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Взгляды Джона Кейнса

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IINEIANEEE EINOEOOO YEIIIIEEE, IAIAAeAEIAIOA

E I?AAA

?aoa?ao

ii eo?no: “Enoi?ey yeiiiieee”

ia oaio:

“Yeiiiie/aneea acaeyaeu

Aeaeiia Iaeia?aea

Eaeina.”

Auiieiee: nooaeaioea

yeiiiie/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

*o?aaiiaa Ieueaa Aeeoi?iaia

I?iaa?ee: Aeaieaeaiei A.A.

IINEAA, 1998 aiae.

NIAeA?AEAIEA

no?.

Aaaaeaiea—————————————————————
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2

Niaieoiiue ni?in——————————————————-

2

Oeaiiaua oaeoi?u niaieoiiiai ni?ina—————————-

3

Iaoeaiiaua oaeoi?u niaieoiiiai ni?ina————————-

3

Niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea———————————————-

7

O?e naaiaioa e?eaie niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey—————-

7

Iaoeaiiaua oaeoi?u niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey—————–

9

?aaiiaanea: ?aaeueiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa e o?iaaiue oeai—–

12

Eciaiaiey a ?aaiiaanee————————————————

13

Niauaiea e?eaie niaieoiiiai ni?ina—————————-

13

Niauaiea e?eaie niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey——————–

13

Caeeth/aiea.————————————————————
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14

Nienie
eeoa?aoo?u———————————————————- 14

ANOOIEAIEA

A enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneie iaoee eiy Aeaeiia Iaeia?aea Eaeina (1883 – 1946)
noieo a ?yaeo o/aiuo, ieacaaoeo iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea
nia?aiaiiiai ei iauanoaa. Eaein noae ciaiaieo e ii/eoaai aua i?e aeecie,
a nii?u ii iiaiaeo aai acaeyaeia ia ooeoatho e naaiaeiy. Yeiiiie/aneay
oai?ey Eaeina ?iaeeeanue eae i?yiie ioaao ia iaeaieaa io/eoaeueiua
aii?inu ?uii/iie yeiiiieee OO aaea .

“Iioiinoaaiiue” o/aiue-yeiiiieno – aai ioaoe aue i?ioanni?ii yeiiiieee –
ii, oai ia iaiaa ieeiaaea ia ia?aie/eaae naieo eioa?ania “/enoie”
iaoeie. Aai anaaaea oyioei e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ie ii
caieiaeny anth naith aeeciue n iaiaeui oniaoii.

Oi?aaeyy oeiainaie Ei?ieaaneiai eieeaaeaea a Eaia?eaeaea, ii noiae oae
eie ?anii?yaeeoueny, /oi iaania/ee eieeaaeaeo aanueia cia/eoaeueiue
aeioiae.

Eaein oniaoii aae e naie ee/iua oeiainiaua aeaea. Iia?aoeee n
eiino?aiiie aaethoie naeaeaee aai aeinoaoi/ii aiaaoui /aeiaaeii. Yoi
ninoiyiea iicaieeei aio, a /anoiinoe, caieiaoueny iiaeaea?aeeie
eeanne/aneiai aaeaoa. Iaiaeoth ?ieue a yoii nua?aea aai aeaia –
ecaanoiay ?onneay aaea?eia Eiiooia. Aeiaaeinue Eaeino aicaeaaeyoue e
/anoiua oe?iu: no?aoiaoth, a iioii e eiaanoeoeeiiioth eiiiaieth.

I?eciaieai aai aeaeiaie e iao/iie ?aiooaoeee noaei iacia/aiea iaeiei ec
aee?aeoi?ia Aiaeeeneiai aaiea – iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaiea no?aiu, a caoai
i?enaiaiea aio ei?ieaaie oeooea ei?aea – iy?a Aiaeee. Yoa iaa?aaea auea
e i?eciaieai aai ia?iiiuo caneoa ia?aae Aaeeeia?eoaieae, eioi?ie ii
aa?ii neoaeee aei naiie nia?oe, aucaaiiie /oaeiaeuiie ia?aa?oceie ec-ca
iiiai/eneaiiuo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e iao/iuo
iaycaiiinoae, eioi?ua ii eniieiye ia i?aaeaea naieo nee.

