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Дефиниции цивилизации в русскоязычных энциклопедиях и энциклопедических словарях

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Iiiyoea oeeaeeecaoeey iiyaeeinue a XVIII aaea a oaniie nayce n iiiyoeai
«eoeueoo?a». O?aioeocneea oeeiniou-i?inaaoeoaee iacuaaee oeeaeeeciaaiiui
iauanoai, iniiaaiiia ia ia/aeao ?acoia e ni?aaaaeeeainoe. A XIX aaea
oeeaeeecaoeey iaicia/aea aunieee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueiie e
aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo ia?iaeia e auea /anoueth
eiioeaioeee aa?iiioeaio?ecia. Iaeiia?aiaiii iiiyoea «oeeaeeecaoeey»
oiio?aaeyeinue eae oa?aeoa?enoeea eaieoaeecia a oeaeii.

A ?innee aei ?aaiethoeee iiae oeeaeeecaoeeae iiieiaeanue «niaieoiiinoue
i?eciaeia iauanoaaiiiai e iieeoe/aneiai oeeaaea e aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey,
ioee/athueo aunieoth noaiaiue ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa io
ia?aiauoiiai ninoiyiey» /4/. Oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea oa?ieia iu ano?a/aai a
Iaeii yioeeeeiiaaee/aneii neiaa?a A?ieaaoca O.A., Ao?iia E.A., ecaeaiey
1909 aiaea. Iicaeiaa, a niaaoneee ia?eiae e iauai?eiyoie o?aeoiaea a
?inneeneeo yioeeeeiiaaee/aneeo ecaeaieyo i?eaaaeeinue ia?enenoneia
ii?aaeaeaiea oeeaeeecaoeee. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aaoi?ai
yioeeeeiiaaee/aneeo noaoae i?eoiaeeeinue noaeeeaaoueny n aeanoieie
oeaico?ie e iie auee auioaeaeaiu i?eaea?aeeaaoueny iaaycaiiie aeanoyie
eaeaieiaee, ec-ca /aai ii?aaeaeaiey oa?ieiia ai anao ecaeaieyo naiaeyony
e iaeiiio e oiio aea, iii?iaoai ana-oaee iaeoe ?acee/ey e
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue aeaoeieoeee oeeaeeecaoeee, i?aaeeiaeaiiua eie.

A Aieueoie niaaoneie yioeeeeiiaaeee (ANY) naeaeaia iiiuoea i?aaenoaaeoue
aanue niaeo? nouanoaothueo ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoey, iaeiaei i?aaeii/oaiea
ioaeaaony ia?enenoneiio e aeeceei e iaio iiaeoiaeai: «Oeeaeeecaoeey (io
eao. civilis – a?aaeaeaineee, ainoaea?noaaiiue) 1) neiiiei eoeueoo?u. A
ia?enenoneie eeoa?aoo?a oiio?aaeyaony oaeaea aeey iaicia/aiey
iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u. 2) O?iaaiue, nooiaiue iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey,
iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u (aioe/iay oeeaeeecaoeey, nia?aiaiiay
oeeaeeecaoeey). 3) Nooiaiue iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey neaaeothuay ca
aa?aa?noaii (E. Ii?aai, O. Yiaaeuen)» /2/.

A ioee/ea io ANY Niaaoneay enoi?e/aneay yioeeeeiiaaeey ia no?aieony
i?aaenoaaeoue ana iiiaiia?acea iiaeoiaeia, a eiioeaio?e?oaony ia
«aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiii» – ia?enenoneii e ii?aaeaeyao oeeaeeecaoeeth
eae «neiiiei iiiyoey eoeueoo?a; niaieoiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo
aeinoeaeaiee iauanoaa a aai enoi?e/aneii ?acaeoee, o?iaaiue
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey e iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u, aeinoeaiooue oie eee
eiie iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeeae; noaiaiue e oa?aeoa? ?acaeoey
eoeueoo?u ii?aaeaeaiiuo yiio e ia?iaeia», a oaeaea a aieaa oceii niunea
eae «oieueei iaoa?eaeueioth eoeueoo?o» /6/.

oeeaeeecaoeey – yoi «o?iaaiue iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueiie e
aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u, aeinoeaiooue oie eee eiie iauanoaaiiie oi?iaoeeae,
iai?eia?, aioe/iay oeeaeeecaoeey, nia?aiaiiay oeeaeeecaoeey» /5/, ii, a
ioee/ea io iaa, iaeaieueoaa aieiaiea oaeaeyao eiioeaioeee O. Yiaaeuena e
E.A. Ii?aaia, niaeanii eioi?ie oa?iei «oeeaeeecaoeey» «eiaao
niaoeeoe/aneia cia/aiea, naycaiiia iiae?acaeaeaieai ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai
no?iy ia yiioe aeeeinoe e aa?aa?noaa, aneaae ca eioi?uie ianooiaao yiioa
oeeaeeecaoeee» /5/, e, iiaeiaii yioeeeeiiaaeee A?ieaaoca e Ao?iia,
ia?auaao aieiaiea ia oi, /oi neiai «oeeaeeecaoeey» ainoiaeeo e
o?aioeocneiio «civilisation», iaeiaei oeacuaay ia oi, /oi
«civilisation», a naith i/a?aaeue i?iecioei io eaoeineiai «civilis»
(a?aaeaeaineee, iauanoaaiiue). Oaeay yoeiieiaey aeaao iai iiiyoue, /oi
yoio oa?iei iiiae a ?inneth ec O?aioeee a yiioo I?inaauaiey e a oi aea
a?aiy iaia?oaeeaaao naycue n ae?oaeie niaaoneeie yioeeeeiiaaee/aneeie
ecaeaieyie, eioi?ua oiiieiatho eeoue eaoeineia i?ienoiaeaeaiea neiaa.

