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Iineianeee Einoeooo Noaee e Nieaaia

?aoa?ao ii oeeinioee

ia oaio

“Aeeaeia Ieaoiia “Ie?”

nooaeaioea Nieieiaa A.N.

iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue eaiae. oee. iaoe Aeaieeue/aiei ?.I.

Iineaa — 1997

”Ie?” Ieaoiia ianoieueei iieii (eae e “Oaae?”), anyeiai eeoa?aoo?iiai,
?eoi?e/aneiai, ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai, oeeinioneiai (e, a /anoiinoe,
eiae/aneiai) niaea?aeaiey, /oi aieaa eee iaiaa iieiue aiaeec yoiai
aeeaeiaa o?aaoao oeaeiai aieueoiai enneaaeiaaiey. Iauaa iiaiea anao
enneaaeiaaoaeae ioiineoaeueii a?aiaie nicaeaiey yoiai aeeaeiaa naiaeyony
e oiio, /oi caeanue ia?aae iaie aunooiaao c?aeue Ieaoii, oi anoue
aeeaeia ioiineony i?eaeeceoaeueii e na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia IV aaea aei
i.y., eiaaea aaoi?o auei oaea ca ni?ie eao. Yoa c?aeinoue neacuaaaony ia
eiae/aneeo iaoiaeao aeeaeiaa. Aiiaua aiai?y, Ieaoii n aieueoie iaioioie
ioneaeny a /enoi aano?aeoioth eiaeeo. Yoa iineaaeiyy anaaaea oaeony o
iaai iiae iie?iaii ieoieiae/anei-iiyoe/aneeo e neiaiee/aneeo ia?acia.
Ii, caaeaaay naaa aii?in, a /ai aea caeeth/aaony iniiaiay eiae/aneay
eiino?oeoeey “Ie?a” e noa?aynue ecaea/ue aa ec aiaaoaeoae
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie oeaie aeeaeiaa, iaeaieaa aa?iui, iiaeaeoe, auei au
ia?aoeoue aeaaiia naia aieiaiea ia ecia?aaeaiiia caeanue ainoiaeaeaiea
io iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a e eaeaaeueiiio.

Ieaoii auaeaeioe iiiyoea eaeae (eee “yeaeina”) a aieaa ?aiieo aeeaeiaao.
Iaeiaei a naiii niaea?aeaoaeueiii ec ieo, “Oaaeiia”, anee iiaeieoe e
iaio ni anae eiae/aneie no?iainoueth, Ieaoii ana aua ia?aie/eaaaony
ii/oe oieueei oeacaieai ia naiue i?eioeei iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eciaoue aeey
anyeie aaue (a oii /enea aeey aeooe e aeecie) oaeaea e aa eaeath. Ii
aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aeooe e aeecie, a iniaaiii aeey o/aiey i aannia?oee
aeooe, yoiai auei iaeiaaoi. Aaaeue e anyeia ie/oiaeiia, e nouanoaothuay
eeoue a oa/aiee iacia/eoaeueiiai a?aiaie aauue oiaea eiaao naith eaeath,
oai ia iaiaa oaeea aaue a?aiaiiu e oie/oiaeeoue eo ie/aai ia noieo. Ia
noaaeee aeaaea “Oaaeiia” Ieaoii aeaeaei aua ia eniieuecoao anao
eiae/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?ua aicieeee o oeeinioia iinea oiai, eae
ii ?acee/ee aauue e eaeath aaue.

*oi eanaaony “Ie?a”, oi Ieaoii eniieuecoao caeanue, ii e?aeiae ia?a,
iaeio i/aiue aaaeioth aiciiaeiinoue, a eiaiii oieeoao eaeath aaue eae
i?aaeae aa noaiiaeaiey. Iiiyoea i?aaeaea oi?ioi ecaanoii ia oieueei
iuiaoiei iaoaiaoeeai, iii auei oi?ioi ecaanoii e Ieaoiio. Ii ciae, /oi
ecaanoiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aaee/ei, aic?anoathuay ii ii?aaeaeueiiio
caeiio, iiaeao auoue i?iaeieaeaia a aaneiia/iinoe e iiaeao eae oaiaeii
aeecei iiaeoiaeeoue e iniiaiiio i?aaeaeo, oai ia iaiaa ieeiaaea aai ia
aeinoeaaoue. Aio yoi oieeiaaiea eaeae aaue eae aa aaneiia/iue i?aaeae e
ninoaaeyao oeeinionei-eiae/aneia niaea?aeaiea aeeaeiaa “Ie?”.

Yoei aeeaeiaii Ieaoii naeaeae cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a enoi?eth eiaeee,
ii, aoaeo/e iiyoii e ieoieiaii, ?eoi?ii e ae?aiaoo?aii, Ieaoii iaeae yoi
aa/iia no?aieaiea aaue e aa i?aaeaeo a oi, /oi ec anao auoiauo iaee/ee
aieueoa anaai ioee/aaony aaneiia/iui no?aieaieai, e no?aieaieai
iaeneiaeueii iai?yaeaiiui, a eiaiii ioian aai e iaeanoe ethaiaiuo
ioiioaiee: ethaiaue aaaeue oiaea anoue aa/iia no?aieaiea e oiaea eiaao
anaaaea ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaeue, oioy e aeinoeaaao aa aanueia ?aaeei e
iaiaaeieai.

Aeeaeia “Ie?” i?eiaaeeaaeeo e oiio aeai?o canoieueiuo aanaae (neiiinee),
eioi?ui iieiaeee ia/aei Ieaoii e eioi?ua eiaee aiaeiaee ia oieueei ia
a?a/aneie, ii e ia ?eineie ii/aa, ia oieueei a eeoa?aoo?a aioe/iinoe, ii
e a o?enoeaineie eeoa?aoo?a ia?eiaea noaiiaeaiey N?aaeiaaaeiauey.

