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Древне Греческая философия о человеке и обществе

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Ae?aaiaa?a/aneay oeeinioey i /aeiaaea e iauanoaa

Oiineee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao Nenoai Oi?aaeaiey e
?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee ( OAONO? )

Eaoaae?a Oeeinioee

?aoa?ao

ia oaio :

«Ae?aaiaa?a/aneay oeeinioey i /aeiaaea e

iauanoaa.»

Auiieiee : Nooaeaio Aaeaioae ?.A.

I?eii?neee e?ae

a. Onno?eene

1999 a.

Ieai

1. Aaaaeaiea : Iuneeoaee ia oiia naiae yiioe

2. Nie?ao :

3. Ie? eaeae Ieaoiia

4. O/aiea i ainoaea?noaa

5. Caeeth/aiea

6. Eeoa?aoo?a

Aaaaeaiea

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi yoe eaaaiaea?iua iuneeoaee auee oa?aeoa?iui i?i-

aeoeoii iaeiie e oie aea yiioe e iauanoaaiiiai no?iy, aeeee a oii aea
ianoa a

iaeii e oi aea a?aiy, eo aeeciue e o/aiey ai iiiaii ?aceoaeueii
ioee/athony. Ni-

e?ao (469 – 399 aei i. y.) e Ieaoii (427 – 347 aei i. y.) ano?aoeeenue a
408 a. aei i. y.

e ia ?annoaaaeenue aei naiie nia?oe Nie?aoa. A 20 eao Ieaoii, iiaeathuee
iii-

aeanoaaiiua iaaeaaeaeu aiaeoeeiciue thiioa, aioiaeeny o/anoaiaaoue a
iiyoe/a-

neii ni?aaiiaaiee eae aaoi? o?aaaaeee e neo/aeii ia?aae oaao?ii oneuoae
aeen-

eonneth, a eioi?ie o/anoaiaae Nie?ao. Iia ianoieueei aai oaeaeea, /oi ii
naeaa

naie noeoe e ?aoee iinayoeoue naay eneeth/eoaeueii oeeinioee.

Yoio neo/ae aue ia noieueei oaeeaeoaeai, neieueei caeiiiia?ai – ?a/e Ni-

e?aoa auee niiniaiu iiiaioaeueii ieieaeiaaoue /aeiaaea. Aeaaea oneuoaa
eo a

iaoiaeii eceiaeaiee, nia?aiaiieee /oanoaiaaee iaiaeeaeaiiia aieiaiea e
o?a-

iao, a iaeiaaeaeu i?eiya o/anoea a aeeneonnee, iiiaea iaana-

aaea. Nie?aoa e?iia iiiai/eneaiiuo o/aieeia anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaee oieiu
ca-

aae, iaaaaeanoai eioi?uo ia iicaieyei iiiyoue anae aeoaeiu aai iuneae,
ii na-

ia ?a/ue caai?aaeeaaea. Ianoieueei aa niaea?aeaiea eiio?anoe?iaaei n
oi?iie, ia

aiai?y oae i aiaoiinoe Nie?aoa. Ii ecaaaae o?aaeeoeeiiiuo i?aoi?neeo
i?ea-

iia, cae?oaeaiee ia?eiaeia e i?i/aai oe?aoaoaeuenoaa, aai ?aceay e
io?uaenoay

?a/ue auea aeeaea e i?inoiia?iaeiie. Aai oeao?a e iaia?u niio?aeenue ia
eia/a

eae aucia o?aaeeoeeiiiui eaeaaeai aioe/iie oeeaeeecaoeee n aa aeaneii e
ein-

eii e iieeiiaieai oi?iaeueiie e?anioa. .

Oaeeaeoaeueii nei?aa oi, /oi Ieaoii niia acaaoaiii ioianoenue e o/aieth

Nie?aoa, ia n?aco n iei nae?oaeeeny, ia?aeeaeueii eco/ae e ae?oaea
oeeinioneea

oeieu, iieiaeaiey eioi?uo caeinoaiaae aieaa ioe?iaaiii. Ceua ycuee
ooaa?-

aeaeaee, /oi , iaeii ec aeaaiuo aai ni/eiaiee, ia /oi eiia, eae
ia?aneac

iaeiie ieoaai?aeneie eieae, eoieaiiie ca aaniineiaioth oeaio. Oai ia
iaiaa

aiineaaenoaee iie noaiiayony aeeceeie ae?ocueyie. Ca ainaiue eao
ae?oaeau Nie?ao

aeae Ieaoiio oi, /aai aio ia oaaoaei: oaa?aeoth aa?o a nouanoaiaaiea
enoeiu e

aunoeo oeaiiinoae aeecie, eioi?ua iiciathony /a?ac i?eiauaiea e aeaao e
e?a-

nioa o?oaeiui iooai aioo?aiiaai naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey. Nie?ao n/eoae
Iea-

oiia iaeiei ec ethaeiaeoeo naieo o/aieeia. Ieaoii anaaaea auniei oeaiee
Ni-

e?aoa e eae /aeiaaea e eae iuneeoaey. Eiaaea Nie?aoa noaeeee, Ieaoii
iiaeaioi-

aee ieaiaiioth ?a/ue a aai caueoo, oioy Nie?ao e aic?aaeae, /oiau aai
eoi-eeai

caueuae ia noaea. Iani?aaaaeeeaia inoaeaeaiea Nie?aoa neeueii iiaeeyei
ia Iea-

oiia. Ii oae caaieae, /oi ia niia i?eaeoe i?enoonoaiaaoue i?e aai
nia?oe. Aii-

neaaenoaee noeaia nia?oe Nie?aoa noaea nthaeaoii iaeiiai ec aai
auaeathueony ni-

/eiaiee.

Naiaia?aciui ia?oeioai?iui iaiyoieeii iuneeoaeth noaei /anoia

oiio?aaeaiea a aeeaeiaao Ieaoiia ia?aca Nie?aoa, eae ia?niiaaea,
aiai?yuaai

. Oioy e ia ana ?a/e yoiai ia?niiaaea iu iiaeai n/eoaoue
Nie?aoia-

neeie, ii yoi iaeei ec iaiiiaeo aeioaaeoeo aei iaoaai a?aiaie
enoi/ieeia.

Aoi?ie enoi/iee – Enaiioiioa, aieaa iaaeaeae e iiaa?oii-

noai, ii aeaaiaea?y aio oaeaeinue ioaeaeeoue eaeae Nie?aoa io eaeae
Ieaoiia, aei-

aeaiiuo ei a onoa Nie?aoa-ia?niiaaea.

Nie?ao :

Nie?ao – i?aaenoaaeoaeue eaeaaeenoe/aneiai ?aeeaeicii – i?aanoaaiiiai

ie?iaicc?aiey, ioe?uoi a?aaeaeaaiiai iaoa?eaeecio. Aia?aua eiaiii Nie?ao

niciaoaeueii iinoaaee ia?aae niaie caaea/o iainiiaaiey eaeaaeecia e
aunooiee

i?ioea aioe/iiai iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai ie?iiiieiaiey, anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai

ciaiey e aacaiaeey. Nie?ao enoi?e/anee aue ca/eiaoaeai “oaiaeaioeee, eee
ee-

iee Ieaoiia ” a aioe/iie oeeinioee.

Nie?ao – aaeeeee aioe/iue ioae?aoe, – noieo o enoieia ?aoeeiiaeenoe/a-

neeo e i?inaaoeoaeueneeo o?aaeeoeee aa?iiaeneie iunee. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
au-

aeathuaany ianoi a enoi?ee ii?aeueiie oeeinioee e yoeee, eiaeee,
aeeaeaeoeea,

iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee. Aeeyiea, ieacaiiia ei ia i?ia?ann
/aeiaa-

/aneiai iiciaiey, iuouaaony aei iaoeo aeiae. Ii iaanaaaea aioae a
aeooiaioth

eoeueoo?o /aeiaa/anoaa.

