.

Человек и техника

Язык:
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1166
Скачать документ

?AOA?AO

ii oeeinioee ia oaio: “*aeiaae e oaoieea”

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea PAGEREF _Ref416500172 2

1 ?acaeoea nenoaiu “*aeiaae – oaoieea” PAGEREF _Ref416500185 5

2 I?iaeaia “/aeiaae – oaoieea” ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia PAGEREF
_Ref416500198 8

2.1 Nia?aiaiiia iiieiaiea oa?ieia “oaoieea” PAGEREF _Ref416500218 8

2.2 “*aeiaae – oaoieea” n oi/ee c?aiey “oaoiieiae/aneiai

aeaoa?ieiecia” PAGEREF _Ref416508623 9

2.3 Aeeyiea oaoieee ia /aeiaaea PAGEREF _Ref416500236 11

2.4 Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey nenoaiu “/aeiaae – oaoieea” PAGEREF
_Ref416500275 14

Caeeth/aiea PAGEREF _Ref416500288 17

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia PAGEREF _Ref416500299 18

Aaaaeaiea

Yeiiiienou e nioeeieiae eiaiotho iaoa noieaoea aaeii iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
eee aoi?ie i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee. Oeceee – aaeii aoiia e einiina.
Oeieee – aaeii neioaoeee. Eeaa?iaoeee e oaoieee – aaeii aaoiiaoeee.

Eiaaea-oi aeoeieee ouaoii iuoaeenue iaeoe oeeinioneee eaiaiue, a
nioeeaeueiua i?i?iee e i?aaeneacaoaee ia i?ioyaeaiee oeaeuo aaeia auee
caiyou iieneaie iaaeaaeiiai eeth/a e i?aaeneacaieyi aoaeouaai.

Iuia aeey iiiaeo enneaaeiaaoaeae a iaeanoe iauanoaaiiuo iaoe,
i?aaenoaaeoaeae iiiaeo oeeinioneeo oa/aiee noaiiaeony ynii, /oi oaeei
eeth/ii yaeyaony aiaeec yeiiiieee e oaoieee. Oio, eoi oi/ao ciaoue,
eaeea i?eioeeieaeueiua eciaiaiey i?iecieaeoo a aeecie /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa a aeeaeaeoea aiaeu, aeanyoeeaoey, iuoaaony iiiyoue oaiaeaioeee
yeiiiie/aneiai e iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, oa?aeoa? aai
nioeeaeueiuo iineaaenoaee.

Aoiiiay e oa?iiyaea?iay yia?aey, ia/aei einie/aneie y?u, aaoiiaoecaoeey
e eeaa?iaoecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa, eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey iianaaeiaaiie aeecie
– yoi oaeea aeinoeaeaiey nia?aiaiiie iaoee, eioi?ua aiai?yo ia
ii?aaaeaiiinoe aa i?aoaicee ieacuaaoue ia?iiiia e ana aic?anoathuaa
aeeyiea ia ana noa?u iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Anee ?aiueoa iaeanoue oaoieee
ia?aie/eaaeanue noa?ie i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, oi iuia iia
i?iiecuaaao anth oeaiue iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

Oaoieea, iniiaaiiay ia nia?aiaiiie iaoea, ?aaiethoeeiiece?iaaea
o?ainii?o, iia aeanoii aoi?aeanue a iaoo eoeueoo?o, auo, ioaeuo.

Iuia iao oaeie e?oiiie ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeaiu, ?aoaiea eioi?ie
ia auei au oae eee eia/a naycaii n oaiaeaioeeyie ?acaeoey
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee. Ii yoiai iaei. Iia ieacuaaao ana aieaa
caiaoiia aeeyiea ia iieeoeeo, eaeaieiaeth, eneonnoai, ?aeeaeth, ia
ie?iaicc?aiea /aeiaaea.

I?iecioae ?aceee, ea/anoaaiiue nea/ae a ?acaeoee iaoee e oaoieee,
eioi?ue canoaaeyao ii-iiaiio iniuneeoue eae aanue i?aaeoanoaothuee oiae
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, oae e aiciiaeiua ia?niaeoeau a aoaeouai.
Eeaa?iaoeea e aeiieea ?ac?aaaouaatho oaeea i?eioeeiu oaoieee aoaeouaai
(aaciaoeiiay oaoieea, iai?eia?, eee ono?ienoai, i?aaenoaaeythuaa niaie
neiaeic aeeaiai i?aaiecia n oaoieeie), eioi?ua ia oeeaaeuaathony a
i?eau/iua i?aaenoaaeaiey. ?aaiethoeey a oaoieea nii?iaiaeaeaaony e
iaoneaaeeaaaony ?aaiethoeeae a iaoea, a eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneii iuoeaiee.
Oaoieea ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, ia eaeaieiaeth,
i?aanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, noaaeo iiaua i?iaeaiu ia?aae iauanoaii.

I?iaiaeece?iaaoue yoe, a oaeaea ae?oaea i?iaeaiu acaeiiiai ?acaeoey
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e nicaeaaaaiie ei oaoieeie a o?oaeao
oeeinioia nia?aiaiiinoe e eeanneeia yaeyaony oeaeueth i?aaenoaaeaiiiai
?aoa?aoa.

1 ?acaeoea nenoaiu “/aeiaae – oaoieea”

?anniio?aiea i?iaeaiu “/aeiaae – oaoieea” oanii naycaii n ii?aaeaeaieai
naiiai iiiyoey oaoieea.

Oaeia oaoieee ne?uoa a o?oaea, nouiinoue aa iiaeao auoue iiiyoa eeoue a
nayce n nouiinoueth o?oaea. E. Ia?en ii?aaeaeyao o?oae eae “i?ioeann, a
eioi?ii /aeiaae naiae nianoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth iiin?aaeoao,
?aaoee?oao e eiio?iee?oao iaiai aauanoa iaaeaeo niaie e i?e?iaeie”/1/. A
o?oaea o/anoaotho o?e eiiiiiaioa: /aeiaae, n?aaenoai o?oaea e i?aaeiao
o?oaea. N?aaenoai o?oaea ea?aao ?ieue iin?aaeothuaai caaia iaaeaeo
/aeiaaeii (iauanoaii) e i?aaeiaoii o?oaea (i?e?iaeie) yoi i?iiaaeooi/iia
iieiaeaiea oaoieee iaoneaaeeaaao e niioaaonoaothuee iaoiaeieiae/aneee
iiaeoiae e aa ?anniio?aieth.

A nioeeieiae/aneii aiaeeca aa ?acaeoea aeieaeii auoue niioianaiiiai ia
oieueei n i?aaeiaoii o?oaea, ii e n /aeiaaeii. Anoanoaaiiay neea
/aeiaaea, eee, eia/a aiai?y aai nianoaaiiua ?aaioathuea i?aaiu, i?oaeey
o?oaea n naiiai ia/aea ia?acotho aaeeioth ?aaioathuoth nenoaio. “O?oae –
eae ioia/aao O. Yiaaeuen, ia/eiaaony n ecaioiaeaiey i?oaeee”/1/. Oieueei
a aaeeinoaa /aeiaaea e oaoieee aiciiaeai o?oae. Yoi aaeeinoai
iniiauaaaony, ai-ia?auo, ia oii, /oi iacia/aiea anoanoaaiiuo ?aaioathueo
i?aaiia /aeiaaea e aai eneonnoaaiiuo i?aaiia, o.a. i?oaeee o?oaea, a
i?eioeeia niaiaaeaao (e oa e ae?oaea neoaeao n?aaenoaaie i?aia?aciaaiey
i?e?iaeu), a ai-aoi?uo, ia oii, /oi iie ae?oa ae?oaa aeiiieiytho.
I?aaeaea anaai /aeiaae nicaeaao oaea?iua, ?aaeouea eino?oiaiou, oae eae
aai anoanoaaiiua ?aaeouea i?aaiu – coau e iiaoe – iaiueoa anaai
i?eniiniaeaiu aeey ia?aaioee aeanoeiai iaoa?eaea i?e?iaeu. Ia?iaie a
caoai yeaeo?e/aneee aeaeaaoaee iicaieeee iiiaie?aoii oaaee/eoue
aeaeaeouoth yia?aeth /aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia e caiaieoue aa eae
aeaeaaoaeueioth neeo. Enoi?e/anee oaoieea oi?ie?oaony eiaiii eae
aeiiieiaiea anoanoaaiiuo /aeiaa/aneeo i?aaiia o?oaea, a ia eae eo eiiey.
Iaeiaei ia oieueei oaoieea aeiiieiyao e oaeeeiyao ianiaa?oaiiua
/aeiaa/aneea i?aaiu a i?ioeanna o?oaea, ii e nai /aeiaae a ecaanoiie
noaiaie aeiiieiyao i?oaeey o?oaea naieie ?oeaie, yia?aeae, ia?aiie
nenoaiie, iicaii. Ii aeiiieiyao eo a neeo oiai, /oi naie ii naaa yoe
i?oaeey neeoeii ianiaa?oaiiu, /oiau aaoiiaoe/anee inouanoaeyoue
o?oaeiaua ooieoeee. Ii aeiiieiyao eo ?iaii ia noieueei, /oiau oaeia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea noaei aiciiaeiui.