Oaiu canoieueiuo aanaae ni a?aiaiai iaiyeenue, naia aea aanaaea
i?aaenoaaeyea niaie aoi?ie yoai ie?a, eiaaea iinea iaeeueiie aaeu ainoe
ia?auaeenue e aeio. Ca /aoae aeia iauee ?acaiai? eiae ia oieueei
?acaeaeaoaeueiue, ii e aunieieioaeeaeooaeueiue, oeeinioneee, yoe/aneee,
ynoaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. ?acaea/aiey aiana ia iaoaee na?ueaciie aanaaea,
eeoue iiiiaaee iaeaeaoue aa a eaaeoth iieooooeeaoth oi?io, /oi
aa?iiie?iaaei n ie?oanoaaiiie ianoaiiaeie.

Ieaoiiianeee “Ie?” n aeaaieo ii? aue ioianai ia aac iniiaaiey e
yoe/aneei aeeaeiaai. Ii eiae iiaecaaieiaie, aeaiiue aio O?aneeeii, – “I
aeaaa”, a ii iaeioi?ui naeaeaoaeuenoaai (A?enoioaeue), “Ie?” Ieaoiia
eiaiiaaeny “?a/aie i ethaae”. Iaa yoeo iiaecaaieiaea ia i?ioeai?a/ao
ae?oa ae?oao, oae eae oaia aeeaeiaa – ainoiaeaeaiea /aeiaaea e aunoaio
aeaao, eioi?ia anoue ia /oi eiia, eae aiieiuaiea eaeae iaaaniie ethaae.

Aanue aeeaeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?anneac i ie?a, ono?iaiiii ii neo/ath
iiaaaeu o?aae/aneiai iiyoa Aaaoiia a aoeineii oaao?a. ?anneac aaaeaony
io eeoea o/aieea Nie?aoa, Aiieeiaei?a Oaea?neiai. Oaeei ia?acii, ia?aae
iaie “?anneac a ?anneaca”, io?aaeaiea io?aaeaiey ia?aaeeoiai aeaoiy
ae?ocueyie Nie?aoa.

Eiiiiceoeey “Ie?a” aanueia eaaei iiaeaeaaony aiaeeco aaeaeo oiai, /oi
ianeiaeii i?ineaaeeoue aa no?oeoo?o: iaaeaeo iaaieueoei anooieaieai e
oaeei aea caeeth/aieai a aeeaeiaa niaea?aeeony naiue ?a/ae, a eaaeaeie
ec eioi?uo o?aeooaony oio eee eiie aniaeo iaeiie e oie aea oaiu – oaiu
ethaae. I?aaeaea anaai ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea iaiau/iay eiae/aneay
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eae a i?aaeaeao eaaeaeie ec naie ?a/ae, oae e a
niioiioaiee anao ?a/ae.

Eoae, anooieaiea. Iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi iii ianuuaii oeeinioneei
niaea?aeaieai, iii eeoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiaai ?iaea eeoa?aoo?ioth
yeniiceoeeth. A iai i?aaenoaaeaiu e iniiaiua aeaenoaothuea eeoea
aeeaeiaa, ?aaii eae e ii?aaeaeyaony a iaueo /a?oao oaia anaai
iineaaeothuaai iiaanoaiaaiey. Anooieaiea ia/eiaaony ?anneacii i ano?a/a
iaeiaai Aiieeiaei?a ec Oaea?a n iaeei Aeaaeiiii, a oaeaea i?inueaie
iineaaeiaai ?anneacaoue i ie?a a aeiia Aaaoiia e niaeaneai Aiieeiaei?a
naeaeaoue yoi ni neia iaeiaai A?enoiaeaia ec Eeaeaoei, ee/ii
i?enoonoaiaaaoaai ia ie?a.

Aeaeaa neaaeoao ?anneac A?enoiaeaia ia ianoiyoaeuenoaao,
i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo ie?o: ano?a/a A?enoiaeaia n Nie?aoii, i?eaeaoaiea aai
ia ie?, iiicaeaiee Nie?aoa, ethaaciie ano?a/a A?enoiaeaia a aeiia
Aaaoiia e i?aaeeiaeaiee iaeiiai ec ainoae, Iaanaiey, ia i?inoi caiyoueny
ie?oanoaii, ii eaaeaeiio ec aai aeaaiuo o/anoieeia i?iecianoe
iioaaeueioth ?a/ue Y?ioo, aiao ethaae.

N niaeaney anao inoaeueiuo o/anoieeia ie?a aanaaeo ia Y?ioa ia/eiaao
Oaae?, e i?e/ai aeinoaoi/ii eiae/ii, oae eae ii aiai?eo i ae?aaiaeoai
i?ienoiaeaeaiee Y?ioa. “Y?io – yoi aaee/aeoee aia, eioi?ui ethaee e aiae
ainoeuathony ii iiiaei i?e/eiai, e ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue ec-ca aai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey: aaaeue ii/aoii auoue ae?aaiaeoei aiaii. A
aeieacaoaeuenoaii yoiai neoaeeo ionoonoaea o iaai ?iaeeoaeae… Caiey e
Y?io ?iaeeeenue iinea Oaina,” oi anoue nouaa e ethaiaue ia?acaeaeeiu e
yaeythony ae?aaiaeoeie eaoaai?eyie.