Ia?ac aeecie Nie?aoa, i?aanoaaiiua e iieeoe/aneea eieeecee a aai

noaeueaa, iiioey?iue noeeue oeeinionoaiaaiey, aieineay aeiaeanoue e
ioaeanoai,

o?aae/aneee oeiae – ie?oaeeee aai eiy i?eoyaaoaeueiui i?aieii
eaaaiaea?ii-

noe. Neaaa, eioi?ie Nie?ao oaeinoieeny aua i?e aeecie, eaaei
ia?aaeeaaea oea-

eua yiioe e, ia iiia?eioa, neaicue oieuo aeaoo n iieiaeiie ouny/aeaoee
aeio-

ea aei iaoeo aeiae. Nie?aoii eioa?aniaaeenue e oaeaeaeenue ai ana
a?aiaia. Io

aaea e aaeo aoaeeoi?ey aai niaanaaeieeia eciaiyeanue, ii ia oauaaea. E
naaiaeiy

iia, ianiiiaiii, iiiaiethaeiaa, /ai eiaaea au oi ie auei. A oeaio?a
nie?aoia-

neie iunee – oaia /aeiaaea, i?iaeaiu aeecie e nia?oe, aeia?a e cea,
aeia?iaea-

oaeae e i?i?ieia, i?aaa e aeieaa, naiaiaeu e ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
iauanoaa. E

nie?aoianeea aanaaeu – iio/eoaeueiue e aaoi?eoaoiue i?eia? oiai, eae
iiaeii

i?eaioe?iaaoueny a /aua yoeo aa/ii aeooaeueiuo aii?inia. Ia?auaiea e
Nie?a-

oo ai ana a?aiaia auei iiiuoeie iiiyoue naay e naia a?aiy. E iu, i?e
anai

naiaia?acee iaoae yiioe e iiaecia caaea/, ia eneeth/aiea.

Nie?ao – i?eioeeieaeueiue a?aa eco/aiey i?e?iaeu. ?aaioo /aeiaa/aneiai

?acoia a yoii iai?aaeaiee ii n/eoaao ia/anoeaui e aanieiaeiui
aiaoaoaeue-

noaii a aeaei aiaia. Ie? i?aaenoaaeyaony Nie?aoo oai?aieai aiaeanoaa,
“noieue

aaeeeiai e anaiiaouaai, /oi iii ana n?aco e aeaeeo, e neuoeo, e
iianthaeo i?e-

noonoaoao, e iai anai eiaao iiia/aiea”. Ioaeiu aaaeaiey, a ia iao/iua
ennea-

aeiaaiey, /oiau iieo/eoue oeacaiey aiaia ioiineoaeueii eo aiee. E a
yoii io-

iioaiee Nie?ao ie/ai ia ioee/aeny io ethaiai iaaaaeanoaaiiiai aeeoaey

Aoei. Ii neaaeiaae oeacaieyi aeaeueoeeneiai i?aeoea e niaaoiaae
aeaeaoue yoi

naiei o/aieeai. Nie?ao aeeo?aoii i?eiinee aea?oau aiaai e aiiaua
noa?a-

oaeueii auiieiye ana ?aeeaeiciua ia?yaeu.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae oeeinioee Nie?ao i?eciaaae iainiiaaiea ?aeeaeic-

ii-i?aanoaaiiiai ie?iaicc?aiey, iiciaiea aea i?e?iaeu, iaoo?oeeinioeth
n/e-

oae aeaeii iaioaeiui e aacaiaeiui.

Niiiaiea (“y ciath, /oi ie/aai ia ciath”) aeieaeii auei, ii o/aieth Ni-

e?aoa, i?eaanoe e naiiiiciaieth (“iiciae naiiai naay”). Oieueei oaeei
eiaee-

aeaeoaeenoe/aneei, iooai, o/ee ii, iiaeii i?eeoe e iiieiaieth
ni?aaaaeeeai-

noe, i?aaa, caeiia, aeaai/anoey, aeia?a e cea. Iaoa?eaeenou, eco/ay
i?e?iaeo,

i?eoee e io?eoeaieth aiaeanoaaiiiai ?acoia a ie?a, nioenou iiaeaa?aee
ni-

iiaieth e iniayee ana i?aaeiea acaeyaeu, – iaiaoiaeeii iiyoiio,
niaeanii Ni-

e?aoo, ia?aoeoueny e iiciaieth naiiai naay, /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa e a
iai iaeoe

iniiao ?aeeaee e ii?aee. Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiie oeeinioneee aii?in
Ni-

e?ao ?aoaao eae eaeaaeeno: ia?ae/iui aeey iaai yaeyaony aeoo,
niciaiey, i?e?i-

aea aea – yoi ia/oi aoi?e/iia e aeaaea ianouanoaaiiia, ia noiyuaa
aieiaiey oe-

einioa. Niiiaiea neoaeeei Nie?aoo i?aaeiinueeie aeey ia?auaiey e
nianoaai-

iiio ss, e noauaeoeaiiio aeooo, aeey eioi?iai aeaeueiaeoee iooue aae e
iauaeoea-

iiio aeooo – e aiaeanoaaiiiio ?acoio. Eaeaaeenoe/aneay yoeea Nie?aoa
ia?a?an-

oaao a oaieiaeth. ?acaeaay naia ?aeeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiia o/aiea, Nie?ao a
i?i-

oeaiiieiaeiinoue iaoa?eaeenoai, i?ecuaathuei “i?eneooeaaoueny e
i?e?iaea”,

nnueaoueny ia iniaue aioo?aiiee aiein, yeiau ianoaaeyaoee aai a
aaaeiaeoeo

aii?inao, – ciaiaieoue “aeaiii” Nie?aoa.

Nie?ao aunooiaao i?ioea aeaoa?ieiecia ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo iaoa?eaeenoia

e iaia/aao iniiau oaeaieiae/aneiai ie?iiiieiaiey, i?e/ai caeanue
enoiaeiui

ioieoii aeey iaai yaeyaony noauaeo, eai ii n/eoaao, /oi ana a ie?a eiaao
naiae

oeaeueth iieueco /aeiaaea.

Oaeaieiaey Nie?aoa aunooiaao a e?aeia i?eieoeaiie oi?ia. I?aaiu

/oanoa /aeiaaea, niaeanii yoiio o/aieth, naiae oeaeueth eiatho
auiieiaiea ii-

?aaeaeaiiuo caaea/: oeaeue aeac – aeaeaoue, ooae – neooaoue, iina –
iaiiyoue e o.i.

?aaiui ia?acii aiae iinueatho naao, iaiaoiaeeiue ethaeyi aeey c?aiey,
ii/ue

i?aaeiacia/aia aiaaie aeey ioaeuoa ethaeae, naao eoiu e caacae eiaao
naiae oeaeueth

iiiiaaoue ii?aaeaeaieth a?aiaie. Aiae caaioyony i oii, /oiau caiey
i?iecaiaee-

ea ieuo aeey /aeiaaea, aeey /aai aaaaeai niioaaonoaothuee ?anii?yaeie
a?aiai

aiaea; aieaa oiai, aeaeaeaiea nieioea i?ienoiaeeo ia oaeii ?annoiyiee
io caiee,

/oiau ethaee ia no?aaeaee io eceeoiaai oaiea eee /?acia?iiai oieiaea e
o.i.

Naiaai oeeinioneiai o/aiey Nie?ao a ienueiaiioth oi?io ia iaeaeae,

ii ?ani?ino?aiye aai iooai onoiie aanaaeu a oi?ia naiaia?aciiai,
iaoiaei-

eiae/anee iai?aaeaiiiai e ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee nii?a. Ia ia?aie/eaaynue
?oei-

aiaeyuae ?ieueth a i?aaeaeao naiaai oeeinionei – iieeoa/aneiai e?oaeea,
Nie?ao

a?iaeee ii Aoeiai e anthaeo – ia ieiuaaeyo, ia oeeoeao, a ianoao
iauanoaaiiuo

nia?aiee, ia caai?iaeiie eoaeaeea eee iiae i?aii?iui ii?oeeii – aae
“aanaaeu”

n aoeiyiaie e caacaeeie /oaeano?aioeaie, noaaee ia?aae ieie oeeinioneea,
?a-

eeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiua i?iaeaiu, aae n ieie aeeeoaeueiua nii?u, noa?aeny

iieacaoue, a /ai caeeth/aaony, ii aai oaaaeaeaieth, aeaenoaeoaeueii
ii?aeueiay

aeeciue, aunooiae i?ioea iaoa?eaeenoia e nioenoia, aae iaooiieioth
onoioth

i?iiaaaiaeo naiaai yoe/aneiai eaeaaeecia.

