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IAEAAEAIEA:

Iaeaaeaiea

1

Aaaaeaiea

2

§ 1. Ec aeoaeiu aaeia
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§ 2.1 Neiai i ai?iaea

7

2 Noieueiue ai?iae eiyaeanoaa
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§ 3. Iaaaae e iaoanoaey

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§ 4. Ia neoaeaa ioa/anoao

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1 Cana/iay /a?oa

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2 Noi?iaeaaay neoaeaa

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3 Aeaoeeea noi?iaee

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§ 5. “A eaeia ia Aeueoea ai?iae e ino?ia ?”
14

§ 6. A aiaeiai?ioa enoi?e/aneeo niauoee
17

1 Niooiia a?aiy.

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§ 7. Ai?iae oi?aiaoeaa e ?aianeaiieeia
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§ 8. Eaoiienue a eaiia

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1 Oea?eiaue Aaaaeaiey

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2 Aicianaineee niai?

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Caeeth/aiea

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Eeoa?aoo?a
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Nie?auaiea

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AAAAeAIEA

A iaoa a?aiy aanueia aeooaeueia oaia enoi?e/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey iaeuo
ai?iaeia ?innee, aaaeue eiaiii a aeoaeiea ?innee, a aa na?aeoea,
iaoiaeeony “cieioia ianeaaeea iaoeo i?aaeeia.

Caaea/a ethaiai /aeiaaea nio?aieoue aai e ia?aaeaoue iiaiio iieieaieth.

Oe?iei iuneyuea, a /ai-oi caaeyaeuaathuea aia?aae, oaeaioeeaua o/aiua e
ienaoaee, iiyou e aeo?iaeenou, ooaeiaeieee e e?aaaaaeu, ia?iaeiua
ianoa?a e iieeoe/aneea aeayoaee… naa?aaee e ia?aaeaee naiei iioiieai
o?aaeeoeee, iau/ae, naith eoeueoo?o. Aeey yoie oeaee iie nicaeaaaee
eieae, ea?oeiu, iaiyoieee a?oeoaeoo?u e eneonnoaa.

Nicaeaaay yoio ?aoa?ao, yeniieueciaae eo o?oaeu: eieae, a?oeau.

Ec iao/iie eeoa?aoo?u iiith eniieueciaaeenue ?aaiou Aaaeoneia Ae.A.,
Ai?iiaaaa ?.I., Iaiaaoaeia A.E. , Aeoaiaa E.A. e ae?.

Ec a?oeaiuo aeieoiaioia e eeoa?aoo?u yoi Eiaeooia I., Ie?iiaiei A. e
ae?.

A iaoa?eaeao noaoenoeee eniieueciaaeanue eeoa?aoo?a ?eaeaiaa?a A.I.
Iaca?iaa A.E.

A ?aaioa enneaaeoaony enoi?ey ?acaeoey iaeuo ai?iaeia ?innee ia i?eia?a
ai?iaea “Aeaoe”.

Ouny/o eao noieo Aeaoe ia aa?aaao auno?ie niniu. Iniiaaiiue
i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii a 986 aiaeo i?e eeaaneii eiyca Aeaaeeie?a
Nayoineaaiae/a, ai?iae eae nouanoaothuee aia?aua oiiiyioo a Ieeiiianeie
eaoiiene ca 1146 aiae: “ Eiycue aea Nayoineaa Ieueaiae/ eaea a ?acaiue e
aua ai I/ainea, e a Ooea, e a Aeoea , e a I?iinea e i?eaea a ?acaiue ia
Ieo.”

Iieiaeaiea ia thai-ainoi/iuo ie?aeiao ?onneeo caiaeue, ia a?aieoea
n”Aeeeei iieai” ia ianeieueei aaeia ii?aaeaeeei noaeueao ai?iaea:”
aunoue…caueoa caiea ?onoae”. Iaaaae iieiaoeaa, iaoanoaey
oaoa?i-iiiaieia, aoi?aeaiea e?uineeo e i?aeuineeo iie/eu ia ?ac
i?eaiaeeee ai?iae e caionoaieth, ii ii aiiaue iono?aeaaeny e
iiaeieiaeny.

Eiai oieueei ia iiaeaeaea ca iiiai aaeia iiae naieie noaiaie aeaoeeay
e?aiinoue! Neieueei ?ac aee ia aa aeici?iie aanoiaie aaoia iaaaoiue
eieieie, /oiau aniieioeoue ie?oao aei i?eoiaea iai?eyoaey!

E.A.Aoiei, o/eaoeeny a aeaoeeie aeiiacee, ienae i Aeueoea: ” ai?iae
oiaea ai?aeeeny naiae ae?aaiinoueth e eiae ia oi iieiia i?aai: ii e
ai?yiue aue iaeiei ec naiuo ae?aaieo ?onneeo ai?iaeia, eaaeae n?aaee
aaeeeeo /a?iicaiiuo iieae Iiaenoaiuey ia oie ?ieiaie /a?oa, ca eioi?ie
iaeiaaea i?inoe?aeenue ” caiee aeeeea, iaciaaiua” ,a ai a?aiaia
eiyaeanoa Nocaeaeueneiai e ?ycaineiai i?eiaaeeaaeae e oai aaaeiaeoei
iieioai ?one, /oi, ii neiao e aeaei caoiaeeaoeo iaae iath, ia?aua
aeaeaee ca?aai no?aoiuo ii/iuo e aeiaaiuo iiaea?eu, eie caiaeyaiuo,
ia?auie aeaaaee ciaoue Iineaa i a?yaeouae aaaea e ia?auie eiaeeeenue
einoueie ca iaa”.

N na?aaeeiu XVII aaea Aeaoe ?acaeaaeny eae ai?iae ?aianeaiieeia e
oi?aiaoeaa. Iaicu n oeaaii, ao?ou neioa, iiaeaiaeu n eiaeaaaiiuie e
oi?iuie oiaa?aie iai?aaeythony e Ooea e Iineaa, ia aeaeaeoth
Ieaea-ai?iaeneoth y?ia?eo. Iniaoth neaao aio i?eianei iaoayaeaaiia
ianoa?noai aeaoeeeo e?oaeaaieoe. Aeaoe – aaeeinoaaiiue ai?iae
Eeiaoeeie iaeanoe aeeth/aiiue a nienie ai?iaeia ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee,
eioi?ua ?aniieaaatho oeaiiuie iaiyoieeaie eoeueoo?u, enoi?ee e
a?oeoaeoo?u. Aianoa n Ooeie e ssniie Iieyiie, Ioeaineii e
Nianneei-Eooiaeiiaii, I?eii, Eeaiaie, Eoeeeiaui eaoiienoeaa, ia?aua
aaeuoaee ao?th, iueue e oeaae ec-iiae a?iciuo aceaoneeo oo/, oi iieai,
I?iineii e ?ycaiueth, ii iiaeao noaoue aeai/oaeeiie oo?enoneiai
Na?aa?yiiiai eieueoea ?innee. Caeanue ia ia?ae?anoea aaoiiiaeeueiuo e
aeaeaciuo aei?ia anoue aeey oiai ana oneiaey: ioee/iue
e?aaaaae/aneee iocae, ciaiaieoue e?oaeaaiie i?iiunae , aaeeeieaiiue
eaiaeoaoo, eioa?aniua oaieee i?e?iaeu.

Ana aieueoaa aieiaiea ?anoouaai iioiea oo?enoia i?eaeaeaao eoeueoo?iia
e ooaeiaeanoaaiiia ianeaaeea ai?iaea, oeaeia eeoa?aoo?iia aiacaei a
aeaoeeie ie?oaa. Caeanue Ica?ee Aoieineea, E?iiioiai-Ea?iiioiai
-?iaeiaia eiaiea iooea aaeeeiai iiyoa, O?ouaai- ?iaeeia I.I. I?eoaeia,
Aeaoa?eiiaea- ?iaeiia naei I.Aia/ie, Iaeueia-Ieoaeeiaea – eiaiea
Noaoiae/ae.

A?oeoaeoo?iia ianeaaeea Aeueoea ian/eouaaao ianeieueei aeanyoeia
caia/aoaeueiuo iaiyoieeia. Iaaieueii i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea a?iiaaea
Aicianaineiai niai?a a?oeoaeoi?a E.A. Oiia a enoi?e/aneii oeaio?a ia
E?aniie ieiuaaee. Caiiieiathony noaiu Ciaiaineiai iiianou?y, ?eoi
eoiieia e eieieieai a neeoyoa ai?iaea. Oaieia /oanoai aucuaatho
/oaeaniua aeiieee n aea?aayiiui e?oaeaaii ea?iecia e iaee/ieeia ia
othoiuo oei/eao ai?iaeneiai yae?a, eiathuaai oieeaeueioth ieaie?iaeo
XVIII aaea, eoaea, ii n/anoueth, ia aeioae aoeueaeica? ?aeiino?oeoeee.

I?EIA*AIEss:

1. O?oaieeia A.Ae.,A?oia N.I.,Neeaaa I.O.Aeaoe. Eeiaoeeia eieaeiia
ecaeaoaeuenoai, 1961 a.

2. oai aea.

3. Aoiei E.A. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee a /aou?ao oiiao. I. 1988 a.

§ 1. EC AEOAEIU AAEIA.

I,naaoei naaoeay e oe?anii

oe?aoaia caiey ?onueeay!

Neiai i iiaeaaee ?onneie caiee.

Aeaoe noieo ia aaeeeie ?onneie ?aaieia, a aa /a?iicaiiie iieina, a
aeoa?aaiie eaninoaie. Aai aaia?aoe/aneea eii?aeeiaou: 52°37′ naaa?iie
oe?iou e 38°29′ ainoi/iie aeieaiou. Noa?ia ai?iaeneia yae?i
?aneeioeinue ia iaai?iii eaaii aa?aao Auno?ie Niniu i?e aiaaeaiee a
iaa ?aee Aeaoe eee Aeue/ee.

Ae?aaiee ai?iae ie?oaeai i?eai?iaeaie e neiaiaeaie, aioaaeoeie a
/a?oo nia?aiaiiiai Aeueoea, ii ana aua aeeauo a auoothueo iacaaieyo:
Caoii, A?aaia/, neiaiaeu: Eaineay, *a?iay, Iiianou?neay,
Aeaenaiae?ianeay, ssineay, Eaiaiuey. Aeaaii?eyoiua i?e?iaeiua oneiaey
eaninoaie aeey aeecie ethaeae a aeaoeeii e?aa ecae?aaea i?eaeaeaee
nthaea ?acee/iua ieaiaia. Naeaeaoaeuenoaii oiio – iiiai/eneaiiua
ai?iaeeua a ie?anoiinoyo e ia oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea e a?oeieiae/aneea
iaoiaeee, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea, /oi caeanue ethaee aeeaoo oaea
ianeieueei eao. Yeniaaeeoeey Ai?iiaaeneiai oieaa?neoaoa, a oaeaea
yeniaaeeoeey Eaieia?aaeneiai ioaeaeaiey einoeoooa a?oaieiaee AI NNN? e
Eeiaoeeiai iaeanoiiai e?aaaaae/aneiai iocay a 1960-1961 aiaeao auyaeee
?yae ai?iaeeu ai?u?aneie eoeueoo?u a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io
Aeueoea ii ?aea Ai?aie. Yoa a?oaieiae/aneay eoeueoo?a, iieo/eaoay naia
iacaaiea io naea Ai?u?aa ia Aeiio iiae Ai?iiaaeai, ioe?uea ?yae iiauo
no?aieoe a enoi?ee ainoi/iuo neaayi VII-XI aaeia. Iaeei ec ?aneiiia,
aeaaoee iaoiaeee X-XI aaeia,aue caeiaeai iao/iui nio?oaeieeii AAO
A.Ae.I?yoeiui ii/oe a oeaio?a naea Ieaeiee Ai?aie, iaoiaeyuaainy a
/aou?ao eeeiiao?ao io a?aieoeu nia?aiaiiiai ai?iaea. A ieaeiae /anoe
eoeueoo?iiai neiy caeanue iaia?oaeaiu iaoa?eaeu yiioe a?iicu , a a
aa?oiae – ea?aieea ai?u?aneiai oeia.

Aa?oiaaeiineay yeniaaeeoeey Einoeoooa a?oaieiaee AI NNN? a 1972-1973
aiaeao oaeaea iaia?oaeeea a ?yaea iano a aannaeia Auno?ie Niniu
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey aeaaiaai canaeaiey aeaoeeiai e?ay. O naea Oaeeoea
iaeaeaiu o?aaiaiou neaayineeo ninoaeia XIV aaea, o?aaiaiou ninoaeia
yiioe a?iicu e noaiee aiiuo ninoaeia ai?iaeaoeeie eoeueoo?u.
Ea?aieea aaaoaaneie eoeueoo?u yiioe a?iicu iaia?oaeaia a?oaieiaaie ia
iuno , ia?aciaaiiii A.Niniie e Aeiiii.

Anoue oiiieiaiea i ai?iaeeua e a “Aaiiao?e/aneii niaoeeaeueiii ieaia”
Aeueoea 1779 aiaea. Caiee ia naaa?i- caiaae io Aeaenaiae?ianeie
neiaiaeu, i?eiueathuea e noa?ie ai?iaeneie /a?oa ia o/anoea io Aeue/eea
aei aei?iae ia Iiaineeue , iaicia/aiu ia ieaia eae “aea?aaiy iiae
Oiaeaaui eanii ia ai?iaeeua aeaaeaiea Eaaia Oaaei?iaa , nuia Aoieia, n
i?i/eie aeaaeaeueoeu”.

Ianeaaeoy yoio ?aeii, a?oeoaeoi? Iiainaeueoeaa A.A. iaia?oaeee neaaeu
ae?aaiaai ai?iaeeua a 250 iao?ao ainoi/iaa naiaoi?ii-eaniie oeieu, ia
e?ooii i?aaii aa?aao, n o?ao noi?ii iiuaaaiuo Aeue/eeii. Ai?iaeeua
i/aiue oi?ioi caueuaii n naaa?a e ainoiea eaiueiiii Aeue/eea, n thaa –
aeoaieei ia?aaii, n caiaaea ni noi?iiu *a?ieaiaa aaaeao eaaei
i?ineaaeeaaaiay aei?iaa.

Caeanue oi?ioi i?iniao?eaathony caieyiua aaeu, ii/aa iiae neiai aea?ia
niaea?aeeo iiiai/eneaiiua inoaoee ae?aaiae ea?aieee. Ia ?aniaoaiiie
iiae aea/e i?eeaaathuae e ai?iaeeuo oa??eoi?ee Aeaenaiae?
Aaneeueaae/ nia?ae ianeieueei eeeia?aiiia iaeiieia ea?aie/aneie iinoaeu,
eioi?ua ia?aaeaiu e?aaaaae/aneiio iocath.

Ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui aeaiiui, iieo/aiiui io o/aiuo einoeoooa
a?oaieiaee NNN?, iaoiaeee ioiinyony e “ai?iaeaoeeie eoeueoo?a”, e V
aaeo.

Nieioiia ianeaaeiaaiea oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea e aai ie?oae a ?aaeeona
i?eia?ii 15 ei auyaeei aieaa 60 iaecaanoiuo ?aiaa iaiyoieeia
a?oaieiaee. Oaia?ue eo iauaa /enei i?aauneei oeeo?o 90, ia/eiay io
V-III aaeia aei i.y. ai?iaeaoeeie eoeueoo?u aei 50 ae?aaia?onneeo
iaiyoieeia XII-XV aaeia, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo enoi?e/aneoth
aeinoiaa?iinoue ienueiaiiuo enoi/ieeia i Aeueoea.