?a/ue Oaae?a aua eeoaia aiaeeoe/aneie neeu e aunoaaeyao oieueei naiua
iauea naienoaa Y?ioa, i eioi?uo aiai?eee ia/eiay n a?aiai
aac?acaeaeueiiai ainiiaenoaa ieoieiaee. Oae eae iauaeoeaiue ie?
i?aaenoaaeyeny a ae?aaiinoe iaeneiaeueii eiie?aoiui e iaeneiaeueii
/oanoaaiiui, oi ieneieueei ia oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi ana aeaeaeaiey a ie?a
iuneeeenue a ?acoeueoaoa ethaiaiiai aea/aiey. Anaie?iia oyaioaiea,
eioi?ia i?aaenoaaeyeinue i/aaeaeiui e a oa a?aiaia, oieeiaaeinue eae
oyaioaiea eneeth/eoaeueii ethaiaiia, e aiana ia oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi Y?io
o?aeooaony a ?a/e Oaae?a eae i?eioeei e iaeneiaeueii ae?aaiee, e
iaeneiaeueii iiaouanoaaiiue. Ii aiai?eo i aaee/aeoai ii?aeueiii
aaoi?eoaoa Y?ioa e ie n /ai ia n?aaieiie aeeciaiiie neea aiaa ethaae:
“Ii yaeeny aeey ian ia?aienoi/ieeii aaee/aeoeo aeaa… anee a aiciiaeii
auei ia?aciaaoue ec aethaeaiiuo e eo aicethaeaiiuo ainoaea?noai…, iie
oi?aaeyee au ei iaeeo/oei ia?acii, ecaaaay anaai iinouaeiiai e
ni?aaioynue ae?oa n ae?oaii”, eai “…Ii iaeaieaa niiniaai iaaeaeeoue
ethaeae aeiaeanoueth e aea?iaaoue ei aeaaeainoai i?e aeecie e iinea
nia?oe”. A nayce n yoei Oaae? ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoue eaeath i auni/aeoae
oeaiiinoe enoeiiie ethaae, iiaee?aieyy naie ?annoaeaeaiey ?anneacii ia
ioiioaiee e iae aiaeanoa: “Aiae auniei oeaiyo aeia?iaeaoaeue a ethaae,
aieueoa ainoeuathony, e aeeayony, e aeaaiaeaoaeuenoaotho a oii neo/aa,
eiaaea ethaeiue i?aaeai aethaeaiiiio, /ai eiaaea aethaeaiiue i?aaeai
i?aaeiaoo naiae ethaae”. Naiaia?aciui auaiaeii yoie ?a/e neoaeeo
auneacuaaiea i oii, /oi “ethayuee aiaeanoaaiiaa ethaeiiai, iioiio /oi
aaeioiiaeai aiaii, a ethaeiue aeaaiaea?ai naiath i?aaeaiiinoueth
ethayuaio”.

?annoaeaeaiey i i?e?iaea ethaae i?iaeieaeathony ai aoi?ie ?a/e – ?a/e
Iaanaiey. Oai?ey Y?ioa, eceiaeaiiay a ia?aie ?a/e, aeaaea n oiaaeaoiae
oi/ee c?aiey i?aaenoaaeyeanue neeoeii oae iauae e /oaeaeie anyeiai
aiaeeca. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a Y?ioa caeiaeaii aunoaa ia/aei, ii anoue
oaeaea e iecoaa. Ieoieiaey iiaeneacuaaea, /oi aunoaa anoue ia/oi
i?ino?ainoaaiii aunoaa, oi anoue iaaaniia; a o?aaeeoeeiiiia aeey
aioe/iiai ie?a o/aiea i i?aainoiaenoaa ioaeneiai ia/aea iaae aeaineei
iiaeneacuaaei, /oi aunoaa -yoi iaycaoaeueii ioaeneia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
aunoee Y?io – yoi ethaiaue iaaeaeo ioae/eiaie. A oae eae ei a?aiaie
Ieaoiia oaea iao/eeenue ioee/aoue ineoe/aneia io oaeaniiai e oeaieoue
ia?aia auoa aoi?iai, oi ioaeneay ethaiaue e ieacaeanue a ?a/e Iaanaiey
ethaiaueth iaeneiaeueii aeooiaiie.

Eiie?aoiuie ia?acaie, ieeoeaoai?ythueie ethaiaue aunooth e iecooth, a
?a/e Iaanaiey yaeythony aeaa Y?ioa e ii aiaeiaee n ieie aeaa Ao?iaeeou.
Oae eae ie/oi naii ii naaa ie i?ae?anii, ie aacia?acii, oi e?eoa?eai
i?ae?aniiai Y?ioa neoaeeo i?ienoiaeaeaiea aai io Ao?iaeeou Iaaaniie, a
ioee/ea io aoeueaa?iiai Y?ioa, nuia Ao?iaeeou Iioeie. Ao?iaeeoa Iioeeay
i?e/anoia e e ioaeneiio, e e aeaineiio ia/aeo. Y?io Ao?iaeeou Iioeie
iioe e niiniaai ia /oi oaiaeii. Yoi eae ?ac oa ethaiaue, eioi?ie ethayo
ethaee ie/oiaeiua, i?e/ai ethayo, ai-ia?auo, aeaiuei ia iaiueoa, /ai
thiioae, ai-aoi?uo, ethayo naieo ethaeiuo aieueoa ?aaee eo oaea, /ai
?aaee aeooe, e ethayo iie oao, eoi iiaeoiaa, caaioynue oieueei i oii,
/oiau aeiaeoueny naiaai”. “Y?io aea Ao?iaeeou Iaaaniie ainoiaeeo e
aiaeia, eioi?ay, ai-ia?auo, i?e/anoia oieueei e ioaeneiio ia/aeo, a ia e
aeaineiio, – iaaea?ii yoi ethaiaue e thiioai, – a ai-aoi?uo, noa?oa e
/oaeaea i?anooiiie aea?cinoe”. Eoae, iaaaniay ethaiaue anoue ethaiaue e
ioae/eia, eioi?ua i?ae?aniaa, oiiaa aeaiuei. Aethaeaiiui aea ana
iicaieaii, ii oieueei a noa?a aeooe e oia, aanei?unoii, ?aaee ioae?inoe
e niaa?oainoaa, a ia ?aaee oaea.