?ac?aaioea eaeaaeenoe/aneie ii?aee ninoaaeyao iniiaiia yae?i oeeinio-

neeo eioa?ania e caiyoee Nie?aoa. Iniaia cia/aiea Nie?ao i?eaeaaae
iicia-

ieth nouiinoe aeia?iaeaoaee. I?aanoaaiiue /aeiaae aeieaeai ciaoue, /oi
oaeia

aeia?iaeaoaeue. Ii?aeue e ciaiea n yoie oi/ee c?aiey niaiaaeatho; aeey
oiai, /oiau

auoue aeia?iaeaoaeueiui, iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue aeia?iaeaoaeue eae oaeiaoth,
eae

“anaiauaa”, neoaeauaa iniiaiie anao /anoiuo aeia?iaeaoaeae. Caaea/a
iaoiae-

aeaiey “anaiauaai” aeieaeai aue, ii iunee Nie?aoa, niinianoaiaaoue aai
ini-

aue oeeinioneee iaoiae. “Nie?aoneee” iaoiae, eiaaoee naiae caaea/ae
iaia-

?oaeaiea “enoeiu” iooai aanaaeu, nii?a, iieaieee, yaeeny enoi/ieeii
eaeaaee-

noe/aneie “aeeaeaeoeee”. “Iiae aeeaeaeoeeie iiieiaee a ae?aaiinoe
eneonnoai

aeiaeoueny enoeiu iooai ?ane?uoey i?ioeai?a/ee a noaeaeaiee i?ioeaieea e

i?aiaeieaiey yoeo i?ioeai?a/ee. A ae?aaiinoe iaeioi?ua oeeiniou
n/eoaee,

/oi ?ane?uoea i?ioeai?a/ee a iuoeaiee e noieeiiaaiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo

iiaiee yaeyaony eo/oei n?aaenoaii iaia?oaeaiey enoeiu”. Iaaeaeo oai
eae Aa-

?aeeeo o/ee i ai?ueaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, eae i aeaeaeouae neea
?acaeoey i?e-

?iaeu, nin?aaeioi/ea naia aieiaiea, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia iauaeoeaiie
aeeaeae-

oeea, Nie?ao, iie?aynue ia yeaeneoth oeieo ( Caiii ) e nioenoia (
I?ioaai? ),

aia?aua io/aoeeai iinoaaee aii?in i noauaeoeaiie aeeaeaeoeea, i
aeeaeaeoe-

/aneii niiniaa iuoeaiey. Iniiaiua ninoaaiua /anoe “nie?aoe/aneiai” iaoi-

aea: “e?iiey” e “iaeaaoeea” – ii oi?ia, “eiaeoeoeey” e “ii?aaeaeaiea”
– ii ni-

aea?aeaieth. “Nie?aoe/aneee” iaoiae – yoi i?aaeaea anaai iaoiae
iineaaeiaaoaeueii

e nenoaiaoe/anee caaeaaaaiuo aii?inia, eiathueo naiae oeaeueth
i?eaaaeaiea

niaanaaeieea e i?ioeai?a/eth n naiei niaie, e i?eciaieth nianoaaiiiai
iaaa-

aeanoaa. A yoii e ninoieo nie?aoianeay “e?iiey”. Iaeiaei Nie?ao
noaaee naiae

caaea/ae ia oieueei “e?iie/aneia” ?ane?uoea i?ioeai?a/ee a
ooaa?aeaeaieyo ni-

aanaaeieea, ii e i?aiaeieaiea yoeo i?ioeai?a/ee n oeaeueth aeiaeoueny
“enoeiu”.

Iiyoiio i?iaeieaeaieai e aeiiieiaieai “e?iiee” neoaeeea “iaeaaoeea” –

“iiaeaaeueiia eneonnoai” Nie?aoa ( iaiae ia i?ioanneth aai iaoa?e ).
Nie?ao

oioae yoei neacaoue, /oi ii iiiiaaao naiei neooaoaeyi ?iaeeoueny e
iiaie aeec-

ie, e iiciaieth “anaiauaai” eae iniiau enoeiiie ii?aee. Iniiaiay caaea/a

“nie?aoe/aneiai” iaoiaea – iaeoe “anaiauaa” a i?aanoaaiiinoe,
onoaiiaeoue

anaiauoth i?aanoaaiioth iniiao ioaeaeueiuo, /anoiuo aeia?iaeaoaeae.
Yoa caaea/a

aeieaeia auoue ?ac?aoaia i?e iiiiue naiaia?aciie “eiaeoeoeee” e

“ii?aaeaeaiey”.

Aanaaea Nie?aoa enoiaeeo ec oaeoia aeecie, ec eiie?aoiuo yaeaiee. Ii

n?aaieaaao ioaeaeueiua yoe/aneea oaeou, auaeaeyao ec ieo iauea yeaiaiou,

aiaeece?oao eo, /oiau iaia?oaeeoue i?aiyonoaothuaa eo iauaaeeiaieth
i?ioe-

ai?a/auea iiiaiou, e, a eiia/iii n/aoa, naiaeeo eo e aunoaio aaeeinoao
ia

iniiaa iouneaiiuo nouanoaaiiuo i?eciaeia. Oaeei iooai ii aeinoeaaao
ia-

uaai iiiyoey. Oae, iai?eia?, enneaaeiaaiea ioaeaeueiuo i?iyaeaiee
ni?aaaae-

eeainoe eee iani?aaaaeeeainoe ioe?uaaei aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey
iiiyoey

e nouiinoe ni?aaaaeeeainoe eee iani?aaaaeeeainoe aiiaua. “Eiaeoeoeey” e

“ii?aaeaeaiea” a aeeaeaeoeea Nie?aoa acaeiii aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa.
Anee

“eiaeoeoeey” – yoi iouneaiea iauaai a /anoiuo aeia?iaeaoaeyo iooai eo
aiaeeca

e n?aaiaiey, oi “ii?aaeaeaiea” – yoi onoaiiaeaiea ?iaeia e aeaeia, eo
niioii-

oaiey, “niiiae/eiaiey”. Aio eae, iai?eia?, a ?acaiai?a n Aaoeaeaiii,
aioi-

aeaoeiny e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e aeaeaaoei ciaoue, /oi
oaeia ni?a-

aaaeeeainoue e iani?aaaaeeeainoue, Nie?ao i?eiaiee naie
“aeeaeaeoe/aneee” ia-

oiae iuoeaiey. Nia/aea Nie?ao i?aaeeiaeee aeaea ni?aaaaeeeainoe
caiineoue a

a?aoo “aeaeueoa”, a aeaea iani?aaaaeeeainoe – a a?aoo “aeueoa”, caoai
ii ni?inee

Aaoeaeaia, eoaea caianoe eiaeue. Aaoeaeai i?aaeeiaeee caianoe eiaeue a
a?aoo “aeueoa”

(iani?aaaaeeeainoe). Oi aea i?aaeeiaeee ii e a ioiioaiee iaiaia,
ai?ianoaa e

iioeuaiey ethaeae aeey i?iaeaaee a ?aanoai. ?aaiui ia?acii ia aii?in
Nie?aoa

iiaeii ee /oi-eeai ec ia?a/eneaiiiai caianoe a a?aoo “aeaeueoa”

(ni?aaaaeeeainoe), Aaoeaeai ioaa/ae ?aoeoaeueiui io?eoeaieai. Oiaaea
Nie?ao

caaeae Aaoeaeaio aii?in oaeiai ?iaea: ni?aaaaeeeai ee ia?auaiea a
?aanoai aee-

oaeae iani?aaaaeeeaiai iai?eyoaeueneiai ai?iaea. Aaoeaeai i?eciae
iiaeiaiue

iinooiie ni?aaaaeeeaui. Oiaaea Nie?ao caaeae iiaeiaiue aea aii?in
ioiineoaeue-

ii iaiaia iai?eyoaey e ioiineoaeueii e?aaee e a?aaaaea aeia?a o
aeeoaeae ia-

i?eyoaeueneiai ai?iaea. Ana yoe iinooiee Aaoeaeai i?eciae
ni?aaaaeeeauie,

oeacaa, /oi ii ia?aiia/aeueii aeoiae, aoaeoi au aii?inu Nie?aoa
eanathony

oieueei ae?ocae. Oiaaea Nie?ao oeacae, /oi ana iinooiee, ia?aiia/aeueii
ioia-

naiiua e a?aoa iani?aaaaeeeainoe, neaaeoao iiianoeoue a a?aoo
ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Aaoeaeai niaeaneeny n yoei. Oiaaea Nie?ao cayaee, /oi,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaeiaa

“ii?aaeaeaiea” iai?aaeeueii e /oi neaaeoao auaeaeiooue iiaia
“ii?aaeaeaiea”: “Ii

ioiioaieth e a?aaai oaeea iinooiee ni?aaaaeeeau, a ii ioiioaieth e
ae?ocueyi

iani?aaaaeeeau, e ii ioiioaieth e iei, iai?ioea, neaaeoao auoue eae
iiaeii

ni?aaaaeeeaaa”. Iaeiaei e ia yoii Nie?ao ia inoaiiaeeny e, niiaa
i?eaaaay e

“eiaeoeoeee”, iieacae, /oi e yoi “ii?aaeaeaiea” iai?aaeeueii e o?aaoao
caiaiu

aai ae?oaei. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoiai ?acoeueoaoa Nie?ao niiaa
iaia?oaeeaaao i?i-

oeai?a/ey a iieiaeaiee, i?eciaiiii niaanaaeieeii ca enoeiiia,a eiaiii a
oa-

cena i oii, /oi a ioiioaiee ae?ocae neaaeoao aiai?eoue oieueei i?aaaeo.
I?aaeeueii

ee iinooieo aiaia/aeueiee, ni?aoeaaao Nie?ao, anee ii, aeey oiai /oiau
iiae-

iyoue aeoo aienea, nieaeao naiei aieiai, aoaeoi au i?eaeeaeathony
nithcieee.

