi
a oua?a ae?oaei i?aneaaeotho nianoaaiiua oeaee”[2, o.6, n.7], oi anoue
niaeanii Eaioo, enoi?ey aiai?aanoaaiia e iiaeoiae e iae aeieaeai auoue
eeoai ii?aeecaoi?noaa. Ii?aeueiue caeii a enoi?ee aanneeai, caeanue
oea?eo caeii “i?e?iaeu”, eioi?oth Eaio a aeaiiii neo/aa i?e?aaieaaao e
“yaienoe/aneie /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaea, i?ioeaiie o?aaiaaieyi
i?aanoaaiiinoe”. ”*aeiaae anoue aeeaioiia, eioi?ia aeeaao n?aaee ae?oaeo
/eaiia naiaai ?iaea, ioaeaeaaony a ainiiaeeia. Aeaei a oii, /oi ii
iaycaoaeueii ceioiio?aaeyao naiae naiaiaeie a ioiioaiee naieo aeeaeieo;
e oioy ii ,eae ?acoiiia nouanoai, aeaeaao eiaoue caeii, eioi?ue
ii?aaeaeee au a?aieoeu aeey anao, ii aai ei?unoiethaeaay aeeaioiay
neeiiiinoue iiaoaeaeaao aai, aaea yoi aio ioaeii, aeaeaoue aeey naiiai
naay eneeth/aiea… Iaeuecy iiiyoue, eae ii nicaeaao naaa aeaao
ioaee/iie ni?aaaaeeeainoe, eioi?ue nai aue au ni?aaaaeeea. Aaaeue
eaaeaeue iaea/aiiue aeanoueth anaaaea aoaeao ceioiio?aaeyoue naiae
naiaiaeie, eiaaea iaae iei iao ieeiai, eoi ?anii?yaeaeny au ei a
niioaaonoaee n caeiiaie… Ec noieue e?eaie oaneiu, eae oa, ec eioi?ie
naeaeai /aeiaae, iaeuecy naeaeaoue ie/aai i?yiiai. Oieueei i?eaeeaeaiea
e yoie eaeaa aaa?eea iai i?e?iaea”[2, o.6, n.14].

Ii Eaioo, ethaee, nicaeathuea naith enoi?eth, naie ie/aai ia aaaeatho i
aa ia?niaeoeaa, i “ oaeiii ieaia i?e?iaeu”, eioi?ay inouanoaeyaony
iiieii ?acoiiuo, a oii /enea e aeaaeo, iaia?aieyo /aeiaaea /a?ac
ii?aeueiia cei. Eaio i?eaea?aeeaaaony eaeae ia enoi?e/anee
eiino?oeoeaiie ?iee cea. A “Eaeaa anaiauae enoi?ee” o iaai enoi?ey a
eiioea eiioeia ?ac?aoaaony onoaiiaeaieai i?aanoaaiiuo i?eioeeiia, a /ai
Eaio aeaeeo “ii?aaaeaiea i?e?iaeu”, eioi?ay eniieuecoao ii?aeueii
niiieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa aeey aeaaeo oeaeae: anyeay /anoiay aiey
iai?aaeaia ia ?iaeiaoth oeaeue /aeiaa/anoaa e aeinoeaeaieth iieiiou e
niaa?oainoaa a ?acaeoee /a?ac oain, aioaaiieciu, ?acaei?u, /anoiethaea,
ei?unoue, aeanoiethaea, ceiao, caaenoue, /a?ac no?anoue e ?ac?ooaieth,
/a?ac aanniuneaiiue oi? /aeiaa/aneeo aeae. “Anaaaea oaeeaeyao oi, /oi
noa?oaa iieieaiea o?oaeeony a iioa eeoea eae aoaeoi eneeth/eoaeueii
?aaee aoaeoueo iieieaiee, a eiaiii aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeaioiaeoue ei
nooiaiue, ia eioi?ie iiaeii auei au auoa aicaiaeeoue caeaiea,
i?aaeia/a?oaiiia i?e?iaeie, e /oiau oieueei iicaeiaeoea iieieaiey eiaee
n/anouea aeeoue a yoii caeaiee, aeey iino?iaiey eioi?iai ?aaioae
aeeeiiue ?yae i?aaeoanoaaiieeia (oioy, eiia/ii, iai?aaeiaia?aiii),
eeoaiiuo aiciiaeiinoe iieueciaaoueny iiaeaioiaeaiiui ei n/anoueai. Ii
eaeei au caaaaei/iui ie eacaeny oaeie ii?yaeie, ii iaiaoiaeei…”.
“Eiaaea-ieaoaeue, ia i/aiue nei?i, /aeiaa/aneee ?iae aeinoeaiao,
iaeiiaoe, oiai ninoiyiey, eiaaea ana aai i?e?iaeiua caaeaoee niiaoo
iieiinoueth ?acaeoueny e aai iacia/aiea ia caiea aoaeao eniieiaii” [2,
o.6, n.22].