A ciia eenoaaiiuo eania ca ianeieueei aaeia- aei iaoae y?u aeeee
oa?i-oeineea ieaiaia ioioieeia e ?uaieiaia. Iie nii?eeanaeenue ni
noaiiuie ei/aaieeaie e inaaeeuie eeiia?eeoeaie, caoai ni neeoaie e
na?iaoaie. A eaninoaie aeeee neaayia ia Aa?oiae Iea – ayoe/e, ii Naeio –
naaa?yia. A ia/aea X aaea n thai-ainoiea ii noaie i?ioee ia/aiaae e
oi?ee, a a XI aaea ia eo ianoi yaeeenue ei/aauey iieiaoeaa. Oaea a XII
aaea ayoe/e niaianoii n naaa?yiaie i?iaeaeioeenue aiec ii Iea e iniiaaee
?ycaineia eiyaeanoai. Aa?oiauea Aeiia auei a?aieoeae yoiai
aeaeaeaiey neaayi ia naaa?i-ainoie. Ayoe/e caieiaeenue caieaaeaeeai e
ioioie, aia?iauie aiiaie a aa?oiaueyo Iee e Auno?ie Niniu. Aieueoia
oicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea aeey iaoeo i?aaeeia eiaee eeiiaua “ai?oiua” eana.
A aeoieao noa?uo aea?aaueaa naeeeenue aeeeea i/aeu. Nai? iaaea e ainea
– ai?oie/anoai – auei aaaeiaeoei i?iiuneii.

A XI aaea iieiaoeu, iiei?eaoea ia/aiaaia e /anoe/ii niaoaaoeany n
ieie, ii ycueai noaiiuo caeunei a eaninoaie aeioiaeeee aei I?iinea e
noaaeee naie “aaaee” ia ?ynneii iiea. Iaaeaeo inaaeeuie iaeoaoaeyie
eaniuo iaeanoae e ei/aaieeaie eiaueueiuo noaiae a eaninoaiiie ciia oea
iiiaiaaeiaay ai?ueaa ca oaeiaiua caiee, i?eieiaaoay /anoi
ae?aiaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

Neaayineie eieiiecaoeee aeaoeeeo caiaeue niinianoaiaaea iiaaaea
Eeaaneiai eiycy Nayoineaaa Eai?aae/a iaae oaca?aie. A 964-965 aiaeao
Eai?ue iioae ia Aieao e ?aca?iiee oaca?neee eaaaiao, eioi?iio ayoe/e
ieaoeee aeaiue. Aeaoeeee e?ae ia?aoae iiae aeanoue eeaaneeo eiycae.
Aeaeeii, a yoio ia?eiae e auea iino?iaia aeaoeeay e?aiinoue ia
thai-ainoi/iuo a?aieoeao ?onneeo caiaeue.

I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi ai?iae eae noieeoea oaeaeueiiai eiycy iniiaai a
986 aiaeo i?e eeaaneii eiyca Aeaaeeie?a Nayoineaaiae/a, iinea aeaoo
aai iioiaeia ia ayoe/ae a aa?oiauey Aeiia e Iee.

Eaoiienue iiaanoaoao: a 981 aiaeo eiycue Aeaaeeie? “Ayoe/e iiaaaee e
aiceiaee ia iy aeaiue io ieoaa yeiaea ioaoe aai eiae”, a a 982 aiaeo:
“Ca?aoeoany ayoe/e e eaea ia iy Aeaaeeie? e iiaaaee ay aoi?ia” ,a iioii
ii “ia/a noaaeoe ai?iaeu”.

Aeaoeeea eiycuey e aeaoeeia oaeaeueiia eiyaeanoai aia?aua a
enoi?e/aneeo aeieoiaioao oiiieiaaony a eiioea ia?aie iieiaeia XII aaea.
Ai?iae aue iii?ie aeey oicyenoaaiiiai inaiaiey aiaaouo caiaeue,
caueoie aeey naeueneeo aeeoaeae ie?oae.

§ 2.1 NEIAI I AI?IAeA.

Ai?iaeie ia?a/aiue Aeueoeii, iono?iai ia aunieii aa?aao Auno?ie Niniu
iiae caueoie aonoiai eenoaaiiiai eana. Eaoiienue oiae/eaaao ia yoii
yieciaea. Ia ecaanoai e iniiaaoaeue ai?iaea. Eeoue, ieacaaoenue ia
iooe Nayoineaaa Ieaaiae/a, a 1146 aiaeo iaeueeioe Aeaoe eae au
ieiioiaeii aia?aua iiae ia?ii eaoiienoea.

?onneea eaoiiene oiiieiatho i iino?ieea iiiai/eneaiiuo “ai?iaeia”,
“ai?iaeoeia”, “e?aieae” e “ino?iaia” ai?acaei /aua , /ai i ae?oaeo
nii?oaeaieyo. Iiiaea eiicaioeu, iiauaaaoea ia iaoe?iuo i?inoi?ao ?one,
ioia/aee aa iiiaiethaeiua e aiaaoua ai?iaea.

Aicieeiiaaiea, noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea ai?iaeia ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeeee
oi?ie?iaaiea auniei?acaeoie iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u Ae?aaiae
?one.

Ae?aaia?onneee ai?iae noaiiaeony neiaeiui e iiiaiia?aciui nioeeaeueiui
i?aaieciii. A iai nin?aaeioi/eaathony ?aianea, oi?aiaey ii yaeyaony
eoeueoo?iui e ?aeeaeiciui oeaio?ii, e?aiinoueth e aaeieieno?aoeaiui
oeaio?ii ie?oae eee eiyaeanoaa.

?aniieaaaeenue ai?iaeneea iinaeaiey n o/aoii anoanoaaiiie caueou ia
e?oouo aa?aaao ?ae, ioeoaea ioe?uaaeenue e?aneaua aeaeu ia
ie?oaeathuoth ianoiinoue.

?aea aeaaaea aiciiaeiinoue ?uaieianoaa, auea oaeiaiui iooai
ia?aaeaeaeaiey .Iia aea – aaaeiue iai?iieoaeueiue ?oaaae.

Aeaaiui yeaiaioii ai?iaea auea “ai?iaeueaa” ,ia?aaeaeaiea, e?aiinoiua
noaiu. eciaeeea eania ia ?one aeaeaei aea?aai iniiaiui no?ieoaeueiui
iaoa?eaeii i?e aicaaaeaiee ai?iaeia.

Ienueiaiiua, ecia?aceoaeueiua e a?oaieiae/aneea enoi/ieee aiai?yo i oii
, /oi iaeaieaa ae?aaiae oi?iie aea?aayiiie e?aiinoe auea ia?aaea ec
aa?oeeaeueii a?uouo e caino?aiiuo ia aa?oo a??aai: “oui”, “/anoieie”.

Ia?aiia/aeueii ai?iaeneie oui ia eiae aaoai e aeinoeaae auniou 5-6
iao?ia. A noaiao ia o?iaia ?inoa /aeiaaea i?i?acaeenue aieieoeu.

Aeoiaaony eiaiii oaeay noaia iai?aaeeaaea ae?aaiaa aei na?aaeeiu XII
aaea e noa?ia( XII-XIV aa) ai?iaeeua Aeueoea.

?acaeoeai yoie oi?iu e?aiinoiuo nii?oaeaiee noaee ouiiaua, ino?iae iua
noaiu n ianoeeii aeey aa?oiaai aiy.

Anoue iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi n na?aaeeiu XIV aei eiioea XVI aaea
noa?ue Aeaoe a ?aeiia iuiaoiae E?aniie ieiuaaee aue iai?iaeai oaeei
ia?acii.

Iiyaeaiea iaiano?aeueiiai i?oaeey ( eiiaoe XIV aaea), e iniaaiii
a?oaea?ee, aucuaaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eciaiaiee eiino?oeoeee e?aiinoae.

Noaiu eo noaee iaae?aoueny ec iinoaaeaiiuo ai?eoue n?oaia- “ai?iaeai”
eee “oa?ania”.

?oaeaiiue ai?iae aue aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiui e iaaeaaeiui eiaeaia?iui
nii?oaeaieai.

. 2. NOIEUeIUE AI?IAe EIssAEANOAA

A aiae ia?aiai eaoiieniiai oiiieiaiey Aeaoe aue oeaio?ii oaeaeueiiai
eiyaeanoaa, iaoiaeeaoaainy a aannaeueiie caaeneiinoe eiycy
*a?ieaianeiai. A Aeueoea, eae e a ninaaeieo Eeaiao, eiyaeeee eiycuey
?th?eeiae/e /a?ieaianeie aaoae.

?iaeineiaiee- ae?aaiyy eieaa ?iaenoaaiiuo naycae ?onneeo eiycae e
aiy? a naiae ia?aie /anoe iacuaaao aeaoo eiycae Aeaoeeeo:
Aeaaeeie?a ss?ineaaiae/a – nuia ss?ineaaa Nayoineaaiae/a e Aiae?ay
?inoeneaaiae/a – nuia ?inoeneaaa Aeaaeaeiae/a aeaaeaaoeo Aeueoeii a
eiioea ia?aie iieiaeiu XII aaea. A 1144 aiaeo Aeaaeeie? ss?ineaaiae/
Aeaoeeee aeaieeny ia aei/a?e Ineianeiai eiycy Anaaieiaea Inoeneaae/a.
?iaeiay nano?a aeaoeeie eiyaeie auea caioaeai ca aaeeeei eiycai
Aeaaeeie?ii Aeaaeaeiae/ai *a?ieaianeei.

Iii?iaoai ninoaaeoue aaiaaeiae/aneia aea?aai ii eiathuaiony aea?aao
Nayoineaaiae/ae. Ieacuaaaony, /oi aeey ia?auo aeaoeeeo eiycae ieoa a iai
eiaaony.

Ec aaiaaeiae/aneiai aea?aaa oi?ioi aeaeii, /oi ana aeaoeeea eiycuey,
e oiiieiaaiua, e i?aaeiieaaaaiua, iaoiaeyony a i/aiue aeeceii
?iaenoaa, i?e/ai caoaaouaay anaai eeoue aeaa iieieaiey. Iai?eia?,
eiycue Aiae?ae i?eoiaeeony Aeaaeeie?o ss?ineaaiae/o ieaiyiieeii. A
Nayoineaa Ieueaiae/, eioi?ue oae oaea/ii i?ioae /a?ac Aeaoe a 1146
aiaeo, /oi eaoiienaoe inoaaee ia?aia oiiieiaiea i ai?iaea, e Aeaaeeie?
ss?ineaaiae/ auee aeaith?iaeiuie a?aoueyie.

A eiioea XII aaea Aeaoeeia eiyaeanoai aoiaeeo a ninoaa aaeeeiai
eiyaeanoaa ?ycaineiai. Aeaoeeea caiee auee a XII-XIV aaeao
e?aeieie a thai-ainoi/iuo i?aaeaeao ?one. Iie i?inoe?aeenue i?eia?ii aei
?aee Aieueoie Ai?iiu e neeyiey Ai?iiaaea e Aeiia. Ii naiei ?acia?ai
Aeaoeeia eiyaeanoai ?aaiyeinue ?acia?ai nia?aiaiiie Aieeaiaeee eee
Aaeueaee.

§ 3. IAAAAE E IAOANOAEss.

Ae?aiaoe/aneay noaeueaa Aeueoea ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo aaeia
ii?aaeaeyeanue aai ianoiiieiaeaieai. THai-ainoi/iay a?aieoea ?onneeo
caiaeue i?ioiaeeea ii Auno?ie Ninia. Ca Niniie ia/eiaeinue “Aeeeia
iiea”, aaea oicyeie/aee ei/aaieee: ia/aiaae, iieiaoeu, oaoa?i-iiiaieu.
Ii ia oieueei a?aieoea ii?aaeaeyea iianiinoue. Aeaoe e Eeaiu auee
iino?iaiu ia oi?iuo aei?iaao iaaaaia ei/aaieeia. Yoe aei?iae, eee
naeiu, oeyoe – Io?aaneee, Ecthineee, Eaeueieonneee – ia?anaeaee
I?eianei-Aeaoeeee e?ae n thaa ia naaa?. Eiaiii ii iei ei/aaua i?aeu
iai?aaeyee naieo eiiieeia a ?onneea caiee.

Enoi?eeai ecaanoai oeaeue ?yae iaaaaia.

1155 a. I?aeu iieiaoeaa iaoeuioee ia aeaoeeea caiee, niaeaee ai?iae.
Ieaiiua ?onneea aeaiueiu, iiaeaiiyaiua iieiaaoeeeie ieaoeaie ,
aacee, ai?yaoenue a oaeaae, iaa?aaeaiiia “iiaaiuie” aeia?i. Oao, eoi
aeeaui aeioiaeee aei iieiaaoeeie caiee, i?iaeaaaee a ?aanoai . *a?ac
aiae iaaaa iiaoi?eeny.

1166 a. Iiaia iaiaaeaiea iieiaoeaa. Aeaoeeay ae?oaeeia oa?ieo
ii?aaeaiea. Eiycue Aiae?ae ?inoeneaaiae/ Aeaoeeee ieaiai. Aiiaue ai?eo
ai?iae. Au?o/eee ?ycaioeu: ianoeaee ai?ia a noaie, ?acaeee,
inaiaiaeeee ieaiiuo aeue/ai aianoa n eiycai.

1170 a. Niiaa iieiaoeu iiae Aeueoeii. Iiaua iiaea?u e ?aci?aiey. E
aiiaue iinea iaaaaia noo/aee oiii?u, iiaeieiaeny aeui ie?iuo i/aaia,
ai?iae iono?aeaaeny, ioaeae.

1237 a. E?iaaaia iaoanoaea Aaouy. Iie/eua oaoa?i-iiiaie iaiai e ia/ii
i?ioeenue ii ?onneie caiea. Aeuiyueany iaiaeeua e a?oaeu iina/aiiuo.
AEeaua oiaaea caaeaeiaaee niieienoaeth ia?oauo.

1380 a. Iaiae oie/oiaeee aeaoeeee e?aieue. Aeaoeeee eiycue Oaaei? ni
naiae ae?oaeeiie oniae oeoe e Eieiiia, aaea niaaeeieeny n aieneaie
Aeieo?ey Eaaiiae/a.

1382 a. I?ioei anaai aeaa aiaea iinea Eoeeeianeie aeoau, a ia Iineao
/a?ac aeaoeeea caiee eaeoo i?aeu Oiooaiuoa, oaia Cieioie I?aeu.

N iieiaeiu XV aaea Aeaoeeia eiyaeanoai ia?aoiaeeo a aio/eio Iineau, a
aeaoeeea eiycuey e i?aaeoaee anooiatho ia neoaeao iineianeiio
ainoaea?th.

Iie noaiiayony aiaaiaeaie, noieueieeaie, ?acee/iuie i?eaeai?iuie e
neoaeeeuie /eiaie.Aiaaiaeu a Aeaoe oaia?ue oaea aieueoath /anoeth
i?enueathony ec Iineau. Iineianeia ainoaea?noai aeaeeo a Aeueoea
aaaeiue iii?iue e no?aoaae/aneee ioieo. Aeey aai caueou iinueaao ?aoiuo
ethaeae e i?oaeea.

N 1452 aiaea ianooiaao ioiineoaeueiay ia?aaeuoea ia 60-70 eao io
iaaaaia noaiiyeia, ?anoao iinaaeneia ianaeaiea, oe?aieyaony ai?iae.
Ia/eiaaony ?aniaoea /a?iicaiiie ieiaei?iaeiie oeaeeiu.

1502 a. Oaoa?neea eiiieee Iaiaee Aa?ay, ai aeaaa n nuiiaueyie oaia,
iaiaaeatho ia Aeaoe, Eaeoao, Aeaenei.