Iaiauathuei e ia neeoeii eiie?aoiui auaiaeii yoie ?a/e i?aaenoaaeyaony
neaaeothuaa ooaa?aeaeaiea: “I ethaii aeaea iiaeii neacaoue, /oi naii ii
naaa iii ia auaaao ie i?ae?aniui, ie aacia?aciui. *oi au iu ie aeaeaee,
yoi i?ae?anii ia naii ii naaa, a niio?y ii oiio, eae yoi aeaeaaony, eae
i?ienoiaeeo: anee aeaei aeaeaaony i?ae?anii e i?aaeeueii, oi iii
noaiiaeony i?ae?aniui, a anee iai?aaeeueii, oi, iaiai?io, aacia?aciui.
Oi aea naiia e n ethaiaueth: ia anyeee Y?io i?ae?anai e aeinoiei iioaae,
a eeoue oio, eioi?ue iiaoaeaeaao i?ae?anii ethaeoue.”

Aeaeueiaeoaa aoaeao oieueei oaeoaeyoue neacaiiia Iaanaieai. Ai-ia?auo,
ioaeii auei ooi/ieoue iieiaeaiea i i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyo o Y?ioa,
ia?aaiaey aai n ycuea ieoieiaee ia ycue aieaa ?acaeoiai iuoeaiey – ycue
iaoo?oeeinioee, ii i?eia?o i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae oieiaeiiai e oaieiai,
aeaaeiiai e nooiai e o.ae. Oai naiui Y?io n oa?aeoa?iuie aeey iaai
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyie iieo/ae oaea einie/aneia cia/aiea, /aio e iinayuaia
o?aouey ?a/ue – ?a/ue Y?eeneiaoa. Ii aiai?eo, /oi Y?io anoue ia oieueei
a /aeiaaea, ii e ai anae i?e?iaea, ai anai auoee: “AEeaao ii ia oieueei
a /aeiaa/aneie aeooa e ia oieueei a aa no?aieaiee e i?ae?aniui ethaeyi,
ii e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo aa ii?uaao, aea e aiiaua ai iiiaii ae?oaii ia
naaoa – a oaeao aeeaioiuo, a ?anoaieyo, ai anai nouai, eai ii aue
aaeeeee, oaeeaeoaeueiue, anaiauaiethuee, i?e/anoiue ei anai aeaeai
ethaeae e aiaia”. Iuneue Y?eeneiaoa i ethaae, ?aceeoie ii anaio ie?o
?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo, oeie/ia eiaiii aeey a?a/aneie iaoo?oeeinioee.

Aoi?ay ?a/ue ii?iaeaeaao e ae?oaoth i?iaeaio: iaia/aiiua a iae
einie/aneea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe iaeuecy auei iuneeoue aeoaeenoe/anee, a
ioaeii auei o?aaiiaaneoue eo i?e iiiiue oai?ee aa?iiie/aneiai aaeeinoaa
aunoaai e iecoaai, iieacaa e oiio aea anth iaecaaaeiinoue yoiai
aa?iiie/aneiai i?eioeeia Y?ioa e no?anoioth ono?aieaiiinoue e iaio oao,
eoi ieacaeny ai aeanoe Y?ioa. ?acaeaeaiea aea aeaoo Y?ioia aeieaeii
iiae/eiyoueny iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeey ieo auoue a iinoiyiiie aa?iiiee,
“aaaeue ooo o?aaoaony oiaiea onoaiiaeoue ae?oaeao iaaeaeo aeaoiy naiuie
a?aaeaeaaiuie a oaea ia/aeaie e aiooeoue ei acaeiioth ethaiaue”.
Aeaaiaeaoaeueiinoue aeaoo Y?ioia aiciiaeia oieueei i?e oneiaee eo
aa?iiiee, oaeaea e a niunea i?aaeeueiiai /a?aaeiaaiey a?aiaie aiaea e
iieaciiai aeey /aeiaaea ninoiyiey aoiinoa?u. “Naienoaa a?aiai aiaea
caaeneo io ieo iaieo. Eiaaea ia/aeaie, oaieii e oieiaeii, nooinoueth e
aeaaeiinoueth, iaeaaeaaaao ethaiaue oia?aiiay e iie neeaathony ae?oa n
ae?oaii ?annoaeeoaeueii e aa?iiie/ii, aiae auaaao eciaeeueiue, ii
i?eiineo caei?iauea, ia i?e/eiyao neeueiiai a?aaea. Ii eiaaea a?aiaia
aiaea iiiaaeatho iiae aeeyiea ?aciocaeaiiiai Y?ioa, Y?ioa-ianeeueieea,
ii iiiaia aoaeo e ii?oeo”. Iaeiiaoe, aea?oaii?eiioaiey e aaaeaiey oiaea
yaeythony aeoaie ethaiaiie aa?iiiee, ethaeae e aiaia, eai yoi naycaii “n
io?aiie ethaae e a?a/aaaieai aa”.

Eiae/aneia i?iaeieaeaiea iaa iunee, auneacaiiua ai aoi?ie e o?aoueae
?a/ao, iaoiaeyo a /aoaa?oie ?a/e – ?a/e A?enoioaia. A?enoioai ni/eiyao
ieo i ia?aiauoiii nouanoaiaaiee iaeiia?aiaiii a aeaea ioae/ei e aeaiuei,
eee AIAe?IAEIIA. Iineieueeo yoe ethaee auee i/aiue neeueiu e ceioiuoeyee
i?ioea Caana, iineaaeiee ?annaeaao eaaeaeiai aiae?iaeia ia aeaa
iieiaeiu, ?annaeaaao eo ii anaio ie?o e canoaaeyao eo aa/ii eneaoue
ae?oa ae?oaa aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey eo i?aaeiae iieiiou e iiaouanoaa.
Iiyoiio Y?io anoue no?aieaiea ?anna/aiiuo /aeiaa/aneeo iieiaei iaeia e
ae?oaie ?aaee ainnoaiiaeaiey oeaeinoiinoe: “Ethaiaueth iacuaaaony
aeaaeaea oeaeinoiinoe e no?aieaiea e iae”.