A nioeeaeueiie noa?a Eaio i?aiiaeiineo eaeath i?inaaoeoaeueneiai
cae?aaiiuneey i ianiaoiii eciaiaiee e eo/oaio, aianoi “?aaiethoeee a
ia?aca iuneae”. Ii oeeiiyaony io no?iaeo ii?aeueiuo ioeaiie
iauanoaaiiiai i?ia?anna, aeia?i e cei auoaniythony o iaai e
iiaeiaiythony eaoaai?eyie eo/oa-ooaea, aaconeiaiay i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
yoe/aneeo iiiyoee “?aciuaaaony” iinoaiaiiinoueth oeo/oaiee,
“aaneiia/iinoueth aeaeaeaiey aia?aae io ieioiai e eo/oaio”.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue e eieeaeoeaiue yaieci, n/eoaao ii, a eoiaa i?eiineo
iauanoao ia oua?a, a aioo?aiiaa niia?ie/anoai iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeaie —
iieiaeeoaeueiia, aeaaii?eyoiia oneiaea niaa?oainoaiaaiea eiaeeaeaeia e
i?ia?anna iauanoaa, i?eaeeaeaiey ei “anaiauaio, anaie?iia?aaeaeaineiio
ninoiyieth” [2, o.6, n.20-21]. A aeaiiii neo/aa Eaio inoaaeyao a noi?iia
yoe/aneee iiaeoiae e i?eaaaaao e nioeeaeueii-i?aanoaaiiie ioeaiea
“aoaeouaai aaeeeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iauaaeeiaiey”.