E. Ia?en iaiaeiie?aoii iiae/a?eeaaao aiaeiaeth iaaeaeo oaoieeie e
anoanoaaiiuie i?aaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo. Ii
n?aaieaaao i?ioeann aicieeiiaaiey e niaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoie/aneeo
i?oaeee n “enoi?eae anoanoaaiiie oaoiieiaee” ii *. Aea?aeio, oi anoue n
“ia?aciaaieai ?anoeoaeueiuo e aeeaioiuo i?aaiia, eioi?ua ea?atho ?ieue
i?oaeee i?iecaiaenoaa a aeecie ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo”/1/. I?e?o/aiiua
/aeiaaeii aeeaioiua ia?yaeo n ia?aaioaiiui eaiiai, aea?aaii, einoyie e
?aeiaeiaie, ii iunee Ia?ena, yaeythony iniiaiuie n?aaenoaaie o?oaea ia
ia?auo nooiaiyo iauanoaaiiie enoi?ee. Aieaa oiai, i?e ecaanoiuo
iauanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo nai /aeiaae, iiaeiaii i?e?o/aiiiio aeeaioiiio,
auiieiyao ?ieue n?aaenoaa, i?oaeey o?oaea.

Oaeia niioiioaiea E. Ia?enii ?acaeoey eneonnoaaiiuo i?aaiia n
anoanoaaiiuie ?aaioathueie i?aaiaie ia neo/aeii. Aiaeec “Eaieoaea”
?acee/iuie aaoi?aie iieacuaaao, /oi iaoiaeieiae/aneee iiaeoiae E. Ia?ena
e enneaaeiaaieth oaoieee no?ieony eiaiii ia ?anniio?aiee aeeaeaeoeee
aauiuo e ee/iuo yeaiaioia i?iecaiaenoaa. A ioee/ea io i?aaeoanoaothueo
yeiiiienoia E. Ia?en aiaeece?oao ?acaeoea i?oaeee o?oaea ia eae
naiinoiyoaeueiue i?ioeann, i?ioaeathuee ia?yaeo n i?ioeannaie
nioeeaeueiuie, a eae oaeie, eioi?ue aeeth/ai a oeaeaniia?acioth
/aeiaa/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue e aia aa ia iiaeao auoue iiiyo. Ii
?anniao?eaaao ?acaeoea oaoieee eae enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ia?aaea/e o?oaeiauo ooieoeee /aeiaaea oaoie/aneei
n?aaenoaai, i?ioeann eo iaauanoaeaiey. Ia anao yoaiao enoi?ee oaoieee
i?oaeey o?oaea aianoa n /aeiaaeii ninoaaeytho niaieoiiue ?aai/ee
iaoaieci. Yoio iaoaieci iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue ii nooe aeaea eae naiaai
?iaea aaoiiao, o.a. aaoiiaoe/aneoth nenoaio a oe?ieii, “eeaa?iaoe/aneii”
niunea yoiai neiaa. Iniaaiiinoue oaeie nenoaiu, a ioee/ea io
yeaeo?iiiiai aaoiiaoa, caeeth/aaony oieueei a oii, /oi nai /aeiaae (a ia
oa eee eiua oaoie/aneea, yeaeo?iiiua) naiei oaeii, ?oeaie, naiae
yia?aeae, iicaii, ia?aiie nenoaiie aeiiieiytho i?oaeey o?oaea aei o?iaiy
aaoiiaoe/anee aeaenoaothuaai ono?ienoaa. Ae?aaiee /aeiaae,
ia?aaaouaathuee n iiiiuueth oiii?a eaeie-eeai i?aaeiao, aeaeaao i?eia?ii
oi aea naiia, /oi e nia?aiaiiue noaiie n /eneiaui i?ia?aiiiui
oi?aaeaieai. Iaeiaei ae?aaiaio /aeiaaeo a neeo ia ?acaeoinoe
oaoie/aneiai i?oaeey i?eoiaeeony naiiio auiieiyoue ?ieue e enoi/ieea
yia?aee, e aeaeaaoaeueiie neeu, e aea?aeaoaey eino?oiaioa, e
eiio?iee?othuaai e i?ia?aiiiiai ono?ienoaa. A nouiinoe, yoio ia?aiauoiue
?aianeaiiee aianoa ni naiei eaiaiiui oiii?ii ia?acoao aaoiiaoe/anee
aeaenoaothuee ?aai/ee iaoaieci. A ecaanoiie ia?a yoa aiaeiaey n
aaoiiaoii ioiineony e e ?aai/aio eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa. E. Ia?en
ia ?ac ia?auaao aieiaiea a “Eaieoaea” ia oio oaeo, /oi ?aai/ee yaeyaony
ii nooe aeaea, “aeeaui aaoiiaoii”, /oi a iaiooaeoo?a ii i?aa?auaao naia
oaei a “aaoiiaoe/anee iaeiinoi?iiiee i?aai”, “a aaoiiaoe/aneia i?oaeea
aeaiiie /anoe/iie ?aaiou”/1/. *ai aieaa ?acaeouie a oaoie/aneii
ioiioaiee noaiiayony i?oaeey o?oaea, i?aa?auaynue ec i?inouo i?oaeee a
iaoeiu, a ec yoeo iaoei a ono?ienoaa n ?acee/iie noaiaiueth
aaoiiaoe/iinoe, oai aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao a niaieoiiii ?aai/ai
iaoaiecia aauiue yeaiaio, niioaaonoaaiii, iaiueooth ?ieue – ee/iue
yeaiaio.

Yoa oa?aeoa?enoeea Ia?ena ii?aaeaeyao nouanoai oaoieee a aa ?acaeoee, a
aa niioiioaiee, n iaeiie noi?iiu e i?e?iaea(i?e?iaeiue iaoa?eae,
i?aa?auaiiue a i?aaiu aeanoe /aeiaa/aneie aiee iaae i?e?iaeie), a n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, /aeiaaeo (nicaeaiiua /aeiaa/aneie ?oeie i?aaiu
/aeiaa/aneiai iicaa, iaauanoaeaiiay neea ciaiey).

N?aaee oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa aaaeiaeoay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?oaeeyi
i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiaiii iie i?aaeaea anaai ninoaaeytho iaoa?eaeueioth
iniiao iauanoaa, yaeythony iieacaoaeai oao iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, i?e
eioi?uo niaa?oaaony o?oae/2/. Iaauee, o?oaeiaie iiuo, oiaiea, o.a. oi,
/oi a iaeioi?uo ii?aaeaeaieyo iacuaaaony oaoieeie a niioaaonoaee n
yioiiieiae/aneei cia/aieai yoiai neiaa – ana yoi iiaeao auoue iacaaii
iioaioeeaeueiie oaoieeie. Oio o?oaeiaie iaaue, eioi?ue ?aai/ei io?aaioai
aei aaoiiaoecia, ?aii eee iicaeii, eae iieacuaaao enoi?ey oaoieee,
ia?aaeaaony niaoeeaeueii aeey yoiai nicaeaiiiio iaoaiecio,
iaauanoaeyaony a iai.

O?oaeiaua ooieoeee ?aai/aai, eioi?ua aneaaenoaea ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea
auiieiythony /enoi iaoaie/anee, iaeiiia?acii, aacaeoiii, noaiaea?oiuie
aeaeaeaieyie, iinoaiaiii noaiiayony ooieoeeyie oaoie/aneiai iaoaiecia.

A iaoeiiii, oaa?e/iii i?iecaiaenoaa ono?aiythony ea/anoaaiiua ?acee/ey
o?oaea, o?oae ieaaee?oaony, a ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea naiaeeony e
?ani?aaeaeaieth ?aai/eo iaaeaeo niaoeeoe/aneeie iaoeiaie. ?aaioa ia aai
aaoiiaoa o?aaoao ii?aaeaeaiiie eaaeeoeeaoeee, ?aai/ee ia anth aeeciue
noaiiaeony /anoueth /anoe/iie iaoeiu /1/.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ioee/ea io ?aianeaiiiai, aaea /aeiaae yaeyaony oicyeiii
e oai?oeii anaai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, aeey auiieiaiey eioi?iai
ii i?eiaiyao oa eee ae?oaea ?o/iua eino?oiaiou e yieciaee/anee iaoeiu, a
iaoeiiii (oaa?e/iii) i?iecaiaenoaa ?aai/ee ia ioaaouaaao
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann a oeaeii, ia aeaaeaao ei e ia auiieiyao aai
eae ooaeiaeiee, ii yaeyaony eeoue iaiaoiaeeiui i?eaeaoeii noaiea –
iaoeiu, eioi?ay naia auiieiyao eaeoth-oi ouny/ioth /anoue i?ioeanna.