E ana-oaee a enoi?eth Eaein aioae ia eae aaiee?, aaethoiue aeaeaoe,
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue /eiiaiee eee iaoeaiao aaeaoa. Aai neaaa i?aaeaea
anaai naycaia n iiaui acaeyaeii ia ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea .

A eiioea 20-o ia/aea 30-o aiaeia yeiiiieeo NOA ii?acee aeoaieee e?ecen.
Yoio e?ecen ioaaoee ia oieueei aia?eeaineoth yeiiiieeo – aa?iiaeneea
no?aiu oiaea auee iiaeaa?aeaiu e?eceno, i?e/ai a Aa?iia yoio e?ecen
ia/aeny aeaaea ?aiueoa /ai a NOA. Iai?eia? a Aiaeee iauai i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ca 1929-1933 aa. nie?aoeeny ii/oe ia /aoaa?oue,
i?iecaiaenoai /oaoia oiaei a aeaa ?aca, a noaeia – o?aaeeoeeiiiie
aiaeeeneie i?iaeoeoeee – a ainaiue ?ac.

?oeiaiaeeoaee e yeiiiienou aaaeoueo no?ai ie?a eeoi?aaei/ii eneaee
niiniau auoiaea ec e?ecena. Oaeie auoiae i?aaeeiaeee ei Eaein,
iioaeeeiaaa a 1936 aiaeo eieao “Iauay oai?ey caiyoinoe, i?ioeaioa e
aeaiaa“, noaaooth n?aco ciaiaieoie .

Oai?ey yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina

N eiioea 70-o aiaeia XIX aaea a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee ainiiaenoaiaae
iee?iyeiiiie/aneee iiaeoiae. A oeaio? aiaeeca iiiauaeny yeiiiie/aneee
noauaeo (iio?aaeoaeue eee oe?ia), eioi?ue iaeneiece?oao auaiaeo.
I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi yeiiiie/aneea noauaeou ooieoeeiie?otho a oneiaeyo
niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, aaea yooaeoeaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oe?iu
ioiaeaeanoaeyeanue n yooaeoeaiinoueth ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee a
oeaeii. Yoio iiaeoiae iiae?acoiaaae ?aoeeiiaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
?ano?nia a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa e ia aeiioneae aiciiaeiinoe aeeeoaeueiiai
ia?ooaiey ?aaiiaaney yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu.

Yoe iinooeaou auee iinoaaeaiu iiae niiiaiea Eaeinii. Ii n/eoae iniiaie
enneaaeiaaiea caaeneiinoae e i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo niaieoiiuie
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuie aaee/eiaie: iaoeeiiaeueiui aeioiaeii,
naa?aaeaieyie, eiaanoeoeeyie, niaieoiiui ni?inii – e aeaaioth caaea/o
aeaeae a aeinoeaeaiee iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?iii?oeee.

Ia?aae oai eae Eaein iaienae a 1936 aiaeo “Iauoth oai?eth“,
yeiiiienou-oai?aoeee a oeaeii i?eaea?aeeaaeenue eeanne/aneiai iiaeoiaea
e yeiiiieea. Eo aiaeec a?auaeny aie?oa “caeiia ?uiea” Nyy. Yoio caeii,
noi?ioee?iaaiiue a 1803 aiaeo o?aioeocneei yeiiiienoii Nyai,
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ia?ai?iecaiaenoai ia aiciiaeii ii naiae i?e?iaea.
Nooue iiceoeee Nay ninoieo a oii, /oi i?aaeeiaeaiea aaoiiaoe/anee
ii?iaeaeaao niioaaonoaothuee ni?in. Ii i?aaeiieiaeaieth Nyy oeaeueth
i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony iio?aaeaiea. I?iecaiaeeoaeue i?iaeaao naie oiaa?,
/oiau eoieoue ae?oaie, oi anoue eaaeaeue i?iaeaaaoe iaycaoaeueii
noaiiaeony iieoiaoaeai. Anee i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoue aieueoa
i?iaeoeoeee, oi iio?aaeoaee aoaeoo aieueoa aa iieoiaoue. Eiuie neiaaie,
ethaia oaaee/aiea i?iaeoeoeee aaoiiaoe/anee ii?iaeaeaao yeaeaaeaioiia
oaaee/aiea ?anoiaeia e aeioiaeia, i?e/ai a ?acia?ao, niiniaiuo
iiaeaea?aeaoue yeiiiieeo a ninoiyiee iieiie caiyoinoe. Eaein oeacae, /oi
eeanne/aneay aeieo?eia i?aaeiieaaaao yeiiiieeo n iieiui eniieueciaaieai
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, oiaaea eae a ?aaeueiinoe (ai a?aiy aeai?annee
30-o aiaeia) iaaethaeaeanue ia ia?aie/aiiinoue, a ia?aecauoie ?ano?nia
(ianniaay aac?aaioeoea, iaaeia?oaeaiiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe,
i?acaeii eaaeauee eaieoae).