Aaoeaeai niaeaoaaony, /oi iiaeiaiiai ?iaea iaiai ae?ocae neaaeoao
caianoe a

a?aoo “aeaeueoa”, a ia “aeueoa”, eae yoi i?aaeiieaaaaony i?aaeuaeouei

“ii?aaeaeaieai”. ?aaiui ia?acii, i?iaeieaeaao “eiaeoeoeeth” Nie?ao, ia
ni?a-

aaaeeeai ee aoaeao, anee ioaoe iaiaiao naiaai caaieaaoaai nuia, ia
aeaeathuaai

i?eieiaoue eaea?noai, e iiae aeaeii ieue canoaaeo aai yoi eaea?noai
i?eiyoue, e

oai naiui naiae eiaeueth aa?iao nuio caei?iauea. Aaoeaeai niaeaoaaony,
/oi e

oaeiai ?iaea iaiai neaaeoao i?eciaoue aeaeii ni?aaaaeeeaui. Oiaaea
Nie?ao

ni?aoeaaao aai, eae iacaaoue iinooiie oiai /aeiaaea, eioi?ue, aeaey
naiaai

ae?oaa a ninoiyiee io/ayiey e aiynue, eae au ii ia eii/ee aeeciue
naiioaeeno-

aii, oe?aaeao eee i?inoi ioieiao o iaai i?oaeea. Yoo e?aaeo, eee yoio
a?aaaae,

Aaoeaeai oaeaea auioaeaeai caianoe a a?aoo ni?aaaaeeeainoe, ia?ooay
niiaa

i?aaeuaeouaa “ii?aaeaeaiey” e i?eoiaey e auaiaeo, iiaeneacaiiiio
Nie?aoii, /oi

e n ae?ocueyie ia ai anao neo/ayo iaaei auoue i?aaaeeauie. Iinea yoiai
Nie?ao

ia?aoiaeeo e aii?ino i ?acee/ee aeia?iaieueiiai e iaaeia?iaieueiiai
iinooiea,

i?iaeieaeay naith “eiaeoeoeeth” e aeiaeaaynue iiaiai, aua aieaa
oi/iiai

“ii?aaeaeaiey” ni?aaaaeeeainoe e iani?aaaaeeeainoe. A eiia/iii eoiaa
iieo/a-

aony ii?aaeaeaiea iani?aaaaeeeauo iinooieia eae oao, eioi?ua
niaa?oathony a

ioiioaiee ae?ocaoe n iaia?aieai ei iaa?aaeeoue. Enoeia e
i?aanoaaiiinoue aeey

Nie?aoa – iiiyoey niaiaaeathuea. ” Iaaeaeo ioae?inoueth e
i?aanoaaiiinoueth Ni-

e?ao ia aeaeae ?acee/ey: ii i?eciaaae /aeiaaea aianoa e oiiui e
i?aanoaai-

iui, anee /aeiaae, iiieiay, a /ai ninoieo i?ae?aniia e oi?ioaa,
?oeiai-

aeeoueny yoei a naieo iinooieao6 e, iaiai?io, ciay, a /ai ninoieo
i?aanoaaiii

aacia?aciia, ecaaaaao aai…

Ni?aaaaeeeaua iinooiee e aiiaua ana iinooiee, iniiaaiiua ia aeia?i-

aeaoaee, i?ae?aniu e oi?ioe. Iiyoiio ethaee, ciathuea, a /ai ninoiyo
oaeea

iinooiee, ia caoioyo niaa?oeoue ieeaeie ae?oaie iinooiie aianoi
oaeiai, a

ethaee, ia ciathuea, ia iiaoo eo niaa?oeoue e, aeaaea anee iuoaoueny
niaa?oeoue,

aiaaeatho a ioeaeo. Oaeei ia?acii, i?ae?aniua e oi?ioea iinooiee
niaa?oa-

tho oieueei ioae?ua, a iaioae?ua ia iiaoo e, aeaaea anee iuoaoueny
niaa?oeoue,

aiaaeatho a ioeaeo. A oae eae ni?aaaaeeeaua e aiiaua ana i?ae?aniua e
oi?i-

oea iinooiee iniiaaiu ia aeia?iaeaoaee, oi ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi e
ni?aaaaeee-

ainoue e anyeay ae?oaay aeia?iaeaoaeue anoue ioae?inoue”.

Enoeiiay ni?aaaaeeeainoue, ii Nie?aoo, yoi ciaiea oiai, /oi oi?ioi e

i?ae?anii, aianoa n oai e iieacii /aeiaaeo, niinianoaoao aai
aeaaeainoao,

aeeciaiiiio n/anoueth.

O?aiy iniiaiuie aeia?iaeaoaeyie Nie?ao n/eoae:

1. Oia?aiiinoue (ciaiea, eae iaocaeuaaoue no?anoe)

2. O?aa?inoue (ciaiea, eae i?aiaeieaoue iianiinoe)

3. Ni?aaaaeeeainoue (ciaiea, eae niaethaeaoue caeiiu aiaeanoaaiiua e
/aeiaa/a-

neeo) Oieueei “aeaai?iaeiua ethaee” iiaoo i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia ciaiea. A

“caieaaeaeueoeu e ae?oaea ?aai/ea i/aiue aeaeaee io oiai, /oiau
ociaoue naieo na-

ay… aaaeue iie ciatho oieueei oi, /oi eiaao ioiioaiea e oaeo e
neoaeeo aio… A

iioiio, anee iiciaiea naiiai naay anoue i?eciae ?acoiiinoe, ieeoi ec
yoeo

ethaeae, ia iiaeao auoue ?acoiiui a neeo iaeiiai naiaai ?aianea”.
?aai/aio,

?aianeaiieeo, caieaaeaeueoeo, o.a. anaio aeaiino (ia aiai?y oaea i
?aaao), iaaein-

ooiii ciaiea.

Nie?ao aue iai?eie?eiui a?aaii aoeineeo ia?iaeiuo iann. Ii aue

eaeaieiaii a?enoie?aoee, aai o/aiea i iacuaeaiinoe, aa/iinoe e
iaeciaiii-

noe ii?aeueiuo ii?i au?aaeaao eaeaieiaeth eiaiii yoiai eeanna.
Nie?aoia-

neay i?iiiaaaeue aeia?iaeaoaee eiaea iieeoe/aneia iacia/aiea. Ii nai
aiai?eo

i naaa, /oi caaioeony, /oiau iiaeaioiaeoue eae iiaeii aieueoa eeoe,
niiniaiuo

i?eiyoueny ca iieeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue. I?e yoii iieeoe/aneia
ainieoaiea

aoeineiai a?aaeaeaieia aaeinue ei a oaeii iai?aaeaiee, /oiau
iiaeaioiaeoue

ainnoaiiaeaiey iieeoe/aneiai ainiiaenoaa a?enoie?aoee, aa?iooueny e
“caaaoai

iooeia”.

Ii Enaiioiioo, Nie?ao ainoi?aaaony “naiuie ae?aaieie e naiuie ia?a-

ciaaiiuie ainoaea?noaaie e ia?iaeaie”, iioiio /oi iie “naiua
iaaiaeiua”.

