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Основы общей экономической теории

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?ACAeAE I. AAAAeAIEA A IAUOTH YEIIIIE*ANEOTH OAI?ETH

Aeaaa 1. Iniiaiua yoaiu noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

Aii?inu:

Iniiaiua yoaiu noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.

Aeaaiua iai?aaeaiey nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iunee.

E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea ?inneeneie yeiiiie/aneie iunee.

I?aaeiao e iaoiaeieiaey.

Aii?inu yeiiiieee iaeciaiii i?eaeaeatho aieiaiea ethaeae, iiyoiio
yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey caieiaao aeaeiia ianoi a nenoaia iaoe. Aia?eeaineee
yeiiiieno, eao?aao Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee I. Naioyeuenii ooaa?aeaeaao:
“Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey – ei?ieaaa iaoe”.

Naaiaeiy i?eoiaeeony ioia/aoue, /oi ioa/anoaaiiay yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey
iaoiaeeony a neiaeiii iieiaeaiee. Noi?ie?iaaaoeany a niaaoneee ia?eiae
oeieu e iai?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie iunee auiieiyee nioeeaeueiue caeac –
enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeannia ieaiiaiai oicyenoaa, au?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth ieaiiaie yeiiiieee, e?eoe/aneee aiaeec
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa. Enneaaeiaaiey iieeoyeiiiiia aace?iaaeenue
ia yeiiiie/aneii o/aiee E. Ia?ena. Oieiaue ?aniaae ieaiiaie yeiiiieee,
ia?aoiae e ?uii/iui i?eioeeiai oicyenoaiaaiey iaoneiaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ia?aniio?a i?eioeeiia ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi e?eceniue ia?eiae a ?acaeoee iaoee – /anoiay
oi?ia i?iyaeaiey e?ecena yeiiiieee, iauanoaa a oeaeii. I?e anai oii
e?ecen – yoi ia eaoano?ioa, aai iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue e eae eaoa?nen,
i/euaiea iaoee io eiiuthieoo?iuo yeaiaioia, oaea?aeaiea a iae oieueei
oiai, /oi eiaao iiaeeeiioth oeaiiinoue e iaania/eaaao aa aeaeueiaeoaa
i?ia?anneaiia ?acaeoea.

Iaeuecy ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi oai?ey E. Ia?ena – iaiao/iay, iieiinoueth
oo?aoeaoay naia cia/aiea naaiaeiy. I cia/aiee ia?enenoneie yeiiiie/aneie
iunee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oioy au oi, /oi I. Naioyeuenii auaeaeyao a
enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneie iunee eeoue o?e eiaie: A. Nieoa, E.Ia?ena, Aeae.
I. Eaeina, eioi?uo ii oa?aeoa?ecoao eae eioaeeaeooaeueiuo aeaaioia.

Naaiaeiy ioa/anoaaiiay yeiiiie/aneay iaoea aeoeaii eniieuecoao auaiaeu e
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ca?oaaaeiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. E yoi ia neo/aeii.
Auoiae ?innee ec nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena aieueoeinoai o/aiuo
e iieeoeeia aeaeyo a noaiiaeaiee nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee, oi anoue oaeie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu, eioi?ay i?aiaeaaeaao a
aieueoeinoaa nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai. Cia/eo iaiaoiaeeii
eco/aoue ia oieueei ioa/anoaaiiue, ii e ca?oaaaeiue iiuo yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey. Iaaeeaaeeo ia?aniio?aoue i?eioeeiu yeiiiie/aneie iaoee n
o/aoii anaai oeaiiiai, /oi au?aaioaii ia i?ioyaeaiee aeeeoaeueiie
enoi?ee noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee e ia iniiaa
nia?aiaiiuo aeinoeaeaiee ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneie iaoee.

1. Iniiaiua yoaiu noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

Enoiee yeiiiie/aneie iaoee iu iaoiaeei oaea a o/aieyo iuneeoaeae
ae?aaiaai ie?a. Oae, a ae?aaiaeiaeeeneeo “Caeiiao Iaio” (IV – III a. aei
i.y.) ioia/aaony nouanoaiaaiea iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea,
ioiioaiee ainiiaenoaa e iiae/eiaiey. A o?oaeao Eiioooeey (551 – 479 a.a.
aei i.y.) iu iaia?oaeeaaai ?acee/aiea oinoaaiiiai e oece/aneiai o?oaea;
i?e/ai, ii oaaaeaeaieth iuneeoaey, ia?aue – iiiiiieey aunoeo neiaa
iauanoaa, aoi?ie – oaeae i?inoiethaeeiia.

Yeiiiie/aneea acaeyaeu ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo iuneeoaeae: Enaiioiioa (430 –
345 a.a. aei i.y.), Ieaoiia (427 – 347 a.a. aei i.y.), A?enoioaey (384 –
322 a.a. aei i.y.) – iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae enoiaeiua ioieou
nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoee, oae eae a ieo niaea?aeaony neaaeothuea
aaaeiua iieiaeaiey :

eaeay i iieaciinoe eae iniiaa oeaiiinoe aeaa,

ioeaiea noieiinoe i?iaeoeoa oaeaea e o?oaeii;

?anniio?aiea oiaa?iiai iaiaia eae iaiaia yeaeaaeaioia.

Oa?iei “yeiiiiey” (oikonomia) aue aaaaeai a iai?io A?enoioaeai,
enneaaeiaaaoei ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneea oicyenoaa. “Ieein” – aeii, oicyenoai;
“iiiin” – o/aiea, caeii. Naaiaeiy a ?onneii ycuea iiiyoea “yeiiiiey”
eniieuecoaony a ae?oaii cia/aiee, iii caiauaii oa?ieiii “yeiiiieea”,
eniieuecoaiui a neaaeothueo cia/aieyo:

oicyenoai (no?aiu, ?aeiia, a?oiiu no?ai);

iao/iay aeenoeeieeia, eco/athuay oicyenoai;

enoi?e/anee ii?aaeaeaiiay niaieoiiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee,
neeaaeuaathueony a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey, iaiaia e
iio?aaeaiey e ia?acothueo ii?aaeaeaiioth yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio.

Ana ae?aaiea iuneeoaee oece/aneee, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue o?oae n/eoaee
iai?eee/iui caiyoeai aeey naiaiaeiiai a?aaeaeaieia.

O?enoeainoai niaa?oeei ia?aai?io a iauanoaaiiii acaeyaea ia
oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue. Ii o?enoeaineiio o/aieth, o?oae –
iaiaoiaeeiia e nayoia aeaei. A aeaeee iu iiaeai auaeaeeoue ?aciuoeaiey
ii iiaiaeo i?eioeeia ni?aaaaeeeaie oeaiu, iauanoaaiiie, a ia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ioeaiee oeaiiinoe aeaa, i nianoaaiiinoe, i aiaaonoaa e
ae?. yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeaiao. Ii ana yoe acaeyaeu a iauae neiaeiinoe ia
i?aaenoaaeyee oeaeinoiiai o/aiey.

Eae iaoea yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey aicieeea a OVI- XVIII aaeao. Yoi –
ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey eaieoaeecia, ca?iaeaeaiey iaiooaeoo?u, ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, oi?ie?iaaiey aioo?aiieo ?uieia e
ie?iaie oi?aiaee, eioaineoeeaoeee aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. A yoi a?aiy
nicaeaaony ia?aay cia/eoaeueiay oeiea a ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea –
ia?eaioeeeci (ia?eaioeeueiue – aeaiaaeiue).

Nouiinoue eo o/aiey – a niaoeeoe/aneii ii?aaeaeaiee enoi/ieea
i?ienoiaeaeaiey aiaaonoaa. Yoio enoi/iee ia?eaioeeenou auaiaeeee ec
noa?u ia?auaiey, ioiaeaeanoaeyy aiaaonoai n aeaiueaaie, ia?aiia/aeueii –
oieueei n cieioii. ?aoaiea iiiaeo yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai iie aeaeaee a
cai?auaiee auaica aeaai?iaeiuo iaoaeeia, ia?aie/aiee eiii?oa, iiiu?aiee
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiie n i?eoieii a no?aio aeaiaa,
iiaeaea?aeeaaee eaeath aeoeaiiai oi?aiaiai aaeaina. Ninoaaeythuay
ia?eaioeeecia – iieeoeea i?ioaeoeeiiecia, iai?aaeaiiay ia caueoo
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee io ca?oaaaeiuo eiieo?aioia.

Iaeaieaa ecaanoiua ia?eaioeeenou – Oiian Iai (1571 – 1641 a.a.) e Aiooai
Iiie?aoueai (1575 – 1621 a.a.). Iineaaeiee aaae a iao/iue iai?io oa?iei
“iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey”, iioaeeeiaaa “O?aeoao ii iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee”
a 1615 a. Ia?aay /anoue oa?ieia i?ienoaeaao io a?a/aneiai “iieeoaey” –
“ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai”. Aeineiaii iieeoyeiiiiey ia?aaiaeeony eae
caeiiu oicyenoaiaaiey a ainoaea?noaa. Iiyaeaiea oa?ieia naycaii n
oneeaieai ?iee ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie. N oao ii? iiiyoea
eniieuecoaony n ?aciie eioaineaiinoueth eae iaicia/aiea iauae
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.

Aiaeey XVII aaea auea naiui yeiiiie/anee ?acaeoui aa?iiaeneei
ainoaea?noaii. Ia neo/aeii caeanue iiyaeeinue iaiaei iuneeoaeae –
yeiiiienoia, n?aaee ieo – Aeeueyi Iaooe (1623 – 1686 a.a.). Aaaeiaeoea
aai ?aaiou: “O?aeoao i iaeiaao e nai?ao” (1662 a.), “Iieeoe/aneay
a?eoiaoeea” (1646 a.), “Eia-/oi i aeaiueaao” (1682 a.). Ciaiaieoue
aoi?eci Iaooe: “O?oae anoue ioaoe e aeoeaiaeoee i?eioeei aiaaonoaa, a
caiey – aai iaoue”.

Oioeaiaeaoe Aeaeii Ei (1671 – 1729 a.a.), nia?aiaiiee A. Iaooe,
aiineaaenoaee noaaoee aaia?aeueiui eiio?iea?ii oeiainia O?aioeee,
ecaanoai yeiiiienoai eae “ioaoe eioeyoeee”. Iiieiay, /oi aeaiueae ia
yaeythony ?aaeueiui aiaaonoaii, ii n/eoae, /oi oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa
aeaiaa a no?aia niinianoaoao noeioee?iaaieth i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
yeiiiie/aneiio i?ioeaaoaieth. Ei i?aaei?eiye iiiuoeo aaaaeaiey a
ia?auaiea aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa. Iaeiaei a oi a?aiy aua ia nic?aei iiieiaiea
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeanoeiai eiio?iey ca aeaiaaeiui ia?auaieai e iiiuoea
ieacaeanue iaoaea/iie: aeaiueae oiaee a oeaia aeanyoee?aoii, yoi
?anno?ieei aeaaea e?oiiua ninoiyiey e yeiiiieeo no?aiu a oeaeii.

O?aioeocneee yeiiiieno O?ainoa Eaiy ( 1694 – 1774 a.a.) – aeaaa oeieu
oeceie?aoia (oa?iei i?iecioae io a?a/aneeo neia: phisis – i?e?iaea,
kratos – aeanoue). A oeaio?a oai?aoe/aneie nenoaiu oeceie?aoia –
naeueneia oicyenoai, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui iie n/eoaee eeoue
caieaaeaeue/aneee o?oae. “Yeiiiie/aneea oaaeeoeu” ( 1758 a.) O. Eaiy –
iiiuoea aiaeeca iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa n iiceoeee onoaiiaeaiey
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe iaoo?aeueiuo e aeaiaaeiuo iioieia a aeaeaeaiee
iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa.

Aii ?iaa? AEae Oth?ai – o?aioeocneee yeiiiieno, oeiaineno,
i?aaenoaaeoaeue oeieu oeceie?aoia. E naaiaeiy nio?aiyao oeaiiinoue
“caeii oauaathuaai ieiaei?iaeey”, eioi?ue ?anoe?eoaeueii naaiaeiy
o?aeooaony eae “caeii oauaathuae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe (ioaea/e)”.
Niaeanii Oth?ai, oaaee/aiea i?eeiaeaiey o?oaea e caiea i?eaiaeeo e oiio,
/oi eaaeaeay iineaaeothuay cao?aoa o?oaea ieacuaaaony iaiaa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie.

Iniiaiiieiaeieeii eeanne/aneie oeieu a yeiiiie/aneie iaoea yaeyaony
Aaeai Nieo (1729 – 1790 a.a.). Iniiaiie aai o?oae – “Enneaaeiaaiea i
i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia” (1776 a.). Oeaio?aeueiay eaeay –
eaeay eeaa?aeecia a yeiiiieea – ieieiaeueiia aiaoaoaeuenoai
ainoaea?noaa, ?uii/iia naii?aaoee?iaaiea ia iniiaa naiaiaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey oeai. Yeiiiie/aneea ?aaoeyoi?u Nieo iacaae “iaaeaeeiie ?oeie
?uiea”. A. Nieo n/eoae, /oi oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue inouanoaeyaony
ethaeueie, neeiiiuie e ?aaeecaoeee i?aaeaea anaai nianoaaiiie auaiaeu, a
yoie nayce aaae oa?iei “yeiiiie/aneee /aeiaae”. I?eaioaoeey ia
?aaeecaoeeth ee/iiai eioa?ana iaoneiaeeaaao, niaeanii acaeyaeai Nieoa,
oii?yaei/aiiinoue a yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo.

Nieo ooaa?aeaeae: “Aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeiyoue ainoaea?noai n naiie
ieceie nooiaie aa?aa?noaa aei aunoae nooiaie aeaaininoiyiey, ioaeiu
eeoue a ia?o eaaeea iaeiae e oa?ieiinoue a oi?aaeaiee: ana inoaeueiia
naeaeaao anoanoaaiiue oiae aauae”.

A. Nieo caeiaeee iniiau o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe (ii ia aue
iineaaeiaaoaeueiui aa noi?iiieeii), iieacae cia/aiea ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea
eae oneiaey iiauoaiey aai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, /aoei noi?ioee?iaae
i?eioeeiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Aeaaeae ?eea?aei (1772 – 1823 a.a.) – ae?oaie i?aaenoaaeoaeue aiaeeeneie
eeanne/aneie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. Iniiaiie o?oae ?eea?aei – “Ia/aea
iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee e iaeiaiaiai iaeiaeaiey” (1817 a.). Ioee/eoaeueiay
/a?oa aai iao/iie nenoaiu – i?eciaiea caeiia noieiinoe ooiaeaiaioii, ia
eioi?ii auno?aeaaaony a aaeeiia oeaeia oai?ey iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee.
?eea?aei n/eoae, /oi aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee noieiinoe – o?oae ?aai/aai,
eioi?ue eaaeeo a iniiaa aeioiaeia ?acee/iuo eeannia (ca?aaioiie ieaou,
i?eauee, i?ioeaioa, ?aiou). Ec yoiai ii naeaeae nioeeaeueiue auaiae:
i?eaueue – ?acoeueoao iaiiea/aiiiai o?oaea ?aai/aai. ?eea?aei auyaee
oaiaeaioeeth ii?iu i?eauee e iiieaeaieth, ?ane?ue iaoaieci ia?aciaaiey
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou.

I?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, auaeaeiooue ?eea?aei, e naaiaeiy
eniieuecoaony aeey iainiiaaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiiia?e?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

AEai Aaoeno Nye – o?aioeocneee yeiiiieno (1767 – 1832 a.a.). Ia?en
iacuaae aai iaeiei ec ia?auo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aoeueaa?iie iieeoe/aneie
yeiiiiee. Nye – noi?iiiee naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee e iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa
ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo. Ii eaeaaeece?iaae nenoaio naiaiaeiiai ?uiea,
io?eoeae aiciiaeiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia, aeiioneae aiciiaeiinoue
ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa eeoue ioaeaeueiuo oiaa?ia. Noi?ioee?iaae oae
iacuaaaiue “Caeii Nyy”: “I?aaeeiaeaiea ?iaeaeaao naie ni?in”. Eiuie
neiaaie, ni?in a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, a eii/aiii n/aoa, ii?aaeaeyaony
i?aaeeiaeaieai, neaaeiaaoaeueii, yeiiiieea anaaaea aeinoeaaao
?aaiiaaney.

Aeaeii Notha?o Ieeeue (1806 – 1873 a.a.) – aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno,
oeeinio, iauanoaaiiue aeayoaeue. “Iniiaaiey iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee e
iaeioi?ua i?eeiaeaiey aa e nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee”, aai aeaaiay ?aaioa,
auea iaienaia a 1848 a. Ieeeue aeae ?acaa?iooia e nenoaiaoece?iaaiiia
eceiaeaiea iieiaeaiee eeanne/aneie oeieu. Iniiaiie oi?iie i?aiaeieaiey
ii?ieia eaieoaeecia n/eoae ?aoi?ie?iaaiea i?eioeeia /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe iooai ia?aie/aiey i?aaa ianeaaeiaaiey. N/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui
?aaee oeo/oaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu inouanoaeyoue
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia. Iainiiaae i?eioeeiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Caeiaeee iniiau ao?aeoaciiai ?aoi?iecia.

Ia?eneci – iai?aaeaiea a oai?aoe/aneie yeiiiieea, i?aaenoaaeythuaa niaie
ananoi?iiiaa enneaaeiaaiea caeiiia ?acaeoey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa
e eiioeaioeeth nioeeaeecia (eiiioiecia) eae iiaie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu.
Ea?e Ia?en (1818 – 1883 a.a.) – iniiaiiieiaeiee ia?enecia, iaiaoeeee
o/aiue, nioeeieia, yeiiiieno, iauanoaaiiue aeayoaeue. Aeaaiue aai o?oae
– “Eaieoae”, ia?aue oii eioi?iai aue ecaeai a 1867 a. Aaaeiaeoea
ioe?uoey:

o/aiea ia iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeeyo;

auyaeaiea enoi?e/anee i?aoiaeyuaai oa?aeoa?a eaieoaeecia eae
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu;

oai?ey aini?iecaiaenoaa e yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia;

o/aiea i aeaienoaaiiii oa?aeoa?a o?oaea, aiieiuaiiiai a oiaa?a;
i?ioeai?a/eyo oiaa?a;

o/aiea i i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, auyaeaiea nouiinoe iaaiiiai o?oaea e
eaieoaeenoe/aneie yenieoaoaoeee;

i?eaeiaeueiue aiaeec yaiethoeee oi?i noieiinoe e enoi?ee aicieeiiaaiey
aeaiaa;

nouiinoue aaniethoiie ?aiou.

Aeaaiia aieiaiea E. Ia?en oaeaeye nioeeaeueiui aniaeoai yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee, aioaaiiecio eeannia. I?aeoe/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
oniaa?oainoaiaaieth eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee ia aeae, oae eae ia
aeaeae eo. Iie?aeenue ia enneaaeiaaiey Ia?ena ia oieueei aai
iineaaeiaaoaee, ii e e?eoeee. Aeiaiaoeci “ia?enenoia” ieacae ia iaiaa
iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iunee, /ai
e?eoeea ia?enecia.

Nioeeaeueiuie aniaeoaie yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee nia?aiaiiua yeiiiienou –
oai?aoeee Caiaaea oieueei ia/eiatho aeoeaii caieiaoueny. I?e yoii ei
iaecaaaeii i?eoiaeeony ia?auaoueny e enoieai – o/aieth E.Ia?ena.

Oai?ey ia?aeeiaeecia auea noi?ioee?iaaia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea.

Ia?aeeiaeeci (io aiaeeeneiai marginal, “i?aaeaeueiue”) – oai?ey,
i?aaenoaaeythuay yeiiiieeo eae nenoaio acaeiinaycaiiuo oicyenoaothueo
noauaeoia e iauyniythuay yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannu, enoiaey ec
eniieueciaaiey e?aeieo ( i?aaeaeueiuo) aaee/ei e ninoiyiee.

Ia?aua iiiuoee aaaaeaiey ia?aeeiaeueiiai aiaeeca auee naeaeaiu a
na?aaeeia XIX aaea o?aioeocneei iaoaiaoeeii, oeeinioii e yeiiiienoii
Aiooaiii Eo?ii (1801-1877 a.a.). A 40-a aiaeu ii iioaeeeiaae
“Enneaaeiaaiey iaoaiaoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia oai?ee aiaaonoaa”, aaea e
iaicia/ee iniiaiua iieiaeaiey ia?aeeiaeueiiai (i?aaeaeueiiai) aiaeeca.
?aaioa inoaeanue iacaia/aiiie nia?aiaiieeaie.

?acaeoea eaeae ia?aeeiaeecia auei inouanoaeaii aano?eeneeie o/aiuie.
Oeaaeai eo eiaia e iniiaiua ?aaiou:

Ea?e Iaiaa? (1840 – 1921 a.a., – iniiaiiieiaeiee aano?eeneie oeieu),
“Iniiaaiey iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee” – 1871 a.,

aai o/aieee:

O?eae?eo oii Aeca? (1851 – 1926 a.a., “Oai?ey iauanoaaiiiai oicyenoaa” –
1914 a.),

Aaaaiee Aai-Aaaa?e (1851 – 1914 a.a., “Eaieoae e i?eaueue” – 1884 – 1889
a.a.).

Iaeaieaa cia/eiui aeeaaeii “aano?eeoeaa” a yeiiiie/aneoth oai?eth auei
eniieueciaaiea i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai – noauaeoeaiiai – iiaeoiaea e
ii?aaeaeaieth noieiinoe, nooue eioi?iai – ii?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe aeaaa n
iiceoeee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ioeaiee. Ii oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe,
eie ?ac?aaioaiiie, oeaia aeaaa ii?aaeaeyaony iieaciinoueth iineaaeiae,
eiathuaeny a iaee/ee, aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoa.

Ia?aeeiaeeci iie?aaony ia eiee/anoaaiiue aiaeec e eniieuecoao
yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu e iiaeaee. Iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao
aiaeeca i?aaeaeueiuo aaee/ei ?ac?aaaouaaeny i?aaenoaaeoaeyie oae
iacuaaaiie iaoaiaoe/aneie oeieu:

oaaeoea?oeai Eaiiii Aaeue?anii (1834 – 1910 a.a.). Iaoaiaoee ii
ia?aciaaieth e iao/iui eioa?anai, ii i?eiaiee iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao e
yeiiiie/aneiio aiaeeco, ?ac?aaioae iiaeaeue iauaai yeiiiie/aneiai
?aaiiaaney;

aiaeeeneei yeiiiienoii Oeeueyiii Noaiee Aeaeaaiinii (1835 – 1882 a.a.).
Aeaeaaiin noi?ioee?iaae iaoaiaoe/aneoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoe, eioi?ay eniieuecoaony e iiiuia;

aia?eeaineei yeiiiienoii Aeaeiiii Aaeonii Eea?eii (1848 – 1938 a.a.). Ii
nenoaiaoece?iaae e ?acaee acaeyaeu ia?aeeiaeenoia, noi?ioee?iaae oai?eth
i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay eniieuecoaony a nia?aiaiiie
yeiiiie/aneie iaoea aeey iainiiaaiey ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia.

Nia?aiaiiay yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey a caiaaeiuo no?aiao i?aeiouanoaaiii
iacuaaaony “Yeiiiieen” e i?aaenoaaeyao iiiuoeo neioaca ia?aeeiaeecia e
eeanne/aneie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. Iacaaiea “Yeiiiieen” aaae a iao/iue
iai?io Aeueo?aae Ia?oaee (1842-1924 a.a.), i?ioanni? Eaia?eaeaeneiai
oieaa?neoaoa. Aeaaiue o?oae A. Ia?oaeea – “I?eioeeiu yeiiiieen” – 1890
a., inoaaaeny iniiaiui o/aaieeii ii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee a caiaaeiuo
no?aiao aieioue aei ieii/aiey aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. Aeae.I. Eaein –
o/aiee A. Ia?oaeea – iacaae aai aaee/aeoei yeiiiienoii XIX aaea. Ia?oaee
i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi ie ni?in, ie i?aaeeiaeaiea ia eiatho i?ei?eoaoa a
ii?aaeaeaiee oeai; eniieueciaae iiiyoea ?uii/iiai ?aaiiaaney aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee aaeaina ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, ?ac?aaioae eiioeaioeeth
yeanoe/iiai ni?ina.

Yaiethoeey oa?ieiia “yeiiiieea”, “iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey”, “yeiiiieen” e
“iauay yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey” iaoneiaeaiu enoi?e/aneeie i?e/eiaie, ii,
ii-nouanoao, yaeythony iacaaieyie iaeiie e oie aea iinoiyiii
?acaeaathuaeny iaoee – iaoee ia yeiiiie/aneie aeecie ioaeaeueiuo
ethaeae, a?oii e iauanoaa a oeaeii.

Aeaeii Iaeia?ae Eaein (1883 – 1946 a.a.) – noi?iiiee “?aaoee?oaiiai
eaieoaeecia”, aai oai?ey neoaeeo aaaeiaeoei iainiiaaieai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee iin?aaenoaii
oeiainiaie e e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee. N iiiiuueth yoiai
?aaoee?iaaiey iiaeii aeeyoue ia eioeyoeeth, caiyoinoue, iauaiu
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaeaaeyoue yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu.
Iniiaiie o?oae Eaeina – “Iauay oai?ey caiyoinoe, i?ioeaioa e
aeaiaa”(1936 a.). Yoa oai?ey eiaao iiiai/eneaiiuo noi?iiieeia, iia
iineoaeeea iniiaie aeey au?aaioee yeiiiie/aneeo iieeoeee ?acaeouo
ainoaea?noa Caiaaea. Eaeina n/eoatho iniiaiiieiaeieeii nia?aiaiiiai
iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca. Aeaaiue yeaiaio eiioeaioeee Eaeina –
i?eioeei yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina.

2. Aeaaiua iai?aaeaiey nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iunee

Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee:

eaeineainoai (iaieaeineainoai);

einoeoooeeiiaeueii – nioeeieiae/aneia (einoeoooeeiiaeeci);

iaieeanne/aneee neioac;

iiiaoa?eci;

iaieeaa?aeeci.

Eaeineainoai – iai?aaeaiea a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea,
i?aaenoaaeoaee eioi?iai ?acaeaatho i?eioeeiu oai?ee Eaeina. Anai
eaeineaioeai i?enoua iiieiaiea, /oi ?uii/iue iaoaieci ia yaeyaony
eaeaaeueiui ?aaoeyoi?ii, yeiiiie/aneea eieaaaiey, e?ecenu – iaiouaieaiay
/a?oa ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, naeaeaoaeuenoai aai ianiaa?oainoaa.

Aeaeiai ?iaeinii (1903 – 1983 a.a.) – aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno.
iineaaeiaaoaeueieoea Eaeina, aaoi? oai?ee ianiaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee.
Iieacaea, /oi ?aaeueii eiaao ianoi ianiaa?oainoai eiieo?aioeee, i?e
eioi?ie oe?iu i?iaeatho naie oiaa?u ii aieaa aunieei oeaiai, /ai i?e
niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, iieo/atho aieueoea i?eauee, a iio?aaeoaeue
oa?ieo oauoee. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e canoieiui yaeaieyi a yeiiiieea,
ii?iaeaeaao niaae i?iecaiaenoaa e aac?aaioeoeo.

Eaein eiaao naieie iineaaeiaaoaeyie eae aa?iiaeneeo, oae e aia?eeaineeo
yeiiiienoia. Yoi – Ieoaee Ia?eei, A?aai?e I. Iyieueth e ae?. Iniaoth
oeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao eo aieiaiea e iee?iyeiiiie/aneei iniiaai
iae?iyeiiiieee. Iaeaieaa cia/eiu neaaeothuea eo ?ac?aaioee:

oai?ey yooaeoeaiie ca?aaioiie ieaou, eioi?ay aeaao iauyniaiey oaeoai
aac?aaioeoeu n?aaee ioaeaeueiuo a?oii ?aai/eo;

auyaeaiea ne?uoie nayce iaaeaeo ianiaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeeae a
iee?iyeiiiieea e iae?iyeiiiie/aneeie iinooeaoaie eaeineainoaa.

Einoeoooeeiiaeueii-nioeeieiae/aneia iai?aaeaiea (einoeoooeeiiaeeci).
I?aaenoaaeoaee: Oi?noaei Aaaeai (1857 – 1929) – iniiaiiieiaeiee, Oynee
Ieo/aee (1874 – 1948 a.a.) – niaoeeaeeno a iaeanoe i?iiuoeaiiuo oeeeeia,
Aeaeii Ayea?aeo (?.1909).

I?eioeeiu einoeoooeeiiaeecia:

Yeiiiie/aneay iaoea aeieaeia o/eouaaoue aanue eiiieaen oneiaee e
oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia oicyenoaaiioth aeeciue, – i?aaiauo, nioeeaeueiuo,
ineoieiae/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo. I?aaeea ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey
ieacuaatho ia iaiueoaa aeeyiea ia yeiiiieeo, /ai ?uii/iue iaoaieci.

?uiie ia yaeyaony iaeo?aeueiui (ni?aaaaeeeaui) iaoaieciii ?ani?aaeaeaiey
?ano?nia. ?uiie e ainoaea?noai niaianoii niinianoaotho iaiaauaieth
e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeee, iiiiiieenoia.

A nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao aeeeoaoo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae
iaiaoiaeeii i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue i?aaieciaaiiua aeaenoaey i?ionithcia e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia

Ii Aaaeaio, yeiiiie/aneay iaoea ia aeieaeia auoue oieueei iaoeie i
oeaiao e ?uieao. I?aaeiaoii iieeoyeiiiiee yaeyaony /aeiaa/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue ai anao aa i?iyaeaieyo. Ia iiaaaeaiea ethaeae ieacuaatho
aeeyiea ia oieueei ?aoeeiiaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea iioeau, ii e oaeea
oaeoi?u, eae iioeau aeaiiino?aoeaiiai i?anoeaeiiai iio?aaeaiey,
caaenoeeaiai n?aaiaiey, einoeieo iiae?aaeaiey, caeii nioeeaeueiiai
noaoona e i?. neeiiiinoe. Ii n/eoae, /oi einoeooou, eee “i?eiyoay a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy nenoaia iauanoaaiiie aeecie”, ii?aaeaeytho
iaiin?aaenoaaiiua oeaee, iiae/eiythuea naaa iiaaaeaiea ethaeae.

Aaaeai i?ineaaeeny eieaie “Oai?ey i?acaeiiai eeanna” (1899) n y?ei
nioeeaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoueth. Aaaeai ?acee/ae eiaeono?eth e aecian.
Iiae eiaeono?eae ii iiieiae noa?o iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
iniiaaiioth ia iaoeiiie oaoieea, iiae aecianii – noa?o ia?auaiey
(ae?aeaauo niaeoeyoeee, oi?aiaee, e?aaeeoa e o.i.). A eiaeono?eaeueiie
noa?a ooieoeeiie?otho neie, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iauanoaa, a aecian
ia?niieoeoee?iaai a i?acaeiii eeanna, ia ianouai aeaaa oicyenoao e
iauanoao. AEaaeaea aecianiaiia e iaaeeaa oieeaao eo ia aani?eioeeiiua
iinooiee: iaaeia?iniaanoioth eiieo?aioeeth, ia?aie/aiea auionea oiaa?ia.
Aaaeai aue eaeaieiaii ?aaeeeaeueii iano?iaiiie eioaeeeaaioeee, oioy a
ee/iie aue ia?a/ai ia aeooiaiia iaeeii/anoai e nia?oue a ieuaoa. Ii, ii
au?aaeaieth nia?aiaiiiai yeiiiienoa: “Aaaeaiia einothi iineony oi?ioi e
iaei onoa?ae”.

Niaeanii acaeyaeai einoeoooeeiiaeenoia, enoi?e/aneay yaiethoeey – yoi
iineaaeiaaoaeueiay niaia noaaeee: aa?a?iie, eiaeono?eaeueiie,
iinoeiaeono?eaeueiie, eioi?iaoeeiiiie. A iniiaa yaiethoeee – eciaiaiey a
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo neeao. Ii iiaieth noi?iiieeia einoeoooeeiiaeecia,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann aaaeao e i?aiaeieaieth nioeeaeueiuo
i?ioeai?a/ee, e i?ia?anno iauanoaa. Iaeaieaa y?ei yoi i?ineaaeeaaaony a
o?oaeao Aeae. Ayea?aeoa, i?aaeeiaeeaoaai oai?eth eiiaa?aaioeee.

Iaieinoeoooeeiiaeeci eee iiaay einoeoooeeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea
i?aaenoaaeaiu a o?oaeao:

?iiaeueae Eioca (?.1910, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, NOA). Aai iniiaiua aeinoeaeaiey
naycaiu n ?acaeoeai yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee i?aa nianoaaiiinoe, i?iaeai
o?ainaeoeeiiiuo ecaea?aeae, oi anoue ecaea?aeae ?uii/iiai iaiaia,
iainiiaaieai i?e?iaeu oe?i;

Aeaeaeina Auetheaiaia (?.1919, NOA) – ecaanoiiai aia?eeaineiai
yeiiiienoa e iieeoieiaa, iaeiiai ec iniiaaoaeae oai?ee iauanoaaiiiai
auai?a. I?aaeiao yoie oai?ee – ?ieue aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa a
yeiiiieea, a eiie?aoiaa – ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu, iauai e no?oeoo?a
eioi?uo, ii iiaieth Auetheaiaia, ii?aaeaeythony ia ?aoeeiiaeueiui
auai?ii, a acaeiiaeaenoaeai ?acee/iuo iauanoaaiiuo a?oii, auyaeyaiui n
iiiiuueth aieiniaaiey. A 1986 aiaeo Auetheaiai noae eao?aaoii
Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee ii yeiiiieea ca “ enneaaeiaaiea aeiaiai?iuo e
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo iniia oai?ee i?eiyoey yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo
?aoaiee”.

Aeaeii Oeen (?. 1904), Iie Naioeuenii (?.1915) – i?aaenoaaeoaee
iai?aaeaiey iaieeanne/aneiai neioaca.

Nooue eo acaeyaeia – a oii, /oi, a caaeneiinoe io ninoiyiey yeiiiieee,
i?aaeeaaaaony eniieueciaaoue eeai eaeineaineea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee, eeai eeanne/aneea ?aoeaiou.
Eo/oei ?aaoeyoi?ii iie n/eoatho aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiua eino?oiaiou.
N/eoatho, /oi ?uii/iay yeiiiieea ai iiiaii naii?aaoee?oaia, ii
ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai iaiaoiaeeii.

Iniiaiua aeinoeaeaiey oeieu iaieeanne/aneiai neioaca:

enneaaeiaaiey ii i?iaeaiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa;

?acaeoea oai?ee iauaai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney;

ianoiyoaeueiia iainiiaaiea nia?aiaiiie oai?ee e i?aeoeee
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Iiiaoa?eci – oai?ey noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee, a eioi?ie ii?aaeaeythuoth
?ieue ea?atho aeaiaaeiua oaeoi?u. Aeeyiea ainoaea?noaa ia yeiiiieeo
iiiaoa?enou ia?aie/eaatho eiio?ieai ca aeaiaaeiie iannie. Eicoia
iiiaoa?enoia “iacaae, e Nieoo”. Ieeoii O?eaeiai (?. 1912 a.) – aeaaa
iiaie iiiaoa?enoneie oeieu. Aai ?aeiiaiaeaoeee eniieueciaaeenue aeey
iainiiaaiey ?aeaaiianeie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee e aeey yeiiiie/aneie
noaaeeecaoeee a *eee ai a?aiaia Ieii/aoa. O ian iieeoeeo Aaeaea?a
naycuaatho n iiiaoa?enoneie oai?eae. Iiiaoa?enoneay eiioeaioeey
eniieuecoaony a aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiii ?aaoee?iaaiee yeiiiieee.

Yeiiiie/aneee eeaa?aeeci, eee iaieeaa?aeeci – oai?ey, niaeanii eioi?ie
aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo aeieaeii auoue ieieiaeueiui, a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao aeieaeia auoue i?aaeinoaaeaia iaeneiaeueiay
naiaiaea. Iniiaiua i?aaenoaaeoaee – aia?eeaineee yeiiiieno aano?eeneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey Ethaeaea oii Iecan (1881 – 1973a.a.) e aai o/aiee –
O?eae?eo oii Oaeae (1899 – 1992 a.a.). Ii iiaieth Iecana,
nioeeaeenoe/aneay yeiiiieea ia iiaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue ia aeeeoaeueiuo
a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeao, oae eae o iaa iao aioo?aiieo iaoaieciia ?acaeoey.
“?aaoee?oaiay yeiiiieea nioeeaeecia – oea?noai i?iecaiea ninoaaeoaeae
ieaiia”. Oeaio?aeeciaaiii onoaiaaeeaaaiua oeaiu ia io?aaeatho ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey, ia?anoatho neoaeeoue oeacaoaeai, a eaeii iai?aaeaiee
neaaeoao ?acaeaaoueny i?iecaiaenoao, /oiau iaania/eoue yeiiiie/aneia
?aaiiaanea.

A naiae ?aaioa “Aei?iaa e ?aanoao” Oaeae aeieacuaaao, /oi ioeac io
yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaeu, io ?uii/iiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey aaaeao e
aeeeoaoo?a, ?aanoao. Nioeeaeenoe/aneea eaeae ?aaoee?oaiie yeiiiieee
aoaeoaeueiu ii naiae i?e?iaea. Oaeae ionoaeaaao i?eioeei iaeneiaeueiie
naiaiaeu /aeiaaea. Ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa ia aeieaeii auoue ieeaeiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa, i?eioaeaeaiey. Ainoaea?noai ia iaycaii caieiaoueny ie
nioeeaeueiui no?aoiaaieai, ie i?inaauaieai, ie noaaeaie eaa?oieaou.
Iaeneioi, /oi iiaeii aeiionoeoue – yoi nio?aiaiea iiniaee ii
aac?aaioeoea e iainee ii noa?inoe.

Iniiauaaynue ia oai?ee iaieeaa?aeecia, iaiaoeeee oai?aoee,
ainoaea?noaaiiue e iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue O?A E.Y?oa?ae (1897 – 1977
a.a.) nicaeae nianoaaiioth oai?eth nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiiai
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, aiieioee aa ia i?aeoeea a iineaaiaiiie Aa?iaiee.
I?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii o/anoee Y?oa?aea aue inouanoaeai ia?aoiae io
oeaio?aeeciaaiiie e ?aaoee?oaiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea a yoie no?aia.
Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee Y?oa?aea: iaiaoiaeeiinoue naiaiaeiuo oeai,
naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee, ?aaiiaaney a yeiiiieea. Ainoaea?noai i?ecaaii
aa?aioe?iaaoue yoe oneiaey a ?uii/iii oicyenoaa e iaania/eoue
nioeeaeueioth iai?aaeaiiinoue ?acaeoey. Yoa oai?ey eceiaeaia a eieaa
“Aeaaininoiyiea aeey anao”. Y?oa?ae ia aue /enoui “iaieeaa?aeii”: ii
oe?iei eniieueciaae ainoaea?noaaiiua ?u/aae aeey ia?aoiaea ia i?eioeeiu
eeaa?aeecia.

3. E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea ?inneeneie yeiiiie/aneie iunee

I?iaoaeaeaiea yeiiiie/aneie iunee a ?innee ioiinyo e XVII aaeo.

Aoaianee Eaa?aioueaae/ I?aeei-Iauieei (1605 – 1680 a.a.) – yeiiiieno,
ainoaea?noaaiiue e aiaiiue aeayoaeue, ?iaeeeny a naiuea ineianeiai
aeai?yieia. Ii aue aeanoyua ia?aciaai, aeaaeae aa?iiaeneeie ycueaie.
Yeiiiie/aneea acaeyaeu I?aeeia-Iauieeia – ia?aia i?iyaeaiea ?onneiai
ia?eaioeeecia. O iaai ia auei niaoeeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ?aaio, ii
auneacuaaiey, ienueia e aeiianaiey oea?th naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
iacao?yaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo acaeyaeao: ii n/eoae, /oi ia?iaeiia oicyenoai
no?aiu ninoaaeyao aaeeiia oeaeia, oaeaeye iiiai aieiaiey oi?aiaea eae
i?oaeeth ?acaeoey yeiiiieee e aeaaiiio enoi/ieeo iiiieiaiey eaciu; iiae
aai ?aaeaeoeeae aue ninoaaeai “Iiaioi?aiaue onoaa”, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeee
iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aioo?aiiae e aiaoiaoi?aiaie iieeoeee ?innee; aue
noi?iiieeii /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa; i?ecuaae eniieueciaaoue
ia?aaeiaie iiuo aieaa ?acaeouo ainoaea?noa, ii e?eoe/anee aai
iniuneeaaoue.

N eiaiai A.E. I?aeeia-Iauieeia naycuaatho noaiiaeaiea aaieianeiai aeaea
a ?innee. A 1665a. I?aeei-Iauieei aue aiaaiaeie a naiai ?iaeiii Ineiaa.
Aeaaeay iaoe?iuie ciaieyie ii caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie iieeoeea, yeiiiieea e
oi?aiaea, ii aeaeae iniiaiui iaaeinoaoeii ?onneie oi?aiaee n eiicaioeaie
iaoaaoeo eaieoaeia, acaeiiia iaaeiaa?ea eoioeia e ionoonoaea oaeiaiiai
e?aaeeoa. Aeey eo ono?aiaiey ii inouanoaeyao ?yae i?aia?aciaaiee,
niinianoaothueo oeo/oaieth oi?aiaee ?onneeo eoioeia. Ii aai
?aeiiaiaeaoeee nicaeathony oi?aiaua oiaa?euanoaa, aeey iaania/aiey
aeayoaeueiinoe eioi?uo caineay ecaa auaeaaaea ec ai?iaeneeo noii nnoaeu.
Oaeei ia?acii, oi?aaa noaiiaeeanue nnoaeiui aaieii, ia auaiaeiuo
oneiaeyo e?aaeeoothuei ianoiuo eoioeia i?e caeoiea ?onneeo auaiciuo
oiaa?ia.

Eaai Oeoiiiae/ Iinioeia (1652 – 1726 a.a.) i?ienoiaeeo ec naiuee
?aianeaiieeia, ii a eiioea aeecie i?eia?ae eiaiea n e?aiinoiuie. Aue
naiio/eie. Iaeaaeay auaeathueieny niiniaiinoyie, auaeaeioeny a ?yae
aeaeiaeoeo yeiiiienoia ie?a oiai a?aiaie. Aeaaiay ?aaioa – “Eieaa i
neoaeinoe e aiaaonoaa” (1724 a.), a iae eceiaeaiu aai yeiiiie/aneea
acaeyaeu e i?iaeo ?aoi?i, iai?aaeaiiuo ia oeo/oaiea aeecie a ?innee.
Iinioeia i?eciaaae iieo/aiea i?eauee aioo?e no?aiu, noaaee aa a
caaeneiinoue io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou,
caueuae aeoeaiue oi?aiaue aaeain. Enoi/ieeii aiaaonoaa n/eoae o?oae.
I?e/eiie neoaeinoe – iaaeinoaoi/iia ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia ninoiyiea oi?aiaee, neaainoue i?ioaeoeeiiecia. A
1725 aiaeo Iinioeia aue a?anoiaai, caeeth/ai a e?aiinoue, aaea e oia?
/a?ac iieaiaea.

XVIII aae a enoi?ee ?inneeneie yeiiiie/aneie iunee naycuaatho n eiaiaie
A. Oaoeuaaa e I. Eiiiiiniaa.

Aaneeee Ieeeoe/ Oaoeuaa (1686 – 1750 a.a.) – enoi?ee, aaia?ao,
yeiiiieno, oeeinio, yoiia?ao, eeiaaeno. N iiceoeee aeai?yinoaa
iiaeaea?aeeaae e caueuae Iao?ianeea i?aia?aciaaiey, iiaeaea?aeeaae
?acaeoea oi?aiaee, eoia/anoaa, aunooiae ca iieeoeeo i?ioaeoeeiiecia.

Ieoaee Aaneeueaae/ Eiiiiinia ( 1711 – 1765 a.a.) – i?inaaoeoaeue, o/aiue
– yioeeeeiiaaeeno neacae naia neiai e a yeiiiie/aneie iaoea. Eiiiiinia
naycuaae i?ia?ann ?innee n ananoi?iiiei ?acaeoeai ioa/anoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ac?aaioeie anoanoaaiiuo aiaaonoa no?aiu, ?aoeeiiaeueiui
?aciauaieai i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ?acaeoeai iooae niiauaiey, iao/aieai
ianaeaiey “?aianeaiiui aeaeai”, ?acaeoeai oi?aiaee eae aaaeiaeoei
oaeoi?ii ?inoa aiaaonoaa no?aiu. O?aaiaae ia?aaeaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa io eiino?aiiie eiieo?aioeee iooai oaiiaeaiiuo oa?eoia.
Ainoaea?noai ?anniao?eaae eae ?oeiaiaeyuoth neeo yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey.

XIX aae. I?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?onneie eeanne/aneie yeiiiie/aneie oeieu
iiaeii n/eoaoue Ii?aeaeiiaa e Nia?aineiai.

Ieeieae Naiaiiae/ Ii?aeaeiia (1754 – 1845 a.a.) – ainoaea?noaaiiue e
iauanoaaiiue aeayoaeue, i?aceaeaio Aieueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai iauanoaa,
aaeie?ae, ii?neie ieieno?, a?ao, aaeeinoaaiiue ec /eaiia Aa?oiaiiai
oaieiaiiai noaea, ioeacaaoeeny iiaeienaoue nia?oiue i?eaiai?
aeaeaa?enoai. Aunooiae ca ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe a ?innee, i?aa?auaiea
aa a iiuioth aa?a?ii-eiaeono?eaeueioth no?aio, oneeaiea yeiiiie/aneie
?iee aeai?yinoaa, i?eiaiaiea i?eioaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea e?aiinoiuo a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iiuoeaiiiai i?ioaeoeeiiecia aeey
?innee (iineaaeiaa – a i?ioeaiaan o/aieth Nieoa). Any aai i?ia?aiia auea
i?aaeiacia/aia aeey ?an/enoee iooae ?acaeoeth eaieoaeecia a ?innee.
Iiaeaioiaee aeaiaaeioth ?aoi?io 1830 – 1843 a.a., oai?aoe/anee iainiiaae
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaaaeueaaoeee ?inneeneie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu.

Ieoaee Ieoaeeiae/ Nia?aineee (1772 – 1839 a.a.) – ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeayoaeue, a?ao, aaoi? ianeieueeeo i?iaeoia ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aoi?i a
iaeanoe aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, e?aaeeoa e athaeaeaoa. Iniiaiua
yeiiiie/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee Nia?aineiai: i?eaeaoue ainathaeaeaoo
caeiiiaeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, ono?aieoue athaeaeaoiua aeaoeoeeou,
iiaeooiua iiaeaoe caiaieoue iiaeioiaeiui iaeiaii, io aeiiuo ioeoiia
ia?aeoe e aeoeeciie nenoaia, nicaeaoue oeaio?aeueiue aaie, auionoeoue
e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae, i?aaieciaaoue e?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee a oeaeyo
?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi?aiaee e naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Na?aae THeueaae/ Aeooa (1849 – 1915 a.a.) a?ao, ieieno? oeiainia
(ieii/ee oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneee oaeoeueoao Iiai?inneeneiai oieaa?neoaoa,
a. Iaeanna), aian nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea ioa/anoaaiiie
yeiiiie/aneie iunee e i?aeoeeo ?aoi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiieee. Aeoeaii
caieiaeny aiaae?aieai i?ioaeoeeiienoneeo ia? oaiiaeaiiie iieeoeee.
Nicaeae iaoe?ioth i?ia?aiio eiaeono?eaeecaoeee no?aiu (iieiinoueth
iiaoi?aiioth Eaieiui a i?ia?aiia nioeeae-aeaiie?aoia). Oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee Aeooa – oneeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai oicyenoaa.
*anoue i?ia?aiiu Aeooa – oeiainiaay ?aoi?ia (1895 – 1897 a.a.). Aaae
eacaiioth aeiioth iiiiiieeth, eioi?ay noaea iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
enoi/ieeia aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa. Oe?iei i?eaeaeae eiino?aiiua eaieoaeu a
aaiee, i?iiuoeaiiinoue, no?ieoaeuenoai aeaeaciuo aei?ia, caeeth/ee ?yae
aiaoiaoi?aiauo caeiia. Aaaeiaeoaa yeiiiie/aneia ia?ii?eyoea,
i?iaaaeaiiia iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii N.TH. Aeooa – aaaaeaiea cieioiai
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e naiaiaeiiai ?aciaia e?aaeeoiuo aeeaoia ia
cieioi.

Iao? A?eaaeueaae/ Noieuiei (1862 – 1911 a.a.) – aaeioiiaeoaeue e
?oeiaiaeeoaeue aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu 1907 – 1911 a.a., i?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa
Ieieno?ia. Iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu Noieuieia –
ooaa?aeaeaiea /anoiie e?anoueyineie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, ?ac?ooaiea
iaueiiiai caieaaeaaeaiey, nicaeaiea oooi?neeo (oa?ia?neeo) oicyenoa. Ia
iieoieo caiee aeey aeaaeaeueoeaa oooi?ia e io?oaia ia eueaioiuo oneiaeyo
auaeaaaeenue aaieianeea nnoaeu (aeayoaeueiinoue E?anoueyineiai aaiea).
I?aaeoaeuenoai Noieuieia niinianoaiaaei ia?anaeaieth aea?aaaineie
aaaeiiou ia ie?aeiu ?innee, iniaaiii a Neae?ue. Eaeae ?aoi?iu – oi?ioe,
ii ?acoeueoaou – iaiaeiicia/iu: a 1911 aiaeo aieiae ioaaoee 30 iei.
ianaeaiey ?innee.

Aeaaeeie? Eeuee/ Eaiei (1870 – 1924 a.a.) – iineaaeiaaoaeueiue ia?eneno.
Yeiiiie/aneei aii?inai iinayuaia aieueoay /anoue ?aaio 1890-o aiaeia.
Nicaeae oai?eth eiia?eaeecia eae ?acaeoea ia?enenoneie oai?ee ia
iaoa?eaeao iiaiai yoaia eaieoaeecia. ?acaee eaeae Ia?ena i
aini?iecaiaenoaa, ia aa?a?iuo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaieyo, ?ac?aaaouaae
aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo iniia IYIa, ieaiiaie yeiiiieee.

Ieoaee Eaaiiae/ Ooaai-Aa?aiianeee (1865- 1919), o/aiue –
yioeeeeiiaaeeno, aeai?yiei. Ieii/ee oeciao Oa?ueeianeiai oieaa?neoaoa,
yenoa?iii – th?eaee/aneee. Ec-ca iieeoe/aneie iaaeaaiiaaeaaeiinoe ia
iieo/ee i?ioanni?neie eaoaae?u. ?aaioae i?eaao-aeioeaioii eaoaae?u
iieeoyeiiiiee Iaoa?ao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. Aue o/anoieeii e aeoeaiui
noi?iiieeii eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey, iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae oe?aeineie
aeaaeaiee iaoe. Ii au?aaeaieth Eaieia – o/aiue yeiiiieno, “?acaeaoeeny
ec ia?enenoa a eeaa?aea” (“eaaaeueiue ia?eneno”).

Iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao enneaaeiaaiea Ooaai-Aa?aiianeei
i?iiuoeaiiuo e?ecenia. Ii n/eoae eo i?e/eiie iniaaiiinoe aeaeaeaiey
nnoaeiiai eaieoaea e ia?aie/aiiinoue aaieianeeo ?ano?nia. Ooaai –
Aa?aiianeee aue ia?aui yeiiiienoii, auneacaaoeiny ca niaaeeiaiea
o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe n oai?eae i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe. Ionoaeaae
eaeae eiiia?aoeaiiai nioeeaeecia (“Nioeeaeueiua iniiau eiiia?aoeee”,
1916 a.).

A ia/aea OO aaea a ?innee auee neeueiu iiceoeee enoi?e/aneie oeieu
iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a caiaaeiii ie?a oaea
ainiiaenoaiaaee eaeae ia?aeeiaeecia, aiaei-aia?eeaineie yeiiiie/aneie
oai?ee “yeiiiieen”, ?onneea iieeoyeiiiiu ecaeatho ?yae ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
iiniaee ii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, naii iacaaiea eioi?uo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
i ainiiaenoaa o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iiaeoiaeia a yeiiiie/aneie iaoea. A 1902
aiaeo A.ss.AEaeaciia auioneaao “I/a?ee iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee”, a 1911 a.
auoiaeeo “Eo?n iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee” A.E.*oi?iaa, “Iniiau iieeoe/aneie
yeiiiiee” I.E. Ooaai-Aa?aiianeiai.

Aaaeouea ioa/anoaaiiua yeiiiienou ia?aie iieiaeiu OO aaea – Aeaenaiae?
Aaneeueaae/ *ayiia (1888 – 1937), Ieeieae Aeieo?eaae/ Eiiae?aoueaa (1892
– 1938), Eaiieae Iaoiiae/ TH?ianeee (1884 – 1938 a.a.).

Aeia?aou iacuaatho *ayiiaa iaeiei ec iineaaeieo yioeeeeiiaaeenoia
(iaienae aieaa 200 eiea). Ioaoe o/aiiai i?ienoiaeee ec e?anoueyi, iaoue
– ec ia?aciaaiiie naiuee. *ayiia o/eeny a Iineianeii naeueoiceinoeoooa
(Iao?ianeie aeaaeaiee). Ii ia?aciaaieth e i?ioannee ii –
o/aiue-aa?a?iee. Ieeiaaea ia caieiaeny iieeoeeie, ii, eco/ea iiuo
ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai, nicaeae nenoaio oai?aoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia aa?a?iie
?aoi?iu, ninoiyuoth ec 3-o iniiaiuo /anoae: eiioeaioeeth o?oaeiaiai
oicyenoaa ioaeaeueiie e?anoueyineie naiuee, oai?eth e?anoueyineie
eiiia?aoeee, oai?eth i?aaiecaoeee aa?a?iiai naeoi?a a oeaeii. *ayiia –
noi?iiiee aa?oeeaeueiie eiiia?aoeee, niiniaiie ni/aoaoue aunieoth
o?oaeiaoth iioeaaoeeth ioaeaeueiie e?anoueyineie naiuee e i?aeiouanoaa
aeia?iaieueii nicaeaaaaiuo eiiia?aoeaia. Ii ?ac?aaioae iaoiaeeeo
ii?aaeaeaiey iioeiaeueiuo ?acia?ia naeueoici?aaei?eyoey ia iniiaa
ieieiecaoeee ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey. A eiioea aeecie
oeaio? aieiaiey a enneaaeiaaieyo ia?aian ia i?aaiecaoeeth e?oiiuo e
e?oiiaeoeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ii i?iecaiaenoao ca?ia, a
iaiuaaiaenoaa, eueiiaiaenoaa, oeiieiaiaenoaa.

Eiiae?aoueaa – ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth – e?anoueyiei, auioneiee
yeiiiie/aneiai ioaeaeaiey th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa Iaoa?ao?aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa. Ia ia?eiae IYIa i?eoiaeyony iaeaieaa eioa?aniua
yeiiiie/aneea ?aaiou. N 1920 aiaea – aee?aeoi? Eiiuthieoo?iiai einoeoooa
– iao/iiai oeaio?a ie?iaiai cia/aiey. Oaaaeaeaiiue noi?iiiee
oiaa?ii-?uii/iie iiaeaee nioeeaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa. A 1928 a.
oaieueiyaony n iinoa aee?aeoi?a einoeoooa (anei?a cae?uaoaainy). A 1930
aiaeo a?anoiauaaaony eae aeaaa “O?oaeiaie e?anoueyineie ia?oee”, a 1932
a. i?eaiaa?eaaaony e 8 aiaeai caeeth/aiey. A oth?ueia aeoeaii ?aaioaao,
ii neaiiao. A 1938 a. ?anno?aeyi.

I?e aeoeaiii o/anoee Eiiae?aoueaaa aue ?ac?aaioai ia?aue a enoi?ee
ia?niaeoeaiue ieai ?acaeoey naeueneiai oicyenoaa (ia 1923 – 1928 a.a.).
Ii auaeaeioe eiioeaioeeth ia?aeeaeueiiai ?aaiiaaniiai ?acaeoey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa e i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Eiiae?aoueaa enoiaeee ec
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ni/aoaiey ?uii/iiai e ieaiiaiai ia/ae a yeiiiie/aneii
?acaeoee no?aiu. Aai i?ia?aiia i?eaioe?iaaeanue ia ia?aii/a?aaeioth
iiaeaea?aeeo e?aieeo naiaeiuo o?oaeiauo oicyenoa, niiniaiuo noaoue
iniiaie yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia a no?aia.

Caaea/o ieaie?iaaiey aeaeae a oii, /oiau iaania/eoue ia oieueei aieaa
auno?ue, ii e naaeaine?iaaiiue ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa. Ianoaeaae ia
eniieueciaaiee aaiaoe/aneiai (yeno?aiieyoeey iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee
?acaeoey) e oaeaieiae/aneiai (oeaeaaiai) iiaeoiaeia e ninoaaeaieth
ieaiia. E?eoeeiaae eiioeaioeeth ia?aiai iyoeeaoiaai ieaia, n/eoae, /oi
iaaeinoaoi/iue ?ino aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeao ni?aaoue i?ia?aiio
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee. Oaeoe/anee oaea a 20-o aiaeao iiaeioae e eiioeaioeee
eiaeeeaoeaiiai (?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiiai) ieaie?iaaiey.

Ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea Eiiae?aoueaa ecaanoai i?aaeaea anaai eae
aaoi? oai?ee aieueoeo oeeeeia oicyenoaaiiie eiiuthieoo?u
(eiiae?aoueaaneeo oeeeeia). Ia iniiaa aiaeeca noaoenoeee aaaeoueo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai ca 140 eao, auaae nouanoaiaaiea aeaoo n
iieiaeiie oeeeeia yeiiiie/aneie aeeiaieee, iainiiaae eo i?e/eiu,
naycaiiua n ii?aaeaeaiiuie yoaiaie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee,
auyaee oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou iiaeuaiia e niaaeia (iiauoaoaeueiie e
iiieaeaoaeueiie aiei).

TH?ianeee – yeiiiieno – i?aeoee e oai?aoee, o/aiee *oi?iaa,
Ooaai-Aa?aiianeiai, No?oaa. N/eoae ianinoiyoaeueiuie eae o?oaeiaoth
oai?eth noieiinoe, oae e oai?eth i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe. Ana aieiaiea
nin?aaeioi/eaae ia oai?ee oeaiu. Iniaia cia/aiea i?eaeaaae i?eiaiaieth a
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia. I?aaenoaaeaiea i
“aeeiaie/aneii ?aaiiaanee”, aiaeec ianiaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee
(iiiiiieueiuo oeai), noi?ioee?iaaiiia TH?ianeei, iaiiiai iia?aaeeei
a?aiy e ?ac?aaioaii a ie?iaie iaoea ai?acaei iicaeiaa iaieaeineaioeaie.
TH?ianeee ianoaeaae ia iaiaoiaeeiinoe o/aoa iauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia a
onoaiiaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeai, ia oiaa?iinoe nioeeaeenoe/aneiai
oicyenoaa, caueuae eaeath ?aaiiaaney a ieaiiaii oicyenoaa.

TH?ianeee – eaeaieia aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu 1922 – 1924 a.a. Aeaaioth
i?e/eio o?oaeiinoae a aeaiaaeiii iai?ioa e yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee a
oeaeii aeaeae a caauoaiiuo oaiiao ieaie?oaiie Ainieaiii
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, ia iie?aaoaeny ia ?aaeueiua ?ano?nu.

Eaioi?iae/ Eaiieae Aeoaeueaae/ (1912 – 1986 a.a.) – eao?aao Iiaaeaaneie
i?aiee ii yeiiiieea, aaeeinoaaiiue ioa/anoaaiiue yeiiiieno, oaeinoiaiiue
yoie aunieie iaa?aaeu.

A 1939 aiaeo i?e ?aoaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie caaea/e ii yeiiiie/iiio
?ane?ith iaoa?eaea Eaioi?iae/ai aue ?ac?aaioai niaoeeaeueiue iaoiae,
eioi?ue iieiaeee ia/aei iiaiio ?acaeaeo iaoaiaoeee – eeiaeiiio
i?ia?aiie?iaaieth. Iaoaiaoe/anee yoa caaea/a ninoiyea a iaoiaeaeaiee
yeno?aioia eeiaeiie ooieoeee ia aeiionoeiii iiiaeanoaa, caaeaaaaiii
eeiaeiuie ia?aie/aieyie e ia?aaainoaaie. Aeai?eoi ?aoaiey caaea/e,
i?aaeeiaeaiiue Eaioi?iae/ai, ieacaeny iieaciui i?e ?aoaiee oe?ieiai
e?oaa i?iaeai, oaeeo eae: iaeaieaa iieiia eniieueciaaiea iaoaieciia,
iaeneiaeueiia oiaiueoaiea iooiaeia, iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea oiieeaa, iaeeo/oaa auiieiaiea ieaia no?ieoaeuenoaa,
iaeeo/oaa ?ani?aaeaeaiea iinaaiie ieiuaaee, iaeeo/oee ieai ia?aaicie e
ae?.

A NNN? eniieueciaaiea iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia a yeiiiieea aieioue aei
oanoeaeanyouo aiaeia ?anniao?eaaeinue eae /oaeaeia, eniieuecoaiia aeey
aiieiaaoeee eaieoaeecia. Ia neo/aeii ioe?uoea Eaioi?iae/a ia auei
ioeaiaii a naiae no?aia, o/aiue aeieai ia aue ecaanoai e a ie?a. Eeoue
eiaaea a iyoeaeanyoua aiaeu aia?eeaineea o/aiua noaee ?acaeaaoue iaoiaeu
eeiaeiiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, e ?ac?aaioeai Eaioi?iae/a a NNN? ioianeenue
aieaa aieiaoaeueii, ii ?yae caiaaeiuo o/aiuo noaaeee iiae niiiaiea aai
i?ei?eoao a ioe?uoee eeiaeiiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey. Oai ia iaiaa, a 1975
aiaeo aio niaianoii n aia?eeaineei yeiiiienoii Eoiiainii auea
i?enoaeaeaia Iiaaeaaneay iaa?aaea. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi nai O.Eoiiain
auniei oeaiee aeeaae Eaioi?iae/a a yeiiiie/aneoth iaoeo.

Iniaia ianoi a enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneie iunee e nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie
oai?ee caieiatho ?aaiou Aaneeey Aaneeueaae/a Eaiioueaaa (?. 1906 a.)
aia?eeaineiai yeiiiienoa, eao?aaoa Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee 1977 aiaea ii
yeiiiieea. Ia/aa naith iao/ioth e iaaeaaiae/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue a
?innee, ii a eiioea 20-o aiaeia iieeaeaao aa, oacaeaao nia/aea a Aa?iio,
a caoai a Aia?eeo. Aeaeii aeecie Eaiioueaaa yaeeinue nicaeaiea e
iinoiyiiia niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaea “cao?aou-auione”,
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie iiaeaee, iicaieythuae ii?aaeaeeoue e iiauneoue
yooaeoeaiinoue ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa a oeaeii e aai ioaeaeueiuo caaiueaa.

4. I?aaeiao e iaoiaeieiaey

I?aaeiao yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee oi?ie?iaaeny a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey,
aeeeoaeueiie yaiethoeee iaoee, auyaeaiey e i?aiaeieaiey i?ioeai?a/ee
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie iao/iuie oeieaie.

I?aaeiaoii iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee ia?eaioeeenoia auei aiaaonoai,
iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai.

I?iaeieaeeee eo o?aaeeoeeth e oeceie?aou, ia?aiany iao/iua eioa?anu ec
noa?u ia?auaiey a naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai.

I?aaenoaaeoaee eeanne/aneie oeieu ?anoe?eee i?aaeiao yeiiiie/aneie
oai?ee aei enneaaeiaaiey oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e iaeiieaiey, a oaeaea
?ani?aaeaeaiey aiaaonoaa, nicaeaaaaiiai ai anao io?aneyo iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iiieiaiea nouiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa, aai oi?i e oneiaee
nicaeaiey a yeiiiie/aneie iunee iaiyeinue. Anee ia?eaioeeenou a ea/anoaa
?aaeueiiai aiaaonoaa ?anniao?eaaee oieueei aeaiueae, a aua eo/oa –
cieioi, oi eeanneee n/eoaee aiaaonoaii iaoa?eaeueiue i?iaeoeo
i?iecaiaenoaa. A nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao ana aieueoaa
cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho oneoae – iaaauanoaaiiue ?acoeueoao yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. A ?acaeouo iauanoaao a iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai noaee
aeeth/aoue eioi?iaoeeth, ae?oaea aeaeu eioaeeaeooaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa.

Ianeieueei iniaiyeii a ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaeiaoa yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee noieo
ia?enenoneay iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey. I?aaeiaoii ia?enenoneie
iieeoyeiiiiee ?anniao?eaathony i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey, oi anoue
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey,
iaiaia e iio?aaeaiey aeaa. I?e/ai aeaaiuie i?eciathony ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
eeannaie e nioeeaeueiuie a?oiiaie iauanoaa, iaoneiaeeaathueany, ii
iiaieth ia?enenoia, a eiia/iii n/aoa, ioiioaieyie nianoaaiiinoe ia
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aiineaaenoaee e i?aaenoaaeoaee ae?oaeo iai?aaeaiee yeiiiie/aneie iaoee
noaee oaeaeyoue ana aieueoa aieiaiey ioiioaieyi ethaeae (yeiiiie/aneeo
noauaeoia) a i?ioeanna eo yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e a iauanoaaiiie
aeecie a oeaeii, oae eae ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ai
iiiaii i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony oa?aeoa?ii ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie.

A. Ia?oaee ii?aaeaeee i?aaeiaoii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee “Enneaaeiaaiea
ii?iaeueiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa: enneaaeiaaiea
aiaaonoaa e /anoe/ii /aeiaaea, oi/iaa noeioeia e aeaenoaeth…”.

I. Naioyeuenii a naiai ciaiaieoii o/aaieea “Yeiiiieea” ieoao: “Yeiiiieea
– iaoea i iianaaeiaaiie aeaeiaie aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae”.

A caiaaeiuo o/aaieeao ii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee aeinoaoi/ii ?ani?ino?aiaii
iiieiaiea i?aaeiaoa yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee eae eco/aiea ?aaeeinoe,
ia?aie/aiiinoe ?ano?nia. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oieueei a oneiaeyo ?aaeeinoe e
ia?aie/aiiinoe ?ano?nia, ia iniiaa eioi?uo nicaeathony aeaaa, aicieeatho
i?iaeaiu yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu ia aicieeatho,
anee iauaiu aeaa e ?ano?nia, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo oaeiaeaoai?ythony
/aeiaa/aneea iio?aaiinoe, iaia?aie/aiiu.

Ana ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaeiaoa yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee ?ane?uaatho aai n ?aciuo
noi?ii, eai a ieo ca iniiao aa?oony iiiaiia?aciua ioaeaeueiua aniaeou
yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae.

Naaiaeiy iaeaieaa iieiui i?eciaii neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea i?aaeiaoa
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee:

Iauay yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey – yoi iauanoaaiiay iaoea, eioi?ay eco/aao
iiaaaeaiea ethaeae e a?oii ethaeae a i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiee,
iaiaia e iio?aaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae i?e ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nao, /oi ii?iaeaeaao eiieo?aioeeth ca
eo eniieueciaaiea.

A yoii ii?aaeaeaiee niaea?aeaony neaaeothuea eeth/aaua oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?aaeiaoa yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee:

i?enoonoaoao iiaaaeai/aneee aniaeo,

iiae/a?eeaaaony ?aaeeinoue e ia?aie/aiiinoue ?ano?nia,

auaeaeyaony oi, /oi yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey eco/aao caeiiiia?iinoe e
oaeoi?u yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e ?inoa a iioaciie aeeiaieea
aini?iecaiaenoaa: a i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiee, iaiaia e iio?aaeaiee.

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey aeeth/aao a naay iee?iyeiiiieeo (iiaaaeaiea
ioaeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia) e iae?iyeiiiieeo (ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee a oeaeii); auaeaeythony oaeaea iaciyeiiiieea
(iiaaaeaiea iiaenenoai iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee) e iaoayeiiiieea
(iiaaaeaiea ie?iaie yeiiiieee a oeaeii).

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey yaeyaony iaoiaeieiae/aneie iniiaie aeey oeaeiai
eiiieaena eiie?aoiuo yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe: io?aneaauo (yeiiiieea
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o?ainii?oa, no?ieoaeuenoaa, iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u);
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo (oeiainu, e?aaeeo, ia?eaoeia, iaiaaeaeiaio);
iaaeio?aneaauo (yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey, aeaiia?aoey, noaoenoeea),
enoi?eei-yeiiiie/aneeo.

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey yaeyaony iniiaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. Aianoa n
oai ia noieo ioiaeaeanoaeyoue yeiiiie/aneoth oai?eth e yeiiiie/aneoth
iieeoeeo.

Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea – yoi oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay nenoaia ia?ii?eyoee
ainoaea?noaa ii ?aaoee?iaaieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

A yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea eniieuecothony ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e auaiaeu
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. Eaeea n?aaenoaa neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue aeey
i?aiaeieaiey eioeyoeee, noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee a oneiaeyo aa e?eceniiai
?acaeoey? Neaaeoao ee i?eiaiyoue ia?aie/aiey ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea ii
ioiioaieth e eiino?aiiui ia?oia?ai? Eaeea ia?u niinianoaotho ?inoo
aeaaininoiyiey ianaeaiey? Ia ana yoe aii?inai a a?naiaea yeiiiie/aneie
iaoee eiathony iieaciua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. Caaea/a iieeoeeia, aea e
ianaeaiey aua?aoue oa ia?u, eioi?ua iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoiu nicaeaaoeiny
oneiaeyi. Aeey yoiai aaaeii aeoaieia ciaiea yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.

?acoeueoaou oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a yeiiiieea eiatho aaaeiia
cia/aiea aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iiieiaiea iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo
oaiaeaioeee, iaeaaeaiea iaoiaeieiaeae iee?iyeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca aaaeiu
aeey i?eiyoey iioeiaeueiuo oicyenoaaiiuo ?aoaiee a aeciana.

Iaoiaeieiaey iauae yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

Iaoiaeieiaey yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee – yoi iaoea i iaoiaeao eco/aiey
oicyenoaaiiie aeecie, yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo eae noauaeoeaiue, oae e iauaeoeaiue iiaeoiaeu.

Iaoiaeu – eino?oiaiou, niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia enneaaeiaaiey a iaoea e
aini?iecaaaeaiey eo a nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo eaoaai?ee e caeiiia.

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey eniieuecoao iauaiao/iua iaoiaeu iiciaiey, oaeea
eae:

iaoiae iao/iie aano?aeoeee

aiaeec e neioac

eiaeoeoeeth e aeaaeoeoeeth

enoi?e/aneee e eiae/aneee iaoiaeu.

Ana yoe iaoiaeu e eino?oiaiou eniieuecothony a aaeeinoaa.

I?e enneaaeiaaiee yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee aeaeathony iiiaea oi?iuaiey,
eioi?ua i?eiyoi ii?aaeaeyoue eae iaoiae iao/iie aano?aeoeee.

I?e yoii enneaaeiaaoaeue ioaeaeaaony io anaai aoi?inoaiaiiiai, /oiau
auyaeoue iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua noi?iiu yaeaiee, iiaoi?ythueany /a?ou.
Oae aicieeatho iiiyoey: i?iecaiaenoai aiiaua, iio?aaiinoe,
?ani?aaeaeaiea, iaiai e o.ae.

Eiae/aneea iiiyoey, io?aaeathuea iaeaieaa iauea e nouanoaaiiua noi?iiu
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa, iacuaathony yeiiiie/aneeie eaoaai?eyie.

A yeiiiieea, ianiio?y ia aiaoiee oain e neo/aeiinoe, aeaenoaotho
ii?aaeaeaiiua, oeie/iua, oa?aeoa?iua nayce.

Aioo?aiiea nouanoaaiiua, iiaoi?ythueany, onoie/eaua, iaiaoiaeeiua,
iinoiyiiua, ea/anoaaiii e eiee/anoaaiii ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua nayce iaaeaeo yeiiiie/aneeie yaeaieyie e
i?ioeannaie iacuaathony yeiiiie/aneeie caeiiaie.

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey i?ecaaia onoaiaaeeaaoue yoe i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua
nayce.

Aiaeec – iuneaiiia ?an/eaiaiea eco/aaiiai yaeaiey ia ninoaaiua /anoe e
enneaaeiaaiea eaaeaeie ec yoeo /anoae ioaeaeueii. Iooai neioaca
ainnicaeaaony oeaeinoiay ea?oeia i?ioeanna eee yaeaiey. Iai?eia?, i?e
eco/aiee iaoaiecia ?uii/iiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey iu aoaeai eco/aoue nia/aea
ioaeaeueiua noi?iiu ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia: ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea, a caoai
ia?aeaeai e neioaco yoeo /anoae e enneaaeiaaieth i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey
?uii/iie oeaiu.

Iin?aaenoaii eiaeoeoeee iaania/eaaaony ia?aoiae io eco/aiey aaeeie/iuo
oaeoia e iauei iieiaeaieyi e auaiaeai. Aeaaeoeoeey – ia?aoiae io iauaai
e /anoiiio.

Iaa iaoiaea eiatho ?aaiia cia/aiea a yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo e
aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa. Ioia/atho, /oi aeey o?aaeeoeeiiiie
ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee oa?aeoa?ii no?aieaiea e aieaa
aeoeaiiio eniieueciaaieth aeaaeoeoeaiuo oiicaeeth/aiee: eco/ea iauea
caeiiiia?iinoe a ?acaeoee yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia, eiaaoeo ianoi a
ioa/anoaaiiie eee ca?oaaaeiie yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee e oicyenoaaiiie
i?aeoeea, enneaaeiaaoaee oi?ioee?otho ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e auaiaeu.
Caiaaeiua yeiiiienou aieaa aeoeaiu a eniieueciaaiee eiaeoeoeee eae
iaoiaea iiciaiey. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ia ioeaiea yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia n
iiceoeee ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea: iio?aaeoaey eee i?aaei?eieiaoaey.

Eniieuecoy enoi?e/aneee iaoiae, yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey enneaaeoao
yeiiiie/aneea yaeaiey e i?ioeannu a oie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, a eioi?ie
iie a naiie aeecie aicieeaee, ?acaeaaeenue e niaiyeenue iaeii ae?oaeie.
Enoi?e/aneee iaoiae iieacuaaao, /oi a i?e?iaea e iauanoaa ?acaeoea eaeao
io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio. Eiae/aneee (oai?aoe/aneee) aiaeec oaeaea anoue
ainoiaeaeaiea io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio. Oi anoue eiaao ianoi aaeeinoai
enoi?e/aneiai e eiae/aneiai, ii yoi ia icia/aao eo iieiiai niaiaaeaiey.

Eco/aiea yeiiiie/aneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeiioneaao i?iaaaeaiea
yenia?eiaioia, i?aaaea, eo aiciiaeiinoe nouanoaaiii ia?aie/aiu ii
n?aaiaieth n anoanoaaiiuie e oi/iuie iaoeaie. Niciaoaeueiia ianniaia
yenia?eiaioe?iaaiea ia iee?io?iaia naycaii n aeayoaeueiinoueth ?. Ioyia,
O. Oyeei?a, ia iae?io?iaia – n eiaiaie Aeae.I.Eaeina e I. O?eaeiaia.
Iiiaie?aoiua yenia?eiaiou ia iae?i- e iee?io?iaia i?iaiaeeeenue e a
iaoae no?aia.

A neeo iaaeaeaoaeueiinoe i?iaaaeaiey /anouo yenia?eiaioia, iniaoth ?ieue
a yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo ea?aao iiaeaee?iaaiea.

Yeiiiie/aneay iiaeaeue ninoieo ec i?aaeiinueie e oneiaee, eioi?ua
neoaeao aeey onoaiiaeaiey acaeiinaycae iaaeaeo yeiiiie/aneeie
ia?aiaiiuie.

Ia?aiaiiua, cia/aiey eioi?uo i?eieiathony a iiaeaee a ea/anoaa
caaeaiiuo, – yoi ia?aiao?u iiaeaee. N iiiiuueth eiaeee, a?aoe/aneeo
iino?iaiee e iaoaiaoeee iiaeaee?iaaiea iicaieyao auyaeoue aeeyiea
i?aaeiinueie e oneiaee ia yaeaiea, eioi?ia yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey
no?aieony iauynieoue.

Eeth/aaay iiaaaeai/aneay i?aaeiinueea a iiaeaeyo, eniieuecoaiuo a
nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea, caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a ea/anoaa
aeaaiiai iioeaa yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?anniao?eaaaony aeaeaiea
iieo/eoue iaeneiaeueioth auaiaeo (iaeneiaeueioth i?eaueue,
iaeneiaeueioth iieaciinoue e o.i.). Yoei i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony
?aoeeiiaeueiia yeiiiie/aneia iiaaaeaiea eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea.
I?aaeiieiaeaiea i iaeneiecaoeee auaiaeu – oi?iuaiea. Ia?yaeo n
?aoeeiiaeueiuie iioeaaie /aeiaae a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie ?oeiaiaenoaoaony
e e??aoeeiiaeueiuie iioeaaie. Iniaaiii yoi i?enoua iio?aaeoaeyi. Aianoa
n oai i?eaioaoeey ia iaeneiecaoeeth auaiaeu aeiieie?oao a nia?aiaiiie
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie, /oi aeaeaao aeaiioth i?aaeiinueeo aeinoaoi/ii
oaeiaiie e yooaeoeaiie.

A nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai i?aaeaeueiue
aiaeec – oaoie/aneee i?eai a yeiiiie/aneii iiaeaee?iaaiee, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui enneaaeoaony, eaeei ia?acii eaaeaeia
aeiiieieoaeueiia aeaenoaea aeeyao ia oeaeue, e eioi?ie no?aieony a naiae
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaae. Iai?eia?, iieoiaoaeue i?eia?aoao
aeiiieieoaeueioth aaeeieoeo aeaaa, anee i?aaeaeueiay (aeiiieieoaeueiay)
auaiaea, eioi?oth ii iieo/eo, i?aauneo i?aaeaeueiua (aeiiieieoaeueiua)
ecaea?aeee. I?eiaiaiea i?aaeaeueiiai aiaeeca iieacuaaao, /oi ii yaeyaony
iiuiui i?oaeeai i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

I?e eco/aiee yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai /anoi eniieuecotho iiceoeaiue e
ii?iaoeaiue iiaeoiaeu. Iiceoeaiue aiaeec icia/aao eco/aiea yeiiiie/aneie
?aaeueiinoe, oi anoue oiai, /oi auei eee anoue e ninoaaeaiea ia iniiaa
iaaethaeaaiuo yaeaiee yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaiicia. N iiiiuueth iiceoeaiiai
aiaeeca iu aeaeaai ooaa?aeaeaiey “.. anee, oi..”. Iai?eia?, iiceoeaiue
aiaeec oiai, eae eciaiythony aeioiaeu athaeaeaoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
a 1997 aiaeo iiaeao auoue i?eiaiai aeey auyniaiey oiai, eae aoaeoo
oeiaine?iaaoueny athaeaeaoiua ?anoiaeu yoiai aiaea. Yoi – i?iaiic
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oaiaeaioeeyo a oi?ie?iaaiee
aeioiaeia. I?e oaaee/aiee aeioiaeia i?ioea ieaiiauo iiaunyony
aiciiaeiinoe caieaie?iaaiiuo athaeaeaoiuo auieao, a anee aeioiaeu ia
niae?athony a iieiie ia?a, oi e ?anoiaeu i?eaeaony nie?aoeoue.
Iiceoeaiue aiaeec ia niaea?aeeo a naaa iieiaeeoaeueiuo eee
io?eoeaoaeueiuo ioeaiie oiai, /oi i?iecieaeao eee i?iecioei. Iiceoeaiua
ooaa?aeaeaiey ia anaaaea auaatho aa?iuie, ii eo iiaeii i?iaa?eoue
oaeoaie.

Ii?iaoeaiue aiaeec eniieuecoaony aeey ioeaiee e auaea/e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee,
/oi aeieaeii eiaoue ianoi. Aeey ii?iaoeaiiai aiaeeca oa?aeoa?ii
neaaeothuaa ooaa?aeaeaiea: “neaaeoao naeaeaoue yoi eee oi..”. I?eia?:
“Aeey no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue
naeaeoeaioth iiaeaea?aeeo i?aaei?eyoee.” Ii?iaoeaiua ooaa?aeaeaiey /aua
anaai auaiaeyony ec iiceoeaiuo, ii eiathueieny oaeoaie iaeuecy
aeieacaoue eo enoeiiinoue eee eiaeiinoue.

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey oi?ioee?oaony a aeaea iiceoeaiuo ooaa?aeaeaiee, ii
aieueoeinoai ?anoiaeaeaiee iaaeaeo yeiiiienoaie aicieeaao i?e
?anniio?aiee aii?inia ii?iaoeaiiai ieaia.

A eco/aiee yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao a?aoe/aneay
eioa?i?aoaoeey yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee, iiyoiio ?anniio?ei enoiaeiua
iiiyoey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iino?iaiey a?aoeeia e eo /oaiey.

I?eeiaeaiea. A?aoeee e eo cia/aiea.

A?aoee – iaaeyaeiia ecia?aaeaiea caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo aeaoiy ia?aiaiiuie.

Caaeneiinoue iau/ii caaeaaony a aeaea oaaeeoeu, iai?eia?:

Ii?yaeie iino?iaiey a?aoeeia:

No?iei ine eii?aeeiao.

Cae?aieyai ca inyie eiie?aoioth ia?aiaiioth.

Auae?aai ianooaa.

Aeey iaoiaeaeaiey oi/ae a?aoeea ainnoaiaaeeaaai ia?iaiaeeeoey?u ec
oi/ae, niioaaonoaothueo cia/aieyi ia?aiaiiuo ia inyo, iaoiaeei
ia?ana/aiea yoeo ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia.

I?yiay (iieiaeeoaeueiay) caaeneiinoue – iaeiiiai?aaeaiiia eciaiaiea
ia?aiaiiuo.

Ia?aoiay (io?eoeaoaeueiay) caaeneiinoue – ?aciiiai?aaeaiiia eciaiaiea
ia?aiaiiuo.

Iaeeii i?yiie (oaiaain oaea) – ioiioaiea aa?oeeaeueiiai eciaiaiey e
ai?eciioaeueiiio.

Iai?eia?, aeey iaoae i?yiie: +50/+100=+1/2

b – iaeeii i?yiie;

y – caaeneiay ia?aiaiiay (ooieoeey);

x – iacaaeneiay ia?aiaiiay (a?aoiaio).

O?aaiaiea i?yiie: y=a+bx, aaea a – aa?oeeaeueiia ia?ana/aiea (i?e o=0);

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 1 .

Iaeeii e?eaie a ethaie oi/ea – ecia?yaony iaeeiiii eanaoaeueiie e
e?eaie a yoie oi/ea.

Aeaaa 2. Yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu e yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu.

Aii?inu:

Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia iauanoaa e yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu

Ia?aie/aiiinoue ?ano?nia e eiioeaioeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae

Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia iauanoaa: nouiinoue e no?oeoo?a.

Iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee – yeiiiieea, yeiiiie/aneea
(oicyenoaaiiua) nenoaiu, oicyenoai.

A ea/anoaa yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai ?anniao?eaatho e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth
oe?io, e yeiiiieeo ?aaeiia, e iaoeeiiaeueiia oicyenoai.

Yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu aeeth/atho a naay niaieoiiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo
noauaeoia, iauaeoia e nenoaio naycae iaaeaeo ieie, o. a. nenoaio
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia – yoi oii?yaei/aiiay nenoaia naycae iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e iio?aaeoaeyie iaoa?eaeueiuo e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa.

Yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu ioee/athony io i?i/eo aeaeia nenoai naieie
niaoeeoe/aneeie ooieoeeyie: iie inouanoaeytho i?iecaiaenoai, iaiai e
?ani?aaeaeaiea aeaa, aeiaiaey eo aei iio?aaeoaey.

Ethaee caieiathony yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth ?aaee nicaeaiey aeaa,
niiniaiuo oaeiaeaoai?youe eo ?aciiia?aciua iio?aaiinoe. Iio?aaiinoe –
aeaeaeouay neea yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa. No?aieaiea ethaeae eo
?aaeeciaaoue canoaaeyao i?iecaiaeeoue ?aciiia?aciua aeaaa.

Iio?aaiinoue – ninoiyiea iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe, ioaeaeu, eioi?ia /aeiaae
no?aieony i?aiaeieaoue.

Yeiiiienou, nioeeieiae e ineoieiae caieiathony eco/aieai e
nenoaiaoecaoeeae iio?aaiinoae. Nouanoaoao aeaeaiea iio?aaiinoae ia
aaniethoiua e ioiineoaeueiua, ia?ae/iua e aoi?e/iua, oece/aneea e
aeooiaiua e o.i.

Ioiaoei, /oi iio?aaiinoe ia inoathony iaeciaiiuie, iie ?acaeaathony ii
ia?a ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa. E?iia oiai, iie iaeaaeatho
naienoaii iaianuuaaiinoe (eaaeaeay oaeiaeaoai?aiiay iio?aaiinoue
ii?iaeaeaao iiaoth). A niioaaonoaee n yoeie naienoaaie iiaeii naeaeaoue
auaiae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iinoiyiiiai aiciaiiaeaiey i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa ?aaee oaeiaeaoai?aiey eciaiythueony e, a i?eioeeia,
iaianuuaaiuo iio?aaiinoae.

Iaeiaei, iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii e iio?aaeaieai a yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao
eaaeao naycothuea eo noa?u: ?ani?aaeaeaiea e iaiai. Oaeei ia?acii,
yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu aeeth/atho /aou?a aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noa?u:

i?iecaiaenoai – i?ioeann nicaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo aeaa,
aicaeaenoaea ia iauaeou i?e?iaeu e i?iecaaaeaiiua o?oaeii iauaeou.

?ani?aaeaeaiea – ii?aaeaeaiea aeiee, eiee/anoaa, i?iii?oeee, a eioi?ie
eaaeaeue oicyenoaothuee noauaeo i?eieiaao o/anoea a i?iecaaaeaiiii
i?iaeoeoa;

iaiai – aeaeaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e oneoa io iaeiiai noauaeoa e
ae?oaiio, oi?ia iauanoaaiiie nayce i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeae;

iio?aaeaiea – eniieueciaaiea ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo iio?aaiinoae.

Yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu – yoi aaeeinoai noa? i?iecaiaenoaa: i?iecaiaenoaa,
?ani?aaeaeaiey, iaiaia e iio?aaeaiey.

Yeiiiieea iiaeao ?acaeaaoueny i?ia?anneaii i?e iinoiyiiii ?acaeoee
acaeiiaeaenoaee, acaeiiia?aieaoaiee, naaeaine?iaaiiinoe anao
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noa?. Aianoa n oai ?aciua yeiiiie/aneea oeieu /anoi
i?eaeatho iaeaieueoaa, i?ei?eoaoiia cia/aiea oie eee eiie noa?a
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia?eneci ooaa?aeaeaao i?eiao i?iecaiaenoaa. Niaeanii ia?enenoneie
oai?ee, i?iecaiaenoai – enoiaeiue ioieo yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iio?aaeaiea – eiia/iue ioieo, ?ani?aaeaeaiea e iaiai – iiin?aaeothuea
noaaeee. I?iecaiaenoai neoaeeo iio?aaeaieth, ii aicieeiiaaiea naieo
iio?aaiinoae iaoneiaeaii i?iecaiaenoaii (iiyaeaiea iiauo i?iaeoeoia
aucuaaao niioaaonoaothuoth iio?aaiinoue). ?ani?aaeaeaiea e iaiai neoaeao
nayce iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii e iio?aaeaieai, ii ?ani?aaeaeyoue e
iaiaieaaoue iiaeii eeoue oi, /oi i?iecaaaeaii.

Aaconeiaii, caeanue i?enoonoaoao eiaeea ?annoaeaeaiee. Aieaa oiai, aeey
yeiiiieee aa?iiaeneeo no?ai ia?aie iieiaeiu XIX aaea aeaaiie i?iaeaiie
aue ?ino iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa ?aaee ianuuaiey ?uiea. Yoi aea iaoneiaeei
e iieiaeeoaeueioth ioeaieo Caeiia Nyy (“I?aaeeiaeaiea ?iaeaeaao ni?in”).
Aeiaiaoe/aneia aini?eyoea oacena i?eiaoa i?iecaiaenoaa oai?aoeeaie e
i?aeoeeaie a iaoae no?aia i?eaaei e oi?ie?iaaieth “naiiaaeneie”
yeiiiieee, a eioi?ie i?iecaiaenoai ii?ie inouanoaeyeinue ?aaee
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Naaiaeiy aeaeaei ia ana yeiiiienou i?eaea?aeeaathony iiaiey i i?eiaoa
i?iecaiaenoaa. Anoue noi?iiieee iinoaiiaee a oeaio? yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai
noa?u iaiaia, ?uiea, a /anoiinoe, N.A.A?aaeineee, ss.A.Iaacia? ieooo:
“Yeiiiie/aneay iaoea eae iaoea ia/eiaaony ia n i?iecaiaenoaa, a n
iaiaia, n oi?aiaee, c ?uiea…”. ?yae enneaaeiaaoaeae n/eoatho
i?ei?eoaoiie noa?o iio?aaeaiey.

I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi ana noa?u yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai ?aaiicia/iu,
iaaei?acaeoea e aeenaaeain eaaeaeie ec ieo iaoneiaeeaaao naie ai anae
yeiiiieea.

Yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae iinoiyiii
?acaeaathueany. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iie iinoiyiii noaeeeaathony n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth i?aiaeieaiey aieueoiai niaeo?a aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo
i?ioeai?a/ee. N?aaee iineaaeieo iiaeii auaeaeeoue iniiaiia.

Iniiaiia i?ioeai?a/ea yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai ninoieo a oii, /oi
iio?aaiinoe ethaeae a oiaa?ao e oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nao, a i?eioeeia, ia ia?aie/aiu, niiniaiu
aaneiia/ii ?anoe?youeny. Aianoa n oai ?ano?nu, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo
oaeiaeaoai?ythony yoe iio?aaiinoe, oi anoue n?aaenoaa, n iiiiuueth
eioi?uo i?iecaiaeyony oiaa?u e oneoae a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae, ia?aie/aiu, ca/anooth ?aaeee e aeaaea iaaini?iecaiaeeiu.

Yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu: oeiu, aeaeu, ia?aie/aiiinoue.

Yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu (oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa) – n?aaenoaa aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, oneiaey e iaiaoiaeeiua ninoaaeythuea
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aiaeec ninoaaa e naienoa yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia iiaeao auoue iaeaa/ai
i?e eniieueciaaiee eeanneoeeaoeee yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia,
i?aaenoaaeaiiie a aeaea noaiu ia ?enoiea 2.

Ana iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, eae anoanoaaiiua, oae e i?iecaaaeaiiua
/aeiaaeii, ia?aie/aiu. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i oao
?ano?nao, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue aiaea/aiu a i?iecaiaenoai, anoaao i?iaeaia
ia?aie/aiiinoe iaoioiuo caiaeue, caeaaeae iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, eaniuo
oaiaeee, i?eaiaeiuo e ?acaaaeaieth ?ua ica? e ?ae. Eeieoe?iaaii e
eniieueciaaiea a i?iecaiaenoaa noaieia e eino?oiaioia ioaeiiai
anni?oeiaioa e ea/anoaa, aaeaeaaoiuo iio?aaiinoyi i?iecaiaenoaa
oaoiieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee, eiiiuethoa?ia iaiaoiaeeiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, niiniaiuo yooaeoeaii
caiaieoue /aeiaaea ia i?iecaiaenoaa. Ianiio?y ia oe?ieia ?acaeoea
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, anyeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iuouaao ii?aaeaeaiioth
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue eo aeey oeaeae naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 2 . Eeanneoeeaoeey yeiiiie/aneeo
?ano?nia

Oaeoi? ia?aie/aiiinoe eiaao ianoi e a ioiioaiee /aeiaa/aneeo ?ano?nia. A
naiii aeaea, ianiio?y ia aunieee o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu, a ia?eiaee/aneie
ia/aoe iinoiyiii ioaeeeothony iauyaeaiey i i?eaeaoaiee ia ?aaioo, i
eiieo?nao ia aaeaioiua ianoa. Yoi cia/eo, /oi, ia?yaeo n i?iaeaiie
caiyoinoe, nouanoaoao aeaoeoeeo ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.
E i?eia?o, i?e oii, /oi auioneieee iaaeaaiae/aneiai einoeoooa ia
o?oaeiono?iaiu, a oeieao iaeanoe iuouaaony ino?ay iaoaaoea
iaaeaaiae/aneeo eaae?ia.

Iaoaaoea ethaeae, niiniaiuo e oeeaeeeciaaiiie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iniaaiii ino?i iuouaaony a iaoae yeiiiieea. Yoi naycaii
n ionoonoaeai, a oi/iaa, caaaaieai ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo
o?aaeeoeee, iaaeinoaoi/iie eaaeeoeeaoeeae ethaeae, caiyaoeony aecianii,
iaaaeaeaaoiie iio?aaiinoyi nia?aiaiiiai aeciana i?aaiaie, yeiiiie/aneie
e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie n?aaeie.

Ia?yaeo n ia?aie/aiiuie, yeiiiie/aneeie ?ano?naie, nouanoaotho e aeaaa,
ia yaeythueany ia?aie/aiiuie, ?ani?aaeaeyaiuie e i?enaaaiuie
ii?aaeaeaiiuie ethaeueie (aoiinoa?iue aicaeoo). Oaeea ?ano?nu, a ioee/ea
io yeiiiie/aneeo, iacuaatho naiaiaeiuie.

O/eouaay , /oi ?ano?nu iauanoaa ia?aie/aiu, anoaao aii?in i
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoyo,

oi anoue i?iaeaia oaoiieiae/aneiai auai?a, ?aoaiey aii?ina i oii, eaeea
aeaaa e a eaeeo eiee/anoaao i?iecaiaeeoue, /oiau a iaeneiaeueiie noaiaie
oaeiaeaoai?eoue iauanoaaiiua iio?aaiinoe. A yoeo oeaeyo iaiaoiaeeii
caaeaenoaiaaoue ana eiathueany ?ano?nu e aiciiaeiinoe. Iii?iaoai
?acia?aoueny a yoie i?iaeaia n eniieueciaaieai i?inoie a?aoe/aneie
iiaeaee.

Eae i?aaeiinueee aiaeeca aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue neaaeothuea:

iaeciaiiia eiee/anoai e ea/anoai ?ano?nia, eioi?uie ia aeaiiue iiiaio
?aniieaaaao yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia;

iieioth caiyoinoue ?ano?nia, oi anoue ana iaoa?eaeueiua e ethaeneea
?ano?nu, i?eaiaeiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?uie ?aniieaaaao iauanoai,
eniieuecothony ia 100 %;

iaeciaiiinoue oaoiieiaee, oi anoue aoaeai i?aiaa?aaaoue oaeoi?ii
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, eioi?ue, ianiiiaiii, eiaao ianoi a
?aaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao;

aeey i?inoiou aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue yeiiiieeo, i?iecaiaeyuoth aeaa
i?iaeoeoa: iooee e ianei.

?anniio?ei oaaeeoeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae:

Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC A . I?iecaiaenoaaiiua
aiciiaeiinoe

Aeaeu aeaa e aaeeieoeu ecia?aiey

A

B

C

D

E

F

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Iooee (oun.oo.) 15 14 12 9 5 0

Ianei (iei.o.) 0 1 2 3 4 5

Iino?iei a?aoee, niioaaonoaothuee eiiaeiaoeeyi aeaa, iienaiiui a
oaaeeoea. Iu iieo/aai e?eaoth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae.

E?eaay i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae iieacuaaao, eaeie iaeneiaeueiue
iauai i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?a eee oneoae iiaeao auoue iieo/ai i?e aeaiiii
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ae?oaiai oiaa?a.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 3 . E?eaay i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae

A yeiiiieea iieiie caiyoinoe aeey oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iaeiiai
oiaa?a anaaaea iaiaoiaeeii iinooieoueny i?iecaiaenoaii ae?oaiai oiaa?a.
*oiau i?iecaanoe aieueoa ianea, iaaei “aea?oaiaaoue” iooeaie e iaiai?io,
yoi a?aoe/anee io?aaeaii a ienoiaeyuai oa?aeoa?a e?eaie. Oaeei ia?acii,
oi?ia a?aoeea iieacuaaao naiaia?acioth oeaio iaeiie oiaa?iie aaeeieoeu,
au?aaeaiioth a aeueoa?iaoeaiii eiee/anoaa ae?oaiai oiaa?a.

Caeanue iu aia?aua ano?a/aainy n iiiyoeai oeaiu a eceiaeaiee nenoaiu
eaoaai?ee e caeiiia yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. Iau/ii oeaia – noiia aeaiaa,
eioi?oth iaiaoiaeeii oieaoeoue ca oiaa?.

Eaoaai?ey oeaiu naycaia n iiiyoeai ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa ae?oaiai
aeaaa eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii i?e iaiaia ioaeaoue acaiai aeaiiiai aeaaa.

Iiaeaeue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae iicaieyao i?ieiiiaioe?iaaoue
iiiyoea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo (aiaiaiiuo) ecaea?aeae (aeueoa?iaoeaiie
noieiinoe). ?ano?nu, eniieuecoaiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai aeaaa,
iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu e a nicaeaiee ae?oaiai aeaaa. Anee iu
cao?a/eaaai ?ano?nu ia i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, yoi cia/eo, /oi
iu ioeacuaaainy io eo eniieueciaaiey a nicaeaiee ae?oaiai (
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai) i?iaeoeoa e iaaeiiieo/aai eaeia-oi eiee/anoai
iineaaeiaai.

Eiee/anoai aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oiaa?a, eioi?ui iaaei iinooieoueny ?aaee
i?iecaiaenoaa aeiiieieoaeueiie aaeeieoeu aeaiiiai oiaa?a, iacuaaaony
aeueoa?iaoeaiuie (aiaiaiiuie) ecaea?aeeaie eee aeueoa?iaoeaiie
noieiinoueth.

Iineieueeo oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ?aciuo oiaa?ia a iauai neo/aa ia
yaeythony acaeiicaiaiyaiuie, oi i?iecaiaenoai eaaeaeie iineaaeothuae
aaeeieoeu aeaiiiai oiaa?a aucuaaao iio?aaiinoue a nie?auaiee
i?iecaiaenoaa aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oiaa?a a aieueoae noaiaie. Iai?eia?,
oi/eie B oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaoeeiiaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai iooae a eiee/anoaa
14 oun. oo. e ianea a eiee/anoaa 1 iei.o. *oiau ia?aaanoe iaoeeiiaeueiia
i?iecaiaenoai a aieaa ie?iia ?onei, iaania/ea i?iecaiaenoai 2 iei.o.
ianea, o?aaoaony iinooieoueny i?iecaiaenoaii 2 oun. oo. iooae, i?e yoii
iiaia ninoiyiea yeiiiieee aoaeao oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny i?iecaiaenoaii a
oi/ea N. Aeey aeaeueiaeoae eiiaa?nee e oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa ianea
aua ia iaeei iei. o. iio?aaoaony “iiaea?oaiaaoue” oaea o?aiy oun. oo.
iooae e o.ae. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi a neeo
iaacaeiicaiaiyaiinoe oaoiieiaee aeueoa?iaoeaiua ecaea?aeee aic?anoatho.

Caeii aic?anoaiey aiaiaiiuo ecaea?aeae – naienoai yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai
oaaee/eaaoue i?iecaiaenoai iaeiiai aeaaa oieueei ia iniiaa nie?auaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa ae?oaiai aeaaa, i?e/ai aeiiieieoaeueiue i?e?ino iauaiia
i?iecaiaenoaa iaeiiai aeaaa aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ana aic?anoathuaai
nie?auaiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa aeueoa?iaoeaiiai aeaaa.

Ec caeiia aic?anoaiey aiaiaiiuo ecaea?aeae i?ienoaeaao aiaiooinoue ii
ioiioaieth e ia/aeo eii?aeeiao e?eaie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae.

Caiaoei, /oi aioo?aiiyy iaeanoue, ia?aie/aiiay e?eaie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae (iai?eia?, oi/ea O), oa?aeoa?ecoao aeinooiiua iauanoao
iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa, a aiaoiyy (iai?eia?, oi/ea Y) – iaaiciiaeiua i?e
naeaeaiiuo i?aaeiinueeao ?acoeueoaou. Iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa oeia O
icia/atho iaaeieniieueciaaiea yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia. Aeey oiai /oiau
ia?aeoe e iauaiai i?iecaiaenoaa oeia Y, o?aaoaony oaaee/eoue
i?aaeeiaeaiea yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea, eeai
eniieueciaaoue eiiiaaoeee, aeinoeaeaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.

I?iaeaia auai?a, aicieeathuay a eaaeaeie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia ec-ca
ia?aie/aiiinoe ?ano?nia, ii?iaeaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoaiey iniiaiuo
aii?inia “*oi? Eae? Aeey eiai?”.

Anyeay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia i?ecaaia ?aoaoue iniiaiua
(ooiaeaiaioaeueiua) aii?inu oai eee eiui niiniaii. O?aaeeoeeiiii
auaeaeythony o?e ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo aii?ina:

*oi i?iecaiaeeoue e a eaeeo eiee/anoaao ?

?aoaiea yoiai aii?ina yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiie i?aaeiieaaaao nouanoaiaaiea
a iae oaeiai iaoaiecia, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e
oneoa a niioaaonoaee ni noi?ie?iaaiiuie ia aeaiiue iiiaio iio?aaiinoyie
iauanoaa. A aaeieieno?aoeaiie yeiiiieea yoo i?iaeaio iuoaeenue ?aoeoue
ia iniiaa nenoaiu oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai aee?aeoeaiiai ieaie?iaaiey. A
eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea aa i?ecaaii ?aoeoue naii?aaoee?iaaiea
oicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia iin?aaenoaii ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia.

Eae i?iecaiaeeoue e n eaeeie cao?aoaie ?

Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia aeieaeia ?aniieaaaoue iaoaieciii ioai?a iaeeo/oeo
oaoiieiae/aneeo niiniaia i?iecaiaenoaa, iicaieythueo a iioeiaeueiua
n?iee e n iaeiaiueoeie cao?aoaie nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, /aeiaa/aneiai
o?oaea i?iecaiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeioth aeey iauanoaa i?iaeoeoeeth.
Oicyenoaaiiua nenoaiu ?aciuo oeiia ii-?aciiio oi?ie?otho iaoaieciu,
iaania/eaathuea ?aoaiea yoiai aii?ina.

Aeey eiai i?iecaiaeeoue e eae ?ani?aaeaeyoue i?iecaaaeaiiua aeaaa?

AEecianiiniaiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia ?aniieaaaao iaoaieciaie
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia, eioi?ua e ii?aaeaeytho, eiio, a eiia/iii
n/aoa, i?aaeiacia/aiu i?iecaaaeaiiua oiaa?u e oneoae.

Iiaeaee e i?aaiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu

Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee iieo/eea
eeanneoeeaoeey oicyenoaaiiuo nenoai ii aeaoi iniiaiui i?eciaeai:

ii ainiiaenoaothuae oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe;

ii niiniao eii?aeeiaoeee oicyenoaaiiuo naycae.

?acee/atho aeaa niiniaa eii?aeeiaoeee:

?uii/iay eii?aeeiaoeey

ieaiiaay eii?aeeiaoeey

Ia iniiaa yoeo e?eoa?eaa auaeaeytho aeaa aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo
nenoaiu oicyenoaa – eiiaiaeioth (ieaiiaoth) yeiiiieeo e ?uii/ioth
yeiiiieeo naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee (/enoue eaieoaeeci).

Aieueoeinoai nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiiee iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae
niaoaiiua. Yoa “niaoaiiinoue” i?aaeiieaaaao i?ei?eoao ?uii/iuo ia/ae.
Aeaei a oii, /oi ?uii/iay nenoaia ieacaeanue iaeaieaa niioaaonoaothuae
nia?aiaiiiio o?iaith nioeeaeueiiai e yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?acee/iuo
ainoaea?noa ie?a. Iia yaeyaony a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie naii?aaoee?oaiie,
niiniaia aeinoaoi/ii aeaei ia?ano?aeaaoueny, i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e
eciaiythueiny aioo?aiiei e aiaoiei oneiaeyi. Nia?aiaiiua o?aaiaaiey
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna oaeaea eo/oa ?aaeecothony a ?aieao
?uii/iie nenoaiu.

Aianoa n oai iaeuecy iieiinoueth io?eoeaoue iieiaeeoaeueiua naienoaa
eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu oicyenoaa. I?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeiinueeao e oneiaeyo
iia iaia?oaeeaaao naith yooaeoeaiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue. A /anoiinoe,
i?aeoe/anee ana no?aiu i?eaaaatho e eiiaiaeiui iaoiaeai oicyenoaiaaiey a
yeno?aiaeueiuo neooaoeeyo (aieiu, noeoeeiua aaaenoaey e o.i.). Iaeiaei,
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieee ia aeeeoaeueiuo enoi?e/aneeo
eioa?aaeao i?eciaii iayooaeoeaiui.

Niaoaiiua yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu eia/a naaiaeiy iacuaatho “nia?aiaiiue
eaieoaeeci”, “Nia?aiaiiay ?uii/iay yeiiiieea”. Iie oa?aeoa?ecothony
ionoonoaeai iiiiiieee iaeiie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe, no?iyony ia
iieeii?oecia nianoaaiiinoe e iiiaiia?acee oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey. A
aeayoaeueiinoe oe?i oeie/iui yaeyaony ieaie?iaaiea, ia?eaoeia.
Oa?aeoa?ia aeoeaiay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii
?acaeoee. Ainoaea?noai i?iaiaeeo aioeoeeeee/aneoth iieeoeeo, ?aaeecoao
io?aneaaua e iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua i?ia?aiiu, iaania/eaaao nioeeaeueiua
aa?aioee. Aieaa iiae?iaii nia?aiaiiua ?uii/iua nenoaiu iu aoaeai
eco/aoue a iineaaeothueo eo?nao IYO.

Nouanoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai naycaiu n iaoeeiiaeueiie
yeiiiie/aneie eoeueoo?ie. A yoie nayce a ?aieao nenoai nia?aiaiiiai
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa auaeaeytho iaoeeiiaeueiua iiaeaee: aia?eeaineoth,
oaaaeneoth, yiiineoth e o.i.

Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC B Iniiaiua oeiu yeiiiie/aneeo
nenoai

Iniiaiua /a?ou Eiiaiaeiay ?uii/iay Niaoaiiay

I?aiaeaaeathuay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe Ainoaea?noaaiiay *anoiay Iieeii?oeci
nianoaaiiinoe

Niinia eii?aeeiaoeee oicyenoaaiiuo naycae Oeaio?aeeciaaiiia aee?aeoeaiia
ieaie?iaaiea ?uii/iue iaoaieci ?uii/iay eii?aeeiaoeey e
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea

Iieiaeaiea yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia Naiinoiyoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee
ionoonoaoao. Naiaiaea iio?aaeoaey ia?aie/aia. Naiaiaea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Noaa?aieoao iio?aaeoaey. Naiinoiyoaeueiinoue
iaainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a. Noaa?aieoao iio?aaeoaey.

Eiieo?aioeey Ionoonoaoao. Ainoaea?noaaiiue iiiiiieeci. Iiiai
eiieo?e?othueo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae I?aiaeaaeatho oi?iu ianiaa?oaiiie
eiieo?aioeee

Ee/iue eioa?an Ia?ae/iu eioa?anu ainoaea?noaa, eieeaeoeaa, ee/iue
eioa?an aoi?e/ai Iniiaiie iioea yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
i?eaeathuee oii?yaei/aiiinoue yeiiiieea I?ei?eoao ee/iiai eioa?ana, o/ao
iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania

Oeaiu Onoaiaaeeaathony oeaio?aeeciaaiii (ieaiiaua) Naiaiaeiua,
oi?ie?othueany ia iniiaa acaeiiaeaenoaey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey
I?aiaeaaeatho naiaiaeiua oeaiu. Eiaao ianoi ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea oeai e oa?eoia.