?a/ue A?enoioaia – iaeei ec eioa?aniaeoeo ia?acoeia ieoioai?/anoaa
Ieaoiia. A ieoa, nicaeaiiii Ieaoiiii, ia?aieaoaiu e aai nianoaaiiua
oaioacee, e iaeioi?ua iauai?eiyoua ieoieiae/aneea e oeeinioneea
aicc?aiey. Iauai?eiyoia ?iiaioe/aneia oieeiaaiea yoiai ieoa eae ieoa i
no?aieaiee aeaoo aeoo e acaeiiiio niaaeeiaieth ia eiaao ie/aai iauaai n
ieaoiiianeei ieoai i /oaeiaeuao, ?acaeaeaiiuo iiiieai e aa/ii
eniuouaathueo aeaaeaeo oece/aneiai niaaeeiaiey. Iiaeii niaeaneoueny n
oieeiaaieai E. ?aeiaa?aea, eioi?ue aeaeeo a iai no?aieaiea e ae?aaiae
oeaeinoiinoe e aaeeinoao /aeiaaea /enoi oece/aneiio aianoi aiaeanoaaiii
i?ae?aniie oeaeinoiinoe n aa ainoiaeaeaieai io oaea e aeooo, io caiiie
e?aniou e aunoae eaeaa.

Iauee eoia ia?auo /aou?ao ?a/ae naiaeeony e oiio, /oi Y?io anoue
eneiiiay ie?iaay oeaeueiinoue, ciaouay e aaeeiaieth ethayuea ia?u ia
iniiaa eo iai?aiaeieeiiai acaeiiiai aea/aiey e eneaiey anaiauae e
aeaaeaiiie aaciyoaaeiinoe.

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea yoie iiceoeee o?aaiaaei eiie?aoecaoeee Y?ioa eae
/enoi aeeciaiiiai /aeiaa/aneiai no?aieaiey, a ai-aoi?uo, oieeiaaiey aai
i?e iiiiue iauaoeeinioneiai iaoiaea, ia ia?aie/aiiiai aeaaea e
iaoo?oeeinioeae.

Aaaoii a ioee/ea io i?aaeuaeoueo i?aoi?ia ia?a/eneyao ioaeaeueiua
eiie?aoiua nouanoaaiiua naienoaa Y?ioa: e?anioo, aa/ioth iieiaeinoue,
iaaeiinoue, aeaeinoue oaea, niaa?oainoai, iai?eciaiea ei ieeaeiai
ianeeey, ni?aaaaeeeainoue, ?annoaeeoaeueiinoue e o?aa?inoue, ioae?inoue
eae a ione/aneeo eneonnoaao, oae e a ii?iaeaeaiee anaai aeeaiai, ai anao
eneonnoaao e ?aianeao e a oii?yaei/aiee anao aeae aiaia.

Ii /ai aieaa ae?iaii ?anniao?eaathony anaaiciiaeiua aeeeiaeiiua naienoaa
Y?ioa, oai aieueoa e iio?aaiinoue aeaoue eo a neioaoe/aneii aeaea, oae,
/oiau iie auoaeaee ec aaeeiiai e iai?aeiaeiiai i?eioeeia. Yoei eae ?ac e
caieiaaony Nie?ao a oanoie ii n/aoo ?a/e, aii?oaeaiiie ai?acaei aieaa
neiaeiui iaoiaeii, /ai iaoo?oeeinioey, a eiaiii iaoiaeii
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie aeeaeaeoeee. Aeey iaeaieaa iieiiai iiieiaiey yoie
?a/e iaiaoiaeeii oynieoue oi/eo c?aiey Ieaoiia, /oiau io/aoeeai
i?aaenoaaeoue naaa ana iaaeieacaiiua aeey ian, ii aeey oiaaeaoieo a?aiai
i/aaeaeiaeoea i?aaeiinueee, i?e iaee/ee eioi?uo oieueei e iiaeii
oeiaeoue eiae/aneoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eiioeaioeee Nie?aoa. Yoe
i?aaeiinueee naiaeyony a iniiaiii e aioe/iiio NICA?OeAOAEUeIIIO, ii a oi
aea naiia a?aiy e e AAUANOAAIIIIO IIOIEIAECIO, eioi?ue, aoaeo/e
i?eiaiyai e naiui iaaeiiui eiae/aneei eiino?oeoeeyi, oio/an aea
i?aa?auaao eo a ieoieiaeth.

Ia?aue nooiaiue yoie aeeaeaeoeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi anyeia yaeaiea
(a cia/eo, e Y?io) eiaao naie i?aaeiao. E anee /oi-ieaoaeue e
/aio-ieaoaeue no?aieony, oi iii io/anoe aai oaea eiaao (a eiaiii a aeaea
oeaee), io/anoe aua ia eiaao. Aac yoiai iaeaaeaiey e iaiaeaaeaiey ia
iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aiiaua ieeaeiai no?aieaiey. Cia/eo, Y?io ia anoue
aua naia e?anioa, ii anoue ia/oi i?iiaaeooi/iia iaaeaeo e?anioie e
aacia?aceai, iaaeaeo aeaaeaiiie iieiioie e aa/ii euouae aaaeiinoueth, i
/ai e aiai?eony a i?ieiaa nie?aoianeie ?a/e. I?e?iaea Y?ioa n?aaeeia; ii
nui iaaaniiai Ii?ina (Aiaaonoaa) e Iaiee (Aaaeiinoe) – aiai?eony a
ieaoiiianeii ieoa. Ieo yoio, i?aaaea, aeaeae io iaeaiinoe ia?aiauoiiai
iuoeaiey e yaeyaony oieueei iiyoe/aneie eeethno?aoeeae oiai
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai aaeeinoaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, aac eioi?iai iaaiciiaeai
e nai Y?io eae no?aieaiea. Ieo yoio naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oaeaea e i
nica?oeaoaeueii-aauanoaaiiii iioieiaecia o Ieaoiia.

Aeaeaa neaaeoao naiay i?inoay eiioeaioeey: oeaeue Y?ioa – iaeaaeaiea
aeaaii, ii ia eaeei-eeai ioaeaeueiui, a anyeei aeaaii e aa/iia
iaeaaeaiea ei. A oae eae aa/iinoueth iaeuecy iaeaaeaoue n?aco, aiciiaeii
oieueei iaeaaeaaaoue ath iinoaiaiii, o.a. ca/eiay e ii?iaeaeay aianoi
naay ae?oaia, cia/eo, Y?io anoue ethaiaue e aa/iiio ii?iaeaeaieth a
e?anioa ?aaee aannia?oey, e ii?iaeaeaieth eae oaeaniiio, oae e
aeooiaiiio, aeeth/ay ethaiaue e iiyoe/aneiio oai?/anoao e
iauanoaaiii-ainoaea?noaaiiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao. Ana aeeaia, iiea iii
aeeai, no?aieony ii?iaeaeaoue, eai iii nia?oii, a aio oi/aony
ooaa?aeeoue naay iaanaaaea. Ii Ieaoii, eiia/ii, ia iiaeao inoaoueny ia
ii/aa oaeiai i?inoiai e aano?aeoiiai oiicaeeth/aiey. Anee ethaiaue
anaaaea no?aieony ii?iaeaeaoue, cia/eo, ?annoaeaeaao ii, nouanoaoao
aa/iinoue, ?aaee aiieiuaiey eioi?ie oieueei e nouanoaotho ana
ii?iaeaeaiey ethaae, oece/aneea e iaoece/aneea. A yoii ?annoaeaeaiee
iiyoue iaaeyaeii aunooiaao nica?oeaoaeueii-aauanoaaiiue iioieiaeci.

Caeanue aea aicieeea e ciaiaieoay ea?a?oey e?aniou, noaaoay iiioey?iie
ia oeaeua ouny/aeaoey. Nia/aea iai i?aayony oece/aneea oaea. Iaeiaei
aiai?eoue i aeaiiii oaea iiaeii oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea eiaaony
i?aaenoaaeaiea i oaea aiiaua. Oece/aneia oaei, acyoia naii ii naaa, ii
iiaieth Ieaoiia, eia?oii e iaiiaeaeaeii, ii, iineieueeo ?aaeueii ana
oaea aeoeaiu e iiaeaeaeiu, aeieaeii nouanoaiaaoue oi ia/aei, eioi?ia eie
aeaeaeao; e ia/aei oaea iaoaeaniia, iaoece/aneia. Aeey Ieaoiia, eae e
aeey anae aioe/iinoe, oaeei naiiaeaeaeouei ia/aeii auei oi, /oi
iacuaaeinue aeooie. Aac yoie i?aaeiinueee oiaaeaoiea iuneeoaee aiiaua ia
aeiioneaee aeecie e auoey, oioy nouiinoue aeooe ii?aaeaeyee ii-?aciiio.
Aeooa aeaeaeaony e aeaeaeao ana ae?oaia. A i?ioeaiaan ae nouanoaoao e
ia/oi iaiiaeaeaeiia, iiaeiaii oiio eae aaeue oeaao i?aaeiieaaaao /a?iue,
aa?o i?aaeiieaaaao iec e o.ae. Yoi iaaeaeaeeiia a aeooa anoue ia /oi
eiia, eae iaoee, a ana iaoee i?aaeiieaaatho aeey naay oaeie aea aa/iue e
iaiiaeaeaeiue i?aaeiao, eioi?ue iie e i?ecaaiu iniciaaaoue.
Ea?a?oe/aneay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a oai?ee oaeiaa: io iaeiiai
i?ae?aniiai oaea ei anai oaeai, ionthaea – e i?ae?aniui aeooai, io aeoo
– e iaoeai e io ioaeaeueiuo iaoe – e i?aaeaeo anao iaoe, e eaeaa
i?ae?aniiai, eioi?ia oaea ia iiaeaa?aeaii ieeaeei eciaiaieyi, ii
nouanoaoao aa/ii e iaeciaiii. Nica?oeaoaeueii-aauanoaaiiue iioieiaeci
canoaaeyao Ieaoiia e caeanue o/eoue i i?aaeaea anao iaoe eae i aa/iie e
iaiiaeaeaeiie eaeaa e?aniou. Yoei naiui Ieaoii niiaa nineaeuecuaaao n
/enoi eiae/aneiai iooe ia iooue ieoieiaee, e aai i?aaeaeueiay eaeay
e?aniou, aeieacaiiay ei n iieiie eiae/aneie aacoi?a/iinoueth, aae?oa
i?aaenoaao oaea a iiaii, ia nianai eiae/aneii naaoa. Iiyaeyaony o/aiea i
aa/iii e eaeaaeueiii oea?noaa e?aniou, n eioi?ui niaeaneony ia anyeee
eiaee e eioi?ia ia iiaeao iaieoenue aac ionoue iaaeieacaiiie, ii caoi
aeey Ieaoiia aeneiiaoe/aneie ieoieiaee e?aniou, aicieeathuae ia ii/aa
aacoaea?aeiiai nica?oeaoaeueii-noanoaioeeiiaeueiiai iioieiaecia. Oae,
i?eoiaeeony ioaeaeyoue o Ieaoiia eiae/anee aacoi?a/iua aeieacaoaeuenoaa
io iaeiae/aneie ieoieiaee, oioy a yoii o/aiee Ieaoiia i aa/iie eaeaa
e?aniou aiana iao oaeiai ?acaeaeaiey eiaeee e ieoieiaee. Aea e ia naiii
aeaea caeanue, eiia/ii, ia i?inoi ieoieiaey. Yoi oaeay ieoieiaey,
eioi?ay ia yaeyaony iaeaiie e aei?aoeaeoeaiie, ii eioi?ay oaea
eiino?oe?iaaia eiae/anee, aeeaeaeoe/anee, o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueii. A
aeaeueiaeoai o Eaioa o?ainoeaiaeaioaeeci noaaee naiae oeaeueth
oi?ioee?iaaoue oneiaey aiciiaeiinoe iuneeoue oa eee eiua i?aaeiaou. O
Ieaoiia oae e iieo/aaony: /oiau iuneeoue oaei, iaaei oaea eiaoue iiiyoea
oaea, /oiau iuneeoue iiiyoea oaea, iaaei oaea eiaoue iiiyoea aeooe, e
/oiau iuneeoue eaeath aeooe, iaiaoiaeeii iuneeoue eaeath naiia ii naaa.
Yoi e anoue naiue ianoiyuee O?AINOeAIAeAIOAEECI, e aeaaea nei?aa
aeeaeaeoe/aneee, i?e/ai eaeae iauaeoeaiu. O Ieaoiia iuneeony iaeioi?ay
ai?ei?iay eaeaaeueiay i?e?iaea, aeaeathuay o iaai aia?aua aiciiaeiue e
aiinoa?ei?ioth /oanoaaiioth i?e?iaeo. Yoi aeieacuaaao aa?iinoue oaeiai
ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi ieaoiieci – yoi iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci.

Iaeiaei naaeueiay ?a/ue a “Ie?a”, a eiaiii ?a/ue Aeeeaeaaea, ia
iicaieyao naiaeeoue o/aiea Ieaoiia e aano?aeoii iiiyoeeiiio iauaeoeaiiio
eaeaaeecio. Oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey Aeeeaeaaea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
e?iia iau/iiai niaiaaeaiey aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai, noauaeoeaiiai e
iauaeoeaiiai, eaeaaeueiiai e ?aaeueiiai, aeeciue canoaaeyao i?eciaoue
aua e eo iaiau/aeii ?aciiia?acioth e aeeciaiii e?ani/ioth
i?ioeai?a/eainoue. Nie?ao, eacaeinue au, anoue eaeaaeueiue ioae?aoe,
eioi?ue oieueei e ciaao, /oi eiino?oe?oao ?aciiai ?iaea eiae/aneea
eaoaai?ee iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia. Aeeeaeaae n?aaieaaao Nie?aoa n
neeaiaie e naoe?ii Ia?neai. Nie?ao iieuecoaony aeey caai?aaeeaaiey
neooaoaeae ia oeaeoie, a ?a/aie, canoaaeyy aeeoue ethaeae ii-iiaiio e
nouaeeoueny naieo iaaeaaiaeaeiuo iinooieia. Nie?ao iaiaueiiaaiii
auiineea oece/anee, ioaeanoaaiai e o?aa? – ia yoii aiai?eo aai
aa?ie/aneia iiaaaeaiea ia aieia. Nie?ao oaeaea iaeaaeaao ie n /ai ia
n?aaieiie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoueth. A cia/eoaeueiie ia?a Nie?ao oaeiaui e
yaeyaony eae enoi?e/anee, oae e a ecia?aaeaiee Aeeeaeaaea. E oai ia
iaiaa any yoa nie?aoi-ieaoiiianeay o?ainoeaaeaioaeueiay aeeaeaeoeea e
ieoieiaey aeaia a oi?ia /?acau/aeii aeoaieie e ino?ie iauaaeeciaiiie
e?iiee, i?ae?anii aeieacuaathuae iai, /oi Ieaoii ia i?inoi iauaeoeaiue
eaeaaeeno, ii e i/aiue no?anoiay, i?ioeai?a/eaay, aa/ii euouay iaoo?a.
Iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci, eae ii aeai a “Ie?a”, e?iia
o?ainoeaaeaioaeueii-aeeaeaeoe/aneiai o/aiey ia eaeayo i?iiecai io ia/aea
aei eiioea io/eoaeueii neaaeinoiui iuouaieai aeecie, a eioi?ie
eaeaaeueiia e iaoa?eaeueiia aaciaaeaaeii niooaii e ia?aiaoaii – eiie ?ac
aeaaea aei iieiie ia?acee/eiinoe. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony aua e oai, eae
au neo/aeii a?ioaiiui caia/aieai Nie?aoa i oii, /oi enoeiiue nicaeaoaeue
o?aaaaeee aeieaeai auoue nicaeaoaeai oaeaea enoeiiie eiiaaeee, /oi
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia i?inoi neo/aeiue aoi?eci Ieaoiia, ii yaeyaony
iiaeeeiiui eoiaii anae oeeinioee eaeae a “Ie?a”.

N eiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey iaeaieaa i?eaeiaeai oaeno ia ea?a?oee Y?ioa,
eioi?ue eii/aaony aa/iie eaeaae e?aniou. Ioaeaeaynue io ieaoiiianeie
iiycee, ieoieiaee, ?eoi?eee e ae?aiaoo?aee, iu iaia?oaeeaaai oi, /aai ia
eiaee a i?aaeuaeoueo aeeaeiaao eee eiaee a ca/aoi/iie oi?ia. Eiaiii
eaeay aaue i?aaenoaaeaia caeanue eae I?AAeAE NOAIIAEAIEss AAUE. A
iiiyoea i?aaeaea aeieacaii oaea a nia?aiaiiie iaoaiaoeea e oeceea.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a yoii e caeeth/aaony iaeii ec ia?iiiuo aeinoeaeaiee
Ieaoiia, eioi?ia ia oi?ao ieeiaaea, a eaeea au ieoieiai-iiyoe/aneea,
neiaiee/aneea e ?eoi?eei-ae?aiaoo?aeaneea iaeayiey iii ie auei
oaeoe/anee iaea/aii a eiie?aoiii oaenoa ieaoiiianeeo aeeaeiaia.