Aieueoa oiai: ” …ii aeoiaao, /oi aio ia nouaeii aoaeao acyoue ca
ia?acaoe ia?neae-

neiai oea?y”, iioiio /oi ia?neaeneee oea?ue n/eoaao caieaaeaeea e
aiaiiia eneon-

noai aeaai?iaeiaeoeie caiyoeyie. Caiey e aiaiiia eneonnoai – eneiiiay

i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue “aeaai?iaeiuo ainiiae”, ?iaeiaie caieaaeaaeaeue/aneie
a?enoi-

e?aoee. Nie?ao, ii Enaiioiioo, ainiaaaao caieaaeaeea. Ii aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue

noeeoue “oi?ioea iaauaiey ?aaai” e “i?eioi/eaaoue ?aai/eo e neeiiyoue
eo e

iineooaieth”. Naeueneia oicyenoai – iaoue e ei?ieeeoea anao eneonnoa,
enoi/-

iee aeeciaiiuo iio?aaiinoae aeey “aeey aeaai?iaeiiai ainiiaeeia”,
eo/oaa ca-

iyoea e eo/oay iaoea. Iii niiauaao oaeo e?anioo e neeo, iiaoaeaeaao e
o?aa?i-

noe, aeaao ioee/iuo e iaeaieaa i?aaeaiiuo iauaio aeaao a?aaeaeai. I?e
yoii

naeueneia oicyenoai i?ioeaiiieaaaaony ai?iaeneei caiyoeyi, ?aianeai eae

a?aaeyuei aeaeo e ?ac?ooathuei aeooo. Nie?ao ia noi?iia ionoaeie
aea?aaie –

i?ioea ai?iaea n aai ?aianeaie, i?iiuoeaiiinoueth e oi?aiaeae. Oaeia
eaeaae

Nie?aoa. Iaaei auei ainieoaoue aaeaioia yoiai eaeaaea. Ionthaea
iaonoaiiay, ia-

i?a?uaiay, eci aeiy a aeaiue aaaeouayny i?iiaaaiaee/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue Nie?aoa.

Nie?ao aanaaeoao i o?aa?inoe, aeaai?acoiee, ni?aaaaeeeainoe, ne?iiiinoe.
Ii

oioae au aeaeaoue a aoeineeo a?aaeaeaiao ethaeae o?aa?uo, ii ne?iiiuo,
ia o?a-

aiaaoaeueiuo, aeaai?acoiiuo, ni?aaaaeeeauo a ioiioaieyo ei naiei
ae?ocueyi,

ii ioithaeue ia e a?aaai. A?aaeaeaiei aeieaeai aa?eo a aiaia, i?eiineoue
ei aea?o-

au e aiiaua eniieiyoue ana ?aeeaeiciua ia?yaeu, iaaeayoueny ia ieeinoue
aiaia

e ia iicaieyoue naaa “aea?cinoe” eco/aoue ie?, iaai, ieaiaou. Neiaii,
a?aaeaea-

iei aeieaeai auoue nie?iui, aiaiaiyciaiiui, iineooiui i?oaeeai a ?oeao

“aeaai?iaeiuo ainiiae”.

Ie? eaeae Ieaoiia

Ie? ii Ieaoiio e ia oaeaniue einiin, eeoaiiue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, e

ia ioaeaeueiua iaoa?eaeueiua aaue, iaiieiythuea Anaeaiioth. I?ae?aniue,
ia-

oa?eaeueiue einiin, nia?aaoee iiiaeanoai aaeeie/iinoae a iaeii
ia?acaeaeueiia

oeaeia, aeeaao e aeuoeo, aanue iaiieiai aaneiia/iuie oece/aneeie neeaie,
ii

caoi ii oi?aaeyaony caeiiaie, iaoiaeyueieny aia aai, ca aai i?aaeaeaie.
Yoi

naiua iauea caeiiiia?iinoe, ii eioi?ui aeeaao e ?acaeaaaony aanue
einiin.

Iie ninoaaeytho iniaue iaaeeinie/aneee ie? e iacuaathony o Ieaoiia ie?ii

eaeae. Oaeaeaoue eo iiaeii ia oece/aneei c?aieai, a oinoaaiiui,
iuneaiii.

Eaeae, oi?aaeythuea Anaeaiiie, ia?ae/iu. Iie ii?aaeaeytho aeeciue
iaoa?eaeue-

iiai ie?a. Ie? eaeae iaoiaeeony aia a?aiaie, ii ia aeeaao, a i?aauaaao,
iiei-

eony a aa/iinoe. E naiay aunoay eaeay eaeae – yoi aano?aeoiia aeaai,
oiaeaeano-

aaiiia aaniethoiie e?anioa.

Ieaoiiianeee eaeaaeeci iioiio e iacuaaaony iauaeoeaiui, /oi ii i?e-

cia?o nouanoaiaaiea aiieia ?aaeueiiai, iacaaeneiiai io niciaiey
/aeiaaea, oi

anoue iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeueiiai auoey.

Iniiaiua oeeinioneea i?eioeeiu ieaoiiecia:

1. Eaeay aaue anoue niune aaue.

2. Eaeay aaue anoue oaeay oeaeueiinoue anao ioaeaeueiuo /anoae e
i?iyaeaiee

aaue, eioi?ay oaea ia aeaeeony ia ioaeaeueiua /anoe aeaiiie aaue e
i?aaenoaaeyao

niaith a n?aaiaiee n ieie oaea iiaia ea/anoai.

3. Eaeay aaue anoue oa iauiinoue ninoaaeythueo a? iniaaiiinoae e aaee-

ie/iinoae, eioi?ay yaeyaony caeiiii aeey aicieeiiaaiey e iieo/aiey yoeo
aaee-

ie/iuo i?iyaeaiee aaue.

4. Eaeay aaue iaaauanoaaiia.

5. Eaeay aaue iaeaaeaao naiei nianoaaiiui e aiieia naiinoiyoaeueiui

nouanoaiaaieai, iia oiaea anoue iniaiai ?iaea eaeaaeueiay aauue, eee
noanoaioeey,

eioi?ay a naiai iieiii e niaa?oaiiii aeaea nouanoaoao oieueei ia iaaa
eee

auoa iaaa.

Iaeiaei, neeueiie noi?iiie oeeinioee Ieaoiia, aai iieiaeeoaeueiui

aeeaaeii a enoi?eth oeeinioee iaiaa anaai yaeyaony aai iauaeoeaiue
eaeaaeeci

eae ie?iaicc?aiea. Iauaa ia inoaaony o Ieaoiia eeoue i?ioeainoiyuei
aaee-

ie/iiio, iii iniuneyao anyeoth aaeeie/iinoue e o?aeooao eae i?eioeei
aaeeie/-

iiai, eae caeii i?iyaeaiey yoiai aaeeie/iiai, eae iiaeaeue aai
iino?iaiey.

O/aiea i ainoaea?noaa

Nie?ao iaiaoee oae aea eeanneoeeaoeeth ainoaea?noaaiiuo oi?i, enoiaey

ec iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee naiaai yoeei-iieeoe/aneiai o/aiey.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua

oi?iu, oiiieiaaiua Nie?aoii, oaeiau: iiia?oey, oe?aiey, a?enoie?aoey,

ieooie?aoey e aeaiie?aoey. Iiia?oey, n oi/ee c?aiey Nie?aoa, oai
ioee/aaony

io oe?aiee, /oi iie?aaony ia caeiiiua i?aaa, a ia ia ianeeuenoaaiiue
caoaao

aeanoe, a iiyoiio e iaeaaeaao ii?aeueiui cia/aieai, ionoonoaothuei o
oe?aiee.

A?enoie?aoeth, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony eae aeanoue iaiiiaeo ciathueo e
ii?aeue-

iuo ethaeae, Nie?ao i?aaeii/eoaao anai ae?oaei ainoaea?noaaiiui oi?iai.

Ieaoii ?acaee e oniaa?oainoaiaae iieeoe/aneea eaeae naiaai o/eoaey.

Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneei aii?inai iinayuaiu ianeieueei i?iecaaaeaiee
Iea-

oiia: o?aeoao “Ainoaea?noai”, aeeaeiae “Caeiiu”, “Iieeoee”. Ana iie
iaienaiu a

aeai?a aeeaeiaa iaaeaeo Nie?aoii e ae?oaeie a?a/aneeie oeeinioaie,
iai?eia?,

Aeaaeiiii, Aaeeiaioii, Eaoaeii. A naieo i?iecaaaeaieyo Ieaoii aiai?eo i

iiaeaee “eaeaaeueiiai”, eo/oaai ainoaea?noaa. Yoa iiaeaeue ia anoue
iienaiea eaei-

ai-eeai nouanoaothuaai no?iy, nenoaiu, a, iai?ioea, iiaeaeue oaeiai
ainoaea?no-

aa, eioi?iai ieaaea e ieeiaaea ia auei, ii eioi?ia aeieaeii aicieeiooue,
oi anoue

Ieaoii aiai?eo ia eaeaa ainoaea?noaa, nicaeaao i?iaeo, ooiieth. Aaoi?
iaiaeii-

e?aoii i?iaiaae aiieioeoue a aeeciue naie i?iaeo iioeiaeueiiai
ainoaea?noaai-

iiai oi?aaeaiey. Ia Neoeeeee, a Ne?aeocao, ai a?aiaia Ieaoiia auei
i?aaea-

iea i?inaauaiiiai oe?aia Aeeiieney, a aai oo?ei Aeaii aue iieeiiieeii

Ieaoiia. Iiiuoee aoeineiai oeeinioa i?eiaieoue naie oai?ee anee ia aeey

oi?aaeaiey anae oa??eoi?eae, oi oioy au iaaieueoei naeaieai, aaeaa ia
caeii-

/eeenue aeaaeueth, e oieueei ec-ca Aeeiia aai oieueei i?iaeaee a
?aanoai. Aiieea-

?eae, aeeoaeue Yaeiu, ociaa a aioiaii aeey i?iaeaaee iaaieueieea
ecaanoiiai oeei-

nioa, eoiee aai e iaiaaeeaiii aeae aio naiaiaeo. Oae aea aanneaaii
caeii/eeenue e

aeaa iineaaeothuea iiiuoee ono?ieoue a Ne?aeocao ainoaea?noaaiiia
oi?aaeaiea

ia iniiaao ?acoia.