1533 a. Eiiieoea Naei Ae?ay ia?aoiaeeo A. Ninio , ii iieo/ea ioii? io
aieiia iineianeiai eiycy Aaneeey III, aaaeeo a noaiue.

E iinoiyiiui iaaaaai ei/aaieeia aeiaaaeeenue iiaua eniuoaiey. N
1565 ii 1572 aiaeu ia aeaoeeeo caieyo aieiae e yieaeaiey – “ii?iaia
iiaao?ea”. Aee eioaaeae, niaae, eioae, eiaee e eaaaaeo. Ethaee eae oaie,
eieuoeaiua aao?ii, oie?aee io enoiuaiey. AEooeay oeoeia a ai?iaea.
Ii/oe an? ianaeaiea auia?ei.

Iaeaieaa no?aoiia iionoioaiea Aeaoe ia?aaeee aaniith 1592 a.
Iaanneeaiiua aieiaeii, yieaeaieae, aani?a?uaiuie iaaaaaie, aeue/aia ia
niiaee ieacaoue aeinoieiiai nii?ioeaeaiey. I?aea Oaoe Ae?ay, eae
oaanoaee oaoa?u, ia iaiaaeay naaee, caa?aea a ieai iaanneeaaoeo
aeeoaeae, i?aaeaa ai?iae iaith.

Iaaniieiaiiia neo/eaoeiny ian/anoueai, iineianeia i?aaeoaeuenoai
ia/aei i?eieiaoue ia?u ii eni?aaeaieth iieiaeaiey, oe?aieaieth thaeiie
a?aieoeu. E e?uineiio oaio iiaoae iinie Aacia?acia n caaeaieai
aueoieoue ieaiiuo “neieueei aoaea aiciiaeii”.

O ian ia iiiai aeinoiaa?iuo naaaeaiee i oii, eae aeeee ei?aiiua
aeue/aia , a oneiaeyo iinoiyiiie iianiinoe, /anouo iaaaaia, a?aaaaeae,
iiaea?ia, oaiaea a oyaeeie iieii ?iaeiuo e aeeceeo.

Ai?iaeneea oe?aieaiey auee iii?ie ianoiiai ianaeaiey. Iiae eo caueoo
no?aieeenue oe?uoueny aeeoaee ie?oae e noa? e ieaae. Oa, eiai canoeaaee
a?anieio, oe?uaaeenue a eaniuo /auiaao. Eana aie?oa Aeueoea auee a
eciaeeee.

N aeeii oiineeenue ia naieo eiiyo ?acaieieee-thaeieiau e aiiaue
i?eoiaeeeinue aeue/aiai iaiyoue aiaaua oiii?u ia ieioie/iua e no?ieoue
iiaeae?iua aeeeeua, ainnoaiaaeeaaoue ii?ooaiiua e iiaeiiaeyoue
caueoiua e e?aiinoiua nii?oaeaiey.

Ca aeanyoue aaeia Aeaoe iiiai ?ac, aeaaea oeaiie nianoaaiiiai
nouanoaiaaiey, i?aa?aaeaeae iooue caaiaaaoaeyi, ono?aieythueiny ia iaoo
?iaeeio.

§ 4. IA NEOAEAA IOA*ANOAO.

1. Cana/iay /a?oa.

Iinoiyiiua aeanoieea iaaaae oaoa?neeo i?ae ia ?onneea caiee auioaeeee
au?aaioaoue oeaeoth nenoaio iai?iiu thaeiuo a?aieoe. Nenoaia iai?iiu
neaaaeanue ec noi?iaeaaie eaca/ueae neoaeau, iinaeaiee neoaeeeiai
ethaea , oe?aie?iiuo ai?iaeia, auaeaeioouo a noaiue, cana/iie /a?ou n
?aeie Ieie.

N iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai canaee eee caa?aaeaeaiey ec noaieia iiaaeaiiuo
ia eaniie iiooea, a i?iaaeao iaaeaeo ia?aeaneaie e ia eaniuo aei?iaao,
auee ia ?one, a ianoao aiaaouo eanii, caueoiuie nii?oaeaieyie. Cana/iay
/a?oa Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa auea aeieaia?aiaiiui e ia?eiaee/anee
aiciaiiaeyaiui nii?oaeaieai. E?iia eaniuo caaaeia a ia? aoiaeeee
anoanoaaiiua i?aiyonoaey – ?aee, aieioa, ia?aae, ica?a.Iie
/a?aaeiaaeenue n iieaauie oe?aieaieyie, caieyiuie aaeaie e ?aaie ia
aaceaniii o/anoea, /anoieieii – /anoeeii, iaaeieaaie, ino?iaeiie noaiie.

*a?oa oyioeanue io ?ycaie ia Ooeo, aa?oithth Ieo i?e aiaaeaiee Oiu,
Aae?a a AEecae?o. A iianiuo ianoao iia oaeaaeaaeanue, oo?aeaaeanue, a
eiiaaea e oea a /aou?a ia?aeeaeueiuo eeiee. Eeiey iai?iiu io noaiiiai
ia?aaa niaiaaeaea n oie iieinie, ia eioi?ie ean niia?ie/ae ni noaiueth.
Noaiiua iieinu caieiaee ia oieueei oaia?aoiaa /a?iicaiuea, iie
aeinoeaaee Eaeoae, Aeaeneia, Na?iooiaa, Eaoe?u, ?ycaie, iiaeoiaeeee
e aa?aaai Iee ia a? n?aaeiai oa/aiee, oceeie ycueaie i?iieeaee e
Nocaeaeth, Aeaaeeie?o, TH?ueaao Iieueneiio. Ean, ia?aciaaaoee o?e
e?oiiuo ianneaa – A?yineee, Iaua?neee e Ii?aeianeee, ycueaie
i?iaeaeaaeny e thao aaeieue aa?oiaai oa/aiey Aeiia,Ai?iiaaea, ?ynu,
?annuiaeny aan/eneaiiuie ino?iaaie ii aa?oiae Iea, Cooa, Auno?ie Ninia,
E?aneaie Ia/a.

A XII aaea noaiiaeony caiaoai ?yae iai?iieoaeueiuo ioieoia,
auaeaeioouo a noaiue *a?ieaiaui e ?ycaiueth: Ioeaine, Ooea, Eieoane,
Aeaoe,?inoeneaaeue.

Ii ia?a oe?aieaiey e oeaio?aeecaoeee ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa Iineaa
auee iiae/eiaiu Ieaeaai?iaeneia, Io?iineia, ?ycaineia eiyaeanoaa.
Iineaa caaioeeanue ia oe?aieaiee naieo thaeiuo a?aieoe io iinoiyiiuo
iaaaaia oaoa? e iaaaeoeaa. Aieueooth ?ieue caeanue ea?aee “oe?aeiiua”
ai?iaea, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia thaeiie ie?aeia iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa. A
eo /enea aue Aeaoe.

A eiioea XVI – ia/aea XVII aaeia ieii/aoaeueii noi?ie?iaaeanue nenoaia
iai?iieoaeueiuo oe?aieaiee thaeiuo a?aieoe. Oe?aeiiua ai?iaea ii naiaio
iieiaeaieth a iai?iia Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa ?acaeaeyeenue ia
iyoue naiaia?aciuo eeiee: e ia?aie aioo?aiiae eeiee ioiineeenue Eieiiia,
Na?iooia, Eaeoaa. Aoi?oth ninoaaeyee ?ycaineea ai?iaea. A eo /enea auee
Ieoaeeia, I?iine, Aeaieia, Eicaeuene, I?ae. E iei n caiaaea
i?eiueaea o?aouey eeiey Naaa?neeo ai?iaeia: A?yine, Iiaai?iae
Naaa?neee, Iooeaeue,Noa?iaeoa. Ia?aae yoie eeieae auee noaiiua
ai?iaea: Ai?iiaae, Aeaoe, Eaaaaeyiue, Aaeoeee, Aaeai?iae. Iniaoth
a?oiio ninoaaeyee ieciaua ai?iaea Ano?aoaiue, Oea?eoeui, Naia?a.
Aa?ieciiu yoeo ai?iaeia, eae eaaeaueo ia ia?ae??noeao aei?ia, a
caaeneiinoe io iianiinoe iaaaaia auee ?acee/iu ii /eneaiiinoe. Ii
?ac?yaeiie ?iniene 1616 aiaea a Ooea auei 640 /aeiaae ai?iaeiaiai
aienea, a Eaeoaa – 2109, a Ioeainea – 971, a Eeaiao – 824, a Aeueoea –
1969 /aeiaae.

2. NOI?IAEAAAss NEOAEAA.

Naie noaiiua aiaaou?neea noi?iaeaaua canoaau ainiaaaea a aueeiao au?
Eeaaneay ?onue. Ieii ieo “iaoioith ieeoi ia i?ioaaeeaae, na?ue caa?ue
ia i?i?uneeaae, ioeoea /??iue ai?ii ia i?ieaoae”. Ai?ueaa n iaoeneii
ei/aaieeia iie?aeanue ia ia iaeio ee/ioth oaeaeue aueeiiuo aiaaou?ae.
Iia o?aaiaaea i?icae/aneie ?aaiou e?anoueyieia – eieiienoa,
inaaeaaaoaai caiaeueiua oaiaeuey, oiai ?aoay, ca eioi?ui niaoee ni
naiae ae?oaeeiie Aieueaa. Yoio ?aoae aeieaeai aue ciaoue i
i?eaeeaeathuaeny a?aaeaneie iianiinoe e aia?aiy noaoue ia caueoo naiae
caiee.

Noi?iaeaaay neoaeaa ia/eiaeanue n ia?aiai ai?aey e caeai/eaaeanue
ia?aiai aeaeaa?y. Noaieoeu iaiyeenue /a?ac eaaeaeua 15 aeiae, ?aaea
neoaeaa aaniaiii i?iaeieaeaeanue ianyoe. Iieiaeaiea i?aaeoniao?eaaei
aiciauaiea oua?aa ca iioa?e ia noi?iaeaaie neoaeaa a neo/aa iaiaaeaiey
oaoa? e ” ?acaiia noaieoeu”.

Ia oieueei thaeiua ?oaaaee Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa i?eoeinue
caueuaoue aeue/aiai. A XVI aaea aeaoeeea ae?oaeeiu i?eieiaee o/anoea a
ai?ueaa ?onneiai ia?iaea ia caiaaea n eeoiaoeaie e eeaiineeie ?uoea?yie.
A 1512- 1513 aiaeao ai aeaaa n eiycai Iao?ii Aeaoeeei iie aiaaaee a
ia?aaeiaii iieeo eaaie ?oee oea?y Aaneeey.

1519 aiae. Aiaaiaeu Aaneeee Aiaeoiia, eiycue Aeaoeeee Canaeei
i?enooieee e Aeoaaneo, Iieioeeo.

Iniai ioee/eeenue aeue/aia a caueoa ai?iaea Eaaa?aeaia. Eae iiaanoaoao
Ea?aicei:”Eiycue Eaai Ieoaeeiae/ Aeaoeeee e aeai?yiei Aaeoaa n ai?noueth
ethaeae, inaaeaeaiiua a Eaaa?aeaia ?eaeneeie iaioeaie e eeoianeei
aiaaiaeith, ia eiay oeaaa, eiay oieueei aeaeaci e ii?io, iie aeeenue,
eae aa?ie, a oa/aiea ianyoea; ieoaeenue eioaaeeiui iynii, eiaeaie e
naiei ioaeanoaii, naiei oa?iaieai iiaaaeeee iai?eyoaey; ii oo?e, inoaaea
iiiaeanoai o?oiia iiae noaiaie”.

Caeeth/aiea ie?a n ?a/ueth Iiniieeoie Eaai IV ii?o/ee eiycth Aeieo?eth
Iao?iae/o Aeaoeeiio e ia/aoieeo ?iiaio Aaneeueaae/o Aeo??iao. Ia?aaiai?u
n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie Noaoaia Aaoi?ey ia/aeenue a aeaeaa?a 1581 aiaea , a
15 yiaa?y 1582 aiaea caeeth/?i ie? a aea?aaia Eeaa?iaa Ai?a. ?a/ue
Iiniieeoay iaycaeanue i/enoeoue ieeoie?iaaiiua ?onneea ai?iaea – Aaeeeea
Eoee, Oiei, Caaiei/uea e ae?oaea n oacaeaie.

Aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea oniaoe Eaaia A?iciiai, acyoea Eacaie e Ano?aoaie,
no?ieoaeuenoai e?aiinoae ia Oa?aea, ?aca?ii a 1572 aiaeo E?uineie i?aeu
o noai Iineau nicaeaee aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey aica?auaiey thaeiuo
caiaeue. A aeoaeiao oae iacuaaaiiai aeeeiai iiey aicieeaee ana iiaua e
iiaua aieueiua eaca/uee iinaeaiey. Eaca/uee noaieoeu iiyaeeenue ia
Ieaeiae Aieaa e a aannaeia Aeiia e Naaa?neiai Aeiioea. Eacaee
iinaeeeenue ia sseea, E?aeca, e Oa?aea, ia Ieaeiai Aeiio ca nioie a??no
io iia?aie/iuo cana/iuo /a?o.

Iaaeaynue ni a?aiaiai eniieueciaaoue neeu eacaeia aeey ai?ueau n
oaoa?aie, iineianeia i?aaeoaeuenoai aieiaoaeueii neaaeeei ca aieueiie
eacaoeeie eieiiecaoeeae. Auei ia/aoi ianooieaiea a aeoaue noaiae. A
1585 – 1586 aiaeao auea iino?iaia e?aiinoue Ai?iiaae aeec aiaaeaiey
iaeiiei?iiie ?aee a Aeii e ainnoaiiaeaia e?aiinoue Eeaiu ia aaaeiii
ia?ae??noea aeaoo oaoa?neeo oeyoia – Io?aaneiai e Eaeueieonneiai.
Ainoaea?noaaiiay iai?iieoaeueiay eeiey ia?aaeaeioeanue e thao.

Ia aeeaeieo iiaenooiao e noaiiui ?oaaaeai a 1592- 1593 aiaeao auee
iino?iaiu Aaeai?iae, Ineie, Aaeoeee. A oa aea aiaeu oaeoe/anee
caiiai aicaaaeai Aeaoe. A 1599 aiaeo iniiaaia e?aiinoue Oea??a –
Ai?enia o aiaaeaiey Ineiea a Naaa?neee Aeiiaoe.

Aeey canaeaiey iiauo e?aiinoae ia ainoaea?aao neoaeao i?eaeaeaeinue
oaeaea e?anoueyineia ianaeaiea thaeiuo oacaeia ?innee. Aaniie 1592
aiaea i?iaiaeeeny iaai? a Aeaoe. A a?oeaao nio?aieeanue ia?aienea
iaaeaeo iinieueneei i?eeacii e aeaoeeeie aiaaiaeaie ii iiaiaeo yoiai
iaai?a. Ia neoaeao a?aee ia?i/iuo e?anoueyi, ia eiaaoeo oyaeiai
iaaeaea, a oaeaea e?anoueyi “cao?aaaoieeia” – ac?ineuo nuiiaae,
ieaiyiieeia, cyoue?a, oyaeiauo e?anoueyi.

I?EIA*AIEss:

1. Neiai i iieeo Eai?aaa. “Ecai?iee.” Aeaeeioaea anaie?iie eeoa?aoo?u.

2. Ea?aicei I.I. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai 12-oiiiia ecaeaiea.

3.AEAOeEEA NOI?IAEE.