Oeaio?aeueiie aeey “Ie?a” yaeyaony i?iaeaia N?AAeEIU. Eiaiii,
“i?aaeeueiia iiaiea” anoue ia/oi n?aaeiaa iaaeaeo ciaieai e
/oanoaaiiinoueth. A “Ie?a” i iai anoue ia oieueei oiiieiaiea, ii
i?iaeaia Y?ina oieeoaony ooo i?yii eae oa aea naiay i?iaeaia
i?aaeeueiiai iiaiey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a eiioeaioeee Y?ina iiai oi, /oi
“ciaiea” e “aeiena” i?eieiathony ooo ai?acaei aiaa/a e iieiaa, o.e.
caeanue ia i?inoi “ciaiea” e “aeiena”, ii oi, /oi iiaeii iacaaoue
“/oanoaii”, “yiioeeae” e o.ae. A “Ie?a”, oioy e a ia neeoeii yaiie
oi?ia, noieo i?iaeaia nayce ciaiey e /oanoaaiiinoe, oa?ieiieiae/anee
cae?aieaiiay eae i?iaeaia n?aaeeiu. Iiaecia aea “Ie?a” a yoii ioiioaiee
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iaa iacaaiiua noa?u aeaiu eae iaeia, aaeeiay e
iaaeaeeiay noa?a, a eioi?ie oaea iaeuecy ?acee/eoue ie oiai, ie
ae?oaiai. Ciaiea ianoieueei aeecei iauaaeeiyaony n /oanoaaiiinoueth, /oi
iieo/aaony eo iieiia oiaeaeanoai. Io Ii?ina e Iaiee ?iaeaeaaony Y?io,
eioi?ue oaea ia anoue ie Iaiey, ie Ii?in, ii oi, a /ai iaa iie
ioiaeaeanoaeyeenue. Anaaiciiaeiua i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe iauaaeeieeenue ooo
a iaeio oeaeueioth aeeciue, a iaeii niaieoiiia ii?iaeaeaiea, a iaeii
noaiiayuaany oiaeaeanoai. Eiaiii caeanue o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiue iaoiae
aia?aua aeinoeaaao naiae c?aeinoe; e niune, eioi?ue ii i?ecaai
iauaaeeieoue n aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth, oieueei ooo aia?aua noaiiaeony
AeEIAIE*ANEEI NIUNEII, oai?/aneie aeeiaieeie, aeoeaiie noiiie aaneiia/ii
iaeuo i?e?auaiee. Noaiiayueeny Y?io, aeeiaie/aneee neioac, aa/iay
iioaioiinoue e i?eioeeiiinoue, aa/iay ii?iaeaeaaiinoue e oiiia
no?aieaiea – aio eoia ieaoiiecia ia yoie nooiaie.

I?iaeaia iauaaeeiaiey ciaiey n /oanoaaiiinoueth, ?aaii eae e eaeae n
auoeai, anoue a nouanoaa naiai i?iaeaia NEIAIEA. O?ainoeaaeaioaeueiay
oeeinioey aeaao noaiiayuothny aaiaoe/anee niuneiaoth o?aeoiaeo neiaiea.
A “Ie?a”, eae e a “Oayoaoa” e “Iaiiia”, i?ae?anii aeaeia
o?ainoeaaeaioaeueiay yaiethoeey neiaieecia. Ioiuia ieaoiieci anoue aeey
ian i?eioeeieaeueiue e ieii/aoaeueiue neiaieeci n ?aciie oeeinioneie
i?e?iaeie neiaiea e ia aeaiiie nooiaie oeeinioneiai ?acaeoey Ieaoiia iu
iaoiaeei NEIAIE eae o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiue i?eioeei. Oaeiai oeeinioneia
ni aea?aeaiea ieaoiiianeiai “Ie?a”.

I?eia/aiey:

1.Oaia ethaae ioae/eiu e i?ae?aniiio thiioa, eioi?ie oae ianuuai
aeeaeia “Ie?”, ia aeieaeia eacaoueny noieue iaiau/iie, anee iiaeieoe e
iae enoi?e/anee. Iiiaea ouny/aeaoey iao?ea?oaoa iaoneiaeee naiaia?acioth
?aaeoeeth ieoieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee a?aeia e a eo nioeeaeueiii
auoee. Oi?ioi ecaanoai ieo i ?iaeaeaiee Aoeiu ec aieiau Caana eee
o?eeiaey Ynoeea “I?anoay”, a eioi?ie aiae Aiieeii e Aoeia aeieacuaatho
i?aainoiaenoai ioae/eiu, aa?iy e aiaeaey ?iaea. Ecaanoii e oi, /oi
aeaiueia auea aani?aaia a a?a/aneii eeanne/aneii iauanoaa. A oi aea
a?aiy any aioe/iinoue ioee/aeanue io iiaie Aa?iiu aua iaaeinoaoi/ii
?acaeoui niciaieai iaiiaoi?eiinoe ee/iinoe, caaeaaeaiiie ?iaeiauie, a
caoai e iieeniuie aaoi?eoaoaie eee ia Ainoiea – iaia?aie/aiiie aeanoueth
aeaniioa. A Ia?nee iaeiiiieay ethaiaue auea iniaaiii ?ani?ino?aiaia, e
eiaiii ioooaea yoio iau/ae ia?aoae a A?aoeeth. Ionthaea i?aaenoaaeaiey i
aunoae e?anioa, aiieiuaiiie a ioaeneii oaea, oae eae ioae/eia –
iieiii?aaiue /eai iauanoaa, ii iuneeoaeue, ecaeaao caeiiu, ii aithao,
?aoaao noaeueau iieena, e ethaiaue e oaeo thiioe, ieeoeaoai?ythuaio
eaeaaeueioth e?anioo e neeo iauanoaa, i?ae?ania.

2.Aeey eo/oaai iiieiaiey eiaeee aeeaeiaa oioaeinue au i?eaanoe ieai aai
ii ?a/ai n oeacaieai oai e i?aoi?ia:

a) ae?aaiaeoaa i?ienoiaeaeaiea Y?ioa (Oaae?);

a) aeaa Y?ioa (Iaanaiee);

a) Y?io ?aceeo ii anae i?e?iaea (Y?eeneiao);

a) Y?io eae no?aieaiea /aeiaaea e ecia/aeueiie oeaeinoiinoe (A?enoioai);

ae) niaa?oainoai Y?ioa (Aaaoii);

a) oeaeue Y?ioa – iaeaaeaiea aeaaii (Nie?ao);

ae) ianiaeanea n Nie?aoii (Aeeeaeaae).

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