Iiyoiio Eaein iinoaaee a oeaio? naieo enneaaeiaaiee oaeoi?u ni?ina,
iieo/eaoea a aai oai?ee iacaaiea “yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina” (noiia
iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia e eiaanoeoeee).

Eaeneaineia ?aaiiaanea i?e iaiieiie caiyoinoe

Niaieoiiue ni?in iaicia/aao iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ii eaeineaineiio
iiaeoiaeo .

A eaeineaineie iiaeaee e?eaay niaieoiiiai ni?ina iiaeuiaaony aaa?o,
oeacuaay, /oi iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ?anoao n aieaa aunieei niaieoiiui
ni?inii aei oao ii?, iiea nouanoaotho ia eniieueciaaiiua ?ano?nu. Anee
niaieoiiue ni?in iaaeinoaoi/iue, iauai i?iecaiaenoaa iaoiaeeony a
?aaiiaanee a oi/ea A n aunieei o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu .

Anee niaieoiiue ni?in iiauoaaony n AD aei AD, oi ?aaeueiue iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aiauaaony ec A a A, e oeaiu oaeaea ?anooo. A yoie
eaeineaineie oai?ee n e?eaie AS, /oi iiaeuiaaony aaa?o a e?aoein?i/iue
ia?eiae, yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea ?anoe?ythuay niaieoiiue ni?in,
aeinoeaaao oniaoa a oaaee/aiee iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe .

Eaein i?iaiaeece?iaae oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeythuea aeeiaieeo ee/iiai
iio?aaeaiey e eiaanoeoeee. Niaeanii aai oai?ee, i?e?ino ee/iiai
iio?aaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie onoie/eaoth ooieoeeth i?e?inoa aeioiaea,
?ieue inoaeueiuo oaeoi?ia ianouanoaaiia. N ?inoii aeioiaeia i?aaeaeueiay
neeiiiinoue e iio?aaeaieth oiaiueoaaony. Oaeoth aeeiaieeo iio?aaeaiey
Eaein naycae n oae iacuaaaiui “iniiaiui ineoieiae/aneei caeiiii” –
oiaiueoaieai aeiee iio?aaeaiey (oioy aaniethoiua ?acia?u iio?aaeaiey
?anooo) e, niioaaonoaaiii, oaaee/aieai aeiee naa?aaeaiee n ?inoii
aeioiaeia.

Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi i?e ?inoa aeioiaeia aeiey yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina,
iaania/eaathuayny ee/iui iio?aaeaieai, iinoiyiii iaaeaao, iiyoiio
?anoe?ythueeny iauai naa?aaeaiee aeieaeai iiaeiuaoueny ?anoouei ni?inii
ia eiaanoeoeee. ?acia? eiaanoeoeee Eaein n/eoae aeaaiui oaeoi?ii
yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina. Ii iaania/aiea ii?iaeueiiai ?acia?a eiaanoeoeee
oie?aaony a i?iaeaio ia?aaiaea anao naa?aaeaiee a ?aaeueiua
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey. I?aaenoaaeoaee eeanne/aneiai e iaieeanne/aneiai
iai?aaeaiee ia aeaeaee a yoii i?iaeaiu, oae eae enoiaeeee ec
i?aaeiieiaeaiey, /oi aeo naa?aaeaiey iaeiia?aiaiii i?aa?auaaony a aeo
eiaanoe?iaaiey, oi anoue naa?aaeaiey e eiaanoeoeee ?aaiu oiaeaeanoaaiii.
O?aaeeoeeiiii n/eoaeinue, /oi aunieee o?iaaiue naa?aaeaiee yaeyaony
oneiaeai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, iineieueeo eiaiii naa?aaeaiey yaeythony
enoi/ieeii iaeiieaiey eaieoaea. Eaein aea i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi
/?acia?iua naa?aaeaiey yaeythony oaeoi?ii, i?aiyonoaothuei
yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo, iineieueeo ecauoi/iua naa?aaeaiey – ie /oi eiia,
eae ecauoi/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?a, oi anoue neooaoeey a?icyuay
iaa?iooueny iauei e?ecenii ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa. Ionthaea neaaeiaae auaiae,
/oi aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iinoiyiiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea aeieaeiu
oaaee/eaaoueny eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey, i?ecaaiiua iiaeiuaoue ana aieaa
?anoe?ythueeny iauai naa?aaeaiee. Eiaiii eiaanoeoeeiiiiio eiiiiiaioo
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ii?aaeaeaiiay ?ieue a ii?aaeaeaiee o?iaiy iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea e caiyoinoe.