?aaiou ii ainnoaiiaeaieth Aeueoea a 1592 aiaeo oee iiae io?aiie
noi?iaeae, auneaiiuo ec ai?iaea. Oaea 29 ethey 1592 aiaea a Iineao auea
i?eneaia ?inienue aeaoeeei noi?iaeai io aeaoeeiai aiaaiaeu eiycy Aiae?ay
Caaieai?iaeneiai e aieiau Eaaia Iyniiai. A iae niiauaaony i iacia/aiee 9
noi?iae, ?aciauaiiuo aiec e aaa?o ii Auno?ie Ninia, e ca Niniith a
noaiue a??no ia ni?ie io ai?iaea.

Ianaiea noi?iaeaaie neoaeau auei naycaii n aieueoei ?eneii e /anouie
iioa?yie. Iineianeia i?aaeoaeuenoai iuoaeinue aiciauaoue o?ii oao
,eoi auacaeae ia aeici?iua noaieoeu. A 1954 aiaeo auoae niaoeeaeueiue
oeac oea?y O?aei?a Eaaiiae/a i aeaeiaaiee ca oauoee a noi?iaeaaie
neoaeaa.

Iinea ieii/aiey “nioou” Aeaoe aiiaue aunoaaeyao naie aeici?u ia iooyo
oaoa?neeo iaaaaia. Naaaeaiey i i?eaeeaeaiee oaoa? auno?i ia?aaeaaaeenue
a Ooeo e Iineao ii naiaia?aciie ynoaoaoa.

E?aiinoue auea oeaio?ii noi?iaeaaie neoaeau. Ia aaoiyo, ia ai?iaeneeo
noaiao aeue/aia ianee iinoiyiiue ea?aoe. Io?aiyeenue iaeaieaa aaaeiua
nii?oaeaiey e aioo?e e?aiinoe. ?aaeeon noi?iaeaaie neoaeau aiae io
aiaea ?anoe?yeny, naeaeaaynue ia tha.

Noi?iaeaaay neoaeaa Aeueoea auea oanii naycaia ni noi?iaeaauie
neoaeaaie Ai?iiaaea, Aeaieiaa, Ioeainea e ae?oaeo e?aiinoae. A
aeieoiaioao niaea?aeaony eioa?aniua naaaeaiey i oiiia?aoee aeaoeeiai
e?ay /aou??onioeaoiae aeaaiinoe.

Aiaeec aeieoiaioia iieacuaaao, /oi Aeaoe aea?aeae iia?aie/ioth iai?iio
io oaoa?neeo iaaaaia ia o/anoea ieiei naieaeanyoe eeeiiao?ia ii o?iioo
e aei ni?iea a aeoaeio, a?oaeueth naiae cae?uaay iiaenooiu e Iineaa.
I.?eaeaiaa?, iaeei ec ia?auo enoi?eeia ai?iaea, iiae/a?eioe: “N iieiui
aeaaiaiaaieai, i?aeeiiyynue iaae i?aoii i?aaeeia, Aeaoe n ai?aeinoueth
iiaeao neacaoue, /oi ii, noiy ia ie?aeia caiee ?onneie, ioneoaeee naiaio
ioa/anoao aeieaoth, o?oaeioth neoaeao, iieioth aan/eneaiiuo e
iaaica?aoiuo aea?oa”.

I?EIA*AIEss:

11. ?eaeaiaa? A.I. Iaoa?eae aeey enoi?ee e noaoenoeee a. Aeueoea.
I?ae, Aoaa?ineay oeiia?aoey, 1865 a. (AEI).

§ 5. ” A EAEIA IA AEUeOeA AI?IAe E INO?IA ?”

“Iaii/ii Eaaio ai?iaea e ino?iaa

oaaaeoe, n eioi?iai ianoa i?e-

aiae, /oiau a inaaeiia a?aiy a

ai?iaea e ino?iaa neaeaoe auei

aano?aoii.”

Oeaciay a?aiioa ia Aeaoe

1592 a.

A 1592 aiaeo aeaaeeie?neee ianoa? ai?iaeiaiai aeaea Eeuey Eaoa?eiei,
eioi?ue iinea i/a?aaeiiai ?ac?ooaiey ai?iaea aue iineai n eiycai
Aiae?aai Caaieai?iaeneei ” ia Aeaoe aeey ai?iaeiaua e noi?iaeiua niaou”,
aeieeaaeuaae a naiae /aeiaeoiie oea?th Oaaei?o Eaaiiae/o, /oi ” ii aea
e ai?iae e ino?ia niaoee e iiae ai?iae e iiae ino?ia ianoi caiye”.

Iineaaeiea neiaa ec a?oeaiiai aeieoiaioa iaoaeeeaaee ia aii?in:” A
aaea aea noiye Aeaoe ?aiaa aei 1592 aiaea ?”

Yoio aii?in iineoaeee oie/eii e iieneai noa?iai aeaoeeiai ai?iaeeua,
iaiyoue i eioi?ii, e niaeaeaieth, oaea noa?eanue a iieieaieyo aeue/ai.

Aaoi?u ia?aoeeenue e o?aiyueiny a a?oeaao aeieoiaioai e ieaiai
ai?iaea, eco/eee ienueiaiiua enoi/ieee n oeaeueth iaeoe naaaeaiey i
noa?ii ai?iaeeua , oiiieiaiea i eioi?ii aia?aua iaia?oaeeea enoi?ee
a?oeoaeoo?u A. A. Aeoa?iaa a iaaeaauo eieaao Aeueoea ia/aea XVII aaea.
Auee iaoo?ii ianeaaeiaaiu oeacaiiua e?aaaaaeaie i?aaeiieaaaaiua ianoa ia
Eioeeiie ai?a a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ai?iaea, ia naaa?i-caiaaeiie
ie?aeia, a *a?iie neiaiaea. Iienee aeaee naie ?acoeueoaou.
Iaiaeiie?aoiua oiiieiaiey i noa?ii ai?iaeeua auee iaeaeaiu a a?oeaiuo,
ieaie?iai/iuo e eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeao.

Ca 1628-1629 aa. anoue caienue a “ioeaciuo eieaao”, /oi a aeaoeeii
noaio “aea?aaee” io ?aee Aeue/eea o?e iieyiu: Nacueeii-Iiiiai, oiae
Eaieeii eee Oaeeii e ssaeiai ioaeaiu Oaaei?ii Ai?yoeineei oiio aea
iiianou?th, aaea “eaoiai Iienae n a?aoath ono?iee a eaniie /aua ia
oae iacuaaaiie eaiaiiie ai?a eee noa?ii ai?iaeeua ia/oi a?iaea
iiianou?neiai neeoa.” A 1689 aiaeo iiianou?ue aeieaeai aue onooieoue
naie neeo e naie caiaeueiua o/anoee a iieueco aeaineiai iiianou?y ii
“Oeaco Aaeeeeo oea?ae Eaaia e Iao?a Aeaenaaae/ae”.

Oiiieiaiea i noa?ii ai?iaeeua ia Eaiaiiie ai?a, ia o/anoea aeaineiai
Ciaiaineiai iiianou?y iaia?oaeaii A. A. Iiainaeueoeaaui a ianeieueeeo
aeieoiaioao, o?aiyueony a OeAAAeA (a. Iineaa).

Oaeei ia?acii ianoi?aniieiaeaiea noa?iai ai?iaeeua aieueoa ia aucuaaei
niiiaiee. Inoaaaeny iayniui oieueei aii?in i n?ieao ia?aiina Aeueoea n
Eaiaiiie ai?u iaae Aeue/eeii ia aa?aa Auno?ie Niniu a ?aeii iuiaoiae
E?aniie ieiuaaee.

Ioaao ia iaai i?ieeee naaaeaiey i iiacaeea /a?ac Aeaoe a Cieiooth i?aeo
ieo?iiieeoa Iineianeiai Aeaeney a 1357 aiaeo. (ni. i?eeiaeaiea).

Ia?aiin ai?iaea n Eaiaiiie ai?u ia aa?aa ?aee Niniu, ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
XIV aaea oi?ioi niaeanoaony n ianoaie caoi?iiaiey aeue/ai, iiaeaoeo a
1395 aiaeo i?e iaoanoaee Oaia?eaia.

Ca 270 eao iia au?anoe e ae?aio/ee ean ia ianoa noa?iai ai?iaeeua.
Iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe a?oeoaeoo?ii-i?ino?ainoaaiiiai iino?iaiey
?onneeo ai?iaeia inoaaaeenue, ii nouanoao, iaeciaiiuie io XI aei
eiioea XVII a.

No?oeoo?iui yae?ii ai?iaea auea e?aiinoue-e?aieue. Caeanue ?aniieaaaeny
eiyaeaneee eee aiaaiae/aneee aeai?, niai?. Any e?aiinoue a oeaeii aeey
aeeoaeae iinaaea e i?eeaaathuae ie?oae auea iai?iiiui oeaio?ii.
Caeanue o?aieeenue caianu e oe?uaaeenue ethaee a ia?eiae iianiinoe. Iiae
noaiaie e?aiinoe o aeaaiiai aoiaea aue oi?a. E yoiio yae?o, e e?aiinoe
e oi?ao noyaeaaeanue any oee/iay naoue iinaeaiey, i?eiueaee neiaiaeu,
aiaoiea aei?iae.

Niaa?oaiii iaiaycaoaeueia auea aaiiao?e/aneay i?yiecia oeeoeu,
o?aaiaaeanue eeoue yniinoue o?annu, aaaeouae e oeaee. Naoue oeeoe a
yoio ia?eiae auea iaei iiaeaeaeiui yeaiaioii no?oeoo?u, nio?aiythueiny
ia aeieaea aiaeu.

Iiiyoea neiaiaeu eae no?oeoo?iie aaeeieoeu ai?iaeneiai iinaaea aicieeei
ia n?aco, a eeoue a oiaea ia?ano?ieee oi?i caieaaeaaeaiey, yeiiiie/aneeo
naycae e nioeeaeueiiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey, eioi?oth i?aoa?iaaatho ?onneea
ai?iaea n eiioea XV aei na?aaeeiu XVII aaeia. Neiaiaeu aei ia/aea XVI
aaea nouanoaotho eeoue aia a?aieoe iniiaiiai ai?iaeneiai iinaaea eae
ioaeaeueiua “naiaiaeiua” iinaeaiey ia caieyo a ie?anoiinoyo ai?iaea.

Ii ia?a oe?aieaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiie aeanoe iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa,
ia?aoiaea ai?iaeneie caiee ai aeaaeaiea ainoaea?y ianaeaiea ia auaoeo
aio/eiuo caieyo noaiiaeony /a?iui, iinaaeneei. Ai?iaeneia oi?aaeaiea
ia?aaeaaony a aaaeaiea iacia/aaiuo oeaio?aeueiie aeanoueth aiaaiae.

E eiioeo XVI – ia/aeo XVII aa. neeaaeuaaaony aeinoaoi/ii aaeeiia?aciay
ea?oeia ai?iaeneeo iinaaeia, ?aciauathueony ia ainoaea?aaie caiea , n
ae?aieaieai aaeiianoiuo aeai?ia aiaiiuo neoaeeeuo ethaeae,
aeooiaainoaa, eoioeia, ai?iaeneie ciaoe.

Neiaiaeu, e?iia oa??eoi?ee ?annaeaiey, eiaee eaaee ia oi?aao ,
inaaeiua aeai?u e aeeoieoeu a ai?iaea-e?aiinoe, iaoaiiua e iai?iaeiua
caiee, auaiiu e ?uaiua eiaee a i?eai?iaeao.

Ii aa?iainy e Eeuea Eaoa?eieio, e iineaaeiae Aeaoeeie e?aiinoe,
cai?iaeoe?iaaiiie e iino?iaiiie a 1592-1594 aiaeao.

“Iineae ou oieiia naiaai iaiy e Eaaio Iyniiio ai?iae aeaeaoe e ino?iao.
E y, ainoaea?ue, n aiaaiaeith oaiei ainoaea?aaui Iiae?aai Aeieo?eaae/ai
Caaieai?iaeneei e Eaaiii Ieeeoe/ai Iyniui ino?ia naeaeaee”. Yoio ?aii?o
Eaoa?eieia nio?aieeny n?aaee i?eeaciuo aeae noa?uo eao a OeAAAeA, a
aeaea “I Aeaoeeeo eacaeao e no?aeueoeao oeacu, ?aii?ou, /aeiaeoiua,
?iniene aeaeiaaiueth”.

*a?oaae oiai ia?eiaea, ii eioi?iio no?ieeny ai?iae, aei ian ia aeioae.
Ii anoue eioa?aniay iienue, o?aieaoayny a ?ac?yaeiii i?eeaca,
ninoaaeaiiay a 1666 aiaeo aeueyeii i?eeaca Ae. E. Aaoiaeiaui n
oiiieiaieai i aeaoo aeaoeeeo /a?oaaeao.

Aeaaea oiaaea, /aou?anoa eao iacaae, cano?ieea ai?iaeia aaeanue ii
ca?aiaa i?iaeoiaiiiio ieaio. E anyeea ionooiu io iaai ?aoeoaeueii
i?anaeaeenue.

Aei ian aeioae /a?oaae Aeaoeeie e?aiinoe, ninoaaeaiiue a 1772 aiaeo
“a?oeeea?eeneei o/aieeii” Ieoaeeii Cieioeeiaui. Yoio /a?oaae e iienaiea
e iaio, auiieiaiiua a /enea iiiaeo aeey ai?iaeia ii oeaco Iao?a I,
o?aiyony a AAEA. Ca 130 eao aea?aayiiue ai?iae i?aoa?iae cia/eoaeueiua
eciaiaiey. I?ioea o/anoea noaiu ia e?ooii aa?aao Niniu noieo iiaeienue:
“Aeaa noaiu e aeaa aaoie cai?aee, e caiey i?ioea ieo iaaaeeeanue”.

Eeuey Eaoa?eiei cai?iaeoe?iaae e no?iee ai?iae n aeaayoueth aaoiyie.
Ia /a?oaaea Ieoaeea Cieioeeiaa aiaauo aaoai oaea aeaaiaaeoeaoue –
/aou?a i?iacaeea e ainaiue aeooeo. I?ioea Aeeaeaeoae e ?aea i?iacaeae
aaoie, ?aniieiaeaiiie ia na?aaeeia nionea, iaaeienue “Aaoiy i?iacaeay e
?aea Ninia”.

Aioo?e ai?iaea iaicia/aiu ainoaea?aa aeai?, oth?ueia, caeaiue iia?aa,
aeeoyiie aeai?, oea?eae: Niai?iay, Oniaiuey Aiai?iaeeoeu, Aicianaiey
O?enoiaa; eaaae.

Iiaay Aeaoeeay e?aiinoue auea caaeoiaia eae iiuiia ii oai a?aiaiai
iai?iieoaeueiia nii?oaeaiea. Ii ienueiaiiui enoi/ieeai ecaanoii, /oi
aunioa e?aiinoiuo noai aeinoeaaea o?ao naaeaiae, aaoai – aei oanoe. A
ieaia noaia i?aaenoaaeyea niaie iineaaeiaaoaeueioth oeaiue “oa?ania”
n?oaia ec aeoaiauo a?aaai, canuiaiiuo aioo?e caieae, e ino?iaa eee ouia.
Noaiu i?eiueaee e aiaaui aaoiyi. Iaae aaoiyie auneeenue oao?iaua
oaniaua e?iaee. Noaiu, oieueia eioi?uo auea ia iaiaa iieooi?a naaeai,
oaeaea iie?uaaeenue oanii.

A eiioea 1592 aiaea Eaai Iyniie aeieeaaeuaae oea?th:” E ai?iae,
ainoaea?ue, ec?aoa/ai, a ia e?uo e ieiei ai?iaea ?ia aueiiai e ino?ia
caeaeai”.