Ieaoiia iiiaia a oaea nouanoaothueo ainoaea?noaao ia ono?aeaaei i?ei-

oeeieaeueii. A o?aeoaoa “Ainoaea?noai” Ieaoii ieoao i oii, /oi aeaaiay
i?e/eia

ii?/e iauanoa e ainoaea?noa (eioi?ua eiaaea-oi, ai a?aiaia “cieioiai
aaea”

eiaee “niaa?oaiiue” no?ie) caeeth/aia a “ainiiaenoaa ei?unoiuo
eioa?ania”,

iaoneaaeeaathueo iinooiee e iiaaaeaiea ethaeae. A niioaaonoaee n yoei
iniia-

iui iaaeinoaoeii Ieaoii iiae?acaeaeyao ana nouanoaothuea ainoaea?noaa ia
/aou-

?a ?aciiaeaeiinoe a ii?yaeea oaaee/aiey, ia?anoaiey “ei?unoiuo
eioa?ania” a

eo no?ia.

1. Oeiie?aoey aeanoue /anoiethaoeaa, ii iiaieth Ieaoiia, aua nio?aieea
/a?ou

“niaa?oaiiiai” no?iy. A ainoaea?noaa oaeiai oeia i?aaeoaee e aieiu auee
nai-

aiaeiu io caieaaeaeue/aneeo e ?aianeaiiuo ?aaio. Aieueoia aieiaiea
oaeaeyaony

nii?oeaiui oi?aaeiaieyi, iaeiaei oaea caiaoii no?aieaiea e iaiaauaieth,
e

“i?e o/anoee aeai” nia?oaineee ia?ac aeecie ia?aoiaeeo a ?ineioiue, /oi
iao-

neaaeeaaao ia?aoiae e ieeaa?oee.

2. Ieeaa?oey. A ieeaa?oe/aneii ainoaea?noaa oaea eiaaony /aoeia
?acaeaeaiea ia

aiaaouo (i?aayuee eeann) e aaaeiuo, eioi?ua aeaeatho aiciiaeiie
niaa?oaiii

aaccaaioioth aeeciue i?aayuaai eeanna. ?acaeoea ieeaa?oee, ii oai?ee
Ieaoiia,

i?eaiaeeo e aa ia?a?iaeaeaieth a aeaiie?aoeth.

3. Aeaiie?aoey. Aeaiie?aoe/aneee no?ie aua aieaa oneeeaaao
?aciauaiiinoue

aaaeiuo e aiaaouo eeannia iauanoaa, aicieeatho ainnoaiey, e?iaii?ieeoey,

ai?ueaa ca aeanoue, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e aicieeiiaaieth iaeooaeoae
ainoaea?no-

aaiiie nenoaiu oe?aiee.

4. Oe?aiey. Ii iiaieth Ieaoiia, anee iaeia aeaenoaea aeaeaaony neeoeii
neeue-

ii, oi yoi i?eaiaeeo e i?ioeaiiieiaeiiio ?acoeueoaoo. Oae e caeanue:
ecauoie nai-

aiaeu i?e aeaiie?aoee i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth ainoaea?noaa, aiiaua ia

eiathuaai naiaiaeu, aeeaouaai ii i?eoioe iaeiiai /aeiaaea oe?aia.

Io?eoeaoaeueiua oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe Ieaoii i?ioeaiiinoaa-

eyao naiaio aeaeaieth “eaeaaeueiiai” iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa. Ia?iiiia
aie-

iaiea aaoi? oaeaeyao ii?aaeaeaieth a ainoaea?noaa ianoa i?aayuaai
eeanna. Ii

aai iiaieth, i?aaeoaeyie “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu auoue
eneeth/e-

oaeueii oeeiniou, aeey oiai /oiau a ainoaea?noaa aeanoaiaaee
?annoaeeoaeueiinoue,

?acoi. Eiaiii oeeiniou iaoneaaeeaatho aeaaininoiyiea, ni?aaaaeeeainoue
ai-

noaea?noaa Ieaoiia, aaaeue ei naienoaaiiu “…i?aaaeeainoue,
?aoeoaeueiia iai?e-

yoea eaeie au oi ie auei eaee, iaiaaenoue e iae e ethaiaue e enoeia”.
Ieaoii

n/eoaao, /oi ethaia iiaoanoai a eaeaaeueiii ainoaea?noaa iaecaaaeii
oooaeoeo aai

(iaeuecy oeo/oeoue “eaeaaeueiia”). I/aaeaeii, /oi eiaiii oeeiniou aoaeoo
io?a-

iyoue “eaeaaeueiue” no?ie, caeiiu io any/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee, aaaeue iie
iaeaaeatho

“…anaie ea/anoaaie i?aaeoaeae e no?aaeae eaeaaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa”.
Eiaiii

iiyoiio aeayoaeueiinoue oeeinioia iaoneaaeeaaao nouanoaiaaiea
“eaeaaeueiiai”

ainoaea?noaa, aai iaeciaiiinoue. Ii nouanoao, oeeiniou io?aiytho
inoaeueiuo

ethaeae io ii?iea, eaeei yaeyaony ethaia iiaiaaaaeaiea a ainoaea?noaa
Ieaoiia.

Ia iaiaa aaaeii e oi, /oi aeaaiaea?y oeeinioai i?aaeaiea e any aeeciue

“eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa aoaeao iino?iaia ii caeiiai ?acoia,
ioae?inoe, oai ia

aoaeao ianoa ii?uaai aeooe e /oanoaai.

Anee a ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia nouanoaotho ethaee, eioi?ua caieiathony ca-

eiiaie e ono?ienoaii ainoaea?noaa, oi anoanoaaiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a
iai

nouanoaotho e ethaee, caieiathueany eneeth/eoaeueii caieaaeaeeai,
?aianeii.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iniiaiie caeii nouanoaiaaiey “eaeaaeueiiai”
ainoaea?noaa ni-

noieo a oii, /oi eaaeaeue /eai iauanoaa iaycai auiieiyoue oieueei oi
aeaei, e ei-

oi?iio ii i?eaiaeai.

Anao aeeoaeae “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa aaoi? ?acaeaeyao ia o?e
eeanna.

Iecoee eeann iauaaeeiyao ethaeae, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyo iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
aino-

aea?noaa aaue eee niinianoaotho yoiio; a iaai aoiaeyo naiua ?aciua
ethaee, nay-

caiiua n ?aianeii, caieaaeaeeai, ?uii/iuie iia?aoeeyie, aeaiueaaie,
oi?aiaeae

e ia?ai?iaeaaeae yoi caieaaeaeueoeu, ?aianeaiieee, oi?aiaoeu. Ia niio?y
ia oi,

/oi oi?aiaoeaie e caieaaeaeueoeaie iiaoo auoue niaa?oaiii ?acee/iua
ethaee, ana

iie, ii Ieaoiio, noiyo i?eaeeceoaeueii ia iaeiie nooiaie i?aanoaaiiiai
?acae-

oey. Aioo?e yoiai iecoaai eeanna oaeaea nouanoaoao /aoeia ?acaeaeaiea
o?oaea:

eociaoe ia iiaeao caiyoueny oi?aiaeae, a oi?aiaaoe ii nianoaaiiie
i?eoioe ia

iiaeao noaoue caieaaeaeueoeai.

I?eiaaeeaaeiinoue /aeiaaea ei aoi?iio e o?aoueaio eeannai, a yoi eeannu

aieiia-no?aaeae e i?aaeoaeae-oeeinioia, ii?aaeaeyaony oaea ia ii
i?ioannei-

iaeueiui, a ii i?aanoaaiiui e?eoa?eyi. I?aanoaaiiua ea/anoaa yoeo
ethaeae

Ieaoii noaaeo ai?acaei auoa i?aanoaaiiuo ea/anoa ia?aiai eeanna.

Oae Ieaoii nicaeaao oioaeeoa?ioth nenoaio ?acaeaeaiey ethaeae ia
?ac?yaeu,

eioi?ay iaiiiai niya/aaony aiciiaeiinoueth ia?aoiaea ec eeanna a eeann
(yoi aein-

oeaaaony iooai aeeeoaeueiiai ainieoaiey e naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey).
Ia?aoiae

yoio inouanoaeyaony iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii i?aaeoaeae. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi anee
aeaaea

n?aaee i?aaeoaeae iiyaeony /aeiaae, aieueoa iiaeoiaeyuee aeey iecoaai
eeanna,

oi aai iaiaoiaeeii “iiieceoue” aac niaeaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, Ieaoii
n/eoaao,

/oi aeey aeaaininoiyiey ainoaea?noaa eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeieaeai
caieiaoueny oai

aeaeii, aeey eioi?iai ii i?eniiniaeai iaeeo/oei ia?acii. Anee /aeiaae
aoaeao

caieiaoueny ia naiei aeaeii, ii aioo?e naiaai eeanna, oi yoi aua ia
aeaaeueii

aeey “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa. Eiaaea aea /aeiaae iacaneoaeaiii ec
naiiaeieea

(ia?aue eeann) noaiiaeony aieiii (aoi?ie eeann), eee aea aiei
iacaneoaeaiii

noaiiaeony i?aaeoaeai (o?aoee eeann), oi yoi a?iceo e?aoii anaio
ainoaea?noao,

iiyoiio oaeie “ia?aneie” n/eoaaony “aunoei i?anooieaieai” i?ioea
nenoaiu,

aaaeue aeey aeaaa anaai ainoaea?noaa a oeaeii /aeiaae aeieaeai aeaeaoue
oieueei oi aea-

ei, e eioi?iio ii iaeeo/oei ia?acii i?eniiniaeai.

Aneaae ca Nie?aoii, n/eoaaoei o?aiy iniiaiuie aeia?iaeaoaeyie oia-

?aiiinoue (ciaiea, eae iaocaeuaaoue no?anoe), o?aa?inoue (ciaiea, eae
i?aiaeieaoue

iianiinoe), ni?aaaaeeeainoue (ciaiea, eae niaethaeaoue caeiiu
aiaeanoaaiiua e /a-

eiaa/aneeo), Ieaoii ieoao i oii, /oi “eaeaaeueiia” ainoaea?noai aeieaeii
iaea-

aeaoue, ii iaiueoae ia?a, /aou?ueiy aeaaiuie aeia?iaeaoaeyie:
ioae?inoueth, ioaea-

noaii, ?annoaeeoaeueiinoueth, ni?aaaaeeeainoueth.

Ioae?inoueth ia iiaoo iaeaaeaoue ana aeeoaee ainoaea?noaa, ii
i?aaeoaee-

oeeiniou, eca?aiiua ethaee, aaconeiaii, ioae?u e i?eieiatho ioae?ua
?aoaiey.

Ioaeanoaii iaeaaeaao aieueoaa eiee/anoai ethaeae, yoi ia oieueei
i?aaeoaee-

oeeiniou, ii e aieiu-no?aaee. Anee ia?aua aeaa aeia?iaeaoaee auee
oa?aeoa?iu

oieueei aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo eeannia ethaeae, oi ?annoaeeoaeueiinoue
aeieaeia auoue

i?enoua anai aeeoaeyi, iia “iiaeiaia iaeie aa?iiiee”, iia “iano?aeaaao
ia

naie eaae ?aoeoaeueii ana oeaeeeii”. Iiae /aoaa?oie aeia?iaeaoaeueth
ni?aaaaeeeai-

noueth aaoi? iiieiaao oaea ?anniio?aiiia aeaeaiea ethaeae ia ?ac?yaeu,
eanou:

“…caieiaoueny naiei aeaeii e ia aiaoeaaoueny a /oaeea yoi anoue
ni?aaaaeeeainoue”.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?acaeaeaiea ethaeae ia eeannu eiaao aeey Ieaoiia
ia?iiiia cia-

/aiea, ii?aaeaeyao nouanoaiaaiea “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa (aaaeue iii
ia iiaeao

auoue iani?aaaaeeeaui), e oiaaea iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi ia?ooaiea
eanoiaiai no?iy

n/eoaaony aunoei i?anooieaieai. Oae ainoaea?noai Ieaoiia iacaiaoii,
?aaee

eo/oae oeaee, i?eia?aoaao oa iaaeinoaoee, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaae nai
aaoi?,

iienuaay “ii?i/iua” ainoaea?noaa (iai?eia?, ?anneiaiea iauanoaa a
ieeaa?oe-

/aneii ainoaea?noaa).

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi Ieaoii, aeeaoee ai a?aiaia anaiauaai ?aaiaeaaeaeue/a-

neiai no?iy, ia oaeaeyao ?aaai iniaiai aieiaiey. A “Ainoaea?noaa” ana
i?iec-

aiaenoaaiiua caaiou aiceaaathony ia ?aianeaiieeia e caieaaeaeueoeaa.
Caeanue aea

Ieaoii ieoao, /oi a ?aanoai iiaeii ia?auaoue oieueei “aa?aa?ia”,
iayeeeiia, ai

a?aiy aieiu. Iaeiaei ii aea aiai?eo, /oi aieia cei, aicieeathuaa a
ii?i/iuo

ainoaea?noaao “aeey iaiaauaiey”, e a “eaeaaeueiii” ainoaea?noaa aieiu
neaaeoao ec-

aaaaoue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia aoaeao e ?aaia. Eae ienae A.O. Anion, a
o?aeoaoa

“Ainoaea?noai” “…eeann ?aaia eae iaeei ec iniiaiuo eeannia
ia?acoeiaiai aino-

aea?noaa ia i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, ia oeacuaaaony, ia iacuaaaony”. Yoi ia
cia/eo,

/oi aaoi? aunooiaao i?ioea oaiaoaiey /aeiaaea /aeiaaeii, i?inoi, ii aai
iia-

ieth, aunoea ?ac?yaeu (eanou) ia aeieaeiu eiaoue /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe,
/oiau

nio?aieoue aaeeinoai. Oai ia iaiaa, a aeeaeiaa “Caeiiu”, aaea oaeaea
ianoaeaeathony

i?iaeaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, Ieaoii ia?aeeaaeuaaao iniiaiua
oi-

cyenoaaiiua caaiou ia ?aaia e /oaeano?aioeaa, ii inoaeaeaao aieiu.

A nayce n ?anniio?aiiui ?acaeaeaieai ethaeae ia ?ac?yaeu aicieeaao ai-

i?in: eoi aea aicueiao ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey niiniaiinoe
/aei-

aaea e iaeiaio aeaeo, e oieueei e iaio? Ii-aeaeeiiio, a “eaeaaeueiii”
ainoaea?noaa

yoo ooieoeeth aicueioo ia naay ioae?aeoea e ni?aaaaeeeaaeoea ethaee
i?aaeoaee-

oeeiniou. I?e yoii iie, anoanoaaiii, aoaeoo auiieiyoue caeii, aaaeue
caeii aaae-

iaeoay ninoaaeythuay “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa, e aai auiieiytho ana
aac en-

eeth/aiey (aeioiaeeo aei oiai, /oi aeaoe aeieaeiu ea?aoue (!) ii caeiiai
ainoaea?no-

aa). Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeoaee-oeeiniou aa?oao noaeueau anao inoaeueiuo
eth-

aeae. Iie ia oieueei ii?aaeaeytho niiniaiinoe /aeiaaea, ii e
inouanoaeytho ?aa-

eaiaioaoeeth a?aea, eiatho i?aai (e aeieaeiu) oaeaaoue iaeieaoieo aeaoae
n oece-

/aneeie iaaeinoaoeaie (caeanue, eae e a iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo neo/ayo,
Ieaoii aa?ao

ca ia?acaoe ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai nia?aiaiiie aio Nia?ou).

Oeeiniou, ia iniiaao ?acoia, oi?aaeytho inoaeueiuie eeannaie, ia?a-

ie/eaay eo naiaiaeo, a aieiu ea?atho ?ieue “niaae”, aea?aeaueo a
iiaeiiaaiee

iecoaa “noaaei”. Yoei onoaoaeyaony e aac oiai aeanoieia ?acaeaeaiea ia
?ac?yaeu .

Iai?eia?, aieiu ia aeeaoo a iaeieo ianoao n ?aianeaiieeaie, ethaeueie
o?oaea.