Oioy a iaoeiiii i?iecaiaenoaa ?aai/ea yaeythony aeeauie i?eaeaoeaie
iaoeiu, oai ia iaiaa iie – iai?aiaiiua o/anoieee i?iecaiaenoaa aac
eioi?uo iaoeiu ieacuaathony aaniieaciuie – ?aeaaatho, ii?oyony e oae
aeaeaa. AEeaie o?oae, oeacuaaao Ia?en,- “aeieaeai ioaaoeoue yoe aaue,
aine?aneoue eo ec ia?oauo, i?aa?aoeoue ec oieueei aiciiaeiuo a
aeaenoaeoaeueiua e aeaenoaothuea iio?aaeoaeueneea noieiinoe” /1/.

E. Ia?en iieacae, /oi iaoeiiia, oaa?e/iia eaieoaeenoe/aneia
i?iecaiaenoai o?iaeoao e eaea/eo ?aai/aai eae a nioeeaeueiii, oae e a
oaoiieiae/aneii ioiioaiee (ia ii i?eiaiyao iaoeiu, a iaoeia aai). Ii
aianoa n oai Ia?en aeaeae i?ia?anneaiue oa?aeoa? iaoeiiiai
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaa?e/iue o?oae iniiauaaeny ia
eniieueciaaiee nee i?e?iaeu, a yoi i?aaeii?aaeaeyei ?acaeoea
anoanoaaiiuo iaoe e i?aa?auaiea eo a iaiin?aaenoaaiioth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth neeo. Iao/iua ciaiey a ecaanoiii niunea iiaeii
oaeaea ?anniao?eaaoue eae iioaioeeaeueioth oaoieeo (oaoieeo – eae
“iaauanoaeaiioth neeo ciaiey”), eai iiaua oaoie/aneea eiino?oeoeee
nicaeathony ia iniiaa iiciaiey caeiiiia?iinoae e naienoa i?e?iaeu, eai
iaoea noaiiaeony iaiin?aaenoaaiiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeie, aiieiuaynue
a oaoieea.

Ane?uoue Ia?enii i?eioeei oaa?e/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa caeeth/aaony a
?an/eaiaiee i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa ia ninoaaeythuea aai e ?aoaiee
aicieeathueo oaoie/aneeo caaea/ “iin?aaenoaii i?eiaiaiey iaoaieee, oeiee
e oae aeaeaa, ei?i/a aiai?y, anoanoaaiiuo iaoe, iianthaeo noaiiaeony
ii?aaeaeythuei”/1/ oai naiui ioe?uaaaony aei?iaa “iai?ae?auathueiny
ia?aiaiai”/1/ o.a. iinoiyiiiio ?acaeoeth oaoieee i?iecaiaenoaa, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aa niaa?oainoaiaaieth.

E. Ia?en eco/ee, i?iaiaeece?iaae e iienae oaoiieiaeth oaa?e/iiai,
iaoeiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ia ii ii?aaeaeee eae i?iecaiaenoai,
iniiaaiiia ia nenoaia iaoei.

Nenoaia iaoei ioee/aaony io eiiia?aoeee iaeii?iaeiuo iaoei. A i?ioeaiii
neo/aa ?aaioa i?iecaiaeeony iaeiie e oie aea ?aai/ae iaoeiie, eioi?ay
auiieiyao ana iia?aoeee, i?aaeaea auiieiyaoeany ?aianeaiieeaie
(naiinoiyoaeueiuie eee ?aai/eie iaiooaeoo?) i?e iiiiue ?acee/iuo
eino?oiaioia. Eia/a – i?ioeann, eioi?ue a iaiooaeoo?a aue ?acaeaeai e
auiieiyeny a ecaanoiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, oaia?ue auiieiyaony iaeiie
?aai/ae iaoeiie, aeaenoaothuae iin?aaenoaii eiiaeiaoeee ?acee/iuo
i?oaeee.

Eaaeaeay ?aai/ay iaoeia aioiaeo aeey ia?aaioee ia iineaaeothuae iaoeia
nu?ie iaoa?eae, a oae eae ana iaoeiu ?aaioatho iaeiia?aiaiii, oi
“i?iaeoeo iai?a?uaii iaoiaeeony ia ?acee/iuo nooiaiyo i?ioeanna naiaai
ia?aciaaiey, iinoiyiii ia?aoiaeeo ec iaeiie oacu i?iecaiaenoaa a
ae?oaoth”/1/. I?e yoii o?aaoaony ii?aaeaeaiiia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
eiee/anoaii iaoei, eo ?acia?aie e auno?ioie aeaenoaey.

E. Ia?en oeacuaae, /oi e?oiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue oaoie/anee oie/oiaeaao
iaiooaeoo?iia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, aini?iecaiaeeo ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea a
aua aieaa /oaeiaeuiii aeaea: ia nianoaaiii oaa?eea – i?ioeannii
i?aa?auaiey ?aai/aai a iaaeaeaiiue niciaieai i?eaeaoie /anoe/iie
iaoeiu”/1/.

Eiaaea aeeaie i?eaeaoie ioaeai iaoeia oieueei aeey eiio?iey, a “?aai/ay
iaoeia auiieiyao ana aeaeaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ia?aaioee nu?iai
iaoa?eaea, aac niaeaenoaey /aeiaaea”, a yoeo neo/ayo ieoao E. Ia?en, “iu
eiaai ia?aae niaie aaoiiaoe/aneoth nenoaio iaoei, eioi?ay, iaeiaei
niiniaia e iinoiyiiiio oniaa?oainoaiaaieth a aeaoaeyo”/1/.

N oaoieeie e oaoiieiaeae i?iecaiaenoaa E. Ia?en naycuaae e?oiiua
nioeeaeueiua eciaiaiey a iauanoaa, a oaeaea ia?aiaiu a oa?aeoa?a,
oneiaeyo e yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeyo o?oaea.

Eaieoaeenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey aaoiiaoe/anee ?acuaaeeiyao e iauaaeeiyao
?aai/eo: a yoii i?ioeai?a/eaii i?ioeanna aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao oaoieea.

Aaaaeaiea iaoei ?acuaaeeiyao ?aai/eo, oneeeaaao eiieo?aioeeth iaaeaeo
ieie oai, /oi ai-ia?auo, iaoeiu oi?iuatho ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea e anyeay
io?aneue o?oaea noaiiaeony aieaa aeinooiiie aeey eaaeaeiai; ai-aoi?uo,
?aai/ei i?eoiaeeony eiieo?e?iaaoue n iaoeiaie, ec-ca iaoei iie eeoathony
?aaiou; a-o?aoueeo, “iaeeea i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey aeaioo e ia iiaoo
auaea?aeaoue eiieo?aioeee n e?oiiuie. Oeaeua neie eeanna ao?aeoacee
ioa?anuaathony a ?yaeu ?aai/aai eeanna”/1/ /oi oaaee/eaaao i?aaeeiaeaiea
?aai/ae neeu ia aa ?uiea.

Iauaaeeiaieth ?aai/eo niinianoaoao i?aaeaea anaai aicieeiiaaiea e?oiiuo
i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia, aeaoaauo e auno?uo n?aaenoa niiauaiey.

Naia ii naaa iaoeia oaeaoaaeyao e oaaee/eaaao i?iaeoeoeeth, nie?auaao
?aai/aa a?aiy, iaeaa/aao o?oae e aiiaua ciaiaioao iiaaaeo /aeiaaea iaae
neeaie i?e?iaeu: ii eaieoaeenoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea iaoei ia iicaieyao
i?inoui o?oaeaieeai eniieueciaaoue aeey naay ana yoe i?aeiouanoaa e
aeaaea /anoi i?eaiaeeo e io?eoeaoaeueiui aeey ieo ?acoeueoaoai/1/.

Ai anyeii eaieoaeenoe/aneii i?iecaiaenoaa “?aai/ee i?eiaiyao oneiaey
o?oaea, a iaiai?io, oneiaey o?oaea i?eiaiytho ?aai/aai”, o.e. yoi
i?iecaiaenoai “anoue ia oieueei i?ioeann o?oaea, ii a oi aea a?aiy e
i?ioeann aic?anoaiey eaieoaea”/1/. A iaoeiiii i?iecaiaenoaa yoi
eca?auaiiia ioiioaiea iieo/aao ia oieueei nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia, ii
e oaoie/aneia au?aaeaiea. *aeiaae noaiiaeony ?aaii iaoeiu: ainiiaenoai
i?ioeiai o?oaea iaae aeeaui noaiiaeony ia oieueei nioeeaeueiie,
au?aaeaiiie a ioiioaiee eaieoaeenoa e ?aai/aai, ii aua e oaoiieiae/aneie
enoeiie.

2 I?iaeaia “/aeiaae – oaoieea” ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia

2.1 Nia?aiaiiia iiieiaiea oa?ieia “oaoieea”

Aeey iaeaieaa iieiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?anniao?eaaaiie i?iaeaia, aaaeii
ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, eae a nia?aiaiiuo oeeinioneeo nioeeieiae/aneeo
oai?eyo ii?aaeaeyaony oa?iei “oaoieea”.