No?ieoaeuenoai ai?iaeneeo oe?aieaiee neeaie oao, eoi ian noi?iaeaaoth
neoaeao, i?iaeaeaaeinue iaaeeaiii. Eaaeaeue “iiaa?noaiiue ia
ainoaea?aao neoaeao” aeieaeai aue nai iino?ieoue aeai? n ai?iaeneeie
iino?ieeaie, ianoe noi?iaeaaoth neoaeao e o/anoaiaaoue a iauaai?iaeneii
no?ieoaeuenoaa.

A aiaeu oea?noaiaaiey Ai?ena Aiaeoiiaa no?ieoaeuenoai Aeueoea
i?iaeieaeaeinue. Ca yoio ia?eiae iino?iai Aaeue ai?iae a Iineaa,
eaiaiiua e?aiee a Ano?aoaie e Niieainea. Ia thaeiie ie?aeia ?one e?iia
Aeueoea no?iyony Ai?iaae, Eeaiu, Eo?ne, Aaeai?iae, Ineie.

Aeaoe canaeyeny neoaeeaui e ?aianeaiiui ethaeii. Aie?oa e?aiinoe e
iinaaea cano?aeaaeenue neiaiaeu. Aaeieue Eo/ea e Niniu aicieeee
No?aeaoeeay, Ai?iaeiauo ai?oieeia, Iooea?neay, Noa?ay ssineay,
Aeaenaiae?ianeay.

Ianaeaiea ai?iaea a eiioea XVI aaea auei iaaaeeei.Ia 1593 aiae oea?neie
a?aiioie auei ioiouaii aeaiaaeiiai e oeaaiiai aeaeiaaiey a Aeueoea aeey
1017 /aeiaae neoaeeeuo ethaeae, 150 aeaoyi aiy?neei, 200 no?aeueoeai,
600 eacaeai, 45 iooea?yi, ai?oieeai, eacaiui ieioieeai, 22
neoaeeoaeyi oea?eae. N o/aoii eo naiae /enei aeeoaeae iiaei auoue ia
aieaa 3-4 ouny/ /aeiaae.

I?EIA*AIEss:

1. Eiaeooia I. Aeaoe. Enoi?e/aneia enneaaeiaaiea. (AEI).

2. O?oaieeia A.Ae.,A?oia N.I.,Neeaaa I.O.Aeaoe. Eeiaoeeia eieaeiia
ecaeaoaeuenoai, 1961 a.

3. Oai aea.

4. ?eaeaiaa? A.I. Iaoa?eae aeey enoi?ee e noaoenoeee a. Aeueoea.
I?ae, Aoaa?ineay oeiia?aoey, 1865 a. (AEI).

§ 6 A AIAeIAI?IOA ENOI?E*ANEEO NIAUOEE.

1 NIOOIIA A?AIss.

Aiaiii-iai?iieoaeueiay nenoaia ia thaeiuo a?aieoeao o?aaiaaea io eaciu
e?oiiuo ?anoiaeia. No?aiynue eo nie?aoeoue, i?aaeoaeuenoai aaaei a
thaeiuo ai?iaeao aeanyoeiioth iaoith. ?aniaoaiiie iaoie ia aiiaue
i?eniaaeeiyaiuo caieyo auei iaiiiai, i?aiaeaaeaea oeaeeia . ”
?aciae?aoue” eiaueueioth noaiue auei ia eaaei. E?anoueyineia ianaeaiea
auei e?aeia iaei/eneaiii.

Yoi auioaeeei i?aaeoaeuenoai aiceiaeeoue ia?aaioeo caiaeue ia neoaeeeuo
ethaeae. Iaoith noaee iaoaoue ” anai ai?iaeii ” , /oiau iaania/eoue
ianaeaiea nianoaaiiui oeaaii.

Ainoaea?aaa aeanyoeiiay iaoiy auea iaeiei ec aaaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
iiaiaaaaeaiee a?aiai Ai?ena Aiaeoiiaa. Iiiaea neoaeeaua ethaee ,
iiaa?noaiiua a Aeaoe, i?eauaaee nthaea n eioaaeueie e oicyenoaii. Aeaoe
aiy?neea aea?aeaee neio a naieo iiianoueyo. “Anyeea ethaee” iaoaee
aeanyoeiioth iaoith ia naieo eioaaeyo, oiaaea eae a ae?oaeo ai?iaeao
/anoi eniieueciaaeenue eioaaee n ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiithoai.

*a?iicaiiua caiee Ai?iiaaea, Aeueoea, Eo?nea, Aaeai?iaea ii naiaio
ieiaei?iaeeth cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeeee caiee ia/a?iicaiiiai oeaio?a.

Io?aaioi/iay ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeiiinoue aeey anaai aac eneeth/aiey
ianaeaiey thaeiuo oacaeia, ianoaai aua noi?iaeaaoth e aa?ieciiioth
neoaeao, aeaei oaiaeaeueiiio ainoaea?noao aiciiaeiinoue aeinoe/ue
aeinooiiuie n?aaenoaaie iinoaaeaiiie oeaee. A noaiiie iieina iiyaeeenue
iiaua ai?iaea- e?aiinoe e ia?aua e?oiiua ?aniaoee oeaeeiu “aeeeiai iiey”
. Iaeiaei ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeiiinoue aucaaea iaeaieueoaa
iaaiaeiaaiea n?aaee iaeeeo iiiaueeia e neoaeeauo ethaeae, /oi a /enea
ae?oaeo i?e/ei ii?aaeaeeei eo iiaaaeaiea a ia?eiae “Nioou” .

Iaino?aiea nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau a ?onneii ainoaea?noaa a
ia/aea XVII aaea , ecaanoiia a enoi?ee eae “niooiia a?aiy”, aeoeaii
cao?iioei Aeaoe. Oneeeaathueeny e?aiinoiie aiao aucuaae
iaaeiaieuenoai e?anoueyi, eo aunooieaiey i?ioea iiiaueeia.

A 1591 aiaeo e?aiinoiua e?anoueyia aeaoeeiai iiiaueea Aaooaaaa ainnoaee
i?ioea e?aiinoieea. Iie ioiyee o Aaooaaaa ana eiouanoai e aianoa n
naiueyie iieeioee ?iaeiia naei Eneciai.

Ia iieiaeaiee e?anoueyinoaa neacuaaeny no?aoiue iao?iaeae e aieiae
1601-1603 aiaeia . Ethaee, ii neiaai eaoiienoea, “yaeiia anyeo o?aao
e ia?oaa/eio e ian e eioea aee ei?o eeiiaoth e niniiaoth”.

Inaiueth 1603 aiaea ie?anoiinoe Aeueoea, eae e ?yaea ae?oaeo thaeiuo
ai?iaeia, ioaaoeei aniuoioaoaa e?anoueyineia ainnoaiea ii ?oeiaiaenoaii
Oeiiea. A 1604 aiaeo aeue/aia ioeacaeenue ia?aaaouaaoue ainoaea?aao
aeanyoeiioth iaoith , “aue Aeaoe a niooa e iaiineooaiee”.

N ia/aeii aieiu n naiicaaioeai ec aa?ieciiia thaeiuo ai?iaeia auee
ioicaaiu iiiaea no?aeueoeu e eacaee aeey oneeaiey a?iee Inoeneaaneiai.
Ec Aeueoea e Inoeneaaneiio i?eauee /aou?anoa eiiiuo eacaeia n ieuaeyie
e 100 iaoeo no?aeueoeia, ec Eeaai – 200 eiiiuo eacaeia n ieuaeyie , ec
Ai?iiaaea – 100 no?aeueoeia. Aeey oneeaiey ineaaeaiiuo aa?ieciiia
?ac?yaeiie i?eeac iinueae a thaeiua ai?iaea “aiaeiaaeueueeia” aeaoae
aiy?neeo e no?aeueoeia ec e?aiinoae oeaio?aeueiie ?one.

Ec thaeiuo ai?iaeia Aeaoe eiae iaeaieueoee aa?iecii . Oae /enei aeaoae
aiy?neeo a Aeueoea ninoaaeyei 627, a Eeaiao – 431 , a Ai?iiaaea -221,
a Aaeai?iaea – 164 /aeiaaea. A no?aeueoeu e eacaee ninoaaeyee aieueooth
/anoue ?aoiuo ethaeae. Oioy i?eaaaeaiiua aeaiiua ioiinyony e 1626
aiaeo , ii ii iei iiaeii ninoaaeoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i iieiaeaiee a
ia?eiae aieiu n Eaeaaeieo?eai.

A oaa?aea-ia?oa 1605 aiaea thaeiua ai?iaea : Ineie, Aaeoeee, Ai?iiaae,
Aaeai?iae, Oea?aa-Ai?enia noaee ia?aoiaeeoue ia noi?iio naiicaaioea.
Eacoeou *eaeianeee e Eiaeoeeee nii?iaiaeaeaaoea A?eai?ey Io?aiueaaa 7
(17) ia?oa 1605 aiaea n ?aaeinoueth niiauaee naaaeoth iiainoue :
aeanoue “Aeieo?ey” i?eciaee e?aiinoe Aeaoe e Eeaiu.

?aaeinoue i?eaeeaeaiiuo Eaeaaeieo?ey iiaeii iiiyoue . Iiaay Aeaoeeay
e?aiinoue iino?iaiiay anaai 12 eao iacaae, eiathuay iiuiia iooa/iia
aii?oaeaiea, naiue e?oiiue ia thaa aa?iecii, auea cia/eoaeueii aieueoa
Iooeaey, a eioi?ii neaeae a yoi a?aiy naiicaaiaoe. Ia onooiaee Iooeaeth
e Eeaiu .

Aiaiiia cia/aiea yoeo e?aiinoae auei eneeth/eoaeueii aaeeei. Ia
?aoaiea aeue/ai e eeaaioeaa ia iiaei iiaeeyoue ii?aaeaiea iiae E?iiaie
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aiene, aicaeaaeyaiuo Oa?aiaoueaaui.

Enoi?e/aneea enoi/ieee aanueia neoii iiaanoaotho i oii, eae “iieueneea
” ai?iaea “niooeeenue” , “oeaeiaaee e?ano ai?o”, aiaeeee e iaio naieo
aiaaiae.

Aiaiiay neooaoeey ?aoeoaeueii eciaieeanue. Ainnoaiea a thaeiuo
e?aiinoyo niaoaei ieaiu iineianeiai eiiaiaeiaaiey – ie?oaeeoue noieeoeo
Eaeaaeieo?ey – Iooeaeue – e iiaeaa?aiooue aa inaaea. Ineiaeieeinue
iieiaeaiea a?iee Inoeneaaneiai , inaaeaeaaoae a yoi a?aiy E?iiu .
Iyoaae iiae E?iiaie iicaieee noi?iiieeai naiicaaioea iaea?aeaoue
aa?o a ?acaa?ioaoaeny a 1604 -1605 aiaeao a?aaeaeaineie aieia a ?onneii
ainoaea?noaa. Ia a?aaia ianniauo ia?iaeiuo aunooieaiee Eaeaaeieo?ee
caoaaoee aeanoue.

?ac?iciaiiua aunooieaiey e?anoueyi a n?aaeeia 1606 aiaea aueeeenue a
e?anoueyineoth aieio iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Eaaia Enaaae/a Aieioieeiaa. A
io?yae Aieioieeiaa oee io/ayaoeany e?anoueyia e oieiiu , ?aci?eaoeany
iinaaeneea ethaee e ?aianeaiieee, caaeaaeaiiua iaiineeueiie neoaeaie e
iiaeiiinoyie, neoaeeeua ethaee – no?aeueoeu e eacaee , ?aci?eaoeany
aeaoe aiy?neea. Nui aiy?neee aeue/aiei Enoiia Iaoeia aicaeaaee io?yae
ainnoaaoeo, i?eieioaoee e Aieioieeiao. Eaoii 1606 aiaea ii aeaeaao
iioiae ia Iineao,ii auioaeaeai ionooieoue.

Iuoaynue ia?aoeoue iyoaaeiuo aeue/ai ia noi?iio aioea?eaoaainy Aaneeey
Ooeneiai, iiiaoanoaothuay oea?eoea Ia?oa Iaaay oeao ia Aeaoe ni naiei
a?aoii A?eai?eai Oaaei?iae/ai a?aiioo i nia?oe naiaai nuia oea?aae/a
Aeieo?ey e ia oaeenoaa naiicaaioea. A eiioea 1606 aiaea aienea Aaneeey
Ooeneiai ai aeaaa n eiycai Ai?iouineei e eiycai TH?eai O?oaaoeeei aeec
Aeueoea ?acaeee ainnoaaoeo e?anoueyi e inaaeeee ai?iae. Aeaoe
auaea?aeae aeanoieoth inaaeo oea?neeo aiene. I?eaanoe ai?iae a
iiaeiiaaiea ia oaeaeinue, oioy oea?ue iineae “aiaaiae naieo ni iiiaie
?aoueth”. Inaaea auea na?ueaciui eniuoaieai ia oieueei aeooa ainnoaaoeo,
ii e iiaie e?aiinoe, aa caueoiuo nii?oaeaiee.

A yoi a?aiy o E?ii oea?neea aienea ia?aoee ia noi?iio ainnoaaoeo.
Io?yaeu Eaaia Aieioieeiaa ?aca?iieee aienea oea?neea, naaee ia iao
iiaaaeo Ai?iouineiai.

Iiaaaea Ai?iouineiai, aai ia?aua oniaoe aucaaee ?aaeinoue oea?y. Ii
?aoee iaa?aaeeoue iiaaaeeoaeae, iineae ei cieioua iaaeaee. Ii
aaeouea n iaa?aaeaie aiy?a ano?aoeee ia iooe aaaeaoeia, ionooiathueo
aieiia Ai?iouineiai, ia noiaaoeo acyoue Aeaoe.

Enoiia Iaoeia ni naiei io?yaeii aiiaue aeaeioeny ia Iineao. Iiae
Eieiiiie aeue/aia niaaeeieeenue n ?ycaioeaie e iauaaeeiaiiuie neeaie
iaianee ii?aaeaiea oea?neei aieneai.

A ia/aea ieoya?y ainnoaaoea iiaeioee e Iineaa e niaaeeieeenue n a?ieae
Aieioieeiaa, ieiei aeaoo ianyoeaa inaaeaeaaoeo noieeoeo.

Iaioaaiiua ?inoii aioeoaiaeaeueiuo iano?iaiee i?aaeaiaeeoaee ?ycaioeaa
iiiaueee Eyioiia e Naiaoeia ia?aiaoioeenue a na?aaeeia iiya?y ia noi?iio
oea?neeo aiene. Eo i?eia?o iineaaeiaae e io?yae Iaoeiaa. Yoa eciaia
i?aae?aoeea iieiaeaiea Aieioieeiaa.

Aeaoe ea?ae aanueia caiaoioth ?ieue ioiineoaeueii ae?oaeo
ai?iaeia-e?aiinoae . Ia oieueei naieie iiuiuie iai?iieoaeueiuie
oe?aieaieyie, oi?ioei aii?oaeaieai, ii e aieueoie /eneaiiinoueth
aa?ieciia.A 1616 aiaeo ai?iaeiaiai aienea a o?eaeoeaoe ai?iaeao io
A?caiana aei Iiaineey auei 12840 /aeiaae. A oii /enea a Ioeainea –
781, a Iiaineea – 806 , a Eeaiao-824, a Aeueoea – 1969.

Ae?aiaoe/anee caeii/eeinue niooiia a?aiy aeey Aeueoea. Aeue/aia aeoeaii
o/anoaiaaee a ai?ueaa n iieuenei-eeoianeie eioa?aaioeeae. Inaiueth 1618
aiaea ei?ieaae/ Aeaaeeneaa, iie?aynue ia iiaeaea?aeeo
iieuenei-eeoianeie oeyoou, i?ieaey Niieaine, Aycueio, iiaeioae e
Iineaa. N thaa e iaio ia niaaeeiaiea oae io?yae caii?iaeoeaa ai aeaaa n
Iao?ii Eiiaoaae/ai-Naaaeaea/iui.