Iniiaiui o?aaiaieai eaeineaineie oai?ee iiaeii n/eoaoue neaaeothuaa
?aaainoai:

GNP = C + I

aaea GNP – aaeiaue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo,

C – iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu,

I – eiaanoeoeee.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae ai acaeyaeao e Eaeina, e i?aaenoaaeoaeae eeanne/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey, eiaanoeoeee i?ecaaiu iiaeioeoue iauai i?aaeeaaaaiuo
naa?aaeaiee. Ii a eeanne/aneii i?aaenoaaeaiee yoi i?ienoiaeeo
aaoiiaoe/anee, oi anoue aaoiiaoe/anee aeinoeaaaony iae?iyeiiiie/aneia
?aaiiaanea. A oai?ee Eaeina o?iaaiue naa?aaeaiee ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaiai
aeioiaeia, a o?iaaiue eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee nianai ae?oaeie oaeoi?aie,
iiyoiio ?aaainoai naa?aaeaiee e eiaanoeoeee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nei?aa
neo/aeiinoue, /ai caeiiiia?iinoue. Ii Eaeino ?aaeueiue ?acia?
eiaanoeoeee caaeneo io aeaoo aaee/ei:

– iaeeaeaaiiai aeioiaea io eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee eee eo i?aaeaeueiie
yooaeoeaiinoe

– ii?iu i?ioeaioa

I?aaei?eieiaoaeue i?iaeieaeaao i?ioeann eiaanoe?iaaiey, iiea
i?aaeaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee inoaaony auoa ii?iu
i?ioeaioa. Oaeei ia?acii, nouanoaothuay ii?ia i?ioeaioa ii?aaeaeyao
ieaeiee i?aaeae i?eaueueiinoe aoaeoueo eiaanoeoeee. *ai iia ieaea, oai,
i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo, iaeeaeaiiae i?ioeann eiaanoeoeee e iaiai?io.

I?ioeaio a oai?ee Eaeina, eae e neeiiiinoue e eiaanoe?iaaieth, yaeaiey
i?aeiouanoaaiii ineoieiae/aneiai ieaia. Iaeeaeaaiue aeioiae io
eiaanoeoeee aanueia /oanoaeoaeai e ianneienoe/aneei iano?iaieyi e iie
iiaoo noaoue i?e/eiie aeoaieeo aeai?annee.

Iieacaa, /oi a oneiaeyo aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathuaeny yeiiiieee
iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey iia?aaeaiey ?inoa naa?aaeaiee ii n?aaiaieth n
eaieoaeiaeiaeaieyie, Eaein caino?ee aieiaiea ia i?iaeaia noeioee?iaaiey
eiaanoeoeee.

Iineieueeo i?e?ino aeiiieieoaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee a eaeoth-ieaoaeue
io?aneue aeaao i?e?ino ia oieueei a iae, ii e a naycaiiuo n iath
iaeanoyo, oi neaaenoaeai noaiao nicaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aai/eo iano
ai anao yoeo io?aneyo, niioaaonoaaiii oaaee/eony ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue,
/oi nicaeano noeioeu aeey ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii ?aoathony aeaa acaeiinaycaiiua i?iaeaiu: iaania/aiea
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu aac?aaioeoeu. Iaania/eaaoue aea
ia?aiia/aeueiua eiaanoeoeee a oneiaeyo iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina
ni noi?iiu iio?aaeoaeae /anoiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee aeieaeii, ii iiaieth
Eaeina, ainoaea?noai, ia i?aiaa?aaay i?e yoii einaaiiuie iaoiaeaie
noeioee?iaaiey eiaanoeoeee.

Oai?ey caiyoinoe e aac?aaioeoeu.

A iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee caiyoinoue caaeneo io aeaoo oaeoi?ia:
i?aaeaeueiie oyainoe o?oaea (oaeoi?, ii?aaeaeythuee i?aaeeiaeaiea
o?oaea) e i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea (oaeoi?,
ii?aaeaeythuee ni?in ia o?oae). *ai ieaea ?aaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa, ia
eioi?oth niaeaniu ?aai/ea, oai auoa o?iaaiue caiyoinoe e iaiai?io.

Eaein aunooiee i?ioea aeaiiiai iinooeaoa, aiai?y, /oi aioiaiinoue
?aai/eo ?aaioaoue ca ieceoth ca?aaioioth ieaoo ia yaeyaony eaea?noaii io
aac?aaioeoeu. O?iaaiue caiyoinoe ii?aaeaeyaony aeeiaieeie yooaeoeaiiai
ni?ina – iaeeaeaaiuo ?anoiaeia ia iio?aaeaiea e i?aaeiieaaaaiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. Ii Eaeino, iiieaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou aeeyao ia
yeiiiieeo ia iaiin?aaenoaaiii, a /a?ac iacaaeneiua ia?aiaiiua:
“i?aaeaeueioth neeiiiinoue e iio?aaeaieth” e “i?aaeaeueioth
yooaeoeaiinoue eaieoaea”. Iiyoiio Eaein aue i?ioeaieeii nieaeaiey
ca?aaioiie ieaou. Ii aai iiaieth, nie?auaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou i?eaiaeeo
ia e ?inoo caiyoinoe, a e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth aeioiaeia a iieueco
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e ?aiouea. E oiaiueoaiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina ni
noi?iiu ?aai/eo ia aoaeao eiiiaine?iaaia oaaee/aieai ni?ina ni noi?iiu
ae?oaeo neiaa ianaeaiey, oae eae oaaee/aiea eo aeioiaeia aoaeao
nii?iaiaeaeaoueny nieaeaieai neeiiiinoe e iio?aaeaieth. Iiyoiio o Eaeina
oaeoi?ii oaaee/aiey ?acia?ia yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina yaeyaony aieaa
?aaiiia?iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia.

Ii iiaiaeo aeeyiey iiieaeaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou ia ?acia?u eiaanoeoeee
Eaein ia niaeanai n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eeanne/aneiai e iaieeanne/aneiai
iai?aaeaiee, eioi?ua n/eoaee, /oi iiieaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou oaaee/eo
i?aaeaeueioth yooaeoeaiinoue eaieoaea e oaeei ia?acii iiieaeaiea
ca?aaioiie ieaou aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny ?inoii eiaanoeoeee. Iaeiaei
yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea iiaeao auoue aa?iui oieueei a ianooaaao ioaeaeueiie
oe?iu. A ianooaaa aea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa nieaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou
oiaiueoeo ?acia?u iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina, eioi?ia i?eaaaeao e
nie?auaieth i?iecaiaenoaa e eiaanoeoeee (iineieueeo iaaiciiaeii
i?iaeaoue aeaaea eiathuothny i?iaeoeoeeth), aucuaay aeaeueiaeoaa
oiaiueoaiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina aneaaenoaea oiaiueoaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou
e ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu.

Eoae, a oai?ee Eaeina nieaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou yaeyaony oaeoi?ii
oiaiueoaiey niaieoiiiai ni?ina, a oaeaea eiaanoeoeeiiiiai ni?ina.
Iineieueeo eiaiii niaieoiiue ni?in a iiaeaee yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
Eaeina ii?aaeaeyao o?iaaiue e oaiiu aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea,
oi niaa?oaiii ynii, ii/aio ii aunooiae noi?iiieeii aeanoeie ca?aaioiie
ieaou e i?iaaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee, iai?aaeaiiie ia aeinoeaeaiea
aunieie caiyoinoe a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa.

Oeaia e eioeyoeey a oai?ee Eaeina.