N?aaee caaeaoeia /aeiaaea Eaio auaeaeyao niiniaiinoue “iauaoueny n naaa
iiaeiaiuie”. Iauaiea ii naiaeeo e io?eoeaoaeueiie oi?ia, e aioaaiiecio
iaaeaeo eciee?iaaiiuie ae?oa io ae?oaa eiaeeaeaeaie, oaeia “iauaiea”
i?yii auoaeaao ec “iaiaueoaeueiiai naienoaa”, caeiaeaiiiai a i?e?iaea
/aeiaaea, ec neeueiiai no?aieaiey oaaeeieoueny, eciee?iaaoueny, ec
aeaeaiey “ana niia?aciauaaoue oieueei ni naiei ?acoiaieai”; oaeie
/aeiaae iaecaaaeii iaeeaeaao ioianthaeo nii?ioeaeaiey, oae eae ii ii
naaa ciaao, /oi nai neeiiai nii?ioeaeyoueny ae?oaei” [2, o.6, n.11]. Yoi
ii?iaeaeaao oieueei “iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeueioth iaueoaeueiinoue” ethaeae,
iinoiyiii oa?iaeathuoth iauanoao ?acuaaeeiaieai. *aeiaae ooaa?aeaeaao
naay n?aaee naieo aeeaeieo, eioi?uo ii ia iiaeao oa?iaoue, ii aac
eioi?uo ii “ia iiaeao iaieoenue”[2, o.6, n.11]. ?acaeoea oaeeo caaeaoeia
a eiaeeaeaeao, eae /anoiethaea, aeanoiethaea, ei?unoiethaea aaaeao, ii
Eaioo, e ?anoeaaoo oaeaioia, i?inaauaieth: ”any eoeueoo?a e eneonnoai,
oe?aoathuea /aeiaa/anoai, naiia eo/oaa iauanoaaiiia ono?ienoai — ana
yoi ieiaeu iaiaueoaeueiinoe”[2, o.6, n.11]. Aeia?i n yoie oi/ee c?aiey
iiyaeyaony a enoi?ee eae iiai/iue i?iaeoeo ii?aeueiiai cea: “Ii?aeueiia
cei eiaao oi iaioaeaeeiia io naiae i?e?iaeu naienoai, /oi ii naiei
oeaeyi (iniaaiii a ioiioaiee ae?oaeo, aea?aeaueony oaeiai aea ia?aca
iuneae) ii aioo?aiia i?ioeai?a/eai e naii?ac?ooeoaeueii e, oaeei
ia?acii, oioy e iaaeeaiii, ii onooiaao ianoi ii?aeueiiio i?eioeeio
aeia?a”[2, o.6, n.300]. Eaio ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi io iaiaocaeaiiiai yaiecia
e ?acaoea naiaaieey /a?ac i?ia?ann e aeenoeeieeia e i?inaauaieth ana aea
iiaeii iinoaiaiii i?eeoe e i?aaeia/a?oaiiie /aeiaa/anoao oeaee e
“iaoieiae/anee auioaeaeaiiia niaeanea e aeecie a iauanoaa i?aoai?eoue a
eiioea eiioeia a ii?aeueiia oeaeia” [2, o.6, n.12]. Oeeaeeecaoeey
aicaeaeaiooa ia ieth?aeecia yaienoe/aneeo ono?aieaiee, ii aaaeue iie,
aiiaua aiai?y, e aeia?o ia aaaeoo. Oaeei ia?acii, a aeaiiii neo/aa Eaioo
i?eoiaeeony ioiaeaeaaoue ?ac?aoaiea i?aanoaaiiie caaea/e aeey
/oanoaaiiiai ie?a a “iaiaic?eioth aeaeue”[1, n.221].

Caeeth/aiea

O/aiea i i?aanoaaiiinoe iaoiaeeony a oeaio?a anae nenoaia Eaioa.

Eaioo oaeaeinue iaicia/eoue, anee e ia iauynieoue iieiinoueth, oeaeue
?yae niaoeeoe/aneeo /a?o ii?aee. I?aanoaaiiinoue ia anoue ineoieiaey
/aeiaaea eae oaeiaiai, iia ia naiaeeony ie e eaeei-oi i?enouei anai
ethaeyi yeaiaioa?iui no?aieaieyi, /oanoaai, aea/aieyi, iiaoaeaeaieyi, ie
e eaeei-oi iniaaiiui oieeaeueiui ia?aaeeaaieyi, yiioeeyi, iiaoaeaeaieyi,
ioee/iui io anao inoaeueiuo ineoe/aneeo ia?aiao?ia /aeiaaea.
I?aanoaaiiinoue, eiia/ii, iiaeao i?eieiaoue oi?io oao eee eiuo
ineoieiae/aneeo yaeaiee a niciaiee /aeiaaea, ii eeoue /a?ac ainieoaiea,
/a?ac iiae/eiaiea noeoee /oanoa e iiaoaeaeaiee iniaie eiaeea ii?aeueiiai
aeieaeainoaiaaiey. Aiiaua, ii?aeue ia naiaeeony e “aioo?aiiae iaoaieea”
aeooaaiuo eiioeuenia e ia?aaeeaaiee /aeiaaea, a eiaao ii?iaoeaiue
oa?aeoa?, oi anoue aiaiyao /aeiaaeo ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaenoaey e naie
iiaoaeaeaiey e iei ii eo niaea?aeaieth, a ia ii ineoieiae/aneiio iaeeeo,
yiioeeiiaeueiie ie?anea, aeooaaiiio iano?ith e o. i. A yoii i?aaeaea
anaai e ninoieo iauaeoeaii-aeieaeainoaiaaoaeueiay i?e?iaea ii?aeueiuo
o?aaiaaiee ii ioiioaieth e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio niciaieth. Yoei
iaoiaeieiae/aneei ?aca?aie/aieai “eiaeee /oanoa” e “eiaeee ii?aee” Eaioo
oaeaeinue iaia?oaeeoue nooue i?aanoaaiiiai eiioeeeoa a noa?a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai niciaiey a eiioeeeoa aeieaa e neeiiiinoae, aea/aiee,
aeaeaiee, iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo no?aieaiee. Aeiea ii Eaioo — iaeiinoi?iiiyy
e i?i/iay oeaeueiinoue, ?aaeueiay aeueoa?iaoeaa ii?aeueiie iyaeioaeinoe
e i?ioeainoieo iineaaeiae eae i?eioeeieaeueiinoue eiii?iiennai. Iaeia ec
enoi?e/aneeo caneoa Eaioa a ?acaeoee iiiyoey ii?aee ninoieo a aai
oeacaiee ia i?eioeeieaeueioth anaiauiinoue i?aanoaaiiuo o?aaiaaiee,
eioi?ay ioee/aao ii?aeue io iiiaeo eiuo noiaeeo n iae nioeeaeueiuo
ii?iaoeaia (iau/aaa, o?aaeeoeee). Eaio ia?aoee aieiaiea ia ?iee ee/iiai
naiiniciaiey e naiiiiioaeaeaiey a ii?aee, ia niaoeeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?
i?aanoaaiiie naiaiaeu, ia naycue yoie naiaiaeu n iniaaiiinoyie
ii?aeueiiai aeieaeainoaiaaiey. Naiaiaea ?anniao?eaaaony ei eae iaeei ec
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aniaeoia i?aanoaaiiiai ?acoia.

Ia?aaeien eaioianeie yoeee ninoieo a oii, /oi, oioy ii?aeueiia aeaenoaea
e iai?aaeaii ia inouanoaeaiea i?e?iaeiiai e ii?aeueiiai niaa?oainoaa,
aeinoe/ue aai a yoii ie?a iaaiciiaeii. Eaio iuoaeny iaiaoeoue e
?ac?aoaiea ia?aaeienia naiae yoeee, ia i?eaaaay e eaeaa Aiaa. Ii aeaeeo
a i?aanoaaiiinoe aeooiaiue enoi/iee ei?aiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey e
iaiiaeaiey /aeiaaea e iauanoaa.

Iinoaiiaea Eaioii i?iaeaiu aaoiiiiiinoe yoeee, ?anniio?aiea yoe/aneiai
eaeaaea, ?aciuoeaiey i i?aeoe/aneii oa?aeoa?a i?aanoaaiiinoe e o. ae.
i?eciathony iaioeaieiui aeeaaeii a oeeinioeth.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Eaio E. O?aeoaou e ienueia, I.: Iaoea, 1980 — 709 n.

2. Eaio E. Ni/eiaiey a oanoe oiiao, I.: 1963 – 1966 a., o.1, 2, 3, 4, 6.

O. A. Aeeoaa/ “E. Eaio: io ?aiieo i?iecaaaeaiee e “E?eoeea /enoiai
?acoia”, I.: Iaoea, 1990 — 136 n.

E. N. Aiae?aaa, A. O. A?eai?ueyi “Oeeinioey Eaioa e nia?aiaiiue
eaeaaeeci”, I.: Iaoea, 1987 — 272 n.

5. I. A. Ae?iaieoeeee “Iiiyoea ii?aee”, I.: Iaoea, 1974 — 388 n.

6. “Eaio e oeeinioey a ?innee”, I.: Iaoea, 1994 — 271 n.

Oeeinioneee neiaa?ue, iiae. ?aae. E. O. O?ieiaa, I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1986 —
590 n.

“Oeeinioey” iiae ?aae. A. I. Eioaiianeiai, ?inoa-ia-Aeiio.: Eieaa, 1995
— 576 n.

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