A io?yaea oe?aeineiai aaoiaia, noi?iiieea ei?iey neaecioiaea auee
eiieueneea aienea. Iie iionoioeee Iooeaeue, ?ueuene,Eeaiu. Ia iooe
aaoiaiaanoae Aeaoe. Eacaee inaaeeee ai?iae, aeue/aia caia?eenue a
e?aiinoe, aa?ie/anee ioaeaaee i?enooiu. Iai?iiie Aeueoea ?oeiaiaeee
aiaaiaea Aiae?ae Aiaaeaiiae/ Iieaa. Aeaey, /oi neeie ai?iae ia acyoue,
caii?iaeoeu iioee ia oeo?inoue. Iie niyee inaaeo e naeaeaee aeae, /oi
ionooiatho. Ia i/aiue eneooaiiue a aiaiiuo aeaeao Aiae?ae Iieaa
i?eeacae i?aneaaeiaaoue i?ioeaieea “ni anaie ethaeueie ec ai?iaea
auoae”. Oaea/aiiua i?aneaaeiaaieai aeue/aia ioaeaeeeenue io ai?iaea, a
a yoi a?aiy io?yae eacaeia, neaeaaoee a canaaea, ai?aaeny a aaccaueoiue
Aeaoe. Ai?iae aue ?aci?ai e niaeaeai, iiiaea aai caueoieee , a oii /enea
e aiaaiaea Iieaa , iiaeaee.

Iinea “ceiai ?aci?aiey” io Eiiaoaae/a-Naaaeaea/iiai aeue/aiai
aiiaue i?eoeinue acyoueny ca oiii?u, niiaa ?oaeoue aaoie e noaiu.

I?EIA*AIEss:

1. Eiaeooia I. Aeaoe. Enoi?e/aneia enneaaeiaaiea. (AEI).

2. ?eaeaiaa? A.I. Iaoa?eae aeey enoi?ee e noaoenoeee a. Aeueoea.
I?ae, Aoaa?ineay oeiia?aoey, 1865 a. (AEI).

3. Oai aea.

4. Oai aea.

§7. AI?IAe OI?AIAOeAA E ?AIANEAIIEEIA.

Auno?iio ?acaeoeth ai?iaea niinianoaiaaee ia oieueei aiaaoua
/a?iicaiiua caiee, iaeeea eania, ii e auaiaeiia aaia?aoe/aneia
iieiaeaiea ia ia?aioouea aei?ia. Aeaoe iinoaiaiii noaiiaeony oeaio?ii
oi?aiaee n Aeiiii e THaii no?aiu. Aei?iaa ec Iineau ia Aaeoeee e Ineie
, ii/oiaue o?aeo ec Ooeu ia Ai?iiaae, aieueoae /a?ac Eeaiu ia Oaiaia,
aei?iaeiay naycue /a?ac Eaaaaeyiue, Aeaieia, I?iine n ?ycaiueth
niaeaenoaiaaee ?inoo Aeueoea, eae oi?aiaiai ai?iaea, ia?aaaei/iiai
ioieoa.

Iaicu n oeaaii, i?inii,?uaie, nieueth, ao?ou neioa , iiaeaiaeu n
eiaeae, ioeie e ae?oaeie oiaa?aie iinoiyiii oyioeenue e ai?iaeo e io
iaai. Aeey o?aiaiey e ia?a?aaioee naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai nu?uey
no?iyony neeaaeu, aicieeatho eonoa?iua ?aianea e i?iiuneu, a caoai e
ia?aua i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey. Aiaaoatho aeaoeeea eoioeu e
i?iiuoeaiieee, eaeao iaeiieaiea oi?aiaiai eaieoaea, ?anoe?ythony
oi?aiaua nayce. Oaea e eiioeo XVII aaea Aeaoe i?aa?auaaony a iaeiiai ec
e?oiiaeoeo iinoaaueeia e ia?a-

eoiueeia oeaaa. Oeaaiua iinoaaee aeey a?iee Iao?a iiae Aciaii e
aeiineei eacaeai ioia/aiu a enoi?ee ai?iaea. Oea?ue Iao? ia ?ac iinauae
Aeaoe ,i?iacaeay ec A?yinea ia ai?iiaaeneea ei?aaaeueiua aa?oe . A 1696
aiaeo Iao? I i?eeacae ?oaeoue eana ii aa?aaai Niniu no?ieoue a Aeueoea
no?oae aeey ia?aaicee aiene, a?oceoue eo oeaaii, i?iaeaioii,
aiai?eianaie e nioneaoue aiec ii Auno?ie Ninia e Aeiio.

Ia ?a/eao Aeaoe e Eo/ie aicaiaeyony io/iua iaeueieoeu ii?o/eea
A?eai?ueaaa. Ana oe?a ?acaeaaaony oeaaiay oi?aiaey. A ai?iaea e oacaea
noaayony iiaua aiaeyiua iaeueieoeu, naeioiiie, eiaeaaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey,
?acaeaaaony naiiaeiue i?iiunae.e?oii?ooee ,oa?noiaeoie, aicieeatho
aieie,

*anoue neioa ooiaeeo ao?oaie ii oe?ieei oeyoai ia Iiaineeue, Ao?aiia,
Eaaaaeyiue. Iaicu ia naaa? a iai?aaeaiee Iineau e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa
aacoo ioeo e e?oio, ioaii e a?a/eoo, eiaee, iaoaue, naei, naa/e. Aua
eaaeaee ia o?iiooua ieoaii oo/iua caiee aeiineeo, eoaaineeo e
i?e/a?iiii?neeo ?aaiei, aua ia iiaeieiae iaoa?ue N?aaeithth Aieao e
Naia?neoth ?aaieio, a aeaoeeee e?ae i?iecaiaeee, neoiae e ioi?aaeye
naie oeaa a Iineao e iieiaeoth noieeoeo ia aa?aaao Iaau.

A yoio ia?eiae ia/eiaaony ?acaeoea eonoa?iuo i?iiuneia e
eonoa?ii-?aianeaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aeiiaoiaa oea/anoai, iaaeaea
?enoiea ia oeaie, auaeaeea noeiiiuo oeyi, oeouea naiia, aaoiaeia e
?oeaaeoe, ecaioiaeaiea na?oe, i?iecaiaenoai oi?iuo ecaeaeee , aii/a?iia
aeaei, aea?aai ia?aaioea e ?acueaa ii aea?aao.

AEeeua aeiia, eo iaee/ieee, ea?iecu, e?ueueoea oe?aoathony aea?aayiiuie
e?oaeaaaie.

Ii iaeaieueooth ecaanoiinoue Aeueoeo i?eianei e?oaeaaiieaoaiea.
O?aaeeoeey yoiai eneonnoaa oa?yaony a aeoaeia aaeia . Caii eieethoae
iiaeii auei oneuoaoue ai iiiaeo aeiiao ai?iaea e i?eiueathueo e iaio
nae e aea?aaaiue. Naie aaeeeieaiiua oci?u e?oaeaaieoeu e auoeaaeueueoeu
iiaeniao?eaaee a aeeaie i?e?iaea, ia ii?iciii ieia. Iie naie
?ac?aaaouaaee e ?acaeaaee ?enoiie e?oaeaaa e auoeaie. ?ane?anea ieoie e
oeaiae i?iecaiaeeeanue ?anoeoaeueiuie e?aneaie /anoi nianoaaiiiai
i?eaioiaeaiey. Ec eaianoeia iieaaiai aaneeueea iieo/aee aieoaoth, eae
iaai, ec aeaeoioeaaoa – aeaeooth.

Iaiaeoth ?ieue a yeiiiieea ai?iaea nua?aei eocia/iia aeaei. Eocia/iay
neiaiaea ia aunieii ioeina Auno?ie Niniu inoaaeea i naaa iaiyoue a
iacaaiee oeeoeu. Ianoa?ia eocia/iiai i?iiunea Iao? I iinueae ia
ooeueneea e eaoe?neea caaiaeu, caeacuaae ei iiaeeiau aeey a?iee,
iai?aaeye ia Aeii.

23 iiya?y 1708 aiaea Iao? Aaeeeee a ienueia ai?iiaaeneiio aiaaiaea
Eieu/aao i?eeacae ia iaoeay neaeaoue a Aeaoe e caeacaoue oaiioiei
eociaoeai 50 oun. ia? ia?aaeieo iiaeeia aeey a?iee.

Aua a XVII aaea ?oaeiciaou iaoiaeeee a aeaoeeie ie?oaa iaaieueoea
ianoi?iaeaeaiey aeaeaciie ?oaeu, caeaaaaoae ioaeaeueiuie eeicaie. Auea
naeaeaia iiiuoea ?acaeoey iaoaeeo?aee, iiyaeeenue ?o/iua aeiiiu.

A 1730 aiaeo a Caninaineii noaio eo ian/eouaaeinue ainaiue. Iaeia ec
aeiiai i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii auea a ai?iaea caiaaeiaa ia?aie
aieueieoeu. Yoe aeiiiu, aeaeeii, i?aaenoaaeyee ec naay ai?iu n
aeooueai ?o/iuie iaoaie aeey i?iecaiaenoaa e?e/iiai aeaeaca. Iii
ia?aaaouaaeinue iieioaie. Eonee aeaeaca i?iaeaaaeenue eociaoeai. A 1753
aiaeo o aea?aaie Ooeeii Aeaoeeiai oacaea aiciee ?aiaoeeee caaiae.
Eoiaoe I?aoia ono?iee aeiiio, iinoaaee o?e iieioa. Ianoiua e?anoueyia
auaeeaaee aeey caaiaea ae?aaaniue oaieue, aeiauaaee e iiaeaiceee ?oaeo.
A XVII noieaoee a Aeueoea ?acaeaaaony oi?aiaey eenoiaui, oeiiui e
ni?oiaui aeaeacii, i?eaiciui e ianoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oiaaea aea

a Aeueoea aicieeaao eieieieueii- eeoaeiue caaiae a?aoueaa E?eai?ioiauo.
A 1807 aiaeo a ai?iaea auei oaea /aou?a caaiaea, eioi?ua eeee eieieiea
aeey oea?eaae, ecaioiaeyee iaaeioth iinoaeo.

?anoao eiee/anoai oi?ieeia. ?acaeoea eiiaaiaenoaa a /a?iicaiiie
iieina ?innee, iiiai/eneaiiua iaicu, iinoaaea na?oe aeey a?iee
nicaeatho a oii iio?aaiinoue. Aianoa n eiaeaaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii
?anoao /enei naiiaeieeia, aaoia/ieeia, nei?iyeia. Aeaoeeea eoioeu
noaiiayony e?oiiuie iinoaaueeaie iaoae e na?oe aeey a?iee, a ai?iae
iinoaiaiii i?eia?aoaao eee/eo naiiaeiie oaa?eee ?innee.

?aniieiaeaiiue ia ia?ae?anoea aei?ia, Aeaoe ianao ii/oiaoth e yineoth
neoaeau. Neiaiaeu ssineay e Iiaay ssineay aaeaaeiaaii iai?aaeytho a
iooue ii/oiaua o?ieee n caaiyueie eieieieue/eeaie. Ia ii/oiaua
noaioeee – yia iaiytho eioaaeae e iooieee aiiaue ioneathony a aei?iao.

A Eaineie neiaiaea aeeaoo eiiiaua yiueee, caieiathueany eiiiaui
ecaicii, ia?aaiceie a?ocia. Iiio?ua naa?anee oyioo aoaee oi?yaeae. A
naiyo eee oaeaaao iaoee n ca?iii e ioeie, aeaoeeie e?oi/aoeie, e?aniue e
iineaoaeueiue oiaa?; oanaiiue eaiaiue e e?aniue ee?ie/; a?aaia,
iiaeoiaa?iee, ae?iaa, naii, iaan. Aa?aieoeu iaicia eaoii e ceiie oyioony
ii aieueoei aei?iaai – aieueoaeai.

A ?aniooeoeo aaniie e inaiueth aei?iae io ianeii/aaiuo eiean
i?aa?auaeenue a ii?a ?aceeaaiiia /a?iie a?yce n aeoaieeie eieaeiaeiaie e
ooaaaie, caiieiaiiuie aiaeie eee niaaii. Ieceiu e aaeee noaiiaeeenue
iai?ioiaeeiuie. Eiiaeenue oiioou, ?aaeanue na?oy, eiiaeenue iaeiaee e
oaeaae, a aaaeiua eioaaeaiee e ecaic/eee /anaie io/aeenue, /oiau
i?aiaeieaoue eaeieieaoaeue einiai? eee ecaaeie. E?eee, ?oaaiue,
uaeeaiuea eiooia, o?ai auaeaoeony ec nee eioaaeae. Ia?aaeei iaicu, ia
iaeieaa eaeiai- eeai aoa?a, ii/aaaee n?aaee ianeaa a?yce e aeeiu, a oi
e ii ianeieueei aeiae aeaeaee iiaiaeu.

?acaeoea oeaaiie oi?aiaee a aeaa iineaaeothueo noieaoey nua?aei
aaaeioth ?ieue a yeiiiieea no?aiu. E XIX aaeo iaoe?iay oa??eoi?ey
aa?oiae Iee e Auno?ie Niniu noaiiaeony aeeoieoeae ?innee.

N ?acaeoeai yeiiiieee a aeaoeeie ie?oaa iaicia/eeny ?ino /eneaiiinoe
ianaeaiey.

Ii aaeieieno?aoeaiiio aeaeaieth 1708 aiaea a ?innee auei ia?aciaaii 8
aoaa?iee. Aeaoe aioae a ninoaa Acianeie n oeao?ii a ai?iaea Aciaa .
Iicaeiaa, n 1726 aiaea oeaio? aoaa?iee aue ia?aianai a Ai?iiaae.
Iaoe?iay oa??eoi?ey aoaa?iee i?inoe?aeanue io Acianeiai ii?y ii/oe
aei Io?iia. A 1719 aiaeo iia auea iiae?acaeaeaia ia iyoue i?iaeioeee n
oeaio?aie a Ai?iiaaea, Aeueoea, Oaiaiaa, Oaoeea, Aaoiooa. Aeaoe noae
i?iaeioeeaeueiui ai?iaeii.

Aeaoeeay i?iaeioeey aeeth/aea Eeaiu, Ao?aiia, Eaaaaeyiue, Aeaieia,
Eeiaoee, Caaeiine, Oniaiue, aa ieiuaaeue i?aainoiaeeea iuiaoithth
Eeiaoeeoth iaeanoue. Aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia ia?aono?ienoai a
?innee a 1719, 1765, 1799 aiaeao nii?iaiaeaeaeinue ?ane?oiiaieai
aoaa?iee.

A 1799 aiaeo ec Ai?iiaaeneie aoaa?iee auee auaeaeaiu Eo?neay e
Oaiaianeay, Aeaoe noae oeaio?ii oacaea. Aeaoeeee oacae aioae nia/aea a
ninoaa Eo?neie, a caoai, I?eianeie aoaa?iee. Oacaeiua oeaio?u iieo/eee
noaoon ai?iaeia. Inoaeueiua ai?iaea auee ia?aaaaeaiu “ca ooao” I?e anao
yoeo eciaiaieyo Aeaoe inoaaaeny oeaio?ii cia/eoaeueiiai ii ieiuaaee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai ?aeiia. Yoiio niinianoaiaaea /eneaiiinoue aai
ianaeaiey e aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeai/aneay cia/eiinoue. Aaaeouae
io?aneueth naeueneiai oicyenoaa aeaoeeie ie?oae inoaaaeinue ca?ii. O?ao
iieueiay nenoaia iieaaiaenoaa, i?eoaaeoay ia niaio a?oae/iui oi?iai
aaaeaiey oicyenoaa, iiaeiyea o?iaeae. A eiioea 60-o aiaeia i?ioeiai aaea
a aea?aaiyo /a?iicaiuey noae /oanoaiaaoueny “ecauoie” naeueneiai
ianaeaiey. Aai ieioiinoue iiaeiyeanue aei 40 /aeiaae ia eaaae?aoiue
eeeiiao?.