Iniiaie yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a oai?ee Eaeina yaeyaony yooaeoeaiue ni?in,
iiyoiio iniiaiui yeaiaioii yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee yaeyaony aai
noeioee?iaaiea. Aeaaiui aea n?aaenoaii – aeoeaiay oeneaeueiay iieeoeea
ainoaea?noaa, iai?aaeaiiay ia noeioee?iaaiea eiaanoeoeee e
iiaeaea?aeaiea aunieiai yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo
?anoiaeia. Iaecaaaeiui neaaenoaeai oaeie iieeoeee yaeyaony aeaoeoeeo
athaeaeaoa e ?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu a yeiiiieea no?aiu. A ioee/ee io
eeanne/aneiai iai?aaeaiey, aaea ?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu aea/ao ca niaie
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiue ?ino oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth (oi anoue aaeaeaaoiue
eioeyoeeiiiue ?ino oeai), Eaein ooaa?aeaeae, /oi oaaee/aiea aeaiaaeiie
iannu aoaeao i?eaiaeeoue e i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiio eioeyoeeiiiiio ?inoo oeai
oieueei a oneiaeyo iieiie caiyoinoe. *ai aeaeueoa io ninoiyiey iieiie
caiyoinoe iaoiaeeony yeiiiieea, oai a aieueoae noaiaie oaaee/aiea
aeaiaaeiie iannu aoaeao neacuaaoueny ia ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe,
a ia ia ?inoa oeai. Eaein n/eoae, /oi aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa, ?ino
aeaiaaeiie iannu e eioeyoeee yaeyaony aiieia i?eaieaiie oeaiie ca
iiaeaea?aeaiea aunieiai o?iaiy caiyoinoe e noaaeeueiia iiauoaiea o?iaiy
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea.

Yeiiiie/aneay i?ia?aiia Eaeina.

A eiioeaioeee Eaeina yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u aeaeyony ia caaeneiua e
iacaaeneiua. E iacaaeneiui oaeoi?ai ii ioiineo: neeiiiinoue e
iio?aaeaieth, i?aaeaeueioth yooaeoeaiinoue eaieoaea e ii?io i?ioeaioa.
Eiaiii iie ii?aaeaeytho ?acia?u yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina. E caaeneiui
oaeoi?ai ioiinyony: iauai caiyoinoe e iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Caaea/o
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa Eaein oniao?eaaao ai aeeyiee ia
iacaaeneiua ia?aiaiiua, a /a?ac eo iin?aaeie/anoai ia caiyoinoue e
iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae. Oaeei ia?acii caaea/ae ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony
oaaee/aiea yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina e nieaeaiea ino?iou i?iaeaiu ?aaeecaoeee.
?aoathuei eiiiiiaioii yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina Eaein n/eoae eiaanoeoeee,
oaeaeyy eo noeioee?iaaieth iniaia aieiaiea. A aai ?aaioa ?aeiiaiaeothony
aeaa iniiaiuo iaoiaea oaaee/aiey eiaanoeoeee: athaeaeaoiay e aeaiaaeii –
e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea.

Athaeaeaoiay iieeoeea i?aaeiieaaaao aeoeaiia oeiaine?iaaiea,
e?aaeeoiaaiea /anoiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa.
Eaein iacuaae oaeoth iieeoeeo “nioeeaeueiie eiaanoeoeeae”. A oeaeyo
oaaee/aiey iauaia ?ano?nia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oaaee/aiey /anoiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, a ?aieao athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee i?aaeoniao?eaaeanue
i?aaiecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoiie oiaa?ia e oneoa. Iineieueeo
/anoiua eiaanoeoeee a oneiaeyo aeai?annee ?acei nie?auathony a neeo
ianneienoe/aneeo acaeyaeia ioiineoaeueii ia?niaeoea iieo/aiey i?eauee,
?aoaiea i noeioee?iaaiee eiaanoeoeee aeieaeii acyoue ia naay
ainoaea?noai. I?e yoii aeaaiui e?eoa?eai oniaoa aeey ainoaea?noaaiiie
athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee, ii iiaieth Eaeina, yaeyaony oaaee/aiea
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, aeaaea anee o?aou aeaiaa ainoaea?noaii aiaoia
aoaeoo auaeyaeaoue aaniieaciuie.

Iio?aaeaiea, a ea/anoaa iiaeea/ee yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina, iineo a
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo Eaeina iiae/eiaiiue oa?aeoa?. Aeaaiui oaeoi?ii ia ?ino
neeiiiinoe e iio?aaeaieth Eaein n/eoae i?aaiecaoeeth iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio,
a oaeaea iio?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo. Iaiaeiie?aoii a naiae
?aaioa Eaein ioia/aao oeaeaniia?aciinoue oiaiueoaiey eiouanoaaiiiai
ia?aaainoaa, ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea /anoe aeioiaeia a iieueco a?oii n
iaeaieueoae neeiiiinoueth e iio?aaeaieth. E oaeei a?oiiai ioiinyony
eeoea iaaiiiai o?oaea, iniaaiii eeoea n ieceeie aeioiaeaie. Niaeanii
“iniiaiiio ineoieiae/aneiio caeiio” i?e ieceii aeioiaea neeiiiinoue e
iio?aaeaieth auoa, neaaeiaaoaeueii yooaeoeaiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee ianaeaiey aoaeao iuouaoueny auoa.