Eae ecaanoii, a NNN? ecaeaaaeenue yioeeeeiiaaeee ia oieueei ia ?onneii
ycuea, ii e ia ycueao ae?oaeo nithciuo ?anioaeee. Oae, iai?eia?,
Aaei?onneay niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey iieiinoueth iiaoi?yao oaeno
aeaoeieoeee INY. Ii ia ioaeii aeoiaoue, /oi ana ?anioaeeeaineea
ecaeaoaeuenoaa eeoue iiae?aaeatho oeaio?aeueiui ?inneeneei eee
ia?aaiaeyo eo ia naie ycuee. Oae Oe?aeineee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue
i?aaeeaaaao aeinoaoi/ii i?eaeiaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea: «Oeeaeeecaoeey… – 1)
A oe?ieii niunea – ethaay oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey aeeauo nouanoa,
iaaeaeaiiuo ?acoiii. 2) Neiiiei eoeueoo?u, niaieoiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo e
aeooiaiuo aeinoeaeaiee iauanoaa. 3) Enoi?e/aneee oei eoeueoo?u,
eieaeeciaaiiue ai a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa (ae?aaiea oeeaeeecaoeee Aaeioa,
Ianiiioaiee, Eiaeee e o. i.). 4) Yoai iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey,
i?eoiaeyuee ia niaio aeeeinoe e aa?aa?noao» /8/.

Eoae, iineieueeo iu oiiiyioee Oe?aeineee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue,
iiniio?ei, /oi aiai?eony i oeeaeeecaoeee a iiaeiaiuo ?inneeneeo
ecaeaieyo. Ia?aoeiny e Niaaoneiio yioeeeeiiaaee/aneiio neiaa?th:
«Oeeaeeecaoeey – 1) neiiiei eoeueoo?u. 2) O?iaaiue, nooiaiue
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u. 3) Nooiaiue
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, neaaeothuay ca aa?aa?noaii (Ii?aai, Yiaaeuen).
4) A iaeioi?uo eaeaaeenoe/aneeo oai?eyo yiioa aeaa?aaeaoeee e oiaaeea a
i?ioeaiaan oeaeinoiinoe, i?aaie/iinoe eoeueoo?u» /7/. Caeanue ia?yaeo n
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie ii?aaeaeaieyie oeacai iiaeoiae, yaii i?ioeai?a/auee
ia?enenoneiio. Ii-aeaeeiiio, yoi naycaii n oai, /oi neiaa?ue aue ecaeai
a 1984 aiaeo, a ia?eiae nioeeaeueiiai e?ecena, ca aiae aei ia/aea
ia?ano?ieee. Aiaeiae/ioth aeaoeieoeeth iu aeaeei e a Aieueoii
yioeeeeiiaaee/aneii neiaa?a, auiouaiiii a 1991 aiaeo.

Iineieueeo ?anniao?eaaaiue iaie oa?iei aeecie e iaeanoe oeeinioee, oi a
caeeth/aiea caaeyiai niaoeeaeece?iaaiiia ecaeaiea – Oeeinioneoth
yioeeeeiiaaeeth, – eioi?ay, ianiio?y ia i?eienuaaaioth oeeinioai
iiiaineiaiinoue, a oieeiaaiee iiiyoey «oeeaeeecaoeey» ia?aie/eaaaony
anaai ianeieueeeie no?ieaie: «Oeeaeeecaoeey – neiiiei eoeueoo?u;
niaieoiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo aeinoeaeaiee iauanoaa a aai
enoi?e/aneii ?acaeoee» /9/.

Iiaeaiaey eoia, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a niaaoneeo yioeeeeiiaaee/aneeo
ecaeaieyo i?aaaee?oao ia?enenoneee iiaeoiae, a oaeaea oiiieiaaony
ii?aaeaeaiea, i?eiyoia aei ?aaiethoeee; a a iinoniaaoneee ia?eiae e iei
aeiaaaeythony iiaua.

Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a

Aaei?onneay niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey. Ieine, 1974, o. XI, n. 126.

Aieueoay niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey, 3-a ecaeaiea. – I.: Niaaoneay
yioeeeeiiaaeey, 1978, o. XXVIII, n. 553.

Aieueoie yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. – I.: Niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey,
1991, o. II, n. 618.

A?ieaaoc O.A., Ao?ii E.A. Iaeue yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue, 2-a
ecaeaiea. NIa, 1909.

Iaeay niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey, 3-a ecaeaiea, – I.: Niaaoneay
yioeeeeiiaaeey, o. X, n. 255.

Niaaoneay enoi?e/aneay yioeeeeiiaaeey, – I.: Niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey,
1974, o. XV, nn. 769-770.

Niaaoneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue, – I.: Niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey,
1984, n. 1467.

Oe?aeineee niaaoneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue, Eeaa, 1989, o.
III, n.193.

Oeeinioneay yioeeeeiiaaeey, – I.: Niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey, 1970, o. V,
n. 465.

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