A 1863 aiaeo a Aeueoea ian/eouaaeinue 26 ouny/ aeeoaeae. Ioiaia
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, e?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia 1861 aiaea, ?acaeoea
eaieoaeecia a ?innee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX- ia/aea XX aaeia ?acei
oneeeee i?ieaoa?ecaoeeth e?anoueyinoaa. Aieia ia?anaeaiey
e?anoueyineeo naiae a ai?iaeneea oeaio?u i?ioea ii iiiaei ai?iaeai
n?aaeiae iieinu , neacaeanue ia auno?ii ?inoa eo ianaeaiey. ?acaeoea
ianoiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia no?ieoaeuenoai i?eaeaeei a
Aeaoe aaccaiaeueiuoe?anoueyi, ono?aieaoeony a ai?iae a iieneao ?aaiou.
Ia iieo/ay iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey io o?oaea a naeueneii
oicyenoaa, iiiaea aeeoaee aeeaeaeoeo nae e aea?aaaiue auioaeaeaiiu auee
naciiii , ia aiae- aeaa, a oi e ia anaaaea iieeaeaoue ?iaeiua ianoa,
eneaoue a ai?iaea ca?aaioie.

?acaeaathuayny i?iiuoeaiiinoue e oi?aiaey Aeueoea o?aaiaaea iiiai
?aai/eo ?oe. E?anoueyia-ioioieee noaiiaeeenue ?aai/eie
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo ianoa?neeo, ?aaioieeaie eiaeaaaiiuo e oaaa/iuo
oaa?ee, ieioieeaie, eaiaiueeaie, iinoiaueeaie, eaiaiioanaie.
Iiiieiyeenue ?yaeu ianoiuo ?aianeaiieeia, e?oaeaaieoe, i?eeac/eeia a
iiiai/eneaiiuo eaaeao. Iaeioi?ua inaaoea a ai?iaea e?anoueyia
i?eno?aeaaeenue a ea/anoaa iaeeeo oi?aiaoeaa, iaieiaeenue iiaeaiueeaie
ia iaaieueoea eonoa?iua i?iecaiaenoaa eee e iai?iaeieeai, ono?aeaaeenue
a ea/anoaa i?eneoae a /anoiua aeiia e iauanoaaiiua caaaaeaiey.

Oa, eoi o?oaeeeny a ai?iaea aacauacaeii a oa/aiee ?yaea eao,
io?uaaeenue io aea?aaaineiai oicyenoaa ia?aaiceee a Aeaoe naie naiuee .
Naeeeenue ia ie?aeia ai?iaea, aaea caieiaee ionoiaaaoea, iaeioaeiaiua
o/anoee. Oae e eiioeo XIX aaea a Aeueoea au?in oeaeue iinaeie a aeoaieii
eaiaienoii ia?aaa, iieo/eaoee iacaaiea “Eaiaiuey”. Aai ianaeaiea nieio
ninoiyei ec auaoeo naeueneeo aeeoaeae.

Ianiio?y ia iaaieueoie anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino ianaeaiea Aeueoea e eiioeo
XIX aaea oaeaieeanue. Ii aeaiiui ia?aie anaiauae ia?aiene ianaeaiey a
1897 aiaeo a ai?iaea i?iaeeaaei 46956 /aeiaae.

Oicyenoaaiiay e eoeueoo?iay aeeciue ai?iaea auea oanii naycaia n
naeueneie ie?oaie. AEeoaee i?eai?iaeiuo neiaiae ioeoeeaeueii
/eneeeenue e?anoueyiaie. Ianaeaiea yoeo neiaiae eiaei caiaeueiua
o/anoee, iaeiaei, auioaeaeaii auei eneaoue n?aaenoaa e nouanoaiaaieth a
eaaeaeiaeiaaiie ?aaioa a ai?iaea a ea/anoaa ianoa?iauo, ecaic/eeia.
AEaiueiu caieiaeenue eonoa?iui i?iiuneii – e?oaeaaiieaoaieai. E?oaeaaa
oee ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae ?acee/iuo neiaa ai?iaeneiai
iauanoaa, ia?ai?iaeaaaeenue eoioeai a ae?oaea ?aaeiiu no?aiu.

E?anoueyia ninoaaeyee /ooue aieaa iieiaeiu ianaeaiey Aeueoea
50,6 %. E oioy aieueoeinoai ec ieo iieiinoueth ?aci?aaee naycue n
naeueneei oicyenoaii , iie ia inaiaiaeeeenue io ioo naiaai nineiaey,
i?iaeieaeaee auoue iainiaeaiiuie io ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo neiaa
ai?iaeneiai iauanoaa. Ia caaeneii io aeeeoaeueiinoe i?aauaaiey a
ai?iaea e?anoueyia ia iieo/aee i?aa ai?iaeneiai nineiaey. Nianoaaiii
i?ieaoa?eaoa – naiaiaeiuo iaaiiuo ?aai/eo – aei eiioea XIX aaea aua
oaeoe/anee ia auei, ii oieueei ca?iaeaeaeny.

Naiui iiiai/eneaiiui nineiaeai ai?iaea auee iauaia, ninoaaeythuea ii
ia?aiene 1897 aiaea ni?ie i?ioeaioia ianaeaiey. Yoi nineiaea ei?aiiuo
ai?iaeai auei ooaa?aeaeaii Ai?iaeiaui iieiaeaieai 1785 aiaea ec
iinaaeneeo ethaeae. Iii iauaaeeiyei ?aianeaiieeia, ianoa?iauo, iaeeee
oi?aiaue ethae ai?iaea. Iauaia, aoaeo/e iniiaiuie ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaia
e iiaeaoae, ninoaaeyee aianoa n eoioeaie ” i?aaeeueiuo ai?iaeneeo
iauaaoaeae”.

?acaeoea e ooaa?aeaeaiea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee a Aeueoea, eae e a
ae?oaeo ai?iaeao, i?eaiaeeei e caiaoiiio iaoa?eaeueiiio e
nioeeaeueiiio ?anneiaieth iauainoaa. *anoue iauai – oicyenoaa iaeeeo
oi?aiauo e i?iiuoeaiiuo caaaaeaiee – iinoaiaiii iaiaauaeenue,
aeeaaeenue a ninoaa iaeeie ao?aeoacee. Iaiaei iauai – aeiiiaeaaeaeueoeaa
aeeei ia aeioiaeu io naea/e a iaai naieo aeiiia. Ii aieueoay /anoue
iauainoaa – ?aianeaiieee , ianoa?iaua – ia auaea?aeeaay eiieo?aioiinoe
n ?acaeaathuaeny i?iiuoeaiiinoueth, ana aieueoa ?aci?yeanue, eeoaeanue
n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aa?auaynue e ia/aeo XX aaea a iaaiiuo
?aai/eo. Eeoue ia iiiaei oaeaaaeinue iieo/eoue ia?aciaaiea, iiiieieoue
?yaeu ?acii/eioeaa – ianoiie eioaeeaaioeee.

E iauainoao i?eiueaei eoia/anoai – aoi?ia ei?aiiia ai?iaeneia nineiaea,
oaeaea auoaaeoaa ec iinaaeneeo ethaeae. A?aieoea iaaeaeo yoeie
nineiaeyie a 1863 aiaeo auea eciaiaia. Auea ioiaiaia iecoay o?aouey
aeeueaeey eoioeia, ia?aoaaeoeo a aieueoeinoaa naiai a iauaineia
nineiaea. Caienue a ia?aoth e aoi?oth aeeueaeeth noaea aeinooiia eeoue
oienoinoiai, eiathuei cia/eoaeueiue eaieoae. A oaeeo a eiioea i?ioeiai
aaea a Aeueoea auei eeoue 2% ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, oiaaea eae a
ia/aea aaea ia 3779 iauai ioaeneiai

iiea i?eoiaeeeinue 3373 eoioea anao o?ao aeeueaeee.

Anee iauaia ii caeiio ioiineeenue e “i?inoiethaeeiai”, oi eoia/anoai
oaea auei i?eaeeaae?iaaiiui nineiaeai. Aai i?aaa auee ai?acaei oe?a, /ai
iauainoaa. Eoioeu eiaee naiaiaeo ia?aaeaeaeaiey, inaiaiaeaeaeenue io
oaeaniuo iaeacaiee, eiaee aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue /eiu e i?aeaia ca
iniaua oneoae.

I?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e ia?aie aunoae aeeueaeee aeaaaea i?aai iieo/aoue
caaiea eiiia?oeee – e iaiooaeoo? – niaaoieea. A eiathuea oaeia caaiea
iiaee oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue i aicaaaeaiee a ii/aoiia iioiinoaaiiia
a?aaeaeainoai. Oai naiui caaeeoi/iay aa?oooea eoia/anoaa,
i?aaenoaaeythuay iaiiiai/eneaiiue ii aiaaoaeoee e aeeyoaeueiue neie
ai?iaeneiai iauanoaa, iuoaeanue iiauneoue naie nioeeaeueiue noaoon,
i?eaeeceoueny e aunoaio, i?eaeeaae?iaaiiiio aeai?yineiio nineiaeth.

A yeniiceoeee e?aaaaae/aneiai iocay aunoaaeaiu oea?neea oeacu i
aicaaaeaiee eoioea e oaa?eeaioa Caonaeeiaa, eiiia?oeee-niaaoieea, a
ii/aoiia iioiinoaaiiia a?aaeaeainoai.

3,4 % ianaeaiey Aeueoea i?ioeiai aaea ninoaaeyei aeai?yinoai. Iii
?acaeaeyeinue ia iioiinoaaiiia e ee/iia. Iioiinoaaiiua aeai?yia –
iioiiee neoaeeeuo ethaeae e caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa n/eoaeenue a
ainoaea?noaa aeaai?iaeiuie oaea ii ?iaeo e /eio. Iie iieueciaaeenue
oeaeui ?yaeii ianeaaenoaaiiuo i?eaeeaaee, oioy iiiaea eiaee
niiieoaeueiia eiouanoaaiiia iieiaeaiea. Ee/iia aeai?yinoai iia iieo/eoue
/eiiaiee eee aiaiiue ca aeieaea aiaeu neoaeau.

Neoaeeeia aeai?yinoai iinoiyiii i?iaeeaaei a ai?iaea, iiianoiia
nuacaeaeinue ec eiaiee a ceiiaa a?aiy.

A eiioea XIX aaea e iniai ia/aea XX aaea eeanniaia ?anneiaiea ioaaoeei
ana ai?iaeneea nineiaey, a oii /enea e aeai?yinoai. Aieueoeinoai
aeai?yi ninoiyei ia neoaeaa a?aaeaeaineie eee aiaiiie, /anoue ia?aoea e
naiaiaeiui i?ioanneyi e ia?aciaaea i?ineieeo eioaeeaaioeee, iaeioi?ua
noaiiaeeenue i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, aeaaeaeueoeaie e aeoeeiia?aie
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iniaue nioeeaeueiue neie ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyei /a?iia e
aaeia aeooiaainoai. Aaeia aeooiaainoai niaa?oaei iauanoaaiiua
aiaineoaeaiey, eniieiaiea oea?eiaiuo o?aa, iinoiyiii iaaethaeaei ca
oai, /oiau ianaeaiea eniieiyei ana i?aaeienaiea i?aaineaaiie oea?eae.
*a?iia aeooiaainoai – iiiaoe O?ieoeeiai e Ciaiaineiai iiianou?ae – aaee
caieiooue ia?ac aeecie, niueaynue a inoaeueiii n aaeui. Aaeia
aeooiaainoai, iniaaiii i?eo/ iiiai/eneaiiuo oea?eaae, auei oanii
naycaii n ai?iaeneei iauainoaii, oioy e iieueciaaeinue ?yaeii
i?eaeeaaee, aeaaiie ec eioi?uo auei inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaeiaia e
iiaeaoae. Nayuaiieee, aeueyeiiu e o.i. iiaee

auoue aeiiiaeaaeaeueoeaie.Eeoea aeooiaiiai caaiey ninoaaeyee a
Aeueoea 0,8 % ianaeaiey. E 1910 aiaeo ianaeaiea au?inei aei 57 oun.
/aeiaae. Ii /eneo aeeoaeae Aeaoe iaiaiae aoaa?ineoth Eaeoao, aaeaia
i?aainoiaeee Eeiaoee, a oanoue ?ac Ao?aiia.

§ 8. EAOIIENUe A EAIIA.

Iaiyoieee eoeueoo?u i?eiaaeeaaeao

ia?iaeo , e ia iaeiiio oieueei iaoa-

io iieieaieth. Iu ianai ioaaon-

oaaiiinoue ia?aae iaoeie iioiieaie

N ian aoaeao ni?in e /a?ac noi e

/a?ac aeaanoe eao.

Aeaaeaiee Ae.N. Ee-

aa/aa Caiey ?iaei-

ay., I., 1983, n.97

Enoi?e/aneay /anoue Aeueoea – naiaia?aciue a?oeoaeoo?iue caiiaaaeiee.

Io ioaeaeueiuo o?aaiaioia caeaiee, ianoueo a naaa oi?iu io
n?aaeiaaaeiaie ?one aei eeanne/aneeo onaaeaaiuo eiiieaenia, caeaiee a
noeea iiaea?i e niaaoneiai eiino?oeoeaecia 20-o aiaeia XX aaea, ana
?aciiia?acea a?oeoaeoo?iuo noeeae aeeaao caeanue a niaeanee, a i?enouae
Aeueoeo ni?acia?iinoe n /aeiaaeii. O?aaiaaiey e cano?ieea ai?iaea ,
caeiaeaiiua 220 eao iacaae a ia?eiae eeanneoeecia, iicaieeee ianoa?ai,
no?ieaoei a ?aciua aiaeu e a ?aciuo a?oeoaeoo?iuo noeeyo, ia anooiaoue
a i?ioeai?a/ea n oaea nouanoaiaaaoae cano?ieeie ai?iaea, a aeiiieiyoue
aa. Eeoue a iineaaeiea aiaeu a iaeioi?uo /anoyo enoi?e/aneie ciiu yoa
ni?acia?iinoue auea ia?ooaia i?e cano?ieea 3 – 5 oe yoaaeiuie caeaieyie.
Nae?aou oaeiai aaeeinoaa a cano?ieea ioaeii eneaoue a
i?aainoaaiiinoe no?ieoaeueiiai ianoa?noaa, oao i?eaiia, eioi?ua
ia?aaeaaaeenue, iooa/eaaynue io iieieaiey e iieieaieth, ia?iaeiuie
ianoa?aie, n aiaeaie nicaeaee, anee ia aeaoeeoth
a?oeoaeoo?ii-no?ieoaeueioth oeieo, oi naiaia?aciue ianoiue ia?iaeiue
iiaeoiae e eaiaiiiio e aea?aayiiiio ciae/anoao. Iino?ieee ai?iaea
ociaaaaiu e ioee/iu io nia?aiaiiuo ei caeaiee ae?oaeo ai?iaeia oaie eee
ae?oaeie ecethaeaiiuie aeaoaeyie e i?eaiaie, eioi?ua i?e /anoii eo
i?eiaiaiee ieeiaaea a oi/iinoe ia iiaoi?yeenue.