E?aaeeoii – aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea, ii iiaieth Eaeina, aeieaeia
caeeth/aoueny ai anaia?iii iiieaeaiee noaaee i?ioeaioa. Yoi oiaiueoeo
ieaeiee i?aaeae yooaeoeaiinoe aoaeoueo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee e naeaeaao eo
aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiie. Oaeei ia?acii, ainoaea?noai aeieaeii iaania/eoue
oaeia eiee/anoai aeaiaa a ia?auaiee, eioi?ay iicaieeee au nieceoue
i?ioeaioioth noaaeo (oae iacuaaaiay iieeoeea aeaoaauo aeaiaa). Eaein
oaeoe/anee ooaa?aeaeaao aeiionoeiinoue eioeyoeee, n/eoay, /oi iia
iaiueoaa cei, /ai aac?aaioeoea. Iaeiaei iaeia oieueei e?aaeeoii –
aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea a oneiaeyo aeoaieiai niaaea iaaeinoaoi/ia,
iineieueeo ia iaania/eaaao aeieaeiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey oaa?aiiinoe a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie n?aaea.

Eaein n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui ia?aniio?aoue ioiioaiea e e
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea. Ii ooaa?aeaeae, /oi anee no?aia
ia?aie/eaaao eiii?o aieaa aeaoaauo eiino?aiiuo oiaa?ia n oeaeueth
iaania/aiey caiyoinoe naiei ?aai/ei, aeaaea anee iaoeeiiaeueiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaia, oi aeaenoaey yoie no?aiu
neaaeoao i?eciaoue yeiiiie/anee oeaeaniia?aciuie.

Nouiinoue “eaeineaineie ?aaiethoeee” caeeth/aeanue a ioeaca io ?yaea
aeneii, iauai?eiyouo a iaieeanne/aneie oeiea:

– oacena ia aaoiiaoe/aneii onoaiiaeaiee ?aaiiaaney ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey

– acaeyaea ia iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, eae ia iinoiyiioth aaee/eio i?e
aeaiiii yeiiiie/aneii

iioaioeeaea no?aiu

– oaaaeaeaiey i iaeo?aeueiii oa?aeoa?a aeaiaa ii ioiioaieth e
yeiiiie/aneei i?ioeannai

A ioee/ee io i?aaenoaaeoaeae eeanne/aneiai e iaieeanne/aneiai
iai?aaeaiee eioi?ua nin?aaeioi/eee naia aieiaiea ia iioaioeeaeueiuo
oaeoi?ao yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, eaaeaueo ia noi?iia i?aaeeiaeaiey, Eaein
naeaeae aeoeaio ia oaeoi?ao yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, eaaeaueo ia noi?iia
ni?ina, ?ac?ooea i?e yoii ainiiaenoaothuaa aei iaai a yeiiiie/aneie
iaoea i?aaenoaaeaiea ia aaoiiaoe/aneii aeinoeaeaiee ?aaiiaaney iaaeaeo
niaieoiiui ni?inii e niaieoiiui i?aaeeiaeaieai. Oai naiui Eaein
iiaei?aae aa?o ai aioo?aiiea ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua neeu ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia
e iainiiaae oai?eth, eioi?ay ii?aaaeuaaea aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a
yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu.

CAEETH*AIEA

Iiaeaiaey eoia ?anniio?aieth yeiiiie/aneeo acaeyaeia Eaeina, neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi eaeae Eaeina iieo/eee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea e aeoeaii
eniieueciaaeenue ia i?aeoeea. Iie iiiiaee iiiaei ?acaeoui no?aiai
nicaeaoue ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO aaea iiaua iaoaieciu ?aaoee?iaaiey
?uii/iie yeiiiieee, i?aaeioa?auathuea e?ecenu, iiaeiaiua aeai?annee 30-o
aiaeia.