Naaiaeiyoiaa iiieiaiea oa?ieia “oaoieea” eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth
i?aainoaaiioth naycue n eeanne/aneei aai iiieiaieai, n ae?oaie aea
noi?iiu – iii a ecaanoiie ia?a i?ioeaiiieiaeii aio. *oiau eiaoue /aoeia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i noa?a ?ani?ino?aiaiey oaoie/aneeo yaeaiee, aieaa
oeaeaniia?acii iinoaaeoue aii?in i oao noa?ao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a
eioi?uo iiaeao eaeoe ?a/ue i oaoieea naaiaeiy.

“Oa noa?a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
iaeanoue nouanoaiaaiey oaoieee,- ii iiaieth Oaei?eoa Aaea /3/ – yoi
iai?aaie/aneay iaoa?ey. Oae, iu aiai?ei i no?ieoaeueiie oaoieea, oaeie,
iai?eia?, eae nicaeaiea aeaeaciaaoiiiuo nii?oaeaiee eee iaoeiino?iaiea,
i aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae oaoieea, yeaeo?ioaoieea, oaieioaoieea, oaoieea
nicaeaiey neioaoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeia eee i oaoieea i?iecaiaenoaa
iaoa?eaeia anyeiai ?iaea, io noaee aei neioaoe/aneiai eao/oea, ei?i/a, i
oeceei-oeie/aneie oaoieea.” Iiiaea iiae?acaeaeytho aa aua ia
yia?aaoe/aneoth oaoieeo (oaoieeo i?aa?auaiey nee e yia?aee) e oaoieeo
iaoa?eaeia (oaoieea i?aia?aciaaiey aauanoaa). Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo ?a/ue
eaeao i oi?iao oaoieee e oeceei-oeie/anee iiieiaaiie iaeanoe
iai?aaie/aneiai.

E ana aea yoi – ia aaeeinoaaiiay iaeanoue i?iyaeaiey oaoie/aneiai. A
aieaa oe?ieii niunea oa?ieia “oaoieea” aiai?yo oaeaea e i oaoieea
iaiuaaiaenoaa, aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, i oaoieea i?aia?aciaaiey i?aaie/aneie
aeecie a iiaua aa ooieoeee e oi?iu. Nia?aiaiiia iiiyoea “aeioaoiieiaey”
iicaieyao aeeth/aoue a i?aaeiaoiia iiea oaoieee anth aeieiaeth.

“Iu ciaai oaeaea – anee i?iaeieaeeoue yoo iuneue – e i “oaoieea”
iuoeaiey e aeeneooe?iaaiey, eco/aiey e iaiyoe (iiaiioaoieea) e aeaaea i
“oaoieea ethaae”. Aiai?yo oaeaea i oaoieea ?oeiaiaenoaa ethaeueie e
ainoaea?noaii, i oaoieea aeeaiiene, ?enoiea, ea?u ia oi?oaiueyii e oae
aeaeaa. Yoe i?eia?u, a oaeaea oaeea iaiauathuea oa?ieiu, eae
“ineoioaoieea” e “nioeeioaoieea”, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi oaoieea
i?iieeaao aeaaea a iaeanoe ineoe/aneiai, aeooiaiiai e nioeeaeueiiai n
oeaeueth aianoe a ieo eciaiaiey” /3/. Iiyoiio “oaoieea” e a nia?aiaiiii
aa iiieiaiee ia yaeyaony /ai-oi ia?aie/aiiui eeoue noa?ie aacaeeciaiiie
iaoa?ee. Iia, iai?ioea, ioaaouaaao ana ecaanoiua noa?u auoey e ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo ethaeueie.

2.2 “*aeiaae – oaoieea” n oi/ee c?aiey “oaoiieiae/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia”

Ia?aoiae e yoaio yeaeo?iiecaoeee aaoiiaoe/aneeo n?aaenoa o?oaea
iaoneaaeeaaao ia/aei ?aaiethoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo
neeao, a oaoiieiae/aneii niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa. I?ia?ann /aeiaa/anoaa
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycai n iao/ii oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeeae. Iaeeoei
ea/anoaaiiue nea/ae a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo neeao /aeiaa/anoaa.

Iauaeoeaii i?ioaeathuee i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiii
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa iieo/ee io?aaeaiea a
iiiai/eneaiiuo iiaaeoeo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo eiioeaioeee “oaoiieiae/aneiai
aeaoa?ieiecia”.

Iiiyoea “oaoiie?aoeci” iaeaieaa oi/ii ii?aaeaeyao nouiinoue oiai
iai?aaeaiey nioeeaeueiie iunee, eioi?ia ioi?ieeinue ia iniiaa oaoieee,
aaniethoecaoeee aa ?iee a iauanoaa e naycaii n iiiuoeaie aeooiaiiai
inaiaiey IO?. Aaaeiaeoei i?eciaeii nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee oaoiie?aoecia,
iaicia/aiiui oaea a naiii aai iacaaiee, yaeyaony i?eiao oaoieee eae
anaii?aaeaeythuaai ia/aea a enoieeiauaaiee nioeeaeueiie aeecie. Aeaiiay
oeeinioey ainoiaeeo e iiceoeaenoneei i?aaenoaaeaieyi i iaoea e oaoieea,
iinooee?oao eo naii?acaeoea eae i?ioeann, iacaaeneiue io aiee ethaeae,
anaoeaei ii?aaeaeythuee oa?aeoa? iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, iaecaaaeiui
nioeeaeueiui eoiaii eioi?iai yaeony aeanoue “iaeaaeaoaeae niaoeeaeueiiai
ciaiey”.

Nouanoaaiiui yeaiaioii aeaiiie eaeaieiaee, ioiinyueiny e niiniao
iino?iaiey aa oai?aoe/aneeo oi?i, yaeyaony iaoiae oaoiie?aoe/aneiai
aeaoa?ieiecia. Oaoiiaeaoa?ieieci, iniaaiii ia ia/aeueiuo yoaiao
oi?ie?iaaiey oaoiie?aoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey, i?enoonoaiaae, aeaaiui
ia?acii, eae oiiiano?iaiea, ie?iaicc?ai/aneay onoaiiaea, iiaeoiae e
eeoue a nia?aiaiiuo ?acaeouo oaoiie?aoe/aneeo oai?eyo aunooiaao eae
iaoiae a nianoaaiiii niunea neiaa. Aai eaeaioeoeeaoeey oai, /oi
iiiai/eneaiiua iiaeeoeeaoeee oai?ee, aucaaiiua eo aioo?aiiae
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth, nii?iaiaeaeathony i?eniiniaeaieai
oeeinionei-iaoiaeieiae/aneie aacu, anneieee?iaaieai ae?oaeo iiaeoiaeia,
caeinoaiaaiiuo ec eoeueoo?ieiaee. E?iia oiai, ?aoeaeney naieo oai?aoeeia
oaoiie?aoecia ii iiaiaeo i?eiaiyaiiai eie iaoiaea, nei?aa eiiooee?oao,
/ai i?iyaeyao nooue aeaea. Oai ia iaiaa “oaoiie?aoe/aneee aeaoa?ieieci”
inoaaony aeey oaoiie?aoia oieaa?naeueiie oi?ioeie iauyniaiey
iauanoaaiiie aeecie e iaoiaeieiae/aneei i?eioeeiii iino?iaiey oai?ee. A
yoii ea/anoaa ii caaeaao ia?aiao?u oai?aoe/aneiai iauyniaiey
nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai e niiniaia eo ?aoaiey.

I?e anai aiaoiai iiiaiia?acee ?iaeaeathueony a ?onea aeaiiiai
iai?aaeaiey oai?ee e i?iaeoia eo iauaaeeiyao acaeyae ia iauanoaaiioth
aeeciue neaicue i?ecio “oaoiieiaee”, ioiaeaeanoaeaiey oaoie/aneiai
i?iaeoa n nioeeaeueiui, aa?a a oi, /oi caaea/e nioeeaeueiiai e
eoeueoo?iiai ii?yaeea iiaeii ?aoeoue iao/ii-oaoie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie.
Oai?aoe/aneea iino?iaiey oaoiie?aoia oeaeeeii iai?aaeaiu ia
aeieacaoaeuenoai caaeneiinoe ?acee/iuo noa? iauanoaaiiie aeecie io
oaoieee, aa niiniaiinoe aianoe noaoai ?aoeeiiaeueiia ia/aei a noeoeth
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa.

A yneeca “iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa” Aeyieae Aaee / 4/ no?aieony
iainiiaaoue oeaiiinoiue iiaeoiae e i?iaeaiai oaoieee e aeaoue
iiiainoi?iiithth oa?aeoa?enoeeo iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iaeiaei
iieeoe/anei-eaeaieiae/aneea, aeooiaii-oeaiiinoiua yaeaiey
enoieeiauaathony ei a ea/anoaa aaoiiiiiuo e ?yaeiiieiaeaiiuo “oaeoi?ia”,
eioi?ua oioy e caoeene?iaaiu, ii ia aeeth/aiu a oeaeinoioth, ec aaeeiiai
i?eioeeia ?acaeooth nenoaio iiieiaiey iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Oa?aeoa?ii,
/oi iioa?iaa iaoaea/o a iiiuoea nicaeaoue caeii/aiioth nioeeieiae/aneoth
oai?eth, Aaee a naieo iaeeo/oeo ?aaioao noaaeo iiae niiiaiea naio
aiciiaeiinoue oeaeinoiiai acaeyaea ia iauanoai e ia?aie/eaaaony
iienaieai ioaeaeueiuo noa? e iiaenenoai iauanoaaiiiai i?aaiecia.