1. OeA?EIAUe AAAAeAIEss.

Oea?eiaue ninoieo ec aeaoo aunieeo iauaiia: eieieieueie e o?aia,
niaaeeiythony iie ieceei iiiauaieai – yoi ” o?aiaciay”; n thaa e
naaa?a iia auoiaeeo ca iniiaiua iauaiu eieieieueie e o?aia – yoe
aunooiu iacuaatho “i?eaeaeaie”, oae eae i?e ?anoe?aiee oea?eae eo
i?eaeaeuaaee. N ainoiea e o?aio i?eiueaao iieoe?oaeia iiiauaiea –
yoi “aineaea”, a eioi?ie ?aciauaeny aeoa?ue.

Nai o?ai iino?iai ii ae?aaia?onneiio ia?aco “ainia?ee ia /aoaa?eea”.
Oae no?ieee a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe aea?aayiiua oao?iaua oea?eae e
aaoie e?aiinoae, oeeaaeuaay ia n?oa a /aou?a noaiu (“/aoaa?ee”) n?oa a
ainaiue noai (“ainueia?ee”), oae iicaea noaee noaee noaaeoue e iioiaeea
ia ieo, ii ec eaiiy oea?eae – ecaanoiua anai oea?eiaue a Eieiiaineii,
o?ai Aaneeey Aeaaeaiiiai.

Iniaaiii iiethaeeanue ?onneei ianoa?ai oaeay eiino?oeoeey n na?aaeeiu
XVII aaea, oieueei ia?ae?uaaee o?aiu oaea ie oao?ii, a eoiieii. I?e
Iao?a I c ia/aea XVII aaea a ?innee iieo/ee ?ani?ino?aiaiea noeeue
“aa?ieei”. A a?oaoaeoo?a aa?iiaeneeo no?ai yoio noeeue oaea ioie?ae, a a
?innee ii i?icao/ae iniaaiii y?ei ia?a?aaioaiiue ?oeaie oaeaioeeauo
?onneeo ianoa?ia.

Iuoiia ioi?ieaiea ieii e aeaa?ae,iieoeieiiee ia ainueia?eea aea e
eiino?oeoeey naiiai o?aia aiai?eo i oii, /oi iaiyoiee i?eiaaeeaaeeo
e ?anoeaaoo aa?ieei, eiaaea iiuo ciae/eo iicaieye i?eaeaaaoue naiei
iino?ieeai i?acaeie/iinoue, oa?aeoa?ioth ?onneie a?oeoaeoo?a. O
eaaeaeiai a?aiaie naie no?ieoaeueiua i?eaiu. A XII-XII aaeao
ae?aaia?onneea ianoa?a aicaiaeeee o?aiu ec eaiaiiuo aeieia, a iicaea –
ec ee?ie/a. Ee?ie/ a Aaaeaineie oea?eae i/aiue e?oiiue (aieueoa
nia?aiaiiiai ia 7-8 ni), e eeaaeea noaiu aaeanue “eiaeie-ou/ie”, o.a.
aeeeiiay e ei?ioeay noi?iiu ee?ie/a /a?aaeiaaeenue.

Ca iiiai eao ia ?ac ia?ano?aeaaee e ?aiiioe?iaaee oea?eiaue
Aaaaeaiey. Oei a?aiy, ?inei ianaeaiea ai?iaea, oaaee/eeinue
/enei i?eoiaeai oea?eae, e o?aiaciay iaaeaeo eieieieueiae e o?aiii
noaea iaea. A naiii ia/aea XIX aaea aa ?ano?e?eee aeaoiy
i?eaeaeaie – naaa?iui e thaeiui. A oi a?aiy a a?oeoaeoo?a
ainiiaenoaiaae eeanneoeeci, ii ia?iaeiua ianoa?a oaeoe/ii iiaeioee e
ia?ano?ieea, nio?aiea a i?eaeaeao iaee/ieee noa?ie o?aiaciie, iicaea n
thaa e naaa?a o?aia i?eno?ieee iieoe?oaeua iaia?oe – aieiaua anoiaeu.

A 1969 aiaeo iii auea acyoa iiae io?aio eae iaiyoiee
?anioaeeeaineiai cia/aiey. Ia/aeny ia?eiae enneaaeiaaiee, ?aaiou
iaae i?iaeoii ?anoaa?aoeee. ?oeiaiaeeea ?ac?aaioeie i?iaeoa
iineianeee ?anoaa?aoi? ec ananithciiai iao/ii – ?anoaa?aoeeiiiiai
eiiaeiaoa I. E. Eoeaeiaa. A 1979 aiaeo iaiyoiee iaeaeny a eana.
Ia/aeanue niaianoiay e?iiioeeaay ?aaioa iineianeeo
i?iaeoe?iaueeia n aeaoeeeie ianoa?aie-eaiaiueeaie. Iinoaiaiii
i?inooiee aeaei?aoeaiue ia?yae, iiyaeeenue ae?aaiea ?aoaoee ieii,
cacieioeeny eoiie o?aia. Iiiai aua ?aaiou, ii ?aaeeee ia?acaoe
a?oeoaeoo?u XVIII aaea ia aeaoeeie caiea aoaeao aeeoue iiaie
aeeciueth: o?ai ia?aaeai ?onneie I?aaineaaiie oea?eae.

2. AICIANAINEEE NIAI?.

Aeaaaeoeaoue aoi?iai aaaonoa 1845 aiaea oi?aeanoaaiiue caii-aeaaiaano
anao naiiaaeoeaoe aeaoeeeo oea?eaae aicaanoee i caeeaaeea e?oiiaeoaai
o?aia Aeueoea – Aicianaineiai niai?a. Ia?iiiia caeaiea, ia iino?ieeo
eioi?iai oieueei ee?ie/a ii niaoa o?aaiaaeinue aieaa 10
ieeeeiiia oooe, i?aaeiieaaaeinue iino?ieoue ca 6-7 eao. Ii i?ioei ?iaii
44 aiaea n iiiaioa oi?aeanoaaiiiai aiaineoaeaiey a /anoue iniiaaiey
o?aia aei oi?aeanoaa ii iiaiaeo aai inayuaiey, ninoiyaoaainy 22, 24, 26
aaaonoa 1889 aiaea.

Ii ca 44 aiaea niai? oae e ia aue ieii/aoaeueii aeino?iai. Ia auee
auiieiaiu i?aaeoniio?aiiua i?iaeoii aaeo?iua e?ueueoea iaae naaa?iui
e thaeiui aoiaeaie, o?ai inoaeny aac iiuiie eieieieueie, eioi?ay
aeieaeia auea aciaoiooueny ia naiue iao?ia auoa e?anoa aeaaiiai eoiiea,
ia iieiinoueth auea caeii/aia ?inienue noai.

Ia?aue i?iaeo niai?a aue ?ac?aaioai a 1824 aiaeo a eeanne/aneii
noeea “eoaeueyineie a?oeoaeoo?u”. Aai ?acia?u ii?aaeaee aiia?aaeaiea
o?ai aeieaeai aue eiaoue 104 iao?a a aeeeio e 39 iao?ia a oe?eio.
I?iaeo aue iaeia?ai aia?oeaeueiui ia/aeuenoaii, ii aeaeueoa aeaei ia
iioei. Ianniaia no?ieoaeuenoai eaiaiiuo oea?eaae a ia?aie
iieiaeia i?ioeiai aaea eniuouaaei cao?oaeiaiey ec-ca ?ac?aaioee
i?iaeoia. E oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai ecaeaei nai?iee oeiiauo /a?oaaeae
o?aiia ?acee/iuo ?acia?ia. Eo aaoi?ii aue i?eaeai?iue a?oeoaeoi?
Eiinoaioei Aiae?aaae/ Oii(1794-1881). Ii i?iaeoai E.A. Oiia auee
iino?iaiu Aieueoie E?aieaaneee aeai?aoe, I?oaeaeiay iaeaoa
Iineianeiai e?aiey, caeaiey aiecaeia a Iineaa e Iaoa?ao?aa,
ciaiaieoue o?ai O?enoa Nianeoaey a Iineaa.

A iaa 1842 aiaea eoeoi? Eaai Aa?aneiiae/ Iao?ia ioi?aaeeny a
Iineao i?ineoue naiiai Oiia ninoaaeoue i?iaeo e niaoo o?aia. Caeac aue
i?eiyo. Oaea a iiya?a a?oeoaeoi? i?eneae i?iaeo, a a iaa
neaaeothuaai, 1843 aiaea, – niaoo. A oii aea aiaeo i?iaeo aue
iaeia?ai a Aeaaiii oi?aaeaiee iooae niiauaiey e ioaee/iuo caeaiee e
“auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeai”.

Aicianaineee niai? a Aeueoea yaeyaony y?/aeoei i?aaenoaaeoaeai
ioeoeeaeueiiai ?onnei-aecaioeeneiai noeey a a?oeoaeoo?a. Ii naiaio
iauaiii-ieaie?iai/iiio ?aoaieth niai? ainoiaeeo e o?aaeeoeeyi,
neiaeeaoeiny ia ?one e XVII aaeo. Oaeiai ?iaea ia?auaiey e enoi?ee
nouanoaiaaee e i?aaeaea.

Iauaiii-ieaie?iai/iay no?oeoo?a niai?a o?aaeeoeeiiia: n ainoi/iie
/anoe eoae/aneee iauai iyoeaeaaiai o?aia n
iiieaeaiiuie iieoe?oaeueyie o?ao aineae, n?aaeiyy ec eioi?uo aieueoa
aieiauo, aeaeaa e caiaaeo o?aiaciay, e caaa?oaoue eiiiiceoeeth n
caiaaea aeieaeia auea aa?oeeaeue eieieieueie n e?ueueoeii-naiueth
(iaaeino?iaiu).

Ana yeaiaiou ioi?ieaiey: eieioieee a iniiaaieyo aa?aaaiia aeaa e
caaa?oaiey iauaia o?aia, eoeiaeoeu aeaa, e?ueueoea-naie, io/ee
eieiii, iuoiua caaa?oaiey iaee/ieeia – ana yeaiaiou eiatho i?yiua
aiaeiae a a?oeoaeoo?a ?one.

A oeaeii Aicianaineee niai? oeaiai eae ia?acaoe aunieie no?ieoaeueiie
eoeueoo?u ?innee na?aaeeiu XIX aaea e eae aaaeiaeoee
yeaiaio a?aaeino?ieoaeueiie no?oeoo?u Aeueoea.

CAEETH*AIEA:

Caeai/eaay naith ?aaioo ,y oi/o ia?aoeoue aaoa aieiaiea ia aii?in i
aaaeiinoe eco/aiey enoi?ee.

I?ioeia ia ooiaeeo aaneaaeii, aai iaeuecy ioiaieoue. Aai caaaaiea –
o?aaaaeey aeey iineaaeothueo iieieaiee. Iii aaaeao e aeooiaiiio
ieaaaenoao e iaieuaieth. A /aeiaae iaciathuee naie enoiee – aeaeeia
nouanoai.

Iaeuecy aeeoue ia caiea ia ciay i o?oaeao, neaaa e ene?aiieo
caaeoaeaeaieyo, ioeaeao iaoeo i?aaeeia, ia iiiiy ii eiaiai naiuo
ciaiaieouo ec ieo, /ueeie iuneyie e aeinoeaeaieyie iu iieuecoainy eae
niii ?acoiaaony, ecaanoii nouanoaothuei.

*aeiaae aeieaeai eiaoue aeooiaiia ianeaaeea.

Iiy ?aaioa ia aaeeionoaaiiay a naiai ieaia.

A yoii aiaeo ai?iaeo Aeaoeo eniieiyaony 850 eao. E yoie e?oaeie aeaoa
aeue/aia iio?oaeeeenue ia neaao.

Nia?aii e ecaeaii ia?iiiia eieee/anoai iao/iiai, ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai e
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaoa?eaea. A eo /enea auoaaeoea a naao eieae A.
Iiainaeueoeaaa e A. Ai?eiaa “Aeaoe aaeaie no?ieeny.”, na?ey eiea
“Aeaoeeay aueue” e ae?.

Aieueooth ?aaioo ii eo auioneo i?iaae enoi?eei eoeueoo?iue oeaio? a.
Aeueoea, aaaeouee ia?iiioth ?aaioo ii eco/aieth enoi?e/aneiai ianeaaeey
ai?iaea.

AEI oaeaea ?aaioaao a yoie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe.

A aai yeniiceoeeyo ioia?aaeaiu ana yoaiu ?acaeoey ai?iaea.

A naiae ?aaioa iia i?eoeinue noaeeiooueny n iaoa?eaeaie iocay e y
iieo/ee ianno eioa?aniie e iieaciie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay i/aiue iiiiaea
iia a ?aaioa n ?aoa?aoii.

ss oaeaea aian naie iineeueiue aeeaae a enoi?eth ?acaeoey ai?iaea e
iaaeathnue, /oi eiaaea-oi

aai i?i/eoatho iie iioiiee e iieo/ao ianno eioa?aniuo ciaiee i i?ioeii.

A ai?iae i?iaeieaeaao aeeoue naiae aeeciueth, caienuaathony iiaua
no?aieoeu aai enoi?ee. No?aieoeu iieiua iiaiai , eioa?aniiai aua ia
eco/aiiiai.

EEOA?AOO?A:

1. Aaaeonei Ae.A. I?ienoiaeaeaiea ae?aaia?onneeo ai?iaeia (ii
a?oaieiae/aneei aeaiiui). Aii?inu enoi?ee, 1980 a., N 12.

2. Aiieeiaia A.I. Iiaua aeieoiaiou i ?innee eiioea XVI- ia/aea XVII
aaea. Ecaeaoaeuenoai iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa. 1967 a.

3. Ai?iiaaa ?.I., Iiiaaoaei A.E. I/a?ee enoi?ee Aeaoeeie caiee.
Ai?iiaae. 1985 a.

4. Aeoaia E.A. Ai?iaea, aaee/anoaii neythuea. Ecaeaoaeuenoai
Eaieia?aaeneiai oieaa?neoaoa., E., 1985 a.

5. Ea?aicei I.I. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai. 12-oiiiia ecaeaiea.

6. Eiaeooia I. Aeaoe. Enoi?e/aneia enneaaeiaaiea. (AEI).

7. “E?aniia ciaiy.” Aeaoeeay ai?iaeneay iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneay
aacaoa. 1996 a.

8. Ie?iiaiei A. Nia?aiaiiay eaoiienue oacaeiiai ai?iaea Aeueoea.
Iineianeea aaaeiiinoe, N 88, 93, 1860 a. (AEI).

9. Iaca?ia A.E. Ec enoi?ee Aeueoea. I?eianeee aanoiee, 1897 a., N
218, 15 aaa. (AEI).

10. Ieeyaneee A.E. Enoi?ey ?onneie a?oeoaeoo?u. I., No?ieecaeao,
1984 a. 11. ?eaeaiaa? A.I. Iaoa?eae aeey enoi?ee e noaoenoeee a.
Aeueoea. I?ae, Aoaa?ineay oeiia?aoey, 1865 a. (AEI).

12. O?oaieeia A.Ae., A?oia N.I., Neeaaa I.O. Aeaoe. Eeiaoeeia eieaeiia
ecaeaoaeuenoai, 1961 a.

NIE?AUAIEss:

OeAAAeA – Oeaio?aeueiue Ainoaea?noaaiiue a?oea ae?aaieo aeoia, a.
Iineaa.

OeAAEA – Oeaio?aeueiue Ainoaea?noaaiiue aiaiii-enoi?e/aneee a?oea, a.
Iineaa.

AEI – Aeaoeeee e?aaaaae/aneee iocae, a. Aeaoe.

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