?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia O?aaieoaeueiia Aeioiaeu oi?ie?othony ia ?uieao
?ano?nia ?uii/iia ?aaoee?iaaiea aeiiieiyaony nenoaiie ainoaea?noaaiiuo
o?ainoa?oia.

?ieue ainoaea?noaa Ainoaea?noai iieiinoueth eiio?iee?oao yeiiiieeo e
nioeeaeueioth aeeciue Ia?aie/aiiay ?ieue i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee aeey noeioee?iaaiey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey,
i?aaeioa?auaiey e?ecenia e aac?aaioeoeu.

Aeaaa 3. Nianoaaiiinoue e iiaeaee i?aaiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu.

Aii?inu:

Nianoaaiiinoue eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey e i?aai nianoaaiiinoe.

Oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe a nia?aiaiiii ?uii/iii oicyenoaa.

I?eaaoecaoeey: nouiinoue, oeaee, yoaiu, ?acoeueoaou e i?iaeaiu.

1. Nianoaaiiinoue eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey e i?aai nianoaaiiinoe.

Iu oaea ano?a/aeenue n iiiyoeai «einoeooou» i?e e?aoeii iaci?a
iai?aaeaiee nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iunee. Iii auei aaaaeaii a iao/iue
iai?io i?aaenoaaeoaeyie einoeoooeeiiaeueii – nioeeieiae/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey O. Aaaeaiii, O. Ieo/aeeii e eo iineaaeiaaoaeyie.

A nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee e i?aeoeea oa?iei «einoeooou» no?iai
ia ii?aaeaeai, ii iau/ii iiieiaaony eae niaieoiiinoue nicaeaiiuo
ethaeueie e ?aaeeciaaiiuo n iiiiuueth iniauo iaoaieciia i?aaee e ii?i,
aunooiathueo eae oneiaey e ia?aie/aiey aeey yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo i?aaee e ii?i aeaenoaotho eae o?aaeeoeeiiiua aeey
aeaiiiai iauanoaa, iie ia cae?aieaiu th?eaee/anee, ii, eae i?aaeei,
auiieiythony. Ae?oaea i?aaeea e ii?iu yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a oeaeyo
oii?yaei/aiiinoe e i?aiaeieaiey i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo yeiiiie/nneeii
noauaeoaie o?aaotho th?eaee/aneiai cae?aieaiey.

N?aaee yeiiiie/aneeo einoeoooia eeth/aaia cia/aiea eiaao einoeooo
nianoaaiiinoe. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi:

io oa?aeoa?a nianoaaiiinoe, aa oi?i e no?oeoo?u ai iiiaii caaenyo oi?iu
e yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey, iaiaia e iio?aaeaiey a
iauanoaa;

io nianoaaiiinoe caaeneo iieiaeaiea ethaeae, neiaa e eeannia iauanoaa;

yooaeoeaiay nenoaia nianoaaiiinoe niinianoaoao yeiiiie/aneie e
nioeeaeueiie noaaeeueiinoe e i?ia?anno;

nianoaaiiinoue oanii naycaia n yeiiiie/aneie aeanoueth. Iaeaaeaiea
nianoaaiiinoueth iaania/eaaao aiciiaeiinoue aeeyiey ia ana noi?iiu
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie: /ai aieueoa ianooaau nianoaaiiinoe, oai neeueiaa
yoa aiciiaeiinoue.

Io nianoaaiiinoe caaeneo iieiaeaiea ethaeae, neiaa e eeannia iauanoaa.

A yeiiiie/aneie iunee aeieaia a?aiy ainiiaenoaiaaei i?aaenoaaeaiea, /oi
nianoaaiiinoue – yoi ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e aaue, i?e/ai no?aieaiea
/aeiaaea e iaeaaeaieth aauaie ?anniao?eaaeinue eae i?e?iaeiue,
iaiouaieaiue einoeieo, eee, eae i?eiyoi e naaiaeiy aiai?eoue,
“iaiouaieaiia, anoanoaaiiia i?aai” Yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea i nianoaaiiinoe
niioaaonoaoao iauaeaiiiio iuoeaieth, oi anoue iuoeaieth, eioi?ia
oi?ie?oao a ian ie?oaeathuay aeeciue.

Iu aiai?ei: «Yoa eieaa – iiy», iaiin?aaenoaaiii oeacuaay ia i?enaiaiea
aaue aeaiiui eiie?aoiui /aeiaaeii. Ii a oaeii ooaa?aeaeaiee einaaiii
niaea?aeeony io?eoeaiea nianoaaiiinoe ae?oaeo eeoe (iiaeoaenoii cao/eo:
«Ieeoi ae?oaie ia yaeyaony nianoaaiieeii aeaiiie aaue»). I?enaiaiea
iauaeoa i?aaeiieaaaao aai io/oaeaeaiea io ae?oaiai eeoea, oi anoue
eeoaiea aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaoue aauue ae?oaei eeoeii (a?oiiie eeoe).

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey iauanoaa, i?aaenoaaeaiey i nianoaaiiinoe noaee
iaiyoueny a noi?iio ana aieueoaai i?eciaiey ia i?e?iaeiie, a
nioeeaeueiie aa iniiau.

N iiceoeee yeiiiie/aneie iaoee iu ?anniao?eaaai nianoaaiiinoue eae
nenoaio ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie a nayce n i?enaiaieai aeaa.

E?iia iaicia/aiiie iaie auoa i?iaeaiu «i?enaiaiea-io/oaeaeaiea» a yoii
ii?aaeaeaiee oeacuaaaony, /oi nianoaaiiinoue aiieiuaao niaie ia
ioaeaeueii acyoia ioiioaiea, a nenoaio ioiioaiee.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?enaiaiea aeaaa ia anoue i?inoay eiinoaoaoeey
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe yoiai aeaaa ii?aaeaeaiiiio eeoeo (a?oiia eeoe), iii
?aaeecoaony /a?ac nenoaio yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, neeaaeuaathueony i?e
i?eiaiaiee aeaiiiai aeaaa.

Ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe anoue iauaeoii – noauaeoiua ioiioaiey.

Noauaeoaie nianoaaiiinoe aunooiatho ethaee: ioaeaeueiue /aeiaae eee
a?oiiu ethaeae, iauaaeeiaiiua iaueie oeaeyie, eioa?anaie e caaea/aie:
naiuee, oiaa?euanoaa, annioeeaoeee, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eieeaeoeau,
i?aaenoaaeoaee ainoaea?noaa e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, /eaiu
iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e o.i.

Iauaeoaie nianoaaiiinoe aunooiatho iaoa?eaeueiua oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa e
aeecie ethaeae, a oaeaea ?acoeueoaou i?iecaiaenoaa.

N?aaee iauaeoia i?enaiaiey a eiie?aoiuo enoi?e/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo
oneiaeyo auaeaeythony i?ei?eoaoiua (/anoi eo iacuaatho «aunoea aeaaa»),
iaeaaeaiea eioi?uie ii?aaeaeythuei ia?acii aeeyao ia oa?aeoa?
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a oeaeii.

A ea/anoaa aunoaai aeaaa ia ?aciuo yoaiao ?acaeoey iauanoaa
?anniao?eaaeenue n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa ioaaouaaao ioiioaiey, neeaaeuaathueany ai anao
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noa?ao: a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiiuo ia eo iniiaa i?iaeoeoia aeey iaiaia, iieo/aiey aeioiaea,
?ani?aaeaeaiey iieo/aiiiai aeioiaea, iio?aaeaiey.

A no?oeoo?a n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa ia ?aciuo yoaiao ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoaa eae iaeaieaa cia/eiua auaeaeyeenue
?acee/iua iauaeou. Enoi?e/anee ia?aui i?ei?eoaoiui iauaeoii i?enaiaiey
aunooiaea caiey. Caoai, ia?yaeo n caieae, a ea/anoaa aaaeiaeoaai iauaeoa
nianoaaiiinoe noae ?anniao?eaaoueny eaieoae (aai aauanoaaiiua yeaiaiou).
A nia?aiaiiuo iaeaieaa ?acaeouo a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee no?aiao n?aaee
iaoa?eaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia iniaoth cia/eiinoue i?eia?aoaao
eioi?iaoeey e eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu.

Aeey iauaeaiiiai iuoeaiey oa?aeoa?ii iniaia aieiaiea e i?enaiaieth
i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey. Iaeiaei iauaiu e no?oeoo?a i?enaiaiey i?aaeiaoia
iio?aaeaiey ai iiiaii i?ienoaeatho ec i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiui eeoeai, a?oiiai e nioeeaeueiui neiyi.

Nouanoaaiii ?acee/athony oi?iu ?aaeecaoeee nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey. Anee n iineaaeieie ana aeiaieueii
ynii e i?inoi: eo i?enaiaiea inouanoaeyaony /a?ac iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
oiio?aaeaiea (aieioue aei oie/oiaeaiey), oi n iaoa?eaeueiuie
yeiiiie/aneeie ?ano?naie aeaei ianoieo neiaeiaa. I?enaiaiea n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa inouanoaeyaony a aeaoo iniiaiuo oi?iao:

nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa ?aaeecoaony aeaaeaeueoeai
/a?ac eo eniieueciaaiea a i?ioeanna o?oaea e i?enaiaiea ?acoeueoaoia
nianoaaiiiai o?oaea. Ia aaca yoie oi?iu i?enaiaiey n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa ?acaeaaaony iaoo?aeueiia e i?inoia oiaa?iia i?iecaiaenoai;

nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa yeiiiie/anee ?aaeecoaony
iin?aaenoaii i?enaiaiey ?acoeueoaoia iaaiiiai o?oaea, eniieuecothuaai
yoe n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa. Yoa
oi?ia i?enaiaiey n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa naycaia n ?acaeoeai e?oiiiai
eiaeono?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Nia?aiaiiia ?uii/iia oicyenoai eiaao a
naiae iniiaa oaeoth oi?io i?enaiaiey n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiaeiaiay
oi?ia i?enaiaiey i?aaeiieaaaao io/oaeaeaiea iaaiiiai

?aaioieea io nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e i?enaiaiea
aeaaeaeueoeai n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa ?acoeueoaoia iaaiiiai o?oaea
oieueei /a?ac noa?o ia?auaiey.

Ia?enenou e noi?iiieee nioeeaeenoe/aneeo eaeae ?anniao?eaath} aoi?oth
iaicia/aiioth iaie oi?io i?enaiaiey n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa eae
yenieoaoaoeeth, i?eaeaaay oa?ieio «yenieoaoaoeey» iaaaoeaiue yoe/aneee
iooaiie.

Oaeiaa, a iaueo /a?oao, enoiaeiay oa?aeoa?enoeea yeiiiie/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey nianoaaiiinoe.

I?iaeaia nianoaaiiinoe – yoi ai iiiaii e th?eaee/aneay i?iaeaia, oae eae
?aaeecaoeey ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe i?ienoiaeeo n o/aoii e ia iniiaa eo
i?aaiaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee.

I?aai nianoaaiiinoe – yoi nenoaia th?aaee/aneeo ii?i, cae?aieythueo
ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe.

Iiae/a?eiai, /oi caeiiu cae?aieytho ioiioaiey, eioi?ua oaeoe/anee
neiaeeeenue a iauanoaa a iauanoaa (yoi ni?aaaaeeeai ioia/aeinue aua a
caeiiao Nieiia, i?e/eneaiiiai e naie ae?aaiaa?a/aneei ioae?aoeai (594 a.
aei iaoae y?u). Aianoa n oai, oioy caeiiu e ia nicaeatho ioiioaiee
nianoaaiiinoe, iie aeatho i?inoi? ?acaeoeth yoeo ioiioaiee eee, iai?ioea
naea?aeeaatho eo ?acaeoea.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaiauo oa?aeoa?enoee nianoaaiiinoe neaaeoao
auaeaeeoue noauaeou i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe. Eie, niaeanii A?aaeaeaineiio
eiaeaeno ?O, yaeythony (noaouey 212):

a?aaeaeaiei (oece/aneia eeoei);

th?eaee/aneia eeoei – i?aaiecaoeey (iauaaeeiaiea eeoe, oe?ia,
o/?aaeaeaiea);

ainoaea?noai e ioieoeeiaeueiua ia?aciaaiey (i?aaiu ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey).

Aeinoaoi/ii oeie/iie yaeyaony th?eaee/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey iauaeoia
nianoaaiiinoe eae iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, aeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa,
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

E iaaeaeaeeiiio eiouanoao ioiinyony: i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiiauaiey, aei?iae, o?ainii?oiua nii?oaeaiey,
?acee/iua iauaeou eio?ano?oeoo?u (eeiee yeaeo?iia?aaea/, aaci- e
iaooai?iaiaeu e o.i.). Iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo iauaeoia iaaeaeaeeiinoe
-caiey.

Aeaeaeeiinoue – yoi eiouanoai, aeiioneathuaa naiaiaeiia ia?aiauaiea:
iaoeiu, noaiee, iai?oaeiaaiea, eino?oiaiou, aaoiiiaeee, iaaaeue, oeaiiua
aoiaae e o.ae.

Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue – ecia?aoaiey, n?aaenoaa i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey, ?oeiiene, aeinoeaeaiey a iaoea, eneonnoaa, ae?oaea
i?iaeoeou /aeiaa/aneiai eioaeeaeoa.

Ioa/anoaaiiia a?aaeaeaineia i?aai i?aaeoniao?eaaao cae?aieaiea ca
nianoaaiieeii o?ao ia?aii/a?aaeiuo ooieoeee: aeaaeaiey, iieueciaaiey,
?anii?yaeaiey.

Aeaaeaiea – yoi aiciiaeiinoue eiaoue o naay aeaiiia eiouanoai,
niaea?aeaoue aai, oaeoe/anee iaeaaeaoue ei. Yoi i?aaiii/ea nianoaaiieea
anaaaea io?aiyaony caeiiii. Caeiiiia aeaaeaiea eiouanoaii anaaaea eiaao
i?aaiaia iniiaaiea (caeii, aeiaiai?, aaeieieno?aoeaiue aeo).

Iieueciaaiea – i?aai i?iecaiaeeoaeueii eee ee/ii iio?aaeyoue aauue a
caaeneiinoe io aa iacia/aiey. Iai?eia?, i?aai eniieueciaaoue aaoiiiaeeue
eae ee/iue o?ainii?o eee aeey ia?aaicee iannaaee?ia.

?anii?yaeaiea – yoi i?aai eciaiyoue i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue eiouanoaa. Iii
/aua anaai inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii niaa?oaiey ?acee/iuo naeaeie
(eoiee-i?iaeaaee, iaiaia, aea?aiey).

Auoa iacaaiiay o?eaaea i?aa nianoaaiieea auea noi?ioee?iaaia oaea a
?eineii i?aaa. N ?acaeoeai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee e i?aaa a
caiaaeiuo no?aiao, i?aaeaea anaai, a Aiaeee e NOA, e iei noaee
aeiaaaeyoueny nouanoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee:

i?aai ia iniiao, eee “eaieoaeueioth noieiinoue” aaue (ia io/oaeaeaiea,
iio?aaeaiea, eciaiaiea, oece/aneia oie/oiaeaiea);

i?aai ia aeioiae, aicieeathuee a ?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey eee
oi?aaeaiey iauaeoii nianoaaiiinoe;

aann?i/iinoue i?aa nianoaaiiinoe (Yoi i?aai noaei cae?aieyoueny a nayce
n iaoeeiiaeecaoeeae, eiaaoae ianoi ai iiiaeo no?aiao a XX aaea);

i?aai ia aaciianiinoue – oaeaea caueoa io yeni?ii?eaoeee iiae oai eee
eiui aeaaiaeaeiui i?aaeeiaii;

cai?auaiea a?aaeiiai eniieueciaaiey aaue – caueoa io io?eoeaoaeueiuo
iineaaenoaee eniieueciaaiey aaue (io?eoeaoaeueiuo aiaoieo yooaeoia,
aicieeathueo a nayce n eniieueciaaieai iauaeoa nianoaaiiinoe) noaei
iniaaiii aeooaeueiui a nayce n iaino?aieai yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea yeiiiie/aneay
oai?ey i?aa nianoaaiiinoe. Ia/aei aa ?ac?aaioea iieiaeeee aia?eeaineea
o/aiua ?. Eioc e A. Ae/yi. Yoa oai?ey eco/aao aeeyiea i?aa nianoaaiiinoe
ia ?acaeoea oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu.

Niaeanii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee i?aa nianoaaiiinoe, ?acaeaaaiie eie e eo
iineaaeiaaoaeyie, ia iauaeo yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth, a io/ie eee aeiey
i?aa ii eniieueciaaieth yoiai iauaeoa. A niioaaonoaee n yeiiiie/aneie
oai?eae i?aa nianoaaiiinoe, nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu nianoaaiiinoe
caeeth/aiu ia noieueei a iienea e iainiiaaiee yooaeoeaiinoe
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, neieueei a iienea e iainiiaaiee
yooaeoeaiinoe aeaoaeueiiai cae?aieaiey iieiiii/ee

oaea a ?eineii i?aaa. N ?acaeoeai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee e
i?aaa a caiaaeiuo no?aiao, i?aaeaea anaai, a Aiaeee e NOA, e iei noaee
aeiaaaeyoueny nouanoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee:

i?aai ia iniiao, eee “eaieoaeueioth noieiinoue” aaue (ia io/oaeaeaiea,
iio?aaeaiea, eciaiaiea, oece/aneia oie/oiaeaiea);

i?aai ia aeioiae, aicieeathuee a ?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey eee
oi?aaeaiey iauaeoii nianoaaiiinoe;

aann?i/iinoue i?aa nianoaaiiinoe (Yoi i?aai noaei cae?aieyoueny a nayce
n iaoeeiiaeecaoeeae, eiaaoae ianoi ai iiiaeo no?aiao a XX aaea);

i?aai ia aaciianiinoue – oaeaea caueoa io yeni?ii?eaoeee iiae oai eee
eiui aeaaiaeaeiui i?aaeeiaii;

cai?auaiea a?aaeiiai eniieueciaaiey aaue – caueoa io io?eoeaoaeueiuo
iineaaenoaee eniieueciaaiey aaue (io?eoeaoaeueiuo aiaoieo yooaeoia,
aicieeathueo a nayce n eniieueciaaieai iauaeoa nianoaaiiinoe) noaei
iniaaiii aeooaeueiui a nayce n iaino?aieai yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea yeiiiie/aneay
oai?ey i?aa nianoaaiiinoe. Ia/aei aa ?ac?aaioea iieiaeeee aia?eeaineea
o/aiua ?. Eioc e A. Ae/yi. Yoa oai?ey eco/aao aeeyiea i?aa nianoaaiiinoe
ia ?acaeoea oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu.

Niaeanii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee i?aa nianoaaiiinoe, ?acaeaaaiie eie e eo
iineaaeiaaoaeyie, ia iauaeo yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth, a io/ie eee aeiey
i?aa ii eniieueciaaieth yoiai iauaeoa. A niioaaonoaee n yeiiiie/aneie
oai?eae i?aa nianoaaiiinoe, nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu nianoaaiiinoe
caeeth/aiu ia noieueei a iienea e iainiiaaiee yooaeoeaiinoe
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, neieueei a iienea e iainiiaaiee
yooaeoeaiinoe aeaoaeueiiai cae?aieaiey iieiiii/ee

2. Oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe a nia?aiaiiii oicyenoaa.

Yeiiiienou auaeaeaatho a ea/anoaa iniiau nia?aiaiiiai ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaa iiiaiia?acea oi?i nianoaaiiinoe (iieeii?oeci). Ii AE ?O,
/anoue 1 eioi?iai auea aaaaeaia a aeaenoaea n 1995 aiaea, onoaiaaeeaaao,
/oi iiiaiia?acea oi?i – th?eaee/anee ia aiieia ei??aeoiia ii?aaeaeaiea.
TH?enou n/eoatho, /oi iaee/ea ?aciuo “oi?i nianoaaiiinoe” iaecaaaeii
aea/ao iiyaeaiea ?aciuo i?aa nianoaaiiinoe, eae yoi auei a
nioeeaeenoe/aneii oicyenoaa: ee/iay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe aa?aioe?iaaea
nianoaaiieeo eiua aiciiaeiinoe, /ai ainoaea?noaaiiay. Yoi eanaeinue
e?oaa iauaeoia nianoaaiiinoe, oi?i ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca aa eniieueciaaiea
e ae?.

A i?eioeeia, iao iai?aiaeieeiiai i?ioeai?a/ey a iiieiaiee i?iaeaiu oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo yeiiiienoaie e th?enoaie.

I?eaea?aeeaaynue e?eoa?eaa eeanneoeeaoeee nianoaaiiinoe n
iauaeoii-noauaeoiuo iiceoeee, ?anniio?ei aeiionoeiua e yooaeoeaiua oi?iu
a nia?aiaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, iniaaiiinoe eo ?aaeaiaioaoeee
?inneeneei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, i?iaeaiu ?aaeecaoeee ia i?aeoeea.

Noauaeou nianoaaiiinoe – yoi, niaeanii AE ?O, a?aaeaeaia, th?eaee/aneea
eeoea, oaaea?aoeey, aa noauaeou e ioieoeeiaeueiua ia?aciaaiey. Ia iiaoo
aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa noauaeoia nianoaaiiinoe ia?aciaaiey, ia
yaeythueany noauaeoaie a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa. A /anoiinoe, o?oaeiaua e
eiua eieeaeoeau, ?acee/iua iaueiu e ae?oaea iauaaeeiaiey a?aaeaeai, ia
eiathuea nianoaaiiiai eiouanoaa, iainiaeaiiiai io ae?oaeo o/anoieeia, ia
iiaoo aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa noauaeoia nianoaaiiinoe. Eae oaeiaie,
eieeaeoeaiie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ia
i?aaeoniao?eaaao. Aiciiaeiu oieueei neaaeothuea oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe (ii
noauaeoai):

/anoiay (a?aaeaeai eee i?aaiecaoeee);

ainoaea?noaaiiay a aeaoo aa?eaioao (oaaea?aeueiay e noauaeoia
oaaea?aoeee):

ioieoeeiaeueiay (ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe).

?acaeoea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee e oaaea?aoeaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa n ?acaeoui ianoiui naiioi?aaeaieai iaoneiaeeaaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia oi?acaeiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, a
/aoeiai ii?aaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo aa ianooaaia, oi?ie?iaaiey aa
iiiaio?iaiaainoe.

A nia?aiaiiii ie?a iao ie iaeiie no?aiu, aaea au ainoaea?noai e ianoiua
niiauanoaa ia eiaee a naiae nianoaaiiinoe oicyenoaaiiua iauaeou,
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iua oeaiiinoe e o.ae. Ioaee/iua
oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe i?eiaiythony a oao noa?ao, aaea:

iauaeoeaii aaeeea iio?aaiinoue a i?yiii, oeaio?aeeciaaiiii oi?aaeaiee
(aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue o?ainii?o, ii/oiaay naycue e o.i.);

i?eaioaoeey ia i?eaueueiinoue ia iiaeao auoue e?eoa?eai, aeinoaoi/iui
aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a iauanoaaiiuo eioa?anao (nenoaia ia?aciaaiey e
cae?aaiio?aiaiey, aei?iaeiia no?ieoaeuenoai, eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai).

Aeiey ainnaeoi?a a yeiiiieea caiaaeiuo no?ai ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothueie
aeaiiuie: aeey Aano?ee – 25 %, O?aioeee – 22,8 %, A?aoeee – 22,3 %,
Eoaeee – 20 %, O?A – 14 %. I/aaeaeii, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiay
nianoaaiiinoue nio?aieony a ii?aaeaeaiiuo naeoi?ao e noa?ao yeiiiieee e
a ?innee, i?e/ai. Anee o/anoue o?aaeeoeee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie
eoeueoo?u, ni?aaaaeeeai i?aaeiieiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue aa nio?aiaiey a
aeinoaoi/ii aieueoeo ianooaaao.

?uii/iua ?aoi?iu, nii?yaeaiiua n o?ainoi?iaoeeae ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa ?innee, noaiiaeaieai oaaea?aeecia e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey,
iai?aaeaiu ia i?aia?aciaaiea iiiieeoa ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe,
i?e/ai iii ninoieo ia oieueei a noaiiaeaiee /anoiuo oi?i, ii e a
iainiaeaiee i?enaiaiey a ?aaeiiaeueiii ieaia, noaiiaeaiee, ia?yaeo n
oaaea?aeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth, nianoaaiiinoe noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee e
ioieoeeiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Iauaeoaie ?aaeiiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe noaiiayony oa ?ano?nu, n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, iauaeou nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u, eioi?ua a
ii?aaeaeythuae noaiaie aini?iecaiaeyony ia o?iaia ?aaeiiia, a
iaeaieueoae ia?a niinianoaotho ?aaeecaoeee caaea/ ?aaeiiaeueiiai
?acaeoey e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

Iineieueeo ianoiia naiioi?aaeaiea ia yaeyaony oi?iie ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey, ioieoeeiaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue ia yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth
ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, a auaeaeyaony eae naiinoiyoaeueiay oi?ia
nianoaaiiinoe.

Anyeay nianoaaiiinoue, ia yaeythuayny ainoaea?noaaiiie eee
ioieoeeiaeueiie – yoi /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue. I?aeiouanoaa /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe, aa iaeaieueoaa niioaaonoaea ?uii/iui i?eioeeiai ninoieo a
oii, /oi iia ?acaeaaaony niiioaiii, aeey /anoiiai nianoaaiieea
oa?aeoa?ii no?aieaiea eniieueciaaoue aa yooaeoeaii, n iaeaieueoae
ioaea/ae.

A iieeoe/aneeo aeeneonneyo i?e o?aeoiaea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe
aeiioneatho ii e?aeiae ia?a aeaa oeie/iuo iia?aoiinoe.

/anoiay – yoi nianoaaiiinoue iaeiiai eeoea (naiuee)

e

/anoiay – cia/eo ie/ai ia ia?aie/aiiay nianoaaiiinoue.

Aieiaoaeueiue acaeyae ia nia?aiaiiua ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe ioaa?aaao
oaeie iiaeoiae.

Ai-ia?auo, nia?aiaiiua oicyenoaaiiua nenoaiu ioioee io iiiiiieee
nianoaaiiinoe ioaeaeueiuo eeoe (naiae). Aieueoeinoai ec ieo aace?othony
ia ?acee/iuo oi?iao aeieaaie, iaaaie nianoaaiiinoe: aeoeeiia?iie,
ia?oia?neie, eiiia?aoeaiie. Yeiiiienou n/eoatho, /oi ii niaea?aeaieth
yoi – eieeaeoeaiua oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe. Ii eo nouanoaaiiia ioee/ea io
i?aaeieo i?aaenoaaeaiee i eieeaeoeaiii i?enaiaiee eae “ie/aeiii” ninoieo
a oii, /oi i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe a ieo ia?niieoeoee?iaaiu, no?iai
iaiai?aiu. Yoi aiciiaeii ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey cae?aieaiiuo
A?aaeaeaineei eiaeaenii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo
oi?i i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaeaieaa cia/eiie aeey
nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee yaeyaony aeoeeiia?iay
nianoaaiiinoue, a iaeneiaeueiie noaiaie niioaaonoaothuay e?oiiiio
iaoeiiiio i?iecaiaenoao – iniiaa nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieee.

Ai-aoi?uo, th?eaee/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea nianoaaiiinoe oeacuaaao ia
eneeth/eoaeueiinoue i?aa nianoaaiieea a ioiioaiee eiouanoaa, ii yoi ia
icia/aao, /oi i?aaa nianoaaiieea ie/ai ia ia?aie/aiu e th?eaee/aneee
nianoaaiiee iiiiiieueii ?aaeecoao naie eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa. Aieaa oiai,
iiaeii niaeaneoueny n oaie yeiiiienoaie, eioi?ua n/eoatho, /oi a
nia?aiaiiuo oicyenoaaiiuo nenoaiao ethaay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe yaeyaony
ii nooe iauanoaaiiie.

Oi?iaeueii ia iaiauanoaeaiiua (ia iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiua) iauaeou
nianoaaiiinoe naaiaeiy ooieoeeiiaeueii iaiauanoaeaiu. Ainoaea?noai (e
ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe) iieo/atho /anoue aeioiaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeae –
nianoaaiieeia, aeeoioee?oy aai a athaeaeaoao ?aciuo o?iaiae e ai
aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeao. Nia?aiaiiia ainoaea?noai e i?aaiu ianoiie
aeanoe ?aaoee?otho aii?inu ?anii?yaeaiey nianoaaiiinoueth, eiio?iee?oy
ioiioaiey a?aiaeu, ianeaaeiaaiey, eoiee – i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa, i?iaiaey
aioeiiiiiieueioth iieeoeeo e o.ae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ni?aaaaeeeai iiaiea,
/oi a nia?aiaiiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao eiaao ianoi
ooieoeeiiaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea i?aa nianoaaiiinoe, ?aaeueiia
iaiauanoaeaiea anao oi?i i?enaiaiey, iaoneiaeaiiia o?iaiai nioeeaeueiiai
e yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai ie?a, c?aeinoueth eo
eae i?aaiauo iauanoa, noaiaiueth ?acaeoinoe eo nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo
nenoai.

Eae oaea oeacuaaeinue auoa, n oi/ee c?aiey iauaeoa i?enaiaiey, iniaue
eioa?an aeey yeiiiienoia i?aaenoaaeytho oaeea oi?iu, eae
eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue, nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia caieth. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, n yeiiiie/aneeo iiceoeee
aeaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ?ano?naie iaeaieaa cia/eii.

Naaiaeiy iauai?eiyoie n/eoaaony yooaeoeaiinoue /anoiiai aeaaeaiey
n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa. Eeoue iaiiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee
i?eaea?aeeaathony i?ioeaiiieiaeiie oi/ee c?aiey e ianoaeaatho ia
i?aeiouanoaao iainoaea?noaeaiey n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eae oaea auei oeacaii auoa, iniiao yeiiiieee nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/anee
?acaeouo no?ai ninoaaeyao aeoeeiia?iay nianoaaiiinoue. Iaeiaei, n
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo iiceoeee, n oi/ee c?aiey yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe e nioeeaeueiie noaaeeueiinoe, aaaeii o/eouaaoue
?ani?aaeaeaiea onoaaiiai eaieoaea iaaeaeo nianoaaiieeaie e ?aaioieeaie.
Aeoiaaony, /oi ia?niaeoeaii ?acaeoea oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, iniiaaiiuo ia
aiaea/aiee ?aaioieeia ai aeaaeaiea n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa, ia eioi?uo
iie o?oaeyony.

Ia?aaea/a cia/eoaeueiie /anoe eiouanoaa a eieeaeoeaii – aeieaaoth
nianoaaiiinoue ?aaioieeia noaea aeiaaeueiie ie?iaie oaiaeaioeeae. Yoi, n
iaeiie noi?iiu:

iiauoaao iauoth nioeeaeueioth noaaeeueiinoue, a, n ae?oaie,

noeioee?oao o?oaeiaoth iioeaaoeeth ?aaioieeia, noaiiayueony
niaeaaeaeueoeaie i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiiiaaoeeiiiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa,
ia?aoiae e eioi?iio, a eiia/iii n/aoa, e iaoneiaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue
?aaeeeaeueiie ia?ano?ieee i?aaeiaai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia, iauaeoeaii
o?aaoao ia?aaea/e oioy au /anoe i?a?iaaoea nianoaaiieea eeoeai iaaiiiai
o?oaea, i?aa?auaiey eo a niaeaaeaeueoeaa e a nioi?aaeoaeae.

A iaeaieaa caeii/aiiii aeaea eiioeaioeey “i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai
eieeaeoeaa” ioi?ieeanue a aia?eeaineie i?ia?aiia ESOP (ESOP – Employer
Stock Ownership Plan – i?ia?aiia ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeoeee aeey i?eia?aoaiey
nianoaaiiinoe ?aaioieeaie). Aeey iaa oa?aeoa?iu iauaaeeiaiea /eaiaie
o?oaeiauo eieeaeoeaia ooieoeee nianoaaiieea, i?aaei?eieiaoaey e iaaiiiai
?aaioieea, a yoi icia/aao iaania/aiea aaeeinoaa eioa?ania, eae i?aaeei,
i?ioeai?a/eauo a o?aaeeoeeiiiii aa?eaioa n ?acaeaeaiiuie ooieoeeyie.

?aaioieee – niaeaaeaeueoeu o?oaeyony aieaa i?iaeoeoeaii, /ai iaaiiua
?aaioieee a iau/iuo eiiiaieyo, caiaaeiay noaoenoeea ioia/aao, /oi iie
iaiaa, /ai iaaiiua ?aaioieee o/anoaotho ai anyeiai ?iaea nioeeaeueiuo
eiioeeeoao. Aeaaaeoeaoeeaoiee iiuo ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aiiu ESOP a NOA e
ae?oaeo ?acaeouo no?aiao iicaieee au?aaioaoue iaoaieciu
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoee n ?aai/ae aeoeeiia?iie nianoaaiiinoueth,
iicaieythuea ecaaaeaoue i?iaaeaiey eie aeioiaeia e yooaeoeaii ?aaioaoue
a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie eiieo?aioeee.

Iaoaieci ia?aciaaiey yoie nianoaaiiinoe oaeia. Eiiiaiey nicaeaao
aeiaa?eoaeueiue oiiae, a eioi?ii eaaeaeue iaaiiue ?aaioiee eiaao naie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue n/ao. Eiiiaiey aiineo a yoio oiiae naie iiaua aeoeee
eee aeaiueae aeey iieoiee nouanoaothueo aeoeee. Iia iiaeao iieo/eoue o
ainoaea?noaa caai ia yoe oeaee ia eueaioiuo oneiaeyo. I?e yoii eiiiaiey
aeaeaao ia?eiaee/aneea aeaiaaeiua aciinu, /oiau oiiae iia
?ann/eouaaoueny ii caeio. Yoe aciinu iaeiaaie ia iaeaaathony. Oaeei
ia?acii, eiiiaiey, ?aoeaoay i?eiaieoue nianoaaiiinoue ?aaioieeia,
iiiaaeaao a eueaioiua oneiaey. Eiaiii yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa yaeyaony aeaaiui i?e i?eiyoee eiiiaieyie oaeiai ?aoaiey.

?aaioieee ia aeeaaeuaatho naie nianoaaiiua naa?aaeaiey a iieoieo aeoeee
eiiiaiee. Aeoeee aanieaoii ?ani?aaeaeythony ii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui n/aoai
?aaioieeia a ?acia?a noiiu eo ca?aaioiie ieaou.

I?e ia?aciaaiee oaeie nianoaaiiinoe i?aneaaeothony aeaa iniiaiua oeaee:
iiauneoue iioeaaoeeth e o?oaeo e caeioa?aniaaoue ?aai/eo a aeaeao
eiiiaiee. Yoi caeeaaeuaaaony a i?eioeei oi?ie?iaaiey nianoaaiiinoe e
?anii?yaeaiey ath. Onoaiiaeaii. /oi iioeaaoeey e o?oaeo auoa, anee
aeoeee i?iaeatho oieueei naiei ?aai/ei. Iiyoiio, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue
iinoi?iiieo, eiiiaiey i?aaeii/eoaao naia aueoieoue aeoeee o oao ?aai/eo.
eioi?ua ii eaeie-oi i?e/eia ?aoeee eo i?iaeaoue. Eiio?ieueiua ooieoeee
eieeaeoeaa ii?aaeaeythony aai aeieae a eaieoaea eiiiaiee. *oiau ia
nieceoue yoo aeieth, onoaiaaeeaathony ia?aie/aiey a ?anii?yaeaiee
aeoeeyie. Oae, i?aai i?iaeaaee aeoeee i?aaeinoaaeyaony nionoy
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie – io 5 aei 7 eao. ?aaioieee iiaoo iieo/eoue naie
aeoeee oieueei i?e oaieueiaiee eee i?e ooiaea ia iaineth.

Aia?eeaioeu iiae/a?eeaatho, /oi nianoaaiiinoue ?aaioieeia ia yaeyaony
a?oiiiaie, eieeaeoeaiie nianoaaiiinoueth: ?aai/ea aeaaeatho aeoeeyie ia
niaianoii, a eaaeaeue eiaao aeoeee ia naiai n/aoo. Ii iaoiaeeony yoa
nianoaaiiinoue a eieeaeoeaiii oiio?aaeaiee. E ia/aeo 90-o aiaeia
/eneaiiinoue iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia NOA, ioaa/aiiuo i?ia?aiiaie ESOP,
ninoaaeea 10 iei. /aeiaae, eee aieaa 10 % anae ?aai/ae neeu no?aiu.

Neiaeiie aeey ?innee i?iaeaiie yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth. Aei
neo ii? ia i?eiyo Caiaeueiue Eiaeaen – iniiaiie aeieoiaio, ?aaoee?othuee
caiaeueiua ioiioaiey a no?aia. Eiaeaen i?eiyo Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiie,
iaeiaei, eae n/eoatho niaoeeaeenou, oainia i?iaanoe aai /a?ac Niaao
Oaaea?aoeee iaiiiai ec-ca iaio?aaioaiiinoe i?iaeai iai?ioa caiee.

Noi?iiieee ?aaeeeaeueiuo ia?aiai ianoaeaatho ia cae?aieaiee i?aaa
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, aeeth/athuae i?aai naiaiaeiie eoiee –
i?iaeaaee. Ae?oaay /anoue iieeoeeia e enneaaeiaaoaeae ianoaeaaao ia
nio?aiaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth.

Ia aaeaaaynue a aeoaeiu a?aoiaioaoeee, caiaoei, /oi caiaeueiue ?uiie,
nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth, eae iieacuaaao ie?iaie iiuo, yaeythony
iaeaieaa ?aaeaiaioe?oaiuie iauaeoaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. Cae?aieaiea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth nii?yaeaii n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth auiieiaiey /anoiuie aeaaeaeueoeaie o?aaiaaiee io?aiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, niaethaeaiey ?aaeeia aiaeiiieueciaaiey. Ai iiiaeo
no?aiao nianoaaiiee caiee aeieaeai eiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue oeaic
iaoo?aeecaoeee a yoie no?aia, ia?aciaaoaeueiue oeaic; aeaaeaiea caieae
oaycuaaaony n aa oeaeaaui eniieueciaaieai, auiieiaieai niaoeeaeueiuo
oneiaee, aieioue aei niaeaney aeaaeaeueoeaa ninaaeieo o/anoeia. A
aieueoeinoaa ainoaea?noa a oeaeyo i?ana/aiey niaeoeyoeee
caeiiiaeaoaeueii onoaiaaeeaaaony ia?aie/aiea i?iaeaaee eoieaiiie caiee
ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie: 10 – 12 eao – a Eniaiee, aei 30 eao – a Eoaeee, 3
aiaea – a ssiiiee.

Niaoeeaeenou ii caiaeueiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ioia/atho, /oi a ie?a
eaeao ia?aoiae e ?ac?aoeoaeueiie nenoaia caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee, ioeac io
i?eioeeia “?ac?aoaii ana, /oi ia cai?auaii”. A ioiioaieyo caiaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia?aieaoathony eioa?anu ainoaea?noaa, ?aaeiiaeueiuo
no?oeoo?, aeeoaeae e oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia. ?uii/iia eo niaeaniaaiea
ia anaaaea yooaeoeaii, ca/anooth nii?yaeaii n nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeie
eiioeeeoaie e o?aaoao aeiiieiaiey ?aaoee?othuei aicaeaenoaeai
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ianoiuo aeanoiuo no?oeoo?.

N o/aoii auoa neacaiiiai, iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi iaeaieaa i?eaieaia
aeey ?innee /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth n aeinoaoi/ii aeaoaeueiie
?aaeaiaioaoeeae iieiiii/ee nianoaaiieea.

Iauaeoaie eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe yaeythony oai?aiey
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia, eioaeeaeoa. Aeaaeaiea ciaieai, eioi?iaoeeae,
ae?oaeie ?acoeueoaoaie eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea – iaiaoiaeeiay
i?aaeiinueea e oneiaea nia?aiaiiuo aeaeia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iau/ii iiae eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth iiieiatho i?iiuoeaiioth
nianoaaiiinoue (ecia?aoaiey, iieaciua iiaeaee, i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu e
oiaa?iua ciaee) e aaoi?neia i?aai (aeaaiui ia?acii oi, /oi ioiineony, e
iaoea, eoeueoo?a e eneonnoao, nthaea aea ioiinyony eiiiuethoa?iua
i?ia?aiiu).

A iaoae Eiinoeoooeee aa?aioe?oaony io?aia eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Yoio iauee i?eioeei ?acaeaaaony a oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiao.
Ii o?aaeeoeee eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe oieueei aua oi?ie?othony,
i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe aeiaieueii /anoi ia?ooathony.
Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue “ie?aonoai” ia aeaeai?uieao, ?uieao i?ia?aiiiuo
n?aaenoa. Ii ioeaieai niaoeeaeenoia, iioa?e io iacaeiiiiai iai?ioa
iaeeoeaice?iaaiiuo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa a ?innee a 1995 aiaeo
en/eneyeenue a 1 ie?ae. aeiee. Ana yoi o?aaoao iniaiai aieiaiey e
i?iaeaia caueou eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a ?innee.

3. I?eaaoecaoeey: nouiinoue, oeaee, yoaiu, ?acoeueoaou e i?iaeaiu.

Iaeaieaa neiaeiie i?iaeaiie a nenoaia ?uii/iuo i?aia?aciaaiee yaeyaony
i?eaaoecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiie e ioieoeeiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Iiae
i?eaaoecaoeeae i?eiyoi iiieiaoue “ia?aaea/o ainoaea?noaaiiie eee
ioieoeeiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ca ieaoo eee aacaiciacaeii a /anoioth
nianoaaiiinoue”.

I?ioeannu i?eaaoecaoeee, eioi?ua ?acaeaathony a ?innee e ae?oaeo
iinonioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao, ia yaeythony oieeaeueiuie a ie?iaii
oicyenoaaiiii ?acaeoee. I?e/eiu oe?ieiianooaaiie i?eaaoecaoeee 70o, 80-o
aiaeia a caiaaeiii ie?a iiiaia?aiiu, yaeythony eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneeie.
Caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneay i?eaaoecaoeey iaoneiaeaia ii?aaeaeaiiie noaaeeae
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, niaiie iauanoaaiiuo i?ei?eoaoia, a oii /enea,
ioeacii io eaeaieiaee “ainoaea?noaa aeaaiaeainoaey”, a ii?aaeaeaiiie
ia?a, – iaaeinoaoi/iie yooaeoeaiinoueth ?aaiou ainnaeoi?a.

Caiaaeiue ie? iaeiiee cia/eoaeueiue iiuo inouanoaeaiey i?eaaoecaoeee,
eioi?ue iaiaoiaeeii aiaeece?iaaoue e eniieueciaaoue. Iaeiaei, ie oaiiu,
ie ianooaau, ie oeaee e oneiaey eo i?eaaoecaoeee ianiecia?eiu n
?inneeneeie. E i?eia?o, oe?iei i?iiaaaiaee?oaiue iiuo a?eoaineie
i?eaaoecaoeee ia?aie/eaaaony i?aia?aciaaieai a /anoiua ianeieueeeo
aeanyoeia ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a oa/aiea iieooi?a aeanyoeia
eao. Nouanoaaiiui ia?aie/aieai aeey ?innee a caeinoaiaaiee oi?i e
iaoaieciia i?eaaoecaoeee yaeyaony oi, /oi eiaaoeeny aei neo ii? ie?iaie
iiuo i?eaaoecaoeee aace?oaony ia ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

Ia/aooth a iaoae no?aia n 1 ieoya?y 1992 aiaea i?eaaoecaoeeth iacuaatho
“/aeiaie”, eee “aao/a?iie”, oae eae iniiaiui ieaoaaeiui n?aaenoaii ia
ia?aii yoaia aunooiaee i?eaaoecaoeeiiiua /aee. I?eiaiaiea
i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo /aeia ia?aie/eaaeinue iauaeoaie ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Ioieoeeiaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue ia iiaea auoue
i?eaaoece?iaaia iooai eniieueciaaiey i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo /aeia.

Ia/aei /aeiaie i?eaaoecaoeee auei iieiaeaii Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O “I
aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea nenoaiu i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo /aeia a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee” io 14 aaaonoa 1992 aiaea ? 914.

Ia?aue yoai i?eaaoecaoeee, ii?aaeaeaiiue Ainoaea?noaaiiie i?ia?aiiie
i?eaaoecaoeee, iinoaaee neaaeothuea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oeaee
yoiai i?ioeanna:

Oi?ie?iaaiea neiy /anoiuo nianoaaiieeia, niaeaenoaothueo nicaeaieth
nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee iooai eo
i?eaaoecaoeee.

Nioeeaeueiay caueoa ianaeaiey e ?acaeoea iauaeoia nioeeaeueiie
eio?ano?oeoo?u ca n/ao n?aaenoa, iinooieaoeo io i?eaaoecaoeee.

Niaeaenoaea i?ioeanno noaaeeecaoeee oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee.

Nicaeaiea eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu e niaeaenoaea aeaiiiiiieecaoeee ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa.

I?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee.

Nicaeaiea oneiaee e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo? aeey ?anoe?aiey ianooaaia
i?eaaoecaoeee ia iineaaeothueo yoaiao.

?aaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue i?eaaoecaoeee 1992 – 1994
a.a. ia iiaeao auoue ioeaiaia iaeiicia/ii. O?oaeii auaeaeeoue
niaoeeoe/aneia aicaeaenoaea oaeoi?a i?eaaoecaoeee ia e?eceniue niaae
yeiiiieee. Iaeiie ec i?iaeai ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo
i?ioeaaeo?, iineaaenoaee e ?acoeueoaoia i?eaaoecaoeee yaeyaony
ionoonoaea iaiaoiaeeiie noaoenoeee. Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu noaoenoeee
niae?atho e iaiauatho noaoenoeeo oiaea i?eaaoecaoeee, ia i?eaioe?oynue
ia aa nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue.

Ioeoeeaeueiay ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia ia?aiai yoaia i?eaaoecaoeee
Aineiieiouanoaii auea aanueia iioeienoe/iie. “I?eaaoecaoeey a ?innee
ninoiyeanue… Nicaeai iaoe?iue eeann nianoaaiieeia… Nicaeai oiiaeiaue
?uiie… ?inney iiaeao ?ann/eouaaoue ia auno?ue yeiiiie/aneee iiaeuai a
naiia aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy”.

Iaeiaei, yoi iiaiea ia ?acaeaeyee ia oieueei yeiiiienou –
enneaaeiaaoaee, ii e oaaea?aeueiua aeanoiua no?oeoo?u, ?aaeiiaeueiua e
ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe, aeaeiaua e?oae ?innee, oeacuaay ia
ia?aaeeciaaiiinoue iinoaaeaiiuo Ainoaea?noaaiiie i?ia?aiiie
no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae, i?iaeaiu e i?iaaeu aa eiie?aoiuo oaaia.

Iauay ea?oeia yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey a Ineianeie iaeanoe, ii
caaa?oaiee ia?aiai i?eaaoecaoeeiiiiai yoaia, auaeyaeeo aanueia
iaaeaaii?eyoii. A 1995 aiaeo cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeinue eiee/anoai
oauoi/iuo i?aaei?eyoee, oaeaeueiue aan eioi?uo ninoaaee 45 i?ioeaioia
(1994 a. – 44 %, 1993 a. – 11 %, 1992 a. – 24 %, 1991 – 6 %). A
1991-1995 aa. iaaethaeaeny caiaoiue niaae i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a
iaeanoe: iauai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa 1995 aiaea ninoaaee 34 % e
1990 a.

Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC C . Aeeiaieea iauaiia
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a Ineianeie iaeanoe (a i?ioeaioao e
i?aaeuaeouaio aiaeo)

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1998 1999*

I?iaeoeoeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe

95

86

90

59

79

107

119

I?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey

109

84

93

67

69

104

144

a oii /enea:

i?iaeiaieuenoaai-iua oiaa?u

91

72

100,3

73

71

102

146

iai?iaeiaieuenoaai-iua oiaa?u

123

100

86

59

64

106

119

* aeaiiua aeaayoe ianyoeaa

Iiiyoii, /oi naeaoua n?iee ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aii, iaaeinoaoie iiuoa
iiaeiaiie ?aaiou e aeaoeoeeo eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia iaoneiaeee
neaainoue aiaeeoe/aneiai iainiiaaiey i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo i?ia?aii,
ionoonoaea a ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oi?iai e iaoiaeai i?eaaoecaoeee,
o/eouaathuei ?aaeiiaeueioth e i?iecaiaenoaaiioth niaoeeoeeo, ie?iaie
iiuo aa inouanoaeaiey. Ana yoi a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a i?aaeii?aaeaeeei
?acoeueoaou ia?auo i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee e eo iineaaenoaey. E
iaaeinoaoeai ia?aiai yoaia i?eaaoecaoeee neaaeoao ioianoe neaaeothuaa:

Ec-ca neeoeii iiniaoiiai i?aia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a
aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa, iineaaeiea ieacaeenue iaiiaeaioiaeaiiuie e ?aaioa
a oneiaeyo ?uiea.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee /aeiaie i?eaaoecaoeee i?aeoe/anee ia?aoaiiie ieacaeanue
caaea/a caueou i?aa e eioa?ania aeaaeaeueoeaa i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo /aeia.
Auione i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo /aeia aue inouanoaeai a ia?ooaiea Caeiia “Ia
eiaiiuo i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo n/aoao e aeeaaeao”, i?e yoii iieiinoueth
ionoonoaiaae eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiauo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia e ae?oaeo
i?aaiecaoeee, ?aaioaaoeo n i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuie /aeaie a?aaeaeai, /oi
nicaeaei iniiao aeey oeiainiauo aoa?, iaiaia a?aaeaeai e ae?oaeo
ceioiio?aaeaiee.

Oa?aeoa?ii i?eia?aoaiea ca aanoeaiie eiio?ieueiuo iaeaoia aeoeee eeoeaie
(/aua anaai, ec aaeieieno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee), eioi?ua ia iaania/eee
oioy au naea?aeeaaiey niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa ia eoieaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo.

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aeoeee i?eaaoece?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, a
niioaaonoaee n iiaeaeyie i?eaaoecaoeee eniieueciaaiiuie a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, inoaeanue a nianoaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaa. Ii eoiaai
?inneeneie i?eaaoecaoeee a 1995 aiaeo niaieoiiue /anoiue naeoi? ii /eneo
aia?aua i?aaunee ainoaea?noaaiiue (50,5 e 49,5 % niioaaonoaaiii). Ii
aeiea i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a AAI yoio ?oaaae ia aue i?aiaeieai.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiiaea i?aaiecaoeee n oi/ee c?aiey yeiiiie/aneeo oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe, i?aa?aoeeenue a niaoaiiua. Ii caaa?oaiee aeoeeiie?iaaiey
anoaao i?iaeaia oi?aaeaiey niaoaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie i?e nio?aiaiee
eiio?iey ainoaea?noaa iaae ieie, eee i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, ?aaeecaoeee
iaeaoa aeoeee, cae?aieaiiuo ca ainoaea?noaii.

E?aoei inoaiiaeiny ia oeiainiauo aniaeoao i?eaaoecaoeee. Oaaea?aeueiua e
ianoiua i?ia?aiiu i?aaeoniao?eaaee ii?aaeaeaiiua ii?iaoeau
?ani?aaeaeaiey n?aaenoa ii athaeaeaoai ?aciuo o?iaiae. O/eouaay
“aao/a?iue” oa?aeoa? ia?aiai yoaia iaoae i?eaaoecaoeee, iaeuecy auei e
iaeeaeaoue iinooieaiey cia/eoaeueiuo n?aaenoa io i?eaaoecaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiouanoaa. Iie aeaenoaeoaeueii ieacaeenue aanueia
iacia/eoaeueiuie, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony eae aeaiiuie ii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee a oeaeii, oae e ii Ineianeie iaeanoe, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a
oaaeeoea e aeeaa?aiiao.

Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC D . Aeioiaeu io i?eaaoecaoeee a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee (ie?ae. ?oa.)

1993 a. 1994 a.

Iauay noiia aeioiaeia io i?eaaoecaoeee 310.1 734.7

A o./. a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao 62.6 113.5

A athaeaeaou oa??eoi?ee 247.6 621.2

Aeiey aeioiaeia io i?eaaoecaoeee a iauai iauaia iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee

0.8

Niaieoiiue oaaea?aeueiue aeioiae io i?eaaoecaoeee a 1995 a. ninoaaee 7,6
o?ei. ?oaeae, a ii eoiaai 9 ian. 1996 a. – 1 o?ei. ?oaeae.

Aeioiaeu io i?eaaoecaoeee a Ineianeie iaeanoe ieacaeenue ia o?iaia
n?aaeia?inneeneeo iieacaoaeae e ia i?aauneee iaeiiai i?ioeaioa io
aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa:

Ianiio?y ia iacia/eoaeueioth aaee/eio n?aaenoa, iieo/aiiuo io
i?eaaoecaoeee ia ia?aii yoaia, neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iieo/aiiua
aeioiaeu – niaoeeoe/aneee aeae oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ainoaea?noaa,
?aaeiiia e i?eaaoece?oaiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Yoi iaaeeaaeeo o/anoue ia
aoi?ii (aeaiaaeiii) yoaia i?eaaoecaoeee. Iaoeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue
iieo/aiiua aeioiaeu ia iie?uoea oaeoueo athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia e
iiiieiaiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, /oi /aua anaai eiaei ianoi. Oianoii
i?eaanoe caia/aiea auaoaai i?aiuea?-ieieno?a Aaeeeia?eoaiee ei?aea
Iaeieeeaia, n?aaieaoaai i?eaaoecaoeeth n ?ani?iaeaaeae oaieeueiiai
na?aa?a. Aeioiaeu io i?eaaoecaoeee – aaeeiia?aiaiiue enoi/iee, ii
caaa?oaiee i?ia?aii i?eaaoecaoeee ii en/acaao, a aianoa n iei en/acaao e
oeo/oaiiay ca aa n/ao naaeaine?iaaiiinoue athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae,
noaaeeecaoeey oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee. E?iia oiai, neaaeoao
eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi i?eaaoecaoeey eiouanoaa ia nicaeaao
aeiiieieoaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa a aauanoaaiiie oi?ia. “Iaea/ea”
i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo aeaiaa a ia?auaiea – aeiiieieoaeueiue oaeoi?
eioeyoeee.

N 1 ethey 1994 aiaea ia/aeny iiaue yoai i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia –
aeaiaaeiay i?eaaoecaoeey. Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O aaaaeaiu a aeaenoaea
“Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey Ainoaea?noaaiiie i?ia?aiiu i?eaaoecaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ioieoeeiaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
iinea 1 ethey 1994 aiaea”.

Ia iiaii yoaia i?eaaoecaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuea i?ei?eoaou:

i?iaeaaea iaeaoia aeoeee ia iaiaa 25 i?ioeaioia onoaaiiai eaieoaea
e?oiiui eiaanoi?ai;

i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee;

niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie e ioieoeeiaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoueth;

?aoaiea aii?inia i?eaaoecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue;

iiaeaea?aeea nioeeaeueiie noa?u i?e i?eaaoecaoeee i?aaei?eyoee;

?acaeoea ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa;

io?aaioea noaiu acaeiiaeaenoaey i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey n
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie a niaa?oainoaiaaiee i?ioeaaeo?
aaie?ionoaa.

Ia eneeth/aii, /oi aoi?ie yoai i?eaaoecaoeee iiaeao yaeoueny eeoue
eiae/aneei i?iaeieaeaieai aao/a?iiai yoaia. Yeiiiie/aneay
yooaeoeaiinoue, cayaeaiiay eae oeaeue aoi?iai yoaia, iiaeao ieacaoueny
oaeie aea iaaeinoeaeeiie, eae e nioeeaeueiay ni?aaaaeeeainoue,
i?iaicaeaoaiiay ioeoeeaeueiie eaeaieiaeae ia?aiai yoaia. Icaai/aiiinoue
oaeie ia?niaeoeaie auneacuaaaony iiiaeie iieeoe/aneeie aeayoaeyie e
yeiiiienoaie – enneaaeiaaoaeyie.

?ACAeAE II. INIIAU ?UII*IIE YEIIIIEEE

Aeaaa 1. Iniiaiua /a?ou noaiiaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaa

Aii?inu:

Oneiaey noaiiaeaiey, nouiinoue e ooieoeee ?uiea.

Oiaa? e aai naienoaa.

Aeaiueae: eo ooieoeee e oi?iu.

Iiiaie?eoa?eaeueiue oa?aeoa? no?oeoo?u ?uiea.

Yeiiiie/aneay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a nia?aiaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

1. Oneiaey noaiiaeaiey, nouiinoue e ooieoeee ?uiea.

?uiie – iaeia ec iniiaiuo eaoaai?ee a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. Aianoa n oai
nouanoaotho iiiaiia?aciua e ca/anooth i?ioeai?a/eaua o?aeoiaee yoiai
iiiyoey eae a oai?ee, oae e ia i?aeoeea. Yoe ?anoiaeaeaiey /aua anaai
naycaiu n i?eiaiaieai oa?ieia “?uiie” e ?acee/iui yaeaieyi e noa?ai
yeiiiieee.

Ia?aiia/aeueii ?uiie ?anniao?eaaeny eae aaca?, ianoi ?icie/iie oi?aiaee,
?uii/iay ieiuaaeue.

Naaiaeiy oa?aeoa?ii iiieiaiea oa?ieia «?uiie» eae – oi?ia iaiaia,
inouanoaeyaiiai ia iniiaa naiaiaeiie eoiee – i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia e oneoa.

A eiioea 80-o – ia/aea 90-o aiaeia a ?innee oa?ieiii “?uiie” noaee
iaicia/aoue yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio, iniiaaiioth ia i?aiaeaaeaiee
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, eii?aeeiaoeey oicyenoaaiiuo
naycae a eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia. Yoi
iiiyoea (“?uiie”) caianoeei i?aaeaea iauai?eiyoia iaicia/aiea oaeeo
yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai eae “eaieoaeenoe/aneeo”.

?uiie – yoi ia oieueei iniaui ia?acii i?aaieciaaiiue iaiai oiaa?aie, ii
e oeaeinoiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie aaeeinoai
aini?iecaiaenaaiiuo noa?: i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iio?aaeaiey,
ii?aaeaeyaiia ?uii/iui iaiaiii.

*aua anaai iu e aoaeai eniieueciaaoue oa?iei “?uiie” a oaeii cia/aiee.
Neiiieiii oa?ieia «?uiie» a ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea neaaeoao
?anniao?eaaoue eaoaai?eth oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eaoaai?ey oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoai ?anniao?eaaaony a iaoae yeiiiie/aneie
oai?ee eae aeueoa?iaoeaa iaoo?aeueiiio oicyenoao, nouiinoueth eioi?iai
yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa aeey nianoaaiiiai
iio?aaeaiey. A oneiaeyo oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa (?uiea) aeaaa
i?iecaiaeyony aeaaiui ia?acii aeey iaiaia iin?aaenoaii eoiee-i?iaeaaee.

Nouiinoue ?uiea iaoiaeeo naia au?aaeaiea a aeaaiuo aai yeiiiie/aneeo
ooieoeeyo.

Ooieoeee ?uiea:

Oeaiiia?acothuay. ?uiie onoaiaaeeaaao oeaiiinoiua yeaeaaeaiou aeey
iaiaia i?iaeoeoia, auyaeyao aeaenoaeoaeueioth oeaiiinoue aeaaa,
niecia?yy ia oieueei cao?aou o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a, ii e
iieaciinoue iineaaeiaai.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay. *a?ac iaoaieci oeai e oa?eoia ?uiie iinoiyiii aeaao
o/anoieeai yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee eioi?iaoeeth i aeaenoaeoaeueiii
ni?ina, iaiaoiaeeiii eiee/anoaa e anni?oeiaioa oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua
iinoaaeythony ia ?uiie. Noeoeeiue ?uii/iue iaiai iiaeii niiinoaaeoue n
aeaaioneei eiiiuethoa?ii, niae?athuei e ia?a?aaaouaathuei aeaaioneea
iauaiu eioi?iaoeee, iinueathuei eioi?iaoeeiiiua neaiaeu anai
caeioa?aniaaiiui ai aeaaeaiee oaeie eioi?iaoeeae.

?aaoee?othuay. ?uiie ?aaoee?oao yeiiiie/aneea i?iii?oeee, niaeaniauaaao
no?oeoo?o ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa ni no?oeoo?ie iauanoaaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae, aaeaine?oao ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ii iauaio e no?oeoo?a.

Noeioee?othuay. ?uiie iiaoaeaeaao e yooaeoeaiiio oicyenoaiaaieth.
Canoaaeyao i?iecaiaeeoue e iaiaieaaoue oiaa?u n iaeiaiueoeie cao?aoaie,
noeioee?oy aiaae?aiea aeinoeaeaiee IOI a i?iecaiaenoai e eiiia?oeeth.
E?iia oiai, ?uii/iue iaiai noeioee?oao ?aoeeiiaeueiia, yeiiiie/iia
iio?aaeaiea, canoaaeyao niecia?youe iio?aaiinoe n aeioiaeaie.

Naie?othuay. ?uiie auiuaaao iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae e
iin?aaeieeia. ?uiie – aeanoeay nenoaia, n iiiiuueth eiieo?aioeee
i/euathuay iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai io iaonoie/eauo, iaaeecianiiniaiuo
oe?i, aeathuay i?inoi? ?acaeoeth yooaeoeaiui oaoiieiaeyi e oi?iai
oicyenoaiaaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai “anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a” iiauoaaony
n?aaeiee o?iaaiue anaai oicyenoaa.

A i?aaeuaeouae oaia, eeanneoeoee?oy nia?aiaiiua oicyenoaaiiua nenoaiu,
iu ii?aaeaeeee iniiaiua i?aaeiinueee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uii/iie nenoaiu
oicyenoaa, ?uiea. Iu auaeaeeee oaeea /a?ou ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, eae:

i?aiaeaaeaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe,

?uii/iue iaoaieci eii?aeeiaoeee oicyenoaaiiuo naycae,

naiaiaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,

noaa?aieoao iio?aaeoaey,

iiiai eiieo?e?othueo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae,

aeiieie?iaaiea ee/iiai eioa?ana i?e anooieaiee a yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey

oi?ie?iaaiea oeai ia iniiaa acaeiiaeaenoaey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey,

oi?ie?iaaiea aeioiaeia ia ?uieao ?ano?nia,

ia?aie/aiioth ?ieue i?aaeoaeuenoaa (laissez faire).

Oaeiai ?iaea oneiaey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee n/eoathony
iauai?eiyouie, i?eaiaeyony ai anao o/aaieeao ii nia?aiaiiie
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. Ia?yaeo n yoeie oneiaeyie iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue
enoiaeiua, eeth/aaua ia?aiao?u, n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iaoneiaeeaathuea
iio?aaiinoue a ?uii/iii iaiaia. Yoi:

ai-ia?auo, iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, aicieeoaa a aeoaieie
ae?aaiinoe. (Ia?aua nooiaie: ioaeaeaiea caieaaeaeey io neioiaiaenoaa,
auaeaeaiea ?aianea e o.ae.) ?acee/iua a?oiiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae caieiathony
iniauie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?iecaiaeyo ?acee/iua oiaa?u e oneoae.
Niaoeeaeecaoeey aeaao iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, ii aianoa n
oai ii?iaeaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iaiaia ?acoeueoaoaie o?oaea;

ai-aoi?uo, yoi – iainiaeaiea nianoaaiiinoe. Anee au niaoeeaeecaoeey
inouanoaeyeanue a ?aieao aaeeiie nianoaaiiinoe, oi iaiaoiaeeiinoe a
aiciacaeiii, yeaeaaeaioiii iaiaia ia auei. I?eia? – niaoeeaeecaoeey a
?aieao aeiiaoiaai oicyenoaa. A oi aea a?aiy ?acee/iua nianoaaiieee
aeia?iaieueii iaiaieaathony i?iecaaaeaiiuie aeaaaie oieueei ia
aiciacaeiie iniiaa. Aicieeiiaaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe a aeoaieie
ae?aaiinoe n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iaoneiaeei noaiiaeaiea ?uii/iiai iaiaia.

Ia?yaeo n iniiaiiieaaathueie i?aaeiinueeaie aicieeiiaaiey ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee aeey nia?aiaiiiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa oa?aeoa?ii oe?ieia
eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e i?eiaiaiea aeaiaa.

I?aaeaea anaai, i i?eiaiaiee n?aaenoa e i?oaeee o?oaea, iaoei, noaieia,
eino?oiaioia e i?. Nia?aiaiiua yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu – eiaeono?eaeueiua,
n ?acaeoie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aacie, i?iecaiaenoaaiiui aiia?aoii.
Eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa iaoneiaeaii aieaa ieceie
yooaeoeaiinoueth ?o/iiai o?oaea. Iaeiaei i?eiaiaiea n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa icia/aao iaiaoiaeeiinoue eo i?iecaiaenoaa a aeinoaoi/iuo
iauaiao, /oi aea/ao ioiineoaeueiia nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia (aniiiiei eiioeaioeeth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae).

Ana nia?aiaiiua yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu oa?aeoa?ecothony ia oieueei eae
oi?iu oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e eae oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua oicyenoaa.
Iaiai n eniieueciaaieai aeaiaa iaeaaeaao nouanoaaiiuie i?aeiouanoaaie
ia?aae aa?oa?iui. Aeaiueae e eo ooieoeee ?anniio?ei a neaaeothuai
aii?ina, a iiea eiie?aoece?oai iiiyoea oiaa?a.

2. Oiaa? e aai naienoaa

?uii/iia oicyenoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?aaeaea anaai oai, /oi oiaa?iue
iaiai i?eia?aoaao anaiauee oa?aeoa?. Aeaaa, nicaeaaaaiua a oneiaeyo
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa i?aaeiacia/aiu ia aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eo
iio?aaeaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeai (eae yoi auei a iaoo?aeueiii oicyenoaa), a
aeey iaiaia, i?iaeaaee ia ?uiea.

Aio ii/aio ni?aaaaeeeauie iiaeii n/eoaoue neiaa Ia?ena i oii, /oi
iaeue/aeoae eeaoi/eie eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa yaeyaony oiaa?.

O?aaeeoeeiiiui a ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, neaaeothuae
ia?enenoneie o?aaeeoeee yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea oiaa?a eae i?iaeoeoa
o?oaea, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aeey iaiaia.

A oi aea a?aiy a nia?aiaiiie oai?ee ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa a ea/anoaa
oiaa?a ?anniao?eaaaony anyeia aeaai, niiniaiia oaeiaeaoai?youe
/aeiaa/aneea iio?aaiinoe e i?aaeeaaaaiia aeey i?iaeaaee, i?eia?aoaiey,
iio?aaeaiey.

I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi ia?aia ii?aaeaeaiea – aieaa oceia, ia?aie/eaathuaa
iauaeou oiaa?iuo ioiioaiee oieueei aeaaaie’, nicaeaiiuie ethaeueie. A
niioaaonoaee n yoei ii?aaeaeaieai anoanoaaiiua aeaaa, i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu
ia iiaoo auoue iauaeoii oiaa?iuo naeaeie, /oi i?ioeai?a/eo ?aaeueiinoe.

Oiaa? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoai iniiaiuo naienoa (aai aeaaiuo
noi?ii):

niiniaiinoe oaeiaeaoai?youe /aeiaa/aneea iio?aaiinoe;

niiniaiinoe iaiaieaaoueny ia ae?oaea aeaaa.

A ia?enenoneie oa?ieiieiaee ia?aia naienoai i?eiyoi iacuaaoue
iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoueth. A nia?aiaiiie ca?oaaaeiie yeiiiie/aneie
oai?ee yoi naienoai iau/ii oi?ioee?otho eae iieaciinoue.

Oiaa? aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue iauanoaaiiie iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoueth, eee
iauanoaaiiie iieaciinoueth, oi anoue auoue iieaciui, niiniaiui
oaeiaeaoai?youe iio?aaiinoe ia oieueei oiai, eoi aai i?iecaae, ii e
ae?oaeo (iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae).

Niiniaiinoue oiaa?a a ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiee/anoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo
iaiaieaaoueny ia ae?oaea aeaaa i?eiyoi iacuaaoue iaiiaie noieiinoueth.

*ai ii?aaeaeyaony iaiiaay noieiinoue? *oi e /aio ?aaii i?e ?uii/iii
iaiaia? Iaiai iaaiciiaeai aac ?aaainoaa, niecia?eiinoe.

Ia?enenoneay oai?ey ioaa/aea ia yoio aii?in iaeiicia/ii: cao?a/aiiui ia
i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a o?oaeii. Ii Ia?eno noieiinoue oiaa?a – naonoie
o?oaea, iaauanoaeaiiue (aiieiuaiiue) a oiaa?a o?oae.

Iaeiaei, eae aai oaea ecaanoii ec enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneie iunee yoi -eeoue
iaeia ec oi/ae c?aiey ii aeaiiiio aii?ino: noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony ia
oieueei cao?aoaie o?oaea, ii e cao?aoaie ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.
Iicaeiaa iu aeaoaeueiaa ?anniio?ei e ae?oaea eiioeaioeee noieiinoe.

3. Aeaiueae: eo ooieoeee e oi?iu

Aeaiueae – i?eau/iue yeaiaio iaoae aeecie, yoi oi, n /ai iu noaeeeaaainy
iianaaeiaaii. Aianoa n oai, aeaiueae – neiaeiaeoee eino?oiaio ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaa, ieacuaathuee ii?aaeaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea ia ana noi?iiu
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie. Ii i?iaeaiai nouiinoe aeaiaa iaienaii iiiaeanoai
eiea. A oi aea a?aiy, a aeaiaaeiii ia?auaiee /anoi i?ienoiaeyo
iai?aaeneacoaiua, ii?ie /?acau/aeii iai?eyoiua ia?ooaiey, eioi?ua
neacuaathony eae ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoa, oae e ia
iaoa?eaeueiii iieiaeaiee ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae. Yoi i?eaaei e oiio, /oi
aeaiueaai n ae?aaieo a?aiai i?eienuaathony ienoe/aneea naienoaa.

?anniio?ei iao/iua eiioeaioeee, ii-?aciiio ii?aaeaeythuea
i?ienoiaeaeaiea e nouiinoue aeaiaa. Noauaeoeaii-ineoieiae/aneee iiaeoiae
ii?iaeee ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneoth eiioeaioeeth aeaiaa, eioi?ay iauyniyao
i?ienoiaeaeaiea aeaiaa eae ?acoeueoao niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie. Yoa
eiioeaioeey ainiiaenoaiaaea ia ?aiieo yoaiao ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie
iaoee e ?acaeaeyaony iiiaeie nia?aiaiiuie yeiiiienoaie Caiaaea (I.
Naioyeueniiii, Aeae. E. Ayea?aeoii e ae?.). A niioaaonoaee n
yaiethoeeiiiie eiioeaioeeae aicieeiiaaiea aeaiaa – ?acoeueoao ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, oiaa?iiai iaiaia e ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey iaiaia e oi?i noieiinoe ec ie?a
oiaa?ia auaeaeeeny iniaue oiaa? – anaiauee yeaeaaeaio (oiaa?, eioi?ue
iiaeii iaiaiyoue ia ethaie ae?oaie oiaa?).

Iaeaieaa oeie/ai a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iiaeoiae e ?ane?uoeth nouiinoe
aeaiaa /a?ac eo ooieoeee. E i?eia?o, Aeae.Oeen ooaa?aeaeaao: “aeaiueae –
yoi oi, /oi eniieuecoaony eae aeaiueae”.

Enoiaeiuie ooieoeeyie aeaiaa yaeythony:

aeaiueae eae ia?a noieiinoe;

aeaiueae eae n?aaenoai ia?auaiey.

Ae?oaea ooieoeee –

n?aaenoaa iaeiieaiey e

n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea –

yaeythony i?iecaiaeiuie e, no?iai aiai?y, iaiaycaoaeueiuie. Oioy n
?acaeoeai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, iaeiieaieai iauanoaaiiiai e ee/iiai
aiaaonoaa, noaiiaeaieai e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee iie cae?aieythony ca
aeaiueaaie ai anyeie ?acaeoie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia.

Eoae, ia?aay ooieoeey aeaiaa ninoieo a oii, /oi eie au?aaeaaony
noieiinoue oiaa?ia. Aeaiueae yaeythony ia?ie noieiinoe. Au?aaeaiea
noieiinoe oiaa?ia a aeaiueaao aeaeaao oiaa?u n?aaieiuie, ea/anoaaiii
iaeii?iaeiuie. Aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea noieiinoe oiaa?a – yoi aai oeaia.
Aeaiueae aunooiatho ianooaaii aeey ecia?aiey noieiinoe oiaa?ia e oneoa.
Oaeianoai eniieueciaaiey aeaiaa a ea/anoaa ia?u noieiinoe e i?eaaee e
cae?aieaieth ca ieie yoie ooieoeee. Caiaoei, /oi aeey auiieiaiey
ooieoeee ia?u noieiinoe ?aaeueiua aeaiueae ia ioaeiu. Iacia/aiea oeaiu –
yoi iuneaiiue i?ioeann, eioi?ue naycai n ?aaeueiui iaiiaui i?ioeannii,
ii ia eaeaioe/ai aio.

A e?eceniie yeiiiieea a ea/anoaa ia?u noieiinoe /anoi eniieuecotho
naiaiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaioth aaethoo.

I?aeiouanoaa aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey iaoneiaeee eniieueciaaiea aeaiaa a
ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey. A. Nieo e Ae. ?eea?aei n/eoaee, /oi
n?aaenoai ia?auaiey – aeaaiay ooieoeey aeaiaa, ana ae?oaea ooieoeee
i?iecaiaeiu io iaa.

N ooieoeeae aeaiaa eae n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey naycaiu oi?iu aeaiaa.
Ia?aiia/aeueii a ?aciuo no?aiao iaiaeeiaeiaua oiaa?u auiieiyee ?ieue
aeaiaa. *aua anaai a ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea a iaiaia eniieueciaaee neio
(iaaea?ii neiai “capital” ia?aaiaeeony eae “neio”; ia ?one a aeaaiea
a?aiaia ainoaea?noaaiiay eacia iacuaaeanue “neioieoea”). Ca/anooth a
ea/anoaa anaiaueo yeaeaaeaioia ia?iaeu eniieueciaaee iaoa, ?aeiaeiu,
oaaae e o.i.

Ca/anooth a ea/anoaa anaiaueo yeaeaaeaioia ia?iaeu eniieueciaaee iaoa,
?aeiaeiu, oaaae e o.i. O caieaaeaeue/aneeo ieaiai – ca?ii; o ianoooaneeo
– neio; ioioie/ueeo – iaoa; o ia?iaeia i?eii?uey – ?aeooee.

Iinoaiaiii ai iiiaeo no?aiao ?ieue aeaiaa noaee auiieiyoue ae?aaioeaiiua
iaoaeeu: na?aa?i e cieioi. Cae?aieaiea ca ieie ooieoeee n?aaenoaa
ia?auaiey naycaii n oaeeie naienoaaie eae aeaeeiinoue, oi?ioay
nio?aiiinoue, o?ainii?oaaaeueiinoue, cia/eoaeueiay noieiinoue,
aiieiuaiiay a iaaieueoii iauaia e aana.

E ana aea ?acaeoea oi?aiaee, ianniainoue ?uii/iuo iia?aoeee iaoneiaeee
iiyaeaiey iiauo oi?i aeaiaa – iaiieiioeaiiuo (aoiaaeiuo e iiiao). Iie
ioee/athony io iieiioeaiiuo oai, /oi naie ii naaa anoue eeoue iaeee
neiaie, ?aaeueiay oeaia eo nouanoaaiii ieaea oie noiiu, eioi?ay ia ieo
iaicia/aia e i?eciaia a aeaiiii iaoeeiiaeueiii oicyenoaa.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue caiaiu aeaiaa ec ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia,
i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie aeaenoaeoaeueiia aiaaonoai, no??iaaoaie naycaia n
oai, /oi a i?ioeanna eniieueciaaiey oaeea aeaiueae eciaoeaathony,
oa?ytho a aana, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e a noieiinoe. Aiciiaeiinoue caiaiu
iieiioeaiiuo aeaiaa aeaiaaeiuie ciaeaie naycaia n ieiieaoiinoueth
auiieiaiey aeaiueaaie ooieoeee n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey, oai /oi aeaiueae
iinoiyiii iaoiaeyony a aeaeaeaiee.

Ia?aua iiiaou iiyaeeenue a Eeoaa a VII a. aei i.y., a Ia?nee – a V a.
aei i.y. Aoiaaeiua aeaiueae noaee eniieueciaaoue cia/eoaeueii iicaeiaa:
a Eeoaa – a VI – VIII a.a.; a ?innee aia?aua aoiaaeiua aeaiueae auee
auiouaiu ai a?aiaia Aeaoa?eiu II a 1769 a. iiae iaeiaiiaaieai
anneaiaoeee. N iiyaeaieai aeaiaaeiuo no??iaaoia naycaia i?iaeaia
eioeyoeee.

Anee auione iaiieiioeaiiuo aeaiaa, aeaiaa-neiaieia i?aauoaao iio?aaiinoe
oiaa?iiai?ioa, oi iie iaanoeaieaathony, /oi yaeyaony i?iyaeaieai
eioeyoeee. Aaaeiie ooieoeeae i?aaeoaeuenoaa yaeyaony auione (yienney)
aeaiaa. Iaiaoiaeeiia eiee/anoai aeaiaa a ia?auaiee iiaeao auoue
eioa?i?aoe?iaaii n iiiiuueth neaaeothuaai o?aaiaiey:

M V = P Q, aaea:

M – ianna ia?auathueony aeaiaa;

V – nei?inoue ia?auaiey aeaiaa;

P- oeaia oiaa?a;

Q – eiee/anoai ia?auathueony oiaa?ia.

I?aaenoaaeaiiia o?aaiaiea iacuaatho o?aaiaieai iaiaia. Ec iaai neaaeoao,
/oi ethaia eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa aeaiaa iiaeao iaoneiaeoue eciaiaiea
o?iaiy oeai, iiaeeyoue ia ?aaeueiue auione oiaa?ia, caiyoinoue.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, n iiiiuueth eiio?iey ca aeaiaaeiie iannie
i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaeao aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia eeth/aaua iae?iyeiiiie/aneea
iieacaoaee. Yoo i?iaeaio iu aoaeai aiaeece?iaaoue a iineaaeothueo
aii?inao oaiu.

A enoi?ee aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee yaeaiey eioeyoeee anaaaea auee
naycaiu n /?acia?iie yienneae. Oae, a ia?eiae aieiu n Oo?oeeae (1768
-1774 aa.) aeaiaaeiay ianna aic?inea a 1,5 ?aca (ni 100 iei. ?oa. aei
150 iei. ?oa.). A 1810 a. I.I. Nia?aineee i?aaeeiaeee oie/oiaeeoue
anneaiaoeee e iniiaaoue aaie n i?aaii yiennee aaieiio, ?aciaieaaaiuo ia
na?aa?i.

Ai a?aiy Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu 1812 a. auea inouanoaeaia 4-o e?aoiay
yienney, /oi aucaaei 4-o e?aoiue ?ino oeai.

A 1853 – 1856 aa. ai a?aiy E?uineie aieiu yienney oaaee/eea aen iaaeioth
ianno a 2,5 ?aca, ?ino oeai aue aeaoe?aoiui.

Oae, aieioue aei aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu Aeooa, ?inney eiaea ?anno?iaiiua
oeiainu.

Auiieiaiea aeaiueaaie ooieoeee ia?u noieiinoe e n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey
aiai?eo i oii, /oi iie yaeythony aiieiuaieai aiaaonoaa. Iinoaiaiii, ii
ia?a ?acaeoey oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee aeaiueae noaee auiieiyoue
ooieoeeth n?aaenoaa iaeiieaiey (naa?aaeaiey). N?aaenoaaie iaeiieaiey
iiaoo auoue e ae?oaea aaue: ae?aaioeaiiinoe, iaaeaeaeeiinoue e o.i. Ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie oi?iaie naa?aaeaiey iaeiieaiiiai aiaaonoaa
aeaiueae iaeaaeatho iaeiei nouanoaaiiui aeinoieinoaii: iie aaniethoii
eeeaeaeiu (iiaoo auoue auno?i ?aaeeciaaiu, iaiaiaiu i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ia ethaie oiaa? aac aeiiieieoaeueiuo cao?ao n?aaenoa e a?aiaie).
Iaeiaei, o aeaiaa eae n?aaenoaa naa?aaeaiey anoue nouanoaaiiue
iaaeinoaoie – iie ia i?eiinyo aeioiaea, ii e?aeiae ia?a iaee/iua. Aieaa
oiai, a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee aeaiueae iaanoeaieaathony, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
iaanoeaiaieth naa?aaeaiee a oeaeii. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaiey
aeaiaa eae n?aaenoaa naa?aaeaiey e aeaeaiea iieo/aoue aeioiae io yoiai
iaoneiaeeaaao iio?aaiinoue a o?aiaiee aeaiaa a niaoeeaeueiuo oeiainiauo
o/?aaeaeaieyo – aaieao, eee eniieueciaaoue ae?oaea oi?iu naa?aaeaiey.

Ooieoeey aeaiaa – n?aaenoai ieaoaaea, iaoneiaeaiiia ?acaeoeai e?aaeeoiuo
ioiioaiee, i?iaeaaeae oiaa?ia a e?aaeeo (n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea).
Nouiinoue i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia a e?aaeeo ninoieo a oii, /oi a?aiy iieoiee e
a?aiy ieaoaaea ?acee/iu: iieaoa oiaa?a inouanoaeyaony ii i?ioanoaee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea. Aeaiueae eae n?aaenoai ieaoaaea eniieuecothony e
i?e iiaaoaiee oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa: caeiia, iaeiaia.

Ec ooieoeee aeaiaa eae n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea aicieeee e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae:
aaenaey, aaieiiou, /aee.

Aaenaeue – yoi iaycaoaeuenoai ?anieaoeoueny a ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie ca
iieo/aiiua a e?aaeeo oiaa?u. Ia?aiia/aeueii aaenaeue ia?auaeny oieueei
iaaeaeo aeieaeieeii e e?aaeeoi?ii, ii iinoaiaiii aaenaey noaee
eniieueciaaoueny a oiaa?iii iai?ioa, oi anoue oaeoe/anee i?aa?auaoueny a
?iae aeaiaa. (A nia?aiaiiie ?innee aaenaey eniieuecothony eae n?aaenoai
?ac?aoaiey i?iaeaiu iaieaoaaeae.)

I nia?aiaiiuo oi?iao aeaiaa ii/eoaoue aeiiieieoaeueioth eeoa?aoo?o.

A nia?aiaiiii oicyenoaaiiii iai?ioa aieueoia cia/aiea eiatho aaciaee/iua
aeaiueae. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie caiene ia oaeoueo n/aoao eeeaioia a
aaieao. Yoe aeaiueae iacuaatho oaeaea aaieianeeie aeaiueaaie.
Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yoeo n/aoia iaania/eaaaony /a?ac /aeiaia ia?auaiea.

*ae – aeieoiaio, niaea?aeauee aaconeiaiia oeacaiea aeaaeaeueoea oaeouaai
n/aoa a aaiea i auieaoa oeacaiiie a iai noiiu ii?aaeaeaiiiio eeoeo,
eia/a aiai?y, yoi – ia?aaiaeiie aaenaeue, aunoaaeaiiue ia aaie e
iiea/eaaaiue ii i?aaeuyaeaieth. A ?innee aianoi /aeia a aaciaee/iii
iai?ioa eniieuecothony ieaoaaeiua ii?o/aiey.

Aaciaee/iua aeaiueae a ioee/ea io iaee/iuo ii nouanoao ia yaeythony
ieaoaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie, ii a ethaia a?aiy iiaoo i?aa?aoeoueny a
iaee/iua, aa?aioe?iaaiiua e?aaeeoiuie einoeoooaie. I?aeoe/anee aea
aaciaee/iua aeaiueae aunooiatho ia?aaia n iaee/iuie e aeaaea eiatho
iaeioi?ua i?aeiouanoaa ia?aae ieie. A naiii aeaea, iaee/iua aeaiueae
naycaiu n aoiaaie e iaoaeeii. Iie eiatho ?aaeueiua aunieea ecaea?aeee
o?aiaiey e o?ainii?oe?iaee, a oaeaea iiaoo auoue iioa?yiu eee
iiaeaeaeaiu.

Yaiethoeey aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey iaoneiaeea i?ioeann ono?aiaiey aeaiaa a
eo o?aaeeoeeiiiie iaiin?aaenoaaiiie oi?ia, ?anoe?aieai eniieueciaaiey
e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa, i?e/ai ec iai?ioa iinoaiaiii ooiaeyo iineoaee
aeaiaaeiuo ooieoeee – aaieiiou, /aee, eioi?ua caiauathony e?aaeeoiuie
ea?oi/eaie. Iineaaeiea i?aaeiacia/athony aeey iieoiee oiaa?ia n
eniieueciaaieai aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa, a oaeaea aeey iieo/aiey oiaa?ia a
iaee/ii-aeaiaaeiie oi?ia. Aeaaiay iniaaiiinoue yoie ea?oi/ee – ioe?uoea
aaieii e?aaeeoiie eeiee, eioi?ay eniieuecoaony aaoiiaoe/anee anyeee ?ac,
eiaaea i?iaiaeeony iieoiea oiaa?a, eee aa?aony e?aaeeo a aeaiaaeiie
oi?ia. E?aaeeoiay eeiey aeaenoaoao a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiiai aaieii
e?aaeeoa.

A iaoae no?aia eniieuecothony, e i?eia?o, oaeea e?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee, eae
“Aeca”, “Ianoa?ea?ae”. Iie ioiinyony e ?ac?yaeo aiciaiiaeyaiuo e
i?eiaiythony a iniiaiii aeey ?an/aoa a iaaaceiao, i?aaei?eyoeyo
ianeoaeeaaiey. I?e iieoiea oiaa?ia e oneoa iineaaeiea ia iiea/eaathony,
i?e yoii eae au aa?aony nnoaea o aaiea, auionoeaoaai yoo ea?oi/eo.
Iaeiia?aiaiii n iieoieie ioaeaaony ?anii?yaeaiea ia?a/eneeoue iieo/aiiua
acaeiu o aaiea n?aaenoaa ia n/ao iaaaceia. Ea?oi/ea eiaao ca?aiaa
onoaiiaeaiiue eeieo. Iinea iiaaoaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe ea?oi/ea
aiciaiiaeyaony.

A nenoaia yeaeo?iiiuo aeaiaa eniieuecothony aeaaaoiua (aeaaaoiaua)
ea?oi/ee, iicaieythuea ioeacaoueny io iaee/iinoe. Aeaaaoiua ea?oi/ee
aiaoia i/aiue iioiaee ia e?aaeeoiua. Ii, i?aaeuyaeyy aeaaaoioth ea?oi/eo
i?iaeaaoeo, au aeaaoa iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ?anii?yaeaiea aaieo ia?a/eneeoue
n?aaenoaa n aaoaai n/aoa ia n/ao i?iaeaaoea. Anee iaaacei naycai n
aaieii iaiin?aaenoaaiii nenoaiie yeaeo?iiiuo aeaiaa, oi ia?aaiae
inouanoaeyaony iaiaaeeaiii.

I?ioeann ?acaeoey yeaeo?iiiuo aeaiaa iaoiaeeo naia au?aaeaiea a nenoaia
“SWIFT”. Yoi – nenoaia yeaeo?iiiie ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee ii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aaieianeei ?an/aoai /a?ac niooieeiaoth naycue. Nae/an a
iae o/anoaotho aieaa 60 ainoaea?noa Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e Naaa?iie Aia?eee
e ae?.

Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii
Ineianeie iaeanoe yaeeinue eaeaieiaii e eieoeeaoi?ii oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
?an/aoia a iaeanoe. Yoi iio?aaiaaei cia/eoaeueiuo oneeee e cao?ao,
aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui niaianoii n iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiiaieae “NCR” (“AT&T”)
auea nicaeaia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay nenoaia iaaeaaieianeeo ?an/aoia a
?aaeiia. ?aaeiiaeueiay nenoaia ?an/aoia (?N?) aace?oaony ia iiaaeoai
oaoie/aneii e i?ia?aiiiii iaania/aiee, iauaaeeiyao oaea nouanoaiaaaoea
eieaeueiua naoe eiiia?/aneeo aaieia e oi?aaeaiey Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea a
aaeeioth nenoaio. Iia iicaieeo oaea a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy i?iecaiaeeoue
iaaeaaieianeea ?an/aou a iaeaoiii ?aaeeia e a iaaeaeaeii aoaeouai – a
?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie. ?N? aeaea aiciiaeiinoue aueoe ?aaeiio e ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeioth nenoaio iaaeaaieianeeo ?an/aoia SWIFT, yaeeanue
iniiaie aeey ia?aoiaea ei aoi?iio yoaio ?an/aoia “aaie – eeeaio”. a
oaeaea ?acaeoey ?an/aoia n iiiiuueth e?aaeeoiuo e aeaaaoiuo ea?oi/ae.

4. Iiiaie?eoa?eaeueiue oa?aeoa? no?oeoo?u ?uiea.

No?oeoo?a ?uiea – yoi aioo?aiiaa no?iaiea, ?aniieiaeaiea, ii?yaeie
ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia ?uiea, eo oaeaeueiue aan a iauai iauaia ?uiea.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea iniiaiua e?eoa?ee aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
no?oeoo?u ?uiea:

ii iauaeoai;

ii noauaeoai;

ii aaia?aoe/aneiio iieiaeaieth;

ii noaiaie ia?aie/aiiinoe eiieo?aioeee.

Iauaeoioth no?oeoo?o ?uiea oa?aeoa?ecotho:

Iio?aaeoaeueneee ?uiie – ?uiie iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e oneoa. Ii
aeeth/aao ?uiee i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, ?uiie auoiauo,
eiiioiaeueiuo, o?ainii?oiuo oneoa, ?uiie oneoa eoeueoo?u, ia?aciaaiey,
cae?aaiio?aiaiey. ?uii/iue oa?aeoa?, ieaoiinoue nioeeaeueiuo oneoa
aucuaaao cia/eoaeueiia iai?eyoea a iaoae no?aia, /oi naycaii n
aanieaoiui eo i?aaeinoaaeaieai a ?aieao niaaoneie nenoaiu. Iaeiaei
iiauoaiea ea/anoaa oneoa nioeeaeueiie noa?u a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
iaaiciiaeii aac ?anoe?aiey ieaoiuo oneoa oaeiai ?iaea.

?uiie iaaeaeaeeiinoe aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie a iaoae no?aia nouanoaiaae a
aeaea eoiee-i?iaeaaee /anoiuo aeiiia, aea/, e ae?oaeo aeaaeaiee oaeiai
aea oeia. I?iaeaaaee e eiiia?aoeaiua eaa?oe?u. A nayce n i?eaaoecaoeeae
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e ioieoeeiaeueiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea, a oaeaea n
i?iaeaaeae eaa?oe? a iiauo aeiiao iinoaiaiii oi?ie?oaony iieiioeaiiue
?uiie aeeeuey.

?uiie ?aai/ae neeu, aiiaua aiai?y, a ?innee ionoonoaiaae a nayce
ionoonoaeai naiaiaeiiai iaeia (ainoaea?noaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea,
i?aiaai?u) e oaieueiaiee, a oaeaea a nayce n ionoonoaeai naiaiaeu
ia?aaeaeaeaiey, ?uiea aeeeuey e o.ae. Iaoiaa?iay oi?ia ?aai/ae neeu
i?eciaaaeanue a ea/anoaa aeinoeaeaiey nioeeaeecia, iaeiaei a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoi neiauaaei naiaiaeiue ia?aeea ?aai/ae neeu iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaenoaaie, io?aneyie e ?aaeiiaie, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, auei iaeiei
ec oaeoi?ia ieceie yooaeoeaiinoe niaaoneie yeiiiieee.

?uiie caiee – iaeei ec naiuo ?aaoee?oaiuo a nia?aiaiiuo ?uii/iuo
nenoaiao ?uiie. Ii o?aaoao ouaoaeueiie niaoeeoeeaoeee i?aa nianoaaiiinoe
ia caieth, ?acaeoiai caiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

?uiie eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia (n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, aeaeaeeiuo e
iaaeaeaeeiuo) – aaaeiaeoay ninoaaeythuay ?uiea yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia,
iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iie nenoaiu oicyenoaa.

Oeiainiaua ?uiee: ?uiie aeaiaa (e?aaeeoiue ?uiie), aaethoiue ?uiie,
oiiaeiaue ?uiie (?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa: aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee, aaenaeae e
o.i.). E?aaeeoiue ?uiie a niaaoneie yeiiiieea aue iiiiiieece?iaai
ainoaea?noaii, a aaethoiiai e oiiaeiaiai i?inoi ia nouanoaiaaei. Iu –
naeaeaoaee o?oaeiiai oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?uieia.

?uiie eioaeeaeooaeueiuo i?iaeoeoia: eiiiaaoeee, eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
i?iaeoeoa (iao/iiai, eoeueoo?iiai, aeooiaiiai, ia?aciaaoaeueiiai)
iaoiaeeony a noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey. O ian iao o?aaeeoeee ?aaeecaoeee
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe – naiiai oeaiiiai iauaeoa nianoaaiiinoe.

No?oeoo?o ?uiea ii noauaeoai iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue a naiii iauai aeaea
eae acaeiiaeaenoaea ia ?uieao eioaa?e?iaaiiuo noauaeoia:

aeiiioicyenoa – oae i?eiyoi oneiaii iaicia/aoue iio?aaeoaeae,
iaeiia?aiaiii yaeythueony iinoaaueeaie iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee ?ano?nia;

oe?i (naeoi?a aeciana) – i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiaa?ia e oneoa e iio?aaeoaeae
yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia.

Nia?aiaiiua yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu, oa?aeoa?ecothueany eae niaoaiiua,
i?aaeiieaaatho aua iaeei aeoeaiue yeiiiie/aneee noauaeo: ainoaea?noai,
yaeythuaany, n iaeiie noi?iiu, naiui e?oiiui iio?aaeoaeai, n ae?oaie –
naiui e?oiiui iinoaaueeii e i?iecaiaeeoaeai oiaa?ia e oneoa, /anoi
niaa?oaiii iniauo. I ?iee ainoaea?noaa iiae?iaii aoaeai aanaaeiaaoue a
nayce n iineaaeiei aii?inii oaiu.

?anniio?aa iauaeoii-noauaeoioth no?oeoo?o ?uiea, iu iiaeai i?aaenoaaeoue
aini?iecaiaenoaaiioth no?oeoo?u ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, eniieuecothuaai
aeaiueae, eae oi?iuaiioth noaio e?oaiiai?ioa i?iaeoeoa e aeioiaea.

Aa?oiyy iieiaeia aeeaa?aiiu aeaao ea?oeio ?uiea ?ano?nia. Ia iai
aeiiioicyenoaa i?yii e einaaiii (/a?ac iaoiaeyueany a eo nianoaaiiinoe
oe?iu) aeaaeay anaie yeiiiie/aneeie, iinoaaeytho yoe ?ano?nu oe?iai,
inouanoaeytho i?aaeeiaeaiea ?ano?nia. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee naeoi?
yaeyaony caeanue iieoiaoaeai, oi anoue i?aaeuyaeyao ni?in ia ?ano?nu, n
iiiiuueth eioi?uo i?iecaiaeyony oiaa?u e oneoae.

A iaiai ia i?aaeeiaeaiiua ?ano?nu aeiiioicyenoaa iieo/atho aeaiaaeiua
aeioiaeu a aeaea:

ca?aaioiie ieaou – aeioiaea io i?iaeaaee ?aai/ae neeu;

?aiou – aeioiaea io i?aaeinoaaeaiey caiee, iaaeaeaeeiinoe;

i?ioeaioa – aeioiaea io i?aaeinoaaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiio naeoi?o
a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia;

i?eauee eae aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue e
o.i.

Ia ?uiea i?iaeoeoia ?iee iieoiaoaey e i?iaeaaoea iaiythony ia
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua. Aeiiioicyenoaa i?aaeuyaeytho ni?in, aunooiatho oaia?ue
iieoiaoaeyie iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e oneoa, o?aoy aeaiaaeiua
aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua ia ?uiea ?ano?nia, a oe?iu inouanoaeytho
i?aaeeiaeaiea, noaiiayony iinoaaueeaie e i?iaeaaoeaie oiaa?ia e oneoa,
iieo/atho acaiai i?iaeaiiuo aeaa aeioiaeu.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey eaaeeo a iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiey oeai
ia oiaa?u.

A ?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey aeiiioicyenoa e oe?i ia oiaa?iii e
?ano?niii ?uieao, a ?uii/iii oicyenoaa eaeao:

e?oaiiai?io ?ano?nia e i?iaeoeoa. Ii ia noaia ecia?aaeai eae aeaeaeaiea
i?ioea /aniaie no?aeee. Yoi – ?aaeueiue (eee iaoa?eaeueiue) iioie.

e?oaiiai?io aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, ecia?aaeaiiue eae aeaeaeaiea ii
/aniaie no?aeea. Yoi – aeaiaaeiue iioie.

Yoi – iaeiia?aiaiiua e aaneiia/ii iiaoi?ythueany iioiee. Iiyoiio iu
aiai?ei i e?oaiiai?ioa, a ia ia iai?ioa.

Oa??eoi?eaeueiay no?oeoo?a ?uiea – yoi ?anniio?aiea ?uii/iie no?oeoo?u
ii e?eoa?eth aaia?aoe/aneeo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo a?aieoe. A yoie nayce
?acee/atho:

ianoiue ?uiie;

iaoeeiiaeueiue ?uiie;

ie?iaie ?uiie.

Ianoiue ?uiie ioee/aaony ia oieueei eieaeueiui oa?aeoa?ii, ii e
niaoeeoe/aneei oa?aeoa?ii i?iaeoeoia, iaiaieaaaiuo ia iai. Oiaa?aie
ianoiiai iai?ioa yaeythony o?oaeii o?ainii?oe?oaiua (ee?ie/, ianie,
oi?o) e nei?iii?oyueany oiaa?u (iieiei, yeoei, eeoaieea e o.i.).
Niaoeeoeeo ianoiiai ?uiea ii?aaeaeytho ianoiua o?aaeeoeee,
aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea, eeeiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe, a oaeaea nenoaia
ianoiuo oicyenoaaiiuo ii?i e ianoiua iniaaiiinoe ?uii/iie
eio?ano?oeoo?u.

Iaoeeiiaeueiue ?uiie – nenoaia ?uieia, neeaaeuaathueony a ?aieao
nia?aiaiiuo ainoaea?noa. Iaoeeiiaeueiua ?uiee aieueoeinoaa ainoaea?noa
yaeythony ninoaaiuie /anoyie ie?iaiai ?uiea. Iaeiaei ie?iaie ?uiie – yoi
ia i?inoi niaieoiiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?uieia, ii e ea/anoaaiii iiaue
o?iaaiue. Ia ie?iaii ?uiea aeaenoaoao niaoeeoe/aneay nenoaia caeiiia e
naycae, i?aaee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee e ae?oaeo oi?i ?uii/iiai
iaiaia.

Ii noaiaie ia?aie/aiiinoe eiieo?aioeee auaeaeytho /aou?a oeia ?uieia, ia
eioi?uo iiaoo aeaenoaiaaoue oicyenoaothuea noauaeou:

?uiie /enoie (niaa?oaiiie) eiieo?aioeee;

?uiie iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee;

ieeaiiieenoe/aneee ?uiie;

iiiiiieece?iaaiiue ?uiie.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee yoeo ?uii/iuo no?oeoo? aoaeai eniieueciaaoue
oaaeeoeo, i?aaeeiaeaiioth E. Iaeeiiiaeii:

Oa?aeoa?enoeea *enoay eiieo?aioeey Iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey

Ieeaiiieey *enoay iiiiiieey

*enei oe?i I/aiue aieueoia /enei Iiiai Ianeieueei Iaeia

Oei i?iaeoeoa Noaiaea?oeciaaiiue Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue
Noaiaea?oece?iaaiiue eee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue Oieeaeueiue, iao
caiaieoaeae

Eiio?ieue iaae oeaiie Ionoonoaoao Neaaue Acaeiiay caaeneiinoue
(neaaeiaaiea ca eeaea?ii); cia/eoaeueiue i?e oaeiii naiai?a
Cia/eoaeueiue

Oneiaea aoiaea ia ?uiie Naiaiaeiue aoiae e auoiae N?aaieoaeueii eaaeea
Iaee/ea nouanoaaiiuo ia?aie/aiee Aeiee?iaaii

Iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey Ionoonoaoao Eino?oiaiou ia?eaoeiaa Oeie/ia i?e
aeeooa?aioeea-oeee i?iaeoeoa Public Relations

I?eia?u Naeueneia oicyenoai ?icie/iay oi?aiaey, i?iecaiaenoai
iaeaaeaeu, iaoae, i?iaeiaieuenoaey I?iecaiaenoaa noaee, iaoei,
eiiiuethoa?ia, aaoiiiaeeae. Yeaeo?e/aneea naoe

5. Yeiiiie/aneay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a nia?aiaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

Aeaaea a oneiaeyo ?aiiaai eaieoaeecia, ainiiaenoaa naiaiaeiiai
naii?aaoee?oaiiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa ainoaea?noai ia noiyei a noi?iia
io yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai. Ainoaea?noai oi?ie?oao i?aaiaia
iiea aeey ?aaeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee; aa?ao ia naay ooieoeee
yiennee aeaiaa e ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey; niinianoaoao
aeinoeaeaieth i?eioeeiia nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

A oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa aiaoaoaeuenoai
ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo naycaii n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?aaeecaoeee o?eaaeu
ooieoeee: yooaeoeaiinoe. ni?aaaaeeeainoe, noaaeeueiinoe.

Yooaeoeaiinoue. Ainoaea?noai i?ecaaii nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey
yooaeoeaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee.

Yeiiiie/aneay i?aeoeea e aa oai?aoe/aneea iaiauaiey iicaieytho naeaeaoue
auaiae i oii, /oi iaeaieueoay yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue aeinoeaaaony
a oneiaeyo eiieo?aioeee. Eiaiii eiieo?e?othuea i?iecaiaeeoaee
ieieiece?otho ecaea?aeee e oeaiu, no?aiyony i?iecaanoe eae iiaeii
aieueoaa eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, niioaaonoaothuae iauanoaaiiui
iio?aaiinoyi. Aianoa n oai ?acaeoea ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, aai yaiethoeey
i?eaiaeyo e ?acaeoeth ianiaa?oaiiuo oi?i eiieo?aioeee, aa ia?aie/aieth e
iiiiiieecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa. Ainoaea?noai iiiu?yao e
caueuaao eiieo?aioeeth n iiiiuueth ia? aioeiiiiiieueiie iieeoeee.

N i?iaeaiie yooaeoeaiinoe naycaii i?iecaiaenoai oae iacuaaaiuo
“iauanoaaiiuo oiaa?ia” e “aiaoiea yooaeou”.

Yeiiiienoai ecaanoii. /oi ?uii/iay nenoaia, ii e?aeiae ia?a, a aeaoo
neo/ayo ieacuaaaony iayooaeoeaiie, iia:

eeai i?iecaiaeeo “ia oa” oiaa?u e oneoae,

eeai ia iiaeao auaeaeeoue aeinoaoi/ii ?ano?nia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aeaa,
aoiaeyueo a no?oeoo?o iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae.

A ia?aii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i oae iacuaaaiuo “aiaoieo, eee iiai/iuo
yooaeoao”, oi anoue i iiai/iuo i?iaeoeoao yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.
Aiaoiea yooaeou iiaoo auoue eae io?eoeaoaeueiuie, oae e
iieiaeeoaeueiuie. Eeanne/aneee i?eia? io?eoeaoaeueiiai yooaeoa:
no?ieoaeuenoai ieioeiu a aa?oiaueyo ?aee oooaeoaao oneiaey ?uaieianoaa a
ieaeiai oa/aiee ?aee. I?eia? iieiaeeoaeueiiai aiaoiaai yooaeoa:
no?ieoaeuenoai oa?ia?ii aei?iae e naiei iieyi iicaieyao oeo/oeoue
niiauaiea n ninaaeieie iinaeaieyie aac aeiaeaiey eaieoaea. I?iaeaiu
ninoaaeytho, aeaaiui ia?acii, io?eoeaoaeueiua aiaoiea yooaeou, /anoi
naycaiiua n yeieiae/aneei aniaeoii i?iecaiaenoaa. Ainoaea?noai i?eiaiyao
aeey eo iaeo?aeecaoeee ei??aeoe?iai/iua ia?u.

Aoi?ie neo/ae ianiaa?oainoaa ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia – iaaeii?iecaiaenoai
“iauanoaaiiuo oiaa?ia”. Iniaaiiinoueth iauanoaaiiuo aeaa yaeyaony
iaeneeth/aaiinoue ec iio?aaeaiey, oi anoue iie aeinoathony anai
iio?aaeoaeyi (iacaaeneii io oiai, iiea/aiu eie eee iao) e /anoi
iio?aaeythony eieeaeoeaii. Eeanne/aneee i?eia? iauanoaaiiiai oiaa?a –
iaye, eioi?ue naaoeo anai e i?aaeinoa?aaaao ei?aaee io eiaa?iie iaee.
Oneoaa iayea aeaao cia/eoaeueioth auaiaeo, ii auaeaeyoue ia iaai ?ano?nu
?uii/iay nenoaia ia noaiao. Ae?oaay eaoaai?ey iauanoaaiiuo aeaa – oi,
/oi yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui aeey anaai iauanoaa, ii ia iiaeao
iiea/eaaoueny ioaeaeueiuie ethaeueie. I?eia? – oeieu, oneoae
cae?aaiio?aiaiey. *oiau iauanoai iiaei iieo/aoue yoe iaiaoiaeeiua aeaaa,
eo i?iecaiaenoai aeieaeii iaania/eoue ainoaea?noai. Oeeoeu e
aaoiiaaeno?aee, aeaeeioaee e iocae, iaaeeoeeineia ianeoaeeaaiea e iauaa
ia?aciaaiea – i?aaeiao ia i?inoi ainoaea?noaaiiie caaiou. Eo nicaeaiea,
i?iecaiaenoai, oeiaine?iaaiea – caaea/a ainoaea?noaa.

Ni?aaaaeeeainoue. ?uiie iaania/eaaao oi?ie?iaaiea aeioiaeia ianaeaiey ia
?uieao oiaa?ia e yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia. Ii caeiiai ?uiea ni?aaaaeeeau
aeioiaeu oao, eoi i?aoniae a eiieo?aioeee. ?uiie ia n/eoaaony n ae?oaeie
i?eioeeiaie ni?aaaaeeeainoe. A nia?aiaiiii ie?a anyeia ainoaea?noai
aa?ao ia naay ooieoeeth ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia /a?ac iaeiae, a
oaeaea iiaeaea?aeaiea iao?oaeiniiniaiuo, i?anoa?aeuo, aac?aaioiuo,
aa?aioe?oao ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue aeioiaeia.

Noaaeeueiinoue. ?acaeoea yeiiiieee, iniiaaiiie ia ?uii/iuo i?eioeeiao,
iineo oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa?. Yeiiiie/aneea niaaeu, e?ecenu icia/atho
iaiieioth caiyoinoue ?ano?nia, iiyaeaiea aac?aaioeoeu, a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo aeiiieiyaiie eioeyoeeae. Ainoaea?noai aa?ao ia naay ooieoeeth
iiaeaea?aeaiey iae?iyeiiiie/aneie noaaeeueiinoe, i?iaiaeeo
aioeoeeeee/aneoth iieeoeeo.

Iiieii yoeo aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai ainoaea?noai:

iiaeaea?aeeaaao iaeioi?ua noa?u e naeoi?a yeiiiieee, iai?eia?, iaeue e
n?aaeiee aecian, iiaua ia?niaeoeaiua io?anee i?iecaiaenoaa;

iaania/eaaao ?acaeoea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee;

niinianoaoao ?aoaieth ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?iaeai.

Oaeei ia?acii, ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aeiiieiyao, ei??aeoe?oao
?uii/iue iaoaieci. Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue iaiaoiaeeiinoue inouanoaeyoue
ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai eeoue a aeiionoeiuo i?aaeaeao. Iaeuecy
aeiioneaoue i?e oaeii aiaoaoaeuenoaa aeaoi?iaoeee ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia. A
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee nouanoaotho ?aciua oi/ee c?aiey ii iiaiaeo
aeiionoeiuo a?aieoe aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa. Ii ana yeiiiienou
noiaeyony ia oii, /oi yeiiiie/aneeie ?aaoeyoi?aie neaaeoao
iieueciaaoueny inoi?iaeii, ia ineaaeyy ?uii/iua noeioeu. Iao eaeaaeueiuo
?aaoeyoi?ia: eaaeaeue ec ieo, aeaaay iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo a iaeiie
noa?a, iaia?oaeeaaao iaaaoeaiue yooaeo a ae?oaie.

Auaeaeytho aeaa oeia ?aaoeyoi?ia yeiiiieee:

aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiaua: nenoaia caeiiia e ii?i, a oaeaea ia? ii eo
?aaeecaoeee;

yeiiiie/aneea.

E yeiiiie/aneei ?aaoeyoi?ai ioiinyony:

athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua ia?u: nenoaio iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e ainoaea?noaaiiuo
?anoiaeia;

aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea;

aaethoiay e oaiiaeaiiay iieeoeea;

ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a e iinoaaea oiaa?ia e oneoa,
i?iecaaaeaiiuo ainoaea?noaii, oe?iai e ianaeaieth;

ainoaea?noaaiiua caeoiee e caeacu;

?aaeecaoeey oeaeaauo i?ia?aii, eiaeeeaoeaiia (?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiia)
ieaie?iaaiea.

N o/aoii ?iee ainoaea?noaa e?oaiiai?io i?iaeoeoa e aeioiaea iiaeao
auoue i?aaenoaaeai a iiaii aa?eaioa. Caiaoei, /oi aee?iua eeiee
iaicia/atho iaoa?eaeueiua iioiee, a oiieea – aeaiaaeiua.

E?oaiiai?io ?ano?nia, i?iaeoeoa e aeioiaea e ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi?.

Aeaaa 2. ?uii/iue iaoaieci. Iniiau oai?ee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey

Aii?inu:

Oai?ee noieiinoe e oeaiu.

Aiaeec ?uii/iiai ni?ina.

Aiaeec ?uii/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

?uii/iia ?aaiiaanea.

Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ii oeaia: iiiyoea e oeiu. Oaeoi?u yeanoe/iinoe.

1. Oai?ee noieiinoe e oeaiu

Ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo noieaoee eaoaai?ey noieiinoe caieiaea
oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo. Iia aaaaeaia a
iao/iue iai?io iiiai noieaoee iacaae, ii ii-?aciiio o?aeoiaaeanue
enneaaeiaaoaeyie. Oi?ie?iaaiea iniiaiuo eiioeaioeee noieiinoe
i?ienoiaeeei a oa/aiea XVIII – XIX a.a. I?iaeaia noieiinoe, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, eiioeaio?e?oao a naaa aii?inu, naycaiiua n auyaeaieai oiai, /oi
eaaeeo a iniiaa i?iii?oeee iaiaia a naeaeeao eoiee-i?iaeaaee, oi anoue
/oi yaeyaony ia?aiiniiaie oeaiu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?iaeaia noieiinoe
eiaao nioeeaeueiue aniaeo, iineieueeo i?eciaiea oiai eee eiiai oaeoi?a a
ea/anoaa oeaiiia?acothuaai icia/aao cae?aieaiea ca aai aeaaeaeueoeai
i?aaa ia iieo/aiea “ni?aaaaeeeaiai” aeioiaea.

A. Nieo naiaeee noieiinoue oiaa?a e o?oaeo, cao?a/aiiiio ia
i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a. Ii ii ia aue iineaaeiaaoaeueiui noi?iiieeii
i?eciaiey o?oaea a ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiiai oeaiiia?acothuaai oaeoi?a. Ii
n/eoae oaeaea, /oi noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony ecaea?aeeaie i?iecaiaenoaa,
noiiie oeai ?ano?nia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai oiaa?a.
Caeanue ii niueaaony ni noi?iiieeaie oai?ee o?ao oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa
(o?oaea, n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e caiee), o?aeoiaaaoeie noieiinoue eae
noiio ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?eauee e caiaeueiie ?aiou.

E. Ia?en aue iineaaeiaaoaeueiui noi?iiieeii o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe e
n/eoae, /oi a eiia/iii n/aoa anyeia aeaai – ?acoeueoao o?oaea (aeeaiai
eee iaauanoaeaiiiai a yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nao), iiyoiio aaeeinoaaiiui
ni?aaaaeeeaui aeioiaeii yaeyaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa. Ana ae?oaea aeaeu
aeioiaeia – yoi aeiee i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, nicaeaiiie o?oaeii ?aai/eo
e iacaeiiii i?enaiaiiua aeaaeaeueoeaie ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ianiio?y ia nouanoaaiiua ?acee/ey a o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe e oai?ee
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, o ieo anoue iauay /a?oa: iie ?anniao?eaatho
i?iaeaio noieiinoe iaeiinoi?iiia – oieueei ni noi?iiu cao?ao ( o?oaea
eee ae?oaeo yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia), oi anoue n iauaeoeaiie noi?iiu.
Aianoa n oai, ia ?uiea aeaenoaotho e noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia
aaee/eio noieiinoe. Iieoiaoaeue aeaenoaoao, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue ia noieueei
iauaeoeaiuie e?eoa?eyie, neieueei noauaeoeaiuie i?aaeii/oaieyie.
Ioeaieaay noieiinoue aeaaa, ii enoiaeeo, i?aaeaea anaai, ec aai
iieaciinoe, oi anoue niiniaiinoe oaeiaeaoai?eoue iio?aaiinoue. Eaeay
ecia?aiey noieiinoe iieaciinoueth aeiaieueii noa?a. Aa iiaeaea?aeeaaee
o/aiua ae?aaiaai ie?a, io/aoeeaoth oi?ioee?iaeo iia i?eia?aea a XVIII a.
aeaaiaea?y ?aaioai Y.A. Eiiaeeeueyea, AE. A. Nyy. A iaeaieaa ?acaeoii
aeaea eiioeaioeey ii?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe oiaa?a iieaciinoueth auea
?ac?aaioaia yeiiiienoaie aano?eeneie oeieu iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee –
Iaiaa?ii, Aeca?ii, A?i-Aaaa?eii. Iie noi?ioee?iaaee oai?eth i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoe, niaeanii eioi?ie noieiinoue aeaaa ii?aaeaeyaony aai
i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoueth.

Iiae i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoueth iiieiaaony aeiaaai/iay iieaciinoue, eee
oaeiaeaoai?aiea, ecaeaeaaiia ec aeiiieieoaeueiie aaeeieoeu aeaaa.

A ?aieao ia?aie/aiiiai eioa?aaea a?aiaie i?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue
iaaeaao. ?anniio?ei i?eia?, iiyniythuee iiiyoea i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe.
I?aaeiieiaeei, ?iaeicii, iaoiaeynue ia iaiaeoaaiii ino?iaa, ?aniieaaaao
enoi/ieeii, ec eioi?iai ii iiaeao ecaea/ue ia aieaa 20 eeo?ia aiaeu. I?e
iaee/ee yoiai eiee/anoaa ii ?ani?aaeaeyao aiaeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1 e – aeey ooieaiey aeaaeaeu;

2 e – aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ieue;

10 e – aeey iieeaa iai?iaea, aaea ii au?aueaaao iaiaoiaeeiua i?iaeoeou;

5 e – aeey noe?ee;

2 e – aeey iieeaa oeaaoi/iie eeoiau.

A neo/aa, anee eoi-eeai iiyaeony ia ino?iaa e iii?ineo o iaai aiaeu,
?iaeicii, aeaenoaoy ?aoeeiiaeueii, aoaeao ioeaieaaoue aiaeo, enoiaey ec
iieaciinoe aeey iaai iineaaeiae aa aaeeieoeu, eiathuaeny a iaee/ee. Anee
o iaai aoaeao 18 e, ii iiiuoaaony eiiiaine?iaaoue a iacia/aiiie oeaia
naie iioa?e io iaaunoe?aiiiai aaeuey. Anee aea o iaai inoaiaony 3e, ii
i/aiue auniei ioeaieo ni?aoeaaaioth aiaeo, iineaaeiee eeo? aoaeao
ioeaiai aaca?aie/ii auniei.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae, cao?aoiay eiioeaioeey e eiioeaioeey iieaciinoe
yaeythony acaeiiio?eoeathueie. Aianoa n oai iie e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiu.
Neioac oai?ee noieiinoe inouanoaee A. Ia?oaee. Ii ioioae io iienea
aaeeinoaaiiiai enoi/ieea noieiinoe e niaaeeiee oai?eth i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoe e oai?eth ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa a oai?ee oeaiu,
oi?ie?othuaeny ia iniiaa acaeiiaeaenoaey ?uii/iiai ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ia?oaee inouanoaee iiai?io a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee io
noanoaioeeaeueiiai (nouiinoiiai) aiaeeca e ooieoeeiiaeueiiio. Iniiaiia
aieiaiea a naieo enneaaeiaaieyo ii oaeaeee ?uii/iiio iaoaiecio,
i?iaeaiai oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iie oeaiu – iniiaiiai ?aaoeyoi?a ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaa. Oai?ey oeaiu Ia?oaeea n iaaieueoeie oniaa?oainoaiaaieyie
ia?aianaia ai ana nia?aiaiiua o/aaieee ii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.

Iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia yaeythony ni?in, i?aaeeiaeaiea,
oeaia. Aeey ia/aea iu aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ?uiee, oi
anoue ?uiee, ia eioi?uo i?iaeathony oiaa?u iaeiiai aeaea. I?e/ai, aeey
i?inoiou aoaeai iieaaaoue, /oi eiaai aeaei n niaa?oaiii eiieo?aioiuie
?uieaie.

2. Aiaeec ?uii/iiai ni?ina

Aiaeec ni?ina aeeth/aao ?anniio?aiea aii?inia aai nouiinoe e oaeoi?ia,
aeeythueo ia ni?in.

Ni?in, n ea/anoaaiiie noi?iiu, – iio?aaiinoue ethaeae a eaeii-eeai
oiaa?a, iiaee?aieaiiay iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoueth.

Aeey ?uiea eiatho cia/aiea oieueei oaeea iio?aaiinoe. Iio?aaiinoue a
oiaa?a e aiciiaeiinoue aa oaeiaeaoai?aiey caaenyo io iiiaeo oaeoi?ia.
Iaeaieaa aaaeioth ?ieue i?e yoii ea?aao oeaia oiaa?a, ia eioi?ue
i?aaeuyaeyaony ni?in.

Aaee/eia ni?ina – eiee/anoai oiaa?a, eioi?ia aoaeao eoieaii ii
niioaaonoaothuae oeaia ca ia?aie/aiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie.

Iau/ii /ai ieaea oeaia, oai aieueoa aaee/eia ni?ina. Acaeiinaycue
iaaeaeo oeaiie oiaa?a e aaee/eiie i?aaeuyaeyaiiai ni?ina iiaeao auoue
eioa?i?aoe?iaaia n iiiiuueth neaaeothuaai i?eia?a. ?anniio?ei ianoiue
?uiie, ia eioi?ii i?iaeathony yaeiee. Enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea aeaei
eioi?iaoeeth i iio?aaeoaeueneii ni?ina, i?aaenoaaeaiioth a neaaeothuae
oaaeeoea:

Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC E . Ni?in iieoiaoaeae ia yaeiee

Oeaia ca 1 oe (one. aae.) Iauai ni?ina (oe/ian.)

5 10

4 20

3 40

2 70

1 120

Iino?iei ii aeaiiui oaaeeoeu oi/ee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea iieoiaoaeueneee
ni?in, e niaaeeiei eo. Ia ?enoiea i?aaenoaaeaia iieo/aiiay e?eaay
ni?ina.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 4 . E?eaay ni?ina

E?eaay ni?ina – eeiey, oa?aeoa?ecothuay caeii ni?ina, oi anoue
caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oeaiie oiaa?a e aaee/eiie ni?ina ia iaai.

E?eaay ni?ina eiaao io?eoeaoaeueiue iaeeii.

Caeii ni?ina ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iiauoaiea oeaiu oiaa?a iaoneiaeeaaao
nieaeaiea ni?ina ia iaai. Caeii ni?ina io?aaeaao io?eoeaoaeueioth
(ia?aoioth) naycue iaaeaeo ni?inii e oeaiie.

I?e iauyniaiee caeiia ni?ina o/eouaatho ii e?aeiae ia?a neaaeothuea
a?aoiaiou:

Neeiiiinoue iieoiaoaeae i?eia?aoaoue aieueoa aeaoaauo oiaa?ia.

Oauaaiea i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe: n iaeaieeaaieai aeaaa o iio?aaeoaey ia
ia?aie/aiiii a?aiaiiii eioa?aaea iieaciinoue eaaeaeie iineaaeothuae
aaeeieoeu nieaeaaony.

Yooaeo aeioiaea: i?e aieaa ieceie oeaia iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue
iiauoaaony.

Yooaeo caiauaiey: iieoiaoaee i?aaeii/eoatho iieoiaoue aieaa aeaoaaua
oiaa?u, niiniaiua oaeiaeaoai?youe iaeie e oa aea iio?aaiinoe.

Ni?in ia inoaaony iaeciaiiui. I?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey eae a naiii ni?ina
(oa?aeoa?a ni?ina), oae e a aaee/eia ni?ina. Aaee/eia ni?ina iaiyaony
oieueei i?e eciaiaiee oeaiu aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Ia a?aoeea yoi
eioa?i?aoe?oaony aeaeaeaieai aaeieue e?eaie ni?ina.

Eciaiaiea ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia icia/aao eciaiaiea oa?aeoa?a ni?ina (ni?ina)
e ia a?aoeea eeethno?e?oaony eae niauaiea e?eaie ni?ina ai?aai
(aic?anoaiea ni?ina) eee aeaai (nieaeaiea ni?ina).

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 5 . Niauaiea e?eaie i?aaeeiaeaiey –
eciaiaiea ni?ina

Eciaiaiey a ni?ina iaoneiaeaiu aicaeaenoaeai neaaeothueo nouanoaaiiuo
oaeoi?ia (iaoeaiiauo aeaoa?ieiaio):

eciaiaiea oeai oiaa?ia-caiaieoaeae iaoneiaeeaaao eciaiaiea ni?ina ia
aeaiiue oiaa? a oii aea iai?aaeaiee;

eciaiaiea oeai oiaa?ia-aeiiieieoaeae (eiiieaiaioa?iuo aeaa) aucuaaao
eciaiaiea ni?ina a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii iai?aaeaiee;

eciaiaiea aeioiaeia iio?aaeoaeae aucuaaao iaeiiiai?aaeaiiia eciaiaiea
ni?ina ia oiaa?u aunoae eaoaai?ee e eciaiaiea ni?ina a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
iai?aaeaiee ia oiaa?u iecoae eaoaai?ee;

ia?aiaiu ai aeonao e i?aaeii/oaieyo, naycaiiua, iai?eia?, n aeeyieai
iiaeu, iiaoo iieieaaaoue ni?in a oii eee eiii iai?aaeaiee;

iaeeaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae yaeythony iaeiei ec aaaeiuo oaeoi?ia,
iaoneiaeeaathueo iiaaaeaiea iieoiaoaeae ia ?uiea. Oae, eioeyoeeiiiua
iaeeaeaiey aeeytho a noi?iio oaaee/aiey oaeouaai ni?ina;

eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa iieoiaoaeae, /anoi naycaiiia n iea?aoeeiiiuie
i?ioeannaie i?aaeii?aaeaeyao niioaaonoaothuaa oaaee/aiea eee oiaiueoaiea
ni?ina.

3. Aiaeec ?uii/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey

I?aaeeiaeaiea – aioiaiinoue i?iecaanoe e iinoaaeoue ia ?uiie oiaa? a
iaiai ia ae?oaia aeaai, iau/ii, – aeaiueae.

Aaee/eia i?aaeeiaeaiey – eiee/anoai iinoaaeyaiuo ia ?uiie oiaa?ia a
aaeeieoeo a?aiaie ii eaaeaeie aeaiiie oeaia.

Iniiaiie oaeoi?, aeeythuee ia i?aaeeiaeaiea, – oeaia oiaa?a.

Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC F . I?aaeeiaeaiea yaeie ia ?uiea

Oeaia ca 1 oe

(one. aae.) Iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey (oe/ian.)

1 10

2 25

3 40

4 45

5 50

Iino?iei ii aeaiiui oaaeeoeu oi/ee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea i?aaeeiaeaiea ia
aeaiiii eieaeueiii ?uiea, e niaaeeiei eo. Ia ?enoiea i?aaenoaaeaia
iieo/aiiay e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 6 . E?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey

E?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey – eeiey, oa?aeoa?ecothuay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo
oeaiie ia oiaa? e aaee/eiie i?aaeeiaeaiey aai ia oiaa?iii ?uiea.

E?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey eiaao iieiaeeoaeueiue iaeeii.

Caeii i?aaeeiaeaiey io?aaeaao i?yioth (iieiaeeoaeueioth) caaeneiinoue
iaaeaeo oeaiie oiaa?a e aaee/eiie i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Aeaenoaea caeiia i?aaeeiaeaiey naycaii n oai, /oi i?eioeeiu
?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey canoaaeytho i?iecaiaeeoaeae aeaaa iinoaaeyoue
aai a aieueoai iauaia ii aieaa aunieie oeaia: i?e aieaa aunieeo oeaiao
oaaee/eaaaony aeioiaeiinoue i?iaeaae.

I?aaeeiaeaiea iiaeao iaiyoueny, oi anoue ii ?yaeo i?e/ei i?e aeaiiie
oeaia aiciiaeia iinoaaea ia ?uiie oiaa?ia a aieueoai (e?eaay
i?aaeeiaeaiey niauaaony i?e yoii ai?aai) eee iaiueoai iauaia (e?eaay
i?aaeeiaeaiey niauaaony aeaai).

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 7 . Niauaiea e?eaie i?aaeeiaeaiey –
eciaiaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey

Eciaiaiea a oa?aeoa?a i?aaeeiaeaiey naycaii n aeeyieai iaoeaiiauo
oaeoi?ia (iaoeaiiauo aeaoa?ieiaio), oaeeo eae:

eciaiaiea oeaiu ?ano?nia: nieaeaiea oeai ia ?ano?nu i?eaiaeeo e
oaaee/aieth i?aaeeiaeaiey;

aiaae?aiea iiauo oaoiieiaee: i?eiaiaiea aieaa yooaeoeaiuo oaoiieiaee
oaaee/eaaao i?aaeeiaeaiea;

ia?aiaiu a i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaeyo aaaeiu aeey ?yaea oiaa?iuo
?uieia, iai?eia?, aeaaii?eyoiua iiaiaeiua oneiaey oaaee/eaatho
i?aaeeiaeaiea naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;

eciaiaiey athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaie iieeoeee: oaaee/aiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie
aeaenoaoao a noi?iio nieaeaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey, a i?aaeinoaaeaiea
aeioaoeee i?iecaiaeeoaeyi, iai?ioea, noeioee?oao oaaee/aiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey;

ia?aiaiu a iaeeaeaieyo i?iecaiaeeoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia oaeaea io?aaeathony
ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao: iaeeaeaiey iiieaeaiey oeai oaaee/eaatho oaeouaa
i?aaeeiaeaiea;

eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa iinoaaueeia eciaiyao i?aaeeiaeaiea a
niioaaonoaothuai iai?aaeaiee.

4. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iie oeaiu. ?uii/iia ?aaiiaanea

?uii/iay oeaia oi?ie?oaony a ?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Niaianoei aeaiiua, i?eaaaeaiiua a oaaeeoea,
oa?aeoa?ecothuae ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ?uiea yaeie.

Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC G . Oeaia, ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea

Iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey a ianyoe (oe/ian.) Oeaia ca 1 oe. (one. aae.) Iauai
ni?ina a ianyoe (oe/ian.) Ecauoie (+)

eee aeaoeoeeo (-)

(oe/ian.)

50 5 10 +40

45 4 20 +25

40 3 40 0

25 2 70 -45

10 1 120 -110

Aeaaeei a?aoe/aneoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iie oeaiu.
Niaianoei e?eaua ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia iaeiii a?aoeea.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 8 . ?uii/iia ?aaiiaanea

?uii/iia ?aaiiaanea (A) oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?aaiiaaniie oeaiie (a iaoai
i?eia?a 3 one. aae.), eioi?ay o?aaieaaao aaee/eio ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey
ia ?uiea, a oaeaea ?aaiiaaniui iauaiii i?iaeaae (a i?eia?a – 40 oe. a
ian). Ethaia ioeeiiaiea io oeaiu ?aaiiaaney aucuaaao eeai aeaoeoeeo ia
?uiea (i?e nieaeaiee oeaiu i?ioea ?aaiiaaniie), eeai eceeoae (i?e
caauoaiee oeai). Aianoa n oai, i?e iaee/ee eiieo?aioeee iaeii eeoue
ioeeiiaiea io ?aaiiaaniie oeaiu i?eaiaeeo a aeaenoaea ?uii/iua neeu,
eioi?ua aica?auatho ?uiie a i?aaeiaa ?aaiiaaniia ninoiyiea. Aeieacaii, e
yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue, /oi ?uii/iia ?aaiiaanea
onoie/eai.

Iaeiaei, eciaiaiey ni?ina eee i?aaeeiaeaiey iiae aicaeaenoaeai
iaoeaiiauo oaeoi?ia aucuaatho eciaiaiey ia?aiao?ia ?uii/iiai ?aaiiaaney.
Oae, oaaee/aiea ni?ina i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo ?uii/iie ?aaiiaaniie oeaiu e
oaaee/aieth iauaia i?iaeaae, a nieaeaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey – e nieaeaieth
oeaiu ?aaiiaaney e nie?auaieth eiee/anoaa i?iaeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia ia
aeaiiii ?uiea.

5. Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey

Aiaeec ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey iieacuaaao oanioth caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo
iauaiii ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey e oeaiie oiaa?a. A yeiiiie/aneeo
enneaaeiaaieyo, a oicyenoaaiiie i?aeoeea aicieeaao aii?in: eaeiaa
noaiaiue caaeneiinoe (ia?a ?aaeoeee) i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina ia eciaiaiea
oeaiu.

?anniio?ei ni?in. Ianeieueei /ooee iio?aaeoaee e eciaiaieth oeaiu? *oiau
ecia?youe ?aaeoeeth ni?ina ia eciaiaiea oeaiu eniieuecotho iieacaoaeue
yeanoe/iinoe.

Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ii oeaia (ED ) iieacuaaao, ia neieueei i?ioeaioia
oaaee/eony ni?in, anee oeaia nieceony ia 1 i?ioeaio.

i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea iauaia ni?ina

ED = ——————————————————

i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea oeaiu

A iaoaiaoe/aneie caiene iu iieo/aai i?e yoii neaaeothuoth oi?ioeo aeey
en/eneaiey yeanoe/iinoe:

ED=((Q/Q) : ((P/P) = ((Q/(P) * (P/Q), aaea

?, Q – ia?aiia/aeueiua cia/aiey ni?ina e oeaiu;

(Q – i?e?ino iauaia ni?ina;

(? – i?e?ino oeaiu.

Yoi – iniiaiay oi?ioea aeey en/eneaiey oae iacuaaaiie oi/a/iie
yeanoe/iinoe. Iaeiaei, i?e cia/eoaeueiuo eieaaaieyo oeaiu e ni?ina
eniieuecotho aieaa neiaeioth oi?ioeo aeey au/eneaiey yeanoe/iinoe:

ED= ((Q/(P) * ((P1 + P2)/ (Q1 + Q2)), aaea

Q1(P1) – ia?aiia/aeueiue iauai (oeaia);

Q2(P2) – eciaiaiiue iauai (oeaia);

Yoi – oi?ioea aeoaiaie yeanoe/iinoe.

Caiaoei, /oi iau/ii oeaia e ni?in eciaiythony a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
iai?aaeaiee, iiyoiio yeanoe/iinoue, eae i?aaeei, – io?eoeaoaeueiay
aaee/eia. Iu aeey i?inoiou aoaeai i?aiaa?aaaoue ciaeii i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
eiyooeoeeaioa yeanoe/iinoe.

?anniio?ei caaeneiinoue eciaiaiey aaee/eiu aeioiaea (iauae au?o/ee) io
eciaiaiey oeaiu oiaa?a.

Ionoue TR – aaeiaie aeioiae (iauay au?o/ea, niaieoiiua ?anoiaeu
iio?aaeoaeae). Ii ii?aaeaeaieth, iia ?aaia TR= P * Q.

Ionoue eiathony iaeioi?ua naaaeaiey i aaee/eia ni?ina ia oiaa?. Au/eneei
aeey eaaeaeie oi/ee e?eaie ni?ina aaee/eio aeoaiaie yeanoe/iinoe e
aaeiaie au?o/ee (aeioiaea).

Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC H . Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ii oeaia

Oeaia Iauai ni?ina Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina Aaee/eia aeioiaea

A 5 3

15

B 4 6 3 24

C 3 9 1,4 27

D 2 12 0,71 24

E 1 16 0,43 16

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 9 . Aaeiaie aeioiae e yeanoe/iinoue
ni?ina

Ec i?eia?a aeaeii, /oi yeanoe/iinoue naycaia n eciaiaieai aaeiaiai
aeioiaea. Iiieaeaiea oeaiu ia iaeio e ooaea aaee/eio – iaeio aaeeieoeo-
iaoneiaeeaaao ?acee/iua eciaiaiey a aaee/eia ni?ina. I?e/ai, i?e
eiyooeoeeaioa yeanoe/iinoe, aieueoai aaeeieoeu, nieaeaiea oeaiu
i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo aaeiaiai aeioiaea, a i?e yeanoe/iinoe, iaiueoae
aaeeieoeu, ni?in eciaiyaony a ioiineoaeueii iaiueoae noaiaie, /oi e
iaoneiaeeaaao nieaeaiea iauae au?o/ee.

Auaeaeytho o?e iniiaiua oeia yeanoe/iinoe:

Yeanoe/iue ni?in: ED ( 1. Oaaee/aiea oeaiu iaoneiaeeaaao nieaeaiea
au?o/ee e nieaeaiea oeaiu iaoneiaeeaaao oaaee/aiea ?anoiaeia iieoiaoaeae
ia aeaiiue oiaa?.

Iayeanoe/iue ni?in: ED ( 1. Oaaee/aiea oeaiu iaoneiaeeaaao oaaee/aiea
au?o/ee e iaiai?io.

Aaeeie/iay yeanoe/iinoue: ED = 1. Eciaiaiea oeaiu a oo eee eioth
noi?iio aucuaaao i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia eciaiaiea ni?ina, oae /oi au?o/ea
inoaaony iaeciaiiie.

Oaeoi?u yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina:

Eiee/anoai caiaieoaeae oiaa?a. *ai aieueoa caiaieoaeae, oai yeanoe/iaa
ni?in.

Aeiey ?anoiaeia ia aeaiiue oiaa? a athaeaeaoa iio?aaeoaey. *ai auoa
aeiey ?anoiaeia ia aeaiiue oiaa? a athaeaeaoa iio?aaeoaey, oai aieaa
yeanoe/ai ni?in ia iaai

Eaoaai?ey oiaa?a. Ia oiaa?u ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe ni?in iayeanoe/ai. Ia
i?aaeiaou ?ineioe ni?in yeanoe/ai.

Oaeoi? a?aiaie. Ni?in oai yeanoe/iaa, /ai aeeeiiaa ia?eiae a?aiaie aeey
i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i iieoiea.

A ea/anoaa oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua, ia?yaeo n oeaiie, a iaeaieueoae noaiaie
aeeytho ia ni?in, iiaeii auaeaeeoue oaeaea aeioiaeu iio?aaeoaeae e oeaiu
ae?oaeo oiaa?ia. A yoie nayce auaeaeytho iieacaoaeue yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina
ii aeioiaeo:

ED= ((Q/(I) * (I/Q),

aaea I – aeioiae iio?aaeoaeae.

Aeiaieueii /anoi eniieuecotho iieacaoaeue ia?ae?anoiie yeanoe/iinoe
ni?ina. Ii caia?yao aeeyiea eciaiaiey ni?ina ia aeaiiue oiaa?
(aeiionoei, i) a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey oeaiu ae?oaiai oiaa?a
(aeiionoei, j). Oi?ioea aeey en/eneaiey ia?ae?anoiie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina
neaaeothuay:

ED = ((Qi/(Pj) * (Pj/Qi)

Eiioeaioeey yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina iaoiaeeo oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a
oicyenoaaiiie i?aeoeea:

a ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee oe?i, iniaaiii a oeaiiaie iieeoeea;

a aioeiiiiiieueiie iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa;

a iaeiaiaie iieeoeea;

a ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeea oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

?anniio?ei i?iaeaio yeanoe/iinoe i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iia ninoieo a
ii?aaeaeaiee oiai, ianeieueei /ooee i?iecaiaeeoaee e eciaiaieth oeaiu.

Yeanoe/iinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oeaia (Es ) iieacuaaao, ia neieueei
i?ioeaioia oaaee/eony ni?in, anee oeaia nieceony ia 1 i?ioeaio.

i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea iauaia i?aaeeiaeaiey

Es = —————————————————————–

i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea oeaiu

Oi?ioea aeey en/eneaiey yeanoe/iinoe i?aaeeiaeaiey:

Es=((Qs/Qs) : ((P/P) = ((Qs/(P) * (P/Qs).

A ioee/ea io yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina, naiui aaaeiui oaeoi?ii yeanoe/iinoe
i?aaeeiaeaiey yaeyaony oaeoi? a?aiaie. I?aaeeiaeaiea ia iiaeao
eciaieoueny iaiiaaiii a ioaao ia oeaiiaua neaiaeu. Ie oaaee/aiea, ie
nieaeaiea oeaiu a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey oaeoi?ia, aucuaathueo eciaiaiea
ni?ina, ia iiaeao canoaaeoue i?iecaiaeeoaeae ?acei eciaieoue
i?aaeeiaeaiea a ei?ioeea a?aiaiiua i?iiaaeooee. Eeoue ii i?ioanoaee
a?aiaie i?iecaiaenoai iinoaiaiii i?eniinaaeeaaaony e ?uii/iui neaiaeai.
Neaaeothuea a?aoeee eeethno?e?otho caaeneiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey io
oaaee/aiey ni?ina.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 10 . Yeanoe/iinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey a
iaiiaaiiii ia?eiaea ?aaia 0 (Es=0).

Oaaee/aiea ?uii/iiai ni?ina a iaiiaaiiii (e?ao/aeoai) ia?eiaea
iaoneiaeeaaao iiauoaiea ?uii/iie oeaiu, iaeiaei iinoaaueee ia iiaoo
iaiiaaiii oaaee/eoue i?aaeeiaeaiea. Yeanoe/iinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey i?e yoii
?aaia 0 (Es=0).

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 11 . Yeanoe/iinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey a
ei?ioeii ia?eiaea i?eieiaao iieiaeeoaeueiua cia/aiey.

?ino ?uii/iiai ni?ina a ei?ioeii ia?eiaea a?aiaie, eiaaea iiaeii
aeiiieieoaeueii i?iecaanoe e iinoaaeoue ia ?uiie oiaa?, iaoneiaeeaaao
iaeiia?aiaiiia iiauoaiea ?uii/iie oeaiu e oaaee/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey.
Yeanoe/iinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey i?e yoii i?eieiaao iieiaeeoaeueiia cia/aiey.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 12 . Yeanoe/iinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey a
aeeeoaeueiii ia?eiaea no?aieony e aaneiia/iinoe (Es=().

A aeeeoaeueiii ia?eiaea a?aiaie iiaeii nouanoaaiii oaaee/eoue
i?aaeeiaeaiea ca n/ao ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, nicaeaiey
iiauo i?iecaiaenoa. ?ino ni?ina i?eaiaeeo, a eiia/iii n/aoa e
niioaaonoaothuaio ?anoe?aieth i?aaeeiaeaiey, ii ia aucuaaao iiauoaiey
oeaiu. Yeanoe/iinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey i?e yoii no?aieony e aaneiia/iinoe
(Es=().

?ACAeAE III. IEE?IYEIIIIEEA

Aeaaa 1. Iee?iyeiiiieea eae /anoue yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

Nia?aiaiiay yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa eeth/aaua
/anoe: iee?i- e iae?iyeiiiieeo.

Iee?iyeiiiieea eae naiinoiyoaeueiay iao/iay aeenoeeieeia noi?ie?iaaeanue
a iineaaeiae o?aoe XIX aaea. Nicaeaiea iee?iyeiiiieee naycaii n eiaiaie
e?oiiuo ca?oaaaeiuo yeiiiienoia: Eaiia Aaeue?ana (oaaeoea?neiai
iaoaiaoeea-yeiiiienoa), Ea?ea Iaiaa?a e ae?oaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
aano?eeneie oeieu iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee, aiaee/aieia O. No. Aeaeaaiina.
N eo eiaiaie naycuaatho «ia?aeeiaeenoneoth ?aaiethoeeth», a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?ie iaieeanne/aneia iai?aaeaiea noaei aeiieie?othuei a yeiiiie/aneie
iaoea.

«I?eioeeiu yeiiiieea» eaia?eaeaeneiai i?ioanni?a Aeueo?aaea Ia?oaeea e
iiiia?aoey aia?eeaineiai yeiiiienoa Aeae. A. Eea?ea «?ani?aaeaeaiea
aiaaonoaa» ieii/aoaeueii ioi?ieee iaieeanne/aneoth ia?aaeeaio.

Iaieeanneee i/a?oeee oeaeinoioth eiioeaioeeth ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa a oneiaeyo niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee. Iniaaiii
aiooeoaeueiuo oniaoia iie aeinoeaee a enneaaeiaaiee i?iaeai
yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney, oi?ie?othuaainy ia iniiaa iaoaiecia
naiaiaeiiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey. A oeaeii oaea a ia?aie o?aoe XX aaea
iee?iyeiiiie/aneee aiaeec i?eia?ae i?aeoe/anee nia?aiaiiue aeae.

Aeeaae ?onneeo e niaaoneeo yeiiiienoia a iee?iyeiiiieeo ia iia auoue
i/aiue e?oiiui, iineieueeo ioa/anoaaiiay yeiiiie/aneay iaoea XX aaea
auea caiaoii ioi?aaia io ie?iaie. Aianoa n oai a ie?iaie iaoea i?eciai
iaiaeiaaaeiui aeeaae auaeathuaainy ?onneiai iaoaiaoeea e yeiiiienoa A.
Neooeeiai (1880-1948 aa.), eioi?ue i?e enneaaeiaaiee iio?aaeoaeueneiai
ni?ina aia?aua iieo/ee au?aaeaiea, eioi?ia a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a iacuaatho iieacaoaeai yooaeoa caiauaiey. Iicaeiaa Aeeai e
Oeen, eniieuecoy aiaeec Neooeeiai, noi?ioee?iaaee oneiaey
iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?aaiiaaney. Iee?iyeiiiie/aneei enneaaeiaaieyi auee
iinayuaiu ?aaiou A. Aieoeineiai, A. Aeeeiiae/a e ae?. ?onneeo
yeiiiienoia ia/aea XX a. Iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ii ea/anoao e aeoaeia
enneaaeiaaiee ?inneeneay yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneay iuneue oiai a?aiaie
auea ia ie?iaii o?iaia. Yoio caaeae iicaieee niaaoneei yeiiiienoai a
20-o – 30-o aa. eiaoue i?ei?eoao a nicaeaiee iiaeaeae iaaeio?aneaaiai
aaeaina ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

A ia/aea 90-o aiaeia Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao
yeiiiieee e oeiainia iaeiei ec ia?auo a no?aia aaae a o/aaiua ieaiu
iiaeaioiaee yeiiiienoia anao iai?aaeaiee i?aiiaeaaaiea nia?aiaiiie iauae
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee e i?iaeaeioouo eo?nia iee?i- e iae?iyeiiiieee.
I?aiiaeaaaoaeyie NI6AOYO auee auiouaiu ia?aua ioa/anoaaiiua eieae ii
iee?iyeiiiieea:

Aaeueia?ei A.I., Eaiaoueaa N.I., Ii?aoiia A.E. Iee?iyeiiiieea: a 2-o o.
/ NIa, 1996.

A?aaaiieeia I.E., Eaonneee A.E., Oa?anaae/ E.N. Iee?iyeiiiieea / NIa,
1996.

Iee?iyeiiiieea caieiaaony enneaaeiaaieai iiaaaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia.

Yeiiiie/aneea noauaeou (aaaiou) – yoi iio?aaeoaee

(iieoiaoaee oiaa?ia e oneoa); oe?iu, i?iecaiaeyuea oiaa?u e oneoae;
iaaiiua ?aai/ea; aeeaae/eee eaieoaea; caieaaeaaeaeueoeu. Yeiiiie/aneea
noauaeou ?aciyony ii ianooaaai e ooieoeeyi a yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannao,
ii ?ieue eaaeaeie ec iacaaiiuo a?oii yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia nouanoaaiia
e iaiaoiaeeia.

Iee?iyeiiiieea iauyniyao, eae e ii/aio i?eieiathony yeiiiie/aneea
?aoaiey ia iecoai o?iaia. Iai?eia?, eae aeeytho eciaiaiey oeai e
aeioiaeia ia i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?ia, eaeei ia?acii oe?iu ieaie?otho
ianooaau i?iecaiaenoaa, ii/aio ?aai/ea ?aoatho, aaea e neieueei ei
iaiaoiaeeii ?aaioaoue.

Iee?iyeiiiieea eco/aao acaeiiaeaenoaea noauaeoia yeiiiieee ia io?aneaauo
?uieao (?uieao, ia eioi?uo ia?auathony iaeii?iaeiua oiaa?u), iauyniyao
iaoaieciu ?uii/iiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey, aeeyiea ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee
ia aeayoaeueiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia.

Naaiaeiy a?aieoeu iaaeaeo iee?i- e iae?iyeiiiieeie ?aciuaathony, oai ia
iaiaa iee?iyeiiiie/aneee aiaeec nio?aiyao naith niaoeeoeeo, ?acaeaaaony
aaeoaue.

Oeaio?aeueiie iee?iyeiiiie/aneie i?iaeaiie yaeyaony i?iaeaia
oeaiiia?aciaaiey, oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iie oeaiu. Eiae/aneay no?oeoo?a
eo?na «Iee?iyeiiiieea» aeeth/aao ?anniio?aiea aii?inia, aeaoaeueii e
ananoi?iiia iienuaathueo

iaoaieciu ?uii/iiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Eae ecaanoii ec eo?na «IYO»,
oaeoi?aie, ii?aaeaeythueie ?uii/ioth oeaio, yaeythony:

iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in (e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae);

i?aaeeiaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo oe?i (e iiaaaeaiea iineaaeieo);

iiaaaeaiea aeaaeaeueoeaa oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa ia ?uieao ?ano?nia;

yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa.

Iee?iyeiiiieea iiae?iaii enneaaeoao ana yoe oeaiiia?acothuea oaeoi?u.

?aai/ay i?ia?aiia eo?na Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oieaa?neoaoa yeiiiieee e oeiainia i?aaeoniao?eaaao eco/aiea
iee?iyeiiiieee a neaaeothuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe: nia/aea eceaaaaony
oai?ey iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae, caoai – i?iecaiaeeoaeae (oe?i), iinea
yoiai aeaaony aiaeec ?uieia ?ano?nia. A caeeth/eoaeueiuo oaiao
enneaaeoaony iauaa yeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea e ianiaa?oainoaa ?uiea
(aiaoiea yooaeou). Aeaiiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eceiaeaiey i?eiyoa a
ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea i?aiiaeaaaiey iee?iyeiiiieee.

O/aaiee A?aaaiieeiaa e ae?. ia?aua aeaa oaiu ia?aiaiyao ianoaie. A yoii
io?aaeaia iiceoeey aaoi?ia, n/eoathueo iaiaoiaeeiui naeaeaoue aeoeaio ia
cia/aiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee (o?aaeeoeeiiiay aeey
ioa/anoaaiiuo yeiiiienoia oi/ea c?aiey). Caiaaeiua yeiiiienou n/eoatho,
/oi nia?aiaiiay yeiiiieea aeieaeia no?ieoueny «io iio?aaeoaey»,
iineieueeo eiaao ianoi ia oieueei «noaa?aieoao iio?aaeoaey», ii e
aeiieie?iaaiea «?uiea iieoiaoaey».

1. Iaoiaeieiaey e iniiaiua iiiyoey iee?iyeiiiieee

Eae e ethaay iaoea, iee?iyeiiiieea caieiaaony iauyniaieai e
i?iaiice?iaaieai iaaethaeaaiuo yaeaiee.

Yeiiiienou, niaoeeaeece?othueany ia iee?iyeiiiie/aneii aiaeeca,
iaaethaeatho yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu, nenoaiaoece?otho iieo/aiiua
ciaiey, oi anoue ?acaeaatho iiceoeaiia iai?aaeaiea. Yeiiiie/aneay iaoea
a iniiaiii yaeyaony iiceoeaiie. Iiceoeaiue aiaeec i?aaeiieaaaao
iauyniaiea e i?iaiice?iaaiea yaeaiee a yeiiiieea. Iai?eia?,
i?aaeoaeuenoai ?anoe?eei aaethoiue ei?eaei?. *oi i?iecieaeao n oeaiaie
ia ANI aioo?e no?aiu? Eae neaaeaony ia eo nauoa? Eaeia aeeyiea yoi
ieaaeao ia iieiaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae, eo iiaaaeaiea, eae neaaeaony ia
?uieao o?oaea? Ioaaou ia yoe aii?inu aeaao iiceoeaiia iai?aaeaiea
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. Iiceoeaiue (iieiaeeoaeueiue) aiaeec aeooaeai.
Aeae. I. Eaein iiae/a?eeaae, /oi «e aiciiaeii, e aeaeaoaeueii eco/aiea
yeiiiie/aneeo aaeeiiia?acee (a nia?aiaiiie oa?ieiieiaee -caeiiiia?iinoae
– O.I.) iacaaeneii io yeiiiie/aneeo eaeaaeia e aac oi?ioee?iaaiey
yeiiiie/aneeo i?aaeienaiee (ii ia iaiai?io)».

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiceoeaiue aiaeec – iniiaa. Oieueei ia yoie iniiaa e
oi?ie?oaony ii?iaoeaiia iai?aaeaiea iee?iyeiiiieee. Ii?iaoeaiue iiaeoiae
i?aaeiieaaaao, iai?eia?, ioaao ia aii?in «Ioaeii ee nieaeaoue iaeiae ia
aeioiaeu ianaeaiey?» Ia aeaaeay ciaieyie yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee,
iieiaeaiey e iioeaia aeayoaeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia a aeaiiuo
eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo, ioaaoeoue ia iinoaaeaiiue aii?in iaaiciiaeii.

?aeiiaiaeoy oa eee eiua ia?u, yeiiiieno aeieaeai ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeei
iooai eo iiaeii ?aaeeciaaoue, eaeea iiai/iua iineaaenoaey iie iiaoo
aucaaoue. Oai naiui i?iaeaia auai?a, aicieeathuay o eaaeaeiai
yeiiiie/aneiai noauaeoa, iaeaa/aaony, a nai auai? noaiiaeony aieaa
ioaaonoaaiiui, niaa?oaiiui «ni ciaieai aeaea». Ii?iaoeaiue aiaeec
iniaaiii aaaeai aeey iaiaaeaea?ia, a?oeoaeoi?ia ainoaea?noaaiiie
iieeoeee.

Iniiaiui iaoiaeii enneaaeiaaiey, eniieuecoaiui a nia?aiaiiie
iee?iyeiiiieea, yaeyaony iiaeaee?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee e
i?ioeannia.

Yeiiiie/aneay iiaeaeue – yoi oi?iuaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia yeiiiie/aneie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

?acee/atho aeaoa?ieienoneea e noioanoe/aneea iiaeaee. Ia?aua
i?aaeiieaaatho iienaiea e o/ao anao aiaoieo (yeciaaiiuo) e aioo?aiieo
(yiaeiaaiiuo) oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia eco/aaiia yaeaiea. ?acoeueoao
?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia, iienuaaaiuo oaeeie iiaeaeyie,
iieo/aaony iaeiicia/iui, i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiui, aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiui. Ii,
iineieueeo yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue e?aeia noioanoe/ia, caaeneia io
neo/aeiinoae, oi i?iaiic, iieo/aiiue ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey oaeeo
iiaeaeae, ii?aaaeuaaaony aeaeaei ia anaaaea.

Aieaa aaeaeaaoiuie yeiiiie/aneie aeecie yaeythony noioanoe/aneea
(aa?iyoiinoiua) iiaeaee. Oai ia iaiaa a iaoai eo?na ai ecaaaeaiea
eceeoieo neiaeiinoae aoaeai eniieueciaaoue i?aeiouanoaaiii
aeaoa?ieienoneea iiaeaee. O/ao ?enea e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe i?e i?eiyoee
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee ia iee?io?iaia aoaeao eco/aoueny aaie a eo?nao
«Yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey (oe?iu)», «Ei?ii?aoeaiua oeiainu», «No?aoiaia
aeaei» e ae?.

Iee?iyeiiiie/aneea iiaeaee iiaeii oaeaea eeanneoeoee?iaaoue eae
iioeiecaoeeiiiua e ?aaiiaaniua. Ia?aua eniieuecotho i?e enneaaeiaaiee
iiaaaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia
aeinoeaeaiea eo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oeaeae. Aoi?ua i?eiaiytho aeey
i?aaenoaaeaiey ?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey niaieoiiinoe noauaeoia e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaeaniaaiey oeaeae i?e yoii.

?aaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue ianuuaia ia?aaiiaaniuie ninoiyieyie,
iaeiaei a neeo neiaeiinoe aiaeeca ia?aaiiaaniuo ninoiyiee iie ia
eceaaathony a noaiaea?oiii eo?na iee?iyeiiiieee. Aieaa oiai, ?aaiiaaniua
ninoiyiey – yoi eaeaae, ii?iaoea, aie?oa eioi?uo neaaeoao eneaoue
iaeeo/oea aa?eaiou ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Aua iaeia eeanneoeeaoeey iee?iyeiiiie/aneeo iiaeaeae -?acaeaiea eo ia
noaoe/aneea e aeeiaie/aneea. Noaoe/aneea iiaeaee eco/atho yeiiiie/aneea
yaeaiey eae au canouaoeie, aia eo ?acaeoey. Aeeiaie/aneea iiaeaee
o/eouaatho oaeoi? a?aiaie e ?anniao?eaatho yeiiiie/aneoth aeeciue a aa
?acaeoee, eae i?ioeann.

Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?aaeiieaaaao oi?ioee?iaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeiinueie,
iienaiea oneiaee, ia?aiaiiuo, eioi?ua i?eieiathony ai aieiaiea.

A iaoiaeieiaee iee?iyeiiiieee aaaeiaeooth ?ieue ea?aao i?aaeiinueea i
?aoeeiiaeueiii iiaaaeaiee yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia. Yeiiiie/aneee
/aeiaae, aeaenoaoy ?aoeeiiaeueii, no?aieony e iaeneioio ?acoeueoaoa i?e
caaeaiiuo n?aaenoaao e ieieioio cao?ao ia iieo/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
?acoeueoaoa. Oae, a iiaeaeyo iio?aaeoaeueneiai iiaaaeaiey eniieuecoaony
i?aaeiinueea i no?aieaiee iio?aaeoaey iaeneiece?iaaoue iieaciinoue, a
i?e

eco/aiee iiaaaeaiey oe?i eeth/aaie yaeyaony i?aaeiinueea i no?aieaiee e
iaeneiecaoeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie i?eauee.

A nia?aiaiiuo oai?aoeei-yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo i?aaeiinueea
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe nouanoaaiii ?acaeoa e ooi/iaia. Nouanoaoao iiey?iua
acaeyaeu ia i?e?iaeo yeiiiie/aneie ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe, aieioue aei aa
iieiiai io?eoeaiey.

I?e i?aiiaeaaaiee iee?iyeiiiieee eniieuecotho o?e acaeiiaeiiieiyaiuo
niiniaa eceiaeaiey: aa?aaeueiue (neiaaniue), aeaaa?ae/aneee e
a?aoe/aneee.

Aeaaa 2. Iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea

Aii?inu:

I?eioeeiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaey. Iio?aaeoaeueneea
i?aaeii/oaiey. E?eaay e ea?oa aac?acee/ey.

Athaeaeaoiua ia?aie/aiey. Eciaiaiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe
iio?aaeoaey. Oneiaea iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?aaiiaaney.

1. I?eioeeiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaey. Iio?aaeoaeueneea
i?aaeii/oaiey. E?eaay e ea?oa aac?acee/ey.

?anniio?aiea iee?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai iu ia/eiaai n eco/aiey
iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaey, ianiio?y ia oi /oi i?iecaiaeeoaee
i?aaenoaaeythony “aeaaiuie aeaenoaothueie eeoeaie” a yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaieyo. Aeaei a oii, /oi a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ?ieue iio?aaeoaey ia
ianneaia. Yeiiiienou aiai?yo i “noaa?aieoaoa iio?aaeoaey”, oi anoue aai
niiniaiinoe aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia i?iecaiaeeoaey /a?ac naiaiaeiue auai? e
i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?a eee ioeac io aai iieoiee.

A aiaeeca iu aoaeai iie?aoueny ia ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaey,
oi anoue aoaeai n/eoaoue, /oi iio?aaeoaeue no?aieony e iaeneiecaoeee
iieaciinoe i?e ia?aie/aiiii aeioiaea, oi anoue noa?aaony ?anoiaeiaaoue
eiathueany o iaai n?aaenoaa naiui yooaeoeaiui niiniaii.

I?e aiaeeca iio?aaeoaeueneiai iiaaaeaiey iai i?eaeaony noieeiooueny n
i?iaeaiie iieaciinoe e aa ecia?aiey. Eae ecaanoii, aeoeaiia
eniieueciaaiea eaoaai?ee iieaciinoe a yeiiiie/aneii aiaeeca auei
i?eiaiaii yeiiiienoaie ia?aeeiaeenoneiai iai?aaeaiey. A enneaaeiaaieyo
ia?aeeiaeenoia aaaeiia ianoi caieiaea i?iaeaia eiee/anoaaiiiai ecia?aiey
aaee/ei i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe. A caaeneiinoe io ioaaoa ia aii?in ia
ecia?eoaea iieaciinoe yeiiiienou ?acaeaeeeenue ia aeaa iniiaiuo
iai?aaeaiey: ea?aeeiaeenoia (noi?iiieeia iienea aaniethoiuo iieacaoaeae
ecia?aiey iieaciinoe: O. Aeaeaaiin, A. Ia?oaee e ae?.) e i?aeeiaeenoia,
n/eoaaoeo aeinoaoi/iui niiinoaaeaiea aeaa ii eo iieaciinoe. Acaeyaeu
iineaaeieo naaiaeiy yaeythony aieaa i?eciaiiuie e noi?ioee?iaaiu eae
ii?yaeeiaay oai?ey iieaciinoe. Iaeaieueoee aeeaae a ?ac?aaioeo
ii?yaeeiaie oai?ee iieaciinoe aianee O. Yaeaeoi?o, A. Ia?aoi, E. Oeoa?.
Yoa oai?ey i?eia?aea aieaa ?acaeoue aeae a ?aaioao ?. Aeeaia e Aeae.
Oeena.

Aneaae ca i?aeeiaeenoaie iu aeaeaai neaaeothuea i?aaeiieiaeaiey:

I?aaeii/oaiey noi?ie?iaaiu: iio?aaeoaeue iiaeao n?aaieaaoue e
oii?yaei/eaaoue ?acee/iua iaai?u aeaiiuo n oi/ee c?aiey eo
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoe, aieueoae eee iaiueoae iieaciinoe aeey iaai
(aeneiia iieiie oii?yaei/aiiinoe):

A i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa B: A (B;

A ooaea A: A< A;A e A ?aaiioeaiiu: A ( A.I?aaeii/oaiey o?aiceoeaiu: Anee A(B, a A(N, oi A(N (aeneiia o?aiceoeaiinoe).I?aaeii/oaiea anaaaea ioaeaaony aieueoaio eiee/anoao ethaiai oiaa?a: (aeneiia iaianuuaaiinoe).Aeey i?eia?a aicueiai neaaeothuea eiiaeiaoeee aeaa.Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC I . Iaai?u iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?iaAnni?oeiaioiuaiaai?u aeaa Eiee/anoaii?iaeoeoia ieoaiey Eiee/anoaiiaeaaeaeuA 20 30B 10 55C 40 20D 30 45E 10 20F 10 45I?e aiaeeca aoaeai eniieueciaaoue aeaoia?iua a?aoeee, iaeiaei iniiaiua auaiaeu, eaaei iiaoo auoue ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia neooaoeeth ni neieue oaiaeii aieueoei /eneii oiaa?ia.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 13 . E?eaay aac?acee/eyA iaoai i?eia?a iaai? A aieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeai, /ai iaai? A (ii o?ai i?aaeiinueeai aiaeeca), iaai? D aieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeai, /ai iaai? A. Iaai? A eaaei n?aaieaaoue n iaai?aie a caoo?eoiaaiiuo iaeanoyo: a iaeanoe I aieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiua, ii n?aaiaieth n A iaai?u, a a iaeanoe III - iaiaa. Ii iiaiaeo oi/ae a iaeanoyo II e IV iaiaoiaeeii aeiiieieoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea. N?aaiaiea A n iaai?aie B,F, C aiciiaeii oieueei ia iniiaa eioi?iaoeee ia eo ioeaiea eiie?aoiui iio?aaeoaeai. Iao iio?aaeoaeue iaeeiaeiai ioeaieaaao iaai?u A, A e N. Ii oiaaea F - iaiaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiue iaai?.Iiaeii niaaeeieoue ieaaiie eeieae oi/ee, niioaaonoaothuea iaai?ai A, A e N. Iieo/aiiay eeiey - e?eaay aac?acee/ey.E?eaay aac?acee/ey - e?eaay, iieacuaathuay niaieoiiinoue iaai?ia i?iaeoeoia, iaeaaeathueo ?aaiie iieaciinoueth aeey iio?aaeoaey.Enneaaeoy iio?aaeoaeueneea i?aaeii/oaiey aieaa iieii, iiaeii iino?ieoue ea?oo aac?acee/ey.Ea?oa aac?acee/ey - iiiaeanoai e?eauo aac?acee/ey, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecothony ?aaiuie iieaciinoyie ia iaeiie eeiee e ?aciuie - ia ?aciuo.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 14 . Ea?oa aac?acee/ey iio?aaeoaeyE?eaua aac?acee/ey, ionoiyuea aeaeueoa io ia/aea eii?aeeiao, oa?aeoa?ecotho iaai?u n aieueoae iieaciinoueth. Ea?oa aac?acee/ey aeaao iieioth eioi?iaoeeth i nenoaia i?aaeii/oaiee iio?aaeoaey, ia o?aaoy aaniethoiiai eiee/anoaaiiiai ecia?aiey iieaciinoe.Naienoaa e?eauo aac?acee/ey:Ienoiaeyuee oa?aeoa?. Aeey nio?aiaiey oiai aea o?iaiy iieaciinoe oaaee/aiea iio?aaeaiey iaeiiai aeaaa aeieaeii eiiiaine?iaaoueny nie?auaieai iio?aaeaiey ae?oaiai aeaaa.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 15 . Iaaiciiaeiinoue ia?ana/aiey e?eauo aac?acee/ey.Ia?aoiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea ia?ooaao i?aaeiinueee: ia ?enoiea iaai? A aeieaeai auoue ?aaiioeaiai iaai?o A, oae eae iie iaoiaeyony ia iaeiie e?eaie aac?acee/ey. Iaai?u A e N aeeth/atho iaeeiaeiaia eiee/anoai iaeaaeaeu, ii iaai? A aieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeai. Yoio iaai? aeeth/aao aieueoaa eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, neaaeiaaoaeueii, a neeo i?aaeiinueee i iaianuuaaiinoe ii i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa. Ionthaea, a neeo i?aaeiinueee i o?aiceoeaiinoe, iaai? A i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa iaai?a N. Ii yoi i?ioeai?a/eo i?aaeiieiaeaieth ia yeaeaaeaioiinoe iaai?ia A e N.E?eaua aac?acee/ey yaeythony aiaioouie. Yoi naycaii n i?eioeeiii oauaathuae i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoueth, niaeanii eioi?iio, /ai aieueoei eiee/anoaii aeaiiiai aeaaa ?aniieaaaao iio?aaeoaeue, oai iaiueoei eiee/anoaii ae?oaiai aeaaa ii aioia iiaea?oaiaaoue, /oiau iieo/eoue aieueoa aeaiiiai aeaaa.Ia neaaeothuai ?enoiea i?eaaaeaia eeethno?aoeey oauaathuae i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe. I?e ia?aoiaea io iaai?a A e iaai?o A (oaaee/aiee eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey ia aaeeieoeo) iio?aaeoaeue aioia iinooieoueny oanoueth aaeeieoeaie iaeaaeaeu. I?e aeaeaeaiee io D e A ii aioia iiaea?oaiaaoue oieueei iaeio aaeeieoeo iaeaaeaeu. Aeey ecia?aiey eiee/anoaa “aea?oau” eniieuecotho ia?o, iacaaiioth i?aaeaeueiie ii?iie caiauaiey.I?aaeaeueiay ii?ia caiauaiey (MRS - Marginal rate of substitution) - iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai aeaaa, io eioi?iai iio?aaeoaeue aioia ioeacaoueny, /oiau iieo/eoue aeiiieieoaeueioth aaeeieoeo aeaiiiai aeaaa.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 16 . Oauaaiea i?aaeaeueiie ii?iu caiauaiey.MRS = - (Y / (X (U=const)A oi?ioea en/aneaiey i?aaeaeueiie ii?iu caiauaiey eniieuecoaony ciae “-”, oae eae (Y( 0. Ii aaniethoiiio cia/aieth i?aaeaeueiay ii?ia caiauaiey ?aaia iaeeiio e?eaie aac?acee/ey. Iineieueeo i?aaeaeueiay ii?ia caiauaiey oauaaao (a iaoai i?eia?a: 6; 4; 2; 1), yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oauaaiee iaeeiia eanaoaeueiie, /oi e oa?aeoa?ecoao aiaiooinoue e?eaie aac?acee/ey.I?aaeaeueiay ii?ia caiauaiey iieacuaaao i?aaeaeueioth iieaciinoue (auaiaeo), eioi?oth iaania/eaaao aeiiieieoaeueiay aaeeieoea aeaaa (a iaoai neo/aa - i?iaeiaieuenoaey).Oi?iu e?eauo aac?acee/ey iiaoo auoue aeiaieueii ?aciiia?aciuie, iieacuaaoue ia ?aciua noaiaie aeaeaoaeueiinoe caiaiu iaeiiai oiaa?a ae?oaei.Caaeaiea! Ia?enoeoa e?eaua aac?acee/ey:aeey iieiinoueth acaeiicaiaiyaiuo aeaa:aeey aaniethoii acaeiiaeiiieiyaiuo aeaa;aeey eeethno?aoeee aaniethoiiai aac?acee/ey iio?aaeoaey e iaeiiio ec aeaa.2. Athaeaeaoiua ia?aie/aiey. Eciaiaiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe iio?aaeoaey. Oneiaea iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?aaiiaaneyI?aaeii/oaiey ia iieiinoueth iauyniytho iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaey. Ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue auai? aeeyao oaeaea iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue iio?aaeoaey, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony, n iaeiie noi?iiu, athaeaeaoii iio?aaeoaey, n ae?oaie - o?iaiai oeai.I?aaeiieiaeei:I - aeioiae iieoiaoaey, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue iio?a/ai ia iaeaaeaeo e ieoaiea;X - eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia, eioi?ia iiaeao auoue i?eia?aoaii ei;Y - eiee/anoai i?aaeiaoia iaeaaeaeu, eioi?ia iiaeao auoue caeoieaii yoei iieoiaoaeai;PX - oeaia aaeeieoeu i?iaeiaieuenoaey;PY - oeaia aaeeieoeu iaeaaeaeu.Oiaaea:PX * X - noiia aeaiaa, cao?a/aiiay ia ieoaiea;PY * Y - noiia n?aaenoa, cao?a/aiiay ia i?eia?aoaiea iaeaaeaeu.Aanue aeioiae ?anoiaeoaony ia yoe oeaee, cia/eo iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue iiaeao auoue iienaia o?aaiaieai:I = PX * X + PY * Y (*)Yoi o?aaiaiea i?eiyoi iacuaaoue o?aaiaieai athaeaeaoiie eeiee.Ec o?aaiaiey athaeaeaoiie eeiee iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi:(I / PX ) - iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai i?iaeiaieuenoaey, eioi?ia iiaeao i?eia?anoe iio?aaeoaeue;(I / PY ) - iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai iaeaaeaeu, eioi?ia iiaeao i?eia?anoe iio?aaeoaeue.Au?acei ec o?aaiaiey (*) Y:Y = I / PY - (PX / PY )* X;-(PX/PY ) - oaeiaie eiyooeoeeaio athaeaeaoiie eeiee, io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea oeai oiaa?ia.I?eaaaeai i?eia?.I?aaeiieiaeei, aeioiae iio?aaeoaey ninoaaeyao I=40 oun. aeai. aae.;oeaia oiaa?a X ninoaaeyao PX = 1 oun. aeai. aae.;oeaia oiaa?a Y PY = 2 oun. aeai. aae.Niaeanii oneiaeyi, iao iio?aaeoaeue eiaao iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue, eioi?oth iiaeii iienaoue neaaeothuei o?aaiaieai:X +2 Y = 40Oaeiaie eiyooeoeeaio athaeaeaoiie eeiee ?aaai -1/2.I?e yoeo oneiaeyo iiaeii i?eia?anoe neaaeothuea eiiaeiaoeee iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia.Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC J . Aeinooiiua iio?aaeoaeueneea iaai?uAnni?oeiaioiuaIaai?u oiaa?iaIeoaiea (X)Iaeaaeaea (Y)A 0 10B 10 15C 20 10D 30 5E 40 0I?aaenoaaei iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue iio?aaeoaey ia aeeaa?aiia. Iino?iei ii oi/eai ec auoai?eaaaeaiiie oaaeeoeu eeieth. Yoi e anoue athaeaeaoiay eeiey iio?aaeoaey.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 17 . Athaeaeaoiay eeiey iio?aaeoaey.Athaeaeaoiay eeiey eioa?i?aoe?oao iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue iio?aaeoaey, aai aiciiaeiinoe i?eia?aoaiey aeaeaaiuo aeaa i?e eiathuainy aeioiaea e nouanoaothueo oeaiao.Eciaiaiea aeioiaea e oeai eciaiytho iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue. I?iaiaeece?oai yoe eciaiaiey iineaaeiaaoaeueii.Eciaiaiea aeioiaeaOaaee/aiea aeioiaea oaaee/eaaao iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue, /oi a?aoe/anee eioa?i?aoe?oaony niauaieai athaeaeaoiie eeiee ai?aai. Nieaeaiea aeioiaea io?aaeaaony a niauaiee athaeaeaoiie eeiee aeaai.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 18 . Eciaiaiea aeioiaea niauaao athaeaeaoioth eeieth.Eciaiaiea oeai oiaa?ia. Anee eciaiyaony oeaia iaeiiai oiaa?a, iai?eia?, i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, oi iaiyaony io?acie, ionaeaaiue athaeaeaoiie eeieae ia ine O: oeaia ?anoao a 2 ?aca, cia/eo io?acie aoaeao iaiueoa a 2 ?aca; i?e nieaeaiee oeaiu a 2 ?aca io?acie, ionaeaaiue ia ai?eciioaeueiie ine athaeaeaoiie eeieae aoaeao a 2 ?aca aieueoa.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 19 . Eciaiaiea oeaiu oiaa?a iaoneiaeeaaao a?auaiea athaeaeaoiie eeiee.Anee eciaiythony iaa oeaiu, ana caaeneo io niioiioaiey oeai. Anee iii iaeciaiii, oaie iaeeiia inoaiaony i?aaeiei, oi anoue iiaay athaeaeaoiay eeiey i?ieaeao ia?aeeaeueii noa?ie.I?iaiaeece?iaaa eae aeaeaiey, oae e aiciiaeiinoe iieoiaoaey, niaianoei ?acoeueoaou iaoeo enneaaeiaaiee e auyniei, eaeay eiiaeiaoeey oiaa?ia ec anao, aeinooiiuo iio?aaeoaeth, aoaeao aeey iaai iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiie.Iio?aaeoaeueneee auai?.Iioeiaeueiue iaai? iio?aaeoaey aeieaeai ioaa/aoue aeaoi o?aaiaaieyi:Ii aeieaeai iaoiaeeoueny ia athaeaeaoiie eeiee (neaaa io athaeaeaoiie eeiee - iaeanoue, aaea aeioiae ia ?anoiaeoaony iieiinoueth, ni?aaa - iaai?u, ia aeinooiiua a ?aieao aeaiiiai aeioiaea).Iaai? oiaa?ia aeieaeai iaania/eoue iaeaieueooth iieaciinoue. Ec anao aeinooiiuo iaai?ia iio?aaeoaeue auaa?ao oio, eioi?ue i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeaieaa oaeaeaiiie io ia/aea eii?aeeiao e?eaie aac?acee/ey.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 20 . Iioeioi iio?aaeoaeyIio?aaeoaeue ia auaa?ao iaai? A, oae eae yoi - oi/ea ia?ana/aiey athaeaeaoiie eeiee n e?eaie aac?acee/ey U1 , eaaeauae aeeaea e ia/aeo eii?aeeiao, /ai U2 e U3. Oi/ea N ia aeinooiia aeey iio?aaeoaey, eae iaaeinooiia e ethaay oi/ea ia e?eaie aac?acee/ey U3. Iioeiaeueiui aeey iio?aaeoaey iaai?ii aoaeao A, eioi?ue niaea?aeeo 20 aaeeieoe i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey e 10 aaeeieoe iaeaaeaeu.A oi/ea A iaeeiiu athaeaeaoiie eeiee e e?eaie aac?acee/ey niaiaaeatho. Iaiiiiei, /oi iaeeii athaeaeaoiie eeiee ?aaai -(PX / PY ), a iaeeii e?eaie aac?acee/ey ?aaai - MRS. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a oi/ea iioeioia auiieiyaony ?aaainoai:MRS= PX / PYOneiaeai ?aaiiaaney iio?aaeoaey yaeyaony ?aaainoai i?aaeaeueiie ii?iu caiauaiey ioiioaieth oeai oiaa?ia, eiuie neiaaie:niioiioaiea, a eioi?ii i?e aeaiiuo oeaiao iio?aaeoaeue niiniaai caiauaoue iaeei oiaa? ae?oaei, ?aaii niioiioaieth, a eioi?ii iio?aaeoaeue niaeanai caiauaoue iaeei oiaa? ae?oaei aac eciaiaiey o?iaiy naiaai oaeiaeaoai?aiey.Aniiiiei, /oi i?aaeaeueiay ii?ia caiauaiey iieacuaaao i?aaeaeueioth iieaciinoue (auaiaeo), eioi?oth iaania/eaaao aeiiieieoaeueiay aaeeieoea aeaaa (a iaoai neo/aa - i?iaeiaieuenoaey). Iia ecia?yao eiee/anoai iaeaaeaeu, io eioi?iai ioeacuaaaony iio?aaeoaeue ?aaee aua iaeiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeiaieuenoaey. Ioiioaiea oeaiu i?iaeiaieuenoaey e oeaia iaeaaeaeu iieacuaaao i?aaeaeueiua cao?aou ia i?iaeiaieuenoaea, au?aaeaiiua a eiee/anoaa iaeaaeaeu, io eioi?ie aeaenoaeoaeueii i?eoiaeeony ioeacaoueny ?aaee iieo/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeiaieuenoaey.Iio?aaeoaeue, iaeneiece?othuee iieaciinoue, iieoiaao oiaa?u oaeei ia?acii, /oi eo i?aaeaeueiua iieaciinoe a ?an/aoa ia iaeio aeaiaaeioth aaeeieoeo, ?aaiu.Aeaaa 3. Oe?ia a nenoaia ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.Aii?inu:Oe?ia eae noauaeo ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa.I?aaiecaoeeiiiay ?inneeneiai aeciana;Eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-/anoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai;Oiaa?euanoaa;Iauanoaa;Aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa;I?iecaiaenoaaiiua eiiia?aoeau;Ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.1. Oe?ia eae noauaeo ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa.I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai - iniaue aeae yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe (oeaeaniia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiie ia ecaea/aiea i?eauee), eioi?ay iniiaaia ia naiinoiyoaeueiie eieoeeaoeaa, ioaaonoaaiiinoe e eiiiaaoeeiiiie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eaeaa.Iniiaiie aaeeieoeae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe aunooiaao oe?ia.Oe?ia - yoi:i?iecaiaenoaaiii - oaoiieiae/aneee e eiouanoaaiiue eiiieaen, i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia i?iecaiaenoai eiie?aoiiai oiaa?a eee oneoae,eieeaeoea ethaeae n iniauie yeiiiie/aneeie eioa?anaie a iieo/aiee i?eauee e ee/iiai aeioiaea.Ia o?iaia oe?iu niaa?oathony iniiaiua iee?iyeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu; iie i?iecaiaeyo aaniethoiia aieueoeinoai oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua ?ani?aaeaeythony, iaiaieaathony e aeiaiaeyony oe?iaie e i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie aei iio?aaeoaey.A nianoaaiiinoe oe?i iaoiaeeony iniiaiay /anoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa - n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?iaoeeiiiua e ae?oaea eioaeeaeooaeueiua ?ano?nu iauanoaa.Ia i?eiaaeeaaeaueo oe?iai i?aaei?eyoeyo, iao/iuo oeaio?ao, eaai?aoi?eyo, eiioi?ao e aaaionoaao ?aaioaao iiaeaaeythuay /anoue eaae?ia o/aiuo, eiaeaia?ia, eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo.Iaiaoiaeeii ?acee/aoue oe?io e i?aaei?eyoea, eo ianoi a ?uii/iuo ioiioaieyo, i?aaiii/iinoue o/anoey a eiouanoaaiiii iai?ioa.I?aaei?eyoea - yoi i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aaeeieoea, oa??eoi?eaeueii e oaoiieiae/anee iainiaeaiiay. I?aaei?eyoea ia yaeyaony nianoaaiieeii eiouanoaa, iineaaeiei i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao aeaaeaoue eeoue ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a a?aiaeu, eeceiaa eee ae?. n oe?iie. I?aaei?eyoea aoiaeeo a ninoaa eaeie-eeai oe?iu (eiiaaea oe?ia aeeth/aao eeoue iaeii i?aaei?eyoea). Ia yaeyynue nianoaaiieeii, i?aaei?eyoea ia yaeyaony e naiinoiyoaeueiui o/anoieeii ?uii/iiai iai?ioa, ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, ia iiaeao aunooiaoue noauaeoii eiouanoaaiiiai i?aaa. Ia ?uiea i?aaei?eyoea aeaenoaoao eae i?aaenoaaeoaeue oe?iu eee eiiai nianoaaiieea.Oe?ia – yeiiiie/anee e th?eaee/anee naiinoiyoaeueiay i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aaeeieoea (yoi - th?eaee/aneia eeoei). Oe?ia yaeyaony noauaeoii ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, aecian - aeayoaeueiinoe.Oe?ia naiinoiyoaeueii:auae?aao ia?oia?ia ii oicyenoaaiiui naycyi,ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?acoeueoaou oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;ii?aaeaeyao anni?oeiaio e iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa;inouanoaeyao oeaiiaoth iieeoeeo,aaaeao eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao, auae?ay eiie?aoiua oi?iu;inouanoaeyao ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eaueae e aeioiaeia.A ioee/ea io aioo?eoe?iaiiuo naycae iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie, oi anoue acaeiiioiioaiee a ?aieao iauaai eaieoaea, ?uii/iua ioiioaiey - yoi nayce iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie, “aaoiiiiiuie” eaieoaeaie, oi anoue nayce iaaeaeo oe?iaie.Nouanoaiaaiea oe?i eae i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iaoneiaeaii ?aoeeiiaeueiui yeiiiie/aneei iiaaaeaieai.A ?aaioa “I?e?iaea oe?iu” aia?eeaineee yeiiiieno, eao?aao Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee ?. Eioc iainiiaae i?e/eio iiyaeaiey oe?i a yeiiiieea, no?iyuaeny ia niaoeeaeecaoeee e iaiaia:Anee au ecaea?aeee ii ?uii/iiio iaiaio (o?ainaeoeeiiiua ecaea?aeee, transactio - naeaeea(eao.) auee ?aaiu ioeth, oi ia auei au iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaaaoue oe?iu, iauaaeeiythuea ?yae i?aaei?eyoee.Iaeiaei, ?uii/iua ecaea?aeee – iaioeaaua:iaiaoiaeeii iaeoe iinoaaueeia ?ano?nia, i?iaanoe ia?aaiai?u,caeeth/eoue n ieie aeiaiai? ia iinoaaeo,iio?aoeoue n?aaenoaa ia ia?aaiceo e ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?ia iio?aaeoaeyi i?iiaaeooi/iie i?iaeoeoeee, nicaeaiiie i?aaei?eyoeai ...Oioy ia iaeioi?uo ?uieao, iai?eia?, ia oiaa?iuo ae?aeao, ?ac?aaioaia oaoieea naaaeaiey aei ieieioia yoeo ecaea?aeae, ii iie ia ono?aiaiu.Auyaeyy e?eoa?ee iioeiecaoeee ?acia?ia oe?iu, Eioc ioia/aao: “...oe?ia aoaeao ?anoe?youeny aei oao ii?, iiea ecaea?aeee ia i?aaiecaoeeth iaeiie aeiiieieoaeueiie o?ainaeoeee aioo?e oe?iu ia n?aaiythony n ecaea?aeeaie ia inouanoaeaiea oie aea o?ainaeoeee /a?ac iaiai ia ioe?uoii ?uiea eee n ecaea?aeeaie ia i?aaiecaoeeth aa /a?ac ae?oaoth oe?io”.?acee/atho aa?oeeaeueii e ai?eciioaeueii eioaa?e?iaaiioth oe?io.Aa?oeeaeueiay eioaa?aoeey i?aaeiieaaaao iauaaeeiaiea oe?i ia iniiaa inouanoaeaiey iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo noaaeee oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia. Iai?eia?, eioaa?aoeey a aa?ioe?iao iau/ii iauaaeeiyao yoaiu i?iecaiaenoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, aa ia?a?aaioeo, o?ainii?oe?iaeo e aeinoaaeo a oi?aiaoth naoue, a eiiaaea e ?aaeecaoeeth iio?aaeoaeth.Ai?eciioaeueiay eioaa?aoeey nii?iaiaeaeaaony i?eia?aoaieai iaeiie oe?iie ae?oaeo (iiaeiaiuo ae ii noa?ai i?eeiaeaiey eaieoaea eee anni?oeiaioo auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee) eee eo aeia?iaieueiia iauaaeeiaiea ia iniiaa yeiiiie/aneie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe. Iau/ii ai?eciioaeueiay eioaa?aoeey inouanoaeyaony a oeaeyo iiauoaiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe, onoie/eainoe oe?iu a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa. ?aciiaeaeiinoueth ai?eciioaeueiie eioaa?aoeee aunooiaao aeeaa?neoeeaoeey ( diversification - ?aciiia?acea, iiiaiia?acea). Iia i?aaenoaaeyao i?iieeiiaaiea oe?iu a iineaaeiaaoaeueii oaoiieiae/anee ia naycaiiua io?anee. Iai?eia?, oe?ia iiaeao iauaaeeiyoue i?iecaiaenoai eaea?noa, oeioaeia?aiee, oeiaieieii.Oe?iu ?acee/athony iaaeaeo niaie:ii anni?oeiaioo auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee,ii eiee/anoao aoiaeyueo a ieo i?aaei?eyoee,ii noa?ai i?eeiaeaiey eaieoaea (i?iecaiaenoai, iin?aaeie/anoai, oi?aiaey),ii ianooaaai (iaeeee, n?aaeiee e e?oiiue aecian),ii i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaui oi?iai.2. I?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua oi?iu i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.· Eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-/anoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaiEiaeeaeaeoaeueii-/anoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai (aaeeiiee/iia aeaaeaiea) - iaeaieaa oeie/iay oi?ia ia/aea aeciana, iiiai/eneaiiue ii eiee/anoao i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo aaeeieoe naeoi? yeiiiieee a ?acaeouo no?aiao (a NOA – 70 % io iauaai /enea oe?i; iauai i?iaeaae – 6 %). A ea/anoaa yeiiiie/aneie iniiau /aua anaai eniieuecoao eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-/anoioth nianoaaiiinoue. Aaeeiiee/iia aeaaeaiea iaania/eaaao iaeaieueooth naiaiaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeth, iaeneiaeueioth iaoa?eaeueioth caeioa?aniaaiiinoue, i?eaioe?oao ia yeiiiiiia, ?a/eoaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia, eai aanue aeioiae, ca eneeth/aieai aiaoieo auieao, yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth i?aaei?eieiaoaey.A niioaaonoaee n ?inneeneei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, a?aaeaeaiei iiaeao caieiaoueny i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth aac ia?aciaaiey th?eaee/aneiai eeoea. E i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a?aaeaeai, inouanoaeyaiie aac ia?aciaaiey th?eaee/aneiai eeoea i?eiaiythony i?aaeea, ?aaoee?othuea aiaeiae/ioth aeayoaeueiinoue th?eaee/aneeo eeoe.Aeey ?aaeno?aoeee a?aaeaeaiei-i?aaei?eieiaoaeue aeieaeai iiaeaoue cayaeaiea, ninoaaeaiiia ii onoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia, e aeieoiaio ia iieaoa ?aaeno?aoeeiiiiai nai?a. Ee/iay yaea aeey ?aaeno?aoeee iaiaycaoaeueia, aeieoiaiou iiaoo auoue auneaiu e ii ii/oa. A ea/anoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaey ?aaeno?e?othony e e?anoueyineea (oa?ia?neea) oicyenoaa. I?aaei?eieiaoaeue ianao ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai iaia?aie/aiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue, oi anoue ioaaonoaaiiinoue anai i?eiaaeeaaeauei aio eiouanoaii, ca eneeth/aieai oiai, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai, a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii, ia iiaeao auoue iaeiaeaii acuneaiea (iai?eia?, aeeeie aeii a naeueneie ianoiinoe, anee aeieaeiee e aai naiuey iinoiyiii i?iaeeaatho a yoii aeiia, a eo iniiaiia caiyoea - naeueneia oicyenoai). A ?acaeouo no?aiao iaia?aie/aiiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ?anoeaieaaaony eae aa?aioey yoe/iiai iiaaaeaiey /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey, oi?ia nieaeaiey ?enea acaeiiaeaenoaey n ia/eiathueie oe?iaie.Anee i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ia ca?aaeno?e?iaae naith aeayoaeueiinoue, oi i?e aicieeiiaaiee aeieaia e iaio i?eiaiythony i?aaeea, ?aaoee?othuea ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eieiaoaey.Anee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue i?aaei?eieiaoaeue oi/ao ia?aciaaoue naiinoiyoaeueioth oe?io, oi ii ?aaeno?e?oao naith oe?io eae iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie (eee n aeiiieieoaeueiie) ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.· Oicyenoaaiiua oiaa?euanoaaIa?yaeo n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii aeiaieueii oe?iei eniieuecoaiie oi?iie ia/aeueiiai aeciana a no?aiao n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie yaeythony oiaa?euanoaa - eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee n ?acaeaeaiiuie ia aeiee (aeeaaeu) o/?aaeeoaeae.?inneeneia oicyenoaaiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?acee/aao iieiia oiaa?euanoai, oiaa?euanoai ia aa?a (niaoaiiia, eiiiaiaeeoiia)Iieiia oiaa?euanoai aeaenoaoao oieueei ia iniiaaiee o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a. Aai o/anoieeaie iiaoo auoue eae a?aaeaeaia, oae e th?eaee/aneea eeoea, ii i?e yoii a?aaeaeaia aeieaeiu eiaoue noaoon eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey, a th?eaee/aneea eeoea aeieaeiu auoue eiiia?/aneeie i?aaiecaoeeyie. Eaaeaeia eeoei iiaeao auoue o/anoieeii oieueei iaeiiai oiaa?euanoaa. Ii iaycaoaeuenoaai iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa aai o/anoieee ianoo noaneaeea?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue (ioaaonoaaiiinoue naiei eiouanoaii).Eaaeaeue ec o/anoieeia ai?aaa aeaenoaiaaoue io eiaie oiaa?euanoaa, anee a o/?aaeeoaeueiii aeiaiai?a ia aoaeao onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeaea aaaeoony niaianoii anaie aai o/anoieeaie, eeai ii eo ii?o/aieth ioaeaeueiuie aai o/anoieeaie. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeao ieacaoueny, /oi eiiia?/aneee aeiaiai? io eiaie iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa iiaeao auoue caeeth/ai ii oniio?aieth iaeiiai ec o/anoieeia, ii ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii yoiio aeiaiai?o aoaeoo ianoe ana o/anoieee oiaa?euanoaa, a oii /enea, e ia ia?aaeaiiui a ea/anoaa aeeaaea a oiaa?euanoai eiouanoaii.Oiaa?euanoai iniiaaii ia ee/ii-aeiaa?eoaeueiuo ioiioaieyo. Ia neo/aeii oiaa?euanoaa iiyaeeenue e ?acaeaaeenue eae oi?ia naiaeiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa - iaia?aie/aiiay, noaneaeea?iay (o.a. iiaeao aeiiieieoaeueii ?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia eiouanoai o/anoieeia) e nieeaea?iay (aeiea iiaeao auoue acuneai n iaeiiai ec o/anoieeia, eae i?aaeei iaeaieaa iaania/aiiiai).Oiaa?euanoai ia aa?a (eiiiaiaeeoiia) ioee/aaony oai, /oi ninoieo ec aeaoo a?oii o/anoieeia. Ia?yaeo n o/anoieeaie, yaeythueieny iieiuie oiaa?euaie, a iaai iiaoo aoiaeeoue o/anoieee-aeeaae/eee, (eiiiaiaeeoenou), eioi?ua ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue a i?aaeaeao naieo aeeaaeia a eiouanoai oiaa?euanoaa e ia i?eieiatho o/anoey a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe oiaa?euanoaa. Ia iieiuo oiaa?euae ?ani?ino?aiythony i?aaeea ia o/anoieeao iieiuo oiaa?euanoa, a ia eiiiaiaeeoenoia - ii-nouanoao, i?aaeea ia o/anoieeao oicyenoaaiiuo iauanoa.· Iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie e aeiiieieoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.Oicyenoaaiiua iauanoaa iiaoo nicaeaaaoueny a oi?ia iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, iauanoaa n aeiiieieoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth e aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa (i.3 no. 66 /.1 AE ?O)Iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth (III) o/?aaeaeaaony iaeiei eee ianeieueeeie eeoeaie, i?e yoii eaieoae aeaeeony ia ii?aaeaeaiiua o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie aeiee. O/anoieee III ia ioaa/atho ii aai iaycaoaeuenoaai e ianoo ?ene ioaaonoaaiiinoe a i?aaeaeao noieiinoe aianaiiuo aeeaaeia. Onoaaiue eaieoae III ia yaeyaony iauaeoii aeieaaie nianoaaiiinoe. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, o/anoieee aiiaua ia ioaa/atho ii aeieaai, a ianoo eeoue ?ene oo?aou aeeaaeia.Anee iauanoai o/?aaeaeaaony iaeiei eeoeii, aai o/?aaeeoaeueiue aeieoiaio - oieueei onoaa, eia/a - o/?aaeeoaeueiue aeiaiai? e onoaa. Aunoee i?aai oi?aaeaiey III - iauaa nia?aiea, a eniieieoaeueiue, a caaeneiinoe io /enea o/anoieeia e a niioaaonoaee n onoaaii, - eeai eieeaeoeaiue (niaao, i?aaeaiea), eeai aaeeiiee/iue - (aee?aeoi?, oi?aaeythuee).III - iauaaeeiaiea eaieoaeia, ia o?aaothuaa ee/iiai o/anoey naieo /eaiia a aeaeao iauanoaa. Iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth - iaeaieaa oeie/iay oi?ia “eiiiaiee iaeiiai eeoea” e a ?acaeouo ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao.Iauanoai n aeiiieieoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth III. Iiyoiio ia aai i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea ?ani?ino?aiytho naia aeaenoaea i?aeoe/anee ana i?aaeea ia III (i.3 no. 95 AE) ca iaeiei aeaaiui eneeth/aieai.I?e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe eiouanoaa oaeiai iauanoaa aeey oieaou ii aeieaai o/anoieee iauanoaa n aeiiieieoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth iiaoo auoue i?eaea/aiu e eiouanoaaiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eo ee/iui eiouanoaii, i?e/ai, a nieeaea?iii ii?yaeea. Iaeiaei, ?acia? oaeie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aie/ai: ii eanaaony ia anaai eo ee/iiai eiouanoaa, eae a iieiii oiaa?euanoaa, a oieueei aai /anoe - iaeeiaeiaiai aeey anao e?aoiiai noiia aianaiiuo aeeaaeia ?acia?a e noiia aianaiiuo aeeaaeia (iai?eia?, a ?acia?a o?aoe?aoiiai, iyoee?aoiiai aeeaaea).· Aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaaNiaianoiia i?aaei?eyoea, eee, nie?auaiii, NI, oaea aeinoaoi/ii i?i/ii, oioue e iaaeaaii, aioei a ?inneeneee oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneee auo. A eiaaea aiiaua ia ?one aia?aua aicieeei niaianoiia n eiino?aioeaie aeaei?Naiia ia?aia aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai aicieeei a Eiiaeiia /aou?a n iieiaeiie aaea iacaae - a 1553 aiaeo. Aiaeeeneea eoioeu, aeaeay ?anoe?eoue naith oi?aiaeth, ono?aieeenue ia Ainoie, a caaaaei/iue aeey aa?iiaeoeaa Eeoae. Aeaeueiaa iooaoanoaea o?aaiaaei ia?iiiuo n?aaenoa. Auea ioe?uoa iiaeienea, e auiouaiu aeoeee ii 25 ooioia noa?eeiaia eaaeaeay. Oaeaeinue nia?aoue 6000 ooioia. Ia yoe aeaiueae nia?yaeeee o?e noaeia, e 10 iay 1553 aiaea iie io/aeeee io aa?aaia Oaicu. Eiiaiaeiaae yeniaaeeoeeae ny? Oueth Aeeeioae. Noaea iiieuee ia naaa?, a iieneao «naaa?i-ainoi/iiai i?ioiaea a Eeoae". Iaeiaaeaeu neeueiaeoee ooi?i ?aca?inae eo. Aeaa noaeia, iiae ia/aeii Aeeeioae e Aea?oi?oa, oe?ueenue a aoooa onouey ?aee Aa?coae, ii auee neiaaiu eueaeaie. Ia neaaeothuee aiae eo iaia?oaeeee iiii?u: ana iooaoanoaaiieee iiaeaee io oeeiae.O?aoueaio noaeio, ai aeaaa n eaieoaiii ny?ii ?e/a?aeii *ainea?ii, iiaacei. Ia aeiaeaeaaoenue a oneiaeaiiii ianoa ionoaaoea ei?aaee, ii?yee auoee a Aaeia ii?a e aeinoeaee caiee a aoooa Na. A?oaiaaea (iuiaoiee A?oaiaaeuene). Ianoiua aeeoaee iiaacee eo a Iineao, ei aeai?o Eaaia A?iciiai. ?onneee oea?ue oioae oi?aiaaoue n Caiaaeii, e iioiio ainoe auee i?eiyou aanueia ?aaeooii. Aeey *ainea?a e aai ethaeae ono?aeaaee uaae?ua canoieuey. Aa?ioeny aeiiie *ainea? aa?iai - ia aeinoea Eeoay, caoi i?eaac aeiaiai? n ?onneei oea?ai, ii eioi?iio a?eoaineei eoioeai aeaaaeanue naiaiaea oi?aiaee.Auei i?aaieciaaii niaianoiia i?aaei?eyoea, eioi?ia aeineiaii iacuaaeinue oae: «Iineianeay oaeiay eiiiaiey oi?aiauo iooaoanoaaiieeia aeey ioe?uoey ?aaeiiia, aeiieieiiia, ino?iaia e iaecaanoiuo iano». Eiiiaiey yoa oaeaea noaea aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii.Aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa (ei?ii?aoeee) - aeiieie?othuay oi?ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?acaeouo eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao. Ii /eneaiiinoe iie ia ninoaaeytho aieueoeinoaa, ii a ieo nicaeaaony iniiaiay ianna i?iaeoeoeee. Iai?eia?, a NOA aeoeeiia?iua eiiiaiee ninoaaeytho 20 % io iauaai /enea oe?i, ii iaania/eaatho aei 90 % io iauaai iauaia i?iaeaae. Aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa - eniuoaiiue a?aiaiai iaoaieci i?aaiecaoeee aeciana: aia?aua aeoeeiia?iua eiiiaiee aicieeee a Aiaeee (A yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee ia?aui aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii n/eoaaony aiaeeeneay Ino- Eiaeneay oi?aiaay eiiiaiey, nicaeaiiay a 1600a. A ?innee ia?aia aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai auei iniiaaii ai a?aiy oea?noaiaaiey Aeecaaaou Iao?iaiu - a 1757 a. Yoi auea “?inneeneay a Eiinoaioeiiiiea oi?aothuay eiiiaiey”.Eiaiii aeoeeiia?iay oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee aeciana iicaieyao ?ac?aoaoue i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo iieiaeeoaeueiui yooaeoii ianooaaa i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?aie/aiiinoueth eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai eaieoaea.Aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa iaoiaeyony ai aeaaeaiee eeoe, eioi?ua i?eia?aee aeiee aai nianoaaiiinoe (eaieoaea). AI i?aaiecoaony ii niaianoiiio ?aoaieth aeaoo eee ianeieueeeo eeoe (a?aaeaeai eee oe?i). Yoi o/?aaeeoaee. Aeiee nianoaaiiinoe AI – aeoeee, iie aeieaeiu auoue ?aaiuie. Aeoeee iaeiiai auionea eiatho iaeeiaeiaoth iiieiaeueioth noieiinoue.Aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa aeecee e iauanoaai n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, ii ?acieoea ninoieo a eiie i?aaiecaoeee onoaaiiai eaieoaea. A AI niaethaeaaony iieiia ?aaainoai aeieae e iaycaoaeueiia ioi?ieaiea eo aeoeeyie. Ec anao oi?i /anoiiai aeciana oieueei aeoeeiia?iiio iauanoao ?ac?aoaii auioneaoue aeoeee (i. 7 no. 96 AE).Aueoe ec aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa iiaeii eeoue iaeiei niiniaii - i?iaeaa naie aeoeee ae?oaiio eeoeo, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai (a ioee/ea io III) aa?aioe?iaaii io oiaiueoaiey naiaai eiouanoaa.Ae?oaea ioee/ey naycaiu n aieaa neiaeiie no?oeoo?ie oi?aaeaiey, iaee/eai ?acaeoiai niaoeeaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, i?aaeoi?aaeaeathuaai aiciiaeiinoe ceioiio?aaeaiee.Anee aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa ?acaeaeytho aeiee nianoaaiiinoe oieueei iaaeaeo o/?aaeeoaeyie, iie iacuaathony cae?uouie (CAI). O/anoieee iiaeiaiuo iauanoa iieuecothony i?aaii i?aeiouanoaaiiie iieoiee aeoeee, i?iaeaaaaiuo ae?oaeie aeoeeiia?aie, /oi i?ecaaii nio?aieoue ca?aiaa ia?aie/aiiue ninoaa o/anoieeia.Anee o/?aaeeoaee iaia?aiu ?ani?ino?aiyoue aeoeee n?aaee ioaeeee, oaeia aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai ?aaeno?e?oaony eae ioe?uoia (IAI). O/anoieee aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa aiinyo naie n?aaenoaa a onoaaiue eaieoae iauanoaa a ?acee/iuo oi?iao: aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, iai?oaeiaaiea, caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey, eiaaethoa, eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue. Aanue eaieoae AI e aeiey eaaeaeiai ec aai o/anoieeia oae eee eia/a ia?aaiaeeony a aeoeee.Aeoeey - oeaiiay aoiaaa, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuay i aeaaeaiee /anoueth nianoaaiiinoe ei?ii?aoeee e aeathuay i?aai ia iieo/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea aeioiaea - aeeaeaeaiaea.Aeeaeaeaiae - aeioiae ia aeoeeth, /anoue iauae i?eauee aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa. Iau/ii ii ii?aaeaeyaony eae aeioiae io iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe aeoeee.Ii oa?aeoa?o o/aoa i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aeoeee eiie?aoiui eeoeai aeoeee aeaeyony ia:eiaiiua - iieoiathony eee i?iaeathony oieueei n iaycaoaeueiie ?aaeno?aoeeae niaiu aeaaeaeueoea, oaeeie aeoeeyie, eae i?aaeei ?aciauathony ia?aua auionee. Eiaiiua aeoeee ia?aaeei ia auioneathony ia aoiaaeiuo iineoaeyo, a “yieoe?othony” a aeaea caienae a iaiyoe YAI ia niaoeeaeueiuo n/aoao. I?e yoii aaaeoony ?aano?u aeoeeiia?ia. I?aaa aeoeeiia?a iiaeao oaeaea oaeinoiaa?youe na?oeoeeao aeoeee, eiathuee naienoaa oeaiiie aoiaae;ia i?aaeuyaeoaey - aeiioneathony e naiaiaeiie eoiea-i?iaeaaea. Iie iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue oieueei a o?aaeeoeeiiiie aoiaaeiie oi?ia.Nouanoaoao ae?oaay eeanneoeeaoeey aeoeee, eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaao eo aeaeaiea ia i?inoua e eiaiiua. ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ieie a ?innee caeeth/athony a ii?yaeea auieaou aeeaeaeaiaeia e a i?aaa ia o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee.i?inoui (iaueiiaaiiui) aeoeeyi aeeaeaeaiae ca?aiaa ia ii?aaeaeai, ii iie yaeythony aieinothueie, eaaeaeay aeoeey aeaao iaeei aiein ia iauai nia?aiee aeoeeiia?ia;i?eaeeaae?iaaiiui aeoeeyi (i?aoaeoeeyi) aeeaeaeaiae oeene?oaony ca?aiaa, ii n?aaiaieth n i?inouie aeoeeyie iie eiatho aieaa aunieee i?ei?eoao i?e auieaoa aeeaeaeaiaeia e iieaoa aeiee a neo/aa eeeaeaeaoeee AI, ii i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua aeoeee ia aeatho i?aaa aieina.Aeoeee i?eia?aoathony ia oieueei ?aaee iieo/aiey aeeaeaeaioa, ii e n oeaeueth o?aiaiey iaeiieaiee. ?acee/atho iiieiaeueioth e ?aaeueioth (eo?niaoth, ?uii/ioth) oeaio aeoeee. Eae aeiey nianoaaiiinoe o/eouaaaony oieueei iiieiae, ii eoieoue aeoeeth ii iiieiaeo i?aeoe/anee iaeuecy. ?uii/iue eo?n aeoeee iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io aeioiaeiinoe eiiiaiee, aeeaeaeaiaeia, auiea/eaaaiui ii aeoeeyi e a ia?aoiie caaeneiinoe io aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa.Eiouanoai e ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa ioaeaeaiu io eiouanoaa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeoeeiia?ia. Iineaaeiea ianoo ia?aie/aiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue. AI a oeaeii oaeaea ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii aeieaai oieueei nianoaaiiinoueth (eaieoaeii) aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa.Aeaaeaiea aieinothueie aeoeeyie iicaieyao o/anoaiaaoue a oi?aaeaiee aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii.Aunoee i?aai oi?aaeaiey - iauaa nia?aiea aeoeeiia?ia. Ia aaeaaiaeiii nia?aiee aeoeeiia?u, eae i?aaeei, ?aoatho neaaeothuea aii?inu:i?eieiatho onoaa (?aoaiea ia aai eciaiaiee);i?eieiatho ?aoaiey i auionea aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeoeee (yiennee);i?eieiatho ?aoaiey i neeyiee n ae?oaeie oe?iaie (eeeaeaeaoeee);ecae?atho Niaao aee?aeoi?ia.Aeaaiay ooieoeey Niaaoa aee?aeoi?ia - iauaa oi?aaeaiea e caueoa eioa?ania aeoeeiia?ia. Iie i?eieiatho ?aoaiey ia iauae iieeoeea eiiiaiee, iacia/atho oi?aaeythueo (iaiaaeaea?ia). Aeaaeaiea e oaeouaa oi?aaeaiea a aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao ioaeaeaiu. Iaiaaeaea?u - eniieieoaeueiue i?aai AI - inouanoaeytho oaeouaa oi?aaeaiea a niioaaonoaee n caaea/aie, iinoaaeaiiuie Niaaoii aee?aeoi?ia e aeoeeiia?aie. Iie iiaoo auoue oaieaiu ii ?acoeueoaoai aieiniaaiey aeoeeiia?ia. Iaiaaeaea?u iiaoo aeaaeaoue eaeei - eeai /eneii aeoeee, ii, eae i?aaeei, iaaieueoei.Aeey aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa aeooaeueia i?iaeaia eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa aeoeee. Eoi ei aeaaeaao, oio ?anii?yaeaaony aeaeaie iauanoaa. Aa?aioey eiio?iey - 51 %. Ii /ai aieueoa aeoeeiia?ia, /ai auoa ?aniueaiiinoue aeoeee, oai iaiueoae aeieae iiaeao auoue iaania/ai eiio?ieue. I?e/eia - aacaeayoaeueiinoue oeie/iiai aea?aeaoaey aeoeee. Ia Caiaaea, eae i?aaeei, aeaaeaiea aeoeeyie ia?aie/eaaaony i?aaeaeii 5 - 10 % io onoaaiiai eaieoaea. Ia?aie/aiea eiee/anoaa aeoeee o iaeiiai aeoeeiia?a o ian iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaii a onoaaa AI.Ei?ii?aoeaiay oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee aeciana iicaieyao aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaai iieo/aoue caaiiue eaieoae ca n/ao auionea iaeeaaoeee.A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ana aieueoa e aieueoa noaiiaeony a iaoae no?aia oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii, naiaai ?iaea e?oiiuo eiioea?iia a ?inneeneii eniieiaiee, ia?aua oiiieiaiey i eioi?uo iiyaeeenue anaai eeoue 3 aiaea iacaae. *oi aea iiaeeyei ia no?aieoaeueiue ?ino eiee/anoaa yoeo a?oii a ?innee?A ?innee aeaenoaeoaeueii a iineaaeiea 3 aiaea iaaethaeaaony n?aaieoaeueii aieueoie ?ino eiee/anoaa oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii (OIA), eioi?ua yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii neeyiey oeiainiai-aaieianeiai e i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea. Oae, anee a 1993 aiaeo aea-th?a nouanoaiaaea oieueei iaeia OIA, a 1994-i - 6, a 1995-i -30, oi ia 1 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea oaea ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 46 a?oii, ia aeieth eioi?uo naaiaeiy i?eoiaeeony 10% AAI ?innee. E?iia oiai, ?yae OIA iaoiaeeony a i?ioeanna ?aaeno?aoeee, a aieaa 100 eieoeeaoeaiuo a?oii cayaeee i naiai iaia?aiee ca?aaeno?e?iaaoueny a ea/anoaa OIA. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea oaeeo no?oeoo?, ?aaeueii nouanoaothueo, ii ioeoeeaeueii ia ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo, iaiiiai aieueoa - ii?yaeea ianeieueeeo nioai. Oae, iai?eia?, ec 2580 aaieia 80% nicaeaiu a neeaae/eio i?iiuoeaiiuie, oi?aiauie, eiaanoeoeeiiiuie, no?aoiauie eiiiaieyie e aeaenoaotho eae eioaa?e?iaaiiua iaoaieciu.N?aaieoaeueii auno?ia ?acaeoea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a nia?aiaiiie ?inneeneie yeiiiieea iaoneiaeaii neaaeothueie iauaeoeaiuie oaiaeaioeeyie. Ai-ia?auo, ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaei?eyoee a oneiaeyo, eiaaea eioeyoeey "nuaea" eo iai?ioiue eaieoae, aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey, iaeiieaiey i?eauee, canoaaeyao i?iecaiaeeoaeae eneaoue onoie/eaua enoi/ieee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, /oi cia/eoaeueii eaa/a naeaeaoue a oneiaeyo aoiaeaeaiey a OIA. Ai-aoi?uo, a iineaaeiea aiaeu nouanoaaiii eciaieeanue no?oeoo?a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee, aeaaiui ia?acii ca n/ao nouanoaaiiiai nie?auaiey aeiee caiania e iiiaie?aoiiai ?inoa aeiee oeiainiauo aeoeaia.Aeiaaaei, /oi iauay /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia caiyouo ia ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo OIA, ninoaaeea a 1995 aiaeo 2,5 iei. /aeiaae, a aiaeiaie iauai i?iecaiaenoaa a oii aea aiaeo i?aaunee 50 o?ei ?oaeae.N?aaee ia?auo, onoie/eai iaae?athueo oaiiu ?acaeoey, iiaeii ioiaoeoue neaaeothuea OIA: "Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iioi?u", a /enea o/?aaeeoaeae eioi?ie 44 e?oiiuo ?inneeneeo e oe?aeineeo i?aaei?eyoey aaeano?iaiey; "?inneeneee aaeaoeeiiiue eiini?oeeoi", a eioi?oth aioee "Ay?ioeio", oeueyiianeee caaiae "Aaeanoa?", AI "Ia?ineea iioi?u" AI "Aaeaaeaeaaoaeue", o?ainii?oiay eiiiaiey AI "Oieaa?nae" e I?iino?ieaaie; "Ieaeaai?iaeneea aaoiiiaeee", nicaeaiioth ii eieoeeaoeaa nieco e aeeth/athuoth a naay oaeea aaiee, eae AaoiAACaaie, Aaoiaaie, IA?.Aiiaua iiyaeaiea e ?ino eiee/anoaa eiioea?iia iiaeiaiuo OIA, caeiiiia?ii aeey no?ai n oaoieei-oaoiieiae/anee ?acaeoie yeiiiieeie. A Caiaaeiie Aa?iia e NOA i?ioeann nicaeaiey e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeee a oa/aiea aeanyoeeaoee oae nieco a ea/anoaa anoanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. A a aceaoneeo no?aiao, i?aaeaea anaai ssiiiee, Eeoaa, THaeiie Ei?aa, Oaeaaia, e?oiiua ei?ii?aoeee nicaeaaaeenue n aeoeaiie iiiiuueth ainoaea?noaa, a nayce n /ai i?ioeann eo oi?ie?iaaiey oae cia/eoaeueii aieaa auno?uie oaiiaie.Iaeeaaoeee - yoi oeaiiua aoiaae, auioneaaiua AI eae aeiiieieoaeueiua enoi/ieee e?aaeeoiaaiey. Yoi iniaue aeae aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa, oeaiiay aoiaaa, ii eioi?ie aa aeaaeaeueoeo aa?aioe?oaony iieo/aiea i?eauee a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie (aei iiiaioa aa aueoia ii iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe iauanoaii, auionoeaoei aa). Iaeeaaoeey ia aeaao i?aaa aeaaeaiey nianoaaiiinoueth AI. Iaeeaaoeey i?aaeiieaaaao aica?ao aa aeaaeaeueoeo noieiinoe n auieaoie i?ioeaioia /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie. Aeaaeaeaoe iaeeaaoeee iieuecoaony ia?aii/a?aaeiui i?aaii ia iieo/aiea aeioiaeia io ei?ii?aoeee.Aeoeeiia?iay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue ooieoeeiiaeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea naiinoiyoaeueiuo oe?i aac i?yiiai eo neeyiey. Eiaaony a aeaeo nicaeaiea aaeeiiai oeaio?a i?eiyoey no?aoaae/aneeo ?aoaiee, naycaiiia ni no?aieaieai iaeneiece?iaaoue i?eaueue anao aoiaeyueo caaiueaa /a?ac iauaa ?oeiaiaenoai, eiio?ieue e oeiaine?iaaiea ni noi?iiu aaeeiiai oeaio?a. ?ieue oaeiai oeaio?a auiieiytho oieaeeiaiaua eiiiaiee.Oieaeeia - yoi ?aciiaeaeiinoue AI. Oieaeeia noaaeo naiae oeaeueth inouanoaeaiea eiio?ieueiuo, oi?aaeai/aneeo, oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo e eiuo ooieoeee ii ioiioaieth e oai eiiiaieyi, eiio?ieueiuie iaeaoaie aeoeee eioi?uo ii ?aniieaaaao. Aoiaeyuea a oieaeeia eiiiaiee nio?aiytho th?eaee/aneoth e iia?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. ?acaeoea yoie oi?iu aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea i?eaaei e ia?aciaaieth aieiaiuo oieaeeiaiauo eiiiaiee, eiio?iee?othueo oeaeue ?yae oe?i, aeeth/ay e i?iiaaeooi/iua oieaeeiaiaua eiiiaiee, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeaaeathuea eiio?ieueiuie iaeaoaie aeoeee ioaeaeueiuo oe?i. A ?iee aieiaiuo oieaeeiaiauo eiiiaiee iau/ii aunooiatho eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu eee eiiiaiee.· I?iecaiaenoaaiiue eiiia?aoeaA ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea eiiia?aoeau iau/ii ia i?aaeoniao?eaatho a ea/anoaa ia?aii/a?aaeiie caaea/e iieo/aiea aeioiaeia, i?eauee. Aeaaiay eo iniaaiiinoue - ieacaiea iiiiue, niaeaenoaey /eaiai. N na?aaeeiu 80-o aiaeia a ?acoeueoaoa ia?ano?ieee a iaoae no?aia aic?iaeeeenue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eiiia?aoeau. Iie i?aaeoniao?eaatho eae ee/iia o?oaeiaia eee eiia o/anoea /eaiia a aeayoaeueiinoe, oae e eiouanoaaiiua iaaaua aciinu.I?iecaiaenoaaiiue eiiia?aoea - yoi aeia?iaieueiia iauaaeeiaiea a?aaeaeai ia iniiaa /eainoaa aeey niaianoiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eee eiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe (no. 107 /.1 AE ?O) ?aciiaeaeiinoueth i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiiia?aoeaa yaeyaony a?oaeue. *eaiu eiiia?aoeaa ianoo ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai noaneaeea?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue, ?acia? eioi?ie iaiaa?eaaaony a onoaaa. *enei /eaiia eiiia?aoeaa ia iiaeao auoue iaiaa iyoe.Eiouanoai eiiia?aoeaa ia?acoaony ca n/ao iaaauo aciinia aai /eaiia. I?e auoiaea ec eiiia?aoeaa noieiinoue iay aica?auaaony.Iaeaieaa cia/eiua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo eiiia?aoeaii e iauanoaii:I?e oi?aaeaiee eiiia?aoeaii eaaeaeue o/anoiee eiaao iaeei aiein iacaaeneii io ?acia?a eiouanoaaiiiai aciina.Aeey eiiia?aoeaia ia onoaiaaeeaaaony caaeneiinoue aeioiaeia aai /eaiia io aaee/eiu iaaauo aciinia. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ca?aaioee /eaiia eiiia?aoeaa ii?aaeaeythony eo o?oaeiaui aeeaaeii e ?acia?ii oie /anoe aeioiaea eiiia?aoeaa, eioi?ay eaeao ia iieaoo o?oaea.?acee/ai ninoaa o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia aeey eiiia?aoeaa e iauanoaa.Eiiia?aoeaiiio aeaeaeaieth iaoaao e?oiiue aecian.E oaeiio iiaieth neeiiyeenue iiiaea o/anoieee i?ioaaeoae 2 ethey i?ann-eiioa?aioeee, i?aaieciaaiiie eieoeeaoi?aie eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey a ?innee.Ano?a/a n aeo?iaeenoaie iinayuaeanue Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio aeith eiiia?aoeee, ioia/aaiiio 5 ethey.Nae/an a ?innee nouanoaoao 10— 15 oun. oieueei i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiia?aoeaia, a e?iia oiai — cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai eiiia?aoeaia iio?aaeoaeueneeo. A oii /enea aeaenoaothueo a iaeanoe oi?aiaee, caaioiaie, aa?aaeiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, AEE, AENE e o.ae. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi a no?aia iaeiiaoe nicaeai oae iacuaaaiue "o?aoee naeoi?" nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.Ia nae?ao, /oi yaeaiea eiiia?aoeee (a iiae/an aeaaea naii neiai "eiiia?aoi?") aei neo ii? o?aeooaony a niciaiee ?inneyi, eae i?aaeei, io?eoeaoaeueii. Iaeiaei a?yae ee noieo ia?aiineoue ia anaaaea oaea/iue eiiia?aoeaiue iiuo "ia?ano?ia/iuo" eao ia eiiia?aoeeth aiiaua. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue, /oi eiiia?aoeau — aaniiay /anoue yeiiiieee aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo no?ai. Oae, ii neiaai caianoeoaey ieieno?a ?O ii aiaoiei naycyi e oi?aiaea Ieeieay Eoiay, a ainoaea?noaao — /eaiao AN naaiaeiy ian/eouaaaony aieaa 120 oun. eiiia?aoeaiuo i?aaei?eyoee, a a NOA eo 47 oun. E yoi aiieia ii?iaeueii: aaaeue iniiaiia aeinoieinoai eiiia?aoeaa — aai aeaiie?aoe/iinoue, i?eaeaeathuay nthaea iaeiaiaa caueuaiiua neie ianaeaiey. Anee a AI iiaeii anooieoue, eeoue iaeaaeay ii?aaeaeaiiui ia/aeueiui eaieoaeii, oi /eaiaie eiiia?aoeaa eae ?ac aeey oiai e noaiiayony, /oiau ca?aaioaoue caeanue aeaiueae. E?iia oith, eae ioiaoeea caaaaeothuay naeoi?ii eiiia?aoeaiith i?aaa Einoeoooa ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ?AI Oaia?a Aaiaa, /eai eiiia?aoeaa yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii o?oaeyueiny, nianoaaiieeii e oi?aaeythuei, oi anoue ?aaioaao eneeth/eoaeueii a naieo eioa?anao e ia naay. E oiio aea a yoii aeaeaeaiee aeaaainoaoao i?eioeei ?aaainoaa: iaeei /aeiaae — iaeei aiein.A ?innee a niaaoneia a?aiy aieueoeinoai aeaeia eiiia?aoeaia auee cai?auaiu. A 1988 a. iaeiiaoe iiyaeeny Caeii "I eiiia?aoeee a NNN?" n iannie iaaeinoaoeia, ii ii oai a?aiaiai i/aiue aaaeiue. Iaeiaei oaea a 1991 a. Caeii "I i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe" ioiaiee naii iiiyoea "eiiia?aoea", auioaeea ?aaioieeia ia?a?aaeno?e?iaaoue naie i?aaei?eyoey, iacuaay eo oiaa?euanoaaie e oai naiui eeoaynue iniiaiuo i?aeiouanoa, n o/aoii eioi?uo i?aaei?eyoea e nicaeaaaeinue."Aoi?oth aeeciue" a eiiia?aoeau aaeioioee nia/aea oaaea?aeueiue caeii "I iio?aaeoaeueneie eiiia?aoeee a ?O" (i?eiyo a 1992 a.), a caoai A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?O (AE ?O) 1994 a., aiiaue caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieaoee yoo oi?io i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, e oaaea?aeueiue caeii "I i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiia?aoeaao", anooieaoee a neeo 8 iay 1996 a. Aianoa n oai i?aeoe/anee ana o/anoieee a/a?aoiae i?ann-eiioa?aioeee ioiaoeee, /oi ianiiiaiiia nioeeaeueiia cia/aiea eiiia?aoeee a ?innee iniciaaony ii nae aeaiue aanueia neaai. Oae, i?aaeoaeuenoai ?ac?aaaouaaao iiiai/eneaiiua i?iaeou eiiioiaeueii-aeeeeuiie ?aoi?iu, niaa?oaiii ia ia?auaynue i?e yoii e iiuoo ?inneeneeo AENE.O?oaeiie ieacaeanue noaeueaa oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia "I e?aaeeoiuo iio?aaeoaeueneeo eiiia?aoeaao a?aaeaeai (e?aaeeoiuo iio?aaeoaeueneeo nithcao)". Aua a ai?aea 1995 a. caeiiii?iaeo aue i?aaenoaaeai a Ainaeoio ?O e i?eiyo ath a ia?aii aea /oaiee iiaeaaeythuei aieueoeinoaii aieinia. N oao ii? ii aeaaaeaeu ioeeiiyeny A. Aeueoeeiui, aei?aaaouaaeny, e 25 ai?aey Aeoia, a 14 iay e Niaao Oaaea?aoeee i?iaieiniaaee ca i?aiaeieaiea i?aceaeaioneith aaoi. Eacaeinue au, oaia?ue caeii aueaeao. Ai iao: i?aceaeaio ?innee aiiaue ioeacaeny aai iiaeienuaaoue!A oi aea a?aiy, ii iiaieth iaeiiai ec ?ac?aaio/eeia caeiiii?iaeoa, aeaau Oeaio?a ?acaeoey e?aaeeoiuo nithcia Aeeiu Ieaoioiie, caeii yoio naaiaeiy i?inoi iaiaoiaeei. Oioy AE ?O e aaiaeeo oaeoth ?aciiaeaeiinoue eiiia?aoeaia, eae e?aaeeoiua nithcu, a i?aaiaia iiea, ii ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao ieeaeeo ia?aie/aiee, aa?aioe?othueo, neaaeai, nio?aiiinoue naa?aaeaiee aai /eaiia. Aianoa n oai e?aaeeoiue nithc iia au noaoue aeey iaeieioueo a?aaeaeai oaeiaiui, a aeaaiia — iaaeaaeiui niiniaii a?aoue e?aoein?i/iua caeiu. Ii nooe aeaea, ?a/ue eaeao i naiaia?aciuo eannao acaeiiiiiiue a oneiaeyo ?uiea, iicaieythueo ecaaaaoue oneoa niiieoaeueiuo oeiainiauo no?oeoo?. N ia/aea 90-o aiaeia yoa oi?ia eiiia?aoeee a ?innee, i?aaaea, aic?iaeaeaaony: nae/an a no?aia aeaenoaoao ieiei 200 iiaeiaiuo nithcia. Iaeiaei caeii caueoee au /eaiia e?aaeeoiuo nithcia io iaiaaeie ni noi?iiu aeanoae, /anoi aaciniiaaoaeueii ooaa?aeaeathueo, aoaeoi oa iiaeiaiytho niaie aaieianeea no?oeoo?u. Enoaoe, a-aea Ieaoioiay ia eneeth/aao aiaoaoaeuenoaa aaieia e "oeiainiauo ie?aieae" a caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?ioeann.· Ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieeeA nayce n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth i?iecaiaenoaa iauanoaaiiuo aeaa e ii i?e/eiai yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe (i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo) iaeneiaeueiie oeaio?aeecaoeee oi?aaeaiey nouanoaoao iio?aaiinoue a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a oicyenoaa. Ii i?aaenoaaeai i?aaei?eyoeyie, iieiinoueth iaoiaeyueieny a nianoaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaa, e eiiiaieyie, aeiey nianoaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaa (ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey) a eioi?uo iicaieyao eiaoue i?ei?eoao i?e i?eiyoee yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee.Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a - yoi oieoa?iua i?aaei?eyoey. Oieoa?iui i?aaei?eyoeai i?eciaaony eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey - ianianoaaiiee. Oieoa?iinoue i?aaeiieaaaao iaaeaeeiinoue eiouanoaa ie ia eaeea aeeaaeu, iae eee aeiee, a oii /enea nianoaaiieeia, iineieueeo iii oeaeeeii i?eiaaeeaaeeo nianoaaiieeo-o/?aaeeoaeth.Oaeay iniaay i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia nio?aiaia AE ?O oieueei aeey ainoaea?noaaiiie e ioieoeeiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Ainoaea?noaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue - yoi nianoaaiiinoue oaaea?aoeee e aa noauaeoia. Ioieoeeiaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue - nianoaaiiinoue ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.A A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee oa?iei “i?aaei?eyoea” nio?aiai oieueei a ioiioaiee oicyenoaaiiuo caaiueaa, eiouanoai eioi?uo iaoiaeeony ainoaea?noaaiiie (oaaea?aeueiie eee noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee) eee ioieoeeiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.Oieoa?iia i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii eiaoue oe?iaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea n oeacaieai nianoaaiieea aai eiouanoaa, iai?eia?, “oaaea?aeueiia ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea”; “iaeanoiia ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea”, “ioieoeeiaeueiia i?aaei?eyoea”. Oieoa?iia i?aaei?eyoea eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiue onoaaiue oiiae, ?acia? eioi?iai ia iiaeao auoue iaiueoa ieieioia, ii?aaeaeaiiiai niaoeeaeueiui caeiiii (i?e ionoonoaee ?aaoee?othuaai caeiia - ia iaiaa 1000-e?aoiiai ?acia?a ieieiaeueiie iieaou o?oaea a ianyoe).Oieoa?iia i?aaei?eyoea ia ioaa/aao ii iaycaoaeuenoaai naiaai o/?aaeeoaey-nianoaaiieea. Iineaaeiee ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii iaycaoaeuenoaai oieoa?iiai i?aaei?eyoey, iniiaaiiiai ia i?aaa oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey, ii iiaeao auoue i?eaea/ai e aeiiieieoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii aeieaai i?aaei?eyoey, iniiaaiiiai ia i?aaa iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey.Oieoa?iua i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo aunooiaoue a aeaoo oi?iao:iniiaaiiua ia i?aaa oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey;iniiaaiiua ia i?aaa iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey (eacaiiua).Oieoa?iia i?aaei?eyoea, iniiaaiiia ia i?aaa oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaieyE eiouanoao oaeiai i?aaei?eyoey i?aaeuyaeythony iiauoaiiua o?aaiaaiey, oae eae caeanue eneeth/aia aeiiieieoaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue nianoaaiieea-o/?aaeeoaey ii aeieaai. Iiyoiio onoaaiue eaieoae ia iiaeao auoue iaiueoa ii?aaeaeaiiiai ieieioia. Oieoa?iia i?aaei?eyoea, iniiaaiiia ia i?aaa oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey, iiaeao o/?aaeaeaoue aei/a?iea i?aaei?eyoey.Oieoa?iia i?aaei?eyoea, iniiaaiiia ia i?aaa iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaieyO oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee aua aieaa oceea i?aaa ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaii oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey. Iiyoiio eo iacuaatho eacaiiuie. Iio?aaiinoue a oaeie ?aciiaeaeiinoe i?aaei?eyoee naycaia n iaee/eai i?aaiecaoeee, aeaenoaothueo io eiaie e a eioa?anao ainoaea?noaa. Oaeiau, iai?eia?, ainoaea?noaaiiia i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iauaaeeiaiea “Aiciae”, i?aaei?eyoey nayce, iaeioi?ua iai?iiiua i?aaei?eyoey.A caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao ii ioiioaieth e ainoaea?noaaiiiio naeoi?o i?iaiaeeony iieeoeea, iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeaeathuay aai e oneiaeyi e e?eoa?eyi ?aaiou /anoiuo oe?i, aneaaenoaea /aai a oeaeii a no?aiao AN ooieoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ia i?ioeai?a/ao ie eiioeaioeee ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, ie nouanoaiaaieth aeeiaie/iiai /anoiiai naeoi?a.Aeey ?inneeneie yeiiiieee aeooaeueiie caaea/ae yaeyaony i?eaaaeaiea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie a niioaaonoaea n ?aaeeyie ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. *anoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeia ?aaioaoue ia aaca ii?i ioaee/iiai eiouanoaaiiiai i?aaa, o.a. eae "eacaiiua", iaaeoeeiie?iaaiiua. Eo oi?aaeaiea aoaeao inouanoaeyoueny ia iniiaa oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa, eniieueciaaaoaainy a ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieea a 60-a - 80-a aiaeu, aaeaioe?iaaiiiai e oneiaeyi ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi ?aoathuoth ianno ?inneeneeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ninoaayo ainoaea?noaaiiua aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa (AAI). Eo aeayoaeueiinoue ai iiiaii aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoue o?iaaiue yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?innee, ieacuaaoue eeth/aaia aicaeaenoaea ia oiae yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i. Eciaiaiey a oi?aaeaiee AAI a ?innee aeieaeiu auoue iai?aaeaiu ia nie?auaiea i?yiiai, iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey eee eo i?aaenoaaeoaeae a ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoeyie. Iaeiei ec yooaeoeaiuo aa?eaioia oi?aaeaiey AAI i?aaenoaaeyaony ia?aaea/a ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeoeee a o?anoiaia oi?aaeaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio ?oeiaiaenoao i?aaei?eyoey, iacia/aaiiio ii eiio?aeoo.Aeaaa 4. Oai?ey ecaea?aeae. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eaieoaeAii?inu:Yeiiiie/aneee e aooaaeoa?neee iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth ecaea?aeae e i?eauee.Iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee.N?aaeiea e i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa.I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eaieoae.1. Yeiiiie/aneee e aooaaeoa?neee iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth ecaea?aeae e i?eauee.A aiaeeca iiaaaeaiey oe?i iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea eiatho oneiaey iaania/aiey iaeneiaeueiie aeioiaeiinoe aecian-aeayoaeueiinoe. Oe?ia, i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia i?eaueue, iaeaieaa oeie/ia aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.Aaee/eia i?eauee a ii?aaeaeythuae ia?a caaeneo io ecaea?aeae oe?iu, iineieueeo i?eaueue - yoi au?o/ea oe?iu ca au/aoii ecaea?aeae.Iiyoiio i?iaeaia ecaea?aeae – enoiaeiay a oai?ee oe?iu.Ecaea?aeee - yoi aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea noieiinoe ?ano?nia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaiaeeiie oe?iie i?iaeoeoeee e oneoaEcaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?uie iia?e?oao yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey, ioee/athony io noieiinoe cao?ao, en/eneyaiie aooaaeoa?aie.Yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee - yoi ioeaiea ecaea?aeae aeaaeaeueoeai oe?iu.A oneiaeyo i?eaioaoeee ia iaeneiaeueii i?eaueueioth ?aaioo yoi i?aaeiieaaaao ioeaieo iaeaieaa aeioiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey eaaeaeiai aiaea/aiiiai a i?iecaiaenoai ?ano?na.Yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee - noieiinoue ?ano?na i?e iaeeo/oai ec aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia aai i?eiaiaiey.Yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee - yoi eaeaae, ii?iaoea, e eioi?iio no?aieony oe?ia.Aooaaeoa?neea ecaea?aeee aeeth/atho oieueei aeaiaaeiua ieaoaaee, iiianaiiua oe?iie ia i?eia?aoaiea ?ano?nia o aiaoieo iinoaaueeia. Aooaaeoa?neea ecaea?aeee aua iacuaatho aiaoieie, eee yaiuie.Iai?eia?, ca?aaioiay ieaoa iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, iaiaaeaea?ia, iieaoa nu?uey, i?eia?aoaiiiai ia noi?iia, auieaoa i?ioeaioia aaieo ii nnoaea e o.i.A i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa eniieuecothony ia oieueei i?eia?aoaaiua ia noi?iia, ii e aioo?aiiea ?ano?nu oe?iu: nianoaaiiay i?iaeoeoeey, caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey, caiey e ae?oaea iauaeou, eioi?ua yaeythony nianoaaiiinoueth aeaiiie oe?iu e iiaoo auoue i?iaeaiu eee naeaiu a a?aiaeo ae?oaei eeoeai, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai oe?ia iiaeao iieo/eoue aeiiieieoaeueiua aeioiaeu.E?iia oiai, aeaaeaeaoe aeciana, eae i?aaeei, nai caieiaaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth, /anoi i?e yoii eniieuecoao o?oae /eaiia naiuee.O/ao aeueoa?iaoeaiiai, iaeaieaa ?aioaaaeueiiai i?eiaiaiey yoeo ?ano?nia icia/aao iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa a ecaea?aeeao ?uii/iie oeaiu aioo?aiieo ?ano?nia, eiuie neiaaie, aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ecaea?aeae, eee ecaea?aeae oiouaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae.Yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee, ia?yaeo n aiaoieie, eee aooaaeoa?neeie, aeeth/atho oeaio aioo?aiieo ecaea?aeae.Ae?oaie iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth yeiiiie/aneeo ecaea?aeae i?aaeiieaaaao niaoeeoe/aneia en/eneaiea i?eauee i?aaei?eieiaoaeai-nianoaaiieeii. Ethaie aeaaeaeaoe aeciana aoaeao caieiaoueny ei a aeaiiie io?anee oieueei aei oao ii?, iiea aoaeao iieo/aoue ii?iaeueioth, eee n?aaeithth i?eaueue. A neo/aa ioiineoaeueiiai nieaeaiey aeioiaeiinoe aeciana, ii ia?aeeth/eony ia ae?oaoth aeayoaeueiinoue, aieaa i?eaueueioth. Ia neo/aeii a nia?aiaiiie ?inneeneie yeiiiieea iniiaiay /anoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai eaieoaea nin?aaeioi/aia a noa?a ia?auaiey. Naaiaeiy oneiaey aeciana oaeiau, /oi neeoeii iaei i?iecaiaenoa, iaania/eaathueo i?eaueue, ?aaiiaaeeeoth iin?aaeie/aneie eee aaieianeie.Yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee aeeth/atho n?aaeithth, eee ii?iaeueioth i?eaueue. Oieueei i?eaueue auoa n?aaeiae iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny aeaaeaeueoeai aeciana eae aeaenoaeoaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay i?eaueue.A aooaaeoa?neea ecaea?aeee i?eaueue i?aaei?eieiaoaey aiiaua ia aoiaeeo.?anniio?ei a ea/anoaa i?eia?a ioeaieo aeaaeaeueoeai oa?iu ecaea?aeae, iiianaiiuo ei ia i?iecaiaenoai naeueoici?iaeoeoeee. Oa?ia? eniieuecoao o?oae iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, auiea/eaaao ei ca?ieaoo 40 000 aeiee. a aiae. Aeey i?eia?aoaiey naiyi e oaeia?aiee acyoa nnoaea a aaiea, ii iae iaiaoiaeeii auieaoeoue 10 000 aeiee. Noieiinoue iniiaiiai eaieoaea (o?aeoi?ia, ae?. oaoieee e nii?oaeaiee) ninoaaeyea 100 000 aeiee. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi eaieoae neoaeeo 5 eao. Oiaaea aii?oecaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu ca oaeouee aiae ninoaayo 20000 aeiee. ?anoiaeu ia i?eia?aoaiea iaoa?eaeia, naiyi, oaeia?aiee, no?aoiaaiea e ae?. ninoaaeee 20 000 aeiee. Ana yoe ecaea?aeee - aooaaeoa?neea.Oa?ia?-nianoaaiiee, ioeaieaay iieo/aiioth a ?an/aoa eioi?iaoeeth, n/eoaao aeueoa?iaoeaiua ecaea?aeee ii aaaeaieth aeciana.I?aaeiieiaeei, oa?ia? nai ?aaioaao iieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue, oioy eiaao i?aaeeiaeaiea ?aaioaoue oi?aaeythuei ca 30 000 aeiee. a aiae. E?iia oiai, a oicyenoaaiiue iai?io aiaea/aia caiey, eioi?ay iiaea auoue naeaia a a?aiaeo ca 40 000 aeiee. Iieiaeio ?aai/aai aeiy ia oa?ia o?oaeeony aeaia. A ae?oaii ianoa ca oo aea ?aaioo iia iiaea au iieo/eoue 10 000 aeiee. Iaeiiaoe, ?uii/iay noieiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey e nii?oaeaiee, eniieuecoaiuo ia oa?ia – 80000 aeiee. Anee au oa?ia? aai i?iaeae aai e, i?ae?aoea aecian, auieaoee aaieianeee e?aaeeo a 50 000 aeiee., o iaai inoaeinue au aua 30 000 aeiee. Ii iia au iieiaeeoue yoe aeaiueae a aaie e iieo/aoue i?ioeaio a 3 000 aeiee. aaeaaiaeii. Noiia aooaaeoa?neeo e aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ecaea?aeae aeaao yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee.Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC K . Aooaaeoa?neea e yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee(a oun. aeiee.)IaeiaiiaaieaAooaaeoa?neea ecaea?aeee Yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeeeCa?aaioiay ieaoa 40 40I?ioeaio ii nnoaea 10 10Aii?oecaoeey 20 20Iaoa?eaeu, nu?uea, no?aoiaea e i?. 20 20Iayaiue ca?aaioie i?aaei?eieiaoaey 0 30Iayaiue ca?aaioie aeaiu 0 10Iayaiay caiaeueiay ?aioa 0 40Iayaiue i?ioeaio ia nianoaaiiue eaieoae03Anaai ecaea?aeae 90 1732. Iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee. Caeii oauaathuae i?aaeaeueiie ioaea/e.Aeey i?aeoeee iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea eiaao aeaeaiea ecaea?aeae ia iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua. Oaeia aeaeaiea ni?aaaaeeeai eeoue ia ia?aie/aiiii a?aiaiiii eioa?aaea, eee a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea, i?e n?aaieoaeueii iacia/eoaeueiuo eciaiaieyo ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa, ii i?e/eia iaaiciiaeiinoe auno?iai eciaiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae eee eiee/anoaa ae?oaeo ?ano?nia, eniieuecoaiuo oe?iie. A e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea oaeaea n/eoaaony iaaiciiaeiui iieiinoueth i?ae?aoeoue aecian a aeaiiie io?anee eee ioe?uoue iiaia i?iecaiaenoai.A aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea ana ecaea?aeee noaiiayony ia?aiaiiuie.A e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee FC (fixed costs) - yoi oa cao?aou, eioi?ua ianao oe?ia iacaaeneii io eieaaaiee a eiee/anoaa i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa.E iinoiyiiui ecaea?aeeai ioiinyony:?aioiua ieaoaaee, cao?aou ia a?aiaeo caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee, iai?oaeiaaiey;?anoiaeu ia aii?oecaoeeth, oi anoue ia aiciauaiea noieiinoe eciaoeaaaiuo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa;no?aoiaua aciinu;iieaoa iaycaoaeuenoa ii caeiai (e?aaeeoiui eee iaeeaaoeeiiiui);ca?ieaoa oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea;auieaoa iaeiaia ia iaaeaeaeeiinoue e ae?.A?aoe/aneei ecia?aaeaieai iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae aoaeao i?yiay eeiey FC, ia?aeeaeueiay ine, io?aaeathuae eiee/anoai i?aaeeaaaaiie oe?iie i?iaeoeoeee.Aeey aiaeeca ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae iaiaoiaeeii onaieoue nouiinoue caeiia oauaathuae i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.Caeii oauaathuae i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe (ioaea/e) aeaneo, /oi ii ia?a aic?anoaiey eniieueciaaiey eaeiai-eeai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oaeoi?a i?e iaeciaiiuo inoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ao, aeinoeaaaony oi/ea, ia/eiay n eioi?ie aeiiieieoaeueiia aiaea/aiea ia?aiaiiiai ?ano?na i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth aeiiieieoaeueiiai (i?aaeaeueiiai) iauaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee.Iaicia/ei:TP - iauee iauai i?iecaiaenoaa (eiee/anoai i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee) (( TP - i?e?ino TP);( L - i?e?ino eaeiai-eeai ia?aiaiiiai ?ano?na, iai?eia?, ?ano?na o?oaea;MP - i?aaeaeueiue (aeiiieieoaeueiue) i?iaeoeo, i?iecaiaeeiue ca n/ao aeiiieieoaeueiiai aiaea/aiey ?ano?na L, oiaaea:MP = ( TP / ( LOa?aeoa? caaeneiinoe eiee/anoaa i?iecaiaeeiiai i?iaeoeoa io eiee/anoaa i?eaeaeaaiiai aeiiieieoaeueii ia?aiaiiiai ?ano?na iiaeao auoue a?aoe/anee eioa?i?aoe?iaai o?aiy o/anoeaie e?eaie iauaai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 21 . Caeii oauaathuae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.Ia I oaca e?eaay iiaeieiaaony aaa?o n oaaee/eaathueiny iaeeiiii, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aic?anoathuae i?aaeaeueiie ioaea/a ia?aiaiiiai ?ano?na, oae eae caeanue eiaao ianoi n?aaieoaeueiue ecauoie iinoiyiiuo ?ano?nia.Ia II oaca iaeeii e?eaie nieaeaaony, ioaea/a ?anoao, ii caiaaeeythueieny oaiiaie. Eaaeaeay aeiaaai/iay aaeeieoea ia?aiaiiiai ?ano?na aiineo a iauee iauai i?iecaiaenoaa iaiueooth ioaea/o ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeoanoaothuae. Iauee iauai i?iecaiaenoaa aeinoeaaao iaeneioia, eiaaea i?aaeaeueiay ioaea/a ?ano?na ?aaia ioeth.Ia III oaca iaeeii e?eaie noaiiaeony io?eoeaoaeueiui, i?aaeaeueiay ioaea/a ?ano?na oaeaea i?eieiaao io?eoeaoaeueiua cia/aiey, iaaethaeaaony aaniethoiue niaae i?iecaiaenoaa ec-ca aeiiieieoaeueiiai aiaea/aiey ia?aiaiiuo ?ano?nia.Aeey aieueoeinoaa oeiia i?iecaiaenoa oa?aeoa?ii nie?auaiea i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe aiaeaeaaiuo ia?aiaiiuo ?ano?nia i?e iaeciaiiinoe /anoe ?ano?nia, iai?eia?, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe e oaoiieiaee i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey eee ?acia?ia caiaeueiiai o/anoea aa?ioe?iu.Ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee (variable costs) - VC - yoi ecaea?aeee, aaee/eia eioi?uo caaeneo io iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee.E ia?aiaiiui ecaea?aeeai ioiinyony:cao?aou ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aai/eo,noieiinoue nu?uey e iniiaiuo e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia,iaeia ia i?eaueue, iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue,o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu e o.i.A?aoe/aneei ecia?aaeaieai iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae aoaeao i?yiay eeiey ?N, ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae - e?eaay ON, oa?aeoa? eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyaony aeaenoaeai caeiia oauaathuae ioaea/e. Oi?ia e?eaie ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae ca?eaeueii io?aaeaao oi?io e?eaie iauaai eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoa o?oaea. Nia/aea ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee ?anooo iaaeeaiiaa iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa (aei oi/ee A), caoai nei?inoue eo ?inoa noaaeeece?oaony. Ia/eiay n oi/ee A eaeao iia?aaeathuee ?ino ecaea?aeae ec-ca ia?ooaiey iioeiaeueiuo ?acia?ia i?aaei?eyoey.Iauea aaeiaua ecaea?aeee (total costs) - TC - noiia iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea.A?aoee aaeiauo ecaea?aeae TC iieo/aaony noiie?iaaieai a?aoeeia iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie e?eaoth, ii oi?ia iiaoi?ythuoth a?aoee ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae, niauaiioth aaa?o ia eiee/anoai aaeeieoe iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 22 . A?aoeee iinoiyiiuo, ia?aiaiiuo e aaeiauo ecaea?aeae3. N?aaeiea e i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaaAeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae aaaeiui yaeyaony ecia?aiea n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa.Niaieoiiua, eee aaeiaua n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee - AON -(average total costs) - aaeiaua ecaea?aeee, i?eoiaeyueany ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee:ATC = TC/QAiaeiae/ii ?ann/eouaathony n?aaeiea iinoiyiiua (AFC) e n?aaeiea ia?aiaiiua (AVC) ecaea?aeee:AFC = FC/Q; AVC= VC/Q; ATC = AFC+AVC?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 23 . A?aoeee e?eauo n?aaeieo aaeiauo, n?aaeieo ia?aiaiiuo e n?aaeieo iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae.N?aaeiea iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee (AFC) oauaatho ii ia?a ?inoa i?aaeeiaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee, oae eae n oaaee/aieai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee aoaeao i?eoiaeeoueny ana iaiueoay eo aaee/eia. E?eaay n?aaeieo iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae - aeia?aiea.N?aaeiea ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee, ia?aiia/aeueii aeinoaoi/ii aunieea, n ?inoii iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa ia/eiatho nieaeaoueny e aeinoeaatho naiaai ieieioia i?e iaeioi?ii iauaia, ia/eiay n eioi?iai iie ?anooo aneaaenoaea aeaenoaey caeiia oauaathuae ioaea/e. Iiyoiio e?eaay n?aaeieo ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae - U-ia?aciay eeiey.N?aaeiea aaeiaua ecaea?aeee caaenyo io n?aaeieo iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo. Ia?aiia/aeueii iie, i?aaenoaaeyy noiio aeaoo oauaathueo ooieoeee, oaeaea oauaatho, ii, ia/eiay n iaeioi?iai iauaia (aieueoaai, iaaeaee oio, i?e eioi?ii aeinoeaaaony ieieioi n?aaeieo ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae), oauaaiea n?aaeieo iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae ia/eiaao ia?ae?uaaoueny aic?anoaieai n?aaeieo ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae, oi anoue noiia?iua n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee oaeaea ia/eiatho aic?anoaoue. E?eaay n?aaeieo aaeiauo ecaea?aeae - U- ia?aciay eeiey, ?aniieiaeaiiay auoa e?eaie n?aaeieo ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae.Aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ia iioeiaeueiii iauaia eniieuecoaony eaoaai?ey i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae.I?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee MC (marginal costs) - yoi aeiiieieoaeueiua ecaea?aeee, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aeiiieieoaeueiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee.MC = (TC/Q?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 24 . A?aoee e?eauo i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeaeE?eaay i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, iiaeiaii aeaoi auoa iienaiiui e?eaui n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae, eiaao U- ia?acioth oi?io. I?e /oaiee a?aoeea neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi:i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee iaiueoa n?aaeieo aei oao ii?, iiea iineaaeiea oauaatho;i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee aieueoa n?aaeieo, eae oieueei iineaaeiea ia/eiatho aic?anoaoue;i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee ?aaiu n?aaeiei i?e iauaiao i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/eaathueo ieieioiu niioaaonoaothueo n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae.4. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eaieoae.I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eaieoae.Eaieoae, ?acee/iua o?aeoiaee, nouiinoe e oi?iu.Eae a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie, oae e a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee iiiyoea«eaieoae» iiiaicia/ii.?acee/iua iaoiaeieiae/aneea iiaeoiaeu?acee/iua eiioaenouEnneaaeoy eaieoae, E. Ia?en aeeooa?aioee?iaae oaeea iiiyoey, eae:iinoiyiiue eaieoae - n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa; oi anoue n?aaenoaa e i?aaeiaou o?oaea;ia?aiaiiue eaieoae - n?aaenoaa, eaeouea ia i?eaea/aiea ?aai/ae neeu;aeaiueae -aeaiaaeiue eaieoae;oiaa?u - oiaa?iue eaieoae.Ii iiaieth Ia?ena, nouiinoue eaieoaea ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothueie iniiaiuie iiiaioaie:eaieoae - yoi ia aauue, a ii?aaeaeaiiia iauanoaaiiia ioiioaiea, ioiioaiea iaaeaeo aeaaeaeueoeai n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e iaaiiuie ?aai/ei ( a aaeeie/iii neo/aa) eee (a aieaa oe?ieii niunea) ioiioaiea iaaeaeo eaieoaeenoaie e iaaiiuie ?aai/eie;eaieoae iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii aeaeaeaiee, oieueei oiaaea aeaiueae eeeiaoa?eaeueiua iauaeou i?aa?auathony a eaieoae;eaieoae - yoi naiiaic?anoathuay noieiinoue, oi anoue aeaiueae, i?eiinyuea aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaiueae.Aieueoeinoai yeiiiienoia ?anniao?eaatho eaieoae eae yeiiiie/aneee ?ano?n (oaeoi? i?iecaiaenoaa), i?e yoii eiatho a aeaeo, i?aaeaea anaai, aai iaoo?aeueioth oi?io, oae iacuaaaiue oece/aneie eaieoae. Iiae iei iiieiathony: noaiee, iaoeiu, caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey, caianu iaoa?eaeia e nu?uey, iieooaa?eeaoia e o.i.Ia oeiainiauo ?uieao iiae eaieoaeii iiieiatho aeaiaaeiue eaieoae, oi anoue aeaiueae, i?eiinyuea aeioiae a aeaea i?ioeaioa.Aeey inouanoaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeyoue aeiaeaiey eaieoaea. Oae aeey ia/aea aeciana iaiaoiaeeinoa?oiaue eaieoae, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio ia?aiia/aeueii aeiaeaiiiai oece/aneiai e aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea e oaeoueo ?anoiaeia ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa.Enoi/ieeaie noa?oiaiai eaieoaea e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai eaieoaea a iauai neo/aa iiaoo auoue nianoaaiiua e caaiiua n?aaenoaa.Nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa - yoi onoaaiue eaieoae, i?eaueue io iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?eaueue io oeiainiauo iia?aoeee, aii?oecaoeeiiiue oiiae, caaeieaeaiiinoue iieoiaoaeae ca ioa?oaeaiiua oiaa?u, au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee auauaoaai eiouanoaa e i?.Onoaaiue eaieoae - yoi ia?aiia/aeueiay noiia eaieoaea oe?i, i?aaeoniao?eaaaiay onoaaii eee aeiaiai?ii ia eo iniiaaiee.Caaiiua n?aaenoaa - yoi e?aaeeou e nnoaeu.Anyeay iaoeeiiaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia aeeth/aao niaieoiiinoue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iainiaeaiiuo, n ae?oaie -acaeiinaycaiiuo oe?i, inouanoaeythueo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia aini?iecaiaenoai.Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia aini?iecaiaenoai - yoi iai?a?uaii iiaoi?ythueeny i?ioeann i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai niaaeeiaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia n oeaeueth nicaeaiey oiaa?ia e oneoa e iieo/aiey aeioiaea.A iniiaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa eaaeeo e?oaiiai?io eaieoaea.E?oaiiai?io eaieoaea - yoi iineaaeiaaoaeueiay niaia eaieoaeii aai ooieoeeiiaeueiuo oi?i: aeaiaaeiie, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie e oiaa?iie.E?oaiiai?io eaieoaea iiaeao auoue iienai neaaeothuae oi?ioeie:?NAe-O ............I...........O'-Ae'NI1 noaaeey 2 noaaeey 3 noaaeeyEaaeaeay ec noaaeee e?oaiiai?ioa auiieiyao ii?aaeaeaiioth ooieoeeth.Ia 1 noaaeee oi?ie?othony oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa.Ia 2 noaaeee inouanoaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e oneoa.Ia 3 noaaeee i?ienoiaeeo ?aaeecaoeey oiaa?ia e oneoa e iieo/aiea i?eauee.Ca iaeei e?oaiiai?io, eae i?aaeei, aica?auaaony ia any noieiinoue aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea. A yoie nayce aaiaeeony iiiyoea iai?ioa eaieoaea.Iai?io eaieoaea - yoi niaieoiiinoue iai?a?uaii niaiythueo ae?oa ae?oaa e?oaiiai?ioia, ca eioi?ua aanue aaaine?iaaiiue eaieoae aica?auaaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeth a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia.Iai?io ?acee/iuo yeaiaioia eaieoaea i?ienoiaeeo ca ?aciua a?aiaiiua i?iiaaeooee. Ii yoie i?e/eia eaieoae aeaeeony ia iniiaiiee iai?ioiue.Iai?ioiue eaieoae - yoi /anoue oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey, noieiinoue eioi?iai ia?aiineony ia aioiaue i?iaeoeo ca iaeei i?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee (e?oaiiai?io). Iai?ioiue eaieoae - yoinu?uea, iaoa?eaeu e cao?aou ia ?aai/oth neeo. Cao?aou ia yoe yeaiaiou eaieoaea ieoiathony ca iaeei i?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee.Iniiaiie eaieoae - yoi caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey e o.i. noieiinoueiniiaiiai eaieoaea ia?aiineony ia aioiaue i?iaeoeo ii /anoyi, ca ianeieueei e?oaiiai?ioia eaieoaea (iniiaiie eaieoae oieueei a ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe iio?aaeyaony ca iaeei i?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee).Iiiyoey iniiaiiai e iai?ioiiai eaieoaea, i?eaaaeaiiua auoa, io?aaeatho iiieiaiea yoeo eaoaai?ee a ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieea. Iie eniieuecothony e a ca?oaaaeiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee e i?aeoeea, ii eo o?aeoiaea ianeieueei ioee/aaony io iaoae. Yoi naycaii n iniaaiiinoyie aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, i?eiyoie a ?acee/iuo no?aiao.Oae, a eieaa "Yeiiiieea oe?iu" aeaoneeo aaoi?ia Ai?noa e ?aaaioeio oeacuaaaony: «Iniiaiie eaieoae - yoi aeoeau, ?ann/eoaiiua ia eniieueciaaiea eo i?aaei?eyoeai a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie. .. Iai?ioiui eaieoaeii iacuaatho oa aeoeau, eioi?ua i?e ii?iaeueiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaiytho naie oi?iu a ioiineoaeueii ei?ioeee n?ie (iaiaa /ai ca 1 aiae)...iniiaiie eaieoae;iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau;iaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau;oeiainiaua aeoeau;iai?ioiue eaieoae;oiaa?iua caianu;aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue;oeaiiua aoiaae e i?i/ea e?aoein?i/iua oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey;aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa».I?ioeann ia?aiina noieiinoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea ii ia?a aai eciina a oa/aiea n?iea aai neoaeau ia aioiaue i?iaeoeo iacuaaaony aii?oecaoeeae.Aii?oecaoeey naycaia n eciinii iniiaiiai eaieoaea. ?acee/atho oece/aneee e ii?aeueiue eciin.Oece/aneee eciin - yoi i?ioeann, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai iniiaiie eaieoae noaiiaeony oece/anee iai?eaiaeiui aeey aai aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey. Oece/aneee eciin icia/aao ?ac?ooaiea, iieiieo e o.i. yaeaiey. Ii i?ienoiaeeo eae a ?acoeueoaoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea, oae e ai a?aiy aai i?inoiy.Ii?aeueiue eciin - yoi i?ioeann iaanoeaieaaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea ii i?e/eia onoa?aaaiey. Ii?aeueiue eciin iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ii aeaoi neaaeothuei iniiaiui i?e/eiai:ec-ca nicaeaiey aiaeiae/iuo, ii aieaa aeaoaauo n?aaenoa o?oaea;ec-ca auionea aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo n?aaenoa o?oaea ii oie aea oeaia.Noieiinoue eciina iniiaiiai eaieoaea, aiciauaaiay ii /anoyi, iaeaieeaaaony a aii?oecaoeeiiiii oiiaea. Aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?aiiioa eee caiaiu eciioaiiuo n?aaenoa o?oaea.A oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiiai aunieioaoiieiae/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa /?acau/aeii aaaeii iaeo?aeeciaaoue oaeoi? ii?aeueiiai eciina. A yoie nayce a yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?aiao i?eiaiytho iieeoeeo oae iacuaaaiie onei?aiiie aii?oecaoeee.I?aaeaea /ai aaanoe iiiyoea onei?aiiie aii?oecaoeee oeaaeai, /oi ii?ia aii?oecaoeee - yoi ioiioaiea aiaeiaie noiiu aii?oecaoeee e noieiinoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea.I?eia?: E ini.=1 iei. ?oa., A=200 oun. ?oa.200A’=------(100=20 %1000Onei?aiiay aii?oecaoeey - yoi iiauoaiea ii?i aii?oecaoeee e onei?aiiue ia?aiin noieiinoe n?aaenoa o?oaea ia i?iecaiaeeiua oiaa?u e oneoae a oeaeyo auno?aeoaai iaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa e iaeo?aeecaoeee oaeoi?a ii?aeueiiai eciina.Onei?aiiay aii?oecaoeey yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo n?aaenoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee. Iiae?iaiaa ia onei?aiiie aii?oecaoeee neaaeoao /eoaoue a o/aaieea "Yeiiiieea" iiae ?aae. Aoeaoiaa A.N.. I.: AAE, 1996. N.274-277A caeeth/aiea ?anniio?ei aaaeiaeoea iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey iniiaiiai e iai?ioiiai eaieoaea.Iaiauathuei iieacaoaeai eniieueciaaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea yaeyaony oiiaeiioaea/a (OI):IOI=------,aaeaE ini.I - noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee;E ini. - noieiinoue iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia (iniiaiiai eaieoaea).AEaeaoaeueiie yaeyaony ?anoouay oiiaeiioaea/a eae aeey ioaeaeueiie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie oe?iu, oae e aeey iaoeeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaa a oeaeii.Eniieueciaaiea iai?ioiiai eaieoaea io?aaeaao iieacaoaeue iaoa?eaeiaieinoe (ME):E ia.IA= ------- , aaeaIE ia. - noieiinoue iai?ioiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia (iai?ioiiai eaieoaea).AEaeaoaeueiie eae aeey ioaeaeueiie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie oe?iu, oae e aeey iaoeeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaa a oeaeii yaeyaony nieaeathuayny iaoa?eaeiaieinoue.Aeaaa 5. Iioeiaeueiia iiaaaeaiea oe?iu a ?acee/iuo iiaeaeyo ?uieaAii?inu:?aaiiaanea eiieo?aioiie oe?iu.Oneiaea iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee iiiiiieenoii.Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey iiiiiieee. Aioeiiiiiieueiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa.1. ?aaiiaanea eiieo?aioiie oe?iuA aiaeeca iiaaaeaiey oe?i iu enoiaeei ec eo i?eaioaoeee ia iieo/aiea iaeneioia i?eauee.Aeey oe?i, inouanoaeythueo i?aaeeiaeaiea naieo oiaa?ia a ?acee/iuo ?uii/iuo no?oeoo?ao, ii-?aciiio neeaaeuaaaony oa?aeoa? ni?ina. Io yoiai nouanoaaiii caaenyo oneiaey ?aaiiaaney oe?i, oi anoue oneiaey iaeneiecaoeee eo i?eauee.?anniio?ei nia/aea ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiaaaeaiea eiieo?aioiie oe?iu.Pr - (Profit) -i?eaueue oe?iu;TR - (Total Revenue) - aaeiaie aeioiae, eioi?ue caaeneo io o?iaiy oeai e iauaiia i?iaeaae:TR= P * Q;MR - (Marginal Revenue) - i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae, oi anoue i?e?ino aaeiaiai aeioiaea, i?eoiaeyuaainy ia aaeeieoeo i?e?inoa iauaia i?iaeaae:MR= ( TR / ( Q.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 25 . Oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth eiieo?aioiie oe?iuAeey oe?i, inouanoaeythueo i?aaeeiaeaiea ia niaa?oaiii eiieo?aioiuo ?uieao, ni?in ia eo oiaa?u i?aaenoaaeyaony eae ia caaenyuee io eo nianoaaiiuo iauaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey.Eiieo?aioiua oe?iu n/eoathony oeaiiiieo/aoaeyie, oae eae oeaia ia eo oiaa?u oi?ie?oaony ia iniiaa acaeiiaeaenoaey anao oe?i, aeaenoaothueo a aeaiiie io?anee.Neieueei au i?iaeoeoeee ia iinoaaeyea oe?ia ia ?uiie, oeaia (P*) ioaeaeueiie aaeeieoeu aoaeao aaee/eiie iinoiyiiie. Niioaaonoaaiii, aeioiae, iieo/aaiue oe?iie io i?iecaiaenoaa e iinoaaee ia ?uiie aeiiieieoaeueiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee (i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae, MR) aoaeao oaeaea aaee/eiie iinoiyiiie, ?aaiie oeaia aaeeieoeu oiaa?a:MR = ( (P*Q) / ( Q = (P * ( Q) / ( Q = P;MR = POaeei ia?acii, o eiieo?aioiie oe?iu inoaaony oieueei iaeei ia?aiao?, eioi?ue iiaeao eciaieoue aaee/eio i?eauee: iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee. Aeey auyaeaiey iioeiaeueiiai iauaia i?aaeeiaeaiey, iicaieythuaai iaeneiece?iaaoue i?eaueue, aoaeai eniieueciaaoue i?aaeaeueiue aiaeec.Niiinoaaei aaee/eiu i?aaeaeueiiai aeioiaea e i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae aeey ?aciuo iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa. I/aaeaeii, iinoaaeyoue ia ?uiie aeiiieieoaeueioth aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee eiaao niune i?e oneiaee, /oi ecaea?aeee aoaeoo iie?uaaoueny aeioiaeii, oi anoue ?uii/iie oeaiie i?iaeoeoeee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aei oao ii?, iiea i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee ia n?aaiythony n ?uii/iie oeaiie iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeyoue iinoaaeo i?iaeoeoeee.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 26 . ?aaiiaanea a oneiaeyo niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee.?anniio?ei aieaa aeaoaeueii ninoiyiea ?aaiiaaney eiieo?e?othuae oe?iu. Aeey yoiai ia?aoeiny e aiaeeco n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae e eo niiinoaaeaieth n ?uii/iie oeaiie oiaa?a. Caeanue aiciiaeiu o?e aa?eaioa ?aoaiey:a). Anee ?uii/iay oeaia (P) neiaeeeanue ia o?iaia, eioi?ue iicaieyao oe?ia iie?uaaoue niaieoiiua n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee (ATC) i?e aeaiiii (Q0) iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, neaaeiaaoaeueii, io eaaeaeie iinoaaeaiiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee oe?ia iieo/aao i?eaueue, a i?iecaiaenoai a iauaia Q0 iaania/eaaao iaeneiecaoeeth i?eauee.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 27 . Iaeneiecaoeey i?eauee eiieo?aioiie oe?iiea). Anee ?uii/iay oeaia (P) neiaeeeanue ia o?iaia, iaiueoai niaieoiiuo n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae (AON), ii aieueoai ia?aiaiiuo n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae (AVC), oi iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeyoue i?iecaiaenoai a iauaia Q0.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 28 . Ieieiecaoeey oauoeia eiieo?aioiie oe?iieAnee oe?ia ia aoaeao inouanoaeyoue i?aaeeiaeaiea a yoeo oneiaeyo e i?ae?aoeo i?iecaiaenoai, aa oauoee aoaeoo aieueoa ia aaee/eio (P0 - AVC0) * Q0. I?iecaiaenoai a aeaiiii iauaia aoaeao iaania/eaaoue ieieiecaoeeth oauoeia: aeioiaeu aoaeoo iieiinoueth iie?uaaoue ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee e /anoe/ii iinoiyiiua. Anee i?aaeeiaeaiea ia inouanoaeyoue, oi oauoee, iiianaiiua oe?iie, aoaeoo aieueoa: iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee ia aoaeoo iiea/aiu ie ia eiiaeeo.a). Anee aea oeaia (?) ia iie?uaaao aeaaea ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae, oi oe?ia aoaeao ieieiece?iaaoue oauoee, i?ae?aoea i?aaeeiaeaiea. Oiaaea oauoeaie aoaeao aaee/eia iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae.I?ae?auaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey eiieo?aioiie oe?iieAiaeec ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiaaaeaiea eiieo?aioiie oe?iu - yoi iaeiia?aiaiii e iainiiaaiea caeiia i?aaeeiaeaiey: auaeaeea ana oi/ee iauaia i?aaeeiaeaiey, iaania/eaathuaai iaeneiecaoeeth i?eauee eee ieieiecaoeeth oauoeia, iu iieo/aai e?aoein?i/ioth e?eaoth i?aaeeiaeaiey oe?iu.E?aoein?i/iay e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey oe?iu iieacuaaao eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ia aoaeao i?aaeeaaaoue oe?ia i?e eaaeaeii cia/aiee oeaiu, /oiau iaeneiece?iaaoue i?eaueue (ieieiece?iaaoue oauoee).?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 29 . E?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey eiieo?aioiie oe?iu a ei?ioeii ia?eiaeaIaiiiiei, /oi aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae a aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu - yoi a?aiaiiie eioa?aae, ia eioi?ii oe?ia iiaeao eciaieoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe, iieiinoueth cae?uoue i?iecaiaenoai eee i?aaieciaaoue niaa?oaiii iiaia.Aiaeec iiaaaeaiey eiieo?aioiie oe?iu a aeeeoaeueiii ia?eiaea (?acia?aoue naiinoiyoaeueii: Iaeeiiiaee E.,, A?th N. Yeiiiieen: I?eioeeiu, i?iaeaia e iieeoeea. O.2, n. 79- 84) iieacuaaao, /oi eiieo?e?othuay oe?ia inouanoaeyao i?aaeeiaeaiea ia aeieaia?aiaiiii eioa?aaea a iauaia, niioaaonoaothuai ieieioio n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae.Oaeei ia?acii, iauaa oneiaea ?aaiiaaney eiieo?aioiie oe?iu iiaeao auoue iienaii neaaeothuei ?aaainoaii:P = MC = ATCYoi niioiioaiea iicaieyao naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu:Aeayoaeueiinoue eiieo?aioiie oe?iu oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiie yooaeoeaiinoueth.?aaiiaanea oe?iu i?e niaethaeaiee ?aaainoaa P=ATC icia/aao, /oi eiieo?aioiue i?iecaiaeeoaeue anaaaea no?aieony e i?iecaiaenoao n ieieiaeueiuie cao?aoaie ?ano?nia, oi anoue no?aieony e i?iecaiaenoao iaeiaiaa aei?iainoiyuei niiniaii.Eiieo?aioiay oe?ia iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii ?ani?aaeaeyao ?ano?nu, i?eiaiyy eo a i?iecaiaenoaa aeaa a oii iauaia, eioi?ue niioaaonoaoao iauanoaaiiui iio?aaiinoyi.Ecaea?aeee, eniieueciaaiiua a i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai oiaa?a, iiaee au iieoe ia ecaioiaeaiea e i?aaeeiaeaiea ae?oaeo aeaa .?aaainoai P=MC oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi i?iecaiaeeoaeue eniieuecoao ia i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa ?ano?nu oieueei aei oao ii?, iiea iio?aaeoaee aioiau iiea/eaaoue aai ecaea?aeee.Anee au i?aaeeiaeaiea inouanoaeyeinue a iauaiao, niioaaonoaothueo ia?aaainoao PMC, yoi icia/aei au
iaaeinoaoi/iia iai?aaeaiea ?ano?nia ia i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiiai oiaa?a.
Oeaia ni?ina, io?aaeathuay i?aaeaeueioth iieaciinoue, aieueoay
i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, iiaeneacuaaao i?iecaiaeeoaeth, /oi iio?aaeoaee
aioiau ieaoeoue ca aeiiieieoaeueiia eiee/anoai eiaiii yoiai oiaa?a.

2. Oneiaea iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee iiiiiieenoii

?aaiiaanea oe?iu a oneiaeyo iiiiiieenoe/aneiai ?uiea ioee/aaony io
?aaiiaaney eiieo?aioiie oe?iu. Iiiiiieeno yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui
noauaeoii, inouanoaeythuei i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ?uiea aeaiiiai oiaa?a.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiciiaeiinoe aeeyiey iiiiiieenoa ia ?uii/ioth
eiiuthieoo?o cia/eoaeueiu.

Iiiiiieey iicaieyao aeeeoiaaoue ?uii/ioth oeaio, ii onoaiiaeaiea oeai
iiiiiieenoii i?ienoiaeeo a niioaaonoaee n ?uii/iui ni?inii.

E?eaay ni?ina ia i?iaeoeo iiiiiieenoa – ienoiaeyuay eeiey.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 30 . Ni?in e i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae
iiiiiieenoa

Anee iiaue iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey (Q2) oieueei ia iaeio aaeeieoeo aieueoa
i?aaeaea i?aaeeaaaaoaainy iauaia (Q1), oi aeiiieieoaeueii iieo/aaiue
aeioiae (MR) aoaeao iaiueoa iiaie oeaiu oiaa?a (P2), oae eae e aanue
i?aaeuaeouee iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eaeaony ?aaeeciaaoue ii aieaa ieceie
oeaia P2..

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 31 . E?eaua ni?ina e i?aaeaeueiiai
aeioiaea iiiiiieenoa

Oneiaea ?aaiiaaney:

MR = IN

Iii nio?aiyaony e aeey iiiiiieenoa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oe?ia ?aciiii
i?aaeeaaaoue aeiiieieoaeueioth aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoa oieueei i?e oneiaee
iieo/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiiai aeioiaea ia o?iaia, ia iaiueoai, /ai
i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee.

a). ?anniio?ei ?aaiiaanea iiiiiieenoa, iicaieythuaa aio iaeneiece?iaaoue
i?eaueue a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea. Aoaeai enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi
ecaea?aeee iiiiiieenoa ia ioee/athony io ecaea?aeae eiieo?aioiiai
i?iecaiaeeoaey.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 32 . Iaeneiecaoeey i?eauee
iiiiiieenoii.

?aaiiaanea iiiiiieenoa eioa?i?aoe?oaony oi/eie Am. I?e Qm oe?ia –
iiiiiieeno iaeneiece?oao i?eaueue. I?iaeoeoeey ?aaeecoaony ii oeaia Pm.
Iineieueeo a aeaiiii neo/aa ATCm < Pm , oi i?eaueue, en/eneaiiay ii oi?ioea Pr = (Pm - ATCm) * Qm i?eieiaao iieiaeeoaeueiua cia/aiey.a). A e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea iiaeao neo/eoueny oae, /oi iiiiiieeno aoaeao auioaeaeai inouanoaeyoue i?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?ia, /oiau ieieiece?iaaoue oauoee.Yoi iiaeao i?iecieoe a neo/aa, anee niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ?uii/iie oeaiie e ecaea?aeeaie a oi/ea ?aaiiaaney iienuaaaony ia?aaainoaii: AVCm < Pm ( ATCm. Anee iiiiiieeno ia aoaeao inouanoaeyoue i?aaeeiaeaiea a yoeo oneiaeyo e i?ae?aoeo i?iecaiaenoai, aai oauoee aoaeoo aieueoa ia aaee/eio (Pm - AVCm) * Qm. Oaeei ia?acii, oe?ia - iiiiiieeno ieieiece?oao oauoee, i?iecaiaey a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea iauai Qm.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 33 . Ieieiecaoeey oauoeia iiiiiieenoii3. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey iiiiiieee. Aioeiiiiiieueiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa.A n?aaiaiee n eiieo?aioiie oe?iie ?aaiiaanea iiiiiieenoa iaiaa yooaeoeaii.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 34 . N?aaiaiea ?aaiiaaney iiiiiieenoa n ?aaiiaaneai eiieo?aioiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeaeIioa?e a yooaeoeaiinoe ec-ca iiiiiieecia, eae aeaeii ec a?aoeea, neaaeothuea:Iiiiiieeno “iaaei?ani?aaeaeyao” ?ano?nu: Pm > MC. I?aaeaeueiay
iieaciinoue i?iaeoeoa, au?aaeaiiay aai oeaiie, i?aainoiaeeo i?aaeaeueiua
ecaea?aeee. ?aaiiaaniue iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey iiiiiieenoa, iaania/eaathuee
aio iaeneioi i?eauee, ieaea i?aaeeiaeaiey eiieo?e?othuae oe?iu: Qm > Qc.

I?e iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee iiiiiieeno ia ieieiece?oao ecaea?aeee (ATCm >
ATCmin).

I?e aiaeeca iiaaaeaiey iiiiiieenoa iu enoiaeeee ec oiai, /oi ecaea?aeee
oe?iu-iiiiiieenoa ia ioee/athony io ecaea?aeae eiieo?e?othuae oe?iu.

Iaeioi?ay eiiiainaoeey iioa?ue a yooaeoeaiinoe i?ienoiaeeo ec-ca oiai,
/oi iiiiiieey – /aua anaai e?oiiia i?iecaiaenoai, e iiiiiieeno eiaao
yeiiiieth ecaea?aeae aeaaiaea?y iieiaeeoaeueiiio yooaeoo ianooaaa.

Iaeiaei anoue oaeoi?u, i?aiyonoaothuea ieieiecaoeee ecaea?aeae
iiiiiieenoa:

?anoiaeu ia iiaeaea?aeaiea iiiiiieenoe/aneeo aa?uea?ia;

ionoonoaea oa?icu eiieo?aioeee.

Iaeiei ec iaaeaeaoaeueiuo i?iyaeaiee iiiiiieecia yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea
aeaiieiaiauo oeai, eioi?ia eniieuecoaony aeey oiai, /oiau auoanieoue
aiciiaeiuo eiieo?aioia.

A neeo iaaeaeaoaeueiuo aeey yeiiiieee e iauanoaa iioa?ue io iiiiiieecia
ana nia?aiaiiua ainoaea?noaa i?iaiaeyo aioeiiiiiieueioth iieeoeeo.

Ia/aei ainoaea?noaaiiiio ?aaoee?iaaieth iiiiiieecia auei iieiaeaii a
NOA: a 1890 aiaeo a Aia?eea aue i?eiyo Aioeo?anoianeee caeii Oa?iaia. A
iineaaeothuai a NOA e ae?oaeo no?aiao n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie
aioeiiiiiieueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?acaeaaeinue e naaiaeiy
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio oiieie iano?ieee yeiiiieee ia yooaeoeaiia
?acaeoea.

Ieaiiaay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia niinianoaiaaea oi?ie?iaaieth iiiiiieecia
a ianooaaao anae iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee auaoaai NNN?. I?iaeaiu
ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie nenoaia oicyenoaa nouanoaaiii iaino?aiu o ian a
nayce n yoeie aeaaioneeie ianooaaaie iiiiiieecia.

Iiae aioeiiiiiieueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iiaeiaaeatho neaaeothuea
aeaenoaey:

iiiiiieecaoeey ?uiea yaiui ii?acii;

oeene?iaaiea oeai;

neeyiea eiiiaiee, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai aiciiaeia iiiiiieecaoeey

?uiea;

ia?aieaoathueany aee?aeoi?aou, anee a niaieoiiinoe AI iiaoo
aeiieie?iaaoue ia ?uiea;

inouanoaeaiea oeaiiaie aeene?eieiaoeee (aeeooa?aioeeaoeee oeai, ia
iaoneiaeaiiie ?acee/eyie a ecaea?aeeao);

naycaiiua e eneeth/eoaeueiua eiio?aeou.

Aa?aioey ainoaea?noaaiiie caueou eiieo?aioeee cae?aieaia a Eiinoeoooeee
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee 1993 a.

A 1991 aiaeo a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aue i?eiyo Caeii “I eiieo?aioeee e
ia?aie/aiee iiiiiieenoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao”.

Caeii cai?auaao oaeea aeaenoaey, eae:

i?eiyoea aeoia, ia?aie/eaathueo naiinoiyoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeae
i?e i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee;

ecuyoea oiaa?ia ec ia?auaiey aeey nicaeaiey eee iiaeaea?aeaiey
aeaoeoeeoa ia ?uiea, eeai iiauoaiey oeai;

nicaeaiea i?aiyonoaee aeinooio ia ?uiie (auoiaeo n ?uiea) ae?oaei
oicyenoaothuei noauaeoai;

aeeth/aiea a aeiaiai? aeene?eieie?othueo oneiaee, eioi?ua noaayo
eiio?aaaioa a ia?aaiia iieiaeaiea ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie
oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie;

ioeac io caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?ia n ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?iaeaaoeaie eee
iieoiaoaeyie;

?acaeae ?uiea ii oa??eoi?eaeueiiio i?eioeeio, ii anni?oeiaioo
i?iecaiaeeiuo oiaa?ia, eeai ii e?oao i?iaeaaoeia eee iieoiaoaeae

ae?oaea.

?aaeecaoeey aioeiiiiiieueiie iieeoeee auea aiceiaeaia ia AEAI ?O
(Ainoaea?noaaiiue Aioeiiiiiieueiue Eiieoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee).

A aai ooieoeee aoiaeeo:

eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai aioeiiiiiieueiuo o?aaiaaiee i?e nicaeaiee,
?ai?aaiecaoeee e eeeaeaeaoeee oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia;

au?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?aaiai aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey i i?iaaaeaiee
ia?ii?eyoee, niinianoaothueo iiaeaea?aeaieth eiieo?aioeee;

?ac?aaioea e inouanoaeaiea ia? ii aeaiiiiiieecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
ia?auaiey;

eiio?ieue ca e?oiiuie i?iaeaaeaie e iieoieaie aeoeee, eioi?ua iiaoo
i?eaanoe e aeiieie?othuaio iieiaeaieth oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia.

Aeiieie?othuei i?eciaaony iieiaeaiea oe?iu, aeiey eioi?ie ia ?uiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?a i?aauoaao aaee/eio, onoaiaaeeaaaioth aaeaaiaeii
AEAI ?O, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, eiaaea oicyenoaothuee noauaeo
aeieaaeao, /oi ianiio?y ia i?aauoaiea i?aaeaeueiie aaee/eiu, aai
iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea ia yaeyaony aeiieie?othuei. Aeiieie?othuei ia iiaeao
auoue i?eciaii iieiaeaiea oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa, aeiey eioi?iai ia
?uiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?a ia i?aauoaao 35 %.

A aioeiiiiiieueiii Caeiia i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aai
ia?ooaiey:

i?eioaeeoaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia;

i?eiaiaiea oo?aoiuo naieoeee;

?aaoee?iaaiea oeai e oa?eoia anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee;

oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue (a e?aeieo neo/ayo).

Oeaiiaay iieeoeea anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee ?aaoee?oaony oa?eoiuie
eiienneyie. Aeey eeethno?aoeee iioeaia ii?aaeaeaiey oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth
anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieenoia ?anniio?ei ?enoiie.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 35 . ?aaoee?iaaiea oeai anoanoaaiiuo
iiiiiieee

R: Onoaiiaeaiea iauanoaaiii iioeiaeueiie oeaiu: PR=IN. Iauanoaaiii
iioeiaeueiay oeaia auciaao yooaeoeaiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia, ii
iiaeao i?eaanoe e aicieeiiaaieth oauoeia, iie?uoea eioi?uo aeieaeii
acyoue ia naay ainoaea?noai.

F: Onoaiiaeaiea oeaiu, iaania/eaathuae “ni?aaaaeeeaoth” i?eaueue: oeaia,
onoaiiaeaiiay ec niioiioaiey PF=ATN iicaieyao iiiiiieee iie?uaaoue
ecaea?aeee e iieo/aoue ii?iaeueioth i?eaueue.

Nouanoaotho o?oaeiinoe a ?aaeecaoeee aioeiiiiiieueiie iieeoeee a oeaeii.
Iie naycaiu n eiee/anoaaiiui ii?aaeaeaieai iiiiiieee, a oaeaea n
iaaeinoaoi/iie yooaeoeaiinoueth ?aaoee?iaaiey, aunieeie cao?aoaie ia
inouanoaeaiea ?aaoee?othueo aicaeaenoaee.

Aeaaa 6. ?uiee oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia.
Ca?aaioiay ieaoa

Aii?inu:

Ni?in ia yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu.

?uiie o?oaea e ca?aaioiay ieaoa.

Iiiiiieeci ia ?uiea o?oaea. Aeayoaeueiinoue i?ionithcia a oneiaeyo
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa.

1. Ni?in ia yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu

Iu ia?aoiaeei e ?anniio?aieth ?uieia yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia (oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa). Caeanue i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee naeoi? aunooiaao a ?iee
iieoiaoaey e i?aaeuyaeyao ni?in ia yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu, a
aeiiioicyenoaa yaeythony i?iaeaaoeaie ia?ae/iuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oaeoi?ia: o?oaea, caiee, eaieoaea, inouanoaeytho eo i?aaeeiaeaiea.

Iu aeiioneaai ii?aaeaeaiiia oi?iuaiea, ?acaeaeyy ?iee aeiiioicyenoa e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo oe?i ia ?uiea ?ano?nia. Ecaanoii, /oi iiiaea aeaeu
oiaa?ia e oneoa i?iecaiaeyony e iio?aaeythony oieueei
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei naeoi?ii. E iei ioiinyony: noaeue,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea, eiiieaeoothuea ecaeaeey, oaoiieiaee e
o.i. Oaeea oiaa?u e oneoae i?eiyoi iacuaaoue i?iiaaeooi/iuie
i?iaeoeoaie, a ioee/ea io eiia/iuo i?iaeoeoia, eioi?ua ?aaeecothony
iio?aaeoaeyi.

Aiaeec ?uieia ?ano?nia aeooaeai ii oie i?e/eia, /oi ia?aciaaiea oeai ia
yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu – yoi iaeiia?aiaiii e ii?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia
aeaaeaeueoeaa oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, oi anoue aeioiaeia anao
yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia, i?aeoe/anee – aaniethoiiai aieueoeinoaa
ianaeaiey.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a aeaiiie oaia iu ?anniao?eaaai ooieoeeiiaeueiia
?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia, iee?iyeiiiie/aneea iioeau eo oi?ie?iaaiey.
Eiia/iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia a iauanoaa naycaii n
iae?iyeiiiie/aneeie oaeoi?aie, aeayoaeueiinoueth ainoaea?noaa ii
?aaeecaoeee ooieoeee ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Iiyoiio aii?inu ?ani?aaeaeaiey
aeioiaeia aoaeoo iiaeieiaoueny iaie oaeaea e a ?acaeaea
“Iae?iyeiiiieea”.

Oeaiu ia yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu aunooiatho a neaaeothueo iniiaiuo oi?iao:

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa oeaia o?oaea

?aioa oeaia ca eniieueciaaiea caiee e ae?oaeo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia

I?ioeaio oeaia, oiea/eaaaiay ca eniieueciaaiea aeaiaa, eaieoaea

I?eaueue oeaia inouanoaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo ooieoeee.

I?aaeaea /ai aiaeece?iaaoue i?iaeaio oi?ie?iaaiey aeioiaeia, ioiaoei
aaaeioth eeanneoeeaoeeth aeioiaeia, eo aeaeaiea ia iiieiaeueiua, /enoua
e ?aaeueiua:

iiieiaeueiue aeioiae – yoi iauay noiia iieo/aiiuo aeaiaa;

?aniieaaaaiue, eee /enoue aeioiae – yoi inoaoie io iiieiaeueiie noiiu
iinea auieaou iaeiaia;

?aaeueiue aeioiae- /enoue aeioiae n iii?aaeie ia eciaiaiea oeai.

Aaaeiui naienoaii yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia yaeyaony eo
acaeiicaiaiyaiinoue. Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey
?acee/iuo yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia eee ?aciiia?acey eo ni/aoaiey i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa aeaa. Iai?eia?, i?e au?aueaaiee iaiuae iiaeao auoue
i?eiaiai ?o/iie o?oae eee eniieueciaaia oaoieea, aiciiaeii ni/aoaiea
yoeo oaeoi?ia: eniieueciaaiea /anoe/iie iaoaiecaoeee.

Ni?in ia yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu yaeyaony i?iecaiaeiui. Ii caaeneo io
ni?ina ia eiia/iua oiaa?u e oneoae, ii?iaeaeaaony iio?aaeoaeueneei
ni?inii. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu i?eia?aoathony oieueei a oie ia?a, a
eaeie iie iaiaoiaeeiu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iio?aaeoaeueneeo aeaa.
Iiieiaiea yoiai oaeoa aaaeii eae aeey iniciaiey oneiaee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, oae e aeey inouanoaeaiey
yooaeoeaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.

Ia?aiia/aeueii iu ?anniio?ei eiieo?aioiua ?uiee oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.
Yoi ?uiee, ia eioi?uo eiaaony aieueoia /enei iieoiaoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia
yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia, i?e/ai ioaeaeueiue i?iaeaaaoe e iieoiaoaeue ia
iiaeao iiaeeyoue ia oeaiu, ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ?ano?nia.

Ia/iai n aiaeeca ni?ina ia yeiiiie/aneee ?ano?n ioaeaeueiuo oe?i, oae
eae ?uii/iue ni?in anoue niaieoiiue, noiia?iue ni?in, i?aaeuyaeyaiue
oe?iaie.

I?e aiaeeca ni?ina ia ?ano?n iu aoaeai, a iniiaiii, iie?aoueny ia
i?eia?u ii ?uieo o?oaea. Ii auaiaeu, iieo/aiiua i?e aiaeeca ni?ina ia
o?oae, ni?aaaaeeeau e aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ni?ina ia ae?oaea oaeoi?u
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaoiaeieiae/aneie iniiaie aiaeeca ni?ina ia ?ano?nu yaeyaony oai?ey
i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, ?ac?aaioaiiay Aeae.A. Eea?eii e
?acaeoay A.Ia?oaeeii e ae?.

Aeey aiaeeca ni?ina ia ?ano?nu aniiiiei oauaathuae ioaea/e. Aai nooue
ninoieo a oii, /oi aeiiieieoaeueii i?eiaiyaiua cao?aou iaeiiai oaeoi?a
i?e iaeciaiiii eiee/anoaa ae?oaeo aeatho ana iaiueoee iauai
aeiiieieoaeueiie i?iaeoeoeee e niaieoiiiai aeioiaea.

Ii-i?aaeiaio eniieuecoai iaicia/aiea MP aeey i?aaeaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa,
i?iecaaaeaiiiai iiiiuueth aeiiieieoaeueiie aaeeieoeu ?ano?na X: MP = (
TP / ( X.

Anee a ea/anoaa ?ano?na ?anniao?eaaaony o?oae (L), oi oi?ioea
i?eia?aoaao aeae: MP L = ( TP / ( L.

I?eieiay ?aoaiea i iaeia aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?aaioieea, oe?ia enoiaeeo ec
oiai, /oiau aeioiae, iieo/aiiue ath i?e yoii aue ia ieaea ecaea?aeae,
eioi?ua iia ianao ii iaeio.

Aaaaeai iaicia/aiea:

MRP – Marginal revenue product – i?aaeaeueiay aeioiaeiinoue ?ano?na,
aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae, eioi?ue iieo/aao oe?ia io aiaea/aiey
aeiaaai/iie aaeeieoeu ?ano?na a i?iecaiaenoai.

MRP = ( TR / ( X.

I?aaeaeueioth aeioiaeiinoue o?oaea iaicia/ei MRPL:

MRPL = ( TR / ( L.

Iineieueeo i?e?ino aaeiaiai aeioiaea naycai eae n i?aaeaeueiui
aeioiaeii, oae e n i?e?inoii iauaiia nicaeaiiiai i?e iiiiue ?ano?na
i?iaeoeoa, oi

MRP = MR * MP , eee MRPL= MR * MPL

I?aaeaeueiay aeioiaeiinoue ?ano?na yaeyaony oauaathuae, oi anoue n
?inoii ianooaaia aiaea/aiey ?ano?nia a i?iecaiaenoai aeiiieieoaeueiue
aeioiae nieaeaaony.

Yoi iaoneiaeaii neaaeothueie i?e/eiaie:

Aeaenoaeai caeiia oauaathuae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

Oai, /oi i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae eiieo?aioiie oe?iu anoue aaee/eia
iinoiyiiay e ?aaiay oeaia i?iaeoeoa, a i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae
ianiaa?oaiiiai eiieo?aioa oauaaao, i?e/ai neeaaeuaaaony ia aieaa ieceii,
ii n?aaiaieth n oeaiie, o?iaia.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 36 . Ni?in ia o?oae ni noi?iiu
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie oe?iu

I?aaeaeueiay aeioiaeiinoue ?ano?na iieacuaaao, neieueei oe?ia aioiaa
caieaoeoue ca iaai aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?aai/aai (i?eaea/aiea
aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?ano?na).

Oaeei ia?acii, iaeneiece?ouei i?eaueue oneiaeai ni?ina ia o?oae
yaeyaony:

W=MRPL=MR * MPL (1)

Yoi – oneiaea, oa?aeoa?ecothuaa iioeiaeueioth /eneaiiinoue caiyouo.

E?eaay mrpl oa?aeoa?ecoao ni?in oe?iu ia ?ano?n (o?oae).

Anee iaicia/eoue K – eaieoae, T – caiey, a rK e rT – aeioiaeu io caiee e
eaieoaea niioaaonoaaiii, oi

rK =MR * MPK (2)

rT =MR * MPT (3)

Ec ?aaainoa 1,2 e 3 neaaeoao oneiaea iioeiaeueiiai ni/aoaiey ?ano?nia:

W/MPL = rK/MPK = rT/MPT = MR=MC (4)

Aeey ieieiecaoeee ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa i?e ethaii aeaiiii iauaia
auionea ioiioaiea ecaea?aeae eniieueciaaiey oaeoi?a e aaee/eia aai
i?iaeoeoa aeieaeii auoue iaeeiaeiai aeey anao oaeoi?ia e ?aaii
i?aaeaeueiiio aeioiaeo. Aeey iaeneiece?othuae i?eaueue oe?iu iii
aeieaeii auoue, e?iia oiai, ?aaii i?aaeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai.

Yoi oneiaea eniieuecoaony i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee i eiiaeiaoeee oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa, iai?eia?, i?e ?aoaiee aii?inia i caiauaiee o?oaea
eaieoaeii. Iii aea iicaieyao iauynieoue oaeo aieaa oe?ieiai
eniieueciaaiey o?oaea a no?aiao n aeaoaaie ?aai/ae neeie.

Aianoa n oai ec ?aaainoaa (4) neaaeoao, /oi eaaeaeue ec aeaaeaeueoeaa
yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia iieo/aao aeioiae, ?aaiue aai aeeaaeo a aeioiae
oe?iu.

Eciaiaiea ni?ina ia ?ano?nu eioa?i?aoe?oaony a?aoe/anee eae naeaea
e?eaie ni?ina aeaai (nieaeaiea ni?ina) e ai?aai (oaaee/aiea ni?ina).

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 37 . Eciaiaiea ni?ina ia o?oae

I?e/eiaie eciaiaiee ni?ina ia o?oae yaeythony neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:

ni?in ia i?iaeoeoeeth oe?iu. *ai aieueoa ni?in ia oiaa?u, oai auoa ni?in
ia o?oae;

eciaiaiea oeai ia ae?oaea ?ano?nu:

anee ?anoao oeaia ia caiauathuee ?ano?n (iai?eia?, ia iai?oaeiaaiea,
caiaiythuaa ?o/iie o?oae), iiauoaaony ni?in ia aeaiiue;

anee ?anoao oeaia ia aeiiieiythuee ?ano?n (iai?eia?, ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth,
eniieuecoaioth a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna), oi nieaeaaony ni?in ia
aeaiiue ?ano?n.

eciaiaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe (ioaea/e) ?ano?na i?e iaeciaiiinoe
ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia: ?ino ioaea/e aaaeao e ?inoo ni?ina ia ?ano?n e
iaiai?io.

A caeeth/aiea eceiaeaiey i?iaeaiu ni?ina ia ?ano?n oeaaeai, /oi ?uii/iue
ni?in ia ?ano?n anoue noiia iauaiia ni?ina ia ?ano?n ni noi?iiu anao
oe?i i?e eaaeaeie aeaiiie oeaia ia iaai.

2. ?uiie o?oaea e ca?aaioiay ieaoa

A yoii aii?ina iu ?anniio?ei iniiau oi?ie?iaaiey oeaiu o?oaea, oi anoue
ca?aaioiie ieaou. ?uii/iia oi?ie?iaaiea ?aaiiaaniie noaaee ca?aaioiie
ieaou icia/aao acaeiiaeaenoaea nee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia o?oae.
Iiyoiio ia?aoeiny oaia?ue e aiaeeco i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea.

?uii/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea ethaiai ?ano?na iau/ii iaoiaeeony a i?yiie
caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy oeai ia ?ano?n, oi anoue e?eaay ?uii/iiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey iau/ii yaeyaony ainoiaeyuae. Ii ia ?uiea o?oaea
i?iaeaaoeaie yaeythony ia oe?iu, no?aiyueany iaeneiece?iaaoue i?eaueue,
a ethaee, no?aiyueany e iaeneiaeueiiio oaeiaeaoai?aieth naieo
iio?aaiinoae ( a ia oieueei aeioiaea).

Oeie/iie e?eaie i?aaeeiaeaiey yaeyaony ainoiaeyuay eeiey, /oi naycaii n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ioaea/aiey iaieiaaiiai ?aaioieea io ae?oaeo aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe iooai auieaou aieaa aunieie ca?ieaou. Ii nouanoaotho e
ia?aoiua e?eaua i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea. Ia ieo io?aaeaaony aeueoa?iaoeaa –
aeinoa, eioi?ue auae?atho iaaiiua ?aaioieee i?e aeinoaoi/ii aunieii
o?iaia iieaou o?oaea.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 38 . E?eaua i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea

Noaoenoeea iieacuaaao, /oi ?uii/iua e?eaua i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea eiatho
oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo: a oeaeii i?aaeeiaeaiea oneoa o?oaea ?anoao ii ia?a
?inoa n?aaeiae ca?aaioiie ieaou.

?aaiiaaniay noaaea ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou e ?aaiiaaniue iauai
caiyoinoe aeinoeaathony i?e ia?ana/aiee e?eauo ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia
o?oae.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 39 . Oi?ie?iaaiea ?aaiiaaniie noaaee
ca?aaioiie ieaou ia eiieo?aioiii ?uiea o?oaea

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa – yoi oaeie aeae oeaiu ?ano?nia, eioi?ue eiaao
aeeciaiii aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea.

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa yaeyaony iniiaiui aeaeii aeioiaeia ianaeaiey a
nia?aiaiiuo no?aiao. 90 % ianaeaiey NOA iieo/atho eae iniiaiie aeioiae
ca?aaioioth ieaoo. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa – yoi cao?aou i?iecaiaeeoaeae ia
i?eaea/aiea ?aai/ae neeu, iia ninoaaeyao iniiaioth /anoue ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa – 75 %.

Nouanoaotho cia/eoaeueiua ?acee/ey a iieaoa o?oaea. Iie naycaiu ni
neaaeothueie i?e/eiaie:

?acee/iui o?iaiai eaaeeoeeaoeee e ia?aciaaiey;

?acee/iuie oneiaeyie e i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoueth o?oaea;

?aaeiiaeueiuie oaeoi?aie e ae?oaea.

A oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiie ?innee anoue naie iniaaiiinoe e i?iaeaiu
oi?ie?iaaiey oeaiu o?oaea:

aieaa ieceee o?iaaiue iieaou o?oaea ii n?aaiaieth ni no?aiaie n ?acaeoie
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. Yoi naycaii n ioiineoaeueii ieceie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth o?oaea, ieceei nicaeaaaaiui o?oaeii i?aaeaeueiui
i?iaeoeoii;

ii?aaeaeaiiay e cia/eoaeueiay /anoue oiiaea ca?aaioiie ieaou eiaao o
ian, ii nouanoao, nianai eiia niaea?aeaiea, /ai aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca
o?oae. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa auiea/eaaaony ii nioeeaeueiui iioeaai, a ia ii
?aaeueiie ioaea/a o?oaea. Yoi, nei?aa, iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea, iniaaiii
a neo/ayo auioaeaeaiiiai aeieaia?aiaiiiai i?inoiy i?iecaiaenoaa;

ianaiaa?aiaiiay auieaoa ca?aaioiie ieaou a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee
iaanoeaieaaao ?aaeueiua aeioiaeu ianaeaiey. A naia iaauieaoa a n?ie
ca?aaioiie ieaou iicaieyao ioiineoue ?aaioieeia, aa ia iieo/aaoei, e
eaoaai?ee aac?aaioiuo ii eeanneoeeaoeee Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie I?aaiecaoeee
O?oaea (IIO).

3. Iiiiiieeci ia ?uiea o?oaea. Aeayoaeueiinoue i?ionithcia a oneiaeyo
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa.

A neo/ayo, eiaaea ia eaeii-eeai ?uiea o?oaea iniiaiui iaieiaoaeai
?aaioieeia aeaiiie niaoeeaeueiinoe yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiay oe?ia,
aicieeaao neooaoeey, eioi?oth i?eiyoi iacuaaoue iiiiiniieae (iiiiiieeae
iaeiiai iieoiaoaey).

I?e yoii iaieiaoaeue iiaeao aeeeoiaaoue naie oneiaey aeaiiiio ?uieo
o?oaea, oi anoue ii?aaeaeyao noaaeo ca?aaioiie ieaou, niia?acoynue n
nianoaaiiuie eioa?anaie iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi
iiiiiniieno iaeneiece?oao i?eaueue, auiea/eaay n?aaeithth ca?aaioioth
ieaoo ieaea, /ai eiieo?aioiue iaieiaoaeue, e i?eaeaeay ioiineoaeueii
iaiueoaa eiee/anoai ?aaioieeia.

Aeayoaeueiinoue i?ionithcia oaeaea ii?iaeaeaao iiiiiieeci ia ?uiea
o?oaea, ii oaea ni noi?iiu iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia, i?aaeeaaathueo naith
?aai/oth neeo ia ?uiea o?oaea.

Eae i?aaeei, aeaenoaey i?ionithcia inouanoaeythony a neaaeothueo
iniiaiuo iai?aaeaieyo:

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 40 . I?ionithcu ia ?uiea o?oaea

Iiauoaiea ni?ina ia o?oae (1) iaeaieaa aeaeaoaeueii, oae eae i?e yoii
aeinoeaaaony eae oaaee/aiea caiyoinoe, oae e ?ino noaaee ca?aaioiie
ieaou. I?ionithcai oaeaaony yoiai aeiaeoueny /a?ac neaaeothuea
aeaenoaey:

Noeioee?iaaiea ni?ina ia i?iaeoeo.

?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Iiaeaea?aeeo iieeoeee ieceeo oeai ia aeiiieiythuea o?oae ?ano?nu:
yeaeo?iyia?aeth, ae?oaea n?aaenoaa e oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ana oi?iu noeioee?iaaiey ni?ina ia o?oae o?oaeii ?aaeecoaiu, e iiyoiio
i?ionithcu /aua eniieuecotho ?aaoee?iaaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea (2).
Ia?aie/aiey i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea oaeaaony aeiaeoueny i?e ?aaeecaoeee
neaaeothueo ia?:

Onoaiiaeaiea eiiea?aoeeiiiuo aa?uea?ia.

Onoaiiaeaiea iaeneiaeueiie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?aai/aai a?aiaie.

Onoaiiaeaiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai n?iea iao/aiey e no?iaia niaethaeaiea
ia?aciaaoaeueiiai oeaica i?e i?eaia ia ?aaioo.

Anee i?ionithcu noiaee aiaea/ue a naie ?yaeu iniiaioth ianno ?aai/eo
aeaiiie io?anee, iie ieacuaatho ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeae iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
aeaaeaiea i?e ii?aaeaeaiee noaaie ca?aaioiie ieaou (3). Yoi aeaaeaiea
iaania/eaaao aieaa aunieoth noaaeo ca?aaioiie ieaou, ii, a eiia/iii
n/aoa i?eaiaeeo e nie?auaieth caiyoinoe.

Aeaaa 7. ?uii/iua ioiioaiey a aa?a?iii i?iecaiaenoaa. Caiaeueiay ?aioa
e aa aeaeu.

Aii?inu:

Aa?a?iia i?iecaiaenoai e aa?a?iua ioiioaiey.

Caiaeueiay ?aioa: nouiinoue e oi?iu.

1. Aa?a?iia i?iecaiaenoai e aa?a?iua ioiioaiey

Aa?a?iia i?iecaiaenoai yaeyaony iniiaiiieaaathuei aeey aeecie ethaeae e
iauanoaa a oeaeii. Iaaea?ii oeceie?aou n/eoaee aai aaeeinoaaiiui
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui naeoi?ii yeiiiieee.

Oneiaey e ?acoeueoaou aa?a?iiai o?oaea naycaiu n ooieoeeiie?iaaieai
?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai ie?a. Aeaaiui ioee/eai aa?a?iiai naeoi?a
yeiiiieee io ae?oaeo noa? iaoeeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaa yaeyaony aai oaniay
caaeneiinoue io i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee e anoanoaaiiiai
aeieiae/aneiai oeeeea.

Iniiaiui n?aaenoaii i?iecaiaenoaa (iaoa?eaeueiui yeiiiie/aneei ?ano?nii)
caeanue yaeyaony caiey.

Caiey, a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia, yaeyaony
iaaini?iecaiaeeiui oaeoi?ii i?iecaiaenoaa. Caiey aaniethoii ia?aie/aia
iiaa?oiinoueth caiiie nooe, e, e?iia oiai, iia eiaao ioiineoaeueiia
ia?aie/aiea eae iauaeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey.
I?aaeeiaeaiea caiee iayeanoe/ii. Iiyoiio oeaio?aeueiuie a aa?a?iuo
ioiioaieyo yaeythony i?iaeaiu caieaaeaaeaiey (caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe)
e caieaiieueciaaiey (aeaaeaiey caieae eae iauaeoii oicyenoaiaaiey).

A no?aiao n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie aa?a?iua ioiioaiey no?iyony ia
eniieueciaaiee ?acee/iuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth: /anoiie,
ainoaea?noaaiiie, ioieoeeiaeueiie e eieeaeoeaiie.

*anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth noi?ie?iaaeanue cia/eoaeueii iicaeiaa
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia ae?oaea oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa e aei neo ii? ia
yaeyaony aeiieie?othuae.

A Ieaea?eaiaeao, iai?eia?, /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth ia
nouanoaoao, i?e/ai, naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai a yoie no?aia
ooieoeeiie?oao aanueia yooaeoeaii, a o?iaeaeiinoue ca?iiauo e
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue neioa yaeythony iaeaieaa aunieeie a Aa?iia. Aieaa oiai,
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ?uii/iay yeiiiieea aia?aua neiaeeeanue eiaiii a
Aieeaiaeee. A Ec?aeea 90 % caiaeue iaoiaeeony a nianoaaiiinoe
ainoaea?noaa. Eieeaeoeaiua oicyenoaa (eeaooeu), nicaeaiiua ia yoeo
caieyo, aanueia i?iaeoeoeaiu.

Iniaia ianoi a nenoaia aa?a?iiai oicyenoaiaaiey caieiaao a?aiaeiay
oi?ia. Ni?aaaaeeeaui yaeyaony ooaa?aeaeaiea i iaee/ee i?yiie caaeneiinoe
?acaeoey naiaiaeiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a aa?a?iii naeoi?a io
noaiiaeaiey iaoaiecia ia?aaea/e caiee a a?aiaeo. Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
yoa oi?ia oicyenoaiaaiey iieo/eea a ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao. A?aiaea
i?eiaiyaony eae aeey /anoiuo, oae e aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo caiaeue. A
NOA, iai?eia?, i?eia?ii 45 % eniieuecoaiuo caiaeueiuo ieiuaaeae
ia?aaaouaaaony a?aiaeiui niiniaii, ai O?aioeee – 50 %, a Aaeueaee – 70
%, a Aieeaiaeee – 100 %.

“Naiiauoiinoue ?innee a aieueoae noaiaie ii?aaeaeyeanue iniaaiiinoyie
aea?aaaineiai oeeaaea, iniiaaiiiai ia eoeueoo?ii-i?aanoaaiiuo
o?aaeeoeeyo ?inneeneiai e?anoueyinoaa.” Nenoaia caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee aei
ia/aea OO aaea a ?innee aeeth/aea o?e oeia ioiioaiee: ainoaea?noaaiioth
nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth, /anoiia caieaaeaaeaiea e iaueiiia
caieaiieueciaaiea. Aeey iaueiiiai oeeaaea auei oa?aeoa?ii eneeth/aiea
caiee ec oiaa?iiai iai?ioa, a?oaeueiay acaeiiiiiiuue.

A 1906 a. ia/aeinue ?aoi?ie?iaaiea aea?aaaineiai oeeaaea a ?innee.
?aoi?ia auea iaoeaeaia ia oe?aieaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ia
caieth. Iaania/eaaeny naiaiaeiue auoiae ec iaueiu, nio?aiyeanue e?oiiay
iiiaue/uey nianoaaiiinoue, iiaeaea?aeeaaeinue ia?anaeaiea e?anoueyi ia
naiaiaeiua oeaeeiiua caiee. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue nianoaaiiee iia i?eeoieoue
caiee, i?iaeaoue naith caieth, caeiaeeoue aa a E?anoueyineee aaie. A
1914 a. a Aa?iiaeneie ?innee a /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe iaoiaeeeinue 25 %
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue, ec ieo aieaa iieiaeiu – a nianoaaiiinoe
aeai?yi, 13 % – o eoioeia, noieueei aea o e?anoueyi, e?anoueyineea
iauanoaa e oiaa?euanoaa aeaaeaee 12 % caiee. Caiaeueiua nianoaaiieee
caaeieaeaee aaieai 3,5 ie?ae. ?oa. cieioii, /oi ninoaaeyei 80 %
noieiinoe eo caiee. Ca 10 eao ?aoi?iu acyee naie iaaeaeu a /anoioth
nianoaaiiinoue iaiiiaei aieaa 20 % aeiiioicyenoa, ii?aaee naycue n
iaueiie eeoue 10 %. Aiaeu ?aoi?i nii?iaiaeaeaeenue e?anoueyineeie
aieiaieyie, /oi yaeeinue iaeiie ec i?aaeiinueie Ieoya?ueneie
?aaiethoeee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee oi?ie?othony iiaua caiaeueiua
ioiioaiey. N 1990 aiaea iie ?aaoee?othony iniiaaie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i
caiea, niaeanii eioi?iio caiey yaeyaony aeinoiyieai ia?iaea,
i?iaeeaathuaai ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee, a iieiiii/ey ?anii?yaeaiey caieae
ia?aaeathony ianoiui aaeieieno?aoeeyi. Iie i?aaeinoaaeytho o/anoee ai
aeaaeaiea e iieueciaaiea oa?ia?ai, annioeeaoeeyi e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa
e ae?oaei th?eaee/aneei eeoeai.

Aeaaeaiea iicaieyao i?aaieciauaaoue i?iecaiaenoai, auoue nianoaaiieeii
i?iecaaaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, cia/eoaeueiie /anoe aeioiaea e i?eauee. Ia
iiaeao aeaaeaeaoe eeoue naiaiaeii i?iaeaoue eee ioaeaoue a caeia
auaeaeaiiue aio o/anoie. Yoi e yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii aeeneonnee i?e
i?eiyoee iiaiai Caiaeueiiai Eiaeaena a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

O?iaaiue aeioiaeiinoe caaeneo io ?acia?ia aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A
80-a aiaeu a NOA, O?aioeee e Aa?iaiee yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue
iaania/eaaeanue ?acia?ii oicyenoaa a 15 – 20 aa caiee. A 2000-i aiaeo 57
% anao naeueoicoaiaeee a NOA aoaeao i?eiaaeeaaeaoue oa?iai n ieiuaaeueth
ia iaiaa 800 aa.

A NOA a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia i?eia?ii 300 oun. oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa (13,7 %
io iauaai eo /enea) eiaee aiaeiaie iauai ?aaeecaoeee nauoa 100 oun.
aeieea?ia ia iaeio oa?io. Iie aeaaaee 71,1 % anae oiaa?iie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Oieueei oa?iu, aoiaeyuea a yoo
a?oiio, iiaeii ioianoe e eaoaai?ee ?aioaaaeueiuo. Ecaanoii, /oi n?aaeiee
aeioiae ia iaeio aia?eeaineoth naiueth ninoaaeye a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia 30
oun. aeiee. *oiau eiaoue oaeie aea aeinoaoie oa?ia? aeieaeai
i?iecaiaeeoue oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee ia iaiaa /ai ia 100 oun. aeiee.

A oi aea a?aiy 1,6 iei. oa?i, /uee aiaeiaua aeioiaeu ninoaaeytho aei 40
oun. aeiee. (73 % io iauaai /enea oa?i) i?iecaiaeyo i?eia?ii 15 %
niaieoiiiai iauaia naeueoici?iaeoeoeee. Yoe oicyenoaa neaaeoao
?anniao?eaaoue eae iiaeniaiua, eo aeaaeaeueoeu a iieo/aiee aeioiaea
?ann/eouaatho, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia caiyoinoue aia oa?iu.

Oa?ia?noao a NOA ieacuaaaony ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea, eioi?ay
iineo ecae?aoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Oe?iei eniieuecoaony oae iacuaaaiay
eiioeaioeey ia?eoaoiuo oeai. Nooue aa a oii, /oi niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
oeaiaie ia i?iaeoeoeeth naeueneiai oicyenoaa e oeaiaie ia oiaa?u e
oneoae, eioi?ua iii iio?aaeyao, aeieaeiu inoaaaoueny iaeciaiiuie.
Athaeaeaoiua anneaiiaaiey a naeueneia oicyenoai a NOA a 6 ?ac i?aauoatho
eiaanoeoeee oa?ia?ia. A Oaaeoea?ee aeioe?oaony ec athaeaeaoa 75 %
cao?ao, a Ii?aaaee – 74 %, a ssiiiee e Oeieyiaeee – 72 %. A oeaeii ii 24
no?aiai athaeaeaoiua anneaiiaaiey naeueneiio oicyenoao ninoaaeytho ieiei
iieiaeiu cao?ao ianaeaiey yoeo no?ai ia i?iaeoeou ieoaiey.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey eiaeono?eaeueiie iniiau aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
a oaeaea a nayce n ?acaeoeai iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa a ia?a?aaioea
i?iecaaaeaiiiai a aa?a?iii naeoi?a ia?ae/iiai i?iaeoeoa ai anai ie?a a
OO aaea i?ienoiaeeo eeeaeaeaoeey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie
iainiaeaiiinoe naeueneiai oicyenoaa io inoaeueiie yeiiiieee. I?ienoiaeeo
eioaa?aoeey aa?a?iiai e i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oi?ie?oaony
aa?a?ii-i?iiuoeaiiue eiiieaen (AIE).

No?oeoo?o AIE ia?acotho:

?ano?niia?acothuay noa?a – i?iiuoeaiiua io?anee, nicaeathuea n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa aeey anao noa? AIE, e nenoaia iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia AIE.

Noa?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Io?anee, iaania/eaathuea aeiaaaeaiea aa?a?iie i?iaeoeoeee aei
iio?aaeoaey (caaioiaea, ia?a?aaioea, o?aiaiea, o?ainii?oe?iaea,
?aaeecaoeey).

A no?oeoo?a oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth AIE i?aiaeaaeatho cao?aou
ianaeueneioicyenoaaiiuo io?aneae. Oae, a oeaia oeaaa noieiinoue ca?ia
ninoaaeyao iaiaa 20 %.

Aa?a?iay iieeoeea, i?iaiaeeiay a iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, i?iaiaeeony aac o/aoa ia?aaeiauo ie?iauo oaiaeaioeee a yoie
noa?a. Eaeao ?ac?ooaiea AIE. N 1986 ii 1995 aiae i?iecaiaenoai ca?ia
nie?aoeeinue n 118 aei 65 iei. oiii, ea?oioaey – n 43 aei 38 iei. oiii,
iiaieiauea e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa – n 60 aei 43 iei. aieia, naeiae – n
39 aei 25 iei. aieia. I?iecaiaenoai o?aeoi?ia nie?aoeeinue a 14 ?ac,
ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee – aieaa /ai iaiieiaeio.

2. Caiaeueiay ?aioa: nouiinoue e oi?iu

Ia?aie/aiiinoue e iayeanoe/iinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey caiee, ?acee/ey a aa
ieiaei?iaeee iaoneiaeeaatho iniaaiiinoe oeaiiia?aciaaiey a naeueneii
oicyenoaa. Yoi iieiaeaiea i?eciaaony anaie yeiiiie/aneeie oeieaie a eo
iiaeoiaeao e i?iaeaiai caiaeueiie ?aiou. A inoaeueiii iiaeoiaeu ?aciuo
oeie e iai?aaeaiee e ?aioiui i?iaeaiai nouanoaaiii ?acee/athony.

?anniio?ei o?aaeeoeeiiioth aeey ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee eiioeaioeeth
caiaeueiie ?aiou. Iia iie?aaony ia IA?ENENONEEE IIAeOIAe e,
i?aaenoaaeyaony, ia oo?aoeea naiaai cia/aiey.

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iiai oicyenoaiaaiey, noi?ie?iaaiiiai ?uiea caiee e
caieaiieueciaaiey nouanoaotho aeaa aeaea iiiiiieee ia caieth: iiiiiieey
nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth e iiiiiieey ia caieth eae ia iauaeo
oicyenoaiaaiey. Iieiue nianoaaiiee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee
inouanoaeyao ia?aue aeae iiiiiieee: ii aieai naeaoue caieth a a?aiaeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeth (oa?ia?o) aeey inouanoaeaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa eee inoaaeoue aa iaeniieuecoaiie. Anee caiey naeaia a
a?aiaeo, oi eiie?aoiue caieaiieueciaaoaeue inouanoaeyao iiiiiieeth ia
caieth eae ia iauaeo oicyenoaiaaiey.

Anyeay iiiiiieey ia caieth i?eiineo aa iaeaaeaoaeth aeiiieieoaeueiue
aeioiae, eioi?ue i?eieiaao yeiiiie/aneoth oi?io caiaeueiie ?aiou.

Iiiiiieey nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth ii?iaeaeaao aaniethoioth caiaeueioth
?aioo, iiiiiieey oicyenoaa – aeeooa?aioeeaeueioth caiaeueioth ?aioo. Iaa
aeaea ?aioiiai aeioiaea iieo/aao nianoaaiiee caiee.

Aaniethoioth ?aioo iieo/aao anyeee caiaeueiue nianoaaiiee, oae eae
a?aiaeiay ieaoa aceiaaony ca anyeea caiee, a oii /enea, e ca ooaeoea.

Aeaaeaeueoeu eo/oeo ii ea/anoao caiaeue iieo/atho aeeooa?aioeeaeueioth
?aioo.

Eae ecaanoii, ia eiieo?aioiuo ?uieao, eaeiauie aunooiatho ?uiee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oeaiu ia oiaa?u neeaaeuaathony ii
oi?ioea “n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee iethn n?aaeiyy i?eaueue”, iineieueeo eae
ecaea?aeee, oae e i?eaueue au?aaieaathony a i?ioeanna eiieo?aioeee. A
oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiiinoe caiee a iai?io aaiaeyony ia oieueei eo/oea, ii e
ooaeoea caiaeueiua o/anoee, ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa ia eioi?uo auoa,
/ai ia eo/oeo. I?e yoii a ea/anoaa n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa
aunooiatho ecaea?aeee, eioi?ua i?eoiaeeony inouanoaeyoue ia ooaeoeo
o/anoeao (iie yaeythony “oi/eie ion/aoa” a ii?aaeaeaiee n?aaeieo
ecaea?aeae, oae eae a neo/aa, anee ca iniiao aoaeoo acyou ecaea?aeee ia
ioiineoaeueii eo/oeo caieyo, aeaaeaeueoeu ooaeoeo o/anoeia ie/aai ia
iieo/ao io i?aaeinoaaeaiey caiee a a?aiaeo).

I?e yoii ia eo/oeo o/anoeao ecaea?aeee ioiineoaeueii ieaea, /oi
iicaieyao ecaeaeaoue eo aeaaeaeueoeai aeiiieieoaeueiue /enoue aeioiae,
eioi?ue e i?eiyoi iacuaaoue aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aioie.

?acee/atho aeaa aeaea aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou: Ae?I e Ae?II.
Aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae ia?aiai ?iaea (Ae?I) aunooiaao eae ?acoeueoao
?aciie ioaea/e caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, ?acee/athueony ii ieiaei?iaeeth eee
ianoiiieiaeaieth. Aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae aoi?iai ?iaea (Ae?II) –
?acoeueoao eneonnoaaiiiai oeo/oaiey ieiaei?iaeey caiee iooai
eiaanoe?iaaiey n?aaenoa a aa iaeei?aoeeth, oaeia?aiea e o.i. Ae?II
aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa eioaineaiiai aaaeaiey aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
/oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey ?acaeoey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. A nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo a ?acaeouo cia/aiea Ae?II aic?anoaao, /ai nieiaaony ?acee/ea a
anoanoaaiiii ieiaei?iaeee. I?e yoii iiauoaiea o?iaeaeiinoe (ioaea/e)
caiaeue iicaieyao auaiaeeoue ec naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa ooaeoea
caiee.

Aua iaeei aaaeiue auaiae naycai n aiaeecii ia?aciaaiey
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou II. Ii auyaeyao iiey?ii ?aciua oeaee a
ioiioaiee ii?aaeaeaiee n?ieia a?aiaeu caiee. Iineieueeo aei ieii/aiey
aeiaiai?a a?aiaeu aeioiae io aeiiieieoaeueiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee
i?enaaeaaaony a?aiaeaoi?ii, iineaaeiee no?aieony iaeneiaeueii i?iaeeeoue
n?iee a?aiaeiiai aeiaiai?a. Eioa?anu aea nianoaaiieeia caiee a yoii
aii?ina i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiu. Iie caeioa?aniaaiu a nie?auaiee n?ieia
a?aiaeu ?aaee iineaaeothuaai i?enaiaiey Ae?II. N ?acaeoeai i?aeoeee
a?aiaeu, n niaa?oainoaiaaieai iaoaieciia caeeth/aiey a?aiaeiuo
aeiaiai?ia yoi i?ioeai?a/ea iaoiaeeo ?ac?aoaiea, ii ia nieiaaony
iieiinoueth n iiaanoee aeiy.

Nia?aiaiiua ca?oaaaeiua enneaaeiaaoaee iieuecothony IAIEEANNE*ANEEI
IIAeOIAeII a iauyniaiee caiaeueiie ?aiou. I?e yoii aeey iaieeanneeia
oeaio?aeueiui aii?inii yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea eiee/anoaaiiiai ia?aiao?a –
aaee/eiu caiaeueiie ?aiou.

Iaeaieaa oeie/iui iiaeoiaeii e ii?aaeaeaieth aaee/eiu ?aiou yaeyaony
?anniio?aiea ?uiea caieaiieueciaaiey e oi?ie?iaaiey ia iai noaaee
a?aiaeiie ieaou (iniiaioth /anoue eioi?ie ninoaaeyao ?aioa) eae oeaiu,
o?aaiiaaoeaathuae ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea caiee.

Eae oeacuaaeinue auoa, caieaiieueciaaiea yaeyaony oa?aeoa?iui a nenoaia
aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee aeey aieueoeinoaa yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai. E?iia
oiai, neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi a ii?aaeaeaiee yeiiiie/aneeo ecaea?aeae
anyeee nianoaaiiee caiee o/eouaaao iayaioth a?aiaeioth ieaoo.

A naiai aiaeeca iaieeanneee enoiaeyo ec oiai, /oi i?aaeeiaeaiea caiee
iayeanoe/ii. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a ?acaeouo oicyenoaao ieiuaaeue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue ia?aie/aia e, eae neaaenoaea yoiai,
anaaaea iaoiaeeony a /ueae-eeai nianoaaiiinoe. I?e/ai nianoaaiiee,
aeaeay ecaea/ue aeioiae io aeaaeaiey caieae, iai?aiaiii no?aieony
naeaoue aa a a?aiaeo eee i?aaieciaaoue nianoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ana caiaeueiua o/anoee caiyou e aiaea/aiu a
yeiiiie/aneee iai?io (i?aaeeaaathony a a?aiaeo). A?aoe/aneie
eioa?i?aoaoeeae oaeiai iieiaeaiey aeae aoaeao aa?oeeaeueiay e?eaay
i?aaeeiaeaiey caiee St.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 41 . A?aoee ii?aaeaeaiey caiaeueiie
?aiou.

Ni?in ia caieth, eae e ia ae?oaea yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu, aoaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny aa i?aaeaeueiie aeioiaeiinoueth. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e?eaay
ni?ina ia caieth – ienoiaeyuay, io?aaeathuay ia?aoioth naycue iaaeaeo
aaee/eiie ?aiou e aaee/eiie ni?ina ia caiaeueiua o/anoee,
i?aaeuyaeyaiiai ni noi?iiu naeueoici?iecaiaeeoaeae (Dt). ?aaiiaanea ia
caiaeueiii ?uiea onoaiaaeeaaaony a oi/ea A, ae niioaaonoaoao o?iaaiue
caiaeueiie ?aiou Rt. Eoiaii enneaaeiaaiey yoiai aii?ina yaeythony aeaa
auaiaea:

O?iaaiue caiaeueiie ?aiou iaiin?aaenoaaiii e i?yii ii?aaeaeyaony
iayeanoe/iinoueth i?aaeeiaeaiey.

O?iaaiue ?aiou caaeneo io i?aaeaeueiie aeioiaeiinoe caiee, eioi?ay, a
naith i/a?aaeue, ii?aaeaeyaony ni?inii ia naeueoici?iaeoeoeeth, oeaiaie
ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eiaiyaiua a naeueneii oicyenoaa e o?iaiai
iieaou o?oaea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aai/eo.

A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea oi?ie?oaony ?uiie caiee, ia eioi?ii caiey aunooiaao
iauaeoii eoiee-i?iaeaaee, a ia oieueei naea/e a a?aiaeo. Ia yoii ?uiea
caiey oaeaea ia?aoaao ?aaiiaanioth oeaio. Auaiaeu yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee
ioiineoaeueii ?uii/iie oeaiu caiee ninoiyo a neaaeothuai.

Oeaia caiee iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io caiaeueiie ?aiou,
eioi?oth iiaeii iieo/eoue, noaa nianoaaiieeii caiee.

Oeaia caiee iaoiaeeony a ia?aoiie caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy nnoaeiiai
i?ioeaioa, eai aeueoa?iaoeaie i?eia?aoaieth caiee a nianoaaiiinoue e
iieo/aieth ?aioiiai aeioiaea yaeyaony ?aciauaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a
aaiea e iieo/aiea i?ioeaioa. Aieaa aunieee i?ioeaio, i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo
oneiaeyo (i?e iaeciaiiinoe ?aiou, a /anoiinoe), canoaaeyao aeaaeaeueoeaa
aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea ooiaeeoue n caiaeueiiai ?uiea e ?aciauaoue aeaiueae
a e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo.

Iiceoeee ?aciuo yeiiiie/aneeo oeie ii aii?ino oeaiu caiee noiaeiu.

?acaeae IV. IAE?IYEIIIIEEA

Aeaaa 1. Aaaaeaiea a iae?iyeiiiieeo

Aii?inu:

Iae?iyeiiiieea: iiiyoea, oeaee, eino?oiaiou aiaeeca

Aini?iecaiaenoaaiiay e io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee

Iaoiae “cao?aou-auione” e iiaeaeue iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina a aiaeeca e
i?iaiice?iaaiee no?oeoo?iuo acaeiinaycae a yeiiiieea.

1. Iae?iyeiiiieea: iiiyoea, oeaee e eino?oiaiou

Oa?iei «iae?iyeiiiieea» naaiaeiy eniieuecoaony a aeaoo niuneao: eae
?acaeae iauae yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee e eae niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeae oiaa?ia e oneoa.

Iae?iyeiiiieea – yoi /anoue iauae yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, a eioi?ie
yaeaiey e i?ioeannu oicyenoaaiiie aeecie ?anniao?eaathony n iiceoeee
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee a oeaeii.

Iae?iyeiiiieea – ia i?inoay noiia naieo iiaenenoai (oe?i, iio?aaeoaeae,
io?aneae e o.i.), a oeaeinoiia ia?aciaaiea, eioi?ia iaeaaeaao naienoaaie
e i?eciaeaie, ia i?enoueie ie iaeiie ioaeaeueii acyoie aa /anoe.

Iae?iyeiiiie/aneia (iaoeeiiaeueiia) oicyenoai – niaieoiiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii i?aaieciaaiiuo ?ano?nia oe?i, aeiiioicyenoa e
ainoaea?noaa aeey i?iecaiaenoaa, iaiaia, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iio?aaeaiey
i?iaeoeoia e oneoa a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae anaai iauanoaa.

Iae?iyeiiiieea eae iaoea eco/aao iae?iyeiiiieeo eae oicyenoaaiioth
nenoaio.

Aeey aiaeeca e iienaiey iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia o?aaoaony iniaay
nenoaia eaoaai?ee, iieacaoaeae, iaoiaee/aneeo i?eaiia.

Iae?iyeiiiieea, oaeaea eae e ae?oaea ?acaeaeu yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee,
eco/aao aii?inu yooaeoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey noauaeoia i?e i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaiaia, ?ani?aaeaeaiee e iio?aaeaiee aeaa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae, a oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo
?ano?nia.

Naienoai ia?aie/aiiinoe ?ano?nia icia/aao, /oi eo iaiueoa, /ai
iaiaoiaeeii aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey niaieoiiinoe i?aaeuyaeyaiuo
iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa i?e aeaiiii o?iaia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. A neeo
ia?aie/aiiinoe ?ano?nia aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eo yooaeoeaiii
eniieueciaaiee, oi anoue iieo/aiey iaeneioia aeaa aeey iauanoaa a oeaeii
ia eo iniiaa. I?e yoii a iae?iyeiiiieea anoatho aii?inu
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiie yooaeoeaiinoe.

A iae?iyeiiiieea ia ia?aue ieai auoiaeyo i?iaeaiu, eanathueany anae
niaieoiiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia, oaeiaeaoai?aiey ia /anoiuo, a
iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae. A yoie nayce aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
eniieueciaaiey aa?aaaoeaiuo iieacaoaeae, aunooiathueo a ea/anoaa
iaiauaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia. A iae?iyeiiiieea
eniieuecotho oaeea aa?aaaou eae:

iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo, iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae;

eiaeaen oeai, iieacuaathuee eciaiaiea iauaai o?iaiy oeai a
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea;

o?iaaiue caiyoinoe e aac?aaioeoeu;

iauai iaoeeiiaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee;

oaii ?inoa e o.i.

Iae?iyeiiiie/aneea auaiaeu e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee yaeythony iniiaie
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ainoaea?noa. Yoei i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony
aeooaeueiinoue iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee.

Iae?iyeiiiie/aneee iiaeoiae e aiaeeco yeiiiieee auaeaeaaao a ea/anoaa
iniiaiie i?iaeaio oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae, ?aoaiea
eioi?ie i?aaeiieaaaao i?eaioaoeeth ia aeinoeaeaiea iniiaiuo oeaeae
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.

Eae auei onoaiiaeaii a i?ioeuo oaiao iaoaai eo?na, nia?aiaiiia
ainoaea?noai i?e i?iaaaeaiee yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee aa?ao ia naay
oe?ieee e?oa iieiiii/ee, naycaiiuo n iaania/aieai yooaeoeaiinoe e
noaaeeueiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, ni?aaaaeeeainoe a ?ani?aaeaeaiee
aeioiaeia. I?e yoii cae?aai aaaeouaa naay ainoaea?noai i?eaioe?oaony ia
nenoaio oeaeae niaieoiiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iae?iyeiiiie/aneay oeaeue – yoi ioeaii/iia noaeaeaiea, i?eiyoia a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoeie ca ii?io aeaeaaiiai ninoiyiey eaeiai-eeai
iauaoicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna.

O?aaeeoeeiiii a ea/anoaa iniiaiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo oeaeae auaeaeytho
oae iacuaaaiue «iaae/aneee /aou?aooaieueiee» – /aou?a oeaee:
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino; iioeiaeueioth caiyoinoue; noaaeeueiue o?iaaiue oeai;
iaio?eoeaoaeueiue aiaoiaoi?aiaue aaeain.

?acoiaaony, nenoaio iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo oeaeae iiaeii eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue e
oe?a. Oae, oeaeaniia?acii aeeth/aoue a iaa caaea/e iiaeaea?aeaiey
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe, iaania/aiey yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaeu,
ni?aaaaeeeaiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia e ae?.

Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino – iaania/aiea iieiaeeoaeueiie aeeiaieee
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa ia aeeeoaeueiuo a?aiaiiuo
eioa?aaeao.

Aeey ioeaiee aeeiaieee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a ea/anoaa aaciaiai
eniieuecotho iieacaoaeue oaiia ?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. Ia
aaeaaaynue a aeaoaee iaoiaeeee ecia?aiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa (yoi
– oaia neaaeothuay), aaaaeai oi?ioeo aeey ecia?aiey aeaiiiai iieacaoaey:

II t Tt – oaii ?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa;

Tt =———–, aaea II t e II t-1 – iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo

II t-1 oaeouaai (t) e i?aaeuaeouaai (t-1) ia?eiaea.

Aeey ?an/aoa iai?aaeaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneie aeeiaieee eniieuecotho oaeaea
iieacaoaeue oaiia i?e?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee ((Ot):

IIt – IIt-1 (IIt

( Ot = ————— = ——– – Ot –1

IIt-1 IIt-1

Iieacaoaeue oaiia ?inoa i?e oaaee/aiee iauaiia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa
i?eieiaao cia/aiey, aieueoea aaeeieoeu ( a i?ioeaioao – aieueoa 100). A
yoii neo/aa iieacaoaeue oaiia i?e?inoa i?eieiaao iieiaeeoaeueiua
cia/aiey, aiai?eo i «iieiaeeoaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie aeeiaieea».

Aieueoeinoaii yeiiiienoia e iieeoeeia i?eciaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iaania/aiey iieiaeeoaeueiuo oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Yeiiiie/aneee
?ino eae i?aaeei nii?iaiaeaeaaony iaeiieaieai iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa,
i?eoiiiaeaieai eiouanoaa a?aaeaeai e oe?i, ?inoii eaieoaeia, iiauoaieai
o?iaiy aeecie a?aaeaeai, i?ia?anneaiui nioeeaeueiui ?acaeoeai.

A ea/anoaa i?iaeaiiuo ninoiyiee ?inoa yeiiiieee ?anniao?eaatho ioeaaie e
io?eoeaoaeueiue ?ino.

I?iaiaeece?oai ioeaaie ?ino, eiaaea Tt = 1, a (Tt = 0. Oaeia ninoiyiea
iiaeao auoue aucaaii noaaiaoeeae (canoiai) yeiiiieee, eeai aea
ii?aaeaeaiiuie no?oeoo?iuie naeaeaaie: iieiaeeoaeueiie aeeiaieeie
aunieioaoiieiae/iuo io?aneae e io?eoeaoaeueiie aeeiaieeie onoa?aaathueo
i?iecaiaenoa. I?e yoii n/eoaaony, /oi ioeaaie ?ino ii?aaaeai. Iaeiaei,
aaaeii, /oiau a oaiaeaioeee oaeay no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea yeiiiieee
i?eaaea e iineaaeothuae aeieaia?aiaiiie iieiaeeoaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie
aeeiaieea.

Io?eoeaoaeueiue ?ino (Tt <1, a (Tt < 0) iacuaatho «yeiiiie/aneee niaae (e?ecen)». Yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu nii?iaiaeaeathony oaeeie iaaeaeaoaeueiuie yaeaieyie eae ianniaua aaie?ionoaa, oo?aoa iauanoaaiiiai eaieoaea, aac?aaioeoea, ae?oaea nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu. A iineaaeothueo oaiao, i?e aieaa aeaoaeueiii aiaeeca i?iaeai yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia, iu auyaei e i/euathuoth ?ieue yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia, iiaeeeth/athueo caueoiua iaoaieciu ?acaeoiai ?uiea.A nayce n yeiiiie/aneei ?inoii anoaao i?iaeaia oae iacuaaaiiai onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey (?acaeoey, i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia aeieain?i/ioth ia?niaeoeao). ?yae o/aiuo, aeaeiuo iauanoaaiiuo aeayoaeae ie?a aunooiatho ca iaiaoiaeeiinoue naaeaine?iaaiiiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa. Ii eo iiaieth, aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu, anoathuea ana aieaa ino?i ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii, noaayo i?aaeaeu yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, i?aneaaeoaiue eae «oeaeue a naaa», iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e caa?yciaieth ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, ?inoo caaieaaaaiinoe ianaeaiey e o.i. i?iaeaiai. A nia?aiaiiuo, iniaaiii yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?aiao, n/eoatho iie, i?eaieaiu ioeaaua e aeaaea io?eoeaoaeueiua oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.Aoi?ay iae?iyeiiiie/aneay oeaeue - iioeiaeueiay caiyoinoue -iaania/aiea iiaeoiaeyuae ?aaioie anao, eoi aeaeaao e niiniaai ?aaioaoue. Iiaeaea?aeaiea caiyoinoe a iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey iaania/aiey iauanoaaiiie noaaeeueiinoe ianooaaao a ?uii/iuo iaoeeiiaeueii-oicyenoaaiiuo nenoaiao - ia /anoiay, a iauaainoaea?noaaiiay i?iaeaia;O?aouey iae?iyeiiiie/aneay oeaeue - noaaeeueiue o?iaaiue oeai. Eioeyoeey (iaanoeaiaiea aeaiaa) - ae/ nia?aiaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea - iaeii ec iaeaieaa aeooaeueiuo e neiaeiuo iai?aaeaiee iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. A oi aea a?aiy ii?aaeaeaiioth i?iaeaio i?aaenoaaeyao e aeaoeyoeey (oaei?iaeaiea aeaiaa). Io iaa oaeaea no?aaeaao iaoeeiiaeueiia oicyenoai.Eiaeaen eciaiaiey oeaiu iaeiiai eiie?aoiiai oiaa?a ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea:Pt EOet - eiaeaen oeai;EOet = -----------, aaea Pt e Pt-1 - oeaia oiaa?aPt-1 a oaeouai (t) e i?aaeuaeouai (t-1 ) ia?eiaea.Ecia?aiea iauaai o?iaiy aeeiaieee oeai inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth aeaoo iniiaiuo eiaeaenia: Iaaoa e Eaniae?ana. Eiaeaen Iaaoa ioeaieaaao eciaiaiea iauaai o?iaiy oeai a ninoaaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa, enoiaey ec eiee/anoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, i?iecaiaeeiuo a oaeouai ia?eiaea:n( Pit ( qit EOeI - eiaeaen oeai Iaaoa;i=1 Pit e Pio - oeaia aaeeieoeu i-ai oiaa?aEOeI = ---------------- , aaea a oaeouai (t) e aaciaii (0) ia?eiaea;n n - iauaa eiee/anoai aeaa e eo oeai.( Pio ( qiti=1Eiaeaen oeai Eaniae?ana ioeaieaaao eciaiaiea iauaai o?iaiy oeai ii o?iaith aaceniiai ia?eiaea:n( Pit ( qio EOee- eiaeaen oeai Eaniae?ana;i=1 Pit e Pio - oeaia aaeeieoeu i-ai oiaa?aEOee = ------------------, aaea aaea a oaeouai (t) e aaciaii (0) ia?eiaea;n qio - eiee/anoai aaeeieoe i-ai oiaa?a a( Pio ( qio aaceniii ia?eiaea;i=1 n - iauaa eiee/anoai aeaa e eo oeai .A ?yaea no?ai aeey ecia?aiey o?iaiy oeai i?eiaiytho eiaeaen Iaaoa (NOA), a ae?oaeo (Aaeeeia?eoaiey e ?inney) - eiaeaen Eaniae?ana.Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea eae iae?ioeaeue icia/aao aaeain yenii?oa e eiii?oa, noaaeeueiinoue iaiaiiiai eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou. Yoa oeaeue noaiiaeony ana aieaa cia/eiie, iineieueeo ana ?acaeoua iaoeeiiaeueiua oicyenoaa aeoeaii aiaea/aiu a ie?ioicyenoaaiiua nayce.Iniiaiiieiaeieeii nia?aiaiiie iae?iyeiiiie/aneie oai?ee n/eoatho Aeae. I. Eaeina. Aai ?aaioa "Iauay oai?ey caiyoinoe, i?ioeaioa e aeaiaa" i?iecaaea ia?aai?io a yeiiiie/aneie iunee. Aeaaiaea?y aai enneaaeiaaieyi, auee aianaiu nouanoaaiiua ei??aeoeau a iiieiaiea yeiiiie/aneie ?iee ainoaea?noaa, ia?aniio?aiu iai?aaeaiey e iaoiaeu ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Eino?oiaiou e eaoaai?ee, aaaaeaiiua Eaeinii a iao/iue iai?io, eniieuecothony yeiiiienoaie anao nia?aiaiiuo oeie e iai?aaeaiee.Iae?iyeiiiieea eae iaoea naaiaeiy - yoi aeinoaoi/ii iaoaiaoece?iaaiiay oai?ey, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie nenoaio ?aciiia?aciuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iiaeaeae. Aieueoeinoai ec ieo yaeythony iiaeaeyie ?aaiiaaney.Iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea - oeaio?aeueiue oacen iae?iyeiiiieee. ?aaiiaanea a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea - yoi naaeaine?iaaiiinoue e i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey, i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia a iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii ianooaaa. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea eaeao /a?ac iinoiyiiia ia?ooaiea ?aaiiaaney, ioeeiiaiea io ?aaiiaaniiai ninoiyiey, oai ia iaiaa yooaeoeaii ?acaeaathuayny yeiiiieea ooieoeeiie?oao a iaeioi?ie ie?anoiinoe ?aaiiaaney.?aaiiaaniia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee icia/aao iaeiia?aiaiiia onoaiiaeaiea ?aaainoaa ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia anao acaeiinaycaiiuo ?uieao. Ia ?uieao oiaa?ia e oneoa ?aaiiaanea icia/aao iaeneiecaoeeth oe?iaie i?eaueae, a iio?aaeoaeyie - iieaciinoe. Ia ?uieao yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia ?aaiiaanea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ?ano?nu caaeaenoaiaaiu (caiyou), a aeioiae aeaaeaeueoeaa ?ano?nia ?aaai i?aaeaeueiie aeioiaeiinoe ?ano?nia. ?aaiiaanea ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea oa?aeoa?ecoao neooaoeeth, i?e eioi?ie aeaiaaeiia i?aaeeiaeaiea oi/ii niioaaonoaoy iio?aaiinoe a aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoaao anao yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia.Neooaoeeth, i?e eioi?ie aeaiaaeiia i?aaeeiaeaiea oi/ii niioaaonoaoao iio?aaiinoe a aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoaao anao yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia.Eaeay iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney ooiaeeo naieie ei?iyie a ?aaiou yeiiiienoia XVIII a. Iaeiie eo ia?auo iiaeaeae iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney auea "Yeiiiie/aneay oaaeeoea" O. Eaia. Eaia aia?aua inouanoaee iiiuoeo enneaaeiaaoue iauanoaaiiia aini?iecaiaenoai. A iae aue enneaaeiaai aii?in ?aaeecaoeee iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa (i?iaeoeoa, nicaeaiiiai a oicyenoaa O?aioeee XVIII a.). O. Eaia iuoaeny onoaiiaeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua eiee/anoaaiiua acaeiinayce iaaeaeo iaoo?aeueiuie e noieiinoiuie yeaiaioaie iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Ii i?ineaaeee, eae i?ioaeaao ia?auaiea aiaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa no?aiu iaaeaeo o?aiy eeannaie iauanoaa:oa?ia?aie e naeueneeie iaaiiuie ?aai/eie (eeannii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui);nianoaaiieeaie caiee - oaiaeaeaie ei?iiuoeaiieeaie, iaaiiuie ?aai/eie, ?aianeaiieeaie e eoioeaie (aanieiaeiui eeannii). Eaia i?aaenoaaee, eae aiciauathony eniieueciaaiiua ?ano?nu naeueneiai oicyenoaa e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, e iieacae /oi yoi aiciauaiea neoaeeo i?aaeiinueeie aiciaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa a iineaaeothuai aiaeo.Yeiiiie/aneay oaaeeoea iaiaeiie?aoii ecaeaaaeanue e oieeiaaeanue a o?oaeao naiiai Eaia e aai o/aieeia. Iia nouanoaoao a ianeieueeeo aa?eaioao, ii ai anao ieo i?aaenoaaeaii iaeii e oi aea: a iae iienuaaaony n iiiiuueth /eneiaiai i?eia?a e a?aoeea, eae nicaeaaaaiue a caieaaeaeee i?iaeoeo ia?auaaony a iaoo?aeueiie e aeaiaaeiie oi?ia iaaeaeo o?aiy eeannaie iauanoaa.Aiai?y nia?aiaiiui ycueii, aeaaiay i?iaeaia, eioi?ie caieiaeny Eaia, - i?iaeaia ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiie i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe, eee iauaai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney (iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney).Iauaa yeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea, aeinoeaeeiia a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea a oneiaeyo niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, auei aia?aua iaoaiaoe/anee iienaii oaaeoea?neei yeiiiienoii XIX aaea JI. Aaeue?anii. Ii au?acee iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea nenoaiie eeiaeiuo o?aaiaiee, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo au?aaeaao aaeain ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia eiie?aoiii ?uiea (/anoe/iia ?aaiiaanea).Iiaeaeue E. Aaeue?ana iienaia a o/aaieea «Iae?iyeiiiieea» Oeoiaa A.E. -I., 1997, n.78-86. (Aeieeaae e naieia?o).2. Aini?iecaiaenoaaiiay e io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieeeIiiyoea iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney oanii naycaii n aii?inaie iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?iii?oeee, oi anoue eiee/anoaaiiuo niioiioaiee iaaeaeo ia?aiao?aie iae?iyeiiiieee.Nenoaia iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?iii?oeee oa?aeoa?ecoao no?oeoo?o iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.Ioa/anoaaiiay yeiiiie/aneay iaoea o?aaeeoeeiiii oaeaeyao cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea ?anniio?aieth i?iaeai ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiie i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe. Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua nenoaiu eeanneoeeaoeee iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?iii?oeee. Oae, auaeaeytho:iauayeiiiie/aneea i?iii?oeee (iaaeaeo aaee/eiie iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa e eiaanoeoeeyie; iaaeaeo iio?aaeaieai e iaeiieaieai; i?iecaiaenoaii eiaanoeoeeiiiuo e iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia);iaaeio?aneaaua - i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie io?aneyie iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oeene?othuea eo aeieth a iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia;aioo?eio?aneaaua - eiee/anoaaiiua niioiioaiey iaaeaeo iiaeio?aneyie i?iecaiaenoaa (i?iecaiaenoaii eaaeiauo e a?ociauo aaoiiiaeeae a aaoiiiaeeano?iaiee; ?anoaieaaiaenoaii e aeeaioiiaiaenoaii a naeueneii oicyenoaa e o.i.);iaae?aaeiiaeueiua - io?aaeathuea oaeaeueiue aan ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia a i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa, ?aaeiiaeueiii ?ani?aaeaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee e o.ae.;Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aeieain?i/iuo oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao ?anniio?aiea aini?iecaiaenoaaiiie e io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa.Aini?iecaiaenoaaiiie iacuaaaony no?oeoo?a, io?aaeathuay aeaeaiea ninoaaiuo /anoae iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa a caaeneiinoe io eo ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iacia/aiey.Auoa iu aiai?eee i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaania/aiey onoie/eaiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa eae iae?iyeiiiie/aneie oeaee. Eaeiau iniiaiua i?iii?oeee i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa, iaania/eaathuea oaeoth onoie/eainoue, oi anoue eaeiau oneiaey ii?iaeueiiai iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa?Aii?inu aini?iecaiaenoaa a ianooaaao iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee iiaeieiaeenue E. Ia?enii. Ia?en i?iaiaeece?iaae aini?iecaiaenoaaiioth no?oeoo?o yeiiiieee ia oi?iuaiiie iiaeaee, eioi?oth e naaiaeiy ioeaieaatho aeinoaoi/ii auniei. ?anniio?ei aa ae?aooea.No?oeoo?a iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa aeeth/aao aeaa iniiaiua aeaea ^ aeaa: a), n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e a), i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey. A?oiia io?aneae ^ iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, i?iecaiaeyuae n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, iacuaaaony 1 iiae?acaeaeaieai, a io?anee, i?iecaiaeyuea n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, iaicia/aiu eae II iiae?acaeaeaiea.Aaaaeai eaoaai?ee i?inoiai e ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, iie /anoi oiio?aaeythony yeiiiienoaie e iieeoeeaie. I?inoia ^ aini?iecaiaenoai - aiciaiiaeaiea i?ioeanna iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a iaeciaiiuo ianooaaao (iii ni/aoaaony n ioeaaui ?inoii). ?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai - yoi aiciaiiaeaiea i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa a oaaee/eaathueony ?acia?ao. Aeey i?inoiai aini?iecaiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau 1 iiae?acaeaeaieai?iecaiaeeei naiae i?iaeoeoeeae ?iaii noieueei, /oiau iie?uoue \ iio?aaiinoe 1 e 11 iiae?acaeaeaiee a n?aaenoaao i?iecaiaenoaa, a II iiae?acaeaeaiea i?iecaiaeeei iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia noieueei, /oiau ^ iaania/eoue eie iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in iieo/aoaeae aeioiaeia iaieo iiae?acaeaeaiee.Oneiaey ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa Ia?en iienae eae ia?aaainoaa e oeacae, /oi aeey aai iaania/aiey iaiaoiaeei iia?aaeathuee ?ino 1 iiae?acaeaeaiey.A.E. Eaiei ?acaee oai?eth aini?iecaiaenoaa E. Ia?ena e noi?ioee?iaae oneiaey ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa a aeaea ?aaainoa, oi anoue oi/iuo i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo /anoyie i?iaeoeoeee ia?aiai e aoi?iai iiae?acaeaeaiee yeiiiieee.Oai ia iaiaa, i?eioeei iia?aaeathuaai ?acaeoey ia?aiai iiae?acaeaeaiey yaeyaony iaeaieaa aaaeiui auaiaeii ia?enenoneie oai?ee aini?iecaiaenoaa. Eiaiii i?aeiouanoaaiiue ?ino 1 iiae?acaeaeaiey iaania/eaaao yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, oae eae aai aeaaiie aeaeaeouae neeie iineaaeiaai yaeyaony IOI. Oieueei ia iniiaa onei?aiey IOI aiciiaeii inouanoaeyoue yooaeoeaiia ?acaeoea II iiae?acaeaeaiey, oi anoue io?aneae, iaania/eaathueo ianaeaiea no?aiu iio?aaeoaeueneeie aeaaaie.Oneiaey ?aaiiaaney iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa auee auaaaeaiu Ia?enii ia iniiaa aiaeeca eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee. Oai ia iaiaa, aeoeaii eniieueciaaeenue a nenoaia nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ieaiiaiai oicyenoaa a ea/anoaa i?eioeeiia ieaie?iaaiey. Aeoiaaony, a yoii iainoi?iaeiii e iaaeinoaoi/ii iainiiaaiiii eniieueciaaiee, aoeaaeueiii iiieiaiee aanueia iaueo iiaeoiaeia, ni?aaaaeeeauo a eiie?aoiuo enoi?e/aneeo e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo, - iaeia ec i?e/ei iaoaea/ niaaoneie ieaiiaie yeiiiieee.No?oeoo?a iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa aeeth/aao aeaa iniiaiua aeaea aeaa: a), n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e a), i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey. A?oiia io?aneae iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, i?iecaiaeyuae n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, iacuaaaony 1 iiae?acaeaeaieai, a io?anee, i?iecaiaeyuea n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, iaicia/aiu eae II iiae?acaeaeaiea.Aaaaeai eaoaai?ee i?inoiai e ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, iie /anoi oiio?aaeythony yeiiiienoaie e iieeoeeaie. I?inoia aini?iecaiaenoai - aiciaiiaeaiea i?ioeanna iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a iaeciaiiuo ianooaaao (iii ni/aoaaony n ioeaaui ?inoii). ?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai - yoi aiciaiiaeaiea i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa a oaaee/eaathueony ?acia?ao.Aeey i?inoiai aini?iecaiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau 1 iiae?acaeaeaiea i?iecaiaeeei naiae i?iaeoeoeeae ?iaii noieueei, /oiau iie?uoue iio?aaiinoe 1 e II iiae?acaeaeaiee a n?aaenoaao i?iecaiaenoaa, a II iiae?acaeaeaiea i?iecaiaeeei iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia noieueei, /oiau iaania/eoue eie iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in iieo/aoaeae aeioiaeia iaieo iiae?acaeaeaiee.Oneiaey ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa Ia?en iienae eae ia?aaainoaa e oeacae, /oi aeey aai iaania/aiey iaiaoiaeei iia?aaeathuee ?ino 1 iiae?acaeaeaiey.A.E. Eaiei ?acaee oai?eth aini?iecaiaenoaa E. Ia?ena e noi?ioee?iaae oneiaey ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa a aeaea ?aaainoa, oi anoue oi/iuo i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo /anoyie i?iaeoeoeee ia?aiai e aoi?iai iiae?acaeaeaiee yeiiiieee.Oai ia iaiaa, i?eioeei iia?aaeathuaai ?acaeoey ia?aiai iiae?acaeaeaiey yaeyaony iaeaieaa aaaeiui auaiaeii ia?enenoneie oai?ee aini?iecaiaenoaa. Eiaiii i?aeiouanoaaiiue ?ino 1 iiae?acaeaeaiey iaania/eaaao yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, oae eae aai aeaaiie aeaeaeouae neeie iineaaeiaai yaeyaony IOI. Oieueei ia iniiaa onei?aiey IOI aiciiaeii inouanoaeyoue yooaeoeaiia ?acaeoea II iiae?acaeaeaiey, oi anoue io?aneae, iaania/eaathueo ianaeaiea no?aiu iio?aaeoaeueneeie aeaaaie.Oneiaey ?aaiiaaney iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa auee auaaaeaiu Ia?enii ia iniiaa aiaeeca eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee. Oai ia iaiaa, aeoeaii eniieueciaaeenue a nenoaia nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ieaiiaiai oicyenoaa a ea/anoaa i?eioeeiia ieaie?iaaiey. Aeoiaaony, a yoii iainoi?iaeiii e iaaeinoaoi/ii iainiiaaiiii eniieueciaaiee, aoeaaeueiii iiieiaiee aanueia iaueo iiaeoiaeia, ni?aaaaeeeauo a eiie?aoiuo enoi?e/aneeo e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo, - iaeia ec i?e/ei iaoaea/ niaaoneie ieaiiaie yeiiiieee.Io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa oa?aeoa?ecoao neiaeeaoothny nenoaio ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia ii iniiaiui aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea aeieth io?aneae a iauai iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.Io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee ianoaoe/ia. Eciaiaiey iaaeio?aneaauo i?iii?oeee i?ienoiaeeo ia aeeeoaeueiuo a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeao (10-20 e aieaa eao). Yoe eciaiaiey a ie?iaii oicyenoaa i?ienoiaeyo a niioaaonoaee n ii?aaeaeaiiuie caeiiiia?iinoyie:iia?aaeathuee ?ino i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n naeueneei oicyenoaii;nieaeaieai aeiee aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe a iauai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa;iiauoaieai aeiee noa?u oneoa, a oii /enea eioaeeaeooaeueiuo, eioi?iaoeeiiiuo e o.i.Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey XX aaea iniiaaoaeueii eciaieea io?aneaaoth no?oeoo?o iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu noieaoey aicieeee iaaeaeaiiua i?aaeaea io?anee, oaeea eae aoiiiay yia?aaoeea, iieeia?iay oeiey, i?iecaiaenoai n?aaenoa aaoiiaoecaoeee e au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e o.ae. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?acaeoea IO? o?aaoao nicaeaiey iaaeio?aneaauo eiiieaenia, ia nouea o?aaeeoeeiiiuo e iiauo i?iecaiaenoa: oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai, oeieei-eaniiai, ?aeaoii-einie/aneiai eiiieaenia. Aianoa n oai ?acaeoea IO? i?eaaei e oiaaeeo ?yaea o?aaeeoeeiiiuo io?aneae, oaeeo eae oi?oyiay, oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, /a?iay iaoaeeo?aey e ae?.Eciaiaiea iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee a ie?a o?aaoao ?ai?aaiecaoeee AIE, caieiathuaai oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a yeiiiieea aaaeoueo no?ai ie?a. I?iaaaeaiea eiiaa?nee - ia?aaiaea aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia auione ie?iie a?aaeaeaineie i?iaeoeoeee - aaaeiaeoay caaea/a noaaeeecaoeee io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u yeiiiieee ?acaeouo no?ai ie?a?aoi?io no?oeoo?u yeiiiieee iaaeeaaeeo inouanoaeyoue ii neaaeothuei iniiaiui iai?aaeaieyi:niauaiea oeaio?a oyaeanoe yeiiiieee a noi?iio i?iecaiaenoaa;?acaeoea i?ioeannia eiiaa?nee;onei?aiea ?inoa iaoeiaieeo i?iecaiaenoa;i?aeiouanoaaiiia ?acaeoea ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n aeiauaathuae;?acaeoea ia ea/anoaaiii iiaie iniiaa i?iecaiaenoaa iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e noa?u oneoa.I i?iaeaiao no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ni. «Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey» iiae ?aae. Oa?aniae/a e Aeia?uieia (n. 261 - 264).3. Iaoiae "cao?aou-auione" e iiaeaeue iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina a aiaeeca e i?iaiice?iaaiee no?oeoo?iuo acaeiinaycae a yeiiiieeaIaoiae «cao?aou-auione», eee aaeainiaue iaoiae, aue ?ac?aaioai a NOA aeey i?aeoe/aneiai aiaeeca iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney. A aai nicaeaiee aieueoay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo A. Eaiioueaao. Ii i?aaeeiaeee iae?iyeiiiie/aneoth iiaeaeue iauaai ?aaiiaaney, iino?iaiioth ia iniiaa no?oeoo?iuo caaeneiinoae anao oac aini?iecaiaenoaa: i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey, iaiaia e iio?aaeaiey. Nooue iaoiaea ninoieo a aeaienoaaiiii ?anniio?aiee ?acee/iuo io?aneae e naeoi?ia yeiiiieee: n iaeiie noi?iiu - eae iio?aaeythueo i?iaeoeoeeth, n ae?oaie - eae auioneathueo oa eee eiua aeaeu oiaa?ia e oneoa aeey nianoaaiiiai iio?aaeaiey e ioaeae ae?oaeo io?aneae e naeoi?ia yeiiiieee.Eiee/anoaaiiua nayce iaaeaeo iauaiaie ni?ina, i?aaeuyaeyaiiai ia i?iaeoeoeeth, e iauaiaie aa i?iecaiaenoaa io?aaeathony /a?ac nenoaio oaoiieiae/aneeo eiyooeoeeaioia (eiyooeoeeaiou i?yiuo cao?ao), iieacuaathueo aaee/eio n?aaeieo cao?ao i?iaeoeoeee aeaiiiai naeoi?a eee io?anee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey auionea aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee a eaaeaeii ec auaeaeaiiuo no?oeoo?iuo caaiueaa yeiiiieee.Aeaoaeece?iaaiiay noaia iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina aeeth/aao a naay /aou?a ?acaeaea (eaaae?aioa). A ia?aii io?aaeaaony oaeouaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iio?aaeaiea (i?iiaaeooi/iue i?iaeoeo); ai aoi?ii -eiia/iue i?iaeoeo ii oa?aeoa?o aai eniieueciaaiey (ii ?anoiaeai); a o?aoueai - no?oeoo?a aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe (aii?oecaoeey, ca?aaioiay ieaoa, i?eaueue, ae?oaea aeioiaeu, iaeiae ia aecian), a /aoaa?oii -?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea (ia oiiae iio?aaeaiey e iaeiieaiey n aeaoaeecaoeeae no?oeoo?u).IIA iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue ia?aiao?u ?aaiiaaney ioaeaeueiie io?anee, iaaeio?aneaaiai ?aaiiaaney, iauaai ?aaiiaaney.Ec iiaeaee iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu aeaiiua aeey aiaeeca iniiaiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?iii?oeee, a oii /enea i?iaiice?oaiuo.N iiiiuueth IIA iiaoo auoue inouanoaeaiu aa?eaioiua ?an/aou oaiiia ?acaeoey e i?iii?oeee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.?ac?aaaouaathony noieiinoiua, iaoo?aeueiua e iaoo?aeueii-noieiinoiua aaeainu.Ia?yaeo n iae?iyeiiiie/aneeie aaeainaie iiaoo auoue ?ann/eoaiu e ?aaeiiaeueiua aaeainu, aioo?eio?aneaaua iaaei?iaeoeoiaua aaeainu.Aeey aiaeeca iaaeio?aneaauo naycae, yooaeoeaiinoe no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a iaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa e inouanoaeaiey i?iaiiciuo ?an/aoia en/eneytho eiyooeoeeaiou iieiuo cao?ao, oa?aeoa?ecothuea cao?aou eaeiai-eeai i?iaeoeoa ia i?iecaiaenoai aaeeieoeu ae?oaiai i?iaeoeoa ii anae oeaie acaeiinaycaiiuo io?aneae. Oae, iieiua cao?aou yeaeo?iyia?aee ia i?iecaiaenoai iaeiie oiiiu aethieiey neeaaeuaathony ia oieueei ec ?anoiaea yeaeo?iyia?aee iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia yeaeo?ieec aethieiey e ia i?iecaiaenoai aeeiicaia, e?eieeoa, ii oaeaea ec ?anoiaea yeaeo?iyia?aee ia i?iecaiaenoai iaoa?eaeia, iinooiathueo ec ae?oaeo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a /anoiinoe, oeieeaoia, oiieeaa e o.i. Eiyooeoeeaiou iieiuo cao?ao iaoiaeyo iooai ia?auaiey iao?eoeu eiyooeoeeaioia i?yiuo cao?ao.IIA iicaieyao iieo/aoue iaiauathuea oa?aeoa?enoeee yia?aiaieinoe, oiieeaiaieinoe, iaoaeeieaieinoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e aai ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae.Eiyooeoeeaiou iieiuo cao?ao iaoiaeyo ana aieueoaa i?eiaiaiea aeey ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo niiinoaaeaiee o?iaiy yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.A. Eaiioueaa a eiioea 80-o i?aaeeaaae iaoaio I?aaeoaeuenoao n iiiiuueth aaeainiaiai iaoiaea i?in/eoaoue «i?aaeeueiua» oeaiu ia aaciaua aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee e onoaiiaeoue eo aaeieieno?aoeaiui iooai, eeoue caoai iinoaiaiii aunaiaiaeaeaoue eo.Ia?aue iaaeio?aneaaie aaeain aue iioaeeeiaai a NOA a 1936 a. a ?ac?aca 41 io?anee yeiiiieee. Ia eaeath Eaiioueaaa iiaeeye iiuo ninoaaeaiey aaeaina niaaoneie yeiiiieee ca 1923/24 aa. A oi aea a?aiy ia?aue io/aoiue aaeain a NNN? aue ?ann/eoai e 1961 a. ii aeaiiui 1959 a. Ia?aue ieaiiaue IIA aue ?ac?aaioai ia 1962 a. Nia?aiaiiua i?iaiiciua ?an/aou ii iiaeaee aeeth/atho aei 600 - 800 ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae, a ssiiiee - aei 2000.Aeaaa 2. Iaoeeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea: ?acoeueoaou e eo ecia?aiea. Aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo.Aii?inu:Oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.No?oeoo?a e ecia?aiea aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa (AII).Iae?iyeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee eae ecia?eoaee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie aeeiaieee.1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.Iae?iyeiiiieea eco/aao aii?inu ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai a oeaeii. N?aaee ieo oeaio?aeueiui yaeyaony aii?in yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. I?ia?anne?othuay, ?anoouay iaoeeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea - iniiaa aeaaiiieo/ey iaoeee, oniaoiiai ?aoaiey nioeeaeueiuo, iieeoe/aneeo, aeaiia?aoe/aneeo e yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai ethaie no?aiu. Aeey ioeaiee oaiaeaioeee ?inoa yeiiiieee a eaaeaeie no?aia nouanoaoao nenoaia noaoenoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae.O?aaeeoeeiiii (aei eiioea 80-o aiaeia) ioa/anoaaiiay iaoeeiiaeueiay noaoenoeea eniieueciaaea a ea/anoaa iniiaiuo ecia?eoaeae iauaiia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oaeea iieacaoaee eae niaieoiiue (aaeiaie) iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo (NII) e iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae.Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yoeo e ?yaea ae?oaeo aaaeiuo iieacaoaeae ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey a ieaiiaie yeiiiieea ?ann/eouaaeny aaeain ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa (AIO). A aai iniiaa eaaeaea eiioeaioeey o?oaeiaie noieiinoe, a a ea/anoaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie (nicaeathuae iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae) ?anniao?eaaeanue oieueei noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.No?aiu n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie ioeacaeenue io eniieueciaaiey niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea a ea/anoaa iniiaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea, eai iie iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii io?aaeaee ?aaeueiua eciaiaiey a iaoeeiiaeueiii oicyenoaa ii neaaeothuei i?e/eiai:?an/ao NII aeeth/ae a naay iiaoi?iue n/ao.Iiyniei yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea ia i?eia?a. I?aaeiieiaeei, a iaeioi?ie iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea i?iecaiaeeony oieueei iaeei oei eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee - oeaa. I?aaeaea /ai i?iaeoeo iinooiaao a iio?aaeaiea, ii i?ioiaeeo ?yae noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa, inouanoaeyaiuo ?acee/iuie oe?iaie. I?aaenoaaei yeiiiie/aneoth noi?iio oaeiai i?iecaiaenoaa a aeaea oaaeeoeu (ecia?aiey inouanoaeythony a oneiaiuo aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao):Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC L . Eiia/iue, i?iiaaeooi/iue e aaeiaie i?iaeoeo i?e i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaaNoaaeey i?iecaiaenoaa Au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee Noieiinoue i?iiaaeooi/iuo iaoa?eaeia eee oiaa?ia Aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue(2 - 3)1 2 3 4Ioaieoea 4 0 4Ioea 6 4 2Enia/aiiue oeaa 12 6 6Oeaa, aeinoaaeaiiue e ianoo iieoiee 20 12 8Eoiai 42 22 20?an/ao NII i?aaeiieaaaao noiie?iaaiea au?o/ee io i?iaeaaee ia anao noaaeeyo i?iecaiaenoaa. A iaoai i?eia?a NII ?aaai 42, oi anoue iaoa aeiioaoe/aneay yeiiiieea i?iecaiaeeo i?iaeoeoeee ia noiio 42 aeaiaaeiua aaeeieoeu. Caiaoei, /oi /ai aeoaaea iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, oai a aieueoae ia?a a NII iaeaieeaaaony n/ao i?iiaaeooi/iie i?iaeoeoeee, oi anoue iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iieacaoaeue NII cia/eoaeueii caauoaao aeaenoaeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.Iieacaoaee NII e iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea o/eouaaee ?acoeueoaou oieueei iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, aianoa n oai nia?aiaiiay noaaeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey i?aaeiieaaaao aunieee oaeaeueiue aan noa?u iaiaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa: a ?acaeouo no?aiao aei 60% iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iaania/eaaao noa?a oneoa (eioaeeaeooaeueiuo, auoiauo e i?.).A ca?oaaaeiie yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeea e iae?iaiaeeca n 1953 aiaea a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai eniieuecoaony iieacaoaeue aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa (AII).I?e yoii noaiaea?oioth nenoaia nai?a e ia?aaioee noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo ii ecia?aieth AII e ae?oaeo, naycaiiuo n iei iieacaoaeae, iacuaatho nenoaiie iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia (NIN).Aieaa 100 no?ai ie?a naaiaeiy i?eiaiytho nenoaio iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia, ?ac?aaioaiioth noaoenoe/aneie eiienneae III, a n 1989 aiaea iia iiyoaiii aaiaeeony e a ioa/anoaaiioth i?aeoeeo noaoenoe/aneiai o/aoa.Aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiioth ?uii/ioth noieiinoue anaai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa a yeiiiieea ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie, iau/ii ca aiae.I?e ?an/aoa aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa eniieuecothony neaaeothuea iiaeoiaeu:i?eiaiyaony aeaiaaeiia, a ia iaoo?aeueiia ecia?aiea ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe anao oicyenoaaiiuo aaeeieoe e aeioiaeia yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia, /oi iicaieyao o/eouaaoue ?aciiia?aciua oiaa?u e oneoae, i?iecaiaeeiua a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea a aaeeiii iieacaoaea, “iicaieyao neiaeeoue yaeiee n aiaeueneiaie”;aaee/eio AII ii?aaeaeyao noieiinoue ia oieueei oiaa?ia, ii e oneoa, oi anoue a AII o/eouaathony ?acoeueoaou e iaiaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa;i?e ?an/aoa AII eneeth/aaony aeaieiie n/ao, oi anoue o/eouaaaony noieiinoue oieueei eiia/iuo oiaa?ia e oneoa. I?iiaaeooi/iua oiaa?u, oaeea, eioi?ua eniieuecothony aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ae?oaeo oiaa?ia a ?an/aoiue ia?eiae, i?e iiaen/aoa AII eneeth/athony ec ?anniio?aiey. *oiau ecaaaeaoue aeaieiiai n/aoa, iaiaoiaeeii ia eaaeaeii yoaia au/eneaiey AII eniieueciaaoue oieueei aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue (?uii/ioth oeaio iauaia i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiie oe?iie ca au/aoii aiaoieo ecaea?aeae, oi anoue noieiinoe iaoa?eaeia e oeaiiinoae. Aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue - yoi aeiiieieoaeueiua cao?aou oe?iu ia nicaeaiea eiie?aoiiai i?iaeoeoa: ca?aaioiay ieaoa, i?eaueue, aii?oecaoeey, i?ioeaio ca e?aaeeo, ?anoiaeu ia o?ainii?o, ?aeeaio aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey e o.i.). A iaoae aeiioaoe/aneie yeiiiieea aaee/eia AII, niaeanii yoiio i?aaeeo, ?aaia 20 oneiaiui aeaiaaeiui aaeeieoeai, oi anoue a AII o/eouaaaony oieueei noieiinoue oeaaa, aeinoaaeaiiiai aeey i?iaeaaee iio?aaeoaeyi, ii ia i?iiaaeooi/iua i?iaeoeou: ioaieoea eee ioea, iioaaeoea ia ecaioiaeaiea yoiai oeaaa;AII eneeth/aao iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua naeaeee, eae oi:o?ainoa?oiua (ia?aaiaeiua) ieaoaaee (auieaou ii nioeeaeueiiio no?aoiaaieth e nioeeaeueiiio iaania/aieth), eai iie i?iecaiaeyony aacaiciacaeii, ia yaeythony aiciaa?aaeaeaieai ca aeeaae a iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai a oaeouai ia?eiaea;naeaeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, eioi?ua eeoue einaaiii iiaoo aeeyoue ia ?acoeueoao iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a ?an/aoiii ia?eiaea;noieiinoue i?iaeaae eiienneiiiuo oiaa?ia.Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ii noaoenoeea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai iieacaoaey iauaiia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a 90-a aiaeu ioaeeeoao naaaeaiey i aaeiaii aioo?aiiai i?iaeoeoa (AAI) no?aiu.Aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiioth ?uii/ioth noieiinoue oiaa?ia, i?iecaaaeaiiuo oe?iaie e aeiiioicyenoaaie a aeaiiie no?aia iacaaeneii io eo iaoeeiiaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe.AAI iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae naiaia?aciue aa?eaio AII, io?aaeathuee ?acoeueoaou yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oa??eoi?ee aeaiiie no?aiu. AAI ia o/eouaaao i?eioeei ?aceaeaionoaa yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia. I?e ?an/aoa AAI, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ec AII au/eoaaony noiia aeioiaeia io eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia aeaiiie no?aiu ca ?oaaaeii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?eaaaeythony aiaeiae/iua aeioiaeu eiino?aioeaa, iieo/aaiua a aeaiiie no?aia.AAI e AII eiee/anoaaiii aeey aaaeoueo no?ai Caiaaea ?anoiaeyony ia aieaa /ai ia 1 %.2. No?oeoo?a e ecia?aiea aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa (AIIAaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeaoiy niiniaaie: eeai noiie?oy ana ?anoiaeu ia eiia/iue i?iaeoeo, eeai neeaaeuaay ana aeioiaeu io i?iecaiaenoaa aiaeiaiai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee.Aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu a niaieoiiinoe ?aaiu iaaeaeo niaie: ana ?anoiaeu ia i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?ia yaeythony aeioiaeaie i?iecaiaeeoaeae yoeo oiaa?ia. Anee i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea ?anoiaeia, oi yoi eciaiyao e aeioiaeu niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii. A i?eioeeia, iiaeii n/eoaoue AII iaeiei ec niiniaia - eeai ii ?anoiaeai, eeai ii aeioiaeai. Iaeiaei, aeaieiay aooaaeoa?ey iiauoaao oi/iinoue n/aoa.?anniio?ei no?oeoo?o AII ii ?anoiaeai. A nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia ?anoiaeu a ninoaaa AII aeaeyony ia /aou?a aieueoea a?oiiu:Iio?aaeaiea (N) - niaieoiiinoue oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?eia?aoaaiuo aeiiioicyenoaaie, oi anoue oiaa?u e?aoeia?aiaiiiai e aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey e oneoae;Eiaanoeoeee (I) - ninoiyo ec o?ao eiiiiiaio:i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey, oi anoue noieiinoue anao eiia/iuo iieoiie iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie;ana no?ieoaeuenoai, a oii /enea e aeeeeuiia;eciaiaiea caiania - i?e?ino noieiinoe oiaa?iuo caiania oe?i (anee caianu nie?auathony, oi aaee/eia eiaanoeoeee a caianu - io?eoeaoaeueiay);Aieaa oi/ii eiaanoeoeee eae yeaiaio niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia neaaeoao iaicia/aoue eae aaeiaua /anoiua aioo?aiiea eiaanoeoeee. Oa?iei “aaeiaua” icia/aao aeeth/aiea a “eiaanoeoeee” ia oieueei eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia oaaee/aiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea (/enoua eiaanoeoeee), ii e noieiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa oao eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey caiauaiey iio?aaeaiiuo a oaeouai ia?eiaea iaoei, iai?oaeiaaiey e nii?oaeaiee.Aaeaaiaeiua io/eneaiey, eaeouea ia aiciauaiea iio?aaeaiiiai a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa eaieoaea, i?eiyoi iacuaaoue aii?oecaoeeae.Oa?iei “/anoiua” aiai?eo i oii, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i ?anoiaeao /anoiuo eiiiaiee, a ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, a ii?aaeaeaiea “aioo?aiiea” ooi/iyao iaoeeiiaeueioth i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue oe?i, inouanoaeythueo aeeaae a i?iecaiaenoai AII: i?iecaiaenoai eiino?aiiuo eiiiaiee a ?an/ao ia aa?aony;Ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu (G) - iauay noieiinoue oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?eia?aoaaiuo ainoaea?noaii, ?aaeiiaeueiuie e ianoiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey;*enoue yenii?o (XN) - ?aciinoue noieiinoe yenii?oa e eiii?oa oiaa?ia e oneoa, ?acoeueoao oi?aiaee n ae?oaeie no?aiaie. Anee iaoeey eiaao iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei yenii?oa (i?iaeaao eiino?aioeai aieueoa, /ai iieoiaao), oi iia oaeei ia?acii inouanoaeyao eiaanoeoeeiiiua aeiaeaiey ca a?aieoeo.?an/ao AII ii aeioiaeai i?aaeiieaaaao iiaen/ao aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe a iaoeeiiaeueiii ianooaaa iooai neiaeaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?ioeaioa, ?aiou, i?eauee ei?ii?aoeee, aeioiaeia nianoaaiieeia (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae e oiaa?euanoa). E?iia oeacaiiuo aeaeia aeioiaeia a n/ao ii aeioiaeai aoiaeyo oaeea eiiiiiaiou eae aii?oecaoeey e einaaiiua iaeiae ia aecian, eioi?ua ia yaeythony aeioiaeaie yeiiiie/aneeo aaaioia, ii ioiinyony e cao?aoai oe?i, iaiaoiaeeiui aeey i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyoiio eiiaaea oaeie iiaen/ao AII iacuaatho ?an/ao ii cao?aoai.?anniio?ei no?oeoo?o AII ii aeioiaeai aieaa aeaoaeueii.Aii?oecaoeey - noieiinoue eciina iniiaiiai eaieoaea - io/eneaiey ia iieoieo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia, iio?aaeaiiuo a oa/aiea aiaea. Aeey inouanoaeaiey aini?iecaiaenoaa a ianieaeathueony iauaiao /anoue AII aeieaeia auoue ioeiaeaia aeey caiauaiey a aoaeouai eciaoeaathuaainy iai?oaeiaaiey, caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee. Eiee/anoaaiii aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey ?aaiu ?acieoea iaaeaeo aaeiauie e /enouie eiaanoeoeeyie a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea.Einaaiiua iaeiae ia aecian i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?acieoeo iaaeaeo oeaiie, eioi?oth ieaoeo ca oiaa? iio?aaeoaeue, e i?iaeaaeiie oeaiie oe?iu. Yoi oaeea iaeiae, eae iai?eia?, iaeia n i?iaeaae, aeoeecu, oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu. Oe?iu ia iieo/atho yoo ?acieoeo, iia ia yaeyaony /anoueth eo aeioiaea, ii iie ?anniao?eaatho yoe iaeiae eae /anoue cao?ao e aeeth/atho eo a oeaio oiaa?a. Ainoaea?noai iieo/aao einaaiiua iaeiae, ia aiiny ieeaeiai aeeaaea a iaiai ia eo iinooieaiea.Ca?aaioiay ieaoa, oi/iaa iieaoa o?oaea iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia, eioi?ay aeeth/aao a naay ca?aaioioth ieaoo, i?aiee, ?acee/iua ia/eneaiey e iaeiae ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo, auiea/eaaaony oe?iaie e ainoaea?noaii oai, eoi i?aaeeaaaao naie o?oae. Yoi - iniiaiay /anoue aeioiaeia, ninoaaeyao aei 70 - 80 i?ioeaioia io niaieoiiie eo aaee/eiu a iaoeeiiaeueiii oicyenoaa ?acaeouo no?ai.?aioiue aeioiae iieo/atho aeaaeaeueoeu iaaeaeaeeiinoe, iaania/eaathuea yeiiiieeo iaiaoiaeeiuie ?ano?naie (caieae, iiiauaieyie iiae i?iecaiaenoai e ioenu e o.i.). Nthaea aea aeeth/aaony e oneiaii ia/eneaiiay a?aiaeiay ieaoa, eioi?oth i?aaei?eieiaoaee e oe?iu - aeaaeaeueoeu nianoaaiiie iaaeaeaeeiinoe “ieaoyo” naie naaa.I?ioeaio - noiia i?ioeaioiuo ieaoaaeae ii nnoaeai oe?i aeaiiie no?aiu ca au/aoii noiiu iieo/aiiuo eie i?ioeaioia (auieaou oe?i iinoaaueeai aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea).I?eaueue ei?ii?aoeee (aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa) - nouanoaaiiay /anoue aeioiaeia, oae eae aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa a nia?aiaiiii oicyenoaa yaeythony iniiaiie oi?iie i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, iaania/eaathuae i?iecaiaenoai aeiieie?othuae /anoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. A ?an/ao aa?aony oa /anoue i?eauee, eioi?ay inoaaony a ?anii?yaeaiee aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa iinea ieaoaaeae iaaiiui ?aaioieeai e e?aaeeoi?ai. I?e ?an/aoa AII aa?aony any i?eaueue aei ?ani?aaeaeaiey, aeeth/athuay iaeiae ia i?eaueue, iinooiathuea ainoaea?noao, e aeeaeaeaiaeu, auiea/eaaaiua aeoeeiia?ai, a oaeaea ia?ani?aaeaeaiiua i?eauee, eaeouea ia eiaanoeoeee, oaaee/aiea ?aaeueiuo aeoeaia oe?i.Aeioiaeu nianoaaiieeia - /enoua aeioiaeu iaei?ii?e?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee (i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, oiaa?euanoa) auaeaeythony a iniaoth eiiiiiaioo aeioiaeia.Anee iaicia/ei noiia?ioth aaee/eio AII, en/eneaiioth ii aeioiaeai, neiaieii Y, oi iiaeii caienaoue neaaeothuaa ?aaainoai:Y = C + I + G + XN - oiaeaeanoai iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia.3. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee eae ecia?eoaee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie aeeiaieee.Iineieueeo AII eiaao noieiinoiia ecia?aiea, oi aai aaee/eia iiaeao eciaiyoueny, /aua anaai oaaee/eaaoueny ec-ca ?inoa oeai. I?e iiauoaiee oeai, iai?eia?, a aeaa ?aca aaee/eia AII oaeaea oaaee/eony a aeaa ?aca i?e iaeciaiiii eiee/anoaa i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa.AII, a ninoaaa eioi?iai noieiinoue oiaa?ia e oneoa ecia?aia a oaeoueo oeaiao, iacuaaaony iiieiaeueiui AII.*oiau oi/ii io?aceoue ninoiyiea yeiiiieee, ecia?eoaeue eiee/anoaa i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa ia aeieaeai caaenaoue io eieaaaiee oeai. A yoeo oeaeyo eniieuecoaony iieacaoaeue ?aaeueiiai AII, en/eneaiiiai a iinoiyiiuo oeaiao. *oiau ?ann/eoaoue ?aaeueiue AII, auae?atho aaceniue aiae, iai?eia?, 1991. Caoai noieiinoue anao oiaa?ia ?ann/eouaaaony a oeaiao 1991 a. e noiie?oaony.?aaeueiue AII - yoi noiia noieiinoe i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a oeaiao aaceniiai aiaea.Anee iaicia/eoue oeaio i-ai oiaa?a Pi, a aai eiee/anoai - Qi, eiaeaen 91 - aaceniue 91-e aiae, oi ?aaeueiue AII ii anae niaieoiiinoe i?iecaiaeeiuo a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea a aeaiiii aiaeo oiaa?ia (anaai - N) a oeaiao aaceniiai 1991 aiaea, iiaeao auoue ?ann/eoai ii neaaeothuae oi?ioea:N?aaeueiue AII= ( P91i * Qii=1Iineieueeo aeaenoaeoaeueiue ?acoeueoao iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa - eiee/anoai i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa, a ia aai oeaia, oi ?aaeueiue AII yaeyaony aieaa oi/iie oa?aeoa?enoeeie ?acaeoey yeiiiieee ii n?aaiaieth n iiieiaeueiui.Ia iniiaa iiieiaeueiiai e ?aaeueiiai iauaiia AII iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue eiaeaen oeai AII eee aeaoeyoi? AII, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:iiieiaeueiue AIIaeaoeyoi? AII=?aaeueiue AIIAeaoeyoi? AII iieacuaaao eciaiaiea o?iaiy oeai a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea a aeaiiii aiaeo ii ioiioaieth e aaceniiio aiaeo.Ae?oaei, /anoi eniieuecoaiui aeey eioa?i?aoaoeee eciaiaiey o?iaiy oeai iieacaoaeai yaeyaony eiaeaen iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai (EIOe), eioi?ue ?ann/eouaaaony ia iniiaa eciaiaiey noieiinoe “iio?aaeoaeueneie ei?ceiu” naiuee. Iiae/a?eiai iniiaiua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo EIOe e aeaoeyoi?ii AII:aeaoeyoi? AII io?aaeaao noieiinoue anao i?iecaaaeaiiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa, a oi a?aiy eae a eiaeaena iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai o/eouaathony oieueei oeaiu oiaa?ia, i?eia?aoaaiuo iio?aaeoaeyie;a aeaoeyoi?a AII o/eouaathony oieueei oiaa?u, i?iecaaaeaiiua iaoeeiiaeueiuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, a oi a?aiy eae EIOe o/eouaaao eciaiaiey oeai anao oiaa?ia, i?eia?aoaaiuo ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea, iacaaeneii io ianoa eo i?iecaiaenoaa;EIOe ?ann/eouaaaony aeey iinoiyiiiai iaai?a oiaa?ia, a oi a?aiy eae a aeaoeyoi?a i?aaeiieaaaaony eciaiaiea iaai?a oiaa?ia a niioaaonoaee n eciaiaieai ninoaaa AII.Ia i?aeoeea aeeiaieea eiaeaena iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai i/aiue aeecea e aeeiaieea aeaoeyoi?a AII. Iaa iieacaoaey io?aaeatho noiaeioth ea?oeio oaiiia iiauoaiey oeai.Aeeiaieea AAI a 1989-1996 a.a. naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i e?ecena yeiiiieee ?innee.Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC M . AAI e EIOe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee 1989 - 1996 a.a.Iieacaoaee19891990 199119921993 1994 19951996Aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo.o?e.?a % e i?aaeuaeouaio aiaeoa % e 1989 a.-100-98 1,49593,1 1985,679,7 171,591,372,8 61187,463,4 16599661,0 22569457,3Eiaeaen iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai - - 260 2610 940 320 230 122Aeey n?aaiaiey - ca aiaeu ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu AAI ?innee nie?aoeeny ii/oe ia 1/4, ai a?aiy a?aaeaeaineie aieiu (1918 - 1922 a.a.) -ia 23%, ca aiaeu aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu - ia 21%.Ia?yaeo n iieacaoaeyie AII e AAI a nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia eniieuecothony e ae?oaea, ioee/athueany io ieo ii iaeioi?ui eiiiiiaioai. N i?aeoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey ?acee/ey iaaeaeo iieacaoaeyie ia eiatho aieueoiai cia/aiey, oae eae eo aeeiaieea iaeiiiai?aaeaiia. Oai ia iaiaa neaaeoao ciaoue ?acee/iua iieacaoaee, iineieueeo, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iie i?eia?aoatho i?ei?eoaoiia cia/aiea i?e enneaaeiaaiee ioaeaeueiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aeiaieueii /anoi eniieuecothony a yeiiiie/aneeo iaic?aieyo NIE.?anniio?ei iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua ecia?eoaee ?acoeueoaoia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa: /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo, iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae e ?aniieaaaaiue aeioiae.*enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (*II) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie AII, oiaiueoaiiue ia noiio aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee.*II oa?aeoa?ecoao /enoue ?acoeueoao yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eo/oa io?aaeaao oi, /oi a aeaiiii ia?eiaea i?iecaiaenoai aeaenoaeoaeueii i?eaaaeei e aeaaininoiyieth iauanoaa, eai ii i/euai io eneaaeathuaai aeeyiey noieiinoe eciina iniiaiiai eaieoaea, aeeth/aaiiai a AII.Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae (IAe) a nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia iieacuaaao niaieoiiinoue aeioiaeia, iieo/aaiuo anaie yeiiiie/aneeie aaaioaie, e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie *II ca au/aoii einaaiiuo iaeiaia.Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae - yoi ca?aaioaiiue aeioiae iauanoaa, oae eae aeeth/aao aeioiaeu anao yeiiiie/aneeo aaaioia ca aeaiiue ia?eiae.I?e i?iaaaeaiee nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee, i?e i?iaiice?iaaiee ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea e a ?yaea ae?oaeo neo/aaa iaiaoiaeeii ioneaaeeaaoue aaee/eio ee/iiai aeioiaea, niaieoiiiai aeioiaea, iieo/aaiiai aeiiioicyenoaaie. Ii en/eneyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:Ee/iue aeioiae = iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae- i?eaueue ei?ii?aoeee- i?ioeaio- aciinu ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea+ aeeaeaeaiaeu+ o?ainoa?oiua ieaoaaee, iieo/aiiua io ainoaea?noaa ianaeaieaiAeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aeioiaeia, eioi?ua ianaeaiea no?aiu iiaeao o?aoeoue ii naiaio oniio?aieth, eniieuecoaony iieacaoaeue ?aniieaaaaiiai aeioiaea.Ee/iue ?aniieaaaaiue aeioiae - n?aaenoaa, inoathueany a ?anii?yaeaiee aeiiioicyenoa iinea oieaou iaeiaia.Iieacaoaee nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia eniieuecothony e aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo niiinoaaeaiee:o?iaaiue AII(AAI) oa?aeoa?ecoao yeiiiie/aneoth iiuue no?aiu;aaee/eio AII(AAI) a ?an/aoa ia aeooo ianaeaiey ?anniao?eaatho eae oa?aeoa?enoeeo o?iaiy yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.Neaaeothuay oaaeeoea aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea ia yeiiiie/aneie iiue e o?iaia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?yaea no?ai a 1990 aiaeo.Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC N . Aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo ?yaea no?ai ie?a 1990 aiaea a oeaiao 1985 a.AAI 1990 a. a oeaiao 1985 a.No?aiu iauee iauai (a iei.aeiee.NOA) ia aeooo ianaeaiey (a aeieea?ao NOA)NOA 4612273 18347ssiiiey 1819649 14729*aoineiaaeey 90859 5802Iieueoa 148943 3901Oo?oeey 232982 3970NNN? 1433110 4953?inney 870075 5867Yoeiiey 17464 353Ei?ay(N) 45685 2241Ei?ay(TH) 255587 5973Ii ?acia?o aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa ?inney a 1993 a. caieiaea 45-a ianoi a ie?a. A noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee iauai aa AAI aue ii/oe a 40 ?ac iaiueoa aia?eeaineiai. Ii iieacaoaeth AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiey a 1993 a. ?inney caieiaea 39 ianoi a ie?a.Ca ia?eiae n 1971 ii 1994 a. ie?iaie AAI a aaniethoiuo ?acia?ao oaaee/eeny ii/oe a aeaayoue ?ac - n 2,8 o?ei. aei 23,6 o?ei.aeiee. Ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui ioeaieai IAO a 1996 a. ie?iaie AAI aeinoea 31,8 o?ei.aeiee.Aeaaa 3. Yeiiiie/aneee ?inoAii?inu:Oeaee, yooaeoeaiinoue e ea/anoai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoaOaeoi?u e oeiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoaIniiaiua iiaeaee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa1. Oeaee, yooaeoeaiinoue e ea/anoai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa«Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino ioaeai ia nai ii naaa, ii i?eiineo ethaeyi aeinoaoie, iicaieeo ?aoeoue aaaeiaeoea nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu»Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino - iaania/aiea iieiaeeoaeueiie aeeiaieee iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa ia aeeeoaeueiuo a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeao.Yoi ii?aaeaeaiea auei aeaii a i?aaeuaeoueo oaiao eo?na. Iu oaeaea oeacuaaee ia aeaeaoaeueiinoue yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, eae iaiaoiaeeiiai oneiaey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.A i?eioeeia, ?uii/iay nenoaia iinoiyiii i?eaioe?oao naieo aaaioia ia yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, iaeiaei oneeey ioaeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia ii iaeneiecaoeee nianoaaiiie i?eauee /anoi i?eaiaeyo e eiioeeeoo eioa?ania e aucuaatho naie a yeiiiie/aneie aeeiaieea. Ii yoie i?e/eia i?iaeaia ?inoa yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae i?iaeaiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ai anao no?aiao.Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, n iaeiie noi?iiu, niinianoaoao ?ac?aoaieth iniiaiiai yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeai?a/ey - iaaeaeo ia?aie/aiiinoueth yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia e aaca?aie/iinoueth iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae , n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aini?iecaiaeeo yoi i?ioeai?a/ea ia iiaii o?iaia. Caeii aicauoaiey iio?aaiinoae iaoneiaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue iinoiyiiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a oi?ia oaaee/aiey iauaia i?iecaiaeeiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa e oeo/oaiey aai no?oeoo?u.Aeaoaeecaoeey aeaaiie oeaee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa - iiauoaiey o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey no?aiu - iicaieyao noi?ioee?iaaoue neaaeothuoth nenoaio ninoaaeythueo:Oaaee/aiea n?aaeiaaeooaauo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey. Noaiaiue aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee ecia?yaony oaiiaie ?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea ia aeooo ianaeaiey.Oaii ?inoa AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiey (1994 a./1990 a.)Aaeeeia?eoaiey 112Aa?iaiey 119A?aoeey 124Eoaeey 117Eeoae 131Iieueoa 137NOA 116Eae i?aaeei, aeeiaieea iniiaiuo aeaeia aeioiaeia e AII niaiaaeaao. Oae, ia i?ioyaeaiee 1950 - 1980 aa. n?aaeiaaiaeiaua oaiiu ?inoa ?aaeueiiai AII e ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou ninoaaeyee i?eia?ii 2%.Oaaee/aiea naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie. Eae ecaanoii, aeinoa - iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo aeeciaiiuo aeaa - ia iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiey a iieacaoaeyo AII e IAe. Aeey ioeaiee ea/anoaa yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iaiaoiaeei o/ao yoie aai ninoaaeythuae, oi anoue iaiaoiaeeii i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea eciaiaiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?aai/aai aeiy e ?aai/ae iaaeaee, iauae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaioathuaai ianaeaiey.Iaania/aiea aieaa ?aaiiia?iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey IAe n?aaee ?acee/iuo neiaa ianaeaiey. ?ino AII e oaaee/aiea aeeooa?aioeeaoeee aeioiaeia ia ?anoeaieaaaony eae oeo/oaiea oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauanoaaiiuo (iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo) iio?aaiinoae. A 1997 a. ia aeieth 10 % iaeaieaa iaania/aiiiai ianaeaiey ?O i?eoiaeeeinue 31,2 % aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia, a ia aeieth 10% iaeiaiaa iaania/aiiuo - 2,4%. Ianniaay ieuaoa i?aa?auaao a oeeoeeth ana inoaeueiua i?aaa, aea?iaaiiua /aeiaaeo i?e?iaeie e iauanoaii.Oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa e ?ino ?aciiia?acey auioneaaiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa. Yoa ninoaaeythuay iaoiaeeo a oneiaeyo ?uii/iiai oicyenoaiaaiey noieiinoioth ioeaieo, iineieueeo ia oiaa?u aieaa aunieiai ea/anoaa e niioaaonoaothuaai aeonai iieoiaoaeae anni?oeiaioa i?aaeuyaeyaony iiauoaiiue ni?in, /oi iicaieyao oaaee/eaaoue oeaiu i?iaeaae. Aneaaenoaea yoiai, niaieoiiue iauai i?iaeaae, au?aaeaiiue a AII, aic?anoaao.Yooaeoeaiinoue ?inoa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oieueei i i?e?inoa iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae, ii e oi, eaeie oeaiie ii aue aeinoeaioo.N iaeiie noi?iiu, iiae yooaeoeaiinoueth yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iiae?acoiaaatho ana ninoaaeythuea, oa?aeoa?ecothuea yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, oaeea eae:oaeoaeaiea niaoeeaeecaoeee e ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, a oii /enea, iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai;oeo/oaiea ?aciauaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e ?ano?nia ii io?aneyi e ?aaeiiai;inaiaiea iiauo oaoiieiaee, iicaieythueo ieieiece?iaaoue ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e o.i.;?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea (AII ia iaeiiai ?aaioathuaai);?ino oiiaeiioaea/e (ioiioaiea noieiinoe AII e noieiinoe iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia e iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa);nieaeaiea iaoa?eaei - e yia?aiaieinoe (ioiioaiea noieiinoe eniieuecoaiuo ia i?iecaiaenoai iaoa?eaeia e yia?aee e noieiinoe nicaeaiiiai AII) e o.i.N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yooaeoeaiinoue ?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia oieueei iieiaeeoaeueiie aeeiaieeie iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae, ii e oai, /oi i?ienoiaeyuea naeaeae a iiauoaiee iauanoaaiiiai aeaaininoiyiey ia oooaeoatho iieiaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo /eaiia iauanoaa, a?oii ianaeaiey. Oaeie oa?aeoa? eciaiaiee iacuaatho Ia?aoi-yooaeoeaiinoueth (ii eiaie eoaeueyineiai yeiiiienoa A. Ia?aoi). O/ao yoie noi?iiu yooaeoeaiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa o?aaoao aa?iiiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneeo e aoiaienoe/aneeo oeaeae yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.Iiiyoea ea/anoaa yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa naycuaatho n oneeaieai aai nioeeaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoe. I?e yoii auaeaeytho oaeea ia?aiao?u:?acaeoea io?aneae nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u: cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia?aciaaiey, eoeueoo?u;iaania/aiea aaciianiinoe oneiaee o?oaea e aeecie ianaeaiey;iiaeaea?aeaiea iieiie e yooaeoeaiie caiyoinoe;nioeeaeueiay caueuaiiinoue aac?aaioiuo e iao?oaeiniiniaiuo.Iaaeaeo oeaeyie yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e caaea/aie iiauoaiey ea/anoaa ?inoa nouanoaotho eae aaeeinoai, oae e i?ioeai?a/ey, oi anoue ea/anoai ?inoa ia aeinoeaaaony aaoiiaoe/anee. Iii iaania/eaaaony oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeeie ainoaea?noaa.2. Oaeoi?u e oeiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoaOaeoi?aie yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iacuaathony oa yaeaiey e i?ioeannu, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho ianooaau oaaee/aiey ?aaeueiiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, aiciiaeiinoe iiauoaiey aai yooaeoeaiinoe e ea/anoaa.Nouanoaotho i?yiua e einaaiiua oaeoi?u yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. E i?yiui ioiinyo oaaee/aiea ianooaaia aiaea/aiey a yeiiiie/aneee iai?io ?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee e aeaeia yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa eo eniieueciaaiey. E einaaiiui oaeoi?ai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa ioiinyo noeioee?othuea ia?u yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee, oaeea eae i?iaaaeaiea aioeiiiiiieueiie iieeoeee, ?aaoee?iaaiea oeai ia ?ano?nu, nieaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie, ?anoe?aiea aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey e?aaeeoia.A ea/anoaa iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia ?inoa ?inneeneie yeiiiieee a aeeaeian?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa a Iineaiee I?aceaeaioa ?O Oaaea?aeueiiio Nia?aieth iaicia/aiu i?eaea/aiea eiaanoeoeee e ?acaeoea aioo?aiiaai ?uiea.Ia?aue oei iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa - yenoaineaiue (eao. extensivus - ?anoe?ythueeny) aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao ?anoe?aiey, aeiiieieoaeueiiai aiaea/aiey a i?iecaiaenoai yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia: o?oaea, iniiaiiai eaieoaea, nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.Yenoaineaiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa - enoi?e/anee ia?aue iooue iiauoaiey o?iaiy yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. O iaai anoue ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaa: ii niinianoaoao auno?iio inaiaieth i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, niinianoaoao iiauoaieth o?iaiy caiyoinoe, oe?ieiianooaaiiio ?anoe?aieth i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa e iiaiai no?ieoaeuenoaa.Aianoa n oai yenoaineaiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa eiaao na?ueaciua iaaeinoaoee: ii iaoneiaeeaaao oaoie/aneee canoie, eioi?ue nii?yaeai n oaeeie iaaeaeaoaeueiuie ia?aiao?aie yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa eae ianieaeathuayny oiiaeiioaea/a, aunieay iaoa?eaeiaieinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, ieceay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea. Ana yoe iaaeinoaoee oa?aeoa?ecotho ieceoth yooaeoeaiinoue yenoaineaiiai oeia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.Iii?a ia yenoaineaiue iooue yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea a no?aia aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa iaeniieuecoaiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo e ethaeneeo ?ano?nia. Yeiiiieea i?e iii?a ia yenoaineaiua oaeoi?u ?inoa iaycaoaeueii iineo cao?aoiue oa?aeoa?. Oaeie iooue iaieioaii oooaeoaao oneiaey aini?iecaiaenoaa, i?eaiaeeo e auno?iio en/a?iaieth a ?acoeueoaoa iayooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey iaaini?iecaiaeeiuo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa. A eiioea eiioeia yenoaineaiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa aaa?aaao iaoeeiiaeueiia oicyenoai a ooiee, /ai e en/a?iuaaao naay.Auoiaeii ec oaeie neooaoeee yaeyaony ia?aoiae e eioaineaiiio oeio yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.Eioaineaiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa - aieaa neiaeiia yaeaiea. Aai aeaaiia niaea?aeaiea - iiauoaiea ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna (IOI).Oaaee/aiea ianooaaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aeinoeaaaony i?e yoii ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey aieaa i?ia?anneaiie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee, aeinoeaeaiee iaoee, eniieueciaaiey aieaa ea/anoaaiiuo i?aaeiaoia o?oaea, iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieeia. Eioaineaiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa nii?yaeai n iiauoaieai ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, ?inoii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, ?ano?ninaa?aaeaieai, oeo/oaieai eniieueciaaiey eiathuaeny iaoa?eaeueiie aacu i?iecaiaenoaa.Eioaineaiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa - aieaa i?ia?anneaiue. Ii iaoneiaeai iiauoaieai ea/anoaa ?aai/ae neeu, neaaeiaaoaeueii niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth /aeiaa/aneeo niiniaiinoae. Eioaineaiue ?ino niya/aao i?iaeaio ia?aie/aiiinoe anoanoaaiiuo e ethaeneeo ?ano?nia, iicaieyao iieo/aoue aieueoea iae?iyeiiiie/aneea ?acoeueoaou n ieieioiii cao?ao.?acee/atho o?oaeinaa?aaathuee e eaieoaeinaa?aaathuee oei eioaineaiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. O?oaeinaa?aaathuee oei i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi iiaay oaoieea auoaniyao ec i?iecaiaenoaa ?aai/oth neeo. I?e yoii i?e?ino i?iecaiaenoaa aeinoeaaaony /anoe/ii eee iieiinoueth ca n/ao iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Oaeie oei ?inoa oa?aeoa?ai ia noaaeee eiaeono?eaeecaoeee e naycai n auoaniaieai ?aai/ae neeu ec i?iecaiaenoaa e iaino?aieai i?iaeaiu caiyoinoe.Eaieoaeinaa?aaathuee oei eioaineoeeaoeee naycai n i?eiaiaieai aieaa yeiiiie/iuo iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, iicaieythueo oiaiueoeoue ?anoiaeiaaiea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey.A ?aaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie i?aeoeea yenoaineaiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iaeciaiii niaiauaaony n eioaineaiui. Ea/anoaaiiia niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaeoi?ia, aiaeaeaaiuo a i?iecaiaenoai, eae i?aaeei, ni/aoaaony n eo eiee/anoaaiiui ?inoii. Ia?yaeo n yoei, ?ino ?aai/ae neeu e ?anoe?aiea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa /anoi nii?yaeaiu n eciaiaieai eo ea/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia. A neeo yoiai ia i?aeoeea aiai?yo i i?aeiouanoaaiii eioaineaiii eee yenoaineaiii oeia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.3. Iniiaiua iiaeaee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoaIiaeaee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa i?ecaaiu auyaeyoue oneiaey e oaiaeaioeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.Enoiaeiuie iiaeaeyie yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa yaeythony oae iacuaaaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iae?iyeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee. Iie eeanneoeoee?othony eae iaieeanne/aneea iiaeaee ?inoa.I?iecaiaenoaaiiay ooieoeey iieacuaaao caaeneiinoue aaee/eiu iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa io nicaeathueo aai oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.Iaoaiaoe/anee i?iecaiaenoaaiiay ooieoeey a iauai aeaea iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia eae ooieoeey iiiaeo ia?aiaiiuo a neaaeothuai aeaea:Y = F(a1, a2, ..., an), aaea Y - iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae;a1, a2, ..., an - iauaiu aiaea/aiey a i?iecaiaenoai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa: 1-ai, 2-ai, ... n-ai oeiia.*anoiue neo/ae i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ooieoeee - ooieoeey Eiaaa -Aeoaeana:Y = A ( L( ( E1(-1, aaeaL -o?oae; E - eaieoae;A - iinoiyiiue eiyooeoeeaio, iaoiaeeony ?an/aoiui iooai;( - eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe ((<1);Eiyooeoeeaiou yeanoe/iinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ooieoeee - yoi noaiaiiua eiyooeoeeaiou oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, iieacuaathuea, eae aic?anoao iauai i?iaeoeoeee, anee oaeoi? i?iecaiaenoaa eciaieony ia aaeeieoeo. Eiyooeoeeaiou yeanoe/iinoe iaoiaeyo yiie?e/anee. ?acee/atho i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ooieoeee n iinoiyiiuie e ia?aiaiiuie eiyooeoeeaioaie yeanoe/iinoe. Iu i?eaaee i?eia? n iinoiyiiuie eiyooeoeeaioaie yeanoe/iinoe.A 1928 a. *. Eiaa e I. Aeoaean ia iniiaa yiie?e/aneeo aeaiiuo ii ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe NOA ca ia?eiae 1899 - 1922 aa. i?aaenoaaeee eiie?aoiue aeae i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ooieoeee:?=1,01 ( L0,75 ( E0,25N iiiiuueth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ooieoeee iiaeii ?aoaoue neaaeothuea i?iaeaiu:Ii?aaeaeyoue iioaioeeaeueii aiciiaeiua oaiiu ?inoa a caaeneiinoe io aeeiaieee iauaiia aiaeaeaaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia.Auyaeyoue aeieth oiai eee eiiai oaeoi?a a i?iecaiaenoaa e ?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa.Onoaiaaeeaaoue aaee/eio aiciaa?aaeaeaiey oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, enoiaey ec eo i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.Auae?aoue iioeiaeueiua eiiaeiaoeee oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/eaathuea ii?aaeaeaiioth aaee/eio auionea i?iaeoeoeee. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua ooieoeee aeatho aiciiaeiinoue ioeaieoue, ai /oi iauanoao iaieaeaony caiaia aaeeieoeu iaeiiai oaeoi?a ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aaee/eio ae?oaiai. Aeiionoei, a oneiaeyo i?eaaaeaiiie iiaeaee Eiaaa -Aeoaeana noieo caaea/a oaaee/eoue auione i?iaeoeoa ia 5 ie?ae. aeiee. Yoi iiaeii naeaeaoue aeaoiy niiniaaie:oaaee/eoue eaieoae, inoaaea aac eciaiaiey cao?aou o?oaea, /oi iio?aaoao i?e?inoa eaieoaea a ?acia?a ^20 ie?ae. aeiee.oaaee/eoue cao?aou o?oaea, inoaaea aac eciaiaiey cao?aou eaieoaea, /oi iio?aaoao i?e?inoa o?oaeiauo cao?ao a ?acia?a ^6,7 ie?ae. aeiee.Aiineaaenoaee i?iecaiaenoaaiiay ooieoeey Eiaaa - Aeoaeana auea aeaeieciaiaia a nayce n aaaaeaieai oaeoi?a oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.Iiae oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii iiieiatho oaaee/aiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa, aucaaiiia ea/anoaaiiuie eciaiaieyie eaieoaea, ?aai/ae neeu e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.Oaeeie ea/anoaaiiuie eciaiaieyie yaeythony:?ino eaaeeoeeaoeee caiyouo;eiiiaaoeee - iao/ii-oaoie/aneea aeinoeaeaiey, eniieuecoaiua a i?iecaiaenoaa;niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e o.i.Aia?aua i?iecaiaenoaaiioth ooieoeeth n o/aoii oaeoi?a oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna aaae aieeaiaeneee yeiiiieno, eao?aao Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee, ssi Oeiaa?aai (1942 a.).Ii auaae neaaeothuee aeae i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ooieoeee:Y = A ( L( ( E1-( ( art, aaeaart - oaeoi? a?aiaie.Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iiaeaeae i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ooieoeee n o/aoii oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna naycaiu n eiaiaie Nieio, Aeae. Ieaea, Y. Aeaiecii.Eco/aieai yoeo iiaeaeae iu aoaeai caieiaoueny a eo?na «Iae?iyeiiiieea».E?iia iiaeaeae iaieeanne/aneiai iai?aaeaiey nouanoaoao a?oiia oae iacuaaaiuo eaeineaineeo iiaeaeae yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneoth oai?eth Eaeina e eaeineaineoth iiaeaeue iu aoaeai ?acae?aoue a iineaaeothueo oaiao iaoaai eo?na. Iniiaiay eaeay Eaeina ninoieo a oii, /oi aeey auaiaea yeiiiieee ec aeai?annee ia iieiaeeoaeueioth yeiiiie/aneoth aeeiaieeo iaiaoiaeeii ia?anoeoue niaieoiiue ni?in, aeaaiui ia?acii, ca n/ao aeiiieieoaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee. Eiaanoeoeee aeaaeoo ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiue yooaeo, oi anoue auciaoo e?aoiue ?ino iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa.Eaein ?anniao?eaae oieueei e?aoein?i/iue ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, a aai iineaaeiaaoaee niyee yoi ia?aie/aiea, ?ac?aaioaa oeaeue ?yae iaieaeineaineeo iiaeaeae yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiu iiaeaee Oa??iaea e Aeiia?a. Ni. «Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey» iiae ?aae. Oa?aniae/a e Aeia?uieia (n. 299 - 303).Aeaaa 4. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea ia ?uiea aeaa.Aii?inu:Niaieoiiue ni?in.Niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea.Iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea a iiaeaee AD -AS.1. Niaieoiiue ni?inAiaeec iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney inouanoaeyaony i?e iiiiue aa?aae?iaaiey, oi anoue oi?ie?iaaiey niaieoiiuo iieacaoaeae, iacuaaaiuo aa?aaaoaie. Aaaeiaeoeie aa?aaaoaie yaeythony:?aaeueiue iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa;o?iaaiue oeai (aa?aaaoiua oeaiu) anae niaieoiiinoe oiaa?ia e oneoa.Eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia aa?aaaoiuo iieacaoaeyo, oi /anoi a ?an/ao aa?oony ia aaniethoiua eo cia/aiey, a oaiiu ?inoa (i?e?inoa). A /anoiinoe, anee ?anniao?eaatho o?iaaiue oeai a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea, oi o/eouaatho aeaoeyoi? AII (iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea).Niaieoiiue ni?in (AD) - yoi eiee/anoai i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, ia eioi?oth i?aaeuyaeyaony iieoiaoaeueneee ni?in a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea.Iaeaieaa aaaeiui oaeoi?ii, aeeythuei ia aaee/eio niaieoiiiai ni?ina, yaeyaony o?iaaiue oeai a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea. Iaaeaeo o?iaiai oeai e iauaiii iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ia eioi?ue i?aaeuyaeyaony ni?in, nouanoaoao ia?aoiay, io?eoeaoaeueiay naycue.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 42 . E?eaay niaieoiiiai ni?inaE?eaay niaieoiiiai ni?ina (AD) iieacuaaao caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo o?iaiai oeai a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea (?) e niaieoiiui ni?inii ia oiaa?u e oneoae (Y). E?eaay niaieoiiiai ni?ina iino?iaia aeey caaeaiiiai o?iaiy aiaaonoaa iauanoaa.Ienoiaeyuee oa?aeoa? e?eaie niaieoiiiai ni?ina naycuaatho n:yooaeoii aiaaonoaa: iaaeaieai iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe n ?inoii o?iaiy oeai i?e iaeciaiiii o?iaia iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa;yooaeoii i?ioeaioiie noaaee: iiauoaiea o?iaiy oeai iaoneiaeeaaao ?ino noaaie ii eiiia?/aneiio e?aaeeoo, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiciiaeiinoe caeinoaiaaiey iio?aaeoaeyie, oe?iaie, ainoaea?noaii nieaeathony, nieaeaaony e niaieoiiue ni?in;yooaeoii eiii?oiuo caeoiie: anee o?iaaiue oeai a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea iiauoaaony, iio?aaeoaee no?aiyony ia?aeeth/eoue ni?in ia eiii?oiua oiaa?u, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ni?in ia i?iaeoeoeeth iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa nie?auaaony.Iniiaiuie ninoaaeythueie niaieoiiiai ni?ina yaeythony: iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu, eiaanoeoeee, ainoaea?noaaiiua caeoiee e /enoue yenii?o. Eciaiaiey a niaieoiiii ni?ina naycaiu n eciaiaieai eaeie-eeai ec yoeo ninoaaeythueo eee eo niaianoiui eciaiaieai. A?aoe/anee eciaiaiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina eioa?i?aoe?oaony niauaieai e?eaie niaieoiiiai ni?ina ai?aai (AD1 - ?ino niaieoiiiai ni?ina) eee aeaai (AD2- aai nieaeaiea).?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 43 . Eciaiaiea niaieoiiiai ni?inaNiauaiea e?eaie niaieoiiiai ni?ina iiaeao auoue naycaii n eciaiaieai ii e?aeiae ia?a iaeiie ec aai ninoaaeythueo, eae-oi:eciaiaiea a iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeao, eioi?ia iiaeao i?iecieoe ii i?e/eiai:eciaiaiey aeaaininoiyiey iio?aaeoaeae aneaaenoaea eciaiaiey ?uii/iie oeaiu aeoeee eee ?aaeueiie noieiinoe iaaeaeaeeiinoe e caiee. Yoi - cia/eiue oaeoi? a iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoaao ?acaeouo no?ai, aaea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ianaeaiey aeeaaeuaaao naie naa?aaeaiey a aeoeee e iaaeaeaeeiinoue;eciaiaiey iaeeaeaiee iio?aaeoaeae (eioeyoeeiiiuo iaeeaeaiee eee iaeeaeaiee oaaee/aiey aeioiaeia);iaeaieeaaaiie caaeieaeaiiinoe iio?aaeoaeae. Yoio oaeoi?, aeeythuee ia eciaiaiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina, aaaeai aeey oao ainoaea?noa, aaea aeoeaii eniieuecoaony e?aaeeoiaaiea iio?aaeoaeae. Anee iaeiieeanue aieueoay iio?aaeoaeueneay caaeieaeaiiinoue ii e?aaeeoai, oi iio?aaeoaee nie?auatho oaeouee ni?in;eciaiaiee a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeioiaeia. Nieaeaiea iaeiaia ia aeioiaeu ianaeaiey noeioee?oao iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in, a oaaee/aiea aeaao i?ioeaiiieiaeiue yooaeo.eciaiaiey a eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeao a nayce ni neaaeothueie iniiaaieyie:eciaiaiey i?ioeaioiuo noaaie ii e?aaeeoai, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo ii ia caaenyuei io eciaiaiey o?iaiy oeai i?e/eiai. Oaeea eciaiaiey iiaoo auoue naycaiu, iai?eia?, ni naeaoeai aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee;iaeeaeaieai i?eaueae io aeiaeaiee a i?iecaiaenoai. Oi?ioea ia?niaeoeau aeciana, e i?eia?o, noeioee?otho eiaanoeoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu;eciaiaieai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aeciana. Nieaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie oaaee/eaaao i?eauee e iiaoaeaeaao e eiaanoe?iaaieth;iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneea aeinoeaeaiey e ecia?aoaiey, eioi?ua iiaoo aeaoue caiaoiue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo, iiaoaeaeatho /anoiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae caeoiaoue n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aiaae?aiey aeinoeaeaiee a i?iecaiaenoai;eciaiaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeao. Iie, eae i?aaeei, naycaiu n ia?ai?eaioaoeeae a ainoaea?noaaiiie aioo?aiiae eee aiaoiae iieeoeea;eciaiaiey a /enoii yenii?oa, i?ienoiaeyuea a nayce n:eciaiaieyie a iaoeeiiaeueiii i?iaeoeoa ae?oaeo no?ai, /aua - ninaaeieo. ?ino iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa ae?oaeo no?ai iaoneiaeeaaao ?anoe?aiea aiciiaeiinoae yenii?oa iaoae no?aiu;eciaiaieai eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou: iiauoaiea eo?na ii?aaeaeyao noaeaiea aiciiaeiinoae yenii?oa, ?anoe?aiea eiii?oa. Iai?ioea, nieaeaiea eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou aeaeaao yenii?o aieaa auaiaeiui, a aiciiaeiinoe eiii?oa i?e yoii noaeathony.2. Niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaieaNaia ii naaa e?eaay niaieoiiiai ni?ina ia ii?aaeaeyao ?aaiiaaniue o?iaaiue oeai e iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa: iia iieacuaaao eeoue aiciiaeiua niioiioaiey iaaeaeo aeaoiy yoeie ia?aiaiiuie. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey cia/aiey o?iaiy oeai e iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea.Niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea (AS) - yoi eiee/anoai oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?aaeeaaaaiuo anaie iaoeeiiaeueiuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie.Ii iiaiaeo oa?aeoa?a caaeneiinoe nouanoaotho nouanoaaiiua ?anoiaeaeaiey ai iiaieyo yeiiiienoia.A o/aaieea Iaeeiiiaeea e A?th “Yeiiiieen” e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey i?aaenoaaeaia eae eeiey, ninoiyuay ec o?ao io?aceia:ai?eciioaeueiiai (eaeineaineiai);ainoiaeyuaai (i?iiaaeooi/iiai);aa?oeeaeueiiai (eeanne/aneiai).Aaoi?u ia oaycuaatho oa?aeoa? caaeneiinoe n oaeoi?ii a?aiaie e n/eoatho, /oi i?e ieceeo iauaiao i?iecaiaenoaa caiyoinoue ?ano?nia ieceay e oaaee/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaeao auoue iieo/aii aac iiauoaiey oeai ia ?ano?nu. Yoi oa?aeoa?ecoao ai?eciioaeueiue o/anoie e?eaie i?aaeeiaeaiey.Anee aea ana ?ano?nu caiyou, oi ieeaeia iiauoaiea oeai ia i?eaaaeao e oaaee/aieth iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. O/anoie e?eaie i?aaeeiaeaiey, niioaaonoaothuee iieiie caiyoinoe ?ano?nia, aa?oeeaeai. Ia iacaaeneiinoe niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey io o?iaiy oeai ianoaeaaee i?aaenoaaeoaee eeanne/aneie oeieu yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee (Ae. ?eea?aei, Aeae. Ieeeue, A.Ia?oaee e ae?.).I?e i?eaeeaeaiee e iieiie caiyoinoe ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa naycai n aicieeiiaaieai “oceeo iano”, aeaoeoeeoa iaeioi?uo aeaeia ?ano?nia, /oi iiaeao aucaaoue iiauoaiea oeai ia ?ano?nu e iauee ?ino oeai. Yoi ii?aaeaeyao ainoiaeyuee oa?aeoa? i?iiaaeooi/iiai o/anoea e?eaie niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 44 . E?eaay niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaieyE?iia oeai, ia oa?aeoa? i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaoo iiaeeyoue e ae?oaea oaeoi?u (aeaoa?ieiaiou):Eciaiaiea oeai ia ?ano?nu (a noi?iio eo iiauoaiey eee iiieaeaiey).Eciaiaiey a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, /oi /aua anaai naycaii n aeeyieai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.Iaeiae e noaneaeee, ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee. A /anoiinoe, nieaeaiea iaeiaia e i?aaeinoaaeaiea noaneaeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi oaaee/eaaao niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea.Yoe oaeoi?u naeaeaatho e?eaoth i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaai (AS1 - i?e aicaeaenoaee, oaaee/eaathuai i?aaeeiaeaiea), eee ai?aai (AS2 - i?e aicaeaenoaee, nieaeathuai i?aaeeiaeaiea).?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 45 . Eciaiaiea niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaieyIauai?eciaiii, /oi oa?aeoa? i?aaeeiaeaiey a ?aoathuae ia?a ii?aaeaeyaony a?aiaiiui eioa?aaeii aiaeeca.Aieueoeinoai nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiienoia noiaeeony ia oii, /oi a aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea ni?aaaaeeeai iiaiea i?aaenoaaeoaeae eeanne/aneie oeieu yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, eioi?ua iieaaaee, /oi iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ia caaeneo io o?iaiy oeai. A?aoiaioii caeanue auaeaeaaaony oi, /oi a eiia/iii n/aoa, eiee/anoai i?iecaaaeaiiie e i?aaeeaaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony cao?aoaie ?ano?nia, eiathueieny a iauanoaa, i?aaeaea anaai, cao?aoaie o?oaea e eaieoaea, a oaeaea eniieuecoaiuie a yeiiiieea oaoiieiaeyie.Iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii eiathueony a iauanoaa ?ano?nia, iacuaaaony anoanoaaiiui o?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eee o?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?e iieiie caiyoinoe (Y*).?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 46 . Aeieain?i/iay e?eaay niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.3. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea a iiaeaee AD -ASA caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiie oi?iu e?eaie niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, iauaa ?uii/iia ?aaiiaanea aoaeao neeaaeuaaoueny i?e ?acee/iuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo ia?aiao?ao. Eniieuecoy iauaaeeiaiioth e?eaoth i?aaeeiaeaiey, iiaeii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue, ii e?aeiae ia?a, o?e aiciiaeiuo neooaoeee iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney: ia i?iiaaeooi/iii, eeanne/aneii e eaeineaineii io?aceao.?aaiiaanea ia i?iiaaeooi/iii io?acea oi?ie?oaony i?e o?iaia oeai, ?aaiii PE . ?aaiiaaniue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa - Y E . I?e oeaia P1 niaieoiiue ni?in i?aauoaao niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea ia aaee/eio (Y2 - Y1 ) e eiieo?aioeey iio?aaeoaeae iicaieeo iiaeiyoue o?iaaiue oeai aei PE, /oi iicaieeo oaaee/eoue ?aaeueiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa aei Y E .?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 47 . ?aaiiaanea ia i?iiaaeooi/iii o/anoea e?eaie niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.?aaiiaanea ia eaeineaineii io?acea oi?ie?oaony iacaaeneii io o?iaiy oeai. ?aaiiaaniue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa - YE . Anee iauai i?iecaiaenoaa aoaeao aieueoa YE, niaieoiiue ni?in aoaeao iaiueoa niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ia aaee/eio (Y2 - YE) e yoio iauai i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee iaeuecy aoaeao i?iaeaoue. Y1 oaeaea ia iiaeao auoue ?aaiiaaniui iauaiii, oae eae niaieoiiue ni?in i?aauoaao i?aaeeiaeaiea e o?aaoaony ?anoe?aiea iauaiia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 48 . ?aaiiaanea ia eaeineaineii o/anoea e?eaie niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey?aaiiaanea ia eeanne/aneii o/anoea oa?aeoa?ecoaony o?iaiai oeai PE, eioi?ue iaoneiaeeaaao ?aaainoai niaieoiiiai ni?ina niaieoiiiio i?aaeeiaeaieth a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea. Yeiiiieea ?aaioaao ia i?aaeaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae, e anyeia ioeeiiaiea oeaiu io ?aaiiaaniie (P1 eee P2) icia/aao ianiioaaonoaea ni?ina niaieoiiiio i?aaeeiaeaieth.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 49 . ?aaiiaanea ia eeanne/aneii o/anoea e?eaie niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey?aaiiaanea a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea iiaeao eciaiyoueny eae iiae aicaeaenoaeai eciaiaiee a niaieoiiii ni?ina, oae e i?e eciaiaiee niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.?anniio?ei neo/ae oaaee/aiey niaieoiiiai ni?ina.Anee iii i?ienoiaeeo ia eaeineaineii o/anoea, oi i?e iaeciaiiuo oeaiao aoaeao noeioee?iaaoue ?ino iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.Ia eeanne/aneii o/anoea e?eaie niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ?anoouee ni?in iaoneiaeo aicieeiiaaiea eioeyoeee a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea, i?e yoii oaaee/aiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa ia i?iecieaeao (/enoue eioeyoeeiiiue yooaeo).I?e ?inoa niaieoiiiai ni?ina ia ainoiaeyuai o/anoea ?ino oeai aoaeao ni/aoaoueny n ?inoii i?iecaiaenoaa.Oiaiueoaiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoue ianeieueei eiua oneiaey iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney:Ia eaeineaineii o/anoea i?e iaeciaiiuo oeaiao aoaeao nieaeaoueny iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa.Ia i?iiaaeooi/iii e eeanne/aneii o/anoea aoaeao aeaenoaiaaoue oae iacuaaaiue “yooaeo o?aiiaeea”. (Yoio oa?iei yeiiiienou acyee ec iaoaieee. O?aiiaee - yoi iaoaieci, ia iicaieythuee aeaeaoue ia?aoiue oiae.) Yoi naycaii n iaaeaeinoueth oeai a noi?iio iiieaeaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa aieaa ieceee iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aoaeao ni/aoaoueny n i?aaeiei aeinoaoi/ii aunieei o?iaiai oeai.Eciaiaiea niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey iaoneiaeeaaao niioaaonoaothuea eciaiaiey a iae?iyeiiiie/aneii ?aaiiaanee:Oiaiueoaiea niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo oeai e nieaeaieth ?aaeueiiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.Oaaee/aiea niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey icia/aao ?ino ?aaeueiiai iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e nieaeaiea o?iaiy oeai a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea.Iiaeaeue AD - AS iicaieyao aiaeece?iaaoue iiiaea iae?iyeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu, oaeea, iai?eia?, eae eioeyoeey, aac?aaioeoea. Aianoa n oai yoa iiaeaeue ia ioaa/aao ia iiiaea iae?iyeiiiie/aneea aii?inu. Auaeaeei eo:eaeiau iaoaieciu iaania/aiey iieiie caiyoinoe;eae iaania/eoue noaaeeueiinoue oeai;eaeiaa ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a iaania/aiee iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney, ni/aoathuaai iieioth caiyoinoue e noaaeeueiinoue oeai;a /ai caeeth/aaony ?ieue oeiainiaie e aaieianeie nenoai, aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee i?e iaania/aiee iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney;eaeiaa eioa?i?aoaoeey iae?iyeiiiie/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe.Yoi iaoneiaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue eco/aiey e ae?oaeo iiaeaeae, eniieuecoaiuo aeey aiaeeca iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai. Eo iu ?anniio?ei a neaaeothueo oaiao.Aeaaa 5. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneay ianoaaeeueiinoue: yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeuAii?inu:Yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu.Aac?aaioeoea: oeiu, ecia?aiea, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey.Eioeyoeey: ecia?aiea, i?e/eiu, oi?iu e iineaaenoaey.1. Yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeuIae?iyeiiiieea naienoaaiii ia oieueei ?aaiiaanea, ii e ninoiyiea ia ?aaiiaaney, oi anoue ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey a oeaeii.Iu ioia/aee, /oi nia?aiaiiui no?aiai i?enoua ?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai, iieiaeeoaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay aeeiaieea. Iaeiaei, iinooiaoaeueiia ?acaeoea, i?enouaa ia aeeeoaeueiuo eioa?aaeao anai iaoeeiiaeueiui oicyenoaai e ie?iaie yeiiiieea a oeaeii, ia yaeyaony ?aaiiia?iui e iaoeeiiiui. Ia i?ioyaeaiee aieaa /ai 170 eao (ia/eiay n 1825 a., eiaaea ia?aue yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen ioaaoee i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai a Aiaeee) ?uii/iay yeiiiieea ?acaeaaaony “aieiiia?acii”: ia?eiaeu yeiiiie/aneeo iiaeuaiia ia?aiaaeathony niaaeaie, aeai?anneyie.Yeiiiienou iacuaatho eieaaaiey iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe yeiiiie/aneeie oeeeeaie.Iaoeeiiiue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino – ieo, ii?iaeaeaiiue aee?aeoeaiie ieaiiaie nenoaiie oicyenoaa, nicaeaiiie e iiaeaea?aeeaaaoaeny a iaoae no?aia ia aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiii enoi?e/aneii ia?eiaea i?ioyaeaiiinoueth ieiei naieaeanyoe eao. Oi, /oi iia ieacaeanue a eoiaa iaaeecianiiniaiie e auea iiaeaa?aiooa ?aaeeeaeueiui i?aia?aciaaieyi, iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi iaoeeiiii ?anoouay yeiiiieea iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny eeoue ia aanueia ia?aie/aiiuo ia?eiaeao a?aiaie. Aieueoeinoai nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiienoia n/eoatho, /oi oeeee - iaiouaieaiay oa?aeoa?enoeea yeiiiieee. Iineieueeo oeie/iay /a?oa oeeeee/iinoe – ia iiaoi?aiea, a, auoiae ia iiaue, aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oeeeee/iinoue – oi?ia i?ia?anneaiiai ?acaeoey.Oai ia iaiaa, ?aceea yeiiiie/aneea eieaaaiey, aeoaieea niaaeu yeiiiieee - oaeaea iaaeaeaoaeueiia yaeaiea, aeaeouaa ca niaie na?ueaciua yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua iineaaenoaey. Iiyoiio nia?aiaiiia iauanoai no?aieony acyoue iiae eiio?ieue yeiiiie/aneee oeeee n iiiiuueth niioaaonoaothuae yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.A yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeao ioia/athony aeaa aeaaiua oacu :1)niaae (e?ecen)2)iiaeuai (?anoe?aiea) i?iecaiaenoaae aeaa oi/ee:1)iee iiaeuaia2)iaeneiaeueiue niaae (ieaeiyy oi/ea niaaea)?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 50 . Aeeiaieea ?aaeueiiai iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ai a?aiy yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeeaIaeioi?ua yeiiiie/aneea oeieu a oaca iiaeuaia auaeaeytho ia?eiaeu iaeeaeaiey e nianoaaiii iiaeuaia, i?ienoiaeyuaai a yeiiiieea aneaae ca aeinoeaeaieai i?aaeiaai, aeie?eceniiai o?iaiy yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.?aaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu eiatho cia/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe. Iai?eia?, a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo yeiiiieea ia i?ioyaeaiee aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie ia iiaeao i?aiaeieaoue ieaeithth oi/eo niaaea, e oiaaea yoa oi/ea o?ainoi?ie?oaony a aeeeoaeueioth oaco aeai?annee.Oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou:Niaaea IiaeuaiaIoiineoaeueiia ia?ai?iecaiaenoai oiaa?iaIaanoeaieaaiea oiaa?ia (i?e aeeeoaeueiuo niaaeao)nie?auaiea i?eaueaeianniaua aaie?ionoaanieaeaiea o?iaiy iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaanieaeaiea o?iaiy caiyoinoenie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiaanoeoeeeianniaia iaaeaiea eo?na oeaiiuo aoiaa oaaee/aiea aeioiaeiinoe aeciana?ino aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoeoaaee/aiea eiaanoeoeee, no?ieoaeuenoai e iiaea?iecaoeey i?aaei?eyoeeoeai iiauoaiea caiyoinoe?inoaeoeaecaoeey oeiainiauo ?uieiaEa?oeia oeeeeia iau/ii ?acaeaaaony oaeei ia?acii /oi i?aaeoanoaothuay oaca nicaeaao oneiaey aeey ianooieaiey ae?oaie. Oae, ii aeinoeaeaiee iecoae oi/ee niaaea, iineaaeiee i?einoaiaaeeaaaony, i?ae?auaaony iaaeaiea oeai, iinoaiaiii oiaiueoathony caianu oiaa?ia. Aneaaenoaea iaeioi?iai iiauoaiey ni?ina, oaaee/eaathony aiciiaeiinoe ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iaeioi?uo aeaeia oiaa?ia. Ooaea ia/eiatho iai?aaeyoueny eaieoaeu, i?eaeaeathony aeiiieieoaeueiua ?ano?nu e ?aaioieee. Iiauoaaony i?eaueue i?iecaiaenoaa. ?anooo eo?nu oeaiiuo aoiaa, aic?anoaao i?ioeaioiay noaaea. Ii oae i?ienoiaeeo ia aaneiia/ii. Ii aeinoeaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy, aicieeaao i?iaeaia ianniaie ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaiaeeiuo oneoa, i?aauoaiey iaae ieaoaaeaniiniaiui ni?inii ni anaie auoaeathueie iineaaenoaeyie.Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie oeiaie oeeeeia, eeanneoeoee?oaiuo ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe, yaeythony :Aeeeiiiaieiiaua (Eiiae?aoueaaneea), eioi?ua ioaaouaatho ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee (40 – 60 eao);Ii?iaeueiua eee n?aaeiea, (7 - 12 eao) oeeeeu. Eo iacuaatho aua i?iiuoeaiiuie, eee oeeeeaie AEoaea?a1. Eiaiii iie /aua anaai ?anniao?eaathony a ea/anoaa i?iaeaiu iae?iyeiiiieee e yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.Ia?aue i?iiuoeaiiue e?ecen ?ac?aceeny a Aiaeee a 1825 aiaeo, e caoai ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai XIX aaea neaaeiaaee i?iiuoeaiiue oeeeeu i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth 10 - 12 eao. A XX aaea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?iiuoeaiiuo oeeeeia nie?aoeeanue aei 7 - 9 eao. Naiia ?ac?ooeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiieeo ieacaea «Aaeeeay aeai?anney» 1929 – 1933 aa., ioaaoeaoay aieueoeinoai no?ai ie?a, ioee/aaoayny iniai aeoaieei e aeeeoaeueiui iaaeaieai i?iecaiaenoaa.Ia?yaeo n ii?iaeueiuie, eee n?aaeieie ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneeie oeeeeaie, eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, yeiiiie/aneiio ?acaeoeth naienoaaiiu e aeieain?i/iua eieaaaiey. Eaeath i nouanoaiaaiee aieueoeo oeeeeia (aeeeiiuo aiei) auaeaeioe ?onneee yeiiiieno I.Ae. Eiiae?aoueaa. Ia iniiaa ia?aaioee noaoenoeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey Aiaeee, O?aioeee, Aa?iaiee e NOA i?eia?ii ca 140 eao (n eiioea XVIII aaea aei ia/aea XX aaea) ii i?eoae e auaiaeo i iaee/ee a ?aieao yoiai ia?eiaea aeaoo n iieiaeiie aieueoeo oeeeeia eiiuthieoo?u, eaaeaeue i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth ieiei 50 eao. Eaaeaeue oeeee i?ioiaeeo a naiai ?acaeoee “iiauoaoaeueioth” e “iiieaeaoaeueioth” aieiu.Ia/aei iiauoaoaeueiie aieiu I. Ae. Eiiae?aoueaa naycuaae n ianniaui aiaae?aieai a i?iecaiaenoai i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo oaoiieiaee.Ia “iiauoaoaeueiie” aieia i?ienoiaeyo na?ueaciua eciaiaiey a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa: eciaiaiey a oaoieea, i?iecaiaenoaa e iaiaia, a aeaiaaeiii ia?auaiee; aeey yoie aieiu oa?aeoa?ii aiaea/aiea iiauo no?ai a ie?ioicyenoaaiiua nayce, aeoeaecaoeey ie?iaie oi?aiaee. Aeai?annee n?aaeieo e iaeuo oeeeeia ia yoie aieia iaiueoa, iiaeuaiu aieaa eioaineaiu. Aeoeaii ?acaeaaaony iieeoe/aneay ea?oeia ie?a: ia iiauoaoaeueiie aieia i?ienoiaeeo iaeaieueoaa /enei aiei e ?aaiethoeee.Enneaaeiaaiea aieueoeo oeeeeia iicaieeei I.Ae. Eiiae?aoueaao i?aaeneacaoue “Aaeeeoth aeai?anneth” - naiue aeoaieee e?ecen ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa, ioaaoeaoee ie?iaia eaieoaeenoe/aneia oicyenoai a eiioea 20-o - a 30-o aiaeao XX aaea. I?eia?ii /a?ac iieaaea – a 1974 – 1975aa. i?iecioei naiia aeoaieia ca iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi aiiaue canoaaeei ia?aoeoueny yeiiiienoia e ianeaaeeth I. Ae. Eiiae?aoueaaa.Ia?ainiuneeaay ianeaaeea I.Ae. Eiiae?aoueaaa, nia?aiaiiua ioa/anoaaiiua e ca?oaaaeiua o/aiua oi?ie?otho iiaoth oai?eth oeeeee/aneie aeeiaieee. Oae, N. TH. Aeacueaa a iiiia?aoee «Oai?ey oeeeee/aneie aeeiaieee. Yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey» (I. 1993) aeaao neaaeothuoth eeanneoeeaoeeth oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeaaeia:Iiia? oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeaaeaOa?aeoa?enoeea oeeaaea 1 2 3 4 5Ia?eiae 1770-1830 a 1830-1880 a 1880-1930 a 1930- 1980a 1980 - 2030?Oaoiieiae/aneea eeaea?u Aaeeeia?eoaiey, O?aioeey, Aaeueaey Aaeeeia?eoaiey, O?aioeey, Aaeueaey, Aa?iaiey, NOA Aa?iaiey, NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, O?aioeey, Aaeueaey, Oaaeoea?ey, Ieaea?eaiaeu AANO, Eaiaaea, Aano?aeey, ssiiiey, Oaaoeey, Oaaeoea?ey ssiiiey, NOA, Aa?iaiey, Oaaoeey, AYN, Oaeaaiue, Ei?ay, Eaiaaea. Aano?aeeyssae?i oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeaaea Oaenoeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, oaenoeeueiia iaoeiino?iaiea, auieaaea /oaoia, ia?aaioea aeaeaca, no?ieoaeuenoai eaiaeia, aiaeyiie aeaeaaoaeue Ia?iaie aeaeaaoaeue, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia no?ieoaeuenoai, o?ainii?o, Iaoeii-, ia?ioiaeino?iaiea, oaieueiay, noaieieino?oiaioaeueiay i?ii-oue, /a?iay iaoaeeo?aey Yeaeo?ioaoie/aneia, oyaeaeia iaoeiino?iaiea, i?iecaiaenoai e i?ieao noaee, eeiee yeaeo?iia?aaea/ iai?aaie/aneay oeiey Aaoiiiaeea-, o?aeoi?ino?iaiea, oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey, i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey, neioaoe/aneea iaoa?eaeu, i?aaie/aneay oeiey, i?iecaiaenoai e ia?a?aaioea iaooe Yeaeo?iiiay i?iiuoeaiiia oue, au/eneeoaeueiay, iioeei-aieieiiiay oaoieea, i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, oaeaeiiioieeaoeee, ?iaioino?iaiea, i?iecaiaenoai e ia?a?aaioea aaca, eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae.Eeth/aaie oaeoi? Oaenoeeueiua iaoeiu Ia?iaie aeaeaaoaeue Yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeue, noaeue Aeaeaaoaeue aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey, iaooaoeiey Iee?iyeaeo?iiiua eiiiiiaiouI?aeiouanoaa aeaiiiai oeeaaea ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeoanoaothuei Iaoaiecaoeey e eiioeaio?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa ia oaa?eeao ?ino ianooaaia e eiioeaio?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey ia?iauo aeaeaaoaeae Iiauoaiea aeaeinoe i?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaey, noaiaea?oecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa, o?aaiecaoeey Ianniaia e na?eeiia i?iecaiaenoai Eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey, iiauoaiea aeaeinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aiaeieaiea yeieiae/aneeo ia?aie/aiee ii yia?ai- e iaoa?eaeiiio?aaeaieth ia iniiaa ANO, aeaco?aaiecaoeey ia iniiaa oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaeeIiaiey i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia aanueia i?ioeai?a/eau. Iaeie yeiiiienou n/eoatho oeeee aiaoiei (yeciaaiiui) ii ioiioaieth e yeiiiieea yaeaieai, iieaaatho, /oi yeiiiie/aneea eieaaaiey eiatho i?e?iaeioth, iieeoe/aneoth, ineoieiae/aneoth e o.i. caaeaiiinoue. Iai?eia?, O.N. Aeaeaaiin naycuaae yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu n eioaineaiinoueth nieia/iuo iyoai. Ae?oaea enneaaeiaaoaee i?e/eiiie iaoneiaeaiiinoe oeeeeia ia?auatho aieiaiea ia eo aioo?aiiaa, yiaeiaaiiia ii ioiioaieth e yeiiiieea, i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Inoaiiaeiny ia iaeioi?uo ec oaeeo iiaeoiaeia.Ioa/anoaaiiua yeiiiienou, iie?aynue ia ia?enenoneea enneaaeiaaiey, /aua anaai ia?auaee aieiaiea ia aioo?aiiaa i?ioeai?a/ea ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa: iauanoaaiiue oa?aeoa? i?iecaiaenoaa e /anoioth oi?io i?enaiaiey.Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaiiaeaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea, oi anoue nii?oaeaiee, iai?oaeiaaiey, o?ainii?oiuo e ae?oaeo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, e naaiaeiy i?eciaaony aieueoeinoaii yeiiiienoia a ea/anoaa iniiaiie i?e/eiu oeeeee/aneeo e?ecenia ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Aeieacaii, /oi aeaeaeaiea eiaanoeoeee, iaiiaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea auiieiyao “i/enoeoaeueioth” ooieoeeth a yeiiiieea. Iaanoeaiaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea ai a?aiy niaaeia nicaeaao oneiaey aeey iaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa, iiaoaeaeaao e iaiiaeaieth eaieoaea ia iiaie oaoie/aneie aaca, oae eae o?aaoao nieaeaiey ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi aiciiaeii oieueei ia iiaie oaoie/aneie aaca. Oaeei ia?acii, e?ecen oieeaao yeiiiieeo e ia?aoiaeo ia iiaue, i?aainoiaeyuee i?aaeiee, oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneee o?iaaiue.Ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaiiinoue a iauyniaiee i?e/ei oeeeee/iinoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey nio?aiytho acaeyaeu caiaaeiuo yeiiiienoia XIX aaea (O. Iaeueoona, AE. Neniiiaee, Aeae. Aianiia e ae?.), iie?aaoeony ia eiioeaioeeth iaaeiiio?aaeaiey. Iie iauyniyee e?ecenu iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth iio?aaeyaiiai aeioiaea a n?aaiaiee n i?iecaaaeaiiui aeioiaeii. Oai?ee iaaeiiio?aaeaiey i?eaea?aeeaaeenue a ?innee ia?iaeieee.Auaeathueeny aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno Aeae.I. Eaein a ?aaioa “Iauay oai?ey caiyoinoe, i?ioeaioa e aeaiaa” (1936 a.) neioace?iaae i?aaeoanoaothuea oai?ee e ?ac?aaioae nianoaaiioth iae?iyeiiiie/aneoth eiioeaioeeth, aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii eioi?ie yaeeanue eaeineaineay oai?ey oeeeea. Eaein aeaeae i?e/eiu yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia a iaaeinoaoi/iinoe niaieoiiiai ni?ina. Ii aeieacuaae, /oi ionoonoaea ni?ina, ieceay iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue ianaeaiey e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai naeoi?a, ieceea aeioiaeu iaoneiaeeaatho iaaeinoaoi/iinoue oaeoueo eiaanoeoeee, /oi i?aaeii?aaeaeyao nieaeaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa a aoaeouai.Eaeineaineie oai?ee aeaeiaiai oeeeea i?ioeainoieo iiiaoa?iay oai?ey oeeeea (I. O?eaeiai), niaeanii eioi?ie aeaaioth ?ieue a aeeiaieea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea ea?aao ianoaaeeueiinoue aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.A iineaaeiea aiaeu a caiaaeiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea ?ac?aaioaia oai?ey ?aaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea, eioi?ay iauyniyao eieaaaiey aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe aicaeaenoaeai ?aaeueiuo ia?ooaiee (oieia) ia noi?iia niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. A ea/anoaa iaeaieaa aaaeiuo ia?ooaiee, ii?aaeaeythueo aeaeiaie oeeee, noi?iiieee yoie oai?ee auaeaeytho oiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe (?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a ?acoeueoaoa iiyaeaiey aieaa niaa?oaiiie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee) e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia.Iiey?iua acaeyaeu ia i?e?iaeo yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia iinoiyiii ii?iaeaeatho aeeneonnee, ai?y/ea nii?u yeiiiienoia, /oi iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea e a yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea no?ai n ?acaeoui ?uii/iui oicyenoaii.Aioeoeeeee/aneay iieeoeea yaeyaony iai?aiaiiui yeaiaioii ainoaea?noaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea. Aianoa n oai, iai?aaeaiey aioee?eceniiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, i?aaeeaaaaiua yeiiiienoaie ?aciuo oeie, iiaoo nouanoaaiii ?acee/aoueny. I eiie?aoiuo eino?oiaioao aioee?eceniiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee aoaeao ?anneacaii a iineaaeothueo oaiao eo?na.Iiae/a?eiai, /oi oeeeee/iinoue - ao?eaoo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Aicieeathuea a ieaiiaie yeiiiieea eieaaaiey yeiiiieee iau/ii iaoneiaeaiu aiayeiiiie/aneeie i?e/eiaie. ?inneeneay yeiiiieea ca aiaeu ?aoi?i i?aoa?iaea aeoaieee niaae: n 1989 a. aioo?aiiee ?uiie naeaeny ia 60 - 65 i?ioeaioia, nauo ia aiaoieo ?uieao - ia 35 %; i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai oiaei aieaa /ai iaiieiaeio. Aieueoeinoai yeiiiienoia oeacuaatho ia iaoeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa? yoiai niaaea, oeacuaatho, /oi ii ii?iaeaeai niaoeeoe/aneeie iineaaenoaeyie ?ac?ooaiey ieaiiaie yeiiiieee.Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae oeacuaatho, /oi aeey auoiaea ?inneeneie yeiiiieee ec e?ecena ioaeiu aeaaioneea eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey, aeoeaiay no?oeoo?iay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa, ainnicaeaiea oi?aaeyaiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaa. A oi aea a?aiy oieueei ni noaiiaeaieai yooaeoeaiie ?uii/iie nenoaiu oicyenoaa aiciiaeii naii?aaoee?iaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, a yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu, aeiiieiaiiua ei??aeoiui ainoaea?noaaiiui ?aaoee?iaaieai, niiaoo auiieiyoue ia oieueei ?ac?ooeoaeueioth, ii e i/enoeoaeueioth ooieoeeth.2. Aac?aaioeoea: oeiu, ecia?aiea, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaeyNieaeaiea caiyoinoe - iaeii ec naiuo na?ueaciuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo iineaaenoaee oeeeee/aneie aeeiaieee. Aac?aaioeoea ieacuaaao iaeaieaa neeueiia e iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, nouanoaaiii nieaeaao aeeciaiiue o?iaaiue, iaiineo oyaeaeoth ineoieiae/aneoth o?aaio. Yeiiiienou eco/atho aac?aaioeoeo aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aa i?e/ei, a oaeaea niaa?oainoaiaaiey ia? ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee, aeeythueo ia caiyoinoue.Aianoa n iiceoeaiuie ia?aiaiaie a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee, eioi?ua ianao nia?aiaiiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann, iai?yaeaiiinoue ia ?uiea o?oaea iinoiyiii aic?anoaao. A iineaaeiea aiaeu aac?aaioeoea iineo onoie/eaue e ianniaue oa?aeoa? a no?aiao n iieiioeaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. Noaiiaeaiea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee a ?innee, nii?iaiaeaeathuaany yeiiiie/aneei niaaeii, oaeaea noaaeo i?iaeaio caiyoinoe a /enei iaeaieaa aeooaeueiuo.Caiaoei, /oi i?aaeaea oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiyaoayny a ioa/anoaaiiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioao onoaiiaea ia iieioth e yooaeoeaioth caiyoinoue yaeyaony iai?eaieaiie a oneiaeyo ?uiea aeaeea?aoeeae e iaaeinoeaeeiie oeaeueth. A eciaieaoeony oneiaeyo oianoii i?eaea?aeeaaoueny iiiyoey “iieiay caiyoinoue”, eioi?ia ia icia/aao noii?ioeaioioth caiyoinoue, a i?aaeiieaaaao nouanoaiaaiea ii?iaeueiuo, yeiiiie/anee e nioeeaeueii ii?aaaeaiiuo oeiia iacaiyoinoe.Aeey ooi/iaiey iiiyoey “iieiay caiyoinoue” ii?aaeaeei ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie oeiaie aac?aaioeoeu. Iaeia ec i?e/ei aac?aaioeoeu caeeth/aaony a iaiaoiaeeiinoe cao?ao a?aiaie aeey onoaiiaeaiey niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo no?oeoo?ie ?aai/ae neeu e naiaiaeiuie ?aai/eie ianoaie. Ianiio?y ia iaee/ea aaeainee, iiene ?aaiou eaaeaeui ioaeaeueiui /aeiaaeii o?aaoao a?aiaie, oae eae eaaeaeue ?aaioiee i?e niaia ianoa ?aaiou no?aieony iaeoe oaeia ?aai/aa ianoi, eioi?ia iiaeoiaeeei au aio eae ii o?iaith eaaeeoeeaoeee, oneiaeyi o?oaea, oae e ii iieaoa.Oi?ia a?aiaiiie iacaiyoinoe, aucaaiiay oai, /oi onoaiiaeaiea niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie e ?aai/eie ianoaie o?aaoao a?aiaie, iacuaaaony o?eeoeeiiiie aac?aaioeoeae.Ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue o?eeoeeiiiie aac?aaioeoeu iaecaaaeai e a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie aeaeaoaeai, oae eae a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa ?aaioieee euoo e, eae i?aaeei, iaoiaeyo aieaa aunieiiiea/eaaaiua ianoa, aaea iie, e oiio aea, iiaoo ?aaioaoue aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueii.Ecaanoiue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony no?oeoo?iuie naeaeaaie, iinoiyiii i?ienoiaeyueie a iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoaao. Iaeie io?anee yeiiiieee naeeiathony eee ioie?atho, ae?oaea iieo/atho iia?aaeathuaa ?acaeoea, nicaeathony iiaua naeoi?a oicyenoaa. Niioaaonoaaiii, iaiyaony ni?in ia o?oae a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo e ?aaeiiao.Aac?aaioeoea, aucaaiiay no?oeoo?iuie eciaiaieyie a yeiiiieea, iacuaaaony no?oeoo?iie aac?aaioeoeae.No?oeoo?iua naeaeae iaoneiaeeaatho aunaiaiaeaeaiea ?aaioieeia a nie?auathueony io?aneyo e iaiaoiaeeiinoue eo ia?aeaaeeoeeaoeee aeey iaania/aiey ?aaioie, iiyoiio no?oeoo?iay aac?aaioeoea yaeyaony aieaa na?ueaciie i?iaeaiie eae aeey ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea, oae e aeey iauanoaa a oeaeii. Aianoa n oai e yoio oei iacaiyoinoe iaioa?aoei e iauaeoeaii iaoneiaeai yeiiiie/aneei i?ia?annii.Iaeaieaa oyaeaeie oi?iie aac?aaioeoeu yaeyaony iacaiyoinoue, aucaaiiay oeeeee/aneeie niaaeaie aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe, eioi?oth e i?eiyoi iacuaaoue oeeeee/aneie.Yeiiiienou n/eoatho iieiie caiyoinoueth oio o?iaaiue caiyoinoe, eioi?ue aeinoeaaaony i?e ionoonoaee oeeeee/aneie aac?aaioeoeu.O?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu i?e iieiie caiyoinoe i?eiyoi iacuaaoue anoanoaaiiui o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu. O?iaaiue iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?e iieiie caiyoinoe iacuaatho iioaioeeaeueiui iauaiii i?iecaiaenoaa.A eaaeaeue ia?eiae a?aiaie anoanoaaiiue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu - o?oaeii onoaiaaeeaaaiay aaee/eia, aa ii?aaeaeytho aanueia oneiaii eae n?aaeiee o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu ia aeeeoaeueiii a?aiaiiii eioa?aaea. Eae iieacuaaao noaoenoeea iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee, a caiaaeiuo no?aiao iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e ?inoo anoanoaaiiiai o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu.O?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu - yoi i?ioeaio aac?aaioiuo a /eneaiiinoe ?aai/ae neeuIau/ii o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu au?aaeaaony a i?ioeaioao en/eneyaony ii neaaeothuae oi?ioea:Ec oi?ioeu aeaeii, /oi /eneaiiinoue ?aai/ae neeu - yoi niaieoiiia eiee/anoai caiyouo e aac?aaioiuo, oi anoue /eneaiiinoue o?oaeiniiniaiuo a aeaiiii iaoeeiiaeueiii oicyenoaa eee ?aaeiia.A 1996 aiaeo o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu a Ineianeie iaeanoe ninoaaee:Yoi - iaeei ec naiuo aunieeo iieacaoaeae aac?aaioeoeu a ?innee (n?aaeiee o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a 1996a. aue 3,4 %). Ii ai?iaeo Ineiao o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu ca oio aea ia?eiae ninoaaee 7 i?ioeaioia.Aac?aaioeoea iaaoaii neacuaaaony ia anae yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa. I?aaeaea anaai, iia aaaeao e yeiiiie/aneei iioa?yi, nieaeaao o?iaaiue iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ue iia au auoue aeinoeaioo i?e iieiie caiyoinoe. I?e iaee/ee aac?aaioeoeu yeiiiieea ia aeinoeaaao iioaioeeaeueiiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.A caiaaeiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea e i?aeoeea en/eneaiea iioaioeeaeueiuo iioa?ue i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa a ?acoeueoaoa auoaniaiey ?aai/ae neeu ioeaieaatho n iiiiuueth caeiia Ioeaia, iacaaiiiai oae ii eiaie aia?eeaioea A. Ioeaia, eioi?ue auyaee ia?aoioth caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu e ?aaeueiui iauaiii AII. Ii onoaiiaee, /oi nie?auaiea o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu ia iaeei i?ioeaioiue ioieo aeaao aeiiieieoaeueiue i?e?ino ?aaeueiiai iauaia AII i?eia?ii ia 2 i?ioeaioa.I?eia?. Aeiionoei, anoanoaaiiue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu ninoaaeyao 6%. A 1995 a. o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu aue 9,5%. (3,5 % i?aauoaiey). Cia/eo auei iaaeii?iecaaaeaii i?eia?ii 7% io iioaioeeaeueiiai iauaia ?aaeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Yeiiiieea iaeanoe a 1995 a. i?iecaaei i?iaeoeoeeth ia 4 436 ie?ae. ?oaeae. Cia/eo, iioaioeeaeueiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ninoaaee au (4436*107)/100 = 4746,5 ie?ae. ?oaeae.N?aaee nioeeaeueiuo iineaaenoaee aac?aaioeoeu neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo iioa?th eaaeeoeeaoeee ia?aaioathueie niaoeeaeenoaie, nieaeaiea aeioiaeia n?aaeieo e iecoeo neiaa, iaaeaiea ii?aee a iauanoaa, oaaee/aiea i?anooiiinoe. A?aiy aac?aaioeoeu ?ani?aaeaeyaony ia?aaiiia?ii: a iaeaieueoae noaiaie io iaa no?aaeatho iieiaeaaeue, aeaiueiu, a caiaaeiuo no?aiao - iaoeeiiaeueiua iaiueoeinoaa.A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee caueoa io aac?aaioeoeu ia aiaiyaony a iaycaiiinoue /anoiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e oe?i. Aianoa n oai, iacaiyoinoue yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii iinoiyiiie caaiou ainoaea?noaa e ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe.A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aeey ?aoaiey i?iaeai aac?aaioeoeu nicaeaia Ainoaea?noaaiiay neoaeaa caiyoinoe, eiathuay naie iiae?acaeaeaiey a ?aaeiiao no?aiu. Iia inouanoaeyao ?aaeno?aoeeth aac?aaioiuo, i?aaiecoao iauanoaaiiua ?aaiou, niinianoaoao o?oaeiono?ienoao ia?aoeaoeony a iaa ia?aaioathueo a?aaeaeai, ?aaeecoao i?ia?aiiu i?ioanneiiaeueiie ia?aiiaeaioiaee aac?aaioiuo, caieiaaony aii?inaie auieaou iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea, eioi?ie?oao ia eiathueony a ?aaeiiao aaeaineyo.3. Eioeyoeey: ecia?aiea, i?e/eiu, oi?iu e iineaaenoaeyI?iyaeaieai iae?iyeiiiie/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe, ianiioaaonoaey iaaeaeo niaieoiiui ni?inii e niaieoiiui i?aaeeiaeaieai yaeyaony eioeyoeey.Eioeyoeey (inflatio – acaeooea) - yoi iaanoeaiaiea aeaiaa, ia?aiieiaiea eaiaeia aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey aoiaaeiuie ciaeaie, iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue eioi?uo iaaeaao.Eioeyoeey i?iyaeyaony /aua anaai a oi?ia iiauoaiey o?iaiy oeai. Aiciiaeiinoue eioeyoeee naycaia n iiyaeaieai aeaiaaeiuo no??iaaoia - aoiaaeiuo e iaoaeee/aneeo aeaiaa. Anee ia?auaaony aieueoaa, /ai iaiaoiaeeii aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?aaeeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa eiee/anoai aeaiaa, oi iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue ?inoa oeai. Oaeay neooaoeey iiaeao aicieeiooue ec-ca ?aceiai nie?auaiey i?iecaiaenoaa eee a nayce n eceeoiae aeaiaaeiie yienneae.Eioeyoeeth iau/ii ecia?ytho eiaeaenii iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai (EIOe) eee eiaeaenii oeai AII (aeaoeyoi?ii AII).Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oaiaeaioeee eioeyoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna a ?an/ao aa?oo oaiiu eioeyoeee, eioi?ua ?ann/eouaathony ii oi?ioea:A caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu eiaeaena oeai ?acee/atho neaaeothuea aeaeu eioeyoeee:iieco/oth (5 - 10 % a aiae). Iau/ii iieco/ay eioeyoeey ia ieacuaaao io?eoeaoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey ia iaoeeiiaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai. ?ino oeai yaeyaony iau/iui yaeaieai (e aeaaea oaeoi?ii) i?e oia?aiiii ?inoa yeiiiieea.aaeiie?othuoth (aeaocia/iua oeeo?u a aiae). Oaeay eioeyoeey – naeaeaoaeuenoai na?ueaciuo aeeni?iii?oeee a yeiiiieea;aeia?eioeyoeeth (aeaocia/iay a ianyoe, o?ao -/aou?aocia/iay a aiae).aeia?eioeyoeey aa?anneaii ?ac?ooaao yeiiiieeo. ?aceia iaanoeaiaiea aeaiaa «nuaaeaao» naa?aaeaiey ianaeaiey, iaanoeaieaaaony aeiaeaiiue i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie eaieoae. Eioeyoeeiiiua iaeeaeaiey i?aiyonoaotho eiaanoeoeeyi e ?acaeoeth i?iecaiaenoaa.Aeia?eioeyoeey aa?anneaii ?ac?ooaao yeiiiieeo. ?aceia iaanoeaiaiea aeaiaa “nuaaeaao” naa?aaeaiey ianaeaiey, iaanoeaieaaaony aeiaeaiiue i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie eaieoae. Eioeyoeeiiiua iaeeaeaiey i?aiyonoaotho eiaanoeoeeyi e ?acaeoeth i?iecaiaenoaa.A oneiaeyo aaeieieno?aoeaii onoaiaaeeaaaiuo oeai iiaeao eiaoue ianoi iiaeaaeaiiay (ne?uoay) eioeyoeey, eioi?ay i?iyaeyaony a oi?ia oiaa?iiai aeaoeoeeoa. I?e naiaiaeiii oi?ie?iaaiee oeai ia iniiaa ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey eioeyoeey i?eia?aoaao ioe?uoue oa?aeoa? e i?iyaeyaony a iiauoaiee o?iaiy oeai.Ioe?uoay eioeyoeey iiaeao ii?iaeaeaoueny ?acee/iuie iae?iyeiiiie/aneeie oaeoi?aie. N yoeo iiceoeee ?acee/atho eioeyoeeth ni?ina e eioeyoeeth i?aaeeiaeaiey.Eioeyoeey ni?ina aicieeaao i?e iieiie caiyoinoe yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia iauanoaa, eiaaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeaiiiai ia?eiaea en/a?iaiu. Oaaee/aiea ni?ina i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo o?iaiy oeai. Iu ioia/aee oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue, ?anniao?eaay eciaiaiea iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney ec-ca ?inoa niaieoiiiai ni?ina a iiaeaee AD - AS ia eeanne/aneii o/anoea e?eaie niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 51 . Eioeyoeey ni?ina. ?ino niaieoiiiai ni?ina (AD1 ( AD2) i?eaiaeeo e /enoiio ?inoo oeai (P1 ( P2) a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea.Eioeyoeey ni?ina - yoi i?iyaeaiea ianiioaaonoaey aeaiaaeiiai ni?ina e oiaa?iie iannu. *oi iiaeao i?e/eiie aiacaiiiai e ?aceiai oaaee/aiey niaieoiiiai ni?ina?/?acia?iua iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n aunieeie eioeyoeeiiiuie iaeeaeaieyie;iia?aaeathuee ?ino ca?aaioiie ieaou ii ioiioaieth e ?inoo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea;onoaiiaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeai ieaea ?aaiiaaniuo;ecauoi/iua eiaanoeoeee, iaoneiaeaiiua iaiainiiaaiiuie iioeienoe/aneeie iaeeaeaieyie;iaiiia?iua ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu, ia iaoneiaeaiiua ?inoii ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia;aeiiieieoaeueiay aeaiaaeiay yienney;aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u (oaeaoaaeaiea ?oaey ioiineoaeueii ae?oaeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho).Eioeyoeey ni?ina naiiaini?iecaiaeeony, /anoi ii?iaeaeay aaeeioaaeiue ni?in.Aiciiaeii aicieeiiaaiea eioeyoeee ni noi?iiu niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. ?aceee ?ino ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa ?iaeaeaao eioeyoeeth i?aaeeiaeaiey. Eioeyoeeth i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaeao aucaaoue:aiacaiiia oaei?iaeaiea oeai nu?uey (ie?iaie yia?aaoe/aneee e?ecen 70-o aiaeia, iiauoaiea oeai ia yia?aiiineoaee a ?innee a 90-a aiaeu);aeoeaiia aeaaeaiea i?ionithcia, o?aaothueo iiauoaiey iieaou o?oaea;aaaaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, aeaaiui ia?acii, einaaiiuo iaeiaia, aeoeecia.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 52 . Eioeyoeey i?aaeeiaeaiey. Oieiaia nie?auaiea niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey (AS1 ( AS2) i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo o?iaiy oeai (P1 ( P2) a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea.Aiaeec eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a nia?aiaiiie ?innee iaia?oaeeaaao “acaeiiia iiaeea?ieeaaiea” aeaoo oi?i eioeyoeee.Eioeyoeey i?eaiaeeo e iai?iaiice?oaiiio e iaiainiiaaiiiio ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea a iauanoaa.Eioeyoeey iaoneiaeeaaao nieaeaiea eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaenoai (oae eae canoaaeyao e?aaeeoi?ia iiauoaoue i?ioeaioiua noaaee). Aeeeoaeueiia nie?auaiea eiaanoeoeee i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth ?aaeueiiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.Eioeyoeey iaoneiaeeaaao aunieea ?enee a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia yoi i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee naeoi? iocuaaaony ?aceei nie?auaieai n?ieia e?aaeeoiaaiey: ooiaeii ec ?aaeueiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee.Eioeyoeey nieaeaao iieeoe/aneoth noaaeeueiinoue, iaoneiaeeaaao nioeeaeueioth iai?yaeaiiinoue.Aunieay eioeyoeey ?ac?ooaao iaoeeiiaeueioth aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoioth nenoaio, iaoneiaeeaaao eniieueciaaiea NEA ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea. A nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee ?acee/atho i?iaiice?oaioth (iaeeaeaaioth) e iai?iaiice?oaioth eioeyoeeth.Iaeeaeaaiay eioeyoeey i?eaiaeeo e neaaeothuei iineaaenoaeyi:?aaeueiia eiee/anoai aeaiaa ia ?oeao o ianaeaiey nie?auaaony. I?eoiaeeony /anoi iinauaoue aaie aeey niyoey aeaiaa. (Ecaea?aeee «noiioaiiuo aaoiaeia»).I?eoiaeeony /aua iaiyoue oeaiieee. «Ecaea?aeee iaith».I?eoiaeeony iaiyoue iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. (Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia).Iai?iaiice?oaiay eioeyoeey iaoneiaeeaaao neaaeothuea iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey:Niaeoeyoeaiia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aiaaonoaa iauanoaa (/a?ac aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeoiua e a?aiaeiua aeiaiai?u, eiiia?/aneea eiio?aeou, a eioi?uo oeacaiu iiieiaeueiua noieiinoiua aaee/eiu).Aueao ii ethaeyi, iieo/athuei oeene?iaaiiua aeioiaeu.Eaeao ooa/ea iaoeeiiaeueiiai eaieoaea ca a?aieoeo.Eioeyoeey - naiue oyaeaeue iaeia, iniaaiii ia n?aaeia- e iaeieiouea neie. Iia iaanoeaieaaao o?oaeiaua aeioiaeu e aeioiaeu io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.Eioeyoeey iiaeao oaaee/eoue ?aaeueiua aeioiaeu, iaoneiaeoue iieo/aiea auaiaeu neaaeothueie eaoaai?eyie noauaeoia:iin?aaeieeaie, caiyouie ia?ai?iaeaaeae oiaa?ia, oeaiiuo aoiaa, aaethoueeoeaie, iieo/eaoeie e?aaeeou eee iaaeaeaeeiinoue ii aeieain?i/iui aeiaiai?aiethaeueie, aeiaeeaoeie n?aaenoaa a iaaeaeaeeiinoue e oeaiiinoe;eeoeaie, ieeoeaoai?ythueie ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneea no?oeoo?u.Aeaaa 6. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieeeAii?inu:Eeanne/aneay e eaeineaineay iae?iyeiiiie/aneea eiioeaioeeeIio?aaeaiea, naa?aaeaiey, eiaanoeoeee e eiaanoeoeee. YooaeoEaeineaineay iiaeaeue iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney . ioeueoeieeeaoi?aoeiainiaay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa: eioa?i?aoaoeey n iiiiuueth eaeineaineie iiaeaee1 Eeanne/aneay e eaeineaineay iae?iyeiiiie/aneea eiioeaioeeeIi?aaeaeaiiay /anoue aaaeoueo yeiiiienoia ie?a e naaiaeiy i?eaea?aeeaaaony iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia eeanne/aneie yeiiiie/aneie oeieu e ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi yeiiiieea aioo?aiia i?enoua ?aaiiaanea. Eaeae eeanneeia ?acaeaatho yeiiiienou iaieeanne/aneiai e iiaiai eeanne/aneiai iai?aaeaiee, noi?iiieea iiiaoa?ecia e iaieeaa?aeecia.A yoie nayce i?aaenoaaeyaony aeooaeueiui ?anniio?aiea eeth/aauo iiceoeee eeanne/aneie oeieu ii iae?iyeiiiie/aneei i?iaeaiai. Ia?a/eneei aaaeiaeoea ec ieo:eeanneee auaeaeaatho ia ia?aue ieai i?iecaiaenoai, i?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?ia a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea, ?anniao?eaatho i?aaeeiaeaiea a ea/anoaa iioi?a yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa;eeanne/aneay oeiea n/eoaao ni?aaaaeeeaui Caeii Nyy. Oae iaicia/aia aa?aaeueiay oi?ioea o?aioeocneiai yeiiiienoa AE. A. Nyy, niaeanii eioi?ie i?aaeeiaeaiea aaoiiaoe/anee ?iaeaeaao ni?in. I?e yoii i?aaeeaaaaony i?inoie a?aoiaio: ?aaeecoy naie oiaa?, i?iaeaaaoe iieo/aao aeioiaeu, eioi?ua caoai eniieuecoao ia i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa, oi anoue i?aa?auaaony a iieoiaoaey. Iineieueeo ana iieo/aiiua aeioiaeu o?aoyony ia i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?ia, oi ana i?iecaaaeaiiua a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea oiaa?u ?aneoiathony;eiae/aneei neaaenoaeai Caeiia Nyy yaeyaony ooaa?aeaeaiea i iaaiciiaeiinoe e?ecenia ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa. Ia?ooaiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney, /oi eeanneee, eiia/ii, aeiioneatho - yaeaiea eieaeueiia e a?aiaiiia;iaoaieciii, iaania/eaathuei ?aaiiaanea iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, yaeythony iaoaieci ?uii/iuo oeai. Oeaiu aea, ii iiaieth eeanneeia, aaniethoii aeaee: i?e ieioie ?uii/iie ia?niaeoeaa anyeee ?aoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeaaaoe nei?aa niaeaneony ia nieaeaiea oeai, /ai ia oi, /oiau oiaa? inoaeny ia?aaeeciaaiiui ;?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 53 . Eeanne/aneay oai?ey a iiaeaee AD - ASIa a?aoeea iieacaii, /oi e?eaay niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey «ii eeanneeai» aa?oeeaeueia. Yoi – eeethno?aoeey oiai iieiaeaiey eeanne/aneie oai?ee, /oi iaoeeiiaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai inouanoaeyaony ia o?iaia iieiie caiyoinoe e ia caaeneo io o?iaiy oeai. Niaieoiiue ni?in noaaeeai ecaaeneo oieueei io aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Anee ana aea niaieoiiue ni?in iiieaeaaony, oi aeaeinoue oeai iaoneaaeeaaao nieaeaiey eo iauaai o?iaiy (?1(?2).?uii/iue iaoaieci, n/eoatho eeanneee, iaania/eaaao naaeaine?iaaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia o?iaia iieiie caiyoinoe e iieiiai eniieueciaaiey inoaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia;ioe?iaaiiay iaeiae/iinoue eeanne/aneiai iiaeoiaea i?iyaeyaony oaea a oii, /oi ia ana aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoia e oneoa, eaeoo ia iio?aaeaiea, /anoue ec ieo naa?aaaaony. Iaeiaei, ?acaeoea eeanne/aneeo aicc?aiee iicaieeei i?aiaeieaoue yoi i?ioeai?a/ea.?anniio?ei e?aoei a?aoiaioaoeeth iineaaeiaaoaeae eeanne/aneeo acaeyaeia. Iie i?eaaaatho e aeeoioiiee (?anna/aieth) ?uiea ia aeaa naeoi?a: ?uiie oiaa?ia e aeaiaaeiue ?uiie. I?e yoii auaiaeyo, /oi naa?aaeaiey - yoi ia “ia?oaue” eaieoae, a n?aaenoaa, i?aaeeaaaaiua ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea. Aeiiioicyenoaa naa?aaatho /anoue aeioiaeia, ia o?aoy eo ia oiaa?u e oneoae. Nyeiiiieaiiua aeaiueae o?aiyony a aaieao eee ae?oaeo oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaieyo. A oi aea a?aiy i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee naeoi?, ioaeaeaynue a aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoaao, caeinoaoao iaaeinoathuee aeey aeiaeaiee a i?iecaiaenoai aeaiaaeiue eaieoae ia oeiainiauo ?uieao, eniieuecoy aai aeey i?eia?aoaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia.Oaeei ia?acii, oi, /oi aeey iaeieo eeoe yaeyaony naa?aaeaieai, aeey ae?oaeo noaiiaeony eiaanoeoeeyie, i?e/ai noaaea aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa o?aaieaaao naa?aaeaiey e eiaanoeoeee.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 54 . ?aaiiaanea ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea a eioa?i?aoaoeee eeanneeia: naa?aaeaiey e eiaanoeoeee o?aaieaathony i?ioeaioiie noaaeie.Naa?aaeaiey iaoiaeyony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io noaaee i?ioeaioa: ianaeaiea naa?aaaao aieueoa n?aaenoa i?e aunieeo noaaeao ii aeeaaeai. I?aaei?eieiaoaee, iaiai?io, ioioiaa eiaanoe?otho, anee noaaea i?ioeaioa iiieaeaaony. Ii iaoaoi?a yeiiiienoia, yeiiiieea - “aeaaioneay aaiia”. Ooa/ea /a?ac neeaioth o?oao naa?aaeaiee aica?auaaony a yoo aaiio /a?ac e?ai eiaanoeoeee. Noaaea i?ioeaioa niaaeeiyao eo.I?aeoe/aneee auaiae eeanneeia ninoieo a neaaeothuai: iineieueeo iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea ainnoaiaaeeaaaony niiioaiii, eae ca?eaei aiaeiie aeaaee io a?ioaiiiai eaiiy, iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe ai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo. Yeiiiie/aneea niaaeu iaoneiaeaiu eneeth/eoaeueii iayooaeoeaiie iieeoeeie ainoaea?noaaiiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Iiyoiio ioaeii ia “?aaoee?iaaiea” yeiiiieee, a caaioa i oii, /oiau iieeoe/aneea aicaeaenoaey ia iaiineee ae i?yiiai a?aaea.Eeanneee i?aaeienuaaee eneeth/eoaeueii neaaeothuea iai?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo:iiaeaea?aeaiea eiieo?aioeee;iiaeaea?aeaiea noaaeeueiie iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aeaiaa;i?eaioaoeey ia aacaeaoeoeeoiinoue athaeaeaoa;ia?aie/aiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a /?acau/aeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao: aieiu, noeoeeiua aaaenoaey e oiio iiaeiaiia.Aeaeii Iaeia?ae Eaein, iie?aynue ia aiaeec e?eceniiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai a 20-o - 30-o aiaeao OO aaea, auaae, /oi ooaa?aeaeaiey eeanneeia ?anoiaeyony n yeiiiie/aneeie ?aaeeyie. Iioaeeeiaaiiue Eaeinii a 1936 a. aeaaiue o?oae “Iauay oai?ey caiyoinoe, i?ioeaioa e aeaiaa” iaicia/ee ?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?aai?io a ?acaeoee yeiiiie/aneie iunee.Iae?iyeiiiie/aneay oai?ey Aeae.I.Eaeina - aaniethoiay aeueoa?iaoeaa eeanne/aneie eiioeaioeee. Iia nicaeaaaeanue ia oiia eneeth/eoaeueii ino?uo i?iaeai, ioaaoeaoeo ie?iaia eaieoaeenoe/aneia oicyenoai: e?aeia ieceiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, ianniaie aac?aaioeoeu e o?iie/aneiai iaaeieniieuecieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae.Auaeaeei iniiaiua i?eioeeiu oai?ee Eaeina:Caeii Nyy ia aeaenoaoao ec-ca ianiioaaonoaey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ieaiia e ieaiia naa?aaeaiee; iioeau eiaanoeoeee e naa?aaeaiee ?acee/iu:o?iaaiue eiaanoeoeee ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony iaeeaeaieai i?eaueae,a o?iaaiue naa?aaeaiee - ieaie?iaaieai aoaeoueo ?anoiaeia.Aneaaenoaea yoiai i?ioeaioiay noaaea ia yaeyaony iaoaieciii o?aaiiaaoeaaiey naa?aaeaiee e eiaanoeoeee (neeaiay o?oaa naa?aaeaiee e e?ai eiaanoeoeee ia niaaeeiythony);oeaiu ia yaeythony aeinoaoi/ii aeaeeie, iie ia iaycaoaeueii aoaeoo iaaeaoue i?e e?eceniii nie?auaiee i?iecaiaenoaa. Ai iiiaii o?iaaiue oeai i?aaeii?aaeaeytho oaiaeaioeee a iieaoa o?oaea. Ii aeaaea a oneiaeyo cia/eoaeueiie aac?aaioeoeu nieaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou iaoeie/ii. ?aaeueiaa nio?aiaiea i?aaeiaai o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou eee aeaaea aai iiauoaiea. Iayeanoe/iinoue oeai naycaia oaeaea n iiiiiieecaoeeae oiaa?iuo ?uieia e aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth i?ionithcia. Oaeei ia?acii, iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea a oneiaeyo ?uiea iiaeao noi?ie?iaaoueny e i?e iaee/ee cia/eoaeueiie eioeyoeee;?aaiiaanea a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea iiaeao aeinoeaaoueny e i?e iaiieiie caiyoinoe. Iieiay caiyoinoue - aeaeaaiay oeaeue e iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea noaaeeueiinoe anyeiai ?acaeoiai iauanoaa - nei?aa eneeth/aiea a eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea, /ai i?aaeei;niaieoiiue ni?in ianoaaeeai, cia/eo i?e aai nieaeaiee aac?aaioeoea iiaeao auoue aeieaia?aiaiiie;enoiaeiay iinueea Eaeina: eiaiii ni?in nicaeaao i?aaeeiaeaiea. Oai?ey Eaeina - oai?ey yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina. Oaeei ia?acii, Eaein “ia?aaa?ioe” i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiioth naycue iaaeaeo i?aaeeiaeaieai e ni?inii;i?aeoe/aneee auaiae Eaeina ninoieo a oii, /oi iaiaoiaeeii aeoeaiia ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina.Ia a?aoeea iieacaii, /oi e?eaay niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey “ii Eaeino” ai?eciioaeueia. Niaieoiiue ni?in ianoaaeeai; oeaiu e ca?aaioiay ieaoa iayeanoe/iu a iai?aaeaiee iiieaeaiey. Nieaeaiea ni?ina i?eaiaeeo e iaaeaieth iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa (Y1 ( Y2) e caiyoinoe, a ia o?iaiy oeai.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 55 . Eaeineaineay oai?ey a iiaeaee AD - AS:2. Iio?aaeaiea, naa?aaeaiey, eiaanoeoeeeEoae, aaaeiue auaiae Eaeina ninoieo a ii?aaeaeythuai aicaeaenoaee niaieoiiiai ni?ina ia yeiiiie/aneoth aeeiaieeo. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?aaei?eieiaoaee aoaeoo i?iecaiaeeoue oaeie iauai i?iaeoeoeee, ia eioi?ue aoaeao i?aaeuyaeai iieoiaoaeueneee ni?in, oi anoue ia eioi?ue caieaie?iaaiu ?anoiaeu. A yoie nayce ?anniio?ei aieaa aieiaoaeueii eiiiiiaiou niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia.Aa?aaaoiua ia?aiaiiua “iio?aaeaiea”, “naa?aaeaiey” e “eiaanoeoeee” auee aaaaeaiu a iao/iue iai?io Aeae.I. Eaeinii. Naaiaeiy yoe eaoaai?ee oe?iei eniieuecothony a iae?iyeiiiie/aneii aiaeeca. Ia?aiia/aeueii a iaoai enneaaeiaaiee iu, aneaae ca Eaeinii, aano?aae?oainy io ainoaea?noaaiiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey: aoaeai n/eoaoue aeey i?inoiou, /oi ainoaea?noai ia aceiaao iaeiaia e ia inouanoaeyao ?anoiaeia. E?iia oiai, i?eiai eae oi?iuaiea, /oi iaoeeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea - cae?uoay nenoaia e aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea nayce ionoonoaotho. Oiaaea ec aiciiaeiuo eiiiiiaioia niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia inoathony eeoue iio?aaeaiea e eiaanoeoeee.Iio?aaeaiea yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae ninoaaeythuae niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia. Ii aeaiiui Aineiinoaoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, a 1995 - 1996 a.a. ?anoiaeu aeiiaoieo oicyenoa ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea ninoaaeee 48 e 49 % io AAI niioaaonoaaiii.Iio?aaeaiea (N) - yoi iauaa eiee/anoai iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?eia?aoaiiuo a aeaiiii iaoeeiiaeueiii oicyenoaa a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea (iau/ii, aiaea).Iaooaau iio?aaeaiea ii?aaeaeyaony eae noauaeoeaiuie, oae e iauaeoeaiuie i?e/eiaie. A ea/anoaa aeaaiiai iauaeoeaiiai oaeoi?a, ii?aaeaeythuaai aaee/eio iio?aaeaiey, yeiiiienou ?anniao?eaatho o?iaaiue aeioiaea (a iae?iyeiiiieea - niaieoiiiai aeioiaea). Iiyoiio iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue iio?aaeaiea eae ooieoeeth io iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea (Y):C= C(Y).Ioiaoei, /oi iio?aaeaiea iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io aeioiaea.Aianoa n oai, ia iio?aaeaiea aeeytho e noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u, e eioi?ui ioiinyo, a /anoiinoe, “ineoieiae/aneoth” neeiiiinoue ethaeae e iio?aaeaieth. Noauaeoeaioth aioiaiinoue eniieueciaaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth /anoue aeioiaea ia iio?aaeaiea ecia?ytho n iiiiuueth iieacaoaey i?aaeaeueiie neeiiiinoe e iio?aaeaieth (MPC). Iineaaeiee au?aaeaao ioiioaiea ethaiai eciaiaiey a iio?aaeaiee e oiio eciaiaieth a aeioiaea, eioi?ia aai aucaaei.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 56 . A?aoee ooieoeee iio?aaeaiey - i?yiay, iaeeii eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaeueiie neeiiiinoueth e iio?aaeaieth (MPC).Eeiey “45” - aennaeo?ena, ae?oaia aa iacaaiea - eeiey aeioiaea, eeiey ?aaiiai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. I?eaaaeaiiay iiaeaeue iio?aaeaiey aaaaeaia a iae?iyeiiiieeo Oainaiii e Naioyeueniiii. Io?acie eeiee iio?aaeaiey, ?aniieiaeaiiue auoa eeiee aeioiaea, oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae “aeeciue a aeiea”, iineieueeo niioaaonoaothuea cia/aiey aeioiaea iaaeinoaoi/iu aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ieieiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiiai o?iaiy iio?aaeaiey.Aeioiaeu ia oieueei iio?aaeythony, ii e naa?aaathony.Naa?aaeaiey (S) - oa /anoue aeioiaeia, eioi?ay ia iio?aaeyaony.Naa?aaeaiey aeaeatho ?aaee inouanoaeaiey e?oiiuo iieoiie a aoaeouai, aeey iaania/aiey noa?inoe e ianeaaenoaa e o.aeOaeei ia?acii, i?ioeaioiay noaaea ia yaeyaony aeaaiui oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei o?iaaiue naa?aaeaiee.Ii ia?a ?inoa aeioiaeia oaaee/eaathony e aiciiaeiinoe naa?aaeaiey. Ii iioeau naa?aaeaiee, oaeaea eae e iio?aaeaiey, a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie iaoneiaeeaathony ineoieiae/aneie neeiiiinoueth e naa?aaeaieyi. I?aaeaeueiay neeiiiinoue e naa?aaeaieth (MPS) ii?aaeaeyaony aiaeiae/ii MPC:Iineieueeo naa?aaeaiey - /anoue aeioiaeia, ia eniieueciaaiiay ia iio?aaeaiea (C + S = Y), oi eaaei caiaoeoue, /oi ni?aaaaeeeai niioiioaiea: ( N+( S = ( Y, ioeoaea neaaeoao, /oi:MPC + MPS = 1.?anniio?ei a?aoee ooieoeee naa?aaeaiey.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 57 . A?aoee ooieoeee naa?aaeaiey - i?yiay, iaeeii eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaeueiie neeiiiinoueth e naa?aaeaieth MPS. A?aoee naa?aaeaiee no?ieony iooai au/eoaiey cia/aiee iio?aaeaiey ec niioaaonoaothueo cia/aiee aeioiaea.Eaein n/eoae, /oi n ?inoii aeioiaea neeiiiinoue e iio?aaeaieth nieaeaaony, /oi iiaeao eioa?i?aoe?iaaoueny a?aoeeii iio?aaeaiey ni nieaeathueiny iaeeiiii. Aieueoeinoai nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiienoia iaoiaeyo, /oi aeey yeiiiieee a oeaeii I?N e I?S ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiu. Noaoenoeea ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai, yenia?oiua ioeaiee, enneaaeiaaiey iaoeo yeiiiienoia, a iniiaiii, iiaeoaa?aeaeatho yoio auaiae. A iaoai aiaeeca iu aoaeai enoiaeeoue ec iinoiyiiie neeiiiinoe e naa?aaeaieth e i?eiai, /oi a?aoeee iio?aaeaiey e naa?aaeaiee - i?yiua.?anoiaeu a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea inouanoaeythony ia oieueei ia iio?aaeaiea, ii e ia ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, oi anoue ia eiaanoe?iaaiea.I?eia?aoaiea oe?iaie eaieoaeueiuo aeaa (n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa) iacuaaaony eiaanoe?iaaieai, a n?aaenoaa, eaeouea ia yoe oeaee iacuaathony eiaanoeoeeyie (I).ssaeyynue aaaeiui oneiaeai yeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?anna, eiaanoeoeee ninoaaeytho caiaoioth /anoue a iaoeeiiaeueiii aeioiaea yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai. Iaeiaei, niaae ?inneeneiai i?iecaiaenoaa iaoneiaee caiaoiia nieaeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe. Oae, anee a 1994 aiaeo eiaanoeoeee a oeaeii ii ?innee ninoaaeyee 18 % io AAI, a 1995 aiaeo - 16 %, oi a 1996 a. - 15 % io AAI. ?aaeueiue iauai eiaanoe?iaaiey a no?aia ca ia?eiae n 1991 ii 1996 a.a. nie?aoeeny ii/oe a/aoaa?i.Onoaiiaeaii, /oi o?iaaiue eiaanoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoiy iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie:iaeeaeaieai i?eaueae (iaeeaeaaiie /enoie ii?iie i?eauee, oi anoue o?iaiai aeioiaeia ia aeiaeaiiue eaieoae). *ai auoa ii?ia i?eauee, oai aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueii eiaanoe?iaaiea. Iaeiaei, eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia, iaania/eaathueo aunieoth ii?io i?eauee ia oae oae iiiai. Iiyoiio, /ai auoa ii?ia i?eauee, oai iaiueoei ieacuaaaony iioaioeeaeueiue iauai eiaanoeoeee;noaaeie aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa. Eiaanoe?iaaiea i?iecaiaeeony eeoue aei oao ii?, iiea iaeeaeaaiay ii?ia i?eauee ia iaiueoa i?ioeaioa ii nnoaeai. Ii yoie i?e/eia eiaao ianoi ia?aoiay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo noaaeie i?ioeaioa e eiaanoeoeeyie.Iaaeaeo o?iaiai aeioiaeia e aaee/eiie eiaanoeoeee nouanoaoao iieiaeeoaeueiay naycue, ii iia ia yaeyaony onoie/eaie. Iiyoiio aeiionoeii iaoa oi?iuaiea: aoaeai n/eoaoue, /oi eiaanoeoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu ia caaenyo io o?iaiy iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Yoi - i?aaeiieiaeaiea ia aaoiiiiiinoe eiaanoeoeee.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 58 . A?aoee eiaanoeoeee - ai?eciioaeueiay eeiey. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oi?iuathuei i?aaeiieiaeaieai i iacaaeneiinoe eiaanoeoeee io o?iaiy iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e aeioiaea.3. Eaeineaineay iiaeaeue iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney e eiaanoeoeee. Yooaeo ioeueoeieeeaoi?a.Eoae, niaieoiiue ni?in, i?aaeuyaeyaiue ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea, - yoi noiia ieaie?oaiuo ?anoiaeia anao eaoaai?ee iieoiaoaeae ia ioa/anoaaiiua oiaa?u e oneoae aeey eaaeaeiai ec o?iaiae niaieoiiiai aeioiaea. A oneiaeyo cae?uoie yeiiiieee, a eioi?ie ionoonoaoao ainoaea?noaaiiia athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea, niaieoiiue ni?in - yoi ni?in aeiiioicyenoa ia iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u e ni?in oe?i ia eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u. Niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea a iaoeeiiaeueiii oicyenoaa - yoi aaee/eia i?iecaaaeaiiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa (iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea).?aaiiaanea a yeiiiieea aeinoeaaaony i?e ?aaainoaa niaieoiiiai ni?ina e niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Niaeanii iaoaio oi?iuaieth, nouanoaotho oieueei aeaa oeia ?anoiaeia: iio?aaeaiea e eiaanoeoeee, cia/eo oneiaeai iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney aoaeao ?aaainoai ni?ina, i?aaenoaaeaiiiai noiiie iio?aaeoaeueneeo e eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia, aaee/eia i?iecaaaeaiiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa:Y = C + I?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 59 . ?aaiiaanea a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea, onoaiaaeeaaaiia /a?ac ?aaainoai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa iio?aaeaieth e eiaanoeoeeyi.A aeaiiie iiaeaee iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea aeinoeaaaony i?e iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa YE. I?e iauaiao, iaiueoeo YE, niaieoiiue ni?in i?aauoae au i?aaeeiaeaiea, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaeea iauaiu ia yaeythony ?aaiiaaniuie. Anee au inouanoaeyeny iauai i?iecaiaenoaa, aieueoee YE, ?aaiiaanea oaeaea ia aeinoeaaeinue au, oae eae yoi icia/aei iaaeinoaoi/iinoue niaieoiiiai ni?ina aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa.A iaoai i?eia?a iauai ?aaiiaaniiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea (YE) iaiueoa iauaia i?e iieiie caiyoinoe (iioaioeeaeueiiai, anoanoaaiiiai, Y*). A oaeii neo/aa i?eiyoi aiai?eoue i ?aoeanneiiiii (aeaoeyoeeiiiii) ?ac?uaa, oi anoue i iaaeinoaoi/iii o?iaia niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia aeey iaania/aiey ?aaiiaaniiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa i?e iieiie caiyoinoe.Aiciiaeii oi?ie?iaaiea ?aaiiaaney i?e o?iaia niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia, i?aauoathuai aaceioeyoeeiiiue. Oaeia ?aaiiaanea oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae eioeyoeeiiiue ?ac?ua.I?aaenoaaeaiiay iiaeaeue iaicia/aia a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee eae “Eaeineaineee e?ano”, oioy i?aaeeueiaa auei au iacuaaoue aa aeeaaiiaeueiui e?anoii Naioyeueniia, eai a?aoe/aneay eioa?i?aoaoeey eaeineaineie oai?ee auea inouanoaeaia I.Naioyeueniiii. Aiaeec aeeaaiiaeueiiai e?anoa iicaieyao a iauai aeaea i?aaenoaaeoue niioiioaiea iaaeaeo eiaanoeoeeyie, iio?aaeaieai e iaoeeiiaeueiui aeioiaeii.Eaein ooaa?aeaeae, /oi anee eciaiythony ninoaaeythuea niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia, oi yoi ii?iaeaeaao eciaiaiea ?aaiiaaniiai o?iaiy iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Iaeaieaa eciai/eaui eiiiiiaioii niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia yaeythony eiaanoeoeee, iiyoiio ?anniio?ei ia?aiia/aeueii aeioiaeiia?acothuaa aicaeaenoaea eiaanoeoeee.Aaaeiui yeaiaioii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee Aeae.I.Eaeina yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiue ioeueoeieeeaoi?. Nooue eiioeaioeee ioeueoeieeeaoi?a caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iaaeaeo eciaiaieyie aaoiiiiiuo eiaanoeoeee e iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea nouanoaoao onoie/eaay caaeneiinoue. Iineaaeiyy i?iyaeyaony a oii, /oi i?e?ino eiaanoeoeee ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aaee/eio i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a iauaia, aieueoai, /ai enoiaeiue i?e?ino eiaanoeoeee.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 60 . A?aoe/aneay eioa?i?aoaoeey yooaeoa ioeueoeieeeaoi?a.?ino eiaanoeoeee ia aaee/eio (I2 - I1 ) i?eaiaeeo e aieueoaio (ia aaee/eio (Y2 - Y1) i?e?inoo iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Ia a?aoeea aeaeii, /oi i?e eiaanoeoeeiiiii ni?ina I1 niaieoiiua ?anoiaeu (N+I1), a ?aaiiaaniue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa - A1. Anee eiaanoeoeee aic?anooo aei I2, oi o?iaaiue niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia ninoaaeo (C+I2) e ?aaiiaanea aoaeao aeinoeaaoueny a oi/ea A2. Aiaeiae/ii, nieaeaiea eiaanoeoeee ii?aaeaeyao iaaeaiea ?aaiiaaniiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea.Oaeei ia?acii, i?e eciaiaiee eiaanoeoeee ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aaee/eio ?aaiiaaniue iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iaiyaony a oii aea iai?aaeaiee, ii a cia/eoaeueii aieueoeo ianooaaao. Yoio yooaeo iacuaatho ioeueoeieeeaoeaiui.Eaein aeieacae, /oi aeiiieieoaeueiua eiaanoeoeee iaoneiaeeaatho oaaee/aiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea ia aaee/eio, e?aoioth i?e?inoo eiaanoeoeee. Eiyooeoeeaio e?aoiinoe e iacuaaaony ioeueoeieeeaoi?ii.Ioeueoeieeeaoi? (Mult) iieacuaaao ioiioaiea eciaiaiey ?aaiiaaniiai iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?aiia/aeueiiio eciaiaieth a ?anoiaeao.Cia/aiea ioeueoeieeeaoi?a iiaeii au?aceoue neaaeothuae oi?ioeie:Eciaiaiea a aeioiaea (Y (YMult = --------------------------------------------------- = ---------- = -------Ia?aiia/aeueiia eciaiaiea a ?anciaeao ((C+I) (I(C(Y = --------- (Y=M*(IMPCEaein naycuaae ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiue yooaeo n oai, /oi oaaee/aiea iieoiie eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia icia/aao oaaee/aiea aeioiaeia oao, o eiai yoe oiaa?u i?eia?aoaiu. Oaaee/aiea aeioiaeia i?iaeaaoeia eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia, a naith i/a?aaeue, ii?iaeaeaao ?anoe?aiea iio?aaeaiey. ?ino iio?aaeaiey i?eaiaeeo e aic?anoaieth yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e aeioiaea. Ca ia?ae/iui i?e?inoii aeioiaea neaaeoao aoi?e/iue e o.ae.Aeey eeethno?aoeee ioeueoeieeeaoeaiiai yooaeoa ?anniio?ei i?eia?. I?aaeiieiaeei, enoiaeiua cia/aiey iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae ninoaaeytho:Y = 400; MPC=0,75; I= 100.Aeiionoei, a ?acoeueoaoa iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna eiaanoeoeee aic?inee ia 50 aaeeieoe. Ia?aiia/aeueii ia yoo aea aaee/eio oaaee/eony e aeioiae, /oi auciaao ?ino iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia ia(N = ( Y * MPC = 50 * 0,75 = 37,5.Ii anee iio?aaeaiea au?inei, oi au?in niaieoiiue ni?in, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae. Aoi?e/iia oaaee/aiea aeioiaea ia 37,5 auciaao ?ino iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia ia 28,1. ?acaeoea ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiiai yooaeoa eeethno?e?oao neaaeothuay noaia:(I 50(C37,5 28,1 21,1 15,8 11,9 8,9 ... ...Ec i?eaaaeaiiie noaiu aeaeii, /oi ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiue yooaeo eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e caoooaieth, /oi iiaeii onoaiiaeoue e n iiiiuueth aeaaa?ae/aneie eioa?i?aoaoeee:(Y = (I + (I * MPC + (I * MPC2 + (I * MPC3 + ... + (I * MPCN + ... = (I (1 + MPC + MPC2 + MPC3+ ... + MPCN + ...);i?e N( ( e 0(MPC(1 iieo/aai:1(Y = ------------ (I, ioeoaea auaiaeei oi?ioeo ioeueoeieeeaoi?a:1 - MPCOaeei ia?acii, ioeueoeieeeaoi? eiaanoeoeee i?aaenoaaeyao aaee/eio, ia?aoioth i?aaeaeueiie neeiiiinoe e naa?aaeaieth.Ec iineaaeiae oi?ioeu iaoaiaoe/anee neaaeoao, /oi /ai aieueoa aeiey naa?aaeaiee a niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeao, oai iaiueoa aaee/eia ioeueoeieeeaoi?a, eia/a, /ai iaiueoa neeiiiinoue e naa?aaeaieyi, oai aieueoa ioeueoeieeeaoeaiue yooaeo.Yoi iicaieeei noi?ioee?iaaoue Eaeino oae iacuaaaiue “ia?aaeien aa?aaeeeainoe”, niaeanii eioi?iio aieaa ieceay aeiey naa?aaeaiee a iaoeeiiaeueiii oicyenoaa iaoneiaeeaaao aieaa neeueiua iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.Eaein ?ac?aaaouaae eiioeaioeeth ioeueoeieeeaoi?a i?eiaieoaeueii e aeai?anneaiie yeiiiieea n aieueoie aac?aaioeoeae e iaaeieniieueciaaieai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae. Eae ?ac a yoeo oneiaeyo e i?iyaeyaony yooaeo ioeueoeieeeaoi?a. Eaein aeieacae, /oi auaiaeu eeanneeia i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaiueoa iio?aaeyoue e aieueoa naa?aaaoue ni?aaaaeeeau oieueei aeey oneiaee iieiie caiyoinoe e i?iecaiaenoaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea ia iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiii o?iaia. A oneiaeyo e?ecena yeiiiieee no?aieaiea eaaeaeiai yeiiiie/aneiai aaaioa aieueoa naa?aaaoue e iaiueoa iio?aaeyoue onoaoaeytho ea?oeio e?ecenia, niinianoaotho caiaaeeaieth yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Oi, /oi oi?ioi aeey ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea, ia anoue aeaai aeey anao.Yooaeo ioeueoeieeeaoi?a aeaenoaoao e a ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee. Eaeineaioeu n/eoatho, /oi iniiaiie i?e/eiie e?ecena 1929 - 1933 a.a. auei nieaeaiea o?iaiy eiaanoeoeee4. Oeiainiaay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa: eioa?i?aoaoeey n iiiiuueth eaeineaineie iiaeaeeOaia?ue aaaaeai oneiaeiythuee oaeoi? a iao aiaeec. Aoaeai n/eoaoue, /oi ainoaea?noai i?iaiaeeo aeoeaioth athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaoth iieeoeeo. Yoi iai?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee i?eiyoi iacuaaoue oeiainiaie, eee oeneaeueiie iieeoeeie.?acee/atho aeene?aoeeiiioth e aaoiiaoe/aneoth oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo. Ia/iai ?anniio?aiea aeeyiey ainoaea?noaa ia aeeiaieeo yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa n aeene?aoeeiiiie iieeoeee.Aeene?aoeeiiiay oeiainiaay iieeoeea - oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa ii eciaiaieth niaieoiiiai ni?ina e iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iin?aaenoaii eciaiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia (G) e iaeiaia (O).?anniio?ei, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, aeeyiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia (caeoiie) ia ?aaiiaaniue iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 61 . A?aoe/aneay eioa?i?aoaoeey aeeyiey oaaee/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia ?aaiiaaniue iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.?ino ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia aaee/eio G i?eaiaeeo e n?aaieoaeueii aieueoaio, ia aaee/eio (Y2 - Y1), i?e?inoo iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu oaaee/eaatho niaieoiiue ni?in e iaoneiaeeaatho ?ino iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Eciaiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia iaoneiaeeaatho aeaenoaea yooaeoa ioeueoeieeeaoi?a.Oaaee/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia Eaein ia naycuaae n ?inoii iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu iiaoo aucaaoue athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo. ?aeiiaiaeaoeey Eaeina iao?aaeeoeeiiia: iaiaoiaeeii aeaoeoeeoiia oeiaine?iaaiea yeiiiieee aeey i?aiaeieaiey oeeeee/aneiai niaaea.Aicaeaenoaoao ia aaee/eio ?aaiiaaniiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea. Ii, a ioee/ea io ?anoiaeia, oaaee/aiea iaeiaia i?eaiaeeo e ioeueoeieeeaoeaiiio nieaeaieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, caiyoinoe e aeioiaea.Aeey i?inoiou iu aoaeai iieaaaoue, /oi ainoaea?noai i?eiaiyao oieueei iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea ee/iuo aeioiaeia, /oi neacuaaaony ia aaee/eia niaieoiiiai iio?aaeaiey. Oaeia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aucuaaao nie?auaiea aeioiaeia, io/aai ?anoiaeu ia iio?aaeaiea nieaeathony ia aaee/eio, iaoneiaeaiioth i?aaeaeueiie neeiiiinoueth e iio?aaeaieth. Anee o?iaaiue ?anoiaeia ia iio?aaeaiea iinea aaaaeaiey iaeiaia iaicia/eoue Ca, oi eciaiaiea ?aaiiaaney a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea iiaeii eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue neaaeothuei a?aoeeii:?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 62 . A?aoe/aneay eioa?i?aoaoeey aeeyiey oaaee/aiey iaeiaia ia aeioiaeu ia ?aaiiaaniue iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.?aaiia oaaee/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo cao?ao e iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea ia oo aea aaee/eio. Yoio yooaeo ecaanoai a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee eae oai?aia O.Oaaaaeueii. ?yae o/aiuo-yeiiiienoia eniieuecotho aeey iaicia/aiey yoiai yooaeoa oa?iei “ioeueoeieeeaoi? naaeaine?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa”.E?aoeee aiaeec aeene?aoeeiiiie oeiainiaie iieeoeee iicaieyao naeaeaoue neaaeothuee auaiae: aeey noaaeeecaoeee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue neaaeothuea ia?u:i?e niaaeao neaaeoao ?anoe?youe ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu, nie?auaoue iaeiae. ?ino niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia e nieaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie ?anniao?eaathony eae yeaiaiou noeioee?othuae oeiainiaie iieeoeee;i?e eioeyoeee iaaeeaaeeo ia?aie/eoue niaieoiiua ?anoiaeu, a oaeaea oaaee/eoue ianooaau iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Yoe ia?u eeanneoeoee?othony eae naea?aeeaathuay oeiainiaay iieeoeea.Aeaaiay caaea/a aeene?aoeeiiiie iieeoeee - i?ioeaiaeaenoaea oeeeee/aneei eciaiaieyi niaieoiiiai ni?ina e iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi niinianoaoao ?aoaieth i?iaeai aac?aaioeoeu e eioeyoeee. Iaeaieueoee yooaeo aeene?aoeeiiiay oeneaeueiay iieeoeea eiaao i?e aeeeoaeueiuo niaaeao i?iecaiaenoaa.Anee eiaao ianoi eioeyoeey, oi oeiainiaay iieeoeea aeieaeia i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei ainathaeaeaoa.Eciaiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e ianooaaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ia oieueei a ?acoeueoaoa oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo aeaenoaee i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiia. A ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a, eo aaee/eiu ei??aeoe?othony a ioaeiii iai?aaeaiee aaoiiaoe/anee, n iiiiuueth oae iacuaaaiuo ano?iaiiuo noaaeeecaoi?ia.Ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu e iaeiaiaua iinooieaiey eiathony a ethaii nia?aiaiiii iaoeeiiaeueiii oicyenoaa. Nia?aiaiiua iaeiaiaua nenoaiu iino?iaiu oae, /oi a ia?eiaeu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iie iaania/eaatho aieueooth ianno iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee, /ai a ia?eiaeu niaaeia. A oi aea a?aiy auiieiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ooieoeee o?aaoao ii?aaeaeaiiiai, aeinoaoi/ii noaaeeueiiai, o?iaiy ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, iacaaeneii io oaiaeaioeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.A ia?eiae i?ioeaaoaiey iaeiaiaua iinooieaiey aaoiiaoe/anee aic?anoatho, /oi niinianoaoao nicaeaieth athaeaeaoiiai eceeoea, naea?aeeaaieth yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia.Ai a?aiy niaaea iaeiaiaua iinooieaiey nieaeathony, aicieeaao aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa, a yoi icia/aao, /oi caeeaaeuaathony iniiau aeey i?aiaeieaiey niaaea.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 63 . Ano?iaiiay noaaeeueiinoue athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaie nenoaiu.I?e iauaiao iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa auoa iioaioeeaeueiiai (Y1) aicieeaao i?aauoaiea aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa iaae ?anoiaeaie (ecauoie). I?e aaee/eia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa iaiueoa iioaioeeaeueiie (Y2) eiaao ianoi aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa.Ano?iaiiua noaaeeecaoi?u oiaiueoatho aiieeooaeo eieaaaiee aeaeiaiai oeeeea. Noaiaiue aeeyiey ano?iaiiuo noaaeeecaoi?ia caaeneo io aeaenoaothuae iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa. I?eciaii, /oi aeey nouanoaaiiie ei??aeoeee aeaeiaie eiiuthieoo?u iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue aeene?aoeeiiioth oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo.I?e ?aaeecaoeee oeneaeueiie iieeoeee aicieeatho nouanoaaiiua i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua iaoneiaeeaatho e?eoe/aneoth ioeaieo oeneaeueiie iieeoeee ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoueth yeiiiienoia e iieeoeeia. Iaeaieaa neiaeiua i?iaeaiu - neaaeothuea:eaa ?aniiciaaaiey. Oi/iay aeeaaiinoeea oaiaeaioeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey cao?oaeiaia. Neo/athony ioeaee, caiicaeaeia auyaeaiea aoiaeaeaiey yeiiiieee a ii?aaeaeaiioth oaco yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea;aaeieieno?aoeaiue eaa. I?ioeaaeo?a i?eiyoey ia? oeneaeueiie iieeoeee naycaia n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iieo/aiey naieoeee ia i?eiaiaiea yoeo ia? o i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo aeanoiuo no?oeoo?;ooieoeeiiaeueiue eaa. Ia ?aaeecaoeeth i?eiyouo ia? oaeaea o?aaoaony a?aiy (ecaeaiea ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, aeiaaaeaiea eo aei eniieieoaeae, ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoia e o.i.);neeiiiinoue e noeioee?othuei ia?ai. No?aieaiea iieeoe/aneeo eeaea?ia caaiaaaoue aeiaa?ea ecae?aoaeae e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aai iaoneiaeeaaao i?eiyoea iiioeenoneeo ?aoaiee, o?aaothueo cia/eoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia ineaaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie. Nouanoaoao iainiiaaiiia iiaiea i iieeoe/aneie caaeaiiinoe aeaeiauo oeeeeia;ioe?uoinoue iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee. Iaoeeiiaeueiua i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia a ninoiyiee nouanoaaiii iiaeeyoue ia i?ioeannu a ie?iaii oicyenoaa, aneaaenoaea /aai aiciiaeiu oiee, iaoneiaeaiiua aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeie oaeoi?aie, ieacuaathuea iaaeaaii?eyoiia aicaeaenoaea ia iaoeeiiaeueiia oicyenoai. Iai?eia?, iiaeao i?iecieoe ?aceia nie?auaiea /enoiai yenii?oa, iaeo?aeecothuaa ia?u oeneaeueiie iieeoeee;yooaeo auoaniaiey. I?e i?iaaaeaiee ia? oeneaeueiie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaaiiua eiaanoeoeee iiaoo auoanieoue /anoiua. Ia oeiainiauo ?uieao i?e oaaee/aiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoiie eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia aicieeaao iaaeinoaoie e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia (ainoaea?noai eiieo?e?oao ca caaiiua n?aaenoaa aeey oeiaine?iaaiey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa), /oi auciaao iiauoaiea i?ioeaioiuo noaaie, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, nieaeaiea /anoiuo eiaanoeoeee.Aeaaa 7. Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu. Athaeaeaoiay e iaeiaiaay nenoaia a oneiaeyo ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa.Aii?inu:Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu: nouiinoue, ooieoeee, no?oeoo?a.Ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao. Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia. Athaeaeaoiue oaaea?aeeci.I?eioeeiu e caaea/e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Aeaeu iaeiaia. Iaeiaiaay nenoaia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.1. Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu: nouiinoue, ooieoeee, no?oeoo?a.Oa?iei «oeiainu» i?ienoiaeeo io eaoeineiai «financia» - aeaiaaeiue ieaoaae. A oe?ieii niunea «oeiainu» - niaieoiiinoue anao aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?uie iaeaaeatho aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa, i?aaei?eyoey e ainoaea?noai.Ia o?iaia iee?iyeiiiieee - a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneii naeoi?a ia?acothony ia?ae/iua oeiainu. Caeanue inouanoaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai aeaa ia iniiaa i?aia?aciaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia a oeaeyo iieo/aiey aeioiaeia, a oii /enea, a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia.Ia?ae/iua oeiainu neoaeao ooiaeaiaioii oeiainiaie nenoaiu no?aiu, iniiaie aeey oi?ie?iaaiey aoi?e/iuo oeiainia, oi anoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia.Aeey inouanoaeaiey naieo yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo caaea/ ainoaea?noai ioaeaeaaony a cia/eoaeueiuo n?aaenoaao. A yoeo oeaeyo a ainoaea?noaa oi?ie?othony oiiaeu aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, /a?ac eioi?ua ?ani?aaeaeyaony e ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaony iaiaeay /anoue i?iecaaaeaiiiai a iauanoaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoaAny niaieoiiinoue aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ainoaea?noaa e nenoaia naycaiiuo n ieie yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee iacuaaaony ainoaea?noaaiiuie oeiainaie.Aia?aua oa?iei «ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu aeey iaicia/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia aue i?eiaiai ai O?aioeee a XVI aaea.Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu aunooiatho aaaeiaeoei ?u/aaii aicaeaenoaey ainoaea?noaa ia yeiiiie/aneoth aeeciue.Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu aeeth/atho a naay:ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao;niaoeeaeueiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu (nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey, caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey, iaineiiiue oiiae e ae?oaea.)*a?ac ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaony cia/eoaeueiay /anoue AAI: ssiiiee e ?innee - ieiei 1/3, ai O?aioeee e Ieaea?eaiaeao i?eia?ii 1/2, a Oaaoeee - aieaa 2/3.Iniaaiiinoueth oeiainiaie nenoaiu ?innee yaeyaony iaee/ea a iae cia/eoaeueiuo ii iauaio aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu nicaeathony aeey aeeoioee?iaaiey cia/eoaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia e eo eniieueciaaiey aeey- ?aoaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oeaeae e caaea/a Ii nouanoao niaoeeaeueiua aciinu e io/eneaiey ai ~) .aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu yaeythony oeaeaauie i?yiuie eee einaaiiuie .iaeiaaie. 'A niioaaonoaee n o?iaiai oi?aaeaiey ?acee/atho oaaea?aeueiua, ?aaeiiaeueiua e ianoiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu.Iaeaieaa cia/eiu oaaea?aeueiua oiiaeu, oaeea eae: Iaineiiiue oiiae; Oiiae caiyoinoe; Oiiae iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey; Oiiae nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey; Oiiae nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeee ianaeaiey. A niaieoiiinoe eo iauaiu ninoaaeytho ieiei 40 i?ioeaioia ?anoiaeia oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa.Niaoeeaeueiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iiaoo iiiieiyoueny ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioaoeee. Niaoeeaeueiua oiiaeu iiaoo oaeaea i?eaaaaoue e caeiai, auioneaoue nianoaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae; iie naie a?aiaiii iiiauatho naie n?aaenoaa a e?aaeeou, eiaanoeoeee, iaaeaeaeeiinoue.Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu auiieiytho iniaua ooieoeee a oeiainiaie / nenoaia:iieiaeeoaeueiay eo ?ieue ninoieo a oii, /oi iie iacaaeneiu io ninoiyiey athaeaeaoa e auiieiytho naith oeaeaaia iacia/aiea e i?e aeaoeoeeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Iai?eia?, iie aa?aioe?otho auiieiaiea oaeeo aaaeiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/ eae no?ieoaeuenoai e niaea?aeaiea aei?ia, auieaoo iainee i?anoa?aeui. Iineieueeo aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iaiiaeio/aoiu i?aaenoaaeoaeueiui i?aaiai aeanoe iie aeatho eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe aiciiaeiinoue iaiaa?e?iaaoue oeiainiauie ?ano?naie.ieionii aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia yaeyaony oi, /oi iie iicaieyth) iaieioee?iaaoue iieacaoaeyie eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa, a /anoiinoe, iie?uaaoue athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo ca n/ao n?aaenoa oiiaeia. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e iaauiieiaieth oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ainoaea?noaa, ii ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yoe ia?ooaiey aieaa iyaeay e «ion?i/aiiay» (ii n?aaiaieth n ioaaonoaaiiinoueth ca iaeniieiaiea athaeaeaoa). Iineieueeo i?ioeann ?ac?aaioee, ooaa?aeaeaiey e eniieiaiey aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia iaoiaeeony aia iiey c?aiey i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe, yoi ii?iaeaeaao aiethioa?eci a eo oi?ie?iaaiee e eniieueciaaiee. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue niaoeeaeenoia n/eoaao iaiaoiaeeiui aaanoe n?aaenoaa yoeo oiiaeia a nenoaio ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa e auaeaeeoue eo niaoeeaeueiui ?acaeaeii a athaeaeaoa, oai aieaa, /oi a aieueoeinoaa yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai oaeea oiiaeu aoiaeyo a nenoaio ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa.A. A. Iaineia ioia/aao: «Aii?in i noaoona ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaeaauo oiiaeia aeaeaei ia i?acaeiue, anee aniiiieoue, /oi ii naiei ?acia?ai iie niiinoaaeiu n oaaea?aeueiui athaeaeaoii».2. Ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao. Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia. Athaeaeaoiue oaaea?aeeci.Aeaaiui caaiii oeiainiaie nenoaiu yaeyaony -ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao, eioi?ue, ai-ia?auo, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie e?oiiaeoee oeaio?aeeciaaiiue aeaiaaeiue oiiae, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey iaania/aiey ?aaeecaoeee caaea/ e ooieoeee i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e ianoiiainaiioi?aaeaiey.N ae?oaie noi?iiu, athaeaeao - iniiaiie oeiainiaue ieai niioaaonoaothuaai o?iaiy ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe eee ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, aaea oeacuaathony eo aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu.Aieaa iieiia ii?aaeaeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey athaeaeaoa i?aaeeaaaao E. Iiaeii?eia: Athaeaeao «i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee ia oieueei oi?iaeueiuo, ii iiaiaeo ia?aciaaiey e ?anoiaeiaaiey oiiaeia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, ii e ii ?aaeecaoeee acaeiinaycae iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu, i?aaiecaoeeae athaeaeaoiiai ono?ienoaa e athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna. Yoi nenoaia, iin?aaenoaii eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony ?ani?aaeaeaiea e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea ia yeiiiie/aneia e nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea Oaaea?aoeee a oeaeii e aa noauaeoia, a /anoiinoe. N aa iiiiuueth ainoaea?noai no?aieony aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia iae?iyeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu iin?aaenoaii einaaiiiai aeeyiey ia ?uii/iue iaoaieci».Athaeaeaoiua ioiioaiey iiaeii iauaaeeieoue a o?e a?oiiu:Ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo athaeaeaoiiai ono?ienoaa e athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu.Ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo ?aca?aie/aiey aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie .Ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa (athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna).Iino?iaiea athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu no?aiu ii?aaeaeyaony oeiii ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa.Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniiaaiioth ia yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo e th?eaee/aneeo ii?iao niaieoiiinoue athaeaeaoia, nouanoaothueo ia oa??eoi?ee no?aiu.Athaeaeao ?O (eiinieeaee?iaaiiue)Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeaoAthaeaeaou noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee (eiinieeaee?iaaiiua)?anioaeeeaineee, e?aaaie, iaeanoiie, ie?oaeiie athaeaeaou (89)Athaeaeaou cae?uouo ai?iaeia e iinaeeia (36)Athaeaeaou ai?iaeia e ?aeiiia ?anioaeeeaineiai, e?aaaiai, iaeanoiiai, ie?oaeiiai iiae/eiaiey (eiinieeaee?iaaiiua)Athaeaeaou ai?iaeia ?anioaeeeaineiai, e?aaaiai, iaeanoiiai, ie?oaeiiai iiae/eiaiey (650)Athaeaeaou ?aeiiia ai?iaeneeo (325)Athaeaeaou ?aeiiia ?anioaeeeaineiai, e?aaaiai, iaeanoiith, ie?oaeiiai iiae/eiaiey (eiinieeaee?iaaiiua) ( 1868)?aeiiiue athaeaeao ?aeiiiaAthaeaeaou ai?iaeia ?aeiia (437)Athaeaeaou iinaeeia (2022)Athaeaeaou nae (24037)Athaeaeaou oi?ie?othony ii ia?a iieo/aiey noaoona ioieoeeiaeueiiai ia?aciaaieyOaaea?aoeaiia ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai, ooaa?aeaeathuaany a ?innee, i?aaeiieaaaao auaeaeaiea a ninoaaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa neaaeothueo ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiuo caaiueaa:oaaea?aeueiue (?anioaeeeaineee) athaeaeao;athaeaeaou noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee (?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaou);ianoiua athaeaeaou (athaeaeaou ioieoeeiaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee).Eiinieeaee?iaaiiua athaeaeaou - naiae athaeaeaoia ieaeanoiyueo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo o?iaiae e athaeaeaoa niioaaonoaothuaai iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai eee aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, eniieuecoaiue aeey ?an/aoia e aiaeeca.Athaeaeao i?aaiecoaony a aeaea aaeaina aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae.Aeioiaeu athaeaeaoa oi?ie?othony ca n/ao enoi/ieeia, eioi?ua iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii iiiaiia?aciui e?eoa?eyi.?acee/atho aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea enoi/ieee aeioiaeia. E aioo?aiiei ioiinyony enoi/ieee aeioiaeia, eioi?ua naycaiu n aioo?aiiei (iaoeeiiaeueiui) i?iecaiaenoaii oiaa?ia e oneoa. Aiaoiea enoi/ieee aeioiaeia - yoi caaiiua n?aaenoaa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ae?oaeie ainoaea?noaaie eee iaaeaeo ia?iaeiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie. Aeey athaeaeaoia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iniiaiuie yaeythony aioo?aiiea enoi/ieee aeioiaeia.Aeioiaeu aeaeyony oaeaea ia cae?aieaiiua e ?aaoee?othuea.Cae?aieaiiua - yoi aeioiaeu, eioi?ua iieiinoueth eee a oaa?aei oeene?iaaiiie aeiea ia iinoiyiiie eee aeieaia?aiaiiie iniiaa iinooiatho a niioaaonoaothuee athaeaeao.?aaoee?othueie iacuaatho aeioiaeu, eioi?ua iinooiatho a athaeaeao oa??eoi?ee eae aeiee aeioiaeiuo enoi/ieeia auoanoiyueo athaeaeaoia. Yoe aeiee (i?ioeaiou, ii?iaoeau) ooaa?aeaeathony i?e i?eiyoee athaeaeaoa auoanoiyuaai caaia athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu.Aieueoeinoai iaeiaia yaeythony cae?aieaiiuie aeioiaeiuie enoi/ieeaie.Anee eniieueciaaiea ?aaoee?othueo aeioiaeia ia iicaieyao naaeaine?iaaoue athaeaeaou oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee, oi aeey ieieiecaoeee aeaoeoeeoia ?aaeiiaeueiuo athaeaeaoia i?eiaiythony aeioaoeee e noaaaioeee. Aeioaoeee - noiiu, auaeaeyaiua ec auoanoiyuaai athaeaeaoa aeey inouanoaeaiey athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia a iauaia ieieiaeueiie aeinoaoi/iinoe. I?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeioaoeee oeaeaaia eniieueciaaiea oeiainiauo n?aaenoa ia iaiaa?eaaaony. Noaaaioeey - noiia, auaeaeyaiay ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie ec auoanoiyuaai athaeaeaoa ia eiie?aoiua oeaee, niinianoaothuea au?aaieaaieth nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey niioaaonoaothuaai ?aaeiia.?anoiaeu athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa a?oiiu: ?anoiaeu oaeouaai (iia?aoeaiiai) oa?aeoa?a - athaeaeao oaeoueo ?anoiaeia e ?anoiaeu eaieoaeueiiai (eiaanoeoeeiiiiai) oa?aeoa?a, eee athaeaeao ?acaeoey.Aaaeiie i?iaeaiie athaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee yaeyaony naaeaine?iaaiiinoue athaeaeaoa, /oi icia/aao ?aaainoai aeioiaeiie e ?anoiaeiie /anoae athaeaeaoa. I?aauoaiea ?anoiaeia iaae aeioiaeaie ninoaaeyao aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa. I?e iaee/ee aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oeiaine?othony ?anoiaeu, aeeth/aaiua a athaeaeao oaeoueo ?anoiaeia.Aeey iaania/aiey noaaeeueiinoe athaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee niioaaonoaothueie i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoueny i?aaeaeueiua ?acia?u aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa.Anee a i?ioeanna eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa i?ienoiaeeo i?aauoaiea aeiionoeiiai o?iaiy aeaoeoeeoa, oi aaiaeeony iaoaieci naeaano?a ?anoiaeia, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony a i?iii?oeeiiaeueiii nieaeaiee ?anoiaeia aaeaiany/ii ii anai noaoueyi athaeaeaoa a oa/aiea inoaaoaainy a?aiaie oaeouaai oeiainiaiai aiaea.Aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa - iaiaeiicia/iia yaeaiea. Ii iiaieth noi?iiieeia eaeineainoaa, oia?aiiue aeaoeoeeo - aeaai: oaaee/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia niinianoaoao auoiaeo yeiiiieee ec e?ecena. Aianoa n oai iaeaieeaaaiue athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo - i?iaeaia, eiaeauayny ia iea/e aoaeoueo iieieaiee. Aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa ii?iaeaeaao i?iaeaio ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa (noiia?iie aaee/eiu iaiiaaoaiiuo aeaoeoeeoia ainoaea?noaaiiuo athaeaeaoia, iaeiieaiiie ca ana a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey no?aiu). I?e aicieeiiaaiee aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa anoaao i?iaeaia oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiui aeieaii, oi anoue auione ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia, auieaoa i?ioeaioia ii ?aiaa auiouaiiui caeiai e o.i.Athaeaeaou ?aciuo o?iaiae eiatho ?acee/ioth no?oeoo?o aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia. Iauaeoeaiie iniiaie ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ii ?aciui o?iaiyi athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu yaeyaony cae?aieaiea ooieoeee e iieiiii/ee ca i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.?anniio?ei iniiaiua aeioiaeiua e ?anoiaeiua noaouee oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia 1996 aiae.A niioaaonoaee n Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii «I oaaea?aeueiii athaeaeaoa ia 1996 a.» auee onoaiiaeaiu iinoiyiiua, ia 3 aiaea (1996 - 1998 aa.) aeiee iinooieaiee io oaaea?aeueiuo iaeiaia, ca/eneyaiuo a athaeaeaou noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee - ii aeoeecai, IAeN, iiaeioiaeiiio iaeiao n oece/aneeo eeoe.Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeioiaeu oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ia 1996 a. oi?ie?othony ca n/ao:75% aeioiaeia io IAeN ia oiaa?u (?aaiou e oneoae), i?iecaiaeeiua ia oa??eoi?ee ?O;100% aeioiaeia io IAeN ia oiaa?u, aaiceiua ia oa??eoi?eth ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, a oaeaea ia ae?aa. iaoaeeu e ae?aa. eaiie, ioioneaaiua ec Ain. Oiiaea ae?aa. iaoaeeia e ae?aa. eaiiae ?O;100 % aeioiaeia io aeoeecia ia iaooue, aac, aaicei; 100% aeioiaeia io aeoeecia ia oiaa?u, aaiceiua ia oa??eoi?eth ?O; 50% aeioiaeia i aeoeecia ia nie?o, aiaeeo, eeea?iaiaei/iua ecaeaeey, i?iecaiaeeiua ia oa??eoi?ee ?O; eeoeaiceiiiiai nai?a ia i?aai i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aceeaa e o?aiaiey aeeiaieueiie i?iaeoeoeee;iaeiaa ia i?eaueue (aeioiaeu) i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee (13%); 10% io iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa n oece/aneeo eeoe; oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei e i?. Iinooieaiee io AYAe; io/eneaiee ia aini?iecaiaenoai ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie aacu; n?aaenoa caiaeueiiai iaeiaa e a?aiaeiie ieaou ca caiee ai?iaeia e iinaeeia a ?acia?a 30% aeey oeiaine?iaaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee;ieaoaaeae ca iieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie; aeioiaeia io i?eaaoecaoeee; i?eauee Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea ?O ca 1995 a.; iaeiaa ia iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie;n?aaenoa, ia?a/eneyaiuo noauaeoaie Oaaea?aoeee aeey oeiaine?iaaiey oeaeaauo athaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia Ainoaea?noaaiiie iaeiaiaie neoaeau ?O e Oaaea?aeueiie neoaeau iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ?O a iauaia 0,9 % noii 1.1 oaeoe/aneeo iinooieaiee iaeiaia e ae?oaeo iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae a eo athaeaeaou;i?i/eo iaeiaia e nai?ia, iiaeeaaeaueo ca/eneaieth a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.A aeioiaeu oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ia 1996 a. aeeth/athony n?aaenoaa oeaeaauo athaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia: Oaaea?aeueiiai aei?iaeiiai oiiaea, Oaaea?aeueiiai yeieiae/aneiai oiiaea e ae?.Aiaeec ?anoiaeia oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa iieacuaaao, /oi iaeaieaa cia/eiuie yaeythony ?anoiaeu ia iai?iio (18,4%); ia ia?iaeiia oicyenoai (15%); ia nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?ioth noa?o ?anoiaeu oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa iacia/eoaeueiu (ieiei 6 %), oae eae eo iniiaiay /anoue i?eoiaeeony ia athaeaeaou noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee. Caiaoioth aeieth a no?oeoo?a ?anoiaeia ninoaaeyao ianeoaeeaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa (13,3%). Iniai a no?oeoo?a ?anoiaeia oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa auaeaeyaony OOI?, ia aeieth eioi?iai a 1996 aiaeo auei caieaie?iaaii aieaa 12% ?anoiaeia. ?anoiaeu oeaeaauo athaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia ninoaaeytho aieaa 6 °/i io iauae noiiu ?anoiaeia.Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC O Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia 1998 a.Aeioiaeu = 367,5ie?ae.?oa. ?anoiaeu = 499,9 ie?ae. ?oa.Aeaoeoeeo = 4,7 % AAINoaouee aeioiaeia ie?ae. ?oa. %io aeioiaeia Noaouee ?anoiaeia ie?ae ?oa. % io ?anoi-aeiaIaeia ia i?eaueue (aeioiaeu) i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee 48,1 13,1 Ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea 12,0 2,4Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe - - Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay aeayoaeueiinoue 14,5 2,9Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue 141,2 38,4 Iaoeeiiaeueiay iai?iia 81,7 16,4Aeoeecu 78,7 21,4 I?aaiu i?aaiio?aiu e ainoaea?noaaiiie aaciianiinoe 41,6 8,3Ieaoaaee ca iieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?naie 8,4 2,3 Oaaea?aeueiay noaeaaiay nenoaia 4,4 0,9Oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu 27,0 7,4 Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey e IOI 11,1 2,2Iaeiaiaua aeioiaeu - anaai 306,9 82,5 I?ii-oue, yia?aaoeea e no?ieoaeuenoai 27,4 5,5Aeioiaeu io ainnianoaaiiinoe 5,3 1,5 N/o-ai e ?uaieianoai 12,0 2,4Aeioiaeu io AYAe 6,8 1,9 Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu 2,9 0,6Iaiaeiaiaua aeioiaeu – anaai 98,5 7,8 Ia?aciaaiea 17,2 3,4Aeioiaeu oeaeaauo athaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia 32,1 8,7 Eoeueoo?a, NIE 3,5 0,7Ae?oaea ia iaeiaiaua aeioiaeu 16,2 4,4 Cae?aaiio?aiaiea e oece/aneay eoeueoo?a 9,4 1,9Ianeoaeeaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa 124,1 24,8Oeiainiaay iiiiuue noauaeoai oaaea?aoeee 51,7 10,4?anoiaeu oeaeaauo athaeae. Oiiaeia 32,0 6,4A oneiaeyo eioeyoeee e niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa iaania/aiea eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa cao?oaeiaii. A oa/aiea aiaea a athaeaeao iaiaeiie?aoii aiinyony eciaiaiey e ieii/aoaeueiue aa?eaio neeaaeuaaaony eeoue e eiioeo oeiainiaiai aiaea..caeiiiaeaoaeueiia ?aca?aie/aiea athaeaeaoiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe e ?anoiaeiuo iieiiii/ee iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiuie, ?aaeiiaeueiuie e ianoiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey;niioaaonoaea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?aaiia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey auiieiyaiui eie ooieoeeyi (iaania/aiea aa?oeeaeueiiai e ai?eciioaeueiiai au?aaieaaiey aeioiaeia ieaeanoiyueo athaeaeaoia);oi?iaeeciaaiiua (eiathuea /aoeoth i?aaiaoth iniiao) iaoiaeu ?aaoee?iaaiey iaaeathaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee e i?aaeinoaaeaiey oeiainiaie iiiiue.Iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo i?iaeai athaeaeaoiiai oaaea?aeecia yaeyaony athaeaeaoiia au?aaieaaiea (naaeaine?iaaiiinoue). ?acee/atho aa?oeeaeueioth e ai?eciioaeueioth naaeaine?iaaiiinoue.Eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i "aa?oeeaee", eiaaony a aeaeo iaania/aiea niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo ?anoiaeiuie ooieoeeyie ?aaeiiaeueiuo athaeaeaoia e iinooieaieyie, cae?aieaiiuie ca aeaiiui athaeaeaoiui o?iaiai. Ia oeaio? i?e yoii aiceaaaaony iaania/aiea (n?aaenoaaie ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa) aeinoaoi/iinoe ?aaeiiaeueiuo athaeaeaoia aeey auiieiaiey cae?aieaiiuo ca ?aaeiiaie ainoaea?noaaiiuo ooieoeee. ?aaeiiu i?e yoii aeieaeiu ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oeiainiaia iaania/aiea cae?aieaiiuo ca ieie iieiiii/ee e i?aaeinoaaeaiea ianaeaieth iaiaoiaeeiuo aeaa e oneoa.Ai?eciioaeueiay naaeaine?iaaiiinoue icia/aao i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia iaaeaeo noauaeoaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Yoa caaea/a iniaaiii neiaeia aeey nia?aiaiiie ?innee a neeo aieueoie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee athaeaeaoiuo aiciiaeiinoae ?aaeiiaeueiuo e ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe.Nouanoaoao ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii aa?oeeaee athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia e aeioiaeia. Aeaiiua i ?ani?aaeaeaiee eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii o?iaiyi athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu (aac o/aoa ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey n?aaenoa ec athaeaeaoia iaeiiai o?iaiy a ae?oaie) i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 2.Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ALPHABETIC P ?ani?aaeaeaiea eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ?O ca 1996 a%%Athaeaeaou ?anoiaeu Aeioiaeu IoeeiiaieyOaaea?aeueiue 48,4 52,3 +3,9Eiinieeaee?iaaiiue noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee, a oii /enea: 51,6 47,7 -3,9?aaeiiaeueiua 20,6 23,4 +2,8ianoiua 31,0 24,3 -6,7Anaai 100 100Ai?eciioaeueiia au?aaieaaiea athaeaeaoia no?aiu naaiaeiy ?aaeecoaony /a?ac OOI? a niioaaonoaee n i?eiyoie iaoiaeeeie auaeaeaiey o?ainoa?oia.Aianoa n oai, a caiaaeiuo no?aiao a oa?iei "athaeaeaoiue oaaea?aeeci" aeeaaeuaatho ianeieueei eiia iiieiaiea. A o/aaieea Iaeeiiiaeea E. e A?th N. oeneaeueiue (eee athaeaeaoiue) oaaea?aeeci ii?aaeaeyaony eae nenoaia iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey n?aaenoa iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiui athaeaeaoii, athaeaeaoaie ooaoia e ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe. A neiaa?a iiiyoee e oa?ieiia oiai aea o/aaieea oeacaii: "Oeneaeueiue oaaea?aeeci (fiscal federalism) - nenoaia o?ainoa?oia (aeioaoeee), ia iniiaa eioi?ie oaaea?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai aeaeeony naieie aeioiaeaie n i?aaeoaeuenoaaie ooaoia e ianoiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe; ?acaeaeaiea aeioiaeia". Oaeei ia?acii, a oaaea?aeecaoeee oeiainiauo ioiioaiee a caiaaeiuo no?aiao aeoeaio naeaeai i?aeiouanoaaiii ia ooieoeee oeaio?aeecaoeee e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa.Iaaeathaeaeaoiua ioiioaiey aioo?e noauaeoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee (ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?aaeiiaeueiuie e ianoiuie athaeaeaoaie) th?eaee/anee auiaaeatho ec ioiioaiee athaeaeaoiiai oaaea?aeecia, oae eae i?aaiu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey ia aoiaeyo a nenoaio ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Iaeiaei, ?aaeueiue athaeaeaoiue oaaea?aeeci e ?acaeoea ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey o?aaotho oii?yaei/aiey e yoie /anoe iaaeathaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee.Noaiiaeaiea athaeaeaoiiai oaaea?aeecia caeeth/aaony a onoaiiaeaiee ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauo iniia athaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo oaaea?aoeeae e ?aaeiiaie, ia?aiao?ia eo acaeiiaeaenoaey ia anao noaaeeyo athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna, iaoaieciia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia iaaeaeo o?iaiyie athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu e ?aaeiiaie.A ea/anoaa iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia athaeaeaoiiai oaaea?aeecia auaeaeythony:naiinoiyoaeueiinoue athaeaeaoia ?aciuo o?iaiae, eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaao:cae?aieaiea ca eaaeaeui o?iaiai aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey enoi/ieeiaaeioiaeia; ai?aai naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeyoue iai?aaeaiey ?anoiaeiaaieyathaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa ia eaaeaeii athaeaeaoiii o?iaia;iaaeiionoeiinoue ecuyoey aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeioiaeia e iaeniieueciaaiiuo eee aeiiieieoaeueii iieo/aiiuo n?aaenoa a auoanoiyuea athaeaeaou;ai?aai ia eiiiainaoeeth ?anoiaeia, aicieeathueo a ?acoeueoaoa ?aoaiee, i?eiyouo auoanoiyueie i?aaiaie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey;ai?aai i?aaeinoaaeaiey iaeiaiauo e eiuo eueaio oieueei ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo aeioiaeia e o.ae.Athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiioth caeiiii aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia aeanoe ii ninoaaeaieth, ?anniio?aieth, ooaa?aeaeaieth e eniieiaieth athaeaeaoia.Ninoaaeaiea e eniieiaiea athaeaeaoia yaeythony ooieoeeyie i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe; ?anniio?aiea, ooaa?aeaeaiea e eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai athaeaeaoia - ooieoeeyie niioaaonoaothueo i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe.Oeiainiaue aiae a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee onoaiaaeeaaaony a 12 ianyoeaa (n 1 yiaa?y ii 31 aeaeaa?y). Athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo noaaeee, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo, a naith i/a?aaeue, ninoieo ec ?yaea yoaiia.Ia ia?aie noaaeee athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna (eioi?ay ia/eiaaony ca 18 ianyoeaa aei ia/aea athaeaeaoiiai aiaea) eniieieoaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe niioaaonoaothueo o?iaiae ninoaaeyaony i?iaeo athaeaeaoa a niioaaonoaee n eioi?iaoeeae io auoanoiyueo i?aaiia ia iniaaiiinoyo ninoaaeaiey ?an/aoia e i?iaeoai athaeaeaoia.Ia aoi?ie noaaeee eniieieoaeueiue i?aai aeanoe aiineo a niioaaonoaothuee i?aai i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeanoe i?iaeo athaeaeaoa aeey aai ?anniio?aiey. Ia o?iaia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee I?aceaeaio ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?aaenoaaeyao a aunoee caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?aai athaeaeaoiia iineaiea. Caeai/eaaaony noaaeey naieoeeiie?iaaieai i?aaenoaaeoaeueiui i?aaiii ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa, ia iniiaaiee yoiai ?aoaiey eniieieoaeueiue i?aai aeanoe aei?aaaouaaao i?iaeo athaeaeaoa.O?aouey noaaeey athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna caeeth/aaony a ooaa?aeaeaiee i?iaeoa athaeaeaoa. Iinea ?anniio?aiey a i?aaenoaaeoaeueiii i?aaia aeanoe, aianaiey iii?aaie noaaeey caeai/eaaaony ooaa?aeaeaieai athaeaeaoa a oi?ia caeiia eee ?aoaiey.*aoaa?oay noaaeey athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna - eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa aiceiaeaii ia niioaaonoaothuea eniieieoaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoe. Eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa caeeth/aaony a iaania/aiee iieiiai e naiaa?aiaiiiai iinooieaiey i?aaeoniio?aiiuo athaeaeaoii aeioiaeia e a oeiaine?iaaiee niioaaonoaothueo ia?ii?eyoee.Niaieoiiinoue i?eioeeiia e iaoaieciia athaeaeaoii-oeiainiauo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie o?iaiyie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey a oaaea?aoeaiuo ainoaea?noaao i?eiyoi iaicia/aoue oa?ieiii "athaeaeaoiue oaaea?aeeci".Oaeaea eae ainoaea?noaaiiue oaaea?aeeci aeey ?innee icia/aao, i?aaeaea anaai, aeaoeaio?aeecaoeeth ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, ia?aaea/o e ?aca?aie/aiea iieiiii/ee iaaeaeo o?iaiyie ainoaea?noaa, oae e noaiiaeaiea athaeaeaoiiai oaaea?aeecia a iaoae no?aia i?aaeiieaaaao eae enoiaeiue iiiaio aeaoeaio?aeecaoeeth oeiainiaie nenoaiu, ?anoe?aiea athaeaeaoiuo i?aa ?aaeiiia.Iaeiaei iiea iaoaieci oeiainiaiai au?aaieaaiey ia iniiaa ?ani?aaeaeaiey iiiiue noauaeoai oaaea?aoeee ec oiiaea oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee iiea ia ca?aaioae yooaeoeaii, oiiae ia noae iniiaiui eaiaeii iinooieaiey oaaea?aeueiuo aeioaoeee: o?ainoa?ou ec oiiaea oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee ?aaeiiia a 1996 aiaeo ninoaaeee 47% ia?a/eneaiee ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa.Inoaeueiua n?aaenoaa iinooiaee /a?ac iaoi?iaeeciaaiiua e ieioi eiio?iee?oaiua eaiaeu, aeaaiui ia?acii /a?ac acaeiiua ?an/aou iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie ?aciuo o?iaiae (iauai OOI? a 1996 a. ieacaeny i?aeoe/anee ?aaiui n?aaenoaai, ia?a/eneaiiui a ?aaeiiu a ii?yaeea acaeiiuo ?an/aoia).Iniiaiua iaaeinoaoee iaaeathaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee i?iaeieaeatho nio?aiyoueny, eiathuee iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea - i?aaeinoaaeaiea aeioaoeee e noaaaioeee ia iniiaa i?aeoeee noauaeoeaiie eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee iaaeathaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee. A iaaeathaeaeaoiuo ioiioaieyo ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee neiaeeeanue anneiao?e/iinoue, a ?acoeueoaoa aeaonoi?iiieo aeiaiai?ia ?O n ?yaeii iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?anioaeee a ninoaaa ?innee (Oaoa?noai, Aaoei?oinoai, Ea?aeey, sseooey e ae?.) e ?aaeiiia inouanoaeaii aaaaeaiea iniauo ?aaeeiia iaaeathaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee.A ia?ooaiea i?eioeeiia athaeaeaoiiai oaaea?aeecia nio?aiyaony oaiaeaioeey ia?aaea/e nouanoaaiiie /anoe ?anoiaeia aiec ii athaeaeaoiie nenoaia aac niioaaonoaothuaai iiaee?aieaiey aeioiaeiuie enoi/ieeaie, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aeioaoeeiiiinoe iiiaeo, naaeaine?iaaiiuo ?aiaa athaeaeaoia.Eioa?ania athaeaeaoiay noaoenoeea 1995 aiaea, acyoay ca iniiao ?an/aoia IEE OeA ?O. O?aaeeoeeiiii Ineianeay iaeanoue n/eoaaony ?aaeiiii - ?aoeeieaioii oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee, nouanoaothuei ca n/ao aeioiaeia ae?oaeo oa??eoi?ee. Ii, eae neaaeoao ec oaaeeoeu 3, iaeanoue eiaao iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei ii ?an/aoai n oaaea?aeueiui athaeaeaoii, oi anoue aieueoa «aeaao Oeaio?o», /ai aa?ao io iaai. Nianai ae?oaia iieiaeaiea a oie aea a?oiia, iai?eia?, o ?anioaeeee Ao?yoee e Aa?aeneie AI. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi i?e/eia aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa Ineianeie iaeanoe a iaaeaaii?eyoiie nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia, aceiaaiuo n aa oa??eoi?ee.Noaiiaeaiea athaeaeaoiiai oaaea?aeecia o?aaoao ei?aiiie ?aoi?iu anae iaeiaiaie nenoaiu no?aiu, i?eiyoey Iaeiaiaiai Eiaeaena ?O, onoaiaaeeaathuaai aaciaua i?eioeeiu iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?innee a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie Eiinoeoooeee ?O e oneiaeyie noaiiaeaiey ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa. Nia?aiaiiua aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu ?innee i?aaenoaaeaiu a i?eiyoii Athaeaeaoiii eiaeaena ?O.3. Iaeiaiaay nenoaiaI aaaeiinoe iaeiaia e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eo oieaou iaoei au?aceeny a naia a?aiy Aaiaeaeaiei O?aieeei: "Ieaoeoue iaeiae e oia?aoue aeieaeai eaaeaeue". Iaeiae - ieaoa ca oeeaeeeciaaiiinoue, iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea nouanoaiaaiey ainoaea?noaa.Iaeia - yoi onoaiaaeeaaaiay caeiiii oi?ia io/oaeaeaiey nianoaaiiinoe oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe a iieueco noauaeoia ainoaea?noaaiiie eee ianoiie aeanoe, no?iyuayny ia iniiaa aacaiciacaeiinoe, aacaica?aoiinoe, iaycaoaeueiinoe.Iaeia - yoi:iaycaoaeueiue aciin a athaeaeao;ecuyoea /anoe aeioiaea eee nianoaaiiinoe noauaeoa, ia nii?iaiaeaeathuaany eaeei-eeai iaycaoaeuenoaii ni noi?iiu iaeiaiauo i?aaiia;ii?aaeaeaiiue ii ?acia?ai e n?ieai ieaoaae;th?eaee/anee onoaiaaeeaaaiue ieaoaae.Iaeiaiaay nenoaia - yoi:niaieoiiinoue iaeiaia, caeiiii aceiaaiuo ia oa??eoi?ee no?aiu;nenoaia iaoiaeia e i?eioeeiia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey;nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeaiey ieaoaaeae ii caaiueyi athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu;ainoaea?noaaiiua iaeiaiaua i?aaiu, iaania/eaathuea nai? iaeiaia.Nia?aiaiiua nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey neiaeeeenue a ?acoeueoaoa aeeeoaeueiie yaiethoeee. Iaeiae ciaee aua a ae?aaiinoe. A ?aciua a?aiaia aaiaeeeenue aeiaieueii yecioe/aneea aeaeu iaeiaia: ia ieia e aeuiiaua o?oau, ia nieue, ia aaie e iai?iaeu e i?.Nia?aiaiiua nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eaioe?iaaiu ia yooaeoeaiinoue. Ii yooaeoeaiinoue iaeiaiaie nenoaiu aeinoeaeeia eeoue i?e oneiaee aa iino?iaiey n o/aoii i?eioeeia ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Oi anoue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aeieaeii auoue ni?aaaaeeeaui a aeacao iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey. Yoi ii?aaeaeyao neaaeothuea iniiaiua i?eioeeiu onoaiiaeaiey iaeiaia:I?eioeei iieo/aiiuo aeaa. A niioaaonoaee n yoei i?eioeeiii oa, eoi iieo/aao aieueooth auaiaeo io i?aaeinoaaeaiey ainoaea?noaii aeaa e oneoa, aeieaeiu eo a aieueoae ia?a e iiea/eaaoue. I?eia?aie iaeiaia, aceiaaiuo a niioaaonoaee n yoei i?eioeeiii, yaeythony iaeiae ia aeaaeaeueoeaa o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, nai?u n aeaaeaeueoeaa niaae e ae?oaea aeaeu iaeiaia, eioi?ua eniieuecothony ia oeaeaaia oeiaine?iaaiea eaeeo-eeai ia?ii?eyoee.I?eioeei ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. A niioaaonoaee n iei oyaeanoue iaeiaia aeieaeia auoue iinoaaeaia a caaeneiinoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii io eiie?aoiiai aeioiaea e o?iaiy aeaaininoiyiey. *ai aieueoa aeioiaeia iieo/aao -/aeiaae eee th?eaee/aneia eeoei, /ai aieueoa aeaaininoiyiea, oai auoa aeieaeiu auoue iaeiae. I?eia?u: iaeia ia i?eaueue (aeioiaeu) i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe e o.i. Yoi - iniiaiie i?eioeei onoaiiaeaiey iaeiaia.Iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aeieaeii iineoue iaeiie?aoiue oa?aeoa?. Iiiaie?aoiia iaeiaeaiea aeioiaea eee eaieoaea iaaeiionoeii. Oae, a ea/anoaa i?eia?a iani?aaaaeeeaiai i?eiaiaiey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iau/ii i?eaiaeyo aceiaiea iaeiaia n i?eauee aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa, aeeth/athuae aeeaeaeaiaeu, a caoai n aeeaeaeaiaeia - a ninoaaa aeioiaeia aeoeeiia?ia.I?eioeei i?inoiou. Iaeiae aeieaeiu auoue i?inouie, iiiyoiuie e oaeiaiuie aeey iaeiaiieaoaeueueea e yeiiiie/iuie aeey o/?aaeaeaiee, niae?athueo iaeiae.Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua i?eciaee eeanneoeeaoeee iaeiaia.Ii iaoiaeo aceiaiey ?acee/atho i?yiua e einaaiiua iaeiae.I?yiua - yoi iaeiae, onoaiaaeeaaaiua iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia aeioiae eee eiouanoai, iiyoiio eo iacuaatho aua iiaeioiaeii-iieiouanoaaiiuie.Oae, iiaeioiaeiue iaeia oiea/eaaaony n iieo/aiiiai aeioiaea, iaeia ia eiouanoai oiea/eaatho nianoaaiieee ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia eiouanoaa.Einaaiiua iaeiae - yoi iaeiae ia oiaa?u eee oneoae, iiea/eaaaiua a oeaia oiaa?a, eee aeeth/aiiua a oa?eo. Einaaiiua iaeiae iacuaatho aua iaeiaaie ia iio?aaeaiea.Yoi oaeea iaeiae eae aeoeec, iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu. Oioy iie iiiaaeatho a athaeaeao ?aciuie iooyie, ii a eoiaa iiea/eaathony iio?aaeoaeai oiaa?ia, oae eae aeeth/athony a noieiinoue iineaaeieo.I?yiua iaeiae i?aiaeaaeatho a O?A, Eaiaaea, NOA, ssiiiee, a einaaiiua - ai O?aioeee e Eoaeee.A caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeie o?iaaiue aeanoe onoaiaaeeaaao, aceiaao e ?anii?yaeaaony iieo/aiiuie n?aaenoaaie, iaeiae iiae?acaeaeythony ia oaaea?aeueiua, noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee e ianoiua.N iiceoeee ?iee a oi?ie?iaaiee aeioiaeia ?aaeiiaeueiuo athaeaeaoia iaeiae iiae?acaeaeythony ia cae?aieaiiua e ?aaoee?othuea.Cae?aieaiiua oeene?othony iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii ia aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae eae aeioiaeiue enoi/iee ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy athaeaeaoa, iinooiatho iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ?aaeiiaeueiua e ianoiua athaeaeaou.?aaoee?othuea "aeiiieiytho" ?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaou aei o?iaiy "iaiaoiaeeiie aeinoaoi/iinoe", iie aaeaaiaeii ia?a?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie ?aciuo o?iaiae n oeaeueth iie?uoue aeaoeoeeo.A ea/anoaa ?aaoee?othueo, iai?eia?, eniieuecothony aeoeecu, iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, iiaeioiaeiue iaeia.Aaaaeai ?yae iiiyoee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Yoi - yeaiaiou iaeiaa. Eaaeaeue iaeia niaea?aeeo oaeea yeaiaiou eae: noauaeo, iauaeo, i?aaeiao, iaeiaiaay aaca, iaeiaiaay noaaea, iaeiaiaua eueaiou.Noauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey (iaeiaiieaoaeueuee) - yoi eeoei, ia eioi?ii eaaeeo iaycaiiinoue oieaoeoue iaeia ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa.Niaeanii i?eioeeio iinoiyiiiai ianoii?aauaaiey (?aceaeaionoaa) iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia aeaeyo ia eeoe:eiathueo iinoiyiiia ianoii?aauaaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiii ainoaea?noaa (?aceaeaiou);ia eiathueo a iai iinoiyiiiai ianoii?aauaaiey (ia?aceaeaiou).Aaaeiia ?acee/ea eo ninoieo a oii, /oi ?aceaeaiou ieaoyo iaeiae ia ana aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua ia oa??eoi?ee aeaiiiai ainoaea?noaa, ia?aceaeaiouoieueei ia aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua ec enoi/ieeia a aeaiiii ainoaea?noaa. Iie ianoo ia?aie/aiioth iaeiaiaoth iaycaiiinoue.Noauaeou iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ?acee/athony e ii ae?oaei i?eciaeai:i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Oae, ?acee/aaony iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea AI, oiaa?euanoa e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe. A neeo aeaeea?e?iaaiiiai Eiinoeoooeeae ?aaainoaa oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, yoi aeaeaiea ia iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny oe?iei, iaeiaei aeey aeinoeaeaiey oaeoe/aneiai ?aaainoaa a oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo e i?eaaoece?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ia?aui i?aaeinoaaeythony iaeiaiaua eueaiou.ii /eneaiiinoe ?aaioathueo. I?e niioaaonoaee ii /eneaiiinoe e?eoa?eth iaeiai i?aaei?eyoey onoaiaaeeaathony ii?aaeaeaiiua eueaiou.ii aeaeai oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aeey i?aaei?eyoee ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae i?aaeeaaathony iaeiaiaua eueaiou a oeaeyo noeioee?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa, no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee. Yoi - iaeia ec oi?i naeaeoeaiie iiaeaea?aeee.Iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey - yoi oa th?eaee/aneea i?e/eiu, eioi?ua iaoneiaeeaatho iaycaiiinoue oieaoeoue iaeia.Iai?eia?, i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth iaoneiaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue oieaou nianoaaiieeii caiaeueiiai iaeiaa; ia?ai?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa, iieo/aiea ianeaaenoaa e o.ae. aeaeoo ca niaie iaiaoiaeeiinoue oieaou niioaaonoaothueo iaeiaia.I?aaeiao iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey - yoi i?eciaee oaeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua iainiiauaatho aceiaiea niioaaonoaothuaai iaeiaa.E i?eia?o, caiaeueiue o/anoie - i?aaeiao iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ii iauaeo, eae oaea auei oeacaii, - i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia iaai.Iaeiaiaay aaca (iniiaa iaeiaa) - /anoue i?aaeiaoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ia eioi?oth ia/eneythony iaeiae.Iaeiaiaay aaca anaaaea iaiueoa i?aaeiaoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.Noaaea iaeiaa - ?acia? iaeiaa ia aaeeieoeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.Ii iaoiaeo onoaiiaeaiey ?acee/atho oaa?aeua noaaee e aeieaaua. I?e iaoiaea oaa?aeuo noaaie ia eaaeaeoth aaeeieoeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey onoaiaaeeaaaony aaniethoiay noiia iaeiaa (iai?eia?, 1000 ?. ca 1 aa iaoie). Aeieaaua noaaee au?aaeathony a ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeieyo iauaeoa iaeiaeaiey. Onoaiiaeaiiua a niouo aeieyo iauaeou noaaee iacuaathony i?ioeaioiuie. Iie oa?aeoa?iu aeey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eauee, aeioiaea (iai?eia?, 12 i?ioeaioia n eaaeaeiai ?oaey ca?ieaou).Iaoiae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey - yoi ii?yaeie eciaiaiey noaaee iaeiaa a caaeneiinoe io ?inoa iaeiaiaie aacu.Auaeaeytho o?e iniiaiuo iaoiaea iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie oi?ie?othony o?e oeia iaeiaia: i?iii?oeeiiaeueiua, i?ia?anneaiua e ?aa?anneaiua.I?e i?iii?oeeiiaeueiii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee aeey eaaeaeiai iaeiaiieaoaeueueea ?aaia noaaea (a ia noiia) iaeiaa. I?iii?oeeiiaeueiue iaeia icia/aao iaeciaiiinoue noaaee i?e eciaiaiee aaee/eiu aacu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. I?eia? i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey - iaeia ia i?eaueue. Noaaea iaeiaa iaeeiaeiaa aeey ieaoaeueueeia, eiathueo i?eaueue a ethauo ?acia?ao. Enoi?e/anee i?iii?oeeiiaeueiua iaeiae ?anniao?eaaeenue eae ni?aaaaeeeaua.Iaeia yaeyaony i?ia?anneaiui, anee aai n?aaeiyy noaaea iiauoaaony ii ia?a aic?anoaiey iaeiaiaie aacu. Ii i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia oieueei aieueooth aaniethoioth noiio, ii oaeaea e aieueooth aeieth aceiaaiiai aeioiaea ii ia?a ?inoa iaeiaiaie aacu. I?eia?ii i?ia?anneaiiai iaeiaa yaeyaony iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe (a?aaeaeai).?aa?anneaiue iaeia i?aaeiieaaaao iiieaeaiea noaaee ii ia?a ?inoa aeioiaea. Ii iiaeao i?eiineoue aieueooth aaniethoioth noiio, ii ninoaaeyoue iaiueooth aeieth ii ia?a ?inoa aeioiaeia iaeiaiieaoaeueueea. A yeiiiie/aneii niunea ?aa?anneaiuie yaeythony einaaiiua iaeiae (iai?eia?, aeoeecu, iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu) eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaaeaaaeo e oeaia oiaa?a. Iieoiaoaee iaeiiai e oiai aea oiaa?a ieaoyo iaeeiaeiaoth noiio n aaeeieoeu oiaa?a, iaeiaeaiiiai einaaiiui iaeiaii. Iineieueeo /anoi ethaee n ?aciuie aeioiaeaie i?eia?aoatho iaeie e oa aea oiaa?u, oi a aeioiaeao aieaa ninoiyoaeueiuo ethaeae iie ninoaaeytho iaiueooth aeieth.Iaeiaiaua eueaiou - iieiia eee /anoe/iia inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaeiaia noauaeoa a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.?acee/atho o?e aeaea iaeiaiauo eueaio: ecuyoey, neeaeee, iaeiaiaua e?aaeeou.Ecuyoey - yoi iaeiaiaay eueaioa, iai?aaeaiiay ia auaaaeaiea ec-iiae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo iauaeoia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Iai?eia?, ia iiaeeaaeeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth i?eaueue, iieo/aiiay io i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia aeaoneiai ieoaiey.Neeaeee - yoi eueaiou, oae aea eae e ecuyoey iai?aaeaiiua ia nie?auaiea iaeiaiaie aacu. Neeaeee /anoi naycaiu ia n aeioiaeaie, a n ?anoiaeaie iaeiaiieaoaeueueea. Iai?eia?, i?e aceiaiee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue a 1997 a. eneeth/aaony /anoue i?eauee, eaeouay ia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa e aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai.Iaeiaiaua e?aaeeou - eueaiou, iai?aaeaiiua ia oiaiueoaiea iaeiaiaie noaaee eee noiia?iiai iaeiaa. Aieueoeinoai aeaeia iaeiaiaiai e?aaeeoa yaeyaony aacaica?aoiui e aanieaoiui (a ioee/ea io aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa). I?eiaiytho oaeea oi?iu iaeiaiaiai e?aaeeoa, eae:nieaeaiea noaaee iaeiaa. Iai?eia?, aeey i?aaei?eyoee, a ooaoa eioi?uo ia iaiaa 50 % ninoaaeytho eiaaeeaeu, noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ia 1997 a. nieaeaia a 2 ?aca.nie?auaiea noiia?iiai (aaeiaiai) iaeiaa. Nie?auaiea iiaeao auoue /anoe/iui e i?eiaiyoueny ia ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy eee aann?i/ii. Aiciiaeii e iieiia inaiaiaeaeaiea io oieaou iaeiaa ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae (iaeiaiaua eaieeoeu). Oae, a ia?aua aeaa aiaea n iiiaioa ?aaeno?aoeee iieiinoueth inaiaiaeaeathony io iaeiaa ia i?eaueue iaeua i?aaei?eyoey ii i?iecaiaenoao e ia?a?aaioea naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.Ion?i/ea eee ?ann?i/ea oieaou iaeiaa. Iai?eia?, iiaeioiaeiue iaeia iiaeao auoue oiea/ai ii cayaeaieth iaeiaiieaoaeueueea a ?ann?i/eo aei 1 aiaea oieaoie i?ioeaioia.A oeeaeeeciaaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea iaeiaiaay nenoaia aeieaeia auiieiyoue neaaeothuea ooieoeee:oeneaeueioth, oi anoue iaania/aiey athaeaeaoa iaiaoiaeeiuie aeioiaeaie aeey oeiaine?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ooieoeee . Yoa caaea/a auea aaeeinoaaiiie ia ?aiieo yoaiao noaiiaeaiey iaeiaiauo nenoai. Iia i?aaaee?oao a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao a oua?a ae?oaei ooieoeeyi;nioeeaeueioth, oi anoue iaeiaiaay nenoaia aeieaeia niinianoaiaaoue ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeiia nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe. I?eciaii, /oi einaaiiia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea ianao iioaioeeae nioeeaeueiie iani?aaaaeeeainoe. Iani?aaaaeeeainoue einaaiiuo iaeiaia oniao?eaaaony e a oii, /oi iie noeioee?otho eioeyoeeth. A nayce n caaea/aie ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeia nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe e noeioee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeooaeueia i?iaeaia aeaieiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Iia aicieeaao i?e iao?aaoee?iaaiiinoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey AI i?e ia?aeeaeueiii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee anae i?eauee aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee e aeeaeaeaiaeia aeoeeiia?ia yoie aea eiiiaiee. A nia?aiaiiie i?aeoeea aeaieiia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea /aua anaai naycaii n i?iaaaeaieai oe?iaie ca?oaaaeiuo iia?aoeee, eioi?ua iiaoo iiaeiaaeaoue iiae ianiaeaniaaiiia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aeaoo eee ianeieueeeo no?ai.?aaoee?othuoth, oi anoue ooieoeeth noeioee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iniaaiii aeooaeueia yoa caaea/a a ioiioaiee i?yiuo iaeiaia. Oae, a oai?ee e i?aeoeea caiaaeiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eciaii, /oi ecuyoea iin?aaenoaii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aieaa 50 % i?eauee iiae?uaaao noeioeu /anoiii?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe;Iaeiae ana aieueoa eniieuecothony aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey io?aneaaie e oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa.Neioaoe/aneei iieacaoaeai noaiaie oyaeanoe iaeiaia aeey eiiiaiee, a?aaeaeai, no?aiu a oeaeii yaeyaony iaeiaiaia a?aiy, oi anoue aeiey anao oiea/eaaaiuo iaeiaia a aiaeiaii aeioiaea eaeie-eeai a?oiiu noauaeoia.A 90-o aiaeao a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee noaea oi?ie?iaaoueny iaeiaiaay nenoaia, niioaaonoaothuay o?aaiaaieyi nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiie ?uii/iie oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu e oaaea?aoeaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa.A 1991 aiaeo aue i?eiyo Caeii ?O "Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee". Caeii onoaiiaee ia?a/aiue iaeiaia, nai?ia e iioeei, ii?aaeaeee i?aaa, iaycaiiinoe e ioaaonoaaiiinoue iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia e iaeiaiauo i?aaiia. A niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii aia?aua iaeiae auee ?acaeaeaiu ia o?e aeaea: oaaea?aeueiua; noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee; ianoiua. Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey auee aianaiu Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O ? 2268 io 22 aeaeaa?y 1993 a. Nia?aiaiiay iaeiaiaay nenoaia e ia?a/aiue iniiaiuo aeaeia iaeiaia aeathony a iiaii Iaeiaiaii eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.?anniio?ei iniiaiua aeaeu iaeiaia, i?eiaiyaiuo a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe (a?aaeaeai) - i?yiie i?ia?anneaiue iaeia, aceiaaiue ni anae niaieoiiinoe aeioiaeia a?aaeaeai. A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee n 1999 aiaea iniiaiay noaaea - 12 %. I?e aeioiaeao nauoa 50 oun.?oa. i?eiaiyaony i?ia?anneaiay noaaea. Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia yaeyaony ?aaoee?othuei iaeiaii.Iaeia ia i?eaueue (aeioiaeu) i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee - i?yiie i?iii?oeeiiaeueiue iaeia. Iaeiaiaay noaaea ?ani?aaeaeaia iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie.Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue - einaaiiue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aa?anneaiue iaeia. (Aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue - oeaia i?iaeaaee ca au/aoii cao?ao ia iieoieo yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia.) ?aaoee?othuee iaeia, ninoaaeyao cia/eoaeueioth /anoue aeioiaeia oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa e, ai iiiaeo neo/ayo, ?aaeiiaeueiuo. Ii ioeaieai yeiiiienoia, IAeN ieacuaaao naea?aeeaathuaa aeeyiea ia yeiiiie/aneee ?ino.Aeoeecu - nai?u, aceiaaiua i?e i?iaeaaea iniauo (iiaeaeoeeciuo) oiaa?ia. Ooaa?aeaeathony iniaui caeiiii. Iau/ii onoaiaaeeaathony ia oaaa/iua ecaeaeey, aeeiaieue, ae?aaioeaiiinoe, iaooai?iaeoeou e o.ae. Yoi -einaaiiue, ?aa?anneaiue, ?aaoee?othuee iaeia, onoaiaaeeaaaiue ia oiaa?u n iayeanoe/iui ni?inii. Noaaee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu.Iieiouanoaaiiua iaeiae - ia ee/iia eiouanoai a?aaeaeai e eiouanoai (oiiaeu) i?aaei?eyoee (th?eaee/aneeo eeoe). Iieiouanoaaiiua iaeiae a aieueoeinoaa no?ai cae?aieythony ca ?aaeiiaeueiuie e ianoiuie athaeaeaoaie. Yoi - i?yiua, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiua, cae?aieaiiua (nianoaaiiua) iaeiae.Nouanoaoao ino?ay iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ?aaeeeaeueiie ?aoi?ia aeaenoaothuae iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?innee. Iniiaiua iaaeinoaoee nouanoaothuae a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iaeiaiaie nenoaiu:*?acia?iay oyaeanoue iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie (iniaaiii ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee naeoi?)Ianoaaeeueiinoue e caiooaiiinoue ii?iaoeaiie aacu e i?ioeaaeo? iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, i?eaiaeyuea e aieueoei cao?aoai ia niaea?aeaiea iaeiaiaie nenoaiu.Iaeiinoi?iiiyy iai?aaeaiiinoue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia ecuyoea aeioiaeia, iaaeinoaoi/iay noeioee?othuay ninoaaeythuay.Cia/eoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe oeeiiaiey io oieaou iaeiaia.A neeo iaee/ey oeacaiiuo e ae?oaeo iaaeinoaoeia a ?inneeneie iaeiaiaie nenoaia i?aaeiieaaaaony aa ?aoi?ie?iaaiea. Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo oneiaee ?aoi?iu yaeyaony i?eiyoea Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu:oi?iuaiea iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee;oiaiueoaiea /enea iaeiaia, nai?ia e ieaoaaeae iooai eo iauaaeeiaiey eee /anoe/iiai oi?acaeiaiey (a 5-6 ?ac ii n?aaiaieth n aeaenoaothuae iaeiaiaie nenoaiie, aeaaiui ia?acii, ca n/ao iaeiaia, aaaaeaiiuo ia ?aaeiiaeueiii e ianoiii o?iaia);nie?auaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee naeoi?, oneeaiea noeioee?othuae ooieoeee;ioiaia iaeiaia, oiea/eaaaiuo ni anae au?o/ee (oaeeo eae iaeia ia iieueciaaoaeae aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia, ianoiue iaeia ia niaea?aeaiea nioeeaeueiie noa?u);nie?auaiea e oii?yaei/aiea iaeiaiauo eueaio;nouanoaaiiia ?anoe?aiea i?aa ianoiuo aaeieieno?aoeee a iaeanoe eueaioiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iaeiai aeciana;onoaiiaeaiea noaaeeueiuo ii?iaoeaia ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie ?acee/iuo o?iaiae.Aeaaa 8. Aaieianeay nenoaia e aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaaAii?inu:E?aaeeo a ?uii/iie yeiiiieeaAeaooo?iaiaaay aaieianeay nenoaia: Oeaio?aeueiue e eiiia?/aneea aaieeAeaiaaeiue ?uiieAeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea: oeaee e eino?oiaiouAiai?yo, Eaiei n/eoae, /oi ?aceiaeaiea nenoaiu aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey – eo/oee niinia oie/oiaeaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai no?iy… Eaiei aue aaconeiaii i?aa. Iao aieaa aa?iiai e aeaenoaaiiiai niiniaa ieni?iaa?aeaiey iniia nouanoaothuaai iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, /ai iiae?ua aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu.Aeae .I. EaeinIa?yaeo n oeiainiaui ?aaoee?iaaieai iaiaeiaaaeiui iai?aaeaieai iae?iyeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee yaeyaony aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa. Eino?oiaioii aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee yaeyaony eciaiaiea aaee/eiu aeaiaaeiie iannu, ia?auathuaeny a no?aia, e eciaiaiea «oeaiu e?aaeeoa», oi anoue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?anniio?aiea aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee o?aaoao i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai iciaeiieaiey n e?aaeeoiuie ioiioaieyie e oneiaeyie oi?ie?iaaiey nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea, a oaeaea aiaeeca no?oeoo?u e iaoaiecia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nia?aiaiiuo aaieianeeo nenoai.1. E?aaeeo a ?uii/iie yeiiiieeaE?aaeeo a aeineiaiii ia?aaiaea icia/aao aeiaa?eth (credo - aa?th).Iiiyoea e?aaeeo a yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo aa?ao ia/aei io eaoeineiai creditum e icia/aao «nnoaea, aeiea».E?aaeeo - yoi nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, au?aaeathuayny a aeaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea iaaeaeo e?aaeeoi?ii e caaiueeii. E?aaeeo i?aaeinoaaeyaony ia oneiaeyo: aica?aoiinoe, n?i/iinoe, iaania/aiiinoe e ieaoiinoe.Eeoei, i?aaeinoaaeythuaa eaieoae a e?aaeeo – e?aaeeoi?, a aa?ouaa – caaiuee.Iaiaoiaeeiinoue e aiciiaeiinoue e?aaeeoa naycaia n oai, /oi o iaeieo yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia iiyaeythony a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua aunooiatho eae enoi/iee e?aaeeoa, a o ae?oaeo aicieeaao iio?aaiinoue a ieo.A oneiaeyo ?acaeoiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa iniiaiui niaea?aeaieai e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee noaiiaeony aeaeaeaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea, oi anoue i?aaeinoaaeaiea aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea a aeiea, ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea ca ieaoo.Aica?aoiinoue yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie /a?oie e?aaeeoa e ioee/aao e?aaeeo io ae?oaeo oi?i aeaeaeaiey eaieoaea. Aica?aoiinoue naycaia n a?aiaiiui oa?aeoa?ii aunaiaiaeaeaiey n?aaenoa e?aaeeoi?aie.N?i/iinoue e?aaeeoiaaiey - iaiaoiaeeiay oi?ia aeinoeaeaiey aica?aoiinoe e?aaeeoa. I?eioeei n?i/iinoe icia/aao, /oi e?aaeeo aeieaeai auoue ia i?inoi aica?auai, a aica?auai a no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie.I?eioeei iaania/aiiinoe e?aaeeoa /aua anaai iiieiaaony eae iaoa?eaeueiay iaania/aiiinoue. Yoi icia/aao, /oi nnoaeu iau/ii auaeathony iiae eiie?aoiua iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe, /oi aa?aioe?oao ?aaeueiinoue aica?aoa e?aaeeoa. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo a ea/anoaa iaania/aiey e?aaeeoa i?eieiathony caeiaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa, aa?aioee e ii?o/eoaeuenoaa ieaoaaeaniiniaiuo th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe, a oaeaea no?aoiaua iieenu.Ieaoiinoue icia/aao, /oi eaaeaeue caaiuee aiineo ii?aaeaeaiioth ieaoo ca i?aai iieueciaaiey nnoaeie. ?aaeecaoeey yoiai i?eioeeia ia i?aeoeea inouanoaeyaony aeaaiui ia?acii /a?ac oieaoo aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa, eioi?ue onoaiaaeeaaaony a aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiie aeiee io aaee/eiu nnoaeaiiiai eaieoaea.Aaaeiaeoea enoi/ieee e?aaeeoa:n?aaenoaa, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea (caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee, iai?oaeiaaiey, o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa e o.i.) e iaeaieeaaaiua ii ia?a ia?aianaiey aai noieiinoe a oi?ia io/eneaiee a aii?oecaoeeiiiua oiiaeu ;/anoue iai?ioiiai eaieoaea (n?aaenoaa io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, eaeouea ia caeoieo nu?uey, i?eaea/aiea ?aai/ae neeu e o.i.), aunaiaiaeaeaaiay a nayce n ianiaiaaeaieai a?aiaie i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia e iieoiee nu?uey, oiieeaa, auieaou ca?aaioiie ieaou;/anoue i?eauee, i?aaeiacia/aiiay ia ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa;n?aaenoaa athaeaeaoia e ae?oaeo oeiainiauo oiiaeia;aeioiaeu e iaeiieaiey a?aaeaeai.Oi?iu e?aaeeoa aeeooa?aioee?otho ii ?acee/iui e?eoa?eyi. Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo e?eoa?eaa nenoaiaoecaoeee yaeyaony noauaeoiue. Ii yoiio i?eciaeo ?acee/atho neaaeothuea oi?iu e?aaeeoa:Eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo - i?aaeinoaaeyaiue iaeieie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie ae?oaei a aeaea i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea. Oaeea e?aaeeou ioi?ieythony aaenaeai. Aai iauaeoii yaeyaony oiaa?iue eaieoae, a oeaeueth - onei?aiea ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia e caeeth/aiiie a ieo i?eauee. Eiiia?/aneia e?aaeeoiaaiea a ieaiiaie yeiiiieea auei ioiaiaii ?aoi?iie 1930 - 1933 aiaeia. Aic?iaeaeaiea eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea ?innee eaeao n aieueoeie neiaeiinoyie. ?acaeoea eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoiaaiey iicaieyao ?ac?aoaoue i?iaeaio acaeiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo oe?i.Aaieianeee e?aaeeo - i?aaeinoaaeyaony aaieaie, niaoeeaeueiuie oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi e oe?iai a oi?ia aeaiaaeiuo nnoae. Yoi - iniiaiie aeae e?aaeeoa a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. A?aieoeu aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa oe?a eiiia?/aneiai, oae eae ii ia ia?aie/ai iai?aaeaieai, n?ieii e noiiaie e?aaeeoiuo naeaeie, /oi aeaeaao e?aaeeo aieaa yeanoe/iui, ?anoe?yao aai ianooaau, iiauoaao iaania/aiiinoue.Aaieianeea e?aaeeou aeaeyony ia e?aoein?i/iua (n?ieii aei iaeiiai aiaea) e aeieain?i/iua, auaeaaaaiua ia n?ie aieueoa aiaea.3.Iio?aaeoaeueneee e?aaeeo i?aaeinoaaeyaony ianaeaieth i?e iieoiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia. Oe?ieia ?acaeoea iio?aaeoaeueneiai e?aaeeoa niinianoaoao ?anoe?aieth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae, oae eae oaaee/eaaao ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in.Ainoaea?noaaiiue (ioieoeeiaeueiue) e?aaeeo - iniaay oi?ia e?aaeeoiaaiey. Caeanue caaiueeii aunooiaao ainoaea?noai e ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe ii ioiioaieth e a?aaeaeaiai eee th?eaee/aneei eeoeai. O?aaeeoeeiiiay oi?ia yoiai e?aaeeoa - auione ainoaea?noaaiiuo (ioieoeeiaeueiuo) caeiia.?ieue e?aaeeoa a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothueie aai ooieoeeyie.E?aaeeo ?ac?aoaao i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo i?aauaaieai /anoe eaieoaeia a aeaea i?acaeii eaaeaueo aeaiaa e i?e?iaeie eaieoaea, ia oa?iyuae ionoonoaey aeaeaeaiey. (Eaieoae eeoue oiaaea yaeyaony oaeiaui, anee ii i?eiineo aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae.)E?aaeeo niaeaenoaoao ?anoe?aieth i?iecaiaenoaa, ?acaeoeth eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, ?aoaao i?iaeaio iaaeinoaoea nianoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey aeciana.3.E?aaeeo niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth i?ioeannia iaeiieaiey e eiioeaio?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.4.Aeaaiaea?y e?aaeeoo i?ienoiaeeo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea eaieoaeia iaaeaeo io?aneyie e ?aaeiiaie, no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea yeiiiieee. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiue eaieoae cae?aieai a eaaeaeie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aaeeieoea a eiie?aoiie iaoa?eaeueiie oi?ia (aeiaeai a eiie?aoiua iaoeiu, nu?uea, iai?oaeiaaiea e o.ae.) e ia iiaeao naiaiaeii ia?aiauaoueny ec iaeiie oe?iu a ae?oaoth. Aeaiaaeiua eaieoaeu, a niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiii iaeneiaeueiie auaiaeu, iai?aaeythony a oa noa?u, aaea iie aeatho iaeaieueooth ioaea/o.2. Aeaooo?iaiaaay aaieianeay nenoaia: Oeaio?aeueiue e eiiia?/aneea aaiee.Aaiee – yoi yeiiiie/aneea einoeooou, eioi?ua ianeoaeeaatho nenoaio e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee.N/eoaaony, /oi ia?aua aaiee aicieeee ia iniiaa iaiyeueiiai aeaea - iaiaia aeaiaa ?acee/iuo ai?iaeia e no?ai. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeatho yoeiieiae/aneea ei?ie neiaa “aaie”, aai i?ienoiaeaeaiea io eoaeueyineiai “banco” (noie, ia eioi?ii n?aaeiaaaeiaua eoaeueyineea iaiyeu ?aneeaaeuaaee naie iiiaou).Aeaenoaiaaaoay o ian aei 1986 aiaea aaieianeay nenoaia ei?ioei iiaea auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaia eae iaeiio?iaiaaay. Aaieianeia aeaei auei iiiiiieece?iaaii Ainoaea?noaaiiui Aaieii NNN?, ia?yaeo n eioi?ui nouanoaiaaea naoue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo aaieia: Naa?aaie, I?iino?ieaaie e ae?. Iineaaeiea auee, ii nouanoao, oeeeaeaie Ainaaiea.Aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee a ?uii/iii oicyenoaa o?aaoao ?acaeoey iaoe?iie aaieianeie naoe. Aeey no?ai n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie oa?aeoa?ii iino?iaiea aaieianeiai naeoi?a eae aeaooo?iaiaaiai.Aeaooo?iaiaaay aaieianeay nenoaia iniiauaaaony ia acaeiiioiioaieyo iaaeaeo aaieaie a aeaoo ieineinoyo: ii aa?oeeaee e ii ai?eciioaee. Ii aa?oeeaee - ioiioaiey iiae/eiaiey iaaeaeo Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii eae ?oeiaiaeyuei, oi?aaeythuei e eiio?iee?othuei oeaio?ii e ieciauie caaiueyie - eiiia?/aneeie e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie aaieaie, ae?oaeie e?aaeeoiuie einoeoooaie; ii ai?eciioaee - ioiioaiey ?aaiii?aaiiai ia?oia?noaa iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie ieciauie caaiueyie.Iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey aeaooo?iaiaaie nenoaiu aaieia iaoneiaeaia i?ioeai?a/eaui oa?aeoa?ii ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee: n iaeiie noi?iiu, iie o?aaotho naiaiaeu i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e ?anii?yaeaiey /anoiuie oeiainiauie n?aaenoaaie, e yoi iaania/eaaaony yeaiaioaie ieaeiaai o?iaiy aaieianeie nenoaiu - eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie e e?aaeeoiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie; n ae?oaie noi?iiu, yoei ioiioaieyi iaiaoiaeeii ?aaoee?iaaiea: eiio?ieue e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea, /oi o?aaoao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iniaiai einoeoooa a aeaea Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea.A 90-o aiaeao a ?innee auea nicaeaia aeaooo?iaiaaay aaieianeay nenoaia, a iniiaiii ii?aaeaeaiu e ?aca?aie/aiu ooieoeee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea e eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 64 . Aeaooo?iaiaaay aaieianeay nenoaia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.Iniiaiuie ooieoeeyie Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea yaeythony:aeaiaaeiay yienney. (Io eaoeineiai «emissio”- auione). Oeaio?aeueiue aaie iieuecoaony iiiiiieueiui i?aaii auionea iaoeeiiaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia a ia?auaiea. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie inouanoaeyao yienneth a niioaaonoaee n iio?aaiinoyie oicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa;ooieoeey aaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie iaycai iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ainoaea?noaaiiua yeiiiie/aneea i?ia?aiiu, ianeoaeeaaoue athaeaeaoiua ?an/aou, niinianoaiaaoue oi?aaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiui aeieaii, i?iaaaeaieth aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee;ooieoeey aaiea aaieia. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie yaeyaony e?aaeeoi?ii iineaaeiae einoaioeee, ii i?aaeinoaaeyao iaoeeiiaeueiui e?aaeeoiui einoeoooai aiciiaeiinoue ?aoeiaine?iaaiey ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo i?e a?aiaiiii aeaoeoeeoa o ieo e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie yaeyaony ?an/aoiui oeaio?ii;?ieue i?aaia iaaeci?a ca eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie e oeiainiauie ?uieaie.Ieciaia caaii aaieianeie nenoaiu ninoieo ec naoe eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii auiieiythueo ooieoeee e?aaeeoii-?an/aoiiai ianeoaeeaaiey eeeaioia ia eiiia?/aneeo i?eioeeiao. Iniiaiie aai ninoaaeythuae yaeythony oieaa?naeueiua eiiia?/aneea aaiee. Aaaeiaeoeie eo ooieoeeyie o?aaeeoeeiiii yaeythony:aeeoioeyoeey a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, naa?aaeaiee e iaeiieaiee;inouanoaeaiea e i?aaiecaoeey ?an/aoia a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa;e?aaeeoiaaiea ioaeaeueiuo oicyenoaaiiuo aaeeieoe, th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe;o/ao aaenaeae e iia?aoeee n ieie;o?aiaiea oeiainiauo e iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae;aeiaa?eoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea eiouanoaii eeeaioia (o?anoiaua iia?aoeee); e ae?.Iia?aoeee ii aeeoioee?iaaieth a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaa iacuaathony ianneaiuie, a ?aiauaiea n?aaenoa, eiiia?/anee auaiaeiia eo aeiaeaiea ioiinyo e aeoeaiui iia?aoeeyi. Ii iaiei oeiai iia?aoeee a ea/anoaa iieaou aunooiaao i?ioeaio. I?ioeaio ii aeoeaiui iia?aoeeyi eae i?aaeei i?aauoaao ?acia? i?ioeaioa ii ianneaiui iia?aoeeyi, ?aciinoue iaaeaeo yoeie i?ioeaioaie (ia?aea) e ninoaaeyao iniiao aeioiaeia aaieia.Ia?yaeo n oieaa?naeueiuie eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie a nenoaio eiiia?/aneeo aaieia iiaoo aoiaeeoue e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aaiee, eioi?ua i?eaioe?iaaiu ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea, a iniiaiii, iaeiiai-aeaoo aeaeia oneoa aeey aieueoeinoaa naieo eeeaioia.Iai?eia?, eiaanoeoeeiiiua e eiiiaaoeeiiiua aaiee niaoeeaeece?othony ia aeeoioeyoeee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia aeeeoaeueiua n?iee, a oii /enea, iin?aaenoaii auionea iaeeaaoeeiiiuo caeiia e i?aaeinoaaeaiey aeieain?i/iuo nnoae. Iie aunooiatho a ea/anoaa i?aaiecaoi?ia ia?ae/iiai e aoi?e/iiai ia?auaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa.Naa?aaaoaeueiua aaiee no?iyo naith aeayoaeueiinoue ca n/ao i?eaea/aiey iaeeeo aeeaaeia ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie.Eiioa/iua (caiaeueiua) aaiee inouanoaeytho e?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee ii i?eaea/aieth e ?aciauaieth n?aaenoa ia aeieain?i/iie iniiaa iiae caeia iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa.Nicaeaiea e aeayoaeueiinoue eiiioiaeueiuo aaieia eee aaieia, ianeoaeeaathueo ianoiia oicyenoai, iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiea a iaiiiaeo no?aiao. Oeaeue nicaeaiey eiiioiaeueiuo (ioieoeeiaeueiuo) aaieia - niaeaenoaea ?acaeoeth e e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaia ianeoaeeaaiea ianoiiai oicyenoaa. O/?aaeeoaeyie e o/anoieeaie aeaiiuo aaieia iiaoo aunooiaoue ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe, aaaeiinoaa, iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee, no?aoiaua iauanoaa e aaiee, oi anoue i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua a iaeaieueoae noaiaie caeioa?aniaaiu a ?acaeoee ianoiie eio?ano?oeoo?u e /ae aecian a nouanoaaiiie noaiaie caaeneo io yoiai.Ianiio?y ia ?acee/ey a iacaaieyo, nia?aiaiiua eiiia?/aneea aaiee a ?innee neaai niaoeeaeece?iaaiu e, a iniiaiii, caieiathony noiaeiuie i?iaeaiaie e iia?aoeeyie: aeeoioee?otho a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa e i?aaeinoaaeytho e?aaeeou, eniieuecotho oaeaea e ae?oaea eaiaeu eiiia?/anee auaiaeiiai aeiaeaiey aeeoioee?iaaiiuo n?aaenoa, iai?eia?, inouanoaeytho iia?aoeee ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.Ia 1 ieoya?y 1999 aiaea a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 2408 aaieia, ec ieo n o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea – 139. Ia oa??eoi?ee no?aiu aeaenoaiaaei 3914 oeeeaeia aaieia, a oii /enea: Naa?aaiea ?innee – 1698.Ia 1 aaaonoa 1999 aiaea iauee iauai e?aaeeoia , auaeaiiuo oicyenoao, aaieai, ianaeaieth a ?oaeyo e eiino?aiiie aaethoa (ia oio aea ia?eiae) – 180,3 ie?ae. ?oaeae .Aeeaaeu ianaeaiey ninoaaeee (ia oio aea ia?eiae) anaai – 160,7 ie?ae. ?oaeae, ec ieo a Naa?aaie – 138,7ie?ae. ?oaeae (86,3 %).Ieciaie o?iaaiue aeaooo?iaiaaie aaieianeie nenoaiu, ia?yaeo n aaieaie, aoiaeyo e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua einoeooou, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho aieaa oceee e?oa oeiainiauo iia?aoeee. E niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaui o/?aaeaeaieyi iiaeii ioianoe eiiaa?aeu, e?aaeeoiua oiaa?euanoaa e iauanoaa.Eiiaa?aeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey, auaeathuea nnoaeu iiae caeia aeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa. Niaoeeaeecaoeey eiiaa?aeia - iio?aaeoaeueneee e?aaeeo iiae iaania/aiea a aeaea caeiaa aeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, aeeth/ay ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu e eaiie (eae i?aaeei, ca eneeth/aieai oeaiiuo aoiaa). Nnoaeu auaeathony a iniiaiii e?aoein?i/iua (aei 3 ian.) a ?acia?a io 50 aei 80 i?ioeaioia noieiinoe caeeaaeuaaaiiai eiouanoaa.Iauanoaa acaeiiiai e?aaeeoa (IAE) - aeae e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, aeeceeo ii oa?aeoa?o aeayoaeueiinoe e eiiia?/aneei aaieai, ianeoaeeaathuei iaeeee e n?aaeiee aecian. Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiaee a aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee, i?aaeinoaaeyy ?acee/iua aeaeu e?aaeeoii-?an/aoiiai ianeoaeeaaiey /anoiui i?iiuoeaiieeai e oi?aiaoeai. I?e anooieaiee eaaeaeue ec /eaiia IAE aiineo ii?aaeaeaiiue i?ioeaio (iai?eia?, 10 - 30 %) ioe?uoiai aio e?aaeeoa a ea/anoaa iieaou naiaai iaaaiai aciina. I?e auauoee ec IAE aai o/anoiee iiaaoaao, ai-ia?auo, noiio iniiaiiai aeieaa (n oieaoie i?e/eoathueony iauanoao i?ioeaioia); ai-aoi?uo, i?eoiaeyuothny ia iaai /anoue oauoeia iauanoaa, anee oaeiaua eiathony. Iinea yoiai auauaathuaio aica?auathony aai anooieoaeueiue aciin e caeiaeaiiia eiouanoai.E?aaeeoiua oiaa?euanoaa nicaeathony a oeaeyo e?aaeeoii-?an/aoiiai ianeoaeeaaiey naieo /eaiia, eiiia?aoeaia, i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana, oece/aneeo eeoe. Eaieoae e?aaeeoiuo oiaa?euanoa oi?ie?oaony iooai iieoiee iaaa e iieaou iaycaoaeueiiai anooieoaeueiiai aciina, eioi?ue i?e auauoee ia aica?auaaony.Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeoeaecaoeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iaoneiaeeaaao iio?aaiinoue a ?acaeoee e?aaeeoiuo oiaa?euanoa e iauanoa acaeiiiai e?aaeeoa.?ieue aaieianeeo nenoai a yeiiiieea ?acaeouo no?ai aic?anoaao. Oa?aeoa?iu neaaeothuea nia?aiaiiua oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee aaieianeiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee:Oaeoaeyaony i?ioeann oeaio?aeecaoeee e eiioeaio?aoeee aaieianeiai eaieoaea. Iai?eia?, a NOA oaea e eiioeo 80-o aiaeia 4i io iauaai /enea eiiia?/aneeo aaieia eiaee aeoeau aieaa 500 iei. aeiee. e aeaaeaee 74% anao aaieianeeo aeoeaia. A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia 1 aeaeaa?y 1997 aiaea aieueoeinoai eiiia?/aneeo aaieia (86%) eiaei onoaaiue eaieoae iaiaa 30 ie?ae. ?oa. (iaaeaiiieie?iaaiiuo, oi anoue iaiaa 5 iei. aeiee.). N?aaeiee ?acia? aeoeaia ninoaaeye 36 iei. aeiee. - ia ii?yaeie iaiueoa, /ai a ?acaeouo no?aiao. Ia?aae ?inneeneie aaieianeie nenoaiie noieo caaea/a oe?oiiaiey aaieia, oae eae iaeeea aaiee iaonoie/eau, ieceiaeioiaeiu e ianiiniaiu inouanoaeyoue eiaanoeoeee.E?oiiaeoea nia?aiaiiua aaiee i?aaenoaaeytho eeeaioai iaoe?iue niaeo? oneoa - aieaa 200 aeaeia. Yoi - ia oieueei iiaua aeaiiceoii-nnoaeiua iia?aoeee, ii e oaeoi?eia, ia/eneaiea e oaea?aeaiea iaeiaia, aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee, ieacaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo, aoaeeoi?neeo e eiinaeoeiaiauo oneoa, auaea/a aa?aioee e ii?o/eoaeuenoa, eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee, ?aaioa n e?aaeeoiuie ea?oi/eaie e o.ae.?acaeaaaony yeaeo?iiecaoeey aaieianeeo oneoa. Nicaeathony iiuiua eiiiuethoa?iua naoe, iicaieythuea inouanoaeyoue ?an/aou e ieaoaaee a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie.3. Aeaiaaeiue ?uiieAeaiaaeiue ?uiie - eeth/aaie naeoi? ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue ioiioaiee, eioi?ua neeaaeuaathony iaaeaeo aaieianeie nenoaiie, nicaeathuae aeaiueae e «ioaeeeie», oi anoue yeiiiie/aneeie noauaeoaie, i?aaeuyaeythueie ni?in ia ieo.?aaiiaanea aeaiaaeiiai ?uiea aeeyao ia oieueei ia aeaiaaeioth noa?o, ii e ia iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea a oeaeii. Caeanue, eae e ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao, iniiaiuie noi?iiaie ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia yaeythony ni?in, i?aaeeiaeaiea e oeaia. Iaeiaei, ana yoe eaoaai?ee ia?aoatho ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou, oae eae a ioee/ea io oiaa?iuo ?uieia, ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea ia?auaaony iniaue oiaa? – aeaiueae, i?iiecuaathuee anth nenoaio ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. Ia c?y aiai?yo : «aeaiueae – yoi e?iaue yeiiiieee».Ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea ni?in ia aeaiueae e eo i?aaeeiaeaiea o?aaiiaaoeaaao i?ioeaioiay noaaea, oeaia aeaiaa. Yoiio niinianoaoao naoue oeiainiauo einoeoooia, iaania/eaathueo acaeiiaeaenoaea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa. Ni?in ia aeaiueae i?aaeuyaeyaony ni noi?iiu anao yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia, aeaenoaothueo a aeaiiii iaoeeiiaeueiii oicyenoaa. I?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa ?aaoee?oaony i?aaeoaeuenoaii.?anniio?aiea iaoaieciia aeaiaaeiiai ?uiea ia/iai n i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa.I?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa - yoi aeaiaaeiay ianna a ia?auaiee ia aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie, oi anoue niaieoiiinoue anao aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, ooieoeeiie?othueo a aeaiiie iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea a iaee/iie e aaciaee/iie oi?iao e iaania/eaathueo iio?aaiinoe oicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa.I?e ?anniio?aiee oi?i aeaiaa iu oeacuaaee, /oi aeaiaaeiue iai?io a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea aeeth/aao iai?io iaee/iuo aeaiaa (iiiao e eacia/aeneeo aeeaoia) e aaciaee/iuo aeaiaa - caienae ia n/aoao a aaieao Cia/eoaeueiia ?aciiia?acea oi?i oeiainiauo n?aaenoa a nia?aiaiiuo oicyenoaaiiuo nenoaiao ii?aaeaeyao iiiaiia?acea o?aeoiaie ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.I?e ii?aaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiie iannu a ea/anoaa aa ecia?eoaeae i?eiaiythony ?acee/iua aa?aaaou.Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ARABIC 17 . Aeaiaaeiua aa?aaaouIaicia-/aiea aa?aaaoa Aeeth/aaiua aeoeauE?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeeaI0 Iaee/iua aeaiueae A aieueoeinoaa iianaaeiaaiuo iia?aoeee a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey eniieuecothony iaee/iua aeaiueae – aoiaaeiua e iaoaeee/aneea.I1 Noiia iaee/iuo aeaiaa (I0), aeaiaa ia ?an/aoiuo e oaeoueo n/aoao, aeeaaeia e aeaiiceoia aei aino?aaiaaiey Aeaiueae I1 iacuaatho “aeaiueae aeey naeaeie”, eee iia?aoeeiiiua aeaiueae. Aeey niaa?oaiey ?aciiai ?iaea naeaeie eoiee-i?iaeaaee e ieaoaaeae a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo oe?iei eniieuecothony aeeaaeu aei aino?aaiaaiey, n?aaenoaa, eiathueany ia oaeoueo e ?an/aoiuo n/aoao. Yoe aeeaaeu oaeiaiu ii/oe oaeaea, eae e iaee/iua aeaiueae. N?aaenoaa, eiathueany ia ieo, iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey ieaoaaeae iaiin?aaenoaaiii a aaciaee/iie oi?ia e aac ia?aaiaea ia ae?oaea n/aoa. Aeey ?an/aoia n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa, ?aciauaiiuo ia yoeo n/aoao, eo aeaaeaeueoeu auienuaatho eeai ieaoaaeiua ii?o/aiey (i?aiaeaaeathuay oi?ia ?an/aoia a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea), eeai /aee e aee?aaeeoeau.I2 Noiia I1, naa?aaaoaeueiuo e n?i/iuo aeeaaeia Aa?aaao I2, e?iia I1, aeeth/aao naa?aaaoaeueiua e n?i/iua aeeaaeu. N?i/iua aeeaaeu - n?aaenoaa, iiiauaiiua ia o?aiaiea ia ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie. Ii n?i/iui aeeaaeai aaieaie auiea/eaathony aieaa aunieea i?ioeaiou. Naa?aaaoaeueiua aeeaaeu - iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oi?ia n?i/iuo aeeaaeia ianaeaiey. I?e noaaeeueiii yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa naa?aaaoaeueiuo e n?i/iuo aeeaaeia /anoi ioeeaaeuaaaony ia aiaeu. N?i/iua e naa?aaaoaeueiua aeeaaeu ia yaeythony a i?yiii niunea aeaiueaaie, oae eae eo iaeuecy iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieueciaaoue aeey naeaeie eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Ecuyoea eo ni n/aoia iiae/eiaii ii?aaeaeaiiui oneiaeyi, ii iie iiaoo aeiaieueii eaaei auoue aua?ioaiu ia ?uiie oiaa?ia e oneoa, /oi aiai?eo ia eo niiniaiinoe a eiia/iii n/aoa auiieiyoue ooieoeeth n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey. E?iia oiai, iie auiieiytho ooieoeeth aeaiaa eae n?aaenoaa naa?aaeaiey.I3 Noiia I2, e?oiiuo n?i/iuo aeaiiceoia, aeaiiceoiuo na?oeoeeaoia Aeaiiceoiua na?oeoeeaou - ?aciiaeaeiinoue n?i/iiai aeeaaea, ioi?ieaiiiai n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo aeaieia. Anee na?oeoeeaou auaeaiu ia i?aaeuyaeoaey, iie iiaoo ia?auaoueny ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.Aa?aaao I3 aeeth/aao a naay aua iaiaa iiaeaeaeioth /anoue aeaiaaeiie iannu, ii i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo e ii ?anniao?eaaaony eae noiia?iia i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa, oioy aeaaeaiea I3 ia oiaa?iue ?uiie aua neaaaa, iaaeaee I2, I1 e oai aieaa I0.Ia?aoei aieiaiea, /oi I0 - aaniethoii eeeaeaeiue aa?aaao, I1 iaeaaeaao iaiueoae eeeaeaeiinoueth e o.ae.Eiiaaea aeeiaieea ecia?eoaeae aeaiaaeiie iannu ieacuaaaony ?aciiiai?aaeaiiie. I2 e I3 aieaa oi/ii io?aaeatho oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee, /ai I1. ?aceea eciaiaiey a yoeo aa?aaaoao /anoi neaiaeece?otho ia aiaeiae/iuo eciaiaieyo a AII. Aianoa n oai aaeeiiai iiaiey i oii, eaeie iieacaoaeue aeaiaaeiie iannu eo/oa, ia nouanoaoao.A neeo ia?acaeoinoe eino?oiaioia aeaiaaeiiai ?uiea ?inneeneea aeaiaaeiua aa?aaaou nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io eniieuecoaiuo a ?acaeouo ?uii/iuo nenoaiao. Nouanoaaiii ieaea eeeaeaeiinoue ?inneeneeo “ii/oe aeaiaa”.I?e enneaaeiaaiee aicaeaenoaey aeaiaa ia yeiiiieeo a ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao ?anniao?eaatho aa?aaaou I1 eee I2. I?e i?iaaaeaiee aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aeey eiio?iey ca aeaiaaeiie iannie /aua anaai eniieuecoaony aa?aaao I2. Ia 1 aeaeaa?y 1997 aiaea aeaiaaeiue aa?aaao I2 a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ninoaaee 371,1 ie?ae. ?oa.A oneiaeyo oe?ieiianooaaiuo iaee/iuo ?an/aoia a iaoai iaoeeiiaeueiii oicyenoaa aaaeii ioneaaeeaaoue aeeiaieeo I0. A aeeiaieea ninoaaa aeaiaaeiie iannu caiaoii i?aoaaee/aia aeiey iaeaieaa aunieieeeaeaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo aa?aaaoia I0 (ia 1.01.95 - 37,3 % io I2; ia 1.01.96 - 36,6; ia eiiaoe 1996 a. - ieiei 35 %), a oaeaea e I1 (ia 1.01.95 - 64,6 % io I2; ia 1.01.96 - 60,2).Yoi naycaii ni neaaeothueie i?e/eiaie:Aunieeie oaiiaie eioeyoeee, ieceie eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoueth.Ionoonoaeai eino?oiaioia aeaiaaeiiai ?uiea, no?aoothueo io aunieeo oaiiia eioeyoeee e ?eneia iioa?ue naa?aaeaiee.No?aieaieai i?aaei?eieiaoaeae oeeiieoueny io oieaou iaeiaia /a?ac iaee/iua ?an/aou ii eiiia?/aneei naeaeeai.?anniio?ei aeaiaaeiue ?uiie ni noi?iiu i?aaeeiaeaiey. Eiio?ieue ca aeaiaaeiui i?aaeeiaeaieai inouanoaeyao oeaio?aeueiue aaie no?aiu, a ?innee - Oeaio?aeueiue Aaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie no?aieony iiaeaea?aeeaaoue i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa ia noaaeeueiii o?iaia, ia caaenyuai io eciaiaiee ?uii/iie noaaee i?ioeaioa. A?aoe/anee i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa (Sm) eioa?i?aoe?oaony eae aa?oeeaeueiay i?yiay.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 65 . A?aoe/aneay eioa?i?aoaoeey aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.Ni?in ia aeaiueae auoaeaao ec eo aeaoo ooieoeee - auoue n?aaenoaii ia?auaiey e n?aaenoaii iaeiieaiey. Ia?aay ooieoeey aeaiaa iaoneiaeeaaao ni?in ia aeaiueae aeey naeaeie eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Oaeie ni?in iacuaatho o?ainaeoeeiiiui. Ni?in ia aeaiueae aeey naeaeie ii?aaeaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiii aaee/eiie iiieiaeueiiai AII. Anee aea auyaeyoue caaeneiinoue ni?ina ia aeaiueae aeey naeaeie ni noaaeie aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa, oi iauai?eciaiii, /oi iaaethaeaaony aai aaniethoiay iayeanoe/iinoue. A?aoe/anee yoi eioa?i?aoe?oaony neaaeothuae aeeaa?aiiie, io?aaeathuae iacaaeneiinoue o?ainaeoeeiiiiai ni?ina ia aeaiueae io i?ioeaioiie noaaee.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 66 . A?aoee ni?ina ia aeaiueae aeey naeaeie (o?ainaeoeeiiiiai ni?ina).Ooieoeey aeaiaa eae n?aaenoaa naa?aaeaiey iaoneiaeeaaao ni?in ia aeaiueae aeey i?eia?aoaiey oeiainiauo aeoeaia: iaeeaaoeee, aeoeee, aaenaeae. Yoio ni?in iaoneiaeai no?aieaieai iieo/eoue aeioiae a oi?ia aeeaeaeaiaeia eee i?ioeaioia e eciaiyaony ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii o?iaith i?ioeaioiie noaaee.Yoa caaeneiinoue io?aaeaaony ia e?eaie ni?ina Da:?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 67 . A?aoee ni?ina ia aeaiueae ni noi?iiu aeoeaia.E?eaay ni?ina ia aeaiueae ni noi?iiu aeoeaia io?aaeaao ia?aoioth caaeneiinoue yoie /anoe ni?ina ia aeaiueae io noaaee i?ioeaioa.Niaieoiiue (noiia?iue) ni?in ia aeaiueae iieacuaaao iauaa eiee/anoai aeaiaa, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey oiaa?iuo naeaeie e i?eia?aoaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa, ae?oaeo oeiainiauo aeoeaia i?e eaaeaeie aiciiaeiie noaaea i?ioeaioa.?anniio?aiea ni?ina ia aeaiueae eae niaieoiiinoe ninoaaeythueo auei i?aaeeiaeaii Aeae. I. Eaeinii. I?e yoii ii n/eoae, /oi ethaee i?aaeaea anaai oeaiyo naienoai eeeaeaeiinoe aeaiaa, oi anoue eiaao ianoi i?aaeii/oaiea eeeaeaeiinoe. I?aaeii/oaieai eeeaeaeiinoe iauyniyaony aeaeaiea o?aieoue /anoue aiaaonoaa ethaeueie a oi?ia aeaiaa. Ni?in ia aeaiueae aeey i?eia?aoaiey a oi?ia aeoeaia Eaein ?anoeaieaae eae niaeoeyoeaiue ni?in, iaoneiaeaiiue aeaeaieai ecaaaeaoue iioa?ue eaieoaea, aucuaaaiue o?aiaieai aeoeaia a oi?ia iaeeaaoeee a ia?eiaeu iaeeaeaaiiai iiauoaiey ii?i nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa.Iauee ni?in ia aeaiueae eioa?i?aoe?oaony niauaieai ii ai?eciioaeueiie ine i?yiie ni?ina ia aeaiueae ni noi?iiu aeoeaia Da, ia aaee/eio, ?aaioth ni?ino ia aeaiueae aeey naeaeie, Dt.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 68 . A?aoee noiia?iiai ni?ina ia aeaiueae (Dm).?anniio?ei ?aaiiaanea ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea n iiiiuueth a?aoe/aneie eioa?i?aoaoeee.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 69 . ?aaiiaanea ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea.Iauaaeeiea a?aoeee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa, iu iiaeai iieacaoue, eae neeaaeuaaaony ?aaiiaanea ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea. Enoiaeiia ?aaiiaanea aeaiaaeiiai ?uiea A neiaeeeinue i?e ni?ina ia aeaiueae Dm e aeaiaaeiii i?aaeeiaeaiee Sm. Iii noi?ie?iaaeinue i?e i?ioeaioiie noaaea r.?anniio?ei ?aaeoeeth aeaiaaeiiai ?uiea ia eciaiaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa. Anee i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa oaaee/eony aei S1, oi ?acoeueoaoii aoaeao nieaeaiea i?ioeaioiie noaaee aei r1. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi eceeoae i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa ianaeaiea e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee naeoi? eiaanoe?otho a oeaiiua aoiaae e ae?oaea oeiainiaua aeoeau. Yoi iaoneiaeo ?ino eo?na oeaiiuo aoiaa, eioi?ue iaoiaeeony a ia?aoiie caaeneiinoe n i?ioeaioiie noaaeie. I?ioeannu i?eioo i?ioeaiiieiaeiue oa?aeoa? i?e nieaeaiee aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey aei S2.?aaoee?iaaiea aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth nenoaiu ia? aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee.4. Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea: oeaee e eino?oiaiouO/anoieee oeiainiauo ?uieia, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea e?oae aieiaoaeueii neaaeyo ca aeaenoaeyie oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia, i?iaiaeyueo aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoioth iieeoeeo ainoaea?noaa, iineieueeo aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea iiaeao ieacaoue aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, aeeiaieeo iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu.E?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa ninoieo a eciaiaiee aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey (eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee) a oeaeyo eciaiaiey ni?ina, o?iaiy oeai a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea, iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe.Aeaaiuie oeaeyie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee yaeythony :nieaeaiea aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey a ia?eiaeu eioeyoeee;?anoe?aiea eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee a ia?eiaeu niaaeia e aac?aaioeoeu.Eciaiaiea aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey inouanoaeyaony, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia iooai oaaee/aiey eee nie?auaiey yiennee iaee/iinoe, a iin?aaenoaii aicaeaenoaey ia iauaiu eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoiaaiey. Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea iiaeao auoue iai?aaeaia eeai ia noeioee?iaaiea e?aaeeoa (e?aaeeoiay yeniainey), eeai ia aai naea?aeeaaiea e ia?aie/aiea (e?aaeeoiay ?ano?eeoeey)Iniiaiua eino?oiaiou e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee ?aaeecoao Oeaio?aeueiue aaie, i?iaiaey:iieeoeeo ieieiaeueiuo ?aca?aia;iieeoeeo ioe?uoiai ?uiea (iia?aoeee n ainoaea?noaaiiuie oeaiiuie aoiaaaie);o/aoioth iieeoeeo.Iniiaiie i?iaeaiie ?inneeneie yeiiiieee 90-o aiaeia auea aeanoeay eioeyoeey. A yoie nayce iniiaiuie ia?aie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee auee aeaenoaey, iai?aaeaiiua ia nieaeaiea aeaiaaeiie iannu.a) Iieeoeea ieieiaeueiuo ?aca?aiaIu oaea ioia/aee, /oi eiiia?/aneea aaiee aeieaeiu o?aieoue a Oeaio?aeueiii aaiea iaycaoaeueiua ?aca?au. Ieieiaeueiua ?aca?au auiieiytho aeaa iniiaiua ooieoeee a ?aaoee?iaaiea aaieianeie nenoaiu. Ia?aay ninoieo a oii, /oi iie eae eeeaeaeiua n?aaenoaa neoaeao iaania/aieai iaycaoaeuenoa eiiia?/aneeo aaieia ii aeaiiceoai eeeaioia. Eciaiyy ii?iu iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia, Oeaio?aeueiue aaie iiaeaea?aeeaaao eeeaeaeiinoue eiiia?/aneiai aaiea ia ieieiaeueii aeiionoeiii o?iaia a niioaaonoaee n yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeeae.Ae?oaay ooieoeey ieieiaeueiuo ?aca?aia ninoieo a ?aaeecaoeee oeaeae aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee. Iin?aaenoaai eciaiaiey ii?iaoeaia ?aca?ae?iaaiey Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ?aaoee?oao ianooaau e?aaeeoiie yiennee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.Ioiaoei aaaeiia naienoai aaieianeie nenoaiu: aaieianeay nenoaia a oeaeii iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth e eciaiaieth aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi ia ana n?aaenoaa, aeeoioee?oaiua a aaieao, o?aiyony a ieo iaiin?aaenoaaiii.A oneiaeyo ii?iaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aaieianeie nenoaiu i?eoie iiauo aeeaaeia a eaaeaeue aeaiiue iiiaio i?eia?ii ?aaai iau/ii ii iauaio nieiaaiui ni n/aoia n?aaenoaai, iiyoiio iio?aaiinoe a 100 % ?aca?ae?iaaiee aeeaaeia iao. Aianoa n oai Oeaio?aeueiue aaie iaycuaaao eiiia?/aneea aaieianeea o/?aaeaeaiey ?aca?ae?iaaoue /anoue aeeaaeia, oi anoue onoaiaaeeaaao iaycaoaeueiua ii?iu ?aca?ae?iaaiey eae i?ioeaio io aeoeaia.?anniio?ei i?eia?. Aeiionoei, /oi iaycaoaeueiay ?aca?aiay ii?ia. (rr) ninoaaeyao 20 %, eee 1/5 (a aeieyo). ?anniio?ei aaeain eiiia?/aneiai aaiea, iaciaai yoio aaie Ia?aui. Ionoue naeaeai iiaue aeeaae ia oaeouee (?an/aoiue) n/ao Ia?aiai aaiea a 1 000 iei. ?oaeae. Oiaaea ec yoeo 1 000 iei. ?oaeae, iaoiaeyueony ia n/aoao Ia?aiai aaiea, 800 iei. iiaoo auoue iai?aaeaiu ia e?aaeeoiaaiea. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi /anoue n?aaenoa n aaieianeeo n/aoia iai?aaeyaony ia e?aaeeoiaaiea - iai?eia?, naiae aeey iieoiee aeeeuey eee oe?i aeey eiaanoeoeee.Aaeain Ia?aiai eiiia?/aneiai aaieaAeoea IanneaIaycaoaeueiua ?aca?au200 iei. ?oa. Aeaiiceou1 000 iei. ?oa.E?aaeeou auaeaiiua 800 iei. ?oa.Ia?aoei aieiaiea, /oi auaeaaay e?aaeeo, Ia?aue aaie oaaee/eaaao i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa ia 800 iei. ?oaeae: aeeaae/eee ii-i?aaeiaio eiatho 1 000 iei. ?oaeae ia oaeoueo (?an/aoiuo) n/aoao, ii oaia?ue aua 800 iei. ?oa. iaee/iinoe iaoiaeeony ia ?oeao o caaiueeia. Iia?aoeeyie Ia?aiai aaiea i?ioeann nicaeaiey aeaiaa ia caaa?oaaony. Anee caaiuee aiineo iieo/aiiua 800 iei. ?oa. ia n/ao ai Aoi?ie aaie, oi i?ienoiaeeo neaaeothuaa. I?eiya aeeaaeu ia 800 iei. ?oa., 20 % aaie iiiauaao a ?aca?au e auaeaao e?aaeeou ia 640 iei. ?oa. Anee yoe 640 iei. ?oa. iieiaeeoue a O?aoee aaie, oi ii iiianoeo 128 iei. ?oa.(20 %) a ?aca?au e niiaeao auaeaoue e?aaeeou ia 512 iei. ?oa. Eaaeaeue iiaue aeeaae e iiaue e?aaeeo oaaee/eaatho aeaiaaeioth ianno.Aaeain Aoi?iai eiiia?/aneiai aaieaAeoea IanneaIaycaoaeueiua ?aca?au160 iei. ?oa. Aeaiiceou800 iei. ?oa.E?aaeeou auaeaiiua 640 iei. ?oa.Aaeain O?aoueaai eiiia?/aneiai aaieaAeoea IanneaIaycaoaeueiua ?aca?au128 iei. ?oa. Aeaiiceou640 iei. ?oa.E?aaeeou auaeaiiua 512 iei. ?oa.A i?ioeanna nicaeaiey aeaiaa o/anoaoao ia?iiiia eiee/anoai aaieia, iiyoiio iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ?ino i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa ia ia?aie/ai. Iiaue aeaiiceoiue aeeaae a 1 000 iei. ?oaeae iiaeao ii?iaeeoue oeaii/eo e?aaeeoia e neaaeothuaa eciaiaiea a i?aaeeiaeaiee aeaiaa:Noiia ia?aiia/aeueiiai aeeaaea = 1 000 iei. ?oaeaeE?aaeeou Ia?aiai aaiea = (1 - rr) * 1 000 iei. ?oaeaeE?aaeeou Aoi?iai aaiea = (1- rr)2 * 1 000 iei. ?oa.E?aaeeou O?aoueaai aaiea = (1- rr)3 * 1 000 iei. ?oa...........................................(I = (1 + (1- rr) + (1- rr)2+(1- rr)3 + ...)1 000 = (1/ rr) * 1 000 iei. ?oaeaeEaaeaeue iiiauaiiue a aaie 1 iei. ?oaeae iiaeao nicaeaoue iiauo aeaiaa (1/rr) iei. ?oaeae. A iaoai i?eia?a ia?aiia/aeueiiio aeeaaeo a 1 000 iei. ?oaeae niioaaonoaoao ?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu ia 5 000 iei. ?oaeae. Iu aeaeei, /oi aaieianeay nenoaia ioeueoeieeoee?oao iiaua aeaiiceoiua aeeaaeu.Iaicia/ei aaee/eio (1/ rr) /a?ac (, e iaciaai aa aeaiaaeiui ioeueoeieeeaoi?ii.Aeaiaaeiue ioeueoeieeeaoi? aeaenoaoao e a ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee, oi anoue a neo/aa ecuyoey aeaiiceoia aeieaeii i?iecieoe noieue aea iiiaie?aoiia nie?auaiea eo iauaai iauaia. ia i?aeoeea eciaiaiey aaeaeo iiaaoathuaai aeeyiey ?yaea ?uii/iuo oaeoi?ia aieaa oia?aiiu. oai ia iaiaa ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? aeaiaaeiuo eiioeuenia nio?aiyaony.Eoae, yienneth iaee/iinoe inouanoaeyao Oeaio?aeueiue aaie no?aiu, ii aaciaee/iay yienney Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii ia i?iecaiaeeony e ia eiio?iee?oaony ei iaiin?aaenoaaiii.Anee OeA ?O no?aieony e oaaee/aieth aeaiaaeiie iannu, aio neaaeoao nieceoue ii?io iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia. Oiaiueoaiea ii?iu ?anoe?yao aiciiaeiinoe e?aaeeoiaaiey aaieia e niinianoaoth nicaeaieth iiauo aeaiaa a niioaaonoaee n aaee/eiie aeaiaaeiiai ioeueoeieeeaoi?a.Aia?aua iaoiae iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia aue eniieueciaai a 1913 a. a NOA, a caoai aini?eiyo iiiaeie no?aiaie, a oii /enea, Aa?iaieae iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu, O?aioeeae - a 1967 a., a Aaeeeia?eoaiee aue aaaaeai a 1961 aiaeo, iaeiaei eniieuecoaony ai?acaei iaiueoa.A 1992-1995 aa. iaycaoaeueiia ?aca?ae?iaaiea auei iniiaiui eino?oiaioii aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea yoiai eino?oiaioa auei naycaii n ia?acaeoinoueth iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa e ia?aie/aiiinoueth ?aoeiaine?iaaiey. A 1992 - 1996 aa. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ii ianeieueeo ?ac a aiae iaiye ?aca?aiua o?aaiaaiey, oi anoue ii?yaeie e ii?iu ?aca?aiuo io/eneaiee.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eae a ioa/anoaaiiie, oae e a ie?iaie i?aeoeea iaaethaeaaony iauay oaiaeaioeey e iooiaeo io aeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey ?aca?aiuo o?aaiaaiee. Yoi naycaii n /?acia?iie aeanoeinoueth aeaiiiai eino?oiaioa. Oaaee/aiea ?aca?aiuo ii?i ?acei nieaeaao iauai ?aaioathueo aeoeaia eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, eo i?eaueueiinoue. Eniieueciaaiea yoiai eino?oiaioa a oaeeo no?aiao eae Aaeeeia?eoaiey, ssiiiey, Aieeaiaeey e O?aioeey o?aaoao iaeia?aiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa, /oi nicaeaao aaeieieno?aoeaiua eaae.Enneaaeiaaieai aicaeaenoaey ?aca?aiie iieeoeee ia aeeiaieeo aeaiaaeiie iannu caieiaeenue aeaeiua caiaaeiua o/aiua, niaoeeaeenou a yoie iaeanoe, oaeea eae E. Oa??en, I. O?eaeiai. Eae neeueiue oaeoi? ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, eiathuee i?yiie oa?aeoa? aeaenoaey, oioy e /?aaaoue iiai/iuie yooaeoaie, ieieiaeueiua iaycaoaeueiua ?aca?au iie ioiinyo e ia?ai aeieain?i/iiai oa?aeoa?a, oi anoue e ia?ai, ia iiaeeaaeauei /anoui eciaiaieyi.O/eouaay oeacaiiua iniaaiiinoe ii?ie?iaaiey ieieiaeueiuo ?aca?aia, a ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yoio eino?oiaio eniieuecoaony aeiaieueii ?aaeei e, eae i?aaeei, a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue. Oae, Oaaea?aeueiay ?aca?aiay Nenoaia NOA n 1980 aiaea ia ia?aniao?eaaea naie o?aaiaaiey e o?iaith iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia, ca eneeth/aieai iaaieueoie ei??aeoe?iaee a 1990 aiaeo.A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo, oaaee/eaay a oeaeii ii?iu ?aca?ae?iaaiey, Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ?innee noeioee?oao aeieain?i/iua eiaanoeoeee, onoaiaaeeaay aeey iineaaeieo ieieiaeueiua ?aca?aiua noaaee.Ii?iaoeau ?aca?aiuo o?aaiaaiee onoaiaaeeaathony aeeooa?aioee?iaaiea a caaeneiinoe io aeaeia aeaiiceoia. Ia eiiaoe 1996 aiaea aeaenoaiaaee neaaeothuea ii?iaoeau iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia:ii n/aoai aei aino?aaiaaiey e n?i/iui iaycaoaeuenoaai aei 30 aeiae aeeth/eoaeueii – 16%;ii n?i/iui iaycaoaeuenoaai io 31 aei 90 aeiae aeeth/eoaeueii - 13%;ii n?i/iui iaycaoaeuenoaai nauoa 90 aeiae -10%;ii aaethoiui aeeaaeai - 5%.Ca?aca?ae?iaaiiua eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie n?aaenoaa iaoiaeyony a ?anii?yaeaiee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea, eioi?ue iiaeao eo eniieueciaaoue ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Iai?eia?, ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoue aeaiiie?iaaiiua eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie n?aaenoaa ia ?aca?aiuo n/aoao, i?aaeinoaaeyy eo a ea/anoaa nnoae ii naiae ioeoeeaeueiie i?ioeaioiie noaaea aaieianeei einoeoooai, eniuouaathuei iio?aaiinoue a e?aaeeoa.Iieeoeea ioe?uoiai ?uieaIieeoeea ioe?uoiai ?uiea naiaeeony e eoiea-i?iaeaaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa: iaeeaaoeee e eacia/aeneeo aaenaeae. Aeaaiuie eiio?aaaioaie (iieoiaoaeyie eee i?iaeaaoeaie) caeanue /aua anaai aunooiatho eiiia?/aneea aaiee, iaeaaeathuea e?oiiui ii?ooaeai oeaiiuo aoiaa, ii aiciiaeiu yoe iia?aoeee e n ianaeaieai iaiin?aaenoaaiii. Iieoiea e i?iaeaaea inouanoaeythony ii naiaiaeiui oeaiai, oi?ie?othueiny ia iniiaa acaeiiaeaenoaey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.?anoe?aiea i?iaeaae oeaiiuo aoiaa /anoe/ii “neiauaaao” aeaiaaeioth ianno, iaoiaeeaoothny a ia?auaiee, iia “ia aeaaeo” ia oiaa?iue ?uiie, oai naiui naea?aeeaaaony eioeyoeey ni?ina.Iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie yaeythony iniiaiie oi?iie e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a nia?aiaiiuo eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?aiao. O ian ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa oieueei oi?ie?oaony, aianoa n oai ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue - iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiua oeaiiua aoiaae ia ioa/anoaaiiii oiiaeiaii ?uiea. Ianooaau i?iaeaae AEI/IOC aic?anoatho. Oae, anee ia ia/aei 1994 a. auei i?iaeaii AEI/IOC ia noiio iaiaa 0,2 o?ei. ?oa., oi e eiioeo 1996 a. – ii/oe ia 30 o?ei. ?oaeae. Aianoa n oai iia?aoeee n ainoaea?noaaiiuie oeaiiuie aoiaaaie ninoaaeee ia aieaa 1% io aeoeaia eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aioeeioeyoeeiiiue yooaeo i?iaeaaee ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa aeinoeaaaony eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee nia?aiiua Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii n?aaenoaa io i?iaeaaee oeaiiuo aoiaa ia ?anoiaeothony. Ianiio?y ia yoi n?aaenoai io i?iaeaaee AEI/IOC a iineaaeiea aiaeu iai?aaeyeenue, a iniiaiii, ia oeiaine?iaaiea athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, /oi i?eaaei e oeiainiaiio e?eceno a aaaonoa 1998 aiaea.I?ioeaioiay iieeoeea.I?ioeaioiay iieeoeea yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei eino?oiaioii e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey: iia i?eiaiyaony n na?aaeeiu XIX aaea. Aicieeiiaaiea yoiai iaoiaea aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee naycaii n i?aa?auaieai oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea a e?aaeeoi?a eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Iineaaeiea ia?ao/eouaaee o iaai aaenaey eee iieo/aee e?aaeeou iiae nianoaaiiua aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa.I?ioeaioiay iieeoeea i?iaiaeeony iooai onoaiiaeaiey e ia?aniio?a ioeoeeaeueiie i?ioeaioiie noaaee aeaoo iniiaiuo aeaeia: noaaee ii ?aaeeneiioe?iaaieth (ia?ao/aoo oeaiiuo aoiaa) e noaaee ii ?aoeiaine?iaaieth (e?aaeeoiaaieth aaieianeeo o/?aaeaeaiee).Eciaiyy noaaee ii ?aoeiaine?iaaieth e ?aaeeneiioe?iaaieth, Oeaio?aeueiue aaie aeeyao ia aaee/eio aeaiaaeiie iannu, ?aaoee?oao ni?in eiiia?/aneeo aaieia ia e?aaeeo. Iiauoaiea ioeoeeaeueiuo o/aoiuo noaaie cao?oaeiyao aeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia iieo/aiea e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia, /oi naea?aeeaaao eo aiciiaeiinoe ?anoe?aiey iia?aoeee n eeeaioo?ie. Ioeoeeaeueiua i?ioeaioiua noaaee ieacuaatho einaaiiia aeeyiea ia ?uii/iua i?ioeaioiua noaaee, ii?aaeaeyaiua eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie naiinoiyoaeueii, a niioaaonoaee n eiiuthieoo?ie ?uiea e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia.?acia? i?ioeaioiuo noaaie Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ia anaaaea aeieaeai eciaiyoueny a niioaaonoaee n aeeiaieeie ?uii/iuo i?ioeaioiuo noaaie eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Aiciiaeii ioeeiiaiea io iaa a oo eee eioth noi?iio. Ia?yaeo n yoei onoaiiaeaiea Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii o?iaiy ioeoeeaeueiuo noaaie i?ioeaioa yaeyaony aeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia iaeiei ec aeaaiuo i?eaioe?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo iniiaiua eciaiaiey iieeoeee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea a eiio?iea ca aeeiaieeie aeaiaaeiie iannu.I?e i?iaaaeaiee naea?aeeaathuae eioeyoeeth iieeoeee Oeaio?aeueiue aaie iiaeieiaao o?iaaiue ioeoeeaeueiie noaaee; oaeanoi/aao oneiaey o/aoa e ia?ao/aoa aaenaeae:iiauoaao o?aaiaaiey e ea/anoao aaenaeae;onoaiaaeeaaao ia?aie/aiey eiio?aaaioia ia?ao/aoa;aaiaeeo eeieou ia?ao/aoa (iai?eia?, cai?auaiea o/aoa aaenaeae iaia?niaeoeaiuo io?aneae) e o.ae.Noeioee?iaaiea eiiuthieoo?u aeinoeaaaony i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie iaoiaeaie.Iaeaieueoae iiioey?iinoueth o/aoiay iieeoeea iieueciaaeanue a eiioea XIX - ia/aea XX a.a. A 30-o aiaeao iaoaai noieaoey Oeaio?aeueiua aaiee i?iaiaeeee ?aeiiaiaeiaaiioth Eaeinii iieeoeeo ieceeo i?ioeaioiuo noaaie e iaeeueiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey. Oae, a Aiaeee a 1932 - 1951 a.a. o/aoiay noaaea nio?aiyeanue ia o?iaia 2%, a NOA n 1937 ii 1948 aa. – 1%.A oneiaeyo aunieie eioeyoeee 90-o aiaeia Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ?O i?iaiaeee eeieth ia oaeanoi/aiea noaaie ?aoeiaine?iaaiey. O/eouaay caiaaeeaiea a 1996-1997 aa. oaiiia eioeyoeee, Aaie iaiaeiie?aoii eciaiye noaaeo ?aoeiaine?iaaiey, niecea aa ni 160 aei 21 i?ioeaioa. A eiioea 1997 aiaea a oneiaeyo aunieeo eioeyoeeiiiuo iaeeaeaiee, naycaiiuo n i?aaenoiyuae aeaiiieiaoeeae, OeA ?O iiaeiye noaaeo ?aoeiaine?iaaiey aei 28%. 2 oaa?aey 1998 i?iecioei aua iaeii iiauoaiea noaaee ?aoeiaine?iaaiey - oaea aei 42%. Oaeouay noaaea ?aoeiaine?iaaiey (ia 12.04.98) onoaiiaeaia ia o?iaia C0% aiaeiauo.A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ?aoeiaine?iaaiea eiiia?/aneeo aaieia Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ?O inouanoaeyao iin?aaenoaii oae iacuaaaiuo eiiaa?aeiuo e?aaeeoia, oi anoue e?aaeeoia iiae caeia ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa (AEI/IOC). Yoa ia?a iicaieyao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue eeeaeaeiinoe e noaaeeueiinoe aaieianeie nenoaiu.I?aaenoaaei a oaaeeoea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?eiaiaieth eino?oiaioia e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee.Iieeoeea aeaoaauo aeaiaa(niaae, aac?aaioeoea) Iieeoeea aei?iaeo aeaiaa(eioeyoeey)Neoiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii I?iaeaaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa Oeaio?aeueiui aaieiiNieaeaiea ii?iu iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia Oaaee/aiea ii?iu iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aiaNieaeaiea o/aoiie noaaee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea Iiauoaiea o/aoiie noaaee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaieaEioa?i?aoaoeey noeioee?othuae aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia neaaeothueie a?aoeeaie?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 70 . Ia?u Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ii oaaee/aieth aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eaiaeyo e nieaeaieth i?ioeaioiie noaaee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.Nieaeaiea i?ioeaioiie noaaee auciaao ?ino eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe ia aaee/eio(I=I1-I2?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 71 . ?ino eiaanoeoeee i?e nieaeaiee i?ioeaioiie noaaee?ino eiaanoeoeee icia/aao oaaee/aiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina ia aaee/eio E1, /oi auciaao ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiia oaaee/aiea iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia aaee/eio (Y=Y2-Y1.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 72 . ?ino eiaanoeoeee i?e oaaee/aiee niaieoiiiai ni?ina.A oneiaeyo oeiainiaie noaaeeecaoeee, nieaeaiey oaiiia eioeyoeee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee noaiiaeony i?aiaeieaiea niaaea, oaaee/aiea eiaanoeoeee a iaoeeiiaeueioth yeiiiieeo, noeioee?iaaiea aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe. Cia/eo, neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue i?eiaiaiey eino?oiaioia iieeoeee aeaoaauo aeaiaa. Iaeiaei iia aeieaeia i?eiaiyoueny aeaei, n oai, /oiau ia iiaea/ue i/a?aaeiie anieane eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia.ATHEEAOAIUe AAIEIANEIE NOAOENOEEE ? 1(56)Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ARABIC 18 . Noaaea ?aoeiaine?iaaiey Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeeeIa?eiae aeaenoaey %1.01.91-09.04.92 2010.04.92-22.05.9223.05.92-29.03.9330.03.93-01.06.93 508010002.06.93-21.06.93 11022.06.93-28.06.93 12029.06.93-14.07.9315.07.93-22.09.93 14017023.09.93-14.10.93 18015.10.93-28.04.9429.04.94-16.05.9417.05.94-1.06.942.06.94-21.06.9422.06.94-29.06.94 21020520018517030.06.94-31.07.94 1551.08.94-22.08.9423.08.94-11.10.94 15013012.10.94-16.11.94 17017.11.94-5.01.95 1806.01.95-15.05.9516.05.95-18.06.9519.06.95-23.10.95 20019518024.10.95-30.11.95 1701.12.95-9.02.96 16010.02.96-23.07.96 12024.07.96-18.08.96 11019.08.96-20.10.96 8021.10.96-1.12962.12.96-9.02.9710.02.97-27.04.9728.04.97-15.06.9716.06.97-5.10.976.10.97-10.11.9711.11.97-1.02.982.02.98- 6048423624212842Aeaaa 9. Nia?aiaiiua iae?iyeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu e eiioeaioeeeAii?inu:E?eaay Oeeeeina. NoaaoeyoeeyNia?aiaiiua iae?iyeiiiie/aneea eiioeaioeee1. E?eaay Oeeeeina. NoaaoeyoeeyA eiioea 50-o aiaeia aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno A.Oeeeein ia iniiaa aiaeeca noaoenoeee ca 100 eao iaiauee naycue iaaeaeo ii?iie aac?aaioeoeu e noaaeaie ca?aaioiie ieaou a Aaeeeia?eoaiee. Ii auyaee, /oi, eiaaea aac?aaioeoea iioneaaony ieaea anoanoaaiiiai o?iaiy, iaaethaeaaony auno?ue i?e?ino ca?aaioiie ieaou e iaiai?io.A aeaeueiaeoai, n o/aoii neeueiie ei??aeyoeeiiiie caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo ?inoii ca?ieaou e oeaiaie, aeaiiay caaeneiinoue auea ia?aoi?ioee?iaaia I.Naioyeueniiii e Nieio eae ia?aoiay caaeneiinoue aac?aaioeoeu e oaiiia ?inoa oeai (eioeyoeee). Yoi niaiaei n iieiaeaieai eaeineaineie oai?ee i oii, /oi eioeyoeey iiaeao auoue aunieie oieueei i?e iacia/eoaeueiii o?iaia aac?aaioeoeu.E?eaay Oeeeeina oi?ioi iiaeoaa?aeaeaeanue yiie?e/aneeie enneaaeiaaieyie 50-o - 60-o aiaeia. Ii ia?a ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa e nie?auaiey aac?aaioeoeu, a aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo no?ai iaaethaeaeny ?ino oeai, a nieaeaiea oaiiia eioeyoeee nii?iaiaeaeaeinue oaaee/aieai aac?aaioeoeu.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 73 . E?eaay OeeeeinaI?e ?aciia?aiaiiii aicieeiiaaiee eioeyoeee e aac?aaioeoeu eaeineaineea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio yeiiiie/aneiio ?aaoee?iaaieth n?aaaouaaee aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii.Ii a 70-a aiaeu yeiiiieea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai noieeioeanue n iiaui yaeaieai - noaaoeyoeeae, oi anoue eioeyoeeae, ?acaeaathuaeny ia oiia yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea e ?anoouae aac?aaioeoeu. Aicieeiiaaiea noaaoeyoeee yeiiiienou naycuaaee n oieiauie n?uaaie i?aaeeiaeaiey, /aio niaeaenoaiaaee neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:oieiaue ?ino oeai ia yia?aiiineoaee a ?acoeueoaoa ia? IIAE;niyoea eiio?iey iaae oeaiaie e ca?ieaoie, aaaaeaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaaie aeaiie?aoia;iia?aaeathuee ?ino ca?aaioiie ieaou ii n?aaiaieth n i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth o?oaea e ae?.Caaeaiea! E naieia?neiio caiyoeth i?iaeoiaoue i?e/eiu noaaoeyoeee (oieiaiai nie?auaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey) a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea.Auei auaaaeaii, /oi o?aaeeoeeiiiua e?eaua Oeeeeina ni?aaaaeeeau oieueei aeey e?aoein?i/iuo ia?eiaeia. Eioeyoeey i?aaeeiaeaiey iaoneiaeeaaao naeaea e?eaie Oeeeeina ai?aai. A aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea iiyaeyaony naiaenoai e?eauo Oeeeeina.2. Nia?aiaiiua iae?iyeiiiie/aneea eiioeaioeeeEaeineaineea iae?iyeiiiie/aneea i?eioeeiu ainiiaenoaiaaee a i?aeoeea ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai aei 70-o aiaeia. Iiaeaee eaeineaineiai e?anoa e ae?oaea iaoaiaoe/aneea eioa?i?aoaoeee aai oai?ee ?anniao?eaaeenue eae iauai?eiyoua a iao/aiee yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. Aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo oaiaeaioeee e au?aaioee ia?ii?eyoee ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio ?aaoee?iaaieth yeiiiieee eniieueciaaeenue aieueoea iae?iyeiiiie/aneea iiaeaee, eiioeaiooaeueii iie?aaoeany ia iiaeoiaeu Eaeina.Iniaaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey caiaaeiuo no?ai a 70-a aiaeu canoaaeee e?eoe/anee ia?ainiuneeoue i?eioeeiu e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee Eaeina e aai iineaaeiaaoaeae. Eaeineaineay oai?ey e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ieacaeenue iai?eaieaiuie a neiaeeaoeony oneiaeyo noaaoeyoeee. I?aaeiaa aaeeinoai ai acaeyaeao ia iae?iyeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu auei ?ac?ooaii.Aianoa n oai iae?iyeiiiieea iieo/eea iiaue eiioeuen e ?acaeoeth. Ioi?ieeenue iiaua naiinoiyoaeueiua iai?aaeaiey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee, auee au?aaioaiu iiaua iiaeoiaeu e aiaeeco e i?aaeeiaeaiu iieaciua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?aiaeieaieth iaaaoeaiuo yaeaiee a yeiiiieea.?anniio?ei aaaeiaeoea, aeueoa?iaoeaiua eaeineainoao, iae?iyeiiiie/aneea eiioeaioeee. Aeaaiie aeueoa?iaoeaie eaeineainoao noae iiiaoa?eci. Aicieeiiaaiea iiiaoa?ecia ainoiaeeo e 50-i aiaeai, eiaaea a?oiia o/aiuo *eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa ai aeaaa n Ieeoiiii O?eaeiaiii aunooieea n e?eoeeie eaeineainoaa.Eae i?aaeei, iiiaoa?eci ?anniao?eaatho eae aa?eaio aeaiaaeiie oai?ee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe oai?ee aeaiaa - iaeaieaa cia/eiue aeeaae iiiaoa?ecia a ?acaeoea nia?aiaiiie iae?iyeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.Ii i?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea iiiaoa?ecia io eaeineainoaa - a oii, /oi iiiaoa?enou, ?anoaa?e?oy eeanne/aneea iiaeoiaeu, ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee ?ac?ooaao niiniaiinoue ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e naii?aaoee?iaaieth. Iie n/eoatho aeiionoeiuie eeoue einaaiiua oi?iu aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiieeo, i?aaeaea anaai, iin?aaenoaii aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea.Eae ecaanoii, eaeineaioeu ?anniao?eaatho a ea/anoaa iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie oi?iu iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey oeiainiaoth (oeneaeueioth) iieeoeeo, a aeeyiea aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee n/eoatho iaiaa yooaeoeaiui, iiin?aaeiaaiiui aicaeaenoaeai noaaee aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa ia aaee/eio eiaanoeoeee. Iineaaeiea, yaeyynue yeaiaioii niaieoiiiai ni?ina ii?iaeaeatho eciaiaiea ?aaiiaaniiai iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 74 . Eaeineaineee acaeyae ia aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoioth iieeoeeoIiiaoa?enou n/eoatho aeaiaaeiia i?aaeeiaeaiea aaeeinoaaiiui oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaa, caiyoinoe e oeai. Iie iieaaatho, /oi ?ino aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeyao ia ana ninoaaeythuea niaieoiiiai ni?ina.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 75 . Iiiaoa?enoneee acaeyae ia aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoioth iieeoeeoIi iiaieth iiiaoa?enoia, anee ainoaea?noai aoaeao no?iai eiio?iee?iaaoue i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa, ia aeiioneaoue ?aceeo eieaaaiee a iauaia aeaiaaeiie iannu, oi noaaeeueiinoue yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey aoaeao iaania/aia.?anniao?eaay aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoioth iieeoeeo a ea/anoaa neeueiiai eino?oiaioa aeeyiey ia iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea, I.O?eaeiai e ae?oaea iiiaoa?enou n/eoatho, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai ia aeieaeii eniieueciaaoue aa a ea/anoaa ia?u iae?iyeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee. Iie n/eoatho, /oi aeene?aoiay aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea iayooaeoeaia ec-ca a?aiaiiuo eaaia. E i?eia?o, nie?auaiea aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey eae aioeeioeyoeeiiiay ia?a, iiaeao iaoneiaeoue nieaeaiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina a oio ia?eiae, eiaaea o?aaothony oaea ia?u i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai ii?yaeea - ii noeioee?iaaieth yeiiiieee.Iiiaoa?enou i?aaeeaaatho i?aaeoaeuenoaai niaethaeaoue oae iacuaaaiia“iiiaoa?iia i?aaeei” - iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iinoiyiiue oaii ?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu.?aoeeiiaeueii, ii eo iiaieth, iaania/eaaoue onoie/eaue ?ino aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ia 3-5% a aiae. Iinoiyiii ?anoouaa aeaiaaeiia i?aaeeiaeaiea iaoneiaeeaaao ?anoe?aiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina e noaaeeueiue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino.?aeiiaiaeaoeee iiiaoa?enoia noaee i?eiaiyoueny ia i?aeoeea a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao a ia/aea 80-o aiaeia. Iaeaieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii iie eniieueciaaeenue a NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaiee a nenoaia ia? ?aeaaiiieee e oao/a?ecia. ?acoeueoaoii yaeeinue nie?auaiea oaiiia eioeyoeee. Iaeiaei n iiiiuueth i?iaiaeeaoaeny iieeoeee ia oaeaeinue ?aoeoue iiiaea neiaeiua i?iaeaiu: ni?aaeoueny n athaeaeaoiui aeaoeoeeoii, iaania/eoue auiieiaiea nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii e o.i.Iiiaoa?iia ?aaoee?iaaiea aiciiaeii eeoue i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo. Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea ?acaeoiai oeiainiaiai ?uiea e aai einoeoooia, oaeeo eae aaiee e oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey; oiiaeiaua ae?aee e aiaae?aeaaie ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa; ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa: aeaiiceou, aaenaey; eo?n iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou, io?aaeathuee aa iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue.O/eouaay ionoonoaea eee iaaeinoaoi/iia ?acaeoea auoaia?a/eneaiiuo einoeoooia oeiainiaiai ?uiea a ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieea, iiiaea aiaeeoeee n/eoatho iai?eaieaiuie ia?u aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee e ae?oaea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iiiaoa?enoia aeey yeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee a iaoae no?aia.Aeaaea a ?acaeoii ?uii/iii oicyenoaa iiiaoa?iay iieeoeea eiaao ia?aie/aiiue aeeaiacii i?eiaiaiey: a iniiaiii, iia eniieuecoaony aeey ai?ueau n eioeyoeeae i?e ionoonoaee aeoaieiai niaaea a yeiiiieea e ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiii eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou.Nie?auaiea aeaiaaeiie iannu iaoneiaeeaaao iaaeaiea iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina ianaeaiey. I?e oia?aiiie eioeyoeee yoi i?eaiaeeo e noaaeeecaoeee oeai e iacia/eoaeueiiio niaaeo i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii a oneiaeyo aaeiie?othuae e, oai aieaa, aeia?eioeyoeee naea?aeeaathuay iiiaoa?iay iieeoeea a?iceo aeoaieei niaaeii a yeiiiieea.Niaae i?iecaiaenoaa a ?innee ca aiaeu ?aoi?i ii naiei ianooaaai e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe i?aaunee ana ecaanoiua a enoi?ee e?ecenu ie?iiai a?aiaie, aeeth/ay Aaeeeoth aeai?anneth 1929-1933 a.a. I?e iauai iaaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaa aieaa /ai ia 40 % a aaaeoueo io?aneyo yeiiiieee: iaoeiino?iaiee, i?iiuoeaiiii no?ieoaeuenoaa, eaaeie e ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoai nie?aoeeinue a 4-5 ?ac.Ecaanoiue ioa/anoaaiiue yeiiiieno I.Oiaeaa n/eoaao, /oi yoi - neaaenoaea “niciaoaeueii i?iaiaeeaoaeny a 1992-1995 a.a. iieeoeee ?aceiai nie?auaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu e ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina. Ca yoe aiaeu oeaiu a no?aia au?inee i?eia?ii a 8,5 oun. ?ac, eiee/anoai aea iaee/iuo e aaciaee/iuo aeaiaa a iai?ioa oaaee/eeinue a 230 ?ac.” “... aeaenoaeai yoiai oaeoi?a iiaeii iauynieoue aei 57% iauaai iauaia iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.”A ecaanoiii o/aaieea ii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee I.Oaeia “Yeiiiie/aneee ia?ac iuoeaiey” oeacuaaaony: “Iiiaoa?enoneea ia?u eiatho aeiaieueii oceee aeeaiacii i?eiaiaiey (ia aiaeyony a oneiaeyo niaaea) e ia anaaaea aeinoeaatho oeaee. Iiiaoa?enoneay eiioeaioeey eiaao aioenioeeaeueioth iai?aaeaiiinoue, noaaeo ai aeaao anaai aeaiueae, eo aeiauaaiea, ooaa?aeaeaao nioeeaeueiue yaieci”.A 1976 a. I.O?eaeiai iieo/ee Iiaaeaaneoth i?aieth a iaeanoe yeiiiieee, ii a 80-a aiaeu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iiiaoa?enoia ia?anoaee aeaaaoue iaaeeaaeauee yooaeo, /oi iaoneiaeei aieio e?eoeee ni noi?iiu yeiiiienoia e iieeoeeia.A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey a caiaaeiuo no?aiao iieo/eei ?acaeoea iiaia eeanne/aneia iai?aaeaiea yeiiiie/aneia oai?ee, eioi?ia iaicia/eei naay eae “oai?ey ?aoeeiiaeueiuo iaeeaeaiee”.Nooue oai?ee ?aoeeiiaeueiuo iaeeaeaiee (O?I) naiaeeony e neaaeothuei iniiaiui iieiaeaieyi:iio?aaeoaee, i?aaei?eieiaoaee e ?aai/ea iiieiatho, eae ooieoeeiie?oao yeiiiieea, iie niiniaiu ioeaieoue aoaeouea ?acoeueoaou iieeoe/aneeo e ae?oaeo eciaiaiee e aaaeoo naay a niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiaie ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe oae, /oiau ecaea/ue ec yoiai iaeneioi auaiaeu (eiaoue ieieioi iioa?ue);eiaaea ethaee ?aaae?otho ia iaeeaeaaiua ?acoeueoaou noaaeeecaoeeiiiie iieeoeee, yooaeoeaiinoue aa naiaeeony e ioeth. Iiyoiio noi?iiieee O?I aunooiatho i?ioea i?iaaaeaiey aeene?aoiie athaeaeaoiie eee aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee.?anniio?ei i?eioeeiu O?I ia i?eia?a iieeoeee aeaoaauo aeaiaa. Ionoue a oeaeyo oaaee/aiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe i?aaeoaeuenoai iaia?aii oaaee/eoue aeaiaaeioth ianno. Anee i?aaeoaeuenoai caaeaaia?aiaiii iiiaanoeei ianaeaiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iaaaeaiey yeniaineiienoneie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee, oi yeiiiie/aneea aaaiou, iianaynue eioeyoeeiiiuo iioa?ue, i?aaei?eioo caueoiua ia?u:?aai/ea aoaeoo o?aaiaaoue iiauoaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou;oe?iu - iiauoaoue oeaiu ia auioneaaioth i?iaeoeoeeth;e?aaeeoi?u - iiaeieiaoue o?iaaiue i?ioeaioiie noaaee.Aeaiaaeiue eiioeuen a yoeo oneiaeyo auciaao eeoue i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia oaaee/aiea oeai e ca?aaioiie ieaou, a ?aaeueiue iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae e caiyoinoue inoaioony ia i?aaeiai o?iaia. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, yooaeoeaiinoue aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee aoaeao aeecea e ioeth.N?aaee iaeaieaa iiioey?iuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo eiioeaioeee a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey oaeaea ?anniao?eaatho oai?eth yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey. Aa noi?iiieee n/eoatho, /oi eaeineainoai ia iiaeao ni?aaeoueny n i?iaeaiie noaaoeyoeee iioiio, /oi i?eaeaao eeth/aaia cia/aiea niaieoiiiio ni?ino. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a eaeineaineie oai?ee i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ecaea?aeee e niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea ea?atho ianneaioth ?ieue.Ecaanoii, /oi, niaeanii eaeineainoao, aaaeiaeoei iai?aaeaieai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yaeyaony athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaay iieeoeea. Oae, aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue iaeiaia nie?auaao iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue e niaieoiiue ni?in, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiaao aioeeioeyoeeiiiue yooaeo.I?eaa?aeaioeu oai?ee yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey oaaaeaeaiu, /oi aieueoay /anoue iaeiaia a eiia/iii n/aoa o?ainoi?ie?oaony a ecaea?aeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e ia?aeeaaeuaaaony ia iio?aaeoaeae /a?ac oeaiu. Iaeiae onei?ytho eioeyoeeth ecaea?aeae.Noi?iiiee oai?ee yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey A?oo? Eaooa? auaae, /oi aieaa ieceea noaaee iaeiaia aiieia niaianoeiu n i?aaeieie, eee aeaaea aieueoeie iaeiaiauie iinooieaieyie. Aai eiioeaioeey eioa?i?aoe?oaony “e?eaie Eaooa?a” - iiaeaeueth, oeacuaathuae ia acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo iaeiaiauie noaaeaie e noiia?iuie iaeiaiauie aeioiaeaie ainoaea?noaa.Ia ?enoiea i?aaenoaaeaii, /oi aei oi/ee I aic?anoaiea iaeiaiaie noaaee niinianoaoao oaaee/aieth iinooieaiee iaeiaia a athaeaeao. Ii aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea iaeiaiaie noaaee i?eaaaeao e nieaeaieth noeioeia aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe, a oaeaea e no?aieaieth oeeiieoueny io oieaou iaeiaia. A ?acoeueoaoa noiia?iua iaeiaiaua iinooieaiey niecyony.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 76 . E?eaay Eaooa?aIi?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie noaaee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey - neiaeiay caaea/a yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca e iaeiaiaie iieeoeee.?aeiiaiaeaoeee oai?ee yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey eniieueciaaeenue aaeieieno?aoeeae ?.?aeaaia aeey noaaeeecaoeee aia?eeaineie yeiiiieee.A oneiaeyo noaaoeyoeee 70-o - 80-o aiaeia aeey ii?iaeecaoeee yeiiiieee i?eiaiyeny “eieoaeeue” ia?, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iai?aaeaiiuo ia naea?aeeaaiea ?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu, a n ae?oaie - ia ?anoe?aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey aneaaenoaea nie?auaiey iaeiaiauo noaaie. Iineaaeiaa ianoiyoaeuenoai i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa e ?inoo ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa, /oi, aeoia n aunieeie i?ioeaioiuie noaaeaie, niaeaenoaiaaei aunieie eioeyoeee e ?inoo aac?aaioeoeu. Iaeiaei a aeaeueiaeoai oaiiu ?inoa oeai caiaaeeeeenue, a aac?aaioeoea iinoaiaiii ?anninaeanue. Oai ia iaiaa oaeie iooue ecaaaeaiey io noaaoeyoeee yaeyaony neeoeii oyaeaeui.Aeueoa?iaoeaie iaieeanne/aneiio iiaeoiaeo ai?ueau ni noaaoeyoeeae iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaiea nenoaiu ia? aicaeaenoaey ia e?eaoth niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey:oeaeaaia oeiaine?iaaiea e e?aaeeoiaaiea;naeaeoeaiay iiaeaea?aeea io?aneae;i?ioaeoeeiienoneea ia?u;yeaiaiou iieeoeee aeioiaeia.Oaeea ia?u iaoneiaeeaatho iaiueoea nioeeaeueiua ecaea?aeee.I?aaenoaaeyaony. /oi i?aiaeieaiea niaaea ?inneeneie yeiiiieee o?aaoao aieiaoaeueiiai eco/aiey ?aciiia?aciuo iiaeoiaeia e iae?iyeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee. Iao iiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey 90-o aiaeia iieacae i?eiaieiinoue iiiaoa?iie iieeoeee aei?iaeo aeaiaa aeey iaocaeaiey eioeyoeee e ieceoth yooaeoeaiinoue iiiaoa?enoneeo ia? aeey i?aiaeieaiey yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea. I?iaaaeaiea aioeoeeeee/aneie iieeoeee a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ?innee o?aaoao aieueoaai aieiaiey e ia?ai, noeioee?othuei ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea, eo aeaeiai i?eiaiaiey e aeeiaie/iie oiieie iano?ieee.Aeaaa 10. Aaaaeaiea a ?aaeiiaeueioth yeiiiieeo. ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea a ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeeeAII?INU:I?aaeiao e caaea/e eo?na «?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea». Oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?acaeoea e ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieeaAinoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey. ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaaI?aaeiao, oeaee e caaea/e eo?na «?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea», aa naycue n ae?oaeie aeenoeeieeiaie.Aeeaae ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo o/aiuo a ?ac?aaioeo oai?ee ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.Oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?acaeoea e ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey; iaiaoiaeeiinoue, oeaee e iaoaieciu.?aaeii eae noauaeo e iauaeo ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua i?ia?aiiu ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee 90-o aiaeia: niaea?aeaiea e ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue.1. I?aaeiao e caaea/e eo?na «?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea». Oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?acaeoea e ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieeaAeiieiaioie nia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoey iaoae no?aiu, ia?yaeo n ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iiio oicyenoaiaaieth, yaeyaony ooaa?aeaeaiea iiaiai ii?yaeea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiui oeaio?ii e ?aaeiiaie, caiaoiia ?anoe?aiea i?aa i ioaaonoaaiiinoe oa??eoi?ee a ?aoaiee nianoaaiiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e ae?oaeo i?iaeai.Eaaeaeue a?aaeaeaiei ?innee ana a aieueoae ia?a iuouaao naay eae «Homo regionalius», eniuouaaao eae a auoo, oae e a i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe naith caaeneiinoue io oneiaee oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey, io oiai, a eaeii ?aaeiia ii aeeaao e ?aaioaao.Cia/eoaeueii eciaieeenue caaea/e e ooieoeee ?aaioieeia ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe. I?aaeiyy i?eaioaoeey ia ne?oioeaciia auiieiaiea onoaiiaie auoanoiyueo einoaioeee, Oeaio?a ia yaeyaony aa?aioeae oniaoa aeaea, eioi?iio neoaeao oi?aaeaioeu. Aeey i?eiyoey yooaeoeaiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee iaiaoiaeeii iniiaaoaeueiia ciaiea:ianoiuo i?iaeai,ioa/anoaaiiiai e ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa oi?aaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiuie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie i?ioeannaie,iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee a iaeanoe ?aaeiiaeueiiai aiaeeca e oi?aaeaieyN o/aoii yoiai ai iiiaeo aocao no?aiu, i?aaeaea anaai, a ?aaeiiaeueiuo oeeeaeao aeaaeaiee ainneoaeau, a niioaaonoaee n ainoaea?noaaiiui ia?aciaaoaeueiui noaiaea?oii aaiaeeony eo?n «?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea». E niaeaeaieth, ii eo?no ionoonoaotho ia oieueei o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneea iiniaey, ii e oeiiaay i?ia?aiia. I?aaeeaaaaiue iaie aa?eaio no?oeoo?u eo?na aue ooaa?aeaeai a Naaa?i-caiaaeiie Aeaaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau i?e I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.?yae enneaaeiaaoaeae n/eoatho ?aaeiiaeueioth yeiiiieeo ?acaeaeii yeiiiie/aneie aaia?aoee eee aiaeiaii io?aneaauo yeiiiiee (yeiiiieee naeueneiai oicyenoaa, yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe). Iu i?eaea?aeeaaainy oi/ee c?aiey, niaeanii eioi?ie ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea yaeyaony aaoaueth iauae yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, ioiinyuaeny e ?acaeaeo «Iaciyeiiiieea», oi anoue ?anniao?eaaai ?aaeiiaeueioth yeiiiieeo eae /anoue e?oiioth iiaenenoaio iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee (Iae?iyeiiiieee).Eo?n iaoiaeieiae/anee iie?aaony ia iniiau yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee e i?aaie/anee naycai n eiie?aoiuie yeiiiie/aneeie aeenoeeieeiaie, oaeeie eae yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey, iaiaaeaeiaio, ia?eaoeia, oeiainu e e?aaeeo, yeiiiieea io?aneae, noaoenoeea e ae?.Oeaeueth oaiu yaeyaony eco/aiea nenoaiu yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey. Iicaeiaa iu oeaaeai ia iaoiaeaeanoaaiiinoue oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey e ?inoa yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea ?aaeiiia. Iaeiaei, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa, aeaaii?eyoiia ?aaeiiaeueiia ?acaeoea iie?aaony ia ?anoouoth yeiiiieeo ?aaeiiia.Caaea/aie oaiu yaeythony:auyaeaiea yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee noaiiaeaiey oaaea?aeecia e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee;aiaeec ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ?innee 90-o aiaeia;?anniio?aiea oneiaee noaiiaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e ?aaeiiaeueiua aniaeou i?eaaoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe;aiaeec oeiainiauo i?iaeai ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey: aii?inia noaiiaeaiey athaeaeaoiiai e iaeiaiaiai oaaea?aeecia, oi?ie?iaaiey ianoiuo athaeaeaoia;enneaaeiaaiea oi?i e iaoiaeia ?aaoee?iaaiey ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee a oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey ?uii/iiai oicyenoaiaaiey e ?aaeiiaeueiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.Ca ?oaaaeii ecaanoiu ?aaiou oaeeo niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee eae Aeaiai O., Eca?ae O., Ia?eioo A., ?e/a?aenii X. e ae?., ?yae yoeo ?aaio ia?aaaaeaiu ia ?onneee ycue. Ia iao acaeyae, iaiin?aaenoaaiiia eniieueciaaiea ?ac?aaioie ca?oaaaeiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae aeey au?aaioee ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea cao?oaeiaii: ana iie i?eaioe?iaaiu ia oneiaey ?acaeoiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, "i?eaycaiu" e niaoeeoeea iaoeeiiaeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioiioaiee, iino?iaiu ia iniiaa neiaeeaoaeny nenoaiu ?aaeiiaeueiie noaoe/aneie io/aoiinoe.I?aaenoaaeyaony i?iaeaiaoe/iie oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?inoiai eiie?iaaiey ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa a ?inneeneie ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea.?anniio?aiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai o?aaoao ooi/iaiey iiiyoey "?aaeii". A niaaoneie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea iiiyoea «?aaeii» auei aaaaeaii aeaaeaieeii I. Iae?aniaui. Nouanoaoao iiiai oi/ae c?aiey ia yoi iiiyoea. Ii-eaouie "regio" - no?aia, iaeanoue. A yoii niunea /aua anaai "?aaeii" ioiaeaeanoaeytho n iaeioi?ie aano?aeoiie oa??eoi?eae, /anoueth oa??eoi?eaeueiiai i?ino?ainoaa no?aiu, ia auaeaeyy eaeeo-eeai oaeoi?ia, e?iia i?ino?ainoaaiiiai.A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iiae ?aaeiiaie iiae?acoiaaatho e?oiiua yeiiiie/aneea ?aeiiu, oi anoue a?oiio ninaaeieo aaeieieno?aoeaii- e iaoeeiiaeueii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee, oaeeo eae O?ae, Caiaaeiay Neae?ue, Aeaeueiee Ainoie, Naaa? e o.i. A ae?oaeo - noauaeou oaaea?aoeee: e?ay, iaeanoe, aaoiiiiee. A o?aoueeo - ?aeiiu, ai?iaea, ai?iaeneea ?aeiiu a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao, naea e o.ae.A iiiia?aoee eeanneea aia?eeaineie ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee O.Eca?aea "Iaoiaeu ?aaeiiaeueiiai aiaeeca" ?aaeii oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae ioe?uoay yeiiiie/aneay aaeeieoea a i?aaeaeao aeaiiiai ainoaea?noaa. Nioeeaeueiia oi?aaeaiea. Neiaa?ue. /Iiae ?aae. A.E. Aeia?aiueeiaa, E.I. Neaiaieiaa. - I., Ecae-ai IAO, 1994. - N. 134:«A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiyoea «?aaeii» oe?iei o?aeooaony a iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiey e iianaaeiaaiie i?aeoeea. A oceii niunea iiae ?aaeiiii iiieiaaony ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiay /anoue, iiaenenoaia aaeeiiai ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena no?aiu, auaeaeeaoayny a i?ioeanna oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea.»Oaaei?ia TH.E. Annaiaeay aa?iiaeneeo ?aaeiiia. // ?aaeiiieiaey. - 1995, ? 1.-N. 43:«A niioaaonoaee ni no.3 Onoaaa Annaiaeae Aa?iiaeneeo ?aaeiiia oa?iei «?aaeii» ioiineony e o?iaith i?aaeoaeuenoaa, neaaeothuaai n?aco iinea oeaio?aeueiiai, n iieeoe/aneei i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaii, aa?aioe?iaaiiui nouanoaiaaieai auai?iiai ?aaeiiaeueiiai Niaaoa eee, i?e aai ionoonoaee, annioeeaoeeae eee i?aaiii, o/?aaeaeaiiui ia ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia ianoiuie aeanoyie ia neaaeothuai ca ieie aieaa aunieii o?iaia.»Iainiiaaiiie i?aaenoaaeyaony oi/ea c?aiey, au?aaeaiiay a eieeaeoeaiii o?oaea "Nenoaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey: yeiiiieei-i?aaiaie aniaeo" Ii iiaieth aaoi?ia iiiia?aoee,?aaeii anoue /anoue yeiiiie/aneiai, nioeeaeueiiai, i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai, yeieiae/aneiai, eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai, nianoaaiii i?ino?ainoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea ainoaea?noaa a a?aieoeao aeanoii onoaiiaeaiiuo aaeieieno?aoeaii - oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aaeeieoe, eiathueo oi?aaeai/aneea no?oeoo?u, i?ecaaiiua iaania/eoue eioa?anu ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey.Iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth iiiyoey "?aaeii" eniieuecoaony e a ?aaioao aaaeoueo niaoeeaeenoia ii ?aaeiiaeueiui nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei i?iaeaiai.Iie?aynue ia yoio iaoiaeieiae/aneee iiaeoiae, iu aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue a ninoaaa ?aaeiiia neaaeothuea o?iaie oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee:?aaeiiu iaeanoiiai o?iaiy (noauaeou oaaea?aoeee), o.a. ?anioaeeee, e?ay, iaeanoe, ai?iaea oaaea?aeueiiai cia/aiey;naeueneea ?aeiiu, ai?iaea, ai?iaeneea ?aeiiu a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao, naeueneea iinaeaiey e iauaaeeiaiey iineaaeieo, oi anoue oi, /oi i?eiyoi iacuaaoue «ioieoeeiaeueiua ia?aciaaiey».Eiaiii ei a iaeaieueoae ia?a i?enoua oeaeinoiinoue, ia?anoathuaa aaeeinoai yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo, aeaiia?aoe/aneeo e eiuo i?ioeannia. Yoe ?aaeiiu iaaeaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiiui th?eaee/aneei noaoonii, iie iaeaaeatho ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?aaiii/eyie a noa?a aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey, eiatho i?aaiu aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey.Auaeaeaiiua o?iaie ?aaeiiaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee nouanoaaiii ioee/athony ii i?ino?ainoaaiiui ianooaaai, noaiaie caieiooinoe aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo, aeaiia?aoe/aneeo e yeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia. Iaeiaei, i?aia?aciaaiey oa??eoi?eaeueiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, i?ienoiaeyuea naaiaeiy a ?innee, eiatho a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie noiaeea /a?ou e i?iyaeaiey ia oeacaiiuo o?iaiyo ?aaeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u ainoaea?noaa.Iiiyoea «?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea» a oi?aaeai/aneie i?aeoeea /aua anaai eniieuecoaony a cia/aiee «oicyenoai ?aaeiia», oi anoue niaieoiiinoue ?aaeiiaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia e oicyenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee.?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea eae iaoea eiaao ianeieueei eiia ii?aaeaeaiea.Iniiaiiieiaeiee ioa/anoaaiiie ?aaeiiieiaee Iae?ania I.I. n/eoae, /oi ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea eco/aao niaieoiiia? oiiaoe/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia a eaaeaeii ?aaeiia no?aiu, a aeaaiie caaea/ae ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee eae iao/iie aeenoeeieeiu yaeyaony enneaaeiaaiea aii?inia ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ?aciauaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. A ?aieao oeaio?aeeciaaiii ieaie?oaiie yeiiiieee yoi aue oeaeaniia?aciue e yooaeoeaiue iiaeoiae.Iaeiaei ?acaeoea ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee eae iaoee, enneaaeothuae i?iaeaiu oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iiio oicyenoaiaaieth, canoaaeyao acaeyiooue ia i?aaeiao ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee iiae eiui oaeii c?aiey.I?e eniieueciaaiee eeanneoeeaoeee «oeaeue - n?aaenoaa» niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi oeaeueth yaeyaony ?aaeiiaeueiia ?acaeoea, a n?aaenoaii, iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oneiaee aa ?aaeecaoeee, yaeyaony ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea.?acaeoea ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, ?ino yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea ia iiaeao auoue naiioeaeueth, eai yeiiiie/aneee ?ino nai ii naaa iiaeao auoue e i?e/eiie aeaa?aaeaoeee oa??eoi?ee.Aeey oi?ioee?iaaiey i?aaeiaoa e caaea/ ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee eae iaoee i?aaeaea anaai ii?aaeaeei, a /ai ninoieo aeaenoaeoaeueiue niune ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey.Oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?acaeoea aeieaeii auoue i?eaioe?iaaii ia iiceoeaioth aeeiaieeo o?iaiy e ea/anoaa aeecie ianaeaiey, aeinoeaaaioth ia iniiaa onoie/eaiai e naaeaine?iaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa nioeeaeueiiai, oicyenoaaiiiai, ?ano?niiai e yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaeia ?aaeiiia.A oneiaeyo, eiaaea ?aaeiiu no?aiu ai?acaei a aieueoae noaiaie icaai/aiu oeceieiae/aneei auaeeaaieai, a ainoaea?noai ii ioiioaieth e ?aaeiiai inouanoaeyao ?aaeei «iiaeaea?aeee», eioi?ay a e?aeia iaeie noaiaie niinianoaoao auoiaeo eo ec aaaenoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey, iiaeeeiiue niune ?acaeoey oa??eoi?ee ioiaeaeioo ia caaeiee ieai.Ii oieueei oaeei ia?acii o?aeooaiay oeaeue ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey, i?eaioaoeey ia iaicia/aiioth auoa acaeiinaycaiioth nenoaio oa?aeoa?enoee iiaeao yaeyoueny ii?iie e niuneii ?aaeiiaeueiiai auoey. Ethaia ioeeiiaiea io oeacaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee aoaeao icia/aoue aeaa?aaeaoeeth, aeai?anneth e o.i.Onoie/eainoue - aaaeiaeoee i?eciae ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey -i?aaeiieaaaao aeeeoaeueiinoue nio?aiaiey oneiaee aini?iecaiaenoaa iioaioeeaea oa??eoi?ee a ?aaeeia naaeaine?iaaiiinoe e nioeeaeueiie i?eaioaoeee. Iiyoiio, iai?eia?, /?acia?iia ecuyoea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia (aeaaea iaauathuaa iiuiia iaeii?aciaia iaiaauaiea oa??eoi?ee) ieeae ia oeeaaeuaaaony a eiioeaioeeth ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey.Naaeaine?iaaiiinoue - niaethaeaiea aeey eaaeaeiai ?aaeiia i?iii?oeee auoaoeacaiiuo ninoaaeythueo aai iioaioeeaea, iaania/eaathuae onoie/eainoue e nioeeaeueioth i?eaioaoeeth nenoaiu. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaeaieaa oycaeiuie yaeythony yeieiae/aneay, i?e?iaei?ano?niay, a ai iiiaeo ?aaeiiao e nioeeaeueiay ninoaaeythuay iioaioeeaea oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey. Oae, aic?inoay nioeeaeueiay iaa?ocea ia oa??eoi?eth Ineianeie iaeanoe aneaaenoaea eciaiaiey aaiiieeoe/aneie neooaoeee o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia aeey iaania/aiey onoie/eaiai nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ?acaeoey.Nioeeaeueiay i?eaioaoeey - iaania/aiea iaiaoiaeeiiai o?iaiy e ea/anoaa aeecie ianaeaiey ?aaeiia, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecothony ?aaeueiui o?iaiai iio?aaeaiey nioeeaeueiuo aeaa, ia?aiao?aie oece/aneiai e aeooiaiiai caei?iauey, ia?aciaaiey e o.i. Nioeeaeueiay aeiieiaioa yaeyaony i?ei?eoaoiie, ii iia oaeaea aeieaeia auoue onoie/eai naaeaine?iaaia n ?ano?naie oa??eoi?ee. A?aiaiiia aeaaiiieo/ea iiaeao auoue iaania/aii e ca n/ao no?ieoaeuenoaa aoiiiiai iieeaiia, e ca n/ao caoi?iiaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia, e ca n/ao ?acaeoey oaiaaie yeiiiieee.Oaeei ia?acii, oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?acaeoea a nia?aiaiiii iniuneaiee ia iiaeao ioiaeaeanoaeyoueny n ?aoeeiiaeueiui ?aciauaieai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. Yooaeoeaiia n ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiie oi/ee c?aiey ?aciauaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/eaathuaa ?ino yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea oa??eoi?ee aac o/aoa o?aaiaaiee oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey /anoi nii?iaiaeaeaaony aeaa?aaeaoeeae anae nenoaiu ?ano?nia oa??eoi?ee, aeiaiaeeo ?aaeiiu aei aaaenoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey. Oaeiaa naaiaeiy neooaoeey a ?aeiiao eiaeono?eaeueiiai E?aeiaai Naaa?a, a oeaio?ao iai?iiiie, iaoaeeo?ae/aneie, ai?iiaeiauaathuae e oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.Oaeei ia?acii, iu iiaeai noi?ioee?iaaoue neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea iaaeiaoa ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea - yoi iaoea, caieiathuayny enneaaeiaaieai yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee iaania/aiey oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey.?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea eco/aao yaeaiey e i?ioeannu, naycaiiua n ii?ie?iaaieai, eniieueciaaieai e ?acaeoeai ia?aie/aiiiai oicyenoaaiiiai e oeiainiaiai iioaioeeaea oa??eoi?ee a oeaeyo iaania/aiey noie/eaiai, naaeaine?iaaiiiai, nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ?acaeoey ?aaeiiia.?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea yaeyaony iaoeie, eioi?ay iicaieyao n?aaaouaaoue yooaeoeaiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oi?aaeaieth yeiiiieeie ?aaeiia.2. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey. ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaaIoa/anoaaiiua e ca?oaaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey ?aaeiiaeenoia iieacuaatho, /oi iaania/aiea oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey o?aaoao aeoeaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. I?e/ai, /ai aieueoa ianooaau ainoaea?noaa, oai aieaa ?acii?iaeiu aai ?aaeiiu ii yeiiiie/aneei, yeieiae/aneei, nioeeaeueiui, iieeoe/aneei ia?aiao?ai. Onoie/eainoue, naaeaine?iaaiiinoue e nioeeaeueiue i?ia?ann, a eiia/iii n/aoa, oeaeinoiinoue ainoaea?noaa ia?aaeueiu i?e iaee/ee aeoaieeo ?aaeiiaeueiuo aeeni?iii?oeee, i?e ninaaenoaa ioiineoaeueii i?ioeaaoathueo e aaciaaeaaeii aeai?anneaiuo ?aaeiiia. Iiyoiio ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa - yoi i?aaeaea anaai n?aaenoai naeaaeeaaiey oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aeeni?iii?oeee, i?eaiaeyueo e oa??eoi?eaeueiie aeaceioaa?aoeee no?aiu.Oa??eoi?eaeueiua ?acee/ey anoanoaaiiu, aieaa oiai, iie yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey. Oi?ie?oy oneiaey iaae?aaeiiaeueiie eiieo?aioeee, oa??eoi?eaeueiua ?acee/ey niinianoaotho iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe ?aciauaiey i?iecaiaenoaa, iioeiece?otho no?oeoo?o ?annaeaiey e ?uieia o?oaea.Iaeiaei, noeoeeiia naii?acaeoea ca/anooth i?eaiaeeo e oa??eoi?eaeueiui ?acee/eyi, eioi?ua i?eoiaeeony i?eciaaaoue aiiiaeueiuie, iaaeaeaoaeueiuie. Iie iaoneiaeeaatho ianniaoth iea?aoeeth, iieeoe/aneea aunooieaiey, ii?iaeaeatho naia?aoenoneea ono?aieaiey.Aiiiaeueii aunieay oa??eoi?eaeueiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey - oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa nia?aiaiiie ?inneeneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Oae, a 1995-1996 aiaeao nouanoaiaaee neaaeothuea ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie noauaeoaie Oaaea?aoeee:i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie ?acee/aeanue ia 17 eao o ioae/ei e ia 12 eao o aeaiuei;aeiey iaineiia?ia a ianaeaiee ?acee/aeanue a 3,5 ?aca,n?aaeiaiany/iua aeioiaeu ianaeaiey ?acee/aeenue a 14,n?aaeiyy iieaoa o?oaea n o/aoii nioeeaeueiuo auieao - a 1 1,5,noieiinoue iaai?a aeaayoiaaeoeaoe iniiaiuo i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey - a 4,2 ?aca,ioiioaiea yoie noieiinoe e n?aaeiae ca?aaioiie ieaoa - a 7,3 ?aca,?acieoea iaaeaeo iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoueth ianaeaiey (ioiioaiey n?aaeiaaeooaauo aeioiaeia e ?aaeiiaeueiiio i?iaeeoi/iiio o?iaith) a 1996 aiaeo auea oanoee?aoiie e i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe,aieaa /ai a 10 ?ac ?acee/athony iieacaoaee ioeoeeaeueii ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiie aac?aaioeoeu;a «?acu» ioee/athony noauaeou Oaaea?aoeee ii ianuuaiiinoe aei?iaaie, ?acaeoeth nenoai nayce, yia?ai-, oiieeai-, e aiaeiniaaaeaieth,oi aea ioiineony e e nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?a, e iio?aaeaieth ianaeaieai nioeeaeueiuo oneoa.A oneiaeyo ionoonoaey aaeeiiai ?uii/iiai i?ino?ainoaa, neaainoe anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo einoeoooia eaeao noeoeeiia ?anna/aiea no?aiu ia aoiia?iua ia?aciaaiey, ia?aaeei n aioaaiienoe/aneeie eioa?anaie. Ii aieueoeinoao ia?aiao?ia iaeaieaa ?acei ia/eiaao auaeaeyoueny Iineaa eae oieeaeueiue oeiainiaue e nioeeaeueiue oeaio?.O?aaeeoeeiiii aeaaiie aeaeaeouae neeie «naiiau?aaieaaiey» oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey auea nioeeaeueiay iiaeeueiinoue ianaeaiey. Ethaee naie nieaeaee nioeeaeueioth iaa?oceo ia ooaeoea oa??eoi?ee, ia?anaeyynue a aieaa aeaaii?eyoiua ianoa. Eeanne/aneei i?eia?ii a yoii ioiioaiee yaeythony NOA. Ii, aii?aee ?anoiaeaio iiaieth, ?onneea «anaaaea auee eaaee ia iiaeuai», eia/a ia ninoiyeinue au naiinoiyoaeueiia canaeaiea ia?iiiuo i?ino?ainoa ?innee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy «aieiniaaiea iiaaie» oa?yao naith i?aaeithth cia/eiinoue eae oaeoi? «naii?aaoee?iaaiey». Iniiaiay /anoue ianaeaiey iaaeaaiiieo/iuo ?aaeiiia ia eiaao oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoae ia?aacaea ec aeai?anneaiuo oa??eoi?ee: ia?aacae naiuee ec 3-o /aeiaae ia ?annoiyiea a 1000 ei iio?aaoao He iaiaa 500 ieieiaeueiuo ca?ieao. E?iia oiai, ie a iaeiii ?aaeiia ia?anaeaioeaa ia aeaeoo eae iaiaoiaeeioth ?aai/oth neeo.Noieue aea iaeiaa?iyoii e iai?aaeaiea /anoiuo eiaanoeoeee a aeai?anneaiua ?aaeiiu: niaae yeiiiieee a ieo oi?ie?oao ieioea iaeeaeaiey i?eaueae. Ionthaea ynia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey. Aieaa oeie/ii nae/an iaicia/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey eae i?iaaaeaiea ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa.?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa a oe?ieii niunea neiaa - yoi i?aaiaay, yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue oeaio?aeueiuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo aeanoae ii iioeiecaoeee acaeiiaeaenoaey Oaaea?aoeee e ?aaeiiia aeey iaania/aiey onoie/eaiai, naaeaine?iaaiiiai e nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ?acaeoey ?aaeiiia.N o/aoii oiai, /oi iaoa ainoaea?noai iiiaio?iaiaaia, ?aaoee?othuea aicaeaenoaey iiaoo auoue oaeaea iiiaio?iaiaauie e inouanoaeyoueny:oaaea?aeueiui oeaio?ii;i?aaiaie noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee;ianoiuie i?aaiaie.A neeo oiai /oi Eiinoeoooeey ?O cae?aieea naiinoiyoaeueiinoue ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea e ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aaeiiaeueioth iieeoeeo neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue a oaaea?aeueiii e noaoaaea?aeueiii o?iaiyo. Inoaiiaeiny ia?aiia/aeueii ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee, eee, eia/a aiai?y ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeea Oeaio?a.Oaaea?aeueiay ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio iaia?aiee e aeaenoaee, iicaieythueo ?aaeeciaaoue iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua eioa?anu a ioiioaiee ?aaeiiia.I?iaaaeaiea oaaea?aeueiie ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeyoue n o/aoii oiai, /oi ?aaeiiu - ia oieueei iauaeou, ii e ?aaeueiua noauaeou ?aoi?i, eiathuea niaoeeoe/aneea ?aaeiiaeueiua eioa?anu, aeaeaei ia anaaaea oiaeaeanoaaiiua iauaainoaea?noaaiiui. A ioee/ea io iineaaeieo, ?aaeiiaeueiua eioa?anu, eioi?ua a ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo, i?aaeaea anaai, i?eaioe?iaaiu ia noaaeeueiia aini?iecaiaenoai e i?eoiiiaeaiea nioeeaeueiiai (a oii /enea iaoeeiiaeueii-yoie/aneiai), i?e?iaeii?ano?niiai e yeieiae/aneiai, aeaiia?aoe/aneiai, oicyenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea ?aaeiia.Iineieueeo iiaeaea?aeea eiie?aoiiai noauaeoa Oaaea?aoeee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iieacia aeey anae Oaaea?aoeee, a, n ae?oaie, iia eaeao, ii e?aeiae ia?a /anoe/ii, ca n/ao i?i/eo noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee, oaaea?aeueiay ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea aeieaeia auoue ?acoeueoaoii ?aoaiee anae Oaaea?aoeee, anao aa noauaeoia, a ia iaeiiai eeoue Oeaio?a.A I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo I?ia?aiiao 90-o aiaeia ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea caieiaao aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiia ianoi. I?ineaaeei yaiethoeeth eo ?aaeiiaeueiiai aniaeoa.?acaeae «?aaeiiaeueiue aniaeo ?aoi?iu» niaea?aeaeny oaea a «I?ia?aiia oaeoaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i» (1992-1995 aa.). A iae oeacuaaeinue, /oi ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea i?ecaaia ineaaeoue aioo?aiiea nioeeaeueiua iai?yaeaiey, nio?aieoue oeaeinoiinoue e aaeeinoai no?aiu. A yeiiiie/aneie noa?a noaaeeanue oeaeue ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey iiiaiia?acey yeiiiie/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae ?aaeiiia, iauaeoeaiuo i?aeiouanoa oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea e yeiiiie/aneie eiiia?aoeee ?aaeiiia.E?iia o?aaeeoeeiiiuo no?aoaae/aneeo caaea/, oaeeo eae:?aeiino?oeoeey yeiiiieee noa?ii?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiia,i?aiaeieaiea aeai?anneaiiai oa?aeoa?a AIE Ia/a?iicaiuey, THaeiiai O?aea, Neae?e e Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea;nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey aic?iaeaeaiey iaei/eneaiiuo ia?iaeia;?acaeoea iaae?aaeiiaeueiuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo eio?ano?oeoo?iuo nenoai e o.i. auee noi?ioee?iaaiu iiaua caaea/e ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee:ia?aniaoeeaeecaoeey iiauo i?ea?aie/iuo ?aeiiia, nicaeaiea caeanue iiauo ?aai/eo iano e onei?aiiia ?acaeoea nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u;noeioee?iaaiea ?acaeoey yenii?oiuo cii, oi?ie?iaaiea naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii, oaoiiiieenia e ?aaeiiaeueiuo oeaio?ia aiaae?aiey aeinoeaeaiee ioa/anoaaiiie e ie?iaie iaoee;inouanoaeaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii nicaeaiey iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo oi?i, aaeaioe?iaaiiuo e ianoiui oneiaeyi (i?eaaoecaoeey, aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia, ?uii/iay eio?ano?oeoo?a e o.ae.).A I?ia?aiia i?aaeoniao?eaaeny ia?aiin oeaio?a oyaeanoe n aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?aaoeyoi?ia ia yeiiiie/aneea. A ea/anoaa oi?i i?yiiai o/anoey i?aaeoniao?eaaeenue:?aaeiiaeueiua i?ia?aiiu, ?aaeecoaiua ca n/ao n?aaenoa oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa e oaaea?aeueiuo aiaathaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa;inouanoaeaiea iniai aaaeiuo no?oeoo?iia?acothueo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia;?aciauaiea caeacia ia iinoaaeo i?iaeoeoeee aeey iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo ioaeae.Iaeiaei i?aiaeaaeathuae oi?iie ainoaea?noaaiiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey aeieaeii auei noaoue oeiainiaia, aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiia, iaeiaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea. A i?eia?iue ia?a/aiue yeiiiie/aneeo ?aaoeyoi?ia auee aeeth/aiu:nicaeaiea niaoeeaeueiiai oiiaea ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey (aai enoi/ieeii i?aaeiieaaaeanue aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay ?aioa, /anoe/ii ecuiaaiay o i?aaei?eyoee e ?aaeiiia, eniieuecothueo aeaaii?eyoiua i?e?iaeiua e aaia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u, yooaeo i?aaeieo ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee);noeioee?iaaiea i?eaea/aiey /anoiuo ioa/anoaaiiuo e eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a ?aaeiiu ca n/ao iaeiaiauo eueaio, eueaioiuo e?aaeeoia e o.i.;aaaaeaiea onei?aiiie aii?oecaoeee aeey i?aaei?eyoee, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ?aaeiiao ni neiaeiuie oneiaeyie e o.ae.Aeey inouanoaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee, niaeaniaaiiie ia anao o?iaiyo, I?ia?aiia i?aaeoniao?eaaea ?ac?aaioeo Eiiieaeniiai i?iaiica ?acaeoey e ?aciauaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia ia?eiae aei 2000 aiaea.I?ia?aiia nicaeaaaeanue a neooaoeee, eiaaea oa?ica aeaceioaa?aoeee ?innee auea aanueia ?aaeueiie, a i?aaiaua ii?iu iaua?inneeneiai ?uiea aua ionoonoaiaaee. Iiyoiio caaea/ae-ieieioiii noaaeeenue:nio?aiaiea aioo?aiiaai ?uiea, iauae aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu, aaeeinoaa eeth/aauo eio?ano?oeoo?iuo naoae.iaaeiiouaiea aaaaeaiey ?aaeiiaie yai/iui ii?yaeeii iaeiieaiaeueiie nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey,iaaeiiouaiea iieiie aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey,niaeaenoaea niyoeth ia?aie/aiee iaae?aaeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia e oneoa, eaieoaeia e o?oaea,iaaeiiouaiea ioeaca io iinoaaie i?iaeoeoeee ae?oaei ?aaeiiai e eiuo iiaeiaiuo oaaia.I?ia?aiia iiaeaea?aeaea eieoeeaoeao «nieco» ii nicaeaieth ?aaeiiaeueiuo e iaae?aaeiiaeueiuo annioeeaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, ii ?ac?aaioea e inouanoaeaieth niaianoiuo i?ia?aii ii aic?iaeaeaieth iaeuo ai?iaeia. caiiaaaeiuo cii e o.i.I?ia?aiia «?aoi?iu e ?acaeoea ?inneeneie yeiiiieee a 1995-1997 aiaeao» (1995 a.) aeeth/aea ?acaeae «?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea»A i?ia?aiia ioia/aeinue, /oi iauee niaae i?iecaiaenoaa, aaeiie?othuay eioeyoeey, e?ecen iaieaoaaeae e ae?. iaaaoeaiua iae?iyeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u ieacuaatho ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia oooaeoaiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey ?aaeiiia. Aianoa n oai, e?eceniua yaeaiey eiaee cia/eoaeueiua ?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe.Iaeaieueoee niaae aue oa?aeoa?ai aeey o?ao a?oii ?aaeiiia.n aunieie eiioeaio?aoeeae io?aneae n nie?auathueiny ni?inii (iniaaiii iai?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oyaeaeiai iaoeiino?iaiey),ia auaea?aeaaoeo eiieo?aioeeth aiaoiaai ?uiea («oaenoeeueiua» ?aaeiiu),oaeaeaiiuo io iniiaiuo iinoaaueeia e iio?aaeoaeae (E?aeiee Naaa? e Aeaeueiee Ainoie).I?iaeieaeaea oneeeaaoueny oa??eoi?eaeueiay aeaceioaa?aoeey.Ec yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena ia?auie ia/aee auoiaeeoue e?oiiua ai?iaeneea aaeiia?aoeee - oeaio?u aaieianeiai e oi?aiaiai eaieoaea, ?aaeiiu n ?acaeaathuaeny ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?ie iaae?aaeiiaeueiiai cia/aiey, ?aaeiiu, yenii?oe?othuea i?iaeoeoeeth n aunieie aaethoiie yooaeoeaiinoueth.A I?ia?aiia ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae «/anoue iauae ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee, nicaeathuay yeiiiie/aneea iniiau oeaeinoiinoe ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa, anao aeeciaiii aaaeiuo iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey ?inneeneiai iauanoaa».A I?ia?aiia auee ii?aaeaeaiu aeieaia?aiaiiua oeaee ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee oeaio?a:iiauoaiea o?iaiy e ea/anoaa aeecie ianaeaiey, iaania/aiea i?eia?ii ?aaiuo oneiaee nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey ai anao ?aaeiiao ?innee;oe?aieaiea yeiiiie/aneiai aaeeinoaa no?aiu ia iniiaa i?eioeeiia oaaea?aeecia, ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey e iaua?inneeneiai ?uiea;Aeieoiaio niaea?aeae eiie?aoecaoeeth yoeo no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee, iiae?iaiue nienie i?iaeai, auaeaeaiiuo a ea/anoaa i?ei?eoaoiuo ia aeeaeaeoea aiaeu.I?ia?aiia niaea?aeaea iieiaeaiey i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey ia iniiaa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoiaeia: /a?ac athaeaeaoii-oeiainiaua ?u/aae, ainoaea?noaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea oaaea?aeueiuo i?ia?aii ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey, ?aciauaiea oaaea?aeueiuo caeacia.I?ei?eoaoiui iai?aaeaieai ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee auea auaeaeaia iiaeaea?aeea i?iaeaiiuo ?aaeiiia, a ea/anoaa eioi?uo auee ii?aaeaeaiu:ionoathuea a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee, eiathuea ieceee o?iaaiue n?aaeiaaeooaauo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey, neaai ?acaeooth i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aaco e iaaeinoaoi/iue iaeiaiaue iioaioeeae;aeai?anneaiua ?aaeiiu, iaeaaeathuea aeinoaoi/iui yeiiiie/aneei iioaioeeaeii, ii eniuouaathuea iai?aiaeieeiue a n?aaeian?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa niaae i?iecaiaenoaa, naycaiiue n ia?ano?ieeie no?oeoo?u iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee;e?eceniua ?aaeiiu, a eioi?uo i?iaeaiu yeiiiie/aneiai, nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai e yeii?e?iaeiiai ii?yaeea ieacaeenue e?aeia ino?uie aneaaenoaea /?acau/aeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa;?aaeiiu iniaiai no?aoaae/aneiai cia/aiey, e eioi?ui ioianaiu E?aeiaai Naaa?a, Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea e iiaiai i?ea?aie/uey.Oeacuaaeinue, /oi oaaea?aeueiia niaeaenoaea ?acaeoeth i?iaeaiiuo ?aaeiiia iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny /a?ac oeiainiaoth iiaeaea?aeeo ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioaiiuo oaaea?aeueiuo i?ia?aii. Aieueoeinoai i?iaeaiiuo ?aaeiiia o?aaiaaei ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaeaenoaey a e?aaeeoiaaiee, i?eaea/aiee /anoiuo eiaanoeoeee, i?aaeinoaaeaiee iaeiaiauo eueaio, a ia?aiiaeaioiaea eaae?ia, oaoie/aneii ia?ainiauaiee i?iecaiaenoaa e a ae?oaeo oi?iao.?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneiai oaaea?aeecia e iaae?aaeiiaeueiie eioaa?aoeee - aoi?ay aaaeiaeoay caaea/a ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee, auaeaeiooay I?aaeoaeuenoaii ia 1995 - 1997 aa. Iia o?aaiaaea ?acaeoey athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, ?acaeaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe e aeioiaeia io nianoaaiiinoe (aeeth/ay i?eaaoecaoeeth) iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiui, ?aaeiiaeueiui e ioieoeeiaeueiui o?iaiyie, ooi/iaiey ?aca?aie/aiee i?aaeiaoia aaaeaiey e yeiiiie/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiuie i?aaiaie, i?aaiaie noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.A 1996 aiaeo auee iaeia?aiu I?aaeoaeuenoaii e ooaa?aeaeaiu I?aceaeaioii «Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee». ?acaeae «Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee» caieiaao a ieo oeaio?aeueiia ianoi. A iai i/a?/aiu no?aoaae/aneea oeaee e caaea/e ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee, iaoiaeu e oi?iu aa ?aaeecaoeee. A iniaue ioieo auaeaeaiu aii?inu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie e aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.A iieiii niioaaonoaee n eceiaeaiiuie auoa i?eioeeiaie oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey auaeaeai ?acaeae «Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee a nioeeaeueiie noa?a».Aeoiaaony, i?e ?ac?aaioea ianoiuo i?ia?aii nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iaiaoiaeeii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny iieiaeaieyie yoiai aaaeiiai aeieoiaioa.A ia/aea 1997 aiaea auea iioaeeeiaaia Eiioeaioeey n?aaeian?i/iie i?ia?aiiu I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O ia 1997-2000 aiaeu «No?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea e yeiiiie/aneee ?ino». Aa 9-e ?acaeae - «?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea».ssae?i iniiaiuo no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee nio?aiaii e i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth niaiaaeaao n niioaaonoaothueie i?aaeuaeoueie aeieoiaioaie I?aaeoaeuenoaa. E yoi ni?aaaaeeeai. Iniiaiua caaea/e, iaoiaeu e oi?iu ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ia iiaoo auoue e?aoein?i/iuie e eciaiyoueny aaeaaiaeii. Oaeie iiaeoiae oa?aeoa?ai i?e iiaeaioiaea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?ia?aii ia ethaii o?iaia: ainoaea?noaaiiii, ?aaeiiaeueiii, iaaeainoaea?noaaiiii. Iai?aiaiiie eo /a?oie yaeyaony iiaoi?aiea noaaeeueiie /anoe, iaiiaeaiea e ei??aeoe?iaea ?acaeaeia e /anoae, eioi?ua o?aaotho iiaeeoeeaoeee.Eoae, a iaeanoe ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ia 1997 - 2000 aa. oaaea?aeueiia I?aaeoaeuenoai iaicia/eei neaaeothuea oeaee:iaania/aiea aaeeinoaa yeiiiie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa no?aiu.oe?aieaiea yeiiiie/aneie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe ?aaeiiia iin?aaenoaii ?aca?aie/aiey eiiiaoaioeee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee, ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey;oe?aieaiea oeiainiaie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe ?aaeiiia ia iniiaa i?eioeeiia athaeaeaoiiai oaaea?aeecia;'- naeaaeeaaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?acee/ee (a I?ia?aiia ioia/aii, /oi ca aiaeu ?aoi?i ?aaeiiaeueiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey oneeeeanue) ca n/ao oeaio?aeeciaaiiie oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee;noeioee?iaaiea ?acaeoey ?aaeiiia, ?aniieaaathueo iiuiui iao/ii-oaoie/aneei e i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iioaioeeaeii, iiaoueo noaoue «oi/eaie ?inoa»;ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aaeiiia E?aeiaai Naaa?a;iiaeaea?aeea ?aeiiia yeieiae/aneiai aaaenoaey, n aeaiia?aoe/aneeie e ae?. i?iaeaiaie;Ieacaiea oeiainiaie iiiiue ?aaeiiai i?aaeiieaaaaony i?iaiaeeoue a oeaeyo ?aaeecaoeee eiinoeoooeeiiiuo nioeeaeueiuo aa?aioee.Ii oi?iai oaeie iiaeaea?aeee ?aaeiiu ?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa oeia: «neeueiua» e «neaaua». Aeey «neeueiuo» i?aaeiieaaaaony ieacuaaoue niaeaenoaea eo naiinoiyoaeueiiio ?acaeoeth, oe?aieaieth e ?anoe?aieth iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie aacu. Aeey «neaauo» ?aaeiiia aeoeaiay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea aoaeao aeeth/aoue o/anoea oeaio?a a i?ia?aiiao no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee ?aaeiiia, eniuouaathueo o?oaeiinoe, oi?ie?iaaiea oneiaee aeey i?eaea/aiey a ieo eiaanoeoeee, inouanoaeaiey i?ia?aii nicaeaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aai/eo iano n ieieiaeueiuie cao?aoaie.Ana aiaeu ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea auee aiaeaie oneeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee. «I?iaiic nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia ia?eiae aei 2000 aiaea», auiieiaiiue Ieiyeiiiieee ?O a 1996 aiaeo, i?aaeiieaaaao aeaoe?aoiia oneeaiea aeeooa?aioeeaoeee o?iaiy nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aaeiiia e 2000-io aiaeo. I?iaiice?oaony o?aoe?aoiia oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe a?oiiu ?aaeiiia «e?aeia ieceiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey». Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi eniieuecoaiua ia?u ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee «ia ?aaioatho» e ioaeaeathony a na?ueaciie iiaea?iecaoeee.A 90-a aiae nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea oooaeoeeinue a eaaeaeii ?aaeiia - noauaeoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, oneeeeanue ?aaeiiaeueiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey, ?ane?o/eaaeanue yeiiiie/aneay aeaceioaa?aoeey no?aiu. Iaaeinoaoi/iay ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue i?iaiaeeaoaeny ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee, eacaeinue au, i/aaeaeia. Ii, ai-ia?auo, io?eoeaoaeueiue iiuo - oiaea ?acoeueoao. Ai-aoi?uo, ia/eiaoue ?ac?aaioeo e ?aaeecaoeeth iiaie ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee oaia?ue oaea ia i?eoiaeeony «n ioey». Niaoeeaeenou iiae/a?eeaatho, eae ieieioi, o?e iieiaeeoaeueiuo iiiaioa, naycaiiuo n ?aaeecaoeeae oaaea?aeueiie ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee 90-o: iia niinianoaiaaea:oi?ie?iaaieth aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoie ii?iaoeaiie aacu ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee;niaeaenoaiaaea iiieiaieth ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?iaeai e niiniaia eo ?aoaiey;niinianoaiaaea eii?aeeiaoeee ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee e eiinieeaeaoeee oneeee ?aaeiiia ?innee ii ?aoaieth i?iaeai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey.3. I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeeeAeey auyaeaiey enoeiiiai iieiaeaiey aauae a ?aaeiiao o?oaeii iieaaaoueny ia ioeoeeaeueioth noaoenoeeo. Iia ia i?aaeinoaaeyao aeaiiuo i aeaenoaeoaeueiii o?iaia aeioiaeia ianaeaiey, aeaenoaeoaeueiuo enoi/ieeao nouanoaiaaiey ieeeeiiia aaaenoaothueo ethaeae. A oaeeo oneiaeyo iaeuecy i?iaiaeeoue ?acoiioth nioeeaeueioth iieeoeeo eae a ioiioaiee ioaeaeueiuo a?oii ianaeaiey, oae e a ioiioaiee eiie?aoiuo oa??eoi?ee.Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi iauanoai n iaaeiaa?eai aini?eieiaao ia?u ii naeaeoeaiie iiaeaea?aeea ?aaeiiia, /anoi ?anoeaieaaao eo eae iiiu?aiea oeaio?aeueiie aeanoueth naieo iieeoe/aneeo «ethaei/eeia».Ionoonoaea iauaeoeaiuo e?eoa?eaa eeanneoeeaoeee ?aaeiiia canoaaeyao iieueciaaoueny ?aciuouie neiaaniuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e a?oiie?iaeaie ?aaeiiia. Oae, a caeiiao i oaaea?aeueiii athaeaeaoa ia 1995-1996 aa. eniieueciaaiu iiiyoey «ioaeaeathueany» e «iniai ioaeaeathueany» ?aaeiiu, a aeey ?an/aoa o?ainoa?oia i?eiaiyeenue iieacaoaee «athaeaeaoiie iaania/aiiinoe». A 1996 a. noaee aeoeaii eniieueciaaoueny a?oiie?iaee oeia «aeiii?u» e «?aoeeieaiou», a a caeiia i athaeaeaoa-97 oeao?e?otho «a?oiia 1», «a?oiia II» e «a?oiia III» (aeaa ia?auo - «naaa?iua» e «i?e?aaiaiiua e naaa?iui» ?aaeiiu, o?aouey - ana inoaeueiua).?acoiaaony, ethaay a?oiie?iaea i?eaieaia, anee inouanoaeyaony ii aaeeiiio i?eciaeo e ia i?aoaiaeoao ia ?ieue oieaa?naeueiie oa?aeoa?enoeee. Ii a niioaaonoaee n yoeie a?oiie?iaeaie inouanoaeyaony iiaeaea?aeea ?aaeiiia! I?aaeeaaathony ia?u ii «au?aaieaaieth»! Oae, a i?ia?aiiii-i?iaiiciuo iaoa?eaeao ia 1996 aiae Ieiyeiiiieee ?O auaeaeaiu ?aaeiiu n «ioiineoaeueii aunieei o?iaiai ?acaeoey», «auoa n?aaeiaai», «ni n?aaeiei o?iaiai», «ieaea n?aaeiaai», «n ieceei o?iaiai» e n «e?aeia ieceei o?iaiai». A iniiao caeiaeaia «eiiieaeniay ioeaiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey ?aaeiiia (a aaeeao)». Ii yoie eeanneoeeaoeee a iaeiie a?oiia ieacaeenue ?aaeiiu, a eioi?uo n?aaeiaaeooaaie A?I ?acee/aaony ia 60% i, o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu - a 4 ?aca, iaania/aiiinoue ianoaie a oeieao - aieaa /ai aaeaia, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie - ia 7 eao e o.ae. *oi aea a oaeii neo/aa i?aaeeaaatho au?aaieaaoue aaoi?u iaoa?eaeia i?e i?iaaaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey?Yeiiiiy ia ioeaiea ?aaeiiaeueiie neooaoeee, iu iaecaaaeii niinianoaoai iayooaeoeaiiio eniieueciaaieth ?ano?nia «iiaeaea?aeee».Aeey iieo/aiey ?anniao?eaaaiie ioeaiee iaiaoiaeei o/ao niaieoiiinoe nenoaiiuo ioeaiie:o?iaiy e ea/anoaa aeecie anao a?oii ianaeaiey ?aaeiia;anao ninoaaeythueo yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea oa??eoi?ee;i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioeeaea (a oii /enea a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee);oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey oa??eoi?ee (aeeth/ay ana n?aaenoaa oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa, «inaaeathuea» a aeaiiii ?aaeiia);e?eceniuo, /?acau/aeiuo e ae?. aiaeiae/iuo neooaoeee e o.ae.?aaeiiaeueiay aiaeeoeea - iniaue e naiinoiyoaeueiue i?aaeiao, ii neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo oioy au oi, /oi oaeay i?iaeaia nouanoaoao e anoue aeinoaoi/ii eioa?aniua e iieaciua ia?aaioee a yoie iaeanoe.Nia?aiaiiay ?inneeneay ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea ?aaeecoaony a oneiaeyo aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa, noaiiaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e ?aaeiiaeueiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Aeaoeaio?aeecaoeethainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, ia?aaea/o iieiiii/ee ?aaeiiai ia?aaeei iaicia/atho eae oaaea?aeeci, aeeth/ay a yoi iiiyoea ia oieueei ?anoe?aiea iieiiii/ee a oi?aaeaiee ?acaeoeai oa??eoi?ee noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee, ii e ?acaeoea ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. A ae?oaeo neo/ayo aiai?yo i noaiiaeaiee ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, iiae?acoiaaay iiae iineaaeiei oaeaea e ?anoe?aiea i?aa noauaeoia ?O. Aaconeiaii, i?ioeannu noaiiaeaiey oaaea?aeecia e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey oanii acaeiinaycaiu, acaeiiiaoneiaeaiu. Iaaiciiaeii ?acaeaaoue ianoiia naiioi?aaeaiea, oi?aaeyy ?aaeiiaie o?iaiy noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee eneeth/eoaeueii ec oaaea?aeueiiai oeaio?a, eeoea noauaeou ?O iieiiii/ee ii ?aoaieth ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?iaeai. A oi aea a?aiy eiaeea noaiiaeaiey oaaea?aeecia o?aaoao ?ani?ino?aiaiey naiinoiyoaeueiinoe a ?aoaiee ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?iaeai ia o?iaaiue ianoiuo niiauanoa. Eiay a aeaeo aaeeinoai e ia?ac?uaiinoue i?ioeannia noaiiaeaiey oaaea?aeecia (e ?anoe?aiey a yoie nayce iieiiii/ee, i?aa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee) e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, a oaeaea a oeaeyo oaeianoaa, iu eniieuecoai oa?iei "?aaeiiaeueiia naiioi?aaeaiea" aeey iaicia/aiey iaaeo acaeiinaycaiiuo oi?i ?ai?aaiecaoeee ?aaeiiaeueiuo ioiioaiee.No?aieaiea e ?acaeoeth ?aaeiiaeueiiai naiioi?aaeaiey e ?aaeiiaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe iaia?oaeeeinue ia naiuo ia?auo oaaao nioeeaeueii - yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i a iaoae no?aia. O?aaeeoeeiiiay oeaio?aeecaoeey oi?aaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiui ?acaeoeai ia iaania/eaaea iaiaoiaeeiuo ia?aiao?ia oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey: nio?aiaiey e aini?iecaiaenoaa ?aaeiiaeueiiai iioaioeeaea, oi?iiceea yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, naea?aeeaaea iiauoaiea o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey.Yoi iiaoaeaeaei ?aaeiiu e iainiaeaieth, ?aaeiiaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e, a /?acau/aeiuo neo/ayo (iniaaiii i?iyaeaoeony a iaoeeiiaeueii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaieyo) - e naia?aoecio. ?aaeecaoeey ?aaeiiaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe ia i?aeoeea au?aceeanue a ?acee/iuo oi?iao oae iacuaaaiiai ?aaeiiaeueiiai, eee oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oic?an/aoa. A eiioea 80-o - ia/aea 90-o aiaeia i?iaeaiu ?aaeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa oe?iei ianoaeaeaeenue a ia/aoe, aaeenue i?aeoe/aneea ?aaiou ii aiaae?aieth oic?an/aoiuo ia/ae a oi?aaeaiea ?aaeiiaeueiui nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei ?acaeoeai. Naaiaeiy i ?aaeiiaeueiii oic?an/aoa anee e aniiieiatho, oi eae i?aaeei, eae i iaoaea/iii oe?ieiianooaaiii yeiiiie/aneii yenia?eiaioa, ia?a/aiiii ia i?iaae. Eae a ia?eiae i?aeoe/aneiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aaeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa, oae e ii i?ioanoaee a?aiaie iniaia iai?eyoea a e?oaao yeiiiienoia-oai?aoeeia aucuaaao oa?iei "oicyenoaaiiue ?an/ao", i?eiaiyaiue a ?aaeiiaeueiii aniaeoa.Iu ia neeiiiu n/eoaoue oa?iei "?aaeiiaeueiue oic?an/ao" iai?eaieaiui, o/eouaay ?anoe?aiioth o?aeoiaeo eaoaai?ee "oicyenoaaiiue ?an/ao". Aianoa n oai, aeiioneay oa?ieiieiae/aneia ?aciiia?acea a iaicia/aiee oi?i oa??eoi?eaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, naiioi?aaeaiey e naiioeiaine?iaaiey, ia eneeth/ay aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey oa?ieia "?aaeiiaeueiue oic?an/ao", neaaeoao i?eciaoue, /oi i?aaei?eieiaaoeany a ?aieao oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oic?an/aoa i?aeoe/aneea oaae e ?aaeecaoeee ?aaeiiaeueiuo naiioi?aaeai/aneeo ia/ae auee iai?aaie/iu i?aaeiae iieeoe/aneie e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia iaoaai iauanoaa, ?ac?ooaee oeaeinoiinoue aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu, aaceniua iniiau oieoa?iiai ainoaea?noaa, eaeiaui a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e auea ?inney. Aneaaenoaea yoiai iiiaiia?aciua eieoeeaoeau ?aaeiiia ?aciuo o?iaiae ii aiaae?aieth yeaiaioia ?aaeiiaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe auee ia?a/aiu ia i?iaae. Aieaa oiai, iie yaeeenue iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia, onei?eaoeo ?acaae i?aaeiae nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaiaaiey, anaai nioeeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa.?acaeoea ?aaeiiaeueiiai naiioi?aaeaiey nii?yaeaii n iiaeeeiiie aeaiie?aoecaoeeae ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa e aeaoeaio?aeecaoeeae oicyenoaaiiie aeecie iauanoaa. ?aaeiiaeueiia naiioi?aaeaiea - yoi ia naiiecieyoeey ?aaeiiia, ia aaoa?eey. A oi aea a?aiy yoi - ia i?inoi ?acaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, ia?aaea/a ioaeaeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ooieoeee ia ianoa. ?aaeiiaeueiia naiioi?aaeaiea yaeyaony nenoaiie aeanoe, aeiiieiythuae oaaea?aeueioth nenoaio oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey, eee oaaea?aeueioth ?aaeiiaeueioth iieeoeeo, ii ia oiaeaeanoaaiioth ae.I?aaeaea /ai ?anniao?eaaoue eiie?aoiua oi?iu e yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou noaiiaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoueny a oa?ieiao "naiioi?aaeaiea", "?aaeiiaeueiia naiioi?aaeaiea".Aeinoaoi/ii iieiia ii?aaeaeaiea naiioi?aaeaiey aeaaony a Aieueoie niaaoneie yioeeeeiiaaeee: "Naiioi?aaeaiea, oi?aaeaiea aeaeaie oa??eoi?eaeueiie iauiinoe, i?aaiecaoeee eee eieeaeoeaa, naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeyaiia eo /eaiaie /a?ac auai?iua i?aaiu, eeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii (n iiiiuueth nia?aiee, ?aoa?aiaeoiia e o.i.). Iniiaiua i?eciaee naiioi?aaeaiey - i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue aeanoe ianaeaieth eee ecae?aoaeyi niioaaonoaothuae oa??eoi?ee, /eaiai eieeaeoeaa; naiinoiyoaeueiinoue a ?aoaiee aii?inia aioo?aiiae aeecie; ionoonoaea i?aaiia, iacia/aaiuo ecaia".Iaiaoiaeeiinoue noaiiaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiiai naiioi?aaeaiey i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony niaoeeoe/aneeie ?inneeneeie oneiaeyie: iaoe?iie oa??eoi?eae, ia?aaiiia?iinoueth e /?acau/aeiui iiiaiia?aceai yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea, nioeeieoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey, aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae a ea/anoaa e iauaia i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, niaoeeoeeie yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai.Oi?ie?iaaiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo iniia ?aaeiiaeueiiai naiioi?aaeaiey caiaoii i?iaeaeaaaony aia?aae. Eiinoeoooeey ?innee cae?aieea aa noaoon oaaea?aoeaiiai ainoaea?noaa, eiinoeoooeeiiiia cae?aieaiea iieo/eei ianoiia naiioi?aaeaiea, i?eiyo caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee "Ia iaueo i?eioeeiao i?aaiecaoeee ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee", i?eieiathony onoaau (eiinoeoooeee) noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee e "ieie-eiinoeoooeee" ?aeiiia, ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee ii ?acaeoeth ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Iaeiaei a aeaea noaiiaeaiey iiaie ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee nouanoaoao oeaeue eiiieaen i?iaeai, aeaeoueo naiaai oai?aoe/aneiai iniuneaiey e i?aeoe/aneiai ?aoaiey. N?aaee ieo - i?iaeaiu ?anoe?aiey yeiiiie/aneeo ooieoeee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. A iineaaeothueo oaiao iu inoaiiaeiny ia aiaeeca yeiiiie/aneeo iniia noaiiaeaiey eiie?aoiuo oi?i ?aaeiiaeueiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. A oeaeii aea noaiiaeaiea iiaie ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea neaaeothuae noaiu:Noaia 1. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey noaiiaeaiey nia?aiaiiie ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee a ?innee?ACAeAE V. IAAAYEIIIIEEA.Iaaayeiiiieea - ?acaeae iauae yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, a eioi?ii ?anniao?eaathony aii?inu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeiaaeueiie (anaiauae, anaie?iie) yeiiiieee.Aeaaa 1. Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aaethoii-oeiainiaua ioiioaieyAii?inu:Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. Ie?iaia oicyenoai.Oai?ee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee e oi?aiaay iieeoeea. ?inney a ie?iaie oi?aiaea.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aaethoii-oeiainiaua ioiioaiey.1. Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. Ie?iaia oicyenoai.Nia?aiaiiue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneeo naycae a ie?a iicaieyao aiai?eoue i oi?ie?iaaiee ie?iaiai oicyenoaa.Ie?iaia oicyenoai - yoi anaie?iia aaiyeiiiie/aneia i?ino?ainoai, a eioi?ii inouanoaeyaony aeoeaiia e naiaiaeiia acaeiiaeaenoaea oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, i?aaiecaoeee, ?aaeiiia e no?ai.Ie?iaia oicyenoai - ia i?inoay noiia iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiiee, a eo aaeeinoai, iaoneiaeaiiia oaniui acaeiiaeaenoaeai e acaeiicaaeneiinoueth.Noaiiaeaiea ie?iaiai oicyenoaa - ?acoeueoao aeeeoaeueiiai enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee aeaeyo enoiee aai a oi?ie?iaaiee iaaeieaiaiiuo naycae e n/eoatho, /oi any yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey - yoi ?acaeoea i?ioeannia eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. Iauai?eiyoie oi/eie ion/aoa a oi?ie?iaaiee ie?iaiai oicyenoaa n/eoatho yiioo i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?aai?ioa e noaiiaeaiey eaieoaeecia a aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao.Ia i?ioyaeaiee cia/eoaeueiie /anoe OO aaea ie?iaia oicyenoai auei ?aneieioi ia aeaa /anoe: ie?iaia eaieoaeenoe/aneia (9/10 anae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee) e ie?iaia nioeeaeenoe/aneia oicyenoai. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ie?iaia oicyenoai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaeinoiinoue e iniiauaaaony i?aeiouanoaaiii ia i?eioeeiao ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.Aeaaiui oaeoi?ii onei?aiiiai ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiiai ie?iaiai oicyenoaa yaeyaony IO? (iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey), oae eae ?acaeoea iaoee e oaoieee e i?eiaiaiea aeinoeaeaiee IOI a yeiiiieea ca/anooth naea?aeeaaaony iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiuie a?aieoeaie e o?aaoao auoiaea ia anaie?iua iao/iua e yeiiiie/aneea nayce. Iai?eia?, ?acaeoea einie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, nicaeaiea au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee iiauo iieieaiee, ?aoaiea yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue iauaaeeiaiey oneeee iiiaeo no?ai.A nayce n oi?ie?iaaieai ie?iaiai oicyenoaa e aeoeaiui o/anoeai no?ai a ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo naycyo iiyaeeny oa?iei “ioe?uoay yeiiiieea”.Ioe?uoinoue yeiiiieee icia/aao aiaea/aiiinoue, eioaa?e?iaaiiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee a ie?iaia oicyenoai, ie?iaie ?uiie.Ioe?uoay yeiiiieea - aioeiiae caieiooiai, aaoa?ee/iiai oicyenoaa, ?acaeaathuaainy “n iii?ie ia nianoaaiiua neeu”. Ioe?uoay yeiiiieea icia/aao ?acoiioth aeinooiiinoue aioo?aiiaai ?uiea no?aiu aeey eiino?aiiuo oiaa?ia, eaieoaea, eioi?iaoeee, ?aai/ae neeu.A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo noaiaiue ioe?uoinoe yeiiiieee ?anniao?eaaaony eae oneiaea yooaeoeaiiai aa ?acaeoey. Eiathony a aeaeo neaaeothuea i?aeiouanoaa ioe?uoie yeiiiieee:oaeoaeaiea niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiiia?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, niinianoaothuaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth ?ano?nia ie?iaiai oicyenoaa;?ani?ino?aiaiea ie?iaiai iiuoa e iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee /a?ac nenoaio iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee;oi?ie?iaaiea eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu ca n/ao iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiieo?aioeee.Ioe?uoay yeiiiieea ia iiaeao icia/aoue aaniethoiia ionoonoaea yeiiiie/aneeo a?aieoe, aaneiio?ieueiinoue e anaaeicaieaiiinoue ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycyo. Ioe?uoinoue aeieaeia no?ieoueny ia ia/aeao ?acoiiinoe, yooaeoeaiinoe, iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe.Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey noaiaie ioe?uoinoe eniieuecotho iieacaoaeue yenii?oiie eaiou. Ii en/eneyaony eae ioiioaiea yenii?oa no?aiu e aaee/eia AAI e au?aaeathony a i?ioeaioao.A nia?aiaiiuo no?aiao aaee/eia yenii?oiie eaiou ?acee/aaony: aeey Ieaea?eaiaeia iia ninoaaeyao 45 %; aeey Eaiaaeu - 28 %, aeey O?A - 27 %, aeey NOA - 11 %. Noaiaiue ioe?uoinoe yeiiiieee n/eoaaony i?eaieaiie, anee o?iaaiue yenii?oiie eaiou ia iaiueoa 10 %.Yeiiiieea NNN? iineea i?aeiouanoaaiii cae?uoue oa?aeoa?. Iia auea “naiiaeinoaoi/iie”, yenii?oiay eaioa ninoaaeyea 7-8 %. A 1995 aiaeo yenii?oiay eaioa ?innee ninoaaeea i?eia?ii 25 %. Iaeiaei, yoi ia yaeyaony i?eciaeii yooaeoeaiie ioe?uoinoe ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee. Yoi - nei?aa inaaaeiioe?uoinoue. Iia - neaaenoaea oieiaie eeaa?aeecaoeee aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Aeinooiiinoue aioo?aiiaai ?uiea no?aiu e oiaa?ia iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae aiaoiaio ie?o a oneiaeyo ieceie eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee ianao oa?ico iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe, neiauaaao aiciiaeiinoe noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee ?innee.Yeiiiie/aneie iniiaie ie?iaiai oicyenoaa yaeyaony eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa.Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa icia/aao ?acaeoea oaeeo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?i, eioi?ua naycuaatho i?iecaiaenoai iaeieo no?ai n iio?aaeaieai eo ?acoeueoaoia a ae?oaeo no?aiao.Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa inouanoaeyaony a oi?ia niaoeeaeecaoeee ioaeaeueiuo no?ai a i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia oiaa?ia e oneoa. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay niaoeeaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa nicaeaao iniiao aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, oi anoue niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiiia?e?iaaiey no?ai a i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa.*anoi niaoeeaeecaoeey iie?aaony ia iniaua aeaaii?eyoiua i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey, ?ano?nu, eioi?uie ?aniieaaaao aeaiiay no?aia. Ia eiaeono?eaeueiie noaaeee aaaeiui oaeoi?ii niaoeeaeecaoeee yaeyaony o?iaaiue i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey, oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.?acee/atho neaaeothuea aeaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa:i?aaeiaoiay (i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoia);iiaeaoaeueiay (i?iecaiaenoai /anoae, eiiiiiaioia, aeaoaeae i?iaeoeoia);oaoiieiae/aneay (inouanoaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia: nai?ea, naa?ea, ie?anea e o.i.).Niaoeeaeecaoeey ii?iaeaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eiiia?e?iaaiee i?iecaiaenoaa.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia eiiia?e?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa - yoi oi?ie?iaaiea onoie/eauo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo naycae iaaeaeo niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie oe?iaie e i?aaiecaoeeyie ?aciuo no?ai.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia eiiia?e?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa inouanoaeyaony a oi?ia i?iecaiaenoaaiii - oaoiieiae/aneiai ia?oia?noaa e i?aaeiieaaaao inouanoaeaiea niaianoiuo i?ia?aii ia iniiaa aeiaiai?ia i nio?oaeie/anoaa eee nicaeaiea niaianoiuo i?iecaiaenoa.A ie?iaii oicyenoaa oi?ie?oaony iniaay nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee - iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey inouanoaeythony a neaaeothueo eiie?aoiuo oi?iao:iaaeaeoia?iaeiay niaoeeaeecaoeey e ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea;iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey oiaa?aie e oneoaaie;iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaeia;iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iea?aoeey ?aai/ae neeu;iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aaethoii-oeiainiaua ioiioaiey;iaaeaeoia?iaeiay yeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey.2. Oai?ee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee e oi?aiaay iieeoeea. ?inney a ie?iaie oi?aiaea.Iaeaieaa ?acaeoie oi?iie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee yaeyaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey - nenoaia oiaa?iiaiaiiuo naeaeie, niaa?oaaiuo a ie?iaii oicyenoaa.Iiiyoea ie?iaie oi?aiaee eniieuecoaony e a aieaa oceii cia/aiee, o?aeooaony eae aiaoiyy oi?aiaey ioaeaeueii acyoie no?aiu, oi anoue ia?aiauaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa ca i?aaeaeu ainoaea?noaaiiuo a?aieoe.Aaiceiua oiaa?u (eiii?o) e auaiceiua oiaa?u (yenii?o) ninoaaeytho aiaoiaoi?aiaue iai?io.?acieoea iaaeaeo noieiinoueth iaoeeiiaeueiiai yenii?oa e eiii?oa ia?acoao oi?aiaue aaeain. Anee eiii?o aieueoa yenii?oa, oi?aiaue aaeain io?eoeaoaeai, aiai?yo, /oi no?aia eiaao aeaoeoeeo oi?aiaiai aaeaina. Anee no?aia auaiceo aieueoa oiaa?ia e oneoa, aiai?yo i iieiaeeoaeueiii eee aeoeaiii oi?aiaii aaeaina.Aiaoiaoi?aiaay iieeoeea yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiuo iai?aaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Nouanoaotho aeaa aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo i?eioeeia aiaoiaoi?aiaie iieeoeee: naiaiaea oi?aiaee (o?eo?aaea?noai) e ia?aie/aiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee (i?ioaeoeeiieci). Ai aiaoiaoi?aiaie iieeoeea nia?aiaiiuo no?ai yoe i?eioeeiu eniieuecothony a i?ioeai?a/eaii aaeeinoaa. Aianoa n oai aaaeouoth ?ieue ea?aao i?eioeei naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee.Aia?aua a enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneie iunee i?eioeei naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee aue iainiiaai A. Nieoii a aai “Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia”. Ii aeieacuaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue e auaiaeo naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee a neo/aa, anee no?aia eiaao aaniethoiua i?aeiouanoaa. Nieo ioia/ae, /oi neaaeoao yenii?oe?iaaoue ec no?aiu oa oiaa?u, ecaea?aeee ia i?iecaiaenoai eioi?uo a iae iaiueoa, /ai a ae?oaeo no?aiao, e aaiceoue oa oiaa?u, ecaea?aeee ia i?iecaiaenoai eioi?uo auoa.Acaeyaeu Nieoa auee aeiiieiaiu e ?acaeou Ae. ?eea?aei e eiatho cia/aiea aeey iainiiaaiey auaiaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. Ae. ?eea?aei noi?ioee?iaae oai?eth n?aaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae (n?aaieoaeueiuo i?aeiouanoa).Auaiaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee eiaao ianoi e a oii neo/aa, anee iaoeeiiaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai iaeiiai oiaa?a o?aaoao aieueoeo cao?ao o?oaea, iaaeaee aai eiii?o, a iaoeeiiaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai ae?oaiai oiaa?a o?aaoao iaiueoeo cao?ao, /ai aai i?eia?aoaiea ia ie?iaii ?uiea. A yoii neo/aa auea?uaatho iaa noi?iiu: e aeaiiay no?aia, e inoaeueiie ie?.?anniio?ei i?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae ia oneiaiii /eneaiiii i?eia?a. I?aaeiieiaeei, no?aiu O e Y iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoue oiaa?u aeaoo aeaeia: A e A a eiee/anoaao, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a?aoeeaie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae, iaicia/aiiuo aee?iuie eeieyie ia ?enoieao 1 e 2.?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 77 . N?aaieoaeueiia i?aeiouanoai e auea?uo io aiaoiae oi?aiaee no?aiu O?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 78 . N?aaieoaeueiia i?aeiouanoai e auea?uo io aiaoiae oi?aiaee no?aiu YNo?aia O iiaeao i?iecaanoe iaeneiaeueii 50 aaeeieoe oiaa?a A eee 25 aaeeieoe oiaa?a A. No?aia Y iaeneiaeueii iiaeao i?iecaanoe 40 aaeeieoe oiaa?a A eee 100 aaeeieoe oiaa?a A.Anee aiaoiyy oi?aiaey cai?auaia, oi no?aia O, ioaeaeaynue a oii e ae?oaii oiaa?a, aoaeao i?iecaiaeeoue 20 aaeeieoe oiaa?a A e 15 aaeeieoe oiaa?a A, a no?aia Y - 12 aaeeieoe A e 70 aaeeieoe A.Aeueoa?iaoeaiay noieiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia a no?aia O ii?aaeaeyaony ?aaainoaii 1A=0,5A, a aeey no?aiu Y niioiioaiea aeueoa?iaoeaiie noieiinoe: 1A=2,5A. Yoe niioiioaiey ieacuaatho ii?aaeaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea ia aioo?aiiea oeaiu.Anee iiyaeony aiciiaeiinoue oi?aiaaoue, oi eoi-ieaoaeue a no?aia O niiaeao ca 0,5 aaeeieoeu oiaa?a A eoieoue aaeeieoeo oiaa?a A e ioi?aaeoue aai ca a?aieoeo, a oai i?iaeaoue aai ca 2,5 aaeeieoeu oiaa?a A. Ia/iaony iooie oiaa?a A ec no?aiu O a no?aio Y. ?acaeoea oi?aiaee i?eaaaeao e au?aaieaaieth ioiineoaeueiuo oeai a iaaeo no?aiao.Oneiaeyie iieo/aiey auaiaeu io aiaoiae oi?aiaee aeey no?ai aoaeoo neaaeothuea oeaiiaua niioiioaiey:aeey no?aiu O: 1A > 0,5 A;

aeey no?aiu Y: 1A < 2,5 A.Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi oi?aiaey aoaeao acaeiiauaiaeiie, anee noaiao inouanoaeyoueny ii oeaiai, ii?aaeaeyaiui aeeaiaciiii: 0,5 A< 1A < 2,5 A.I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi ie?iaua oeaiu neiaeaony ia o?iaia: 1A = 1A. Aeey iaaeo noi?ii aoaeao auaiaeii n oai /oiau iaania/eoue iaeneioi i?aaeeiaeaiey ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny iieiinoueth ia i?iecaiaenoaa iaeiiai oiaa?a: no?aia O - ia oiaa?a A, a no?aia Y - ia oiaa?a A.A ?acoeueoaoa niaoeeaeecaoeee e inouanoaeaiey aiaoiae oi?aiaee aoaeao iaania/ai auea?uo aeey iaaeo noi?ii. I?aaeeiaeaiea iaieo oiaa?ia ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea eaaeaeie ec no?ai aic?anoao, /oi aeaeii ec ?an/aoia, naaaeaiiuo a neaaeothuoth oaaeeoeo.No?aiu I?-ai aei niaoeeae. I?-ai i?e niaoeeae. Yenii?o (-) Eiii?o(+) I?aaeeiaeaiea iinea oi?aiaee Auea?uo io niaoe-e e oi?aiaeeA 20 A15 A 50 A0 A - 20 A+20 A 30 A20 A +10 A+ 5 AA 12 A70 A 0 A100 A +20 A- 20 A 20 A80 A +8 A+10 AInouanoaeaiea niaoeeaeecaoeee e iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee iicaieyao no?aiai aueoe ca a?aieoeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae, /oi iaaiciiaeii iaania/eoue i?e ionoonoaee aiaoiae oi?aiaee.Oaeei ia?acii, iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai nouanoaiaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee yaeyaony ?acee/ea a niioiioaiee ecaea?aeae (a n?aaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeeao) ia oiaa?u, i?iecaiaeeiua a ?aciuo no?aiao.Nia?aiaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i iai?aaeaieyo e no?oeoo?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oi?aiauo iioieao iniiauaathony ia oai?ee oaaaeneeo yeiiiienoia Yee Oaeoa?a e Aa?oeey Ieeia (oai?ey O-I). Iie auaeaeioee oai?aio “au?aaieaaiey oeai ia oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa”. Nooue aa a oii, /oi iaoeeiiaeueiua ?acee/ey a i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeythony ia oieueei ?acee/eyie a ioiineoaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, ii e ?acee/eyie a iaaeaeaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneeie ?ano?naie: o?oaeii, eaieoaeii e anoanoaaiiuie ?ano?naie, eioi?ua i?aiaeieaaathony ca n/ao iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee a oneiaeyo iieiie naiaiaeu oi?aiaee. Aeaaiue auaiae oai?ee O-I: no?aiu no?aiyony yenii?oe?iaaoue oiaa?u, a i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?uo eioaineaii eniieuecothony ioiineoaeueii ecauoi/iua oaeoi?u.Aieueoeinoai yeiiiienoia-oai?aoeeia aunooiatho ca naiaiaeo oi?aiaee (o?eo?aaea?noai), n/eoatho, /oi iia auaiaeia aeey eaaeaeie ec noi?ii, aeeth/aiiuo a ie?iaoth oi?aiaeth. Aianoa n oai a i?aeoeea ie?iaie oi?aiaee i?eiaiyaony aieueoia eiee/anoai ia?aie/aiee (oi?aiauo aa?uea?ia), oi anoue eniieuecothony yeaiaiou i?ioaeoeeiiecia. ?anniio?ei iniiaiua i?ioaeoeeiienoneea ia?u.Oa?eou (iioeeiu). Iioeeia - yoi ?aciiaeaeiinoue aeoeeciiai iaeiaa, onoaiaaeeaaaiiai ia eiii?oiua oiaa?u. Aei 1996 aiaea a ?innee eniieueciaaeenue yenii?oiua e eiii?oiua iioeeiu. Nae/an, oaeaea eae e a ae?oaeo no?aiao, i?eiaiythony oieueei eiii?oiua oa?eou. I?eiaiaiea oa?eoia inouanoaeyaony a oeaeyo iieo/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeioiaeia a athaeaeao no?aiu. A yoeo neo/ayo aiai?yo i oeneaeueiuo oa?eoao. Anee oa?eou eniieuecothony aeey caueou ianoiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae, oi eo ?anniao?eaatho eae i?ioaeoeeiienoneea.Eaiou - yoi iaeneiaeueiua iauaiu yenii?oa (eiii?oa) oiaa?ia. Iie iiaoo au?aaeaoueny a aeieyo ii ioiioaieth e ianooaaai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa eee a aaniethoiuo ?acia?ao. Eaiou ?anniao?eaatho eae aieaa yooaeoeaiia n?aaenoai naea?aeeaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee, ii n?aaiaieth n oa?eoaie.Iaoa?eoiua aa?uea?u - yoi eeoeaice?iaaiea eiii?oa, aaaaeaiea cai?aoia ia aaic ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia oiaa?ia.Eiathony nouanoaaiiua aeiaiaeu a caueoo iieeoeee i?ioaeoeeiiecia.Nouanoaoao iiaiea, /oi a oneiaeyo iieeoe/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe iaeuecy iieaaaoueny ia aaniethoioth naiaiaeo oi?aiaee. Iaiaoiaeeii caueuaoue no?aoaae/aneea io?anee, oi anoue io?anee, i?iecaiaeyuea oiaa?u aeey iaoeeiiaeueiie iai?iiu. Iieaaaoueny ia caeoieo aiaiiie oaoieee e aii?oaeaiee ia ie?iaii ?uiea iaaeaeueiiaeaeii.Ianoaaeeueiinoue ie?iaie oi?aiaee. N/eoaaony, /oi anee no?aia iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoue aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieee niaeo? oiaa?ia e oneoa, ae neaaeoao i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia naiiiaania/aiea. Caeanue iao iaeiicia/iiai ioaaoa. Iaeiaei, i?e i?eaioaoeee ia naiiiaania/aiea aaconeiaii nieaeaaony yooaeoeaiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.N/eoaaony, /oi eiii?o nieaeaao o?iaaiue caiyoinoe, ii yoi - aeeci?oeee iiaeoiae. Eiii?o iicaieyao iniiauaaoue e yenii?oiua i?iecaiaenoaa, niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny e nicaeaaaoue i?e yoii aeiiieieoaeueiua ?aai/ea ianoa a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea.*anoi i?ioaeoeeiienoneea aa?uea?u ?anniao?eaatho eae ia?o ii caueoa iieiaeuo, iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiuo io?aneae. Anee aeey ?acaeouo no?ai yoi - neaaue a?aoiaio, oi aeey ?innee ii eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea, a neeo ii/oe aaniethoiie caieiooinoe niaaoneie yeiiiieee, aa ieceie eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe.I?ioea ia? i?ioaeoeeiiecia auaeaeaaaony aua iaeei a?aoiaio: ianaeaiea no?aiu ieaoeo n?aaieoaeueii aieueooth oeaio i?e aaaaeaiee oa?eoia, eaio e ae?oaeo ia?aie/aiee oi?aiaee, iineieueeo nieaeaaony o?iaaiue i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?ia ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea no?aiu. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaaininoiyiea iio?aaeoaeae e o?iaaiue aeecie nieaeaaony.A 90-o aiaeao iauai iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee ?anoao aic?anoathueie oaiiaie e ninoaaee ca 1996 a. 5020 ie?ae. aeiee. Naiui e?oiiui yenii?oa?ii e eiii?oa?ii yaeythony NOA, aiaoiaoi?aiaue iai?io eioi?uo ninoaaee 28 % iauaai iauaia ie?iaie oi?aiaee. Aneaae ca ieie eaeoo Aa?iaiey (18,8 %) e ssiiiey (15,8 %). ?inney, ii aeaiiui Anaie?iie oi?aiaie i?aaiecaoeee (AOI), caieiaao 20-a ianoi ii yenii?oo e 25-a ii eiii?oo.A na?aaeeia 90-o aiaeia aeiey ?innee a ie?iaie oi?aiaea ninoaaeyea iaiaa 1 % (a na?aaeeia 80-o - ieiei 4 %). ?aceia nieaeaiea iauaiia aiaoiae oi?aiaee ?innee i?ae?aoeeinue. Iineaaeiea 4 aiaea iauaiu aiaoiaoi?aiaiai iai?ioa ?anooo. A 1995 aiaeo ii ninoaaee (aac o/aoa iai?aaieciaaiiie oi?aiaee) 123,7 ie?ae. aeiee. (yenii?o - 77,3 ie?ae. aeiee., a aeaeueiaa ca?oaaaeuea - 64,3 ie?ae. aeiee.). Eiaao ianoi iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina (ii/oe 31 ie?ae. aeiee.).A oiaa?iie no?oeoo?a yenii?oa ?innee nio?aiyaony nu?ueaaay iai?aaeaiiinoue (ieiei 90 %), i?e/ai i?aiaeaaeatho yia?aiiineoaee. Aeiey iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey a ?inneeneii yenii?oa nie?auaaony.?anoe?aiea naiaiaeu oi?aiaee - caiaoiay oaiaeaioeey OO aaea. Iia ?aaeecoaony ?acee/iuie iooyie.Iaeiie ec oi?i eeaa?aeecaoeee oi?aiaee yaeyaony caeeth/aiea aeaonoi?iiieo oi?aiauo niaeaoaiee iaaeaeo no?aiaie, i?aaeiieaaathueo aieaa aeaaii?eyoiua ?aaeeiu eo acaeiiiai oi?aiaiai ia?oia?noaa.A oeaeyo ?acaeoey e ?aaoee?iaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee a 1947 aiaeo 23 no?aiu ie?a iiaeienaee Aaia?aeueiia niaeaoaiea i oi?aiaea e oa?eoao (AAOO).AAOO i?aaeoniio?aiu neaaeothuea i?eioeeiu oi?aiaee:?aaiue, iaaeene?eieiaoeeiiiue ?aaeei aeey anao no?ai-o/anoieoe;nieaeaiea iioeei;ono?aiaiea eiii?oiuo eaio.Nicaeaaay ?aaeei iaeaieueoaai aeaaii?eyonoaiaaiey ai acaeiiie oi?aiaea no?aiai-o/anoieoeai, ii ioiioaieth e o?aoueei no?aiai AAOO i?aaeoniao?eaaea cia/eoaeueiua ia?aie/aiey.E ia/aeo 1996 aiaea a AAOO ninoiyei ieiei 130 no?ai. N yiaa?y 1996 aiaea AAOO caiaieea AOI (Anaie?iay oi?aiaay i?aaiecaoeey). AOI, iiieii AAOO, aeeth/aao a naay Niaeaoaiea i oi?aiaea oneoaaie (AAON) e Niaeaoaiea ii oi?aiaui aniaeoai eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaay i?aaiecaoeey ?aaoee?oao oaeaea iaiai oneoaaie e eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth.E eiioeo 90-o aiaeia n?aaeiaacaaoaiiay noaaea oaiiaeaiiuo oa?eoia aeieaeia nieceoueny i?eia?ii aei 3 %. O ?innee a na?aaeeia 90-o aiaeia iia ninoaaeyea ieiei 15 %.?inney eiaao noaoon iaaethaeaoaey AAOO/AOI. Ia yaeyynue /eaiii AOI, aaeaaiaeii ec-ca ia?aie/aiee ii aeiioneo oiaa?ia ia ie?iaua ?uiee, no?aia oa?yao 1,5 ie?ae. aeiee.Aieaa neiaeiie e ?acaeoie oi?iie eeaa?aeecaoeee oi?aiaee yaeyaonyYeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey - iauaaeeiaiea ?uieia aeaoo e aieaa no?ai a aaeeiia yeiiiie/aneia i?ino?ainoai, i?aaeiieaaathuaa ionoonoaea oaiiaeaiiuo aa?uea?ia, i?eiaiaiea aaeeiuo ii?i e noaiaea?oia oi?aiaee.I?eia?ii eioaa?aoeeiiiiai nithca yaeyaony Aa?iiaeneee Nithc (AN), enoi?ey eioi?iai ia/eiaaony n 1957 aiaea, eiaaea auei nicaeaii Aa?iiaeneia yeiiiie/aneia niiauanoai (AYN). A niioaaonoaee n Iaano?eooneei aeiaiai?ii, caeeth/aiiui a 1992 aiaeo, 15 no?ai, aoiaeyuea a AN, iaoeaeaiu ia nicaeaiea iieiinoueth aaeeiiai aioo?aiiaai ?uiea. Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao naiaiaeiia ia?aiauaiea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa e oiaa?ia, nicaeaiea aaeeiiai Aa?iiaeneiai aaiea n i?aaii yiennee aaeeiie aa?iiaeneie aaethou AA?I. Ii ia iooe oi?ie?iaaiey Iauaai ?uiea noieo iiiai i?ioeai?a/ee e o?oaeiinoae.A 1994 aiaeo iaaeaeo ?inneae e AN iiaeienai aeiaiai? i ia?oia?noaa e nio?oaeie/anoaa. N 1996 aiaea anooieei a neeo A?aiaiiia niaeaoaiea i oi?aiaea iaaeaeo ?inneae e AN. Aaaeiaeoei iieiaeaieai aeieoiaioa yaeyaony cai?auaiea AN i?eiaiyoue ii ioiioaieth e eiii?oo oiaa?ia ec ?innee eiee/anoaaiiua ia?aie/aiey.A ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao ie?a oaeaea nouanoaotho eioaa?aoeeiiiua a?oiie?iaee: ANAAI (Annioeeaoeey no?ai THai-Ainoi/iie Acee), Nithc A?aaneiai Iaa?eaa (Aeaee?, Eeaey, Iaa?eoaiey, Ia?ieei e Ooien), IAOOA (NOA, Eaiaaea, Iaeneea) e ae?oaea.3. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aaethoii-oeiainiaua ioiioaiey.Ioiioaiey oi?aiaiai iaiaia iaaeaeo no?aiaie aucuaatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue ai acaeiiuo aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoao. Oaeei ia?acii aicieeathoaaethoiua ioiioaiey - yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n ooieoeeiie?iaaieai aeaiaa eae ie?iauo aeaiaa.I?e oa?aeoa?enoeea aaethoiuo ioiioaiee aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao iiiyoeaaaethoiue eo?n - niioiioaiea iaaeaeo aaethoaie ioaeaeueiuo no?ai, oi anoue oeaia aaethou aeaiiie no?aiu, au?aaeaiiay a aaethoao ae?oaeo no?ai.Oi?iie i?aaiecaoeee aaethoiuo ioiioaiee aunooiaao iaaeaeoia?iaeiay aaethoiay nenoaia (IAN). IAN i?ioea a naiai ?acaeoee /aou?a yoaia.Ia?aue yoai - nenoaia cieioiai noaiaea?oa, eioi?ay noeoeeii neiaeeeanue a eiioeo OIO aaea. Iia oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie /a?oaie:ii?aaeaeaiiui cieioui niaea?aeaieai aaethoiie aaeeieoeu;eiiaa?oe?oaiinoueth eaaeaeie aaethou a cieioi eae aioo?e, oae e ca i?aaeaeaie a?aieoe ioaeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa;iiaeaea?aeaieai aeanoeiai niioiioaiey iaaeaeo iaoeeiiaeueiui cieioui caianii e aioo?aiiei i?aaeeiaeaieai aeaiaa.Aoi?ie yoai - nenoaia cieioiaeaaeciiai noaiaea?oa - auea i?eiyoa ia Aaioycneie eiioa?aioeee (1922 a.). Iicaeiaa ii aue i?eciai aieueoeinoaii eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai. I?e cieioiaeaaeciii noaiaea?oa aaieiiou ?aciaieaathony ia ia cieioi, a ia aeaaecu (aaieiiou, aaenaey, /aee) ae?oaeo no?ai, eioi?ua caoai iiaoo auoue iaiaiaiu ia cieioi. A ea/anoaa aeaaeciie aaethou auee eca?aiu aeieea? e ooio noa?eeiaia.O?aoee yoai - A?aooii-Aoaenneay aaethoiay nenoaia iieo/eea naia ioi?ieaiea a A?aooii-Aoaena (NOA) a 1944 aiaeo. Aa iniiaiua /a?ou:ca cieioii nio?aieeanue ooieoeey ieii/aoaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia iaaeaeo no?aiaie;aia?eeaineee aeieea? noae ?aca?aiie aaethoie. Ii, ia?aaia n cieioii, aue i?eciai a ea/anoaa ia?u noieiinoe aaethou ?aciuo no?ai, a oaeaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea;aeieea? iaiaieaaeny ia cieioi oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie ae?oaeo no?ai a eacia/aenoaa NOA ii eo?no 35 aeiee. ca 1 o?ieneoth oioeeth (31,1 a.). Aeieea? i?i/ii caiye naia ianoi a aaethoiuo ioiioaieyo, ianooaau eniieueciaaiey cieioa ?acei oiaee;eaaeaeay no?aia aeieaeia auea nio?aiyoue noaaeeueiue (ioeoeeaeueii onoaiiaeaiiue) eo?n naiae aaethou ioiineoaeueii ethaie ae?oaie aaethou. ?uii/iua eieaaaiey eo?na aaetho ia aeieaeiu auee ioeeiiyoueny io oeene?iaaiiuo cieiouo e aeieea?iauo ia?eoaoia aieaa /ai ia 1 %;iaaeainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aaethoiuo ioiioaiee inouanoaeyeinue i?aeiouanoaaiii /a?ac Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue oiiae (IAO), nicaeaiiue ia oie aea A?aooii-Aoaenneie eiioa?aioeee.E eiioeo 60-o aiaeia A?aooii-Aoaenneay nenoaia i?eoea a i?ioeai?a/ea n ?acaeaathuaeny eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeeae ie?iaiai oicyenoaa. ?aaeei cieioiaeieea?iaiai noaiaea?oa iinoaiaiii noae i?aa?auaoueny a nenoaio aeieea?iaiai noaiaea?oa. Iaaeaeo oai, e?ecen yeiiiieee NOA a 60-a - 70-a aiaeu, aic?anoaiea cia/aiey caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie e yiiineie yeiiiieee i?eaaee e aieueoie eiioeaio?aoeee aeieea?ia a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia e ssiiiee, eioi?ui NOA ia iiaee iaania/eaaoue cieiooth eeeaeaeiinoue. A ia/aea 70-o aiaeia A?aooii-Aoaeneay nenoaia ?ac?ooeeanue.*aoaa?oue yoai. A 1976 aiaeo ninoiyeinue niaauaiea IAO a Eeianoiia (ssiaeea), ia eioi?ii auee ii?aaeaeaiu iniiau iiaie aaethoiie nenoaiu eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa, eioi?ay auea ii?aaeaeaia eae nenoaia oi?aaeyaiuo ieaaathueo aaethoiuo eo?nia.Auaeaeei iniiaiua /a?ou yoie nenoaiu.Ooieoeey cieioa a ea/anoaa ia?u noieiinoe aaethoiuo eo?nia oi?acaeiyeanue.Aaiaeeeny noaiaea?o NAe? (special drawing rights - SDR) - niaoeeaeueiua i?aaa caeinoaiaaiey - n oeaeueth i?aa?aoeoue aai a iniiaiie ?aca?aiue caian, eieeaeoeaioth aaethoo.Aaethoiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo no?aiaie noaee iniiauaaoueny ia ieaaathueo eo?nao iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho. Eieaaaiey eo?nia aaetho iaoneiaeeaaeenue aeaoiy iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie:iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoueth aaetho ia aioo?aiieo ?uieao no?ai;niioiioaieai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?uieao.Niaeanii o?aaiaaieyi IAO no?aiu-o/anoieoeu ia aeieaeiu aeiioneaoue ?aceiai eieaaaiey aaethoiuo eo?nia e i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe inouanoaeyoue eo ?aaoee?iaaiea. Iaeei ec eino?oiaioia - aaethoiua eioa?aaioeee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea (neoiea eee i?iaeaaea eiino?aiiie aaethou ia aaethoiie ae?aea).IaeaaeaieaTOC \o "1-3" ?ACAeAE I. AAAAeAIEA A IAUOTH YEIIIIE*ANEOTH OAI?ETH GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958809 PAGEREF _Toc466958809 3Aeaaa 1. Iniiaiua yoaiu noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958810 PAGEREF _Toc466958810 31. Iniiaiua yoaiu noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958811 PAGEREF _Toc466958811 42. Aeaaiua iai?aaeaiey nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iunee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958812 PAGEREF _Toc466958812 103. E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea ?inneeneie yeiiiie/aneie iunee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958813 PAGEREF _Toc466958813 144. I?aaeiao e iaoiaeieiaey GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958814 PAGEREF _Toc466958814 20Aeaaa 2. Yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu e yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958815 PAGEREF _Toc466958815 28Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia iauanoaa: nouiinoue e no?oeoo?a. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958816 PAGEREF _Toc466958816 28Yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu: oeiu, aeaeu, ia?aie/aiiinoue. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958817 PAGEREF _Toc466958817 30Aeaaa 3. Nianoaaiiinoue e iiaeaee i?aaiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958818 PAGEREF _Toc466958818 381. Nianoaaiiinoue eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey e i?aai nianoaaiiinoe. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958819 PAGEREF _Toc466958819 382. Oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe a nia?aiaiiii oicyenoaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958820 PAGEREF _Toc466958820 433. I?eaaoecaoeey: nouiinoue, oeaee, yoaiu, ?acoeueoaou e i?iaeaiu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958821 PAGEREF _Toc466958821 50?ACAeAE II. INIIAU ?UII*IIE YEIIIIEEE GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958822 PAGEREF _Toc466958822 56Aeaaa 1. Iniiaiua /a?ou noaiiaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958823 PAGEREF _Toc466958823 561. Oneiaey noaiiaeaiey, nouiinoue e ooieoeee ?uiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958824 PAGEREF _Toc466958824 562. Oiaa? e aai naienoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958825 PAGEREF _Toc466958825 593. Aeaiueae: eo ooieoeee e oi?iu GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958826 PAGEREF _Toc466958826 604. Iiiaie?eoa?eaeueiue oa?aeoa? no?oeoo?u ?uiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958827 PAGEREF _Toc466958827 655. Yeiiiie/aneay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a nia?aiaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958828 PAGEREF _Toc466958828 70Aeaaa 2. ?uii/iue iaoaieci. Iniiau oai?ee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958829 PAGEREF _Toc466958829 741. Oai?ee noieiinoe e oeaiu GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958830 PAGEREF _Toc466958830 742. Aiaeec ?uii/iiai ni?ina GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958831 PAGEREF _Toc466958831 763. Aiaeec ?uii/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958832 PAGEREF _Toc466958832 794. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iie oeaiu. ?uii/iia ?aaiiaanea GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958833 PAGEREF _Toc466958833 815. Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958834 PAGEREF _Toc466958834 82?ACAeAE III. IEE?IYEIIIIEEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958835 PAGEREF _Toc466958835 88Aeaaa 1. Iee?iyeiiiieea eae /anoue yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958836 PAGEREF _Toc466958836 881. Iaoiaeieiaey e iniiaiua iiiyoey iee?iyeiiiieee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958837 PAGEREF _Toc466958837 90Aeaaa 2. Iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958838 PAGEREF _Toc466958838 921. I?eioeeiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaey. Iio?aaeoaeueneea i?aaeii/oaiey. E?eaay e ea?oa aac?acee/ey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958839 PAGEREF _Toc466958839 932. Athaeaeaoiua ia?aie/aiey. Eciaiaiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe iio?aaeoaey. Oneiaea iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?aaiiaaney GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958840 PAGEREF _Toc466958840 98Aeaaa 3. Oe?ia a nenoaia ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958841 PAGEREF _Toc466958841 1041. Oe?ia eae noauaeo ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958842 PAGEREF _Toc466958842 1042. I?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua oi?iu i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958843 PAGEREF _Toc466958843 107Aeaaa 4. Oai?ey ecaea?aeae. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eaieoae GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958844 PAGEREF _Toc466958844 1191. Yeiiiie/aneee e aooaaeoa?neee iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth ecaea?aeae e i?eauee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958845 PAGEREF _Toc466958845 1192. Iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee. Caeii oauaathuae i?aaeaeueiie ioaea/e. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958846 PAGEREF _Toc466958846 1213. N?aaeiea e i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958847 PAGEREF _Toc466958847 1244. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eaieoae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958848 PAGEREF _Toc466958848 126Aeaaa 5. Iioeiaeueiia iiaaaeaiea oe?iu a ?acee/iuo iiaeaeyo ?uiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958849 PAGEREF _Toc466958849 1311. ?aaiiaanea eiieo?aioiie oe?iu GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958850 PAGEREF _Toc466958850 1312. Oneiaea iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee iiiiiieenoii GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958851 PAGEREF _Toc466958851 1363. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey iiiiiieee. Aioeiiiiiieueiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958852 PAGEREF _Toc466958852 139Aeaaa 6. ?uiee oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958853 PAGEREF _Toc466958853 1431. Ni?in ia yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958854 PAGEREF _Toc466958854 1432. ?uiie o?oaea e ca?aaioiay ieaoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958855 PAGEREF _Toc466958855 1473. Iiiiiieeci ia ?uiea o?oaea. Aeayoaeueiinoue i?ionithcia a oneiaeyo ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958856 PAGEREF _Toc466958856 150Aeaaa 7. ?uii/iua ioiioaiey a aa?a?iii i?iecaiaenoaa. Caiaeueiay ?aioa e aa aeaeu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958857 PAGEREF _Toc466958857 1521. Aa?a?iia i?iecaiaenoai e aa?a?iua ioiioaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958858 PAGEREF _Toc466958858 1522. Caiaeueiay ?aioa: nouiinoue e oi?iu GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958859 PAGEREF _Toc466958859 155?acaeae IV. IAE?IYEIIIIEEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958860 PAGEREF _Toc466958860 159Aeaaa 1. Aaaaeaiea a iae?iyeiiiieeo GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958861 PAGEREF _Toc466958861 1591. Iae?iyeiiiieea: iiiyoea, oeaee e eino?oiaiou GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958862 PAGEREF _Toc466958862 1592. Aini?iecaiaenoaaiiay e io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958863 PAGEREF _Toc466958863 1653. Iaoiae "cao?aou-auione" e iiaeaeue iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina a aiaeeca e i?iaiice?iaaiee no?oeoo?iuo acaeiinaycae a yeiiiieea GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958864 PAGEREF _Toc466958864 169Aeaaa 2. Iaoeeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea: ?acoeueoaou e eo ecia?aiea. Aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958865 PAGEREF _Toc466958865 1711. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958866 PAGEREF _Toc466958866 1712. No?oeoo?a e ecia?aiea aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa (AII GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958867 PAGEREF _Toc466958867 1743. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee eae ecia?eoaee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie aeeiaieee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958868 PAGEREF _Toc466958868 177Aeaaa 3. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958869 PAGEREF _Toc466958869 1811. Oeaee, yooaeoeaiinoue e ea/anoai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958870 PAGEREF _Toc466958870 1812. Oaeoi?u e oeiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958871 PAGEREF _Toc466958871 1833. Iniiaiua iiaeaee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958872 PAGEREF _Toc466958872 185Aeaaa 4. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea ia ?uiea aeaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958873 PAGEREF _Toc466958873 1881. Niaieoiiue ni?in GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958874 PAGEREF _Toc466958874 1882. Niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958875 PAGEREF _Toc466958875 1903. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea a iiaeaee AD -AS GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958876 PAGEREF _Toc466958876 193Aeaaa 5. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneay ianoaaeeueiinoue: yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958877 PAGEREF _Toc466958877 1961. Yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958878 PAGEREF _Toc466958878 1962. Aac?aaioeoea: oeiu, ecia?aiea, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958879 PAGEREF _Toc466958879 2033. Eioeyoeey: ecia?aiea, i?e/eiu, oi?iu e iineaaenoaey GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958880 PAGEREF _Toc466958880 206Aeaaa 6. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958881 PAGEREF _Toc466958881 2101 Eeanne/aneay e eaeineaineay iae?iyeiiiie/aneea eiioeaioeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958882 PAGEREF _Toc466958882 2102. Iio?aaeaiea, naa?aaeaiey, eiaanoeoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958883 PAGEREF _Toc466958883 2143. Eaeineaineay iiaeaeue iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney e eiaanoeoeee. Yooaeo ioeueoeieeeaoi?a. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958884 PAGEREF _Toc466958884 2184. Oeiainiaay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa: eioa?i?aoaoeey n iiiiuueth eaeineaineie iiaeaee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958885 PAGEREF _Toc466958885 223Aeaaa 7. Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu. Athaeaeaoiay e iaeiaiaay nenoaia a oneiaeyo ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958886 PAGEREF _Toc466958886 2281. Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu: nouiinoue, ooieoeee, no?oeoo?a. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958887 PAGEREF _Toc466958887 2282. Ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao. Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia. Athaeaeaoiue oaaea?aeeci. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958888 PAGEREF _Toc466958888 2303. Iaeiaiaay nenoaia GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958889 PAGEREF _Toc466958889 240Aeaaa 8. Aaieianeay nenoaia e aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958890 PAGEREF _Toc466958890 2481. E?aaeeo a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958891 PAGEREF _Toc466958891 2482. Aeaooo?iaiaaay aaieianeay nenoaia: Oeaio?aeueiue e eiiia?/aneea aaiee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958892 PAGEREF _Toc466958892 2513. Aeaiaaeiue ?uiie GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958893 PAGEREF _Toc466958893 2564. Aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea: oeaee e eino?oiaiou GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958894 PAGEREF _Toc466958894 263Aeaaa 9. Nia?aiaiiua iae?iyeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu e eiioeaioeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958895 PAGEREF _Toc466958895 2741. E?eaay Oeeeeina. Noaaoeyoeey GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958896 PAGEREF _Toc466958896 2742. Nia?aiaiiua iae?iyeiiiie/aneea eiioeaioeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958897 PAGEREF _Toc466958897 275Aeaaa 10. Aaaaeaiea a ?aaeiiaeueioth yeiiiieeo. ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea a ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958898 PAGEREF _Toc466958898 2811. I?aaeiao e caaea/e eo?na «?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea». Oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?acaeoea e ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958899 PAGEREF _Toc466958899 2822. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey. ?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958900 PAGEREF _Toc466958900 2873. I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958901 PAGEREF _Toc466958901 296?ACAeAE V. IAAAYEIIIIEEA. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958902 PAGEREF _Toc466958902 301Aeaaa 1. Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aaethoii-oeiainiaua ioiioaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958903 PAGEREF _Toc466958903 3011. Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. Ie?iaia oicyenoai. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958904 PAGEREF _Toc466958904 3012. Oai?ee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee e oi?aiaay iieeoeea. ?inney a ie?iaie oi?aiaea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958905 PAGEREF _Toc466958905 3043. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aaethoii-oeiainiaua ioiioaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc466958906 PAGEREF _Toc466958906 310?iaa?o Ioyi - aiaeeeneee nioeeaeeno-ooiieno (1771 - 1858), i?aaei?eieiaoaeue. A 1800 - 1829 a.a. oi?aaeye eae niaeaaeaeaoe e?oiiui oaenoeeueiui i?aaei?eyoeai a Oioeaiaeee. Nicaeae oi?ioea oneiaey o?oaea ?aai/ei: nie?aoee ?aai/ee aeaiue, i?aaieciaae aeaoneee naae aeey aeaoae ?aai/eo, ia?acoeiaoth oeieo, auiea/eaae c/ie ?aai/ei aeaaea ai a?aiy o/a e?ecena. Oioae aiaae?eoue yoe ia?ii?eyoey ai anth aiaeeeneoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue, ii ia iieo/ee iiaeaea?aeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Ia?aoae e i?iiaaaiaea eaeae ooiie/aneiai nioeeaeecia. I?aaenoaaeye naaa iiaia iauanoai eae nenoaio naiioi?aaeythueony iauei. Iniiaae eieiieth “Iiaay aa?iiiey” a NOA. Ia/eiaiea iioa?iaei iaoaea/o. A 1832 a. nicaeaao a Eiiaeiia iaiiaie aaca?, ia eioi?ii a iaiai ia oiaa? auaeaaaeenue aiiu, a eioi?uo oeacuaaeinue eiee/anoai o?oaeiaiai a?aiaie, cao?a/aiiiai ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a. Ia aiiu iiaeii auei iieo/aoue ae?oaea oiaa?u. Aaca? aucaae aieueoie eioa?an n?aaee eiiaeiineeo ?aai/eo. Ii ii i?e/eia ianinoiyoaeueiinoe aacaeaiaaeiiai iaiaia a 1834 a. aaca? i?eoeinue eeeaeaee?iaaoue.O. Oaeei? (1856-1915) - aia?eeaineee eiaeaia?, aia?aua aiaae?eaoee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo eiiiaiee “Ieaeaaee noee” ii?ie?iaaiea o?oaea e nenoaio aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie ca?aaioiie ieaou (ni oo?aoaie e iaaeaaaeaie). 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AEoaea?a (1819 – 1905aa.)ca aai aieueoie aeeaae a eco/aiea i?e?iaeu i?iiuoeaiiuo oeeeeia ai O?aioeee, Aaeeeia?eoaiee e NOA ia ?oaaaea XX aaea.AEoaea? onoaiiaee, /oi iiaeuaiu yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe eieoeee?iaaeinue eiaanoeoeeiiiuie eiioeuenaie, aucuaaee ?ino iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe.Ni. Eooeaiei A., ?aaeaaa A. Naa?aaeaiey ?aaioathuaai ianaeaiey: ianooaau, ooieoeee, iioeau // Aii?inu yeiiiieee, 1996. - ? 1. - N. 63 - 76Iaineia A.A. E i?iaeoo Athaeaeaoiiai eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee // ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, 1997, ? 8, N.24Iiaeii?eia E. Athaeaeaoiue eiaeaen e iaeioi?ua aniaeou yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. // Yeiiiieno. 1997, ?9. N. 70Ninoaaeaii a niioaaonoaee n Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii ?O "I oaaea?aeueiii athaeaeaoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia 1998 a." io 26.03.98 a. ?42 -OC ( a ?aaeaeoeee io 31.07.98).Iaeeiiiaee E., A?th N. Yeiiiieen. 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Eieae 1 -3. NIa. - Iao?iiieen. - 1994.I?ia?aiia I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee // Aii?inu yeiiiieee. - 1995 - ?4, N. 151I?ia?aiia I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee // Aii?inu yeiiiieee. - 1995 - ?4Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee // ?inneeneay aacaoa, 9 ai?aey 1996 aiaea. N. 6Iineaaeiee iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue oieueei eae eaoaai?eth e iaoiae nioeeaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaiaaiey. Oic?an/ao, eae ioia/aeinue aua a aei?aaiethoeeiiiii eo?na eaeoeee A.A. Iaioeeiaa "Iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey", - iauaenoi?e/aneee iauaeoeaiue yeiiiie/aneee caeii "iioeiaeueiiai o?iaiy yooaeoeaiinoe aaaeaiey anyeie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eae iioeiaeueiiai niioiioaiey aa ?acoeueoaoa e cao?ao". Ni.: Oa??eoi?eaeueiia oi?aaeaiea a oneiaeyo ?uiea. - I.. - 1993. - N. 56Aieueoay niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey. - I., 1975. - O.22. N. 549.Aniiiiei, /oi ?eea?aei n/eoae o?oae aaeeinoaaiiui i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui oaeoi?ii.A. Ieei iieo/ee Iiaaeaaneoth i?aieth ii yeiiiieea a 1977 aiaeo.PAGEPAGE 312Iio?aaeaieaNDEAA4003002001000100 200 300 400Aeioiae (oun.?oa.)Iio?aaeaiea (oun.?oa.)P50301009070503010%°50301009070503010%° =--------( 100—-%°LNMm0.)%"°y¶#%°6426420,%,%%°rr1r2Eiee/anoai aeaiaa, ie?ae.?oa.Noaaea i?ioeaioa, rEDmSmS1S2DmE?eaay noiia?iiai ni?ina ia aeaiueaeEiee/anoai aeaiaa, ie?ae.?oaeaeNoaaea i?ioeaioa0E?eaay ni?ina ia aeaiueae aeey i?eia?aoaiey aoeaiaEiee/anoai aeaiaa, ie?ae.?oaeaeNoaaea i?ioeaioa0DaE?eaay o?ainaeoeeiiiiai ni?ina ia aeaiueaeEiee/anoai aeaiaa, ie?ae.?oaeaeNoaaea i?ioeaioa0Dt0Noaaea i?ioeaioaE?eaay i?aaeeiaeaieyaeaiaaEiee/anoai aeaiaa, ie?ae.?oaeaeSm...Ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu, iaeiaeAeaoeoeeoEcauoieTY20YY1Y*GNa+I+GE1E2N+I+GY1Y20Y45(Niaieoiiua ?anoiaeuN+IGE2E1N+I+GY2Y10Y45(Niaieoiiua ?anoiaeu1Mult = --------MPS1Mult = -------------1 - MPC , eeeI2I1E2E1N+I2N+I1Y2Y10Y45(Niaieoiiua ?anoiaeuY*EYEN+II0Y45(Niaieoiiua ?anoiaeuNEiaanoeoeee45(IY045(Naa?aaeaieySYEciaiaiea a naa?aaeaiee ( SMPS= -------------------------------- = ---------Eciaiaiea a aeioiaea ( Y0AEeciue a aeieaY45(?anoiaeu ia iio?aaeaieaNEciaiaiea a iio?aaeaiee ( NMPC= -------------------------------- = ---------Eciaiaiea a aeioiaea ( YY2Y10PASYAD1AD2A0rEIES - naa?aaeaieyI - eiaanoeoeeer - noaaea i?ioeaioaI - eiee/anoai aeaiaarIISY*P1P20PASYAD1AD2E2E1P2P1ADAS1AS20YPP2P1Y*AD1AD2AS0YPEOeN - EOeN-1Oaii eioeyoeee = ------------------------ , aaeaEOeN-1EOe - eiaeaen oeai (EIOe eee aeaoeyoi? AII);N - ia?eiae, ia eioi?ue au/eneyaony oaii eioeyoeee;(N - 1) - ia?eiae, ii ioiioaieth e eioi?iio ?ann/eouaaaony oaii eioeyoeee.29 000* 100= 8,4%344 000/eneaiiinoue aac?aaioiuoo?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu= * 100/eneaiiinoue caiyouo e aac?aaioiuoYeiiiie/aneee oeeeeOaiaeaioeey ?inoaOaca iiaeuaiaOaca niaaeaIeeIeaeiyy oi/ea niaaeaIeeA?aiyYY1YEY20P1P2PEYADASP0Y2Y1YPEYEADASPPEPE0Y2Y1YP1PEYEADASPP1PEP1PE0Y*Anoanoaaiiue o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaaYPASAeieain?i/iay e?eaay niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaieyAS2AS1ASP0YIII - Aa?oeeaiueiue (eeanne/aneee)II -Ainoiaeyuee (i?iiaaeooi/iue)I -Ai?eciioaeueiue (eaeineaineee)0YPASIIIIIIY*AD10AD2?YAD0Y?ADReEDtSt°‚. °AEA!°#000WDS1S21).Iiauoaiea ni?ina ia o?oae2).Ia?aie/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaeaSWnWuLLuLnD1D2LLuLnWnSWuW0L0LdD?uiieOe?ialnwnLnSWnWWA00“Ia?aoiay” e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aai/ae neeuOeie/iay e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aai/ae neeuWWminWASLSWminLW0WMRP1MRPMRP2LIiiiiieueiue ?uiie i?iaeoeoiaMRPL = MR * MPLEiieo?aioiue ?uiie i?iaeoeoiaMRPL = P * MPL0Eiee/anoai o?oaea, LOeaia o?oaea,WQR0PRFPFQFQRAMRPmATCQmDINC,PATC0EcQcPcEmPmMREQmDINQC,PEm - ?aaiiaanea iiiiiieenoa0MRoauoeeAVCATCmPmATCQmDINQC,P0Emi?eaueuePmMRATCmATCEQmDINQC,PMR0I?aaeaeueiue aeioiae iiiiiieenoa iaiueoa ?uii/iie oeaiuPQDDI?aaeaeueiue aeioiae iiiiiieenoa iaiueoa oeaiu oiaa?a: P>MR, oae eae
oeaia aeiiieieoaeueii i?aaeeaaaaiiai iauaia oiaa?a iaiueoa oeaiu ?aiaa
i?aaeeaaaaoaainy iauaia

0

0

Ni?in ia i?iaeoeo iiiiiieenoa – ?uii/iue ni?in, oa?aeoa?ecothueeny
ia?aoiie caaeneiinoueth io oeaiu

Q1

Q2

P2

P1

P

Q

D

D

P

Q

D

D

?2

?1

0

Q2

Q1

Oeaia i?ae?auaiey i?iecaiaenoaa

E?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey oe?iu

Oeaia aacoauoi/iinoe

IN

AVC

ATC

Q

C,P

0

Q

oauoee

AVC

ATC0

AVC ATC;

Pr = (P – ATC) * Q;

(Pr >0)

I?e Q0 eiieo?aioiay oe?ia iaeneiece?oao i?eaueue

P0

ATC0

ATC

E

Q0

D

IN

C,P

0

P=MC

E – ?aiiaanea eiieo?aioiie oe?iu

Q0 – iioeiaeueiue iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey eiio?aioiie oe?iu

E

Q0

MR=P

D

IN

Q

C,P

0

0

Oe?ia

(ni?in ia i?iaeoeoeeth eiieo?aioiie oe?iu, oeaia “aini?eieiaaony”
oe?iie)

Io?aneue

(?uii/iue ni?in, ?aaiiaaniay oeaia ii?aaeaeyaony acaeiiaeaenoaeai anao
oe?i)

Q

P*

P

S

D

P*

Q

P

D

C

AVC

ATC

Q2

Q1

0

Q

IN

Q2

Q1

ATC

AVC

0

Q

C

AFC

0

Q

FC – iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee

TC -aaeiaua ecaea?aeee

VC – ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee

A

A

C

TP

I? – i?aaeaeueiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue

O? – iauay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue

0

0

III

Eiee/anoai ia?aiaiiiai ?anona(L)

Eiee/anoai ia?aiaiiiai ?anona(L)

I

II

MP

0

Eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey

A

Eiee/anoai iaeaaeaeu

N

A

U1

U2

U3

B

10

20

50

40

30

20

10

PX=1/2

Eiee/anoai iaeaaeaeu

Eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey

0

PX=2

PX=1

80

70

60

10

30

20

50

40

30

20

10

0

Eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey

Eiee/anoai iaeaaeaeu

I=80

I=40

I=20

80

70

60

10

30

20

50

40

30

20

10

Eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey

0

Eiee/anoai iaeaaeaeu

5

10

10

Athaeaeaoiay eeiey

X+2Y=40

E

D

C

B

A

30

20

50

40

30

20

10

Eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey

E

0

Eiee/anoai iaeaaeaeu

6

A

1

2

4

D

C

B

5

10

8

6

4

2

4

3

2

1

0

Eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey

U1

Eiee/anoai iaeaaeaeu

A

A

N

U2

Eiee/anoai iaeaaeaeu

Eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey

0

U3

U2

U1

0

B

I

IV

III

II

F

E

D

C

A

50

40

30

20

10

50

40

30

20

10

Eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey

Eiee/anoai iaeaaeaeu

0

S

Aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae

Niaa?oaiii yeanoe/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea

D1

D2

P

Q

2

0

S

Ei?ioeee ia?eiae

Yeanoe/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea

D1

D2

P

Q

0

Iaiiaaiiue ia?eiae

Niaa?oaiii iayeanoe/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea

D1

D2

S

P

Q

30

TR

5

4

3

2

0

1

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

Q

P

E

D

C

B

A

TR

0

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

25

20

15

10

5

Q

E

S

D

S

0

D

P – oeaia oiaa?a

Q – iauai (aaee/eia) ni?ina

E – ?aaiiaanea ?uiea

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

5

P

4

3

2

1

Q

S2

S

S1

S1

S

S2

0

Q

P

P – oeaia oiaa?a;

Q – iauai

(aaee/eia) i?aaeeiaeaiey;

SS – e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey

0

S

S

60

50

40

30

20

10

5

P

4

3

2

1

Q

D

D1

0

P

Q

D2

D2

D

D1

D

0

D

P – oeaia oiaa?a;

Q – iauai (aaee/eia) ni?ina;

DD – e?eaay ni?ina.

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

5

P

4

3

2

1

Q

AINOAeA?NOAI

Iio?aae-oaeueneea ?anoiaeu

Oiaa?u e oneoae

Au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee

Oiaa?u e oneoae

Ecaea?aeee

?ano?nu

Aeaiaaeiua aei-oiaeu (i?eaueue, ?aioa, ca?iea-oa)

Caiey, o?oae, ea-ieoae,i?aaei?e-ieiaoaeueneay niiniaiinoue

OE?IU

AeIIIOICssE-NOAA

?uiie

i?iaeoeoia

?uiie

?ano?nia

Iio?aae-oaeueneea ?anoiaeu

Oiaa?u e oneoae

Au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee

Oiaa?u e oneoae

Ecaea?aeee

?ano?nu

Aeaiaaeiua aei-oiaeu (i?eaueue, ?aioa, ca?iea-oa)

Caiey, o?oae, ea-ieoae,i?aaei?e-ieiaoaeueneay niiniaiinoue

OE?IU

AeIIIOICssENOAA

?uiie

i?iaeoeoia

?uiie

?ano?nia

1 2 3 4
5

F

. X

. Y

E

D

N

B

A

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

Ianei (iei.o.)

E?eaay i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae

Yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu

Aauanoaaiiua

(iaoa?eaeueiua)

*aeiaa/aneea

(ethaeneea)

Caiey

ana anoanoