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Aaoi?u, i?iecaaaeaiey, eaeae.

A?enoioaeue (382-322 aei i.y.) – naiue ciaiaieoue oeeinia Aioe/iinoe,
iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia aeieo?eiu yeeou. “Iieeoeea”.

Aeiiaoiyy yeiiiieea e o?aiaoenoeea – yoi oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oeaeueth aeiiaoiae yeiiiieee yaeyaony
oaeiaaeaoai?aiea ?aoeeiiaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae eiaeeaeaea e aai naiuee, a
o?aiaoenoeee – aani?aaeaeueiia iaeiieaiea aiaaonoaa a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia.
Enoi/ieeii yeiiiieee yaeyaony caieaaeaeea, ?aianei, iaeeay oi?aiaey, a
iniaaiiinoe ?inoiaue/anoai. E o?aiaoenoeea ioiineony io?eoeaoaeueii.

“Caeii aanieiaeiiai iaiaia”, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui iaiai yaeyaony ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui, ii ia i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth aiaaonoaa.

“Caeii ainiiaenoaa e iiae/eiaiey” – caeii i?e?iaeu, i?eiaieiue e
iauanoao. Ia?yaeo n anoanoaaiiui ?acaeaeaieai o?oaea iaaeaeo ?aaaie e eo
oicyaaaie iaoeeiiaeueiua yeiiiieee oaeaea aeaeyony ia ainiiaenoaothueo e
iiae/eiythueony.

Oiia Ae’Aeaein (1225-1274), naiue ecaanoiue oeeinio e oaieia
n?aaeiaaaeiauey, iaeei ec iniiaaoaeae aeieo?eiu nioeeaeueiie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Aai o/aiea (oiieci) i?eciaii ioeoeeaeueiie e
aaeeinoaaiii i?aaaeueiie oeeinioeae eaoieecia. “Noiia oaieiaee”
(1266-1273).

1. Yeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ia aeieaeia ?anoiaeeoueny n
o?enoeaineie ii?aeueth, a iiae/eiyony ae.

2. Oai?ey “ni?aaaaeeeaie oeaiu” – oeaia aeieaeia onoaiaaeeaaony a
caaeneiinoe io cao?ao o?oaea e io iauanoaaiiiai e iaoa?eaeueiiai
iieiaeaiey i?iecaiaeeoaey. Oaeei ia?acii, iaeei e oio aea oiaa? iiaeao
i?iaeaaaoueny ii ?aciui oeaiai.

3. Oai?ey “ni?aaaaeeeaie ca?aaioiie ieaou”. A? aaee/eia aeieaeia
iicaieyoue ?aaioieeo e aai naiuea aeeoue a niioaaonoaee n caieiaaiui
nioeeaeueiui iieiaeaieai, o.a. ca iaeei e oio aea o?oae ca?ieaoa iiaeao
auoue ?acee/iie .

Oiian Iai (1571-1641), iaeei ec iniiaiuo oai?aoeeia ia?eaioaeecia.

Ia/eiay n ia?eaioaeenoia, yeiiiie/aneay iaoea noaiiaeony iacaaeneiie.
Iaiaauaiea n/eoaaony iioaaeueiui.

Ia?eaioaeeci – aeieo?eia, iiaeaea?aeeaathuay eaeath, /oi cieioi e
na?aa?i (a oaeaea aeaiueae ec ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia) yaeythony aeaaiie
oi?iie aiaaonoaa eae aeey ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae, oae e aeey ainoaea?noaa.

Eae e ae?oaea ia?eaioaeenou, O.Iai aiaeece?oao eneeth/eoaeueioth noa?o
oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey, oi?aiaeth, n/eoathuothny noa?ie, a eioi?ie
i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea aiaaonoaa.

Aeoeaiue oi?aiaue aaeain yaeyaony aeaaiui n?aaenoaii i?e?inoa aiaaonoaa
no?aiu. Aeey aai iiaeaea?aeaiey iaiaoiaeeia i?ioaeoeeiienoe/aneay
iieeoeea, aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo.

O?ainoa Eaiy (1694-1774), iniiaiiieiaeiee oeieu oeceie?aoia.
“Yeiiiie/aneay oaaeeoea”(1758).

1. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea i?ienoiaeeo a niioaaonoaee n anoanoaaiiui
ii?yaeeii e iaueaeoeaiuie, aa/iuie e anaiaueie caeiiaie,
onoaiaaeeaaaiuie aieae Anaauoiaai.

2. Oai?ey “/enoiai i?iaeoeoa”. Aii?in oaaee/aiey aiaaonoaa ia?aiineony
ec oi?aiaee a noa?o iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. “*enoue i?iaeoeo“
nicaeaaony oieueei a naeueneii oicyenoaa. Ii aunooiaao a oi?ia ?acieoeu
iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeeae e anaie ecaea?aeeaie. Enoi/ieeii
“/enoiai i?iaeoeoa” yaeyaony ia o?oae, a i?e?iaea.

3. Yeiiiie/aneea yaeaiey ?anniao?eaaao /a?ac i?ecio ?acaeaeaiey iauanoaa
ia nioeeaeueiua eeannu:

eeann i?iecaiaeeoaeae,

eeann nianoaaiieeia,

aanieiaeiue eeann.

Aaeai Nieo (1723-1790), ioaoe iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee, aeaaiue oai?aoee
aeieo?eiu eeanne/aneiai eeaa?aeecia. “Enneaaeiaaiea i i?e?iaea e
i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa ia?iaea” (“Aiaaonoai ia?iaeia”, 1776)

?uii/iay yeiiiieea (eaieoaeeci) yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiui,
anoanoaaiiui yeiiiie/aneei no?iai, a caeiiu aai ?acaeoey – anaiaueie e
aa/iuie, aeaenoaothueie iiaeiaii caeiiai i?e?iaeu. Yeiiiie/aneia
?aaiiaanea onoaiaaeeaaaony noeoeeii e iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe aiaoaoaeuenoaa
ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo.

Aiaaonoai ia?iaea ninoieo ec anao aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeiuo aeaa, a aai
enoi/ieeii yaeyaony o?oae. Noieiinoue nicaea?ony ethaui
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui o?oaeii, a ia oieueei naeueneioicyenoaaiiui, eae
n/eoaee oeceie?aou.

Ee/iue eioa?an yaeyaony aeaeaeouae neeie ethaie yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. ”Homo economicus”, aeaeaeeiue ee/iui eioa?anii,
iai?aaeyaony “iaaeaeeiie ?oeie”, ?oeie Anaauoiaai, eioi?ay niaeanoao
ee/iua e iauanoaaiiua eioa?anu, ?aaoee?oao oeaiu, auaeaeyao ?ano?nu,
?ani?aaeaeyao oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/eaaao ?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo
ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai.

?acaeaeaiea o?oaea – iniiaiie oaeoi? oaaee/aiey aiaaonoaa iaoeee.
Oi?iuay o?oaeiaua iia?aoeee, iii aeaeaao aiciiaeiui i?eiaiaiea iaoei.
Niaoeeaeecaoeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae caaeneo io iau?ia ?uiea, o.a. ?uiie
yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.

?anniao?eaaao yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu neaicue i?ecio eeanniaie no?oeoo?u
iauanoaa. Yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea /aeiaaea ii?aaeaeyaony aai
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth e iaeiio ec o?ao eeannia: caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa,
eaieoaeenoia, ?aai/eo.

Oiian ?iaa?o Iaeueoon (1766-1834), iaeei ec iniiaaoaeae aeieo?eiu
eeanne/aneiai eeaa?aeecia. “Iiuo i caeiia ia?iaeiianaeaiey”(1798).

1.“Caeii ia?iaeiianaeaiey”. I?e ionoonoaee ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aiyonoaee
ianaeaiea ?anoao a aaiiao?e/aneie i?ia?annee, a n?aaenoaa nouanoaiaaiey
a a?eoiaoe/aneie. Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey yoie aeeni?iii?oee iaiaoiaeeiu
yooaeoeaiua n?aaenoaa, oaeea eae: iiiu?aiea iicaeieo a?aeia, aieiae,
yieaeaiee, aieiu.

2. ”Caeii oauaathuae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe caiee” (aei?aaoaiiue e
noi?ioee?iaaiiue iicaeiaa eae “caeii oauaathuae ioaea/e”). Oaeaiaiea
o?oaea e eaieoaea ia oo aea ieiuaaeue caiee ia nii?iaiaeaeaaony
oaeaiaieai i?iaeoeoeee, ioaea/a oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa nieaeaaony.

Aeaaeae ?eea?aei (1772-1823) – iaeei ec iniiaaoaeae aeieo?eiu
eeanne/aneiai eeaa?aeecia. “Ia/aea eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiiee e
iaeiaiaiai iaeiaeaiey”(1817).

Niaa?oainoaoao o?oaeiaoth oai?eth noieiinoe, ioe?uaaao
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiioth naycue iaaeaeo oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth o?oaea e aaee/eiie ca?ieaou. I?eaueue ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia aaee/eia ca?ieaou. I?eaueue aoaeao oiaiueoaoueny a oie
ia?a a eaeie aoaeao oaaee/eaaoueny ca?ieaoa”, – ieoao ?eea?aei.

Oai?ey ?aiou. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /anoue i?iaeoeoa, nicaeaiiiai
o?oaeii ?aai/aai, eceeoae aeioiaea iaae ii?iaeueiie i?eaueueth,
aeiiieieoaeueioth i?eaueue. ?aioa yaeyaony neaaenoaeai onoaiiaeaiey
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth ?acee/iiai ieiaei?iaeey caiee. Oeaiu ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth onoaiaaeeaathony ia o?iaia cao?ao ia
iaeiaiea ieiaei?iaeiuo caieyo.

Oai?ey n?aaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae (caeii ioiineoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa).
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey auaiaeia aeey anao no?ai, anee eaaeaeay ec ieo
niaoeeaeece?oaony a iaeanoe, aaea iaeaaeaao ioiineoaeueiui
i?aeiouanoaii. Yoa oai?ey yaeyaony “iao/iie” ieaooi?iie iieeoeee
naiaiaeiiai iaiaia.

AEai-Aaoeno Nae (1767-1832), iaeei ec aeaaiuo oai?aoeeia yeiiiie/aneiai
eeaa?aeecia. “O?aeoao iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee”.

1. “Caeii ?uieia” eee “caeii Nay”. A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea e?ecenu
ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa iaaiciiaeiu. Yeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea onoaiaaeeaaaony
aaoiiaoe/anee, ana, /oi i?iecaaaeaii, ?aaeecoaony. Iiaoo eiaoue ianoi
eeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua /anoe/iua e a?aiaiiua aeeni?iii?oeee.

2. Oai?ey oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi: o?oae, eaieoae e caiey. Ei
niioaaonoaotho o?e oi?iu aeioiaea: ca?ieaoa, i?eaueue e ?aioa. Iaaeaeo
eeannaie, o/anoaothueie a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, onoaiaaeeaathony
aa?iiie/iua ioiioaiey, iao ieeaeiai i?ioeai?a/ey eioa?ania.

Aeaeii Notha?o Ieeeue (1806-1870), “iineaaeiee eeannee”, neiaie
nioeeaeueiiai ?aoi?iecia. “I?eioeeiu iieeoyeiiiiee”(1848)

Oai?ey yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia. I?iecaiaenoai ?acaeaaaony a niioaaonoaee n
aa/iuie, anaiaueie, iaeciaiythueieny caeiiaie i?e?iaeu. Iaeiaei
?ani?aaeaeaiea e iio?aaeaiea caaenyo io enoi?e/aneeo caeiiia iauanoaa.

Inouanoaeyao aeaieiie neioac: i?eia?yao e “eeaa?aeia-ianneienoia” e
“eeaa?aeia-iioeienoia”; niaaeeiyao eaeae eeanne/aneiai eeaa?aeecia n
nioeoeeaeueiuie ono?aieaieyie ?aai/eo.

I?eciaao iiiaeanoai iaaeinoaoeia yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu eaieoaeecia, ii
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi a i?e?iaea eo/oae yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu auoue ia
iiaeao, iiyoiio aa ioaeii ?aoi?ie?iaaoue.

O?eae?eo Eeno (1789-1846), iniiaiiieiaeiee aeieo?eiu yeiiiie/aneiai
iaoeeiiaeecia. “Iaoeeiiaeueiay nenoaia iieeoyeiiiiee” (1841).

1.Io?eoeaao nouanoaiaaiea iaoeo yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia. A naiae aeieo?eia
aeaaioth ?ieue ioaiaeeo iaoeee, eae naycothuaio caaio iaaeaeo ee/iinouea
e /aeiaa/anoaii. Iaoeee ?acee/athony ii i?e?iaeiui oneiaeyi,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui neeai, o?aaeeoeeyi e o.ae., iiyoiio iaeia e oa aea
yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey e i?aeoeea ia iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaia anaie
no?aiaie.

2. Oai?ey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee aioeee ( a i?ioeaiaan o?oaeiaie oai?ee
noieiinoe). I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu (iaoea, oea?eiaue, eneonnoai,
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, i?aau, i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, aeoaaeo, aeaiueae,
eieaiia/aoaiea e ae?.) yaeythony aeaaiui enoi/ieeii aiaaonoaa e
i?ioeaaoaiey iaoeee. Iniiaiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiay neeai –
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, eioi?ay aeaaii?eyonoaoao iaoeai, eneonnoao e
yeiiiie/aneiio i?ia?anno, oaaee/eaaao iauaa aeaaininoiyiea, ianaeaiea,
aeioiaeu ainoaea?noaa e iiuue no?aiu.

3. “Ii?iaeueiay iaoeey” i?ioiaeeo a naiai ?acaeoee iyoue noaaeee.
Ia?aoiae e noaaeee, ia eioi?ie i?iiuoeaiiinoue noaiiaeony aeaaiie
io?aneueth, iiaeao auoue inouanoaeai oieueei iin?aaenoaii iieeoeee
i?ioaeoeeiiecia, iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iaiaeeiie ainoaea?noaii.

Ea?e Ia?en (1818-1883), iniiaiiieiaeiee aeieo?eiu iao/iiai nioeeaeecia.
“Eaieoae”(1867…)

Iiaue acaeyae ia enoi?ethae oneiaey iaoa?eaeueiie aeecie ii?aaeaeytho
oa?aeoa? ii?aee, eaeae, iieeoe/aneeo e eaeaieiae/aneeo einoeoooia.
Yeiiiie/aneea yaeaiey ?anniao?eaathony a aieaa oe?ieii aniaeoa e a
?acaeoe.

Iiuiay e?eoeea yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu eaieoaeecia, iniiaaiiie ia
yenieoaoaoeee ?aai/eo nianoaaiieeaie n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa.
Yenieoaoaoeey i?ienoiaeeo iooai i?enaiaiey eaieoaeenoii iaiiea/aiiiai
o?oaea iaaiiiai ?aai/aai a oi?ia i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.

Eaieoaeeci ia iiaeao auoue ?aoi?ie?iaai, a yenieoaoaoeey en/aciao eeoue
n oie/oiaeaieai eaieoaeecia. Ii ia?a/ai ia aeaaeue a neeo aioo?aiieo
aioaaiienoe/aneeo i?ioeai?a/ee. Iieeoyeiiiiey i?ecaaia niaeaenoaiaaoue
aai i?aia?aciaaieth. I?eaueue ia neo/aeiia yaeaiea, iia – naia nouiinoue
eaieoaeenoe/aneiainiiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aa?auaiiay oi?ia i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe.

Iainiiauaaao eiioeaioeeth iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea. Yeiiiie/anea caeiiu
iinyo enoi?e/aneee oa?aeoa?, oae eae iauanoai iaiyaony, e oaeei ia?acii
eciaiyaony niinia eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Eaii Aaeue?an (1834-1910), iaeei ec iniiaaoaeae iaieeanne/aneie
(ia?aeeiaaeenoneie) aeieo?eiu. “Yeaiaiou /enoie iieeoyeiiiiee”(1874).

Ia?yaeo n E.Iaiaa?ii e N.Aeaeiaainii i?iecaae “ia?aeeiaeenoneoth
?aaiethoeeth”, ia?aiany oeaio? oyaeanoe oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ec
iauaeoeaiie noa?u a noauaeoeaioth, ec i?iecaiaenoaa a i?auaiea,
iio?aaeaiea. Eciaiaiea oaea c?aiey niinianoaiaaei ?acaeoeth
iee?iyeiiiieee.

Oai?ey i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, niaeanii eioi?ie noieiinoue
ii?aaeaeyaony noauaeoeaiuie ioeaieaie eiaeeaeaea, i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoueth aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. ?ac?aaaouaaao iiaeaeue /enoie e
niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee.

?anoe?ee noa?o i?eiaiaiey iaoaiaoeee a yeiiiieea. ?ac?aaioae oai?eth
iauaai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney. A oneiaeyo niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee
aeaaiaea?y naiaiaeiie ea?a ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey onoaiaaeeaaaony iauaa
yeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea, eioi?ia iaania/eaaao eaaeaeiio “ea?ieo”
iaeneioi oaeiaeaoai?aiey.

Aeueo?aae Ia?oaee (1842-1924) – iniiaaoaeue iaieeanne/aneie
Eaia?eaeaeneie oeieu. “I?eioeeiu iieeoyeiiiiee” (1890).

Iaoeaeeaaao yeiiiie/aneoth iaoeo ia eco/aiea ?aaeueiuo yaeaiee, eae
ianiaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey, ?uiie, oeaia. I?aaeeaaaao caiaieoue oa?ieiu
“iieeoyeiiiiey” ia “yeiiiieen”.

Yeiiiieea yaeyaony /anoueth aeieiaee. Iaaeaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie
i?ienoiaeeo oa aea ai?ueaa ca nouanoaiaaiea, /oi e a ie?a aeeaioiuo.
Ianiio?y ia naie ?ac?ooeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, yoa ai?ueaa yaeyaony

3. Oai?ey oeai. Inouanoaeyao neioac o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe e oai?ee
i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe. Oeaia ii?aaeaeyaony i?e o/anoee o?ao oaeoi?ia:

ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa;

i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe;

ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Aaiaeeo iiiyoea yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Aeaaeeie? Oeueyiia (Eaiei) (1870-1924), iniiaiiieiaeiee aeieo?eiu
niaaoneiai nioeeaeecia. “Eiia?eaeeci, eae aunoay noaaeey eaieoaeecia”
(1917).

A?aoiaioe?oao iaiaoiaeeiinoue e iaia/aao iooe i?eiaiaiey yeiiiie/aneie
aeieo?eiu ia?enecia aeey iaeaieoaeenoe/aneeo e neaai?acaeouo no?ai.

Oai?ey eiia?eaeecia – eiia?eaeeci – iineaaeiyy noaaeey eaieoaeecia,
eaioi nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea i?ienoiaeeo
nea/eaie, ia?aaiiia?ii, /oi aeaeaao aiciiaeiie iiaaaeo nioeeaeenoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee a ioaeaeueiie no?aia.

Iaia/aao iooe iino?iaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiie nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee,
a eioi?ie iniiaiay ?ieue i?e ?aoaiee yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai i?eiaaeeaaeeo
ainoaea?noao. Oeaiu, ca?ieaoa, i?ioeaio, i?eaueue e i?i/ee yeiiiie/aneea
“aaee/eiu”onoaiaaeeaathony ainoaea?noaii.

Oi?noaei Aaaeai (1857-1929), iniiaiiieiaeiee einoeoooeeiiaeecia. “Oai?ey
i?acaeiiai eeanna”(1899).

Einoeooou, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie nioeeaeueiua yaeaiey
noaaeeueiiai oa?aeoa?a,- ainoaea?noai, oea?eiaue, iiiiiieee, naiuey,
i?ionithcu, o?aaeeoeee e o.ae., – aeaeaeouay neea
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iie ii?aaeaeytho iai?aaeaiea e
oa?aeoa? i?ia?anna. ?uiie – eeoue iaeei ec iniiaiuo eino?oiaioia.
Aeaaiuie aea yaeythony einoeieou e ineoieiaey.

Oai?ey “noaa?aieoaoa” iio?aaeoaey. Iio?aaeoaeue iiaeaa?aaaony neeueiiio
aeaaeaieth, a yoi i?eioaeaeaao aai i?e auai?a oiaa?ia e
ia?aoeeiiaeueiiio, “ianaiaiaeiiio” iiaaaeaieth. Noaiiaynue ?aaii iiaeu,
?aeeaiu, aiaeoeee, iio?aaeoaeue oa?yao naie noaa?aieoao.

“Oai?ey i?acaeiiai eeanna”. A eaieoaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa, eae e a
ia?aiauoiii, aeey oiai /oiau aeinoe/ue aa?oeiu iauanoaaiiie ie?aieaeu,
iaiaoiaeeii auoue eiaa?iui, aeanoieei, iaaei a?aaeoue, iaiaiuaaoue,
iaoa?eaeeciauaaoue naith aeanoieinoue, yaieci, aeaaeaeo iaaeeau.
I?aaei?eieiaoaee, ?aai/ea e eiaeaia?u, iacuaaaiua “i?iiuoeaiieeaie”
yaeythony iieiaeeoaeueiuie oaeoi?aie yeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?anna.
Aecianiaiu aea, niaeoeyiou e o.ae., ie/aai ia i?iecaiaeeo, a oieueei
iio?aaeytho e i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?acaeiue eeann.

Aeaeii I.Eaein (1883-1946), iniiaiiieiaeiee aeieo?eiu ?aaoee?oaiie
?uii/iie yeiiiieee, noi?iiiee ?aoi?ie?iaaiey eaieoaeecia. “Iauay oai?ey
caiyoinoe, i?ioeaioa e aeaiaa”(1936).

“Eaeineaineay ?aaiethoeey” Eaein ioaa?aaao oai?eth anoanoaaiiiai
ii?yaeea, iaueaeoeaiuo caeiiia, eioi?ua au iaania/eaaee noeoeeiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yeiiiieee. A iniiaa iioeaaoeee yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe eaaeao ineoieiae/aneea neeiiiinoe ethaeae, eioi?ua
aeaenoaotho iiaeiaii caeiiai, aoaeo/e e aa/iuie e anaiaueie. Iiyoiio
eaieoaeeci (?uii/iay yeiiiieea) ia iaeaaeaao iaoaieciii, eioi?ue au
aa?aioe?iaae aaoiiaoe/aneia onoaiiaeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney e
iaania/eaae iieioth caiyoinoue. Yoio “iaaeinoaoie” iiaeao auoue
i?aiaeieai iooai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo.

Inouanoaeyao iee?iyeiiiie/aneee aiaeec, a oeaio?a eioi?iai iaoiaeeony
enneaaeiaaiea iioieia, o.a. niaieoiiuo aaee/ei. “Caeii neeiiiinoe e
iio?aaeaieth”, ineoieiae/aneee caeii, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ii
ia?a ?inoa aeioiaeia, ethaee neeiiiu oaaee/eaaoue e iio?aaeaiea, ii a
iaiueoae noaiaie, /ai ?anooo aeioiaeu.

Eciaiaiea ii?yaeea i?ei?aoaoia. Iniiaiia aieiaiea a oai?aoe/aneeo
enneaaeiaaieyo oaeaeyaony nioeeaeueiie noa?a, iaania/aieth iieiie
caiyoinoe. Aac?aaioeoea aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy ia yaeyaony
aaniethoiui ceii. Iia iiaeao auoue i?aiaeieaia aeaaiaea?y aiaoaoaeuenoao
ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia aeieaeii iiiu?youe eae iio?aaeaiea, oae e
eiaanoeoeee.

Ainoaea?noai aiaoeaaaony a yeiiiieeo iin?aaenoaii yeiiiie/aneeo, ii ia
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ia?.

Ae?aeee Iaaeaey?o (1887-1940), ?oiuineee yeiiiieno n ie?iaie
ecaanoiinoueth. ”Yaiethoeey ?oiuineie yeiiiieee iinea ie?iaie aieiu”
(1940).

Io?eoeaao eaieoaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa? ?oiuineie yeiiiieee a iaaeaiaiiue
ia?eiae, n/eoay /oi aeaaiie io?aneueth yeiiiiee aeieaeii inoaaaoueny
naeueneia oicyenoai. Oai aieaa, /oi “anoanoaaiiua oneiaey” nouanoaiaaiey
iaoae no?aiu ia ioe?uaatho ia?niaeoea i?aa?auaiey ec aa?a?iiai
ainoaea?noaa a eiaeono?eaeueiia”.

Enoiaey ec iaoeeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae, ?oiuineay ?uii/iay yeiiiieea
ioaeaeaaony a iiuiii ainoaea?noaaiiii aiaoaoaeuenoaa. “Aaaeiaeoei
oneiaeai i?ioeaaoaiey ?oiuineie yeiiiieee, – ieoao ii, – yaeyaony
i?eiyoea ni anaie iineaaenoaeyie oi?iu i?aaieciaaiiie, eiio?iee?oaiie
ainoaea?noaii, yeiiiieee.

Ieoaee Iaiieeaneo (1890-1950), iaieeaa?ae, iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo
oai?aoeeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai iaiaia. “Oai?ey
i?ioaeoeeiiecia e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iaiaia”(1929).

“Ia?aniio?” i?iaeaiu eiono?eaeecaoeee neaai?acaeouo, iineieueeo iia
oaaee/eaaao iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue aaaeiuo no?ai, e iie niiaoo
caeoiaoue aieueoa oiaa?ia o aiaaouo no?ai.

?ac?aaaouaaao oai?eth iauaai i?ioaeoeeiiecia. “E?eoa?eai ii?aaeaeaiey
io?aneae, ioaeaeathueony a caueoa, yaeyaony o?iaaiue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Iiaeeaaeao caueoa io?anee, a eioi?uo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea auoa, /ai a n?aaeiai ii no?aia.
Iin?aaenoaii eiaeono?eaeecaoeee i?ienoiaeeo ia?aiauaiea eaieoaeia e
?aai/ae neeu ec io?aneae n aieaa ieceie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth o?oaea
(naeueneia oicyenoai) a io?aneue n aieaa aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth
(i?iiuoeaiiinoue).

O?ainoa Ia??o(1903-1987), naiue aeaeiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue o?aioeoneie
nioeeieiae/aneie oeieu. “Yeiiiieea XX aaea” (1967).

A nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea ia yeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue ana aieueoaa
aeeyiea ieacuaatho ia oeaiu, a ?acee/iua oaeoi?u i?eioaeaeaiey, oaeea
eae ainoaea?noai e e?oiiaeoea ei?ii?aoeee. Iniiaiie oi?iie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo aeieaeii auoue
eiaeeeaoeaiia ieaie?iaaiea.

Oai?ey aeiieie?ouae yeiiiieee. Oaiiiai aeiieie?iaaiey noaiiaeony iaeiie
ec aeaaiuo /a?o nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieee. Ii eanaaony ia oieueei
yeiiiie/aneeo aaaioia. Iaoeeiiaeueiua yeiiiieee oaeaea aeaeyony iiiia
aeiieie?othueo e iiae/eiaiiuo.

Aeaeii E. Ayea?aeo (1908), aeaaiue oai?aoee einoeoooeeiiaeecia. “Iiaia
eiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai”(1967).

Ioaa?aaao oacen iaieeanneeia i ?aoathuae ?iee ?uiea a yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie, ioaiaey a? ainoaea?noao e e?oiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi. Noi?iiiee
oai?eee oaoiieiae/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia. Eniieueciaaiea iiauo iaoei
aaaeao e eciaiaieth eeaieoaeecia ecioo?e. Aaoi? (eee niaaoi?) oai?ee
“ieaie?oaiiai eaieoaeecia” e ae?.

Oai?ey oaoiino?oeoo?u. Oaoiino?oeoo?a, naiua aeeyoaeueiua niaoeeaeenou
ei?ii?aoeee, eciaiythuea i?e?iaeo oeaeae oe?iu, a oaeaea oneiaey
i?eiyoey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee. N a? iiyaeaieai i?eaueue ia?anoaao auoue
aeaeaeouae neeie yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iineieueeo oaoiino?oeoo?a
noaaeo ia?aae niaie eiua oeaee.

Ieeoii O?eaeiai (1912), naiue aeaeiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue iaiiiiaoa?ecia.
“Iiiaoa?iay enoi?ey Niaaeai?iiuo Ooaoia” (1963)th

Eioeyoeey, eae e ae?oaea “aieacie” nia?aiaiiiai eaieoaeecia, a oii /enea
aac?aaioeoea, – aeaiaaeiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e aucuaathony
ianiioaaonoaeai iaaeaeo eiee/anoaii aeaiaa a ia?auaiee e ?aaeueiuie
iio?aaiinoyie yeiiiieee.

Aeaaiie oi?iie ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo aeieaeia
auoue aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea, a iieeoeea noeioee?iaaiey ?inoa ia
niinianoaoao oeo/oaieth yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey, a ii?iaeaeaao iiaua
aeeni?iii?oeee.

Iieue Naioyeuenii (1915), iaeei ec iniiaaoaeae aeieo?eiu
“iaieeanne/aneiai neioaca”. “Yeiiiieen”(1948).

“Iaieeanne/aneee neioac” i?aaenoaaeyao niaie yeaeo?e/aneia ni/aoaiea
eaeineaineie iae?iyeiiiie/aneie oai?ee n iaieeanne/aneie
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie oai?eae, o.a. ni/aoaiea i?aeiouanoa ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee n i?aeiouanoaaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo.

Aeaaiie oi?iie aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo aeieaeia auoue
aioeoeeeee/aneay iieeoeea (aioee?eceniay e aioeeioeyoeeiiiay),
inouanoaeyaiay e iin?aaenoaii athaeaeaoiuo e oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo
?u/aaia.

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