Aei ianooieaiey Aaeeeie aia?eeaineie aeai?annee o/aiua any/anee
iiae/a?eeaaee niiniaiinoue yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e
eciaiaieth oneiaee e any/anee aii?oece?iaaoue anyeiai ?iaea iio?ynaiey.
I?aeoe/anee aaeeiiaeooii n/eoaeinue, /oi ia?eiaeu iio?ynaiee iinyo
a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?, i?e/ai ainnoaiiaeaiea yeiiiieee ianooiaao
aaoiiaoe/anee. E?ao ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa 1929 aiaea e iineaaeiaaaoay ca
iei Aaeeeay aeai?anney i?eaaee yeiiiieeo a noieue iea/aaiia ninoiyiea,
/oi, eacaeinue, iaaeaaeae ia ainnoaiiaeaiea i?inoi iao. ?acei oiaee
oeaiu, a ca ieie e ca?ieaoa. ?aaeueiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa nie?auaeny.
?inea aac?aaioeoea. Anei?a ii/oe /aoaa?oue o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey
NOA ieacaeanue ca ai?oii aeecie. E ana yoi i?iaeieaeaeinue ia ianyoeu, a
oeaeua aiaeu. Yeiiiieea aeinoeaea iecoae oi/ee naiaai iaaeaiey eeoue e
1933 aiaeo. Aa?ioony aea e o?iaith 1929 aiaea ii iauaio ?aaeueiiai
auionea i?iaeoeoeee iia niiaea eeoue /a?ac 10 eao … *oi aea i?iecioei
?

Iaeaieaa en/a?iuaathuee ioaao ia yoio aii?in aue i?aaeeiaeai aiaeeeneei
yeiiiienoii Aeaeiiii Iaeia?aeii Eaeinii. Eaein io?eoeae ia oieueei
yooaeoeaiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea, ii e naii nouanoaiaaiea noaaeeece?othueo
iaoaieciia, iaania/eaathueo ieaaiia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee. Ii ianoaeaae ia
na?ueaciii ?anoe?aiee ?iee i?aaeoaeuenoaa a i?ioeanna noaaeeecaoeee
yeiiiieee e i?aaeioa?auaiee a aoaeouai iio?ynaiee, iiaeiaiuo e?eceno
30-o aiaeia .

Eaein e aai iineaaeiaaoaee – iao/iay oeiea eaeineaioeaa – i?eoee e
auaiaeo, /oi ia iuiaoiai yoaia ?acaeoey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee ainoaea?noai
aeieaeii ea?aoue eoaea aieaa aeoeaioth ?ieue. Yoa ?ieue caeeth/aaony a
iiiu?aiee ?acaeoey yeiiiieee e ni?ina, n eniieueciaaieai aeaiaaeiuo
eino?oiaioia.

Eaein ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ainoaea?noai iiaeao ni?aaeoueny n yeiiiie/aneeie
e?ecenaie. Eaein ?aeiiaiaeiaae aeoeaiia aeiaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo
n?aaenoa a yeiiiieeo aeey noeioee?iaaiey aa ?acaeoey /a?ac iiauoaiea
“yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina”, i?e/ai aac ?inoa ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe .

Aaaeiaeoei ?u/aaii oi?aaeaiey, Eaein n/eoae aeaiueae, oae eae iie, ii
aai neiaai, “yaeythony naycothuei caaiii iaaeaeo ianoiyuei e aoaeouei “.

Iinoiyiii, ii oia?aiii ?anoouea oeaiu e aeioiaeu ?anoe?ytho ?aiee ?uiea
e iicaieyao ia?aueaaoue iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea nie?auaao
aac?aaioeoeo .

Ia ana iieiaeaiey ?aaiou Eaeina auaea?aeaee i?iaa?eo a?aiaiai ; iaeiaei
a oeaeii aai iiaeoiaeu e aeaiiie i?iaeaia nio?aieee naia cia/aiea
aieioue aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie .

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

Aaaiiaa E.E. “Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneie iunee” I., Ecae-ai “Oaiaeai”, 1998
a.

Naioyeuenii I., Ii?aeoaon A. “Yeiiiieen”, I., Ecae-ai aeo?iaea
“E?eieiae” 1993 a.

Eacaeia A.I., Ieiaaaa I.A. “Yeiiiieea”, I., Ecae-ai “Oaiaeai”, 1998 a.

Iaeao?ae A.I. “Aaaaeaiea a enoi?eth yeiiiie/aneie iunee” I., 1996 a.

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