A ?aaioao Ae.Aaeea, A.Eaiy, A.A?thna-A?e/na, Y.Oioea?a, A.Iinnoaeu,
A.Oo?aia /4/ e ae?oaeo caiaaeiuo o/aiuo oeene?othony nia?aiaiiua
aeinoeaeaiey iaoee, oaoieee e oaoiieiaee e a oi aea a?aiy oi?ie?othony
ooiie/aneea iiaeaee yeiau aa/iiai eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa. “Iiaeii
aueoe ca i?aaeaeu eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa, – ioia/aao, iai?eia?
A.Oo?ai a eieaa “Iino nioeeaeeci”, – ia auoiaey ca ?aiee eaieoaeecia”.
Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea noaeaeaiey iaoneaaeeaathony naiie i?e?iaeie neeueiiai
ie?a eaieoaeecia, iaoiaeyuaainy a caieoa naiaai ?acaeoey.

I?aeoe/anee ana nia?aiaiiua eaieoaeenoe/aneea eiioeaioeee aoaeouaai
iniiaaiu ia noaia iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa Ae.Aaeea. A na?ee ?aaio
ii i?aaeeaaaao oaeoth n?aaieoaeueioth noaio, a eioi?ie a niioaaonoaee ni
niiniaaie i?iecaiaenoaa (oaoiieiae/aneeie) ii?aaeaeaiu noa?u
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaoiaeu e oae aeaeaa.

Ii auaeaeyao o?e oeia oaoiieiae/aneiai niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa:
aeieiaeono?eaeueiue, eiaeono?eaeueiue e iinoeiaeono?eaeueiue. Ia?aoiae
io eiaeono?eaeueiiai e iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiio iauanoao inouanoaeyaony a
oiaea iee?iyeaeo?iiiie ?aaiethoeee (eia/a aa iacuaatho eiiiuethoa?iie,
eioi?iaoeeiiiie). I?aia?acoaiuie enoi/ieeaie aunooiatho niioaaonoaaiii
i?e?iaeiua neeu (aaoa?, aiaea e o.i.), aoi?e/iua, aeiauaaaiua enoi/ieee
yia?aee(yeaeo?e/anoai, iaooue, aac, oaieue e o.i.) e eioi?iaoeey, a
aeaeaie oaoiieiaee – ?aianea, iaoeiiay oaoiieiaey(o.a. iniiaaiiay ia
iaoeiiie oaoieea) e eioaeeaeooaeueiay (eioi?iaoeeiiiay) oaoiieiaey.
Yeiiiie/aneee naeoi? iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa aeeth/aao o?aoe/ioth
(oneoae, o?ainii?o, ooeeecaoeey iooiaeia), /aoaa?oe/ioth (oi?aiaey,
oeiainu, no?aoiaaiea) e iyoe?e/ioth (cae?aaiio?aiaiea, iao/iua
enneaaeiaaiey, ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea) noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe eae
aaaeouea ii ioiioaieth e aeiauaathuae e ia?aaaouaathuae aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ae.Aaee e aai iineaaeiaaoaee noiyo ia oieueei ca nio?aiaiea, ii e ca
oniaa?oainoaiaaiea ?aaeueiiai iiae/eiaiey o?oaea eaieoaeo.
Aeiieie?othuei a caiaaeiuo eiioeaioeeyo yaeyaony acaeyae ia /aeiaaea eae
ia aaoiiaoece?iaaiioth aaeeieoeo iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa,
/aeiaaea, aeaaea a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia?a/aiiiai ia
iaeeii/anoai, iineieueeo oeaio?ii ?aaiou e enoi/ieeii aeinoaa a aoaeouai
ieaaeaony aeii. “Eiioeaioeey aeayoaeueiinoe aie?oa eiiiuethoa?a, –
ioia/aao A.Eeia, – aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue oiio, /oi naiuey ieaaeaony
i?eeiaaiiie e iaeiiio ianoo, eae yoi nae/an eiaao ianoi ai iiiaeo
neo/ayo n oaeaaeci?ii, iaeiaei a ai?acaei aieueoae noaiaie”/3/.

I?e aiaeeca eciaiaiee, i?ioaeathueo a iaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa,
caiaaeiay nioeeieiae/aneay iuneue a ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoa enneaaeiaaiey
aa?ao eeoue oaoiieiae/aneee niinia i?iecaiaenoaa. Aia iiey aa
enneaaeiaaiee inoaaony no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee,
ia?acothueo yeiiiie/aneoth no?oeoo?o ethaiai aeieiaeono?eaeueiiai,
eiaeono?eaeueiiai e iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa.

Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iiiaea
ao?aeoaciua o/aiua iniciatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue aiaeeca i?ienoiaeyueo
nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia e i?iaiice?iaaiey aoaeouaai. Iaeiaei,
eiinoaoe?oy ?aaeueii nouanoaothuea i?iaeaiu, i?eciaaay iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ea/anoaaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee a nioeeaeueiii i?aaiecia, iie auneacuaatho
?acee/iua eaeae, eaeouea a ?ac?ac n oai?aoe/aneeie oneiaeyie iaoee ia
iauanoaa.

2.3 Aeeyiea oaoieee ia /aeiaaea

I.Aa?aeyaa n/eoaao, /oi /aeiaa/anoai noieo ia?aae iniiaiui ia?aaeienii:
“aac oaoieee iaaiciiaeia eoeueoo?a, n iath naycaii naiia aicieeiiaaiea
eoeueoo?u, e ieii/aoaeueiay iiaaaea oaoieee a eoeueoo?a, anooieaiea a
oaoie/aneoth yiioo aea/ao eoeueoo?o e aeaaee” /6/. A eoeueoo?a anaaaea
anoue aeaa yeaiaioa – yeaiaio oaoie/aneee e yeaiaio
i?e?iaeii-i?aaie/aneee. E ieii/aoaeueiay iiaaaea yeaiaioa oaoie/aneiai
iaae yeaiaioii i?e?iaeii-i?aaie/aneei icia/aao ia?a?iaeaeaiea eoeueoo?u
ai /oi-oi eiia, ia eoeueoo?o oaea ia iioiaeaa. “?iiaioeci anoue ?aaeoeey
i?e?iaeii-i?aaie/aneiai yeaiaioa eoeueoo?u i?ioea oaoie/aneiai aai
yeaiaioa” /6/. Iineieueeo ?iiaioeci ainnoaao i?ioea eeanne/aneiai
niciaiey, iii ainnoaao i?ioea i?aiaeaaeaiey oaoie/aneie oi?iu i?ioea
i?e?iaeiie. “Aica?ao e i?e?iaea anoue aa/iue iioea a enoi?ee eoeueoo?u,
a iai /oanoaoaony no?ao aeaaee eoeueoo?u io aeanoe oaoieee, aeaaee
oeaeinoiie /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu” /6/. Oaoie/aneay yiioa o?aaoao io
/aeiaaea oaa?eeaoeee i?iaeoeoia, e i?e oii a iaeaieueoai eiee/anoaa i?e
iaeiaiueoae cao?aoa nee. *aeiaae aeaeaaony i?oaeeai i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoia. “Aauue noaaeony auoa /aeiaaea” /6/.

Oaoieea ?ane?uaaao iiaoth nooiaiue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e yoa
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue anoue niciaiea /aeiaaea, ?acoeueoao i?i?uaa aeooa a
i?e?iaeo e aiaae?aiea ?acoia a noeoeeiua i?ioeannu.

E aio o?aaaaeey a oii, /oi “oai?aiea ainnoaao i?ioea naiaai oai?oea,
aieaa ia iiaeioaony aio” /6/. Iu yoi aeaeei ai anao i?ioeannao
?aoeeiiaeecaoeee a oaoie/aneoth yiioo, eiaaea /aeiaae caiaiyaony
iaoeiie. oaoieea caiaiyo i?aaie/anee-e??aoeeiiaeueiia
i?aaieciaaiii-?aoeeiiaeueiui. Ii iia ii?iaeaeaao iiaua e??aoeeiiaeueiua
iineaaenoaey a nioeeaeueiie aeecie. Oae ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe
ii?iaeaeaao aac?aaioeoeo, aaee/aeoaa aaaenoaea iaoaai a?aiaie. O?oae
/aeiaaea caiaiyaony iaoeiie, /oi anoue iieiaeeoaeueiia caaiaaaiea,
eioi?ia aeieaeii auei au oie/oiaeeoue ?aanoai e ieuaoo /aeiaaea. Ii
iaoeia nianai ia iiaeioaony oiio, /oi o?aaoao io iaa /aeiaae, iia
aeeeooao naie caeiiu. “*aeiaae neacae iaoeia: ou iia ioaeia aeey
iaeaa/aiey iiae aeecie, aeey oaaee/aiey iiae neeu, iaoeia aea ioaaoeea
/aeiaaeo: a ou iia ia ioaeai, y aac oaay ana aoaeo aeaeaoue, ou aea
iiaeaoue i?iiaaeaoue” /6/. Nenoaia Oaeei?a anoue e?aeiyy oi?ia
?aoeeiiaeecaoeee o?oaea, ii iia i?aa?auaao /aeiaaea a
oniaa?oainoaiaaiioth iaoeio. Iaoeia oi/ao, /oiau /aeiaae i?eiye aa ia?ac
e iiaeiaea. “Ii /aeiaae anoue ia?ac e iiaeiaea Aiaa e ia iiaeao noaoue
ia?acii e iiaeiaeai iaoeiu, ia ia?anoaa nouanoaiaaoue. Naiue aeoo,
nicaeaaoee oaoieeo e iaoeio, ia iiaeao auoue oaoiece?iaai e
iaoeiece?iaai aac inoaoea, a iai anaaaea inoaiaony e??aoeeiiaeueiia
ia/aei” /6/. Ii oaoieea, ii iiaieth I.Aa?aeyaaa, oi/ao iaeaaeaoue aeooii
e ?aoeeiiaeece?iaaoue aai, i?aa?aoeoue a aaoiiao, ii?aaioeoue aai. E yoi
“oeoaie/aneay ai?ueaa /aeiaaea e oaoiece?oaiie ei i?e?iaeu”.

Nia/aea /aeiaae caaenae io i?e?iaeu e caaeneiinoue yoa auea
?anoeoaeueii-aeeaioiie. Ii aio ia/eiaaony iiaay caaeneiinoue /aeiaaea io
i?e?iaeu, io iiaie i?e?iaeu, oaoie/anee-iaoeiiay caaeneiinoue. A yoii
any io/eoaeueiinoue i?iaeaiu. I?aaieci /aeiaaea aue i?eniiniaeai e
noa?ie i?e?iaea. Yoi auei i?eniiniaeaiea ?anoeoaeueii-aeeaioiia. Ii
/aeiaae nianai aua ia i?eniiniaeeny e oie iiaie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
eioi?ay ?ane?uaaaony /a?ac oaoieeo e iaoeio, ii ia ciaao, a ninoiyiee ee
aoaeao aeuoaoue a iiaie yeaeo?e/aneie e ?aaeeiaeoeaiie aoiinoa?a, a
iiaie oieiaeiie, iaoaeee/aneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eeoaiiie aeooaaiie
oaieiou. “Iu nianai aua ia ciaai, ia neieueei ?ac?ooeoaeueia aeey
/aeiaaea oa aoiinoa?a, eioi?ay nicaeaaony aai nianoaaiiuie oaoie/aneeie
ioe?uoeyie e ecia?aoaieyie”/6/.

Oaoieea aeaao /aeiaaeo “/oanoai no?aoiiai iiaouanoaa, e iia anoue
ii?iaeaeaiea aiee e iiaouanoao e e yeniainee” /6/. Iiaay oi?ia ianniaie
i?aaiecaoeee aeecie, yoa oaoiecaoeey aeecie ?ac?ooaao e?anioo noa?ie
eoeueoo?u, noa?iai auoa. Ianniaay oaoie/aneay i?aaiecaoeey aeecie
oie/oiaeaao anyeoth eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeeth, anyeia naiaia?acea e
i?eaeiaeueiinoue, ana aeaeaaony aacee/ii-ianniaui, eeoaiiui ia?aca.
I?iecaiaenoai a yoo yiioo ianniaia e aiiieiiia.

Oaoieea iaiineo oaea?u aoiaiecio, aoiaienoe/aneiio ie?inica?oeaieth,
aoiaienoe/aneiio eaeaaeo /aeiaaea e eoeueoo?u. Iaoeia i i?e?iaea naiae
aioeaoiaienoe/ia. “Oaoie/aneia iiieiaiea iaoee niaa?oaiii
i?ioeaiiieiaeii aoiaienoe/aneiio iiieiaieth iaoee e anooiaao a eiioeeeo
n aoiaienoe/aneei iiieiaieai iieiiou /aeiaaea” /6/. Oaoieea, ii iiaieth
Aa?aeyaaa, iaiaa iiania aeey aeooa, oioy yoi ia ia?aue acaeyae iiaeao
oaeeaeoue. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iu aeeaai a yiioo
oaoieee e aeooa. “?aeeaeiciue niune nia?aiaiiie oaoieee eiaiii a oii,
/oi iia ana noaaeo iiae ciae aeooiaiiai aii?ina, a iioiio iiaeao
i?eaanoe e e iaeooioai?aieth. Iia o?aaoao iai?yaeaiey aeooiaiinoe” /6/.

Oaoieea ia?anoaao auoue iaeo?aeueiie, iia aeaeaao /aeiaaea einieo?aii.
Ii n?aaiaieth n i?oaeeyie, eioi?ua nia?aiaiiay oaoieea aeaao a ?oee
/aeiaaea, i?aaeiea aai i?oaeey eaaeoony ea?ooa/iuie. Yoi iniaaiii aeaeii
ia oaoieea aieiu. ?ac?ooeoaeueiay neea i?aaeieo i?oaeee aieiu auea
i/aiue ia?aie/aia, ana auei i/aiue eieaeeciaaii. Noa?uie iooeaie,
?oaeueyie e naaeyie iaeuecy auei eno?aaeoue aieueoie iannu /aeiaa/anoaa,
oie/oiaeeoue aieueoea ai?iaea, iiaeaa?aiooue iianiinoe naiia
nouanoaiaaiea eoeueoo?u. Iaaeaeo oai eae iiaay oaoieea aeaao aio yoo
aiciiaeiinoue. E ai anai oaoieea aeaao /aeiaaeo no?aoioth neeo, eioi?ay
iiaeao noaoue eno?aaeoaeueiie. Nei?i ie?iua o/aiua niiaoo i?iecaiaeeoue
iio?ynaiey ia oieueei enoi?e/aneiai, ii e einie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.
Iaaieueoay eo/ea ethaeae, iaeaaeathuay nae?aoii oaoie/aneeo ecia?aoaiee,
niiaeao oe?aie/anee aea?aeaoue a naiae aeanoe ana /aeiaa/anoai. Yoi
aiieia iiaeii naaa i?aaenoaaeoue. Ii eiaaea /aeiaaeo aeaaony neea,
eioi?ie ii iiaeao oi?aaeyoue ie?ii e iiaeao eno?aaeoue cia/eoaeueioth
/anoue /aeiaa/anoaa e eoeueoo?u, oiaaea ana aeaeaaony caaenyuei io
aeooiaiiai e i?aanoaaiiiai ninoiyiey /aeiaaea, io oiai, ai eiy /aai ii
aoaeao oiio?aaeyoue yoo neeo.

Ia inoaeenue a noi?iia io i?iaeaiu “/aeiaae–oaoieea” e
oeeiniou-yecenoaioeeiiaeenou. Oae I. Oaeaeaaaa? a thaeeaeiie ?a/e
“Io?aoaiiinoue” /7/ ?acaeaaao iuneue ia ioiioaiee /aeiaaea, eoeueoo?u e
oaoieee.

?aaeeeaeueiay ?aaiethoeey ie?iaicc?aiey a oeeinioee Iiaiai a?aiaie
i?eaaea e oiio, /oi /aeiaae “ieacaeny ia?anaaeaiiui a ae?oaoth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue”. Ie? noae iauaeoii, ioe?uoui aeey aoae au/eneythuae
iunee. I?e?iaea noaea “aeaaioneie aaicieieiieie, enoi/ieeii yia?aee aeey
nia?aiaiiie oaoieee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe”.

Aaee/aeoea aeinoeaeaiey a ?acaeoee oaoieee aeatho /aeiaaeo aiciiaeiinoue
ainiiaenoaa iaae i?e?iaeie. E oaiiu i?ia?anna oaoieee iinoiyiii
oaaee/eaathony.

Ai anao noa?ao naiaai auoey /aeiaae aoaeao ie?oaeai ana aieaa ieioii
neeaie oaoieee. Yoe neeu “aaeaieiooii o?aaotho e naaa /aeiaaea,
i?eaycuaatho aai e naaa, oyioo aai ca niaie”.

Aieueooth iianiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao a?iiaaeiue iauai aeinooiiie
eioi?iaoeee. Eaaeiaeinooiiinoue ana aieueoa ioieiaao o /aeiaaea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iniuneeaaoue oi, /oi ii oneuoae e i?i/eoae.

Iiae oa?icie iaoiaeeony “oei?aiaiiinoue”, iiae eioi?ie iiae?acoiaaaaony
ia oieueei iauaeoeueoo?iua iiiyoey (?iaeeia, o?aaeeoeeiiiua naiaeiua
oeaiiinoe e o.ae.), ii e naia nouiinoue /aeiaaea, aai niiniaiinoue e
iniuneythuaio iuoeaieth.

Caeanue aea I. Oaeaeaaaa? oeacuaaao ia iooe auoiaea ec neeaaeuaathuaeny
neooaoeee, eioi?ua ii au?aaeaao a aeaoo oacenao “io?aoaiiinoue io aauae”
e “ioe?uoinoue aeey oaeiu”.

“Io?aoaiiinoue io aauae” Oaeaeaaaa? iauyniyao eae iniaia ioiioaiea e
ie?o aauae. “Iu iiaeai neacaoue “aea” iaecaaaeiiio eniieueciaaieth
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa e iaeiia?aiaiii neacaoue “iao”, iineieueeo iu
cai?aoei ei cao?aaiaaoue ian e oaeei ia?acii eca?auaoue, naeaaoue n
oieeo, iionoioaoue iaoo nouiinoue”.

A oi aea a?aiy “niune oaoieee ne?uo io ian”, ii ii iinoiyiii ian
cao?aaeaaao. Iu aeieaeiu iinoiyiii aea?aeaoue ai aieiaiee oio iinoiyiii
oneaeuecuaathuee niune, eioi?ue noieo ca oaoieeie. Yoi Oaeaeaaaa? e
iacuaaao “ioe?uoinoueth aeey oaeiu”.

Oaeei ia?acii Oaeaeaaaa? iieacuaaao, /oi iao niunea i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue
naay oaoieea e, oai aieaa, ioeacuaaoueny io iaa. Ii iaeuecy iicaieyoue
oaoieea i?iieeaoue e eneaaeaoue nouiinoue /aeiaaea.

2.4 Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey nenoaiu “/aeiaae – oaoieea”

Naaiaeiy – a ioee/ea io ia?eiaea eiaeono?eaeecaoeee – a iaoeiino?iaiee
aeieaeiu nicaeaaaoueny aeaaiui ia?acii ia n?aaenoaa iaoaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, a n?aaenoaa aai aaoiiaoecaoeee e i?eoii ia /anoe/iie, a
eiiieaeniie e ia aeanoeie (o?oaeiaieie a ia?aiaeaaeeaaiee), a aeaeie.
Naaiaeiy iaoeiino?iaiea a ninoiyiee oaeiaeaoai?eoue oaeei o?aaiaaieyi.
nicaeaiea aeaeeo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoa, caaiaeia-aaoiiaoia,
?aaioathueo ii oae iacuaaaiie aacethaeiie oaoiieiaee,- oaeiai
iaaeno?aeueiia iai?aaeaiea oaoie/aneie ?aeiino?oeoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe
nae/an e a aoaeouai /8/.

Eaeea aea eciaiaiey iaeeaeathony i?e yoii a no?oeoo?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey
/eaiia iauanoaa ii iniiaiui aeaeai i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa aeecie, ii
niioaaonoaothuei noa?ai iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea?

Iiiyoii, /oi oaeea eciaiaiey caaenyo ia oieueei io oiai, eaeea
i?iii?oeee neiaeeeenue e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie, neieueei io oiai, eaeea
aeaeu i?iecaiaenoaa aoaeoo yooaeoeaiaa iaania/eaaoue oaeiaeaoai?aiea
?acaeaathueony iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa, Yoi caaeneo ia oieueei io ?acaeoey
no?oeoo?u iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae, ii e io oiai, eaeea aeaeu
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe aiinyo e aoaeoo aiineoue iaeaieueoee
aeeaae a iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, o.a. a
i?iecaiaenoai e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo (iaeiethaeiuo
eee aacethaeiuo) e yooaeoeaiuo (?ano?ninaa?aaathueo e aeaeeo)
aaoiiaoe/aneeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nenoai.

*oiau auyaeoue yoe aeaeu i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaiaoiaeeii
i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea ooieoeeiiaeueii-oaoiieiae/aneia niaea?aeaiea o?oaea
a iuiaoiai i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa e eciaiaiey a yoii niaea?aeaiee,
eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo i?e aaoiiaoecaoeee nia?aiaiiiai oeia.

Aaaeii oaeaea o/eouaaoue, /oi a nayce n aaoiiaoecaoeeae i?iecaiaenoaa
anoae aii?in ia ioianaiee e /eneo naiinoiyoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
io?aneae aeayoaeueiinoue ii ia?a?aaioea eioi?iaoeee. Aeey aeaeueiaeoaai
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aauiiai i?iecaiaenoaa o?aaothony oaeei ia?acii,
eae oa aai nenoaiu, eioi?ua Ia?en iacuaae einoiie, ioneoeueiie e
ninoaeenoie, oae e eneonnoaaiiay “ia?aiay” nenoaia i?iecaiaenoaa, o.a.
oaoie/aneay nenoaia, eioi?ay inouanoaeyea au iniiaioth ianno iia?aoeee
ii ?aaoeyoeee aai oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.

“Einoii-ioneoeueiay” nenoaia i?iecaiaenoaa nicaeaaony a iniiaiii a
i?ioeanna eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, eiaaea “n aaaaeaieai iaoei iauanoaaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai a e?oiiii ianooaaa ia?aoaao neeo, aeey oiai, /oiau
oeaeeeii aaiaeeoue a i?ioeann o?oaea i?iaeoeou, i?aaenoaaeythuea
aieueoia eiee/anoai i?ioeiai o?oaea, oeaeeeii aaiaeeoue eo a i?ioeann
o?oaea a ea/anoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa…” /1/.

Iaeiaei yoe aieueoea eiee/anoaa i?ioeiai o?oaea a iiaeaaeythuae /anoe
i?aaenoaaeytho o?oae, cao?a/aiiue ia i?iecaiaenoai aauae, aauiuo
n?aaenoa e aeecie. Aeey nicaeaiey “ia?aiie” nenoaiu i?iecaiaenoaa yoiai
oaea ia aeinoaoi/ii. Iaiaoiaeeiu aaoiiaoe/aneea n?aaenoaa oeenaoeee,
o?aiaiey, ia?a?aaioee e auaea/e eioi?iaoeee – n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaoiiaoeee. Eo nicaeaiea o?aaoao aieueoiai eiee/anoaa e
oiai o?oaea, eioi?ue ioaeai a i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?iaoeeiiiuo, ciaeiauo
n?aaenoa e aeecie. Iaoneiaeaii yoi ia oieueei oai, /oi oaoie/aneea
n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeee yaeythony iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeeae, aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?ie ioaeiu aieueoea iauaiu iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
eioi?iaoeee, cia/eoaeueiua cao?aou o?oaea a noa?a iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee
e iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?ac?aaioie. A ninoaa n?aaenoa eioi?iaoeee
anaaaea aoiaeyo ia oieueei oaoie/aneea ii e ii?aaeaeaiiua iaoaiaoe/aneea
e i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa.

A oi aea a?aiy oaeaeueiay o?oaeiaieinoue oaoie/aneeo (aauiuo) n?aaenoa
eioi?iaoeee aeaaiaea?y aaoiiaoecaoeee eo i?iecaiaenoaa cia/eoaeueii
nieaeaaony. Ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey yoeo oaiaeaioeee
i?iecaiaenoai ciaeiauo eiiiiiaioia eioi?iaoeeiiii-au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai
e ono?ienoa ia/eiaao i?aainoiaeeoue ii naiei yeiiiie/aneei ianooaaai
i?iecaiaenoai aauiuo eiiiiiaioia yoeo aea nenoai e ono?ienoa –
eioi?iaoeeiiii-au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, aa ia?eoa?eeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey,
caianiuo /anoae, ?aai/eo iaoa?eaeia e o.i. Oae, anee e ia/aeo 70-o
aiaeia ?anoiaeu ia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea ninoaaeyee ia aieaa 15% io
iaueo cao?ao iieueciaaoaeae ia eioi?iaoeeiiii-au/eneeoaeueiua nenoaiu,
oi e ia/aeo 80-o aiaeia yoa aeiey ninoaaeyea aieaa 70%, a e na?aaeeia
80-o aiaeia aeiey cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e aini?iecaiaenoai i?ia?aiiiuo
n?aaenoa i?eaeeceeanue e 80% /3/. Noieiinoiay ianna i?iaeoeoeee noa?u
iaoaiaoe/aneiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e iauay /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia,
caiyouo a yoie noa?a yeiiiieee iaeaieaa ?acaeouo a i?iiuoeaiiii
ioiioaiee no?ai, aeinoeaee ianooaaia, eioi?ua aei oiai auee oa?aeoa?iu
oieueei aeey aaaeouae io?anee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa – noa?u
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e iao/ii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?ac?aaioie /3/.

?ino cao?ao iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea ia eioi?iaoeeiiiia i?iecaiaenoai
iaoneiaeeaaaony, eiia/ii, ia oieueei ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa
eioi?iaoeee. Iiyaeaiea n?aaieoaeueii aeaoaauo n?aaenoa o?aiaiey e
aaoiiaoe/aneie ia?a?aaioee aieueoeo ianneaia eioi?iaoeee nicaeaei eeoue
i?aeoe/aneoth aiciiaeiinoue auno?iai ia?aueaaiey iauaiia eioi?iaoeee.
Naii aea ia?aueaaiea yoeo iauaiia iaoneiaeaii ?inoii iio?aaiinoae
iauanoaa a eioi?iaoeee ii ia?a caaa?oaiey i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo neeao e i?aa?auaiey aauiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a
i?aiaeaaeathuoth noa?o i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa e aeecie e i?iecaiaenoaa
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecie a oeaeii.

?ino eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa, inouanoaeaoaai
eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e nicaeaiea iauanoaii iauaeoeaiuo
aiciiaeiinoae (n?aaenoa eioi?iaoeee) aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey yoeo
iio?aaiinoae – n ae?oaie, noi?ie?iaaee iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee aeey
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea a iieueco noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa
eioi?iaoeee. Yoe i?aaeiinueee noaee aeinoaoi/iuie, eiaaea a
niaa?oainoaiaaiee n?aaenoa iaoeiiie eioi?iaoeee aue ia?aeaeai
ii?aaeaeaiiue “?oaaae” yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe eo ianniaiai
i?eiaiaiey. Eiaaea eaaeaeay aaeeieoea aieueoeo iann o?oaea,
cao?a/eaaaiiai a eioi?iaoeeiiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eaiaeeo e yeiiiiee
o?oaea a aauiii i?iecaiaenoaa a n?aaeiai aieaa /ai ia iaeio aaeeieoeo,
noaiiaeony oeaeaniia?aciui iia?aaeathuee ?ino i?eeiaeaiey o?oaea a noa?a
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

A naaoa i?eaaaeaiiuo aeaiiuo e eceiaeaiiuo auoa niia?aaeaiee ioaao ia
aii?in i aeeaeaeoai eciaiaiee no?oeoo?u ?ani?aaeaeaiey /eaiia iauanoaa
ii aeaeai i?iecaiaenoaa, naycaiiui n ia?aoiaeii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee a
ea/anoaaiii iiaia ninoiyiea, i?aaenoaaeyaony naaiaeiy aeinoaoi/ii
i/aaeaeiui e iiaeoaa?aeaeathuei aeiioaco-i?iaiic ia/aea 70-o aiaeia i
oii, /oi “a oaiaeaioeee aeiieie?othuei ieacuaaaony i?iecaiaenoai
eioi?iaoeee” /3/.

Iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai eioi?iaoeee anaaaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iaoa?eaeueiue i?ioeann – i?aia?aciaaiea iaeioi?iai aauanoaa eee iiey,
i?eaeaiea aio ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iu i?e iiiiue n?aaenoa o?oaea, i?aaiia
/aeiaa/aneiai oaea. Niioaaonoaaiii a noa?o i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
n?aaenoa e aeecie aoiaeyo ana i?ioeannu oiai niaieoiiiai niaianoiiai
o?oaea, eae oinoaaiiiai oae e oece/aneiai, eiia/iui i?iaeoeoii eioi?iai,
iinooiathuei a ia?auaiea, yaeythony ciaeiaua nenoaiu. O?oae a aeaiiie
noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa eae e a ethaie ae?oaie, yaeyynue ?anoiaeiaaieai
/aeiaa/aneie ?aai/ae neeu a iniaie oeaeaniia?aciie oi?ia eiie?aoiiai
o?oaea, a oi aea a?aiy anoue e aano?aeoiue o?oae. Iiyoiio i?e ecaanoiuo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo i?iaeoeou yoiai o?oaea – ciaeiaua
nenoaiu – aunooiatho ia oieueei a ea/anoaa iio?aaeoaeueiuo noieiinoae,
ii e a ea/anoaa oiaa?ia, iineoaeae noieiinoe – “naonoeia” aano?aeoiiai
/aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea. Yoi iaoiaeeo naia au?aaeaiea a noieiinoiuo oi?iao
ioeaiee e oiaa?iuo oi?iao iaiaia i?iaeoeoia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Caeeth/aiea

A i?aaeeiaeaiiii ?aoa?aoa ?anniio?aia i?iaeaia nenoaiu “/aeiaae-oaoieea”
a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo.

I?eiaiyaiay /aeiaaeii oaoieea iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii ?acaeoee, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e iinoiyiiiio auoaniaieth /aeiaaea ec i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna. A naiai ?acaeoee oaoieea eiaao ?yae yoaiia: – aeiiaoaie/aneee
(i?oaeeeiue), iaoaie/aneee, yeaeo?e/aneee e yeaeo?iiiue, eaaeaeue ec
iineaaeothueo yoaiia, ea/anoaaiii ioee/aaony io i?aaeuaeouaai, aeeth/aao
aai a naie ninoaa eae iaiouaieaiue yeaiaio. Ia/aei iaoaie/aneiai yoaia
niaiaaeaao ni noaiiaeaieai iaoeiii-oaa?e/iiai niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa.
Yeaeo?eoeeaoeey oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa aeaao ia/aei eiiaaea?iui oi?iai
o?oaea. Ia/aei yeaeo?iiiiai yoaia aaoiiaoecaoeee i?eoiaeeony ia ia?eiae
noaiiaeaiey ea/anoaaiii iiaiai, nenoaiii-aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai, niiniaa
i?iecaiaenoaa.

?acaeoea nenoaiu “/aeiaae-oaoieea” yaeyaony oneiaeai ei?aiiuo
i?aia?aciaaiee a niaea?aeaiee e oa?aeoa?a o?oaea. Oe?ieia aiaae?aiea
aaoiiaoecaoeee ii?iaeaeaao i?iaeaio “/aeiaae – oaoie/aneay nenoaia”.
?ieue /aeiaaea a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna ioeaieaaaony ii oiio, a
eaeie noaiaie ii inaiaiaeaeaaony io ?ooeiiuo iaeiiia?aciuo iia?aoeee, a
aai o?oae ianuuaaony a oe?ieii niunea oai?/aneei niaea?aeaieai. Ia
iaoaie/aneii yoaia aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ienoiaeeo oaoiieiae/aneia (?aaeueiia
ii Ia?eno) iiae/eiaiea /aeiaaea oaoie/aneei n?aaenoaai o?oaea. *aeiaae
caeanue yaeyaony i?eaeaoeii aaoiiaoe/aneie nenoaiu iaoei.
Oaoiieiae/aneia iiae/eiaiea eeai cae?aieyao nioeeaeueiia iiae/eiaiea
/aeiaaea oaoieea (o?oaea-eaieoaeo a oneiaeyo eaieoaeenoe/aneiai niiniaa
i?iecaiaenoaa), eeai aunooiaao naea?aeeaathuei oaeoi?ii a oii neo/aa,
eiaaea oaoieea nioeeaeueii iiae/eiaia /aeiaaeo (eia/a aiai?y,
oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa o?oaea iaoiaeyony a nianoaaiiinoe anaai iauanoaa).

Oaoieea iiaeao e aeieaeia neoaeeoue aacie aeey aoiaiecaoeee oaoie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, aeey eniieueciaaiey nia?aiaiiuo iaoeiaieeo oaoiieiaee e
ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa ?aaaeeeoaoeee e nio?aiaiey anoanoaaiiie n?aaeu e
inaiaiaeaeaiey /aeiaaea io oyaeaeiai, ?ooeiiiai, iaoai?/aneiai o?oaea.
Auno?ia ?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe
iiauoaiey eioaeeaeooaeueiiai iioaioeeaea aeey eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea. A yoii
ei?aieony aiciiaeiinoue nianai eia/a aienaoue oaoieeo a
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iue eiioaeno, aeaeieciaieoue naii niaea?aeaiea
oaoiieiaee, niaaeeieoue i?ioanneiiaeueiia, oaoiieiaece?iaaiiia
ianoa?noai n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui oai?/anoaii, aa?iiiece?iaaoue e
aoiaiece?iaaoue iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia

1 E. Ia?en, O. Yiaaeuen Ni/eiaiea. – 2-a I.Iieeoecaeao.

2 Eaoaee E. O. Aaoiiaoecaoeey: iaoiaeie. e nioeeae. i?iaeaiu / E-ai aun.
e n?aae. niaoe. ia?aciaaiea ?NON?. – Eaieia?aae: Ecae-ai EAO,1987.

3 Aae O. Nouiinoue oaoieee. A ei. Oeeinioey oaoieee a O?A. I., Iaoea
1989.

4 Iiaay oaoiie?aoe/aneay aieia ia caiaaea: (Na.no.) / AI NNN?, ei-o
oeeinioee: (?aaeeie.:I.N.Ao?aae/ ( ioa.?aae. ) e ae?.) –
I.I?ia?ann,1986.

5 Oiooea? Y. Ia ii?iaa aoaeouaai // NOA 80-o: acaeyae ecioo?e.
“Aia?eeaineay iiaeaeue”: n aoaeouei a eiioeeeoa. – I.,1984.

6 Aa?aeyaa I. *aeiaae e iaoeia. / Aii?inu oeeinioee ?2. 1989.

7 Oaeaeaaaa? I. ?acaiai? ia i?inaei/iie aei?iaa: Nai?iee: Ia?. n iai./
Iiae ?aae. A. E. Aeia?ioaioiaa. – I.: Auno. oe., 1991 – 192 n.

8 Aaaeeei E.E. Aeeaeaeoeea nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee I.,

Iaoea, 1981.

PAGE

PAGE 2

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020