Ethaee “iecoae” ii?iaeu nouanoaotho aeey iaania/aiey “aunoeo” anai
iaiaoi-

aeeiui. “Aunoea” aea io?aiytho e iai?aaeytho “iecoeo”, oie/oiaeay
neaaaeoeo

e ?aaeaiaioe?oy aeeciue inoaeueiuo.

Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi oaeay ananoi?iiiyy iaei/iay ?aaeaiaioaoeey

aaaeiaeoeo iinooieia /aeiaaea, eioi?ua ii, ii nia?aiaiiui iiiyoeyi,
aeie-

aeai ?aoaoue nai, i?eaaaeao e ?aciauaieth ethaeae, iaaeiaieuenoao,
caaenoe. Iaeiaei

a “eaeaaeueiii” ainoaea?noaa yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeo, iai?ioea, aaeeinoai
ethaeae

Ieaoii n/eoaao iniiaie oaeiai ainoaea?noaa. Ai a?aiaia ae?aaiinoe,
“cieioiai

aaea”, eiaaea naie aiae oi?aaeyee ethaeueie, ethaee ?iaeaeaeenue ia io
ethaeae, eae

nae/an, ii io naiie caiee. Ethaee ia ioaeaeaeenue a iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaaao
e iiiai

a?aiaie iinayuaee caiyoeyi oeeinioeae. Ai iiiaii aaeeinoai ae?aaieo iao-

neaaeeaaeinue ionoonoaeai ?iaeeoaeae (o anao iaeia iaoue caiey). Ieaoii
oi/ao

aeinoe/ue oiai aea ?acoeueoaoa, “iaiauanoaea” ia oieueei ethaeneia
eiouanoai, ii e

aeai, aeaoae. Aaoi? oi/ao, /oiau ieeoi ia iia neacaoue: “Yoi iiy aauue”,
eee “Yoi

iiy aeaia”. Ii eaeaa Ieaoiia, ioae/eiu e aeaiueiu ia aeieaeiu anooiaoue
a a?ae

ii nianoaaiiie i?eoioe. Ieacuaaaony, a?aeii oaeii oi?aaeytho oeeiniou,
ni-

aieoieyy eo/oeo n eo/oeie, a ooaeoeo n ooaeoeie. Iinea ?iaeia aeaoe
ioae?a-

thony, e ioaeathony iaoa?yi /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy, i?e/ai ieeoi ia
ciaao, /ae

?aaaiie aio aeinoaeny, e ana ioae/eiu (a i?aaeaeao eanou) n/eoathony
iooeaie

anao aeaoae, a ana aeaiueiu iaueie aeaiaie anao ioae/ei. Eae ienae
A.Anion,

aeey Ieaoiia iauiinoue aeai e aeaoae yaeyaony aunoae oi?iie aaeeinoaa
ethaeae.

Oaeay iauiinoue iienaia ei aeey eeanna aieiia-no?aaeae, eioi?ui aaoi?
oaeaeyao

ia?iiiia aieiaiea. Ii aai iiaieth, ionoonoaea a?aaeaeu aioo?e eeanna
no?aaeae

iiaea/ao ca niaie aaeeinoai iecoaai eeanna e ionoonoaea ainnoaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aayuea eeannu ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia ninoaaeytho eii-

ioienoe/aneia aaeeinoai. Yoio eiiioieci, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, ia
aeiioneaao

n?aaee aunoeo eeannia aaaeiinoe eee aiaaonoaa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii
eiaeea aa-

oi?a, oie/oiaeaao n?aaee ieo ?acaei?u. I?iia?ac aeanoe o Ieaoiia yoi
ianooo,

ianouee noaaei. Anee i?eaaaiooue e yoiio n?aaiaieth, oi a “eaeaaeueiii”
ainoaea?-

noaa ianoooe yoi i?aaeoaee, aieiu yoi noi?iaeaaua niaaee. *oiau
oaea?aeaoue

noaaei iaaoe a ii?yaeea, ianoooe e niaaee aeieaeiu auoue aaeeiu a naieo
aeaenoaeyo,

/aai e aeiaeaaaony aaoi?. Ieaoiiianeia ainoaea?noai ia?auaaony n

“/aeiaa/aneei noaaeii”, eae ioae?ue, ii aeanoieina?aeiue ianooo ni
naieie ia-

oeaie. Yoiai ne?anoeoue n oai-oi, yoeo ia aieith. Aeaeii, /oi, ii iaoei
i?aae-

noaaeaieyi, yoi oioaeeoa?iay i?ia?aiia, i?e eioi?ie eo/ea ethaeae
(ionoue aeaaea

ioae?aeoeo) iiae/eiyao “…aeaeeea aiaeaeaeaiey aieueoeinoaa …
?acoiiui aeaea-

ieyi iaiueoeinoaa”.

I?ioaaeoea ouny/aeaoey iieacaee, /oi iineaaeothuea ooiiee iaaeaeaei

ooee io i?a?iaeeoaeueieoeu, nicaeaiiie aaieai Ieaoiia, eioi?ue y?ei
i?iyaee-

ny e a nicaeaiee iniia iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia e ?ac?aaioea aai a
oeaeinoiii

aeaea.

Caeeth/aiea

Nie?ao – i?aaenoaaeoaeue eaeaaeenoe/aneiai ?aeeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiiai

ie?iaicc?aiey, ioe?uoi a?aaeaeaaiiai iaoa?eaeecio. Aia?aua eiaiii Nie?ao

niciaoaeueii iinoaaee ia?aae niaie caaea/o iainiiaaiey eaeaaeecia e
aunooiee

i?ioea aioe/iiai iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai ie?iiiieiaiey, anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai

ciaiey e aacaiaeey. Nie?ao enoi?e/anee aue ca/eiaoaeai ” oaiaeaioeee,
eee ee-

iee Ieaoiia ” a aioe/iie oeeinioee.

Nie?ao – aaeeeee aioe/iue ioae?aoe, – noieo o enoieia ?aoeeiiaeenoe/a-

neeo e i?inaaoeoaeueneeo o?aaeeoeee aa?iiaeneie iunee. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
au-

aeathuaany ianoi a enoi?ee ii?aeueiie oeeinioee e yoeee, eiaeee,
aeeaeaeoeea,

iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee. Aeeyiea, ieacaiiia ei ia i?ia?ann
/aeiaa-

/aneiai iiciaiey, iuouaaony aei iaoeo aeiae. Ii iaanaaaea aioae a
aeooiaioth

eoeueoo?o /aeiaa/anoaa.

Ieaoii nicaeae oai?eth iauaai eae caeiia aeey aaeeie/iiai, oai?eth iaia-

oiaeeiuo e aa/iuo caeiiiia?iinoae i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa, i?ioeainoiyuoth
eo

oaeoe/aneiio niaoaieth e neaiie ia?an/eai?iiinoe, i?ioeainoiyuoth
anyeiio

aeiiao/iiio iiieiaieth. Eiaiii yoa noi?iia o/aiey Ieaoiia ia eaeayo a
cia/e-

oaeueiie ia?a iaoneiaeea aai ouny/aeaoithth cia/eiinoue a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/a-

neie iunee.

Ieaoii – ia?aue a Aa?iia iineaaeiaaoaeueiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue iauaeoea-

iiai eaeaaeecia, iniiaaoaeue yoie oeeinioee. Iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci
Ieaoiia

anoue o/aiea i naiinoiyoaeueiii nouanoaiaaiee eaeae eae iaueo e ?iaeiauo
ii-

iyoee. Ieaoii anth aeeciue i?iiiaaaeiaae anaiauoth aa?iiieth. Eiaaea
Ieaoii

caoioae i/a?oeoue i?aaeiao naiae ynoaoeee, ii iacaae a? ie aieueoa ie
iaiueoa,

eae ethaiaueth. Ieaoii n/eoae, /oi oieueei ethaiaue e i?ae?aniiio
ioe?uaaao aea-

ca ia yoi i?ae?aniia e /oi oieueei iiieiaaiia eae ethaiaue ciaiea anoue
ciaiea

iiaeeeiiia. Aa?iiiey /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe, /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa e
anae

ie?oaeathuae /aeiaaea i?e?iaeu – aio iinoiyiiue e iaeciaiiue eaeaae
Ieaoiia

a oa/aiea anaai aai oai?/aneiai iooe.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aioieiaey ie?iaie oeeinioee. A 4-o oiiao.-I..1968.-O.I. – *.I.

2. Anion A.O. Aioe/iay Oeeinioey. – I.. 1976

3. Einaa A.O., Oaoi-Aiaee A.A. Ieaoii e A?enoioaeue. – I.. 1993

4. ?aaea Aeae., Aioena?e Ae. Caiaaeiay oeeinioey io enoieia aei iaoeo

aeiae. Aioe/iinoue. – Nea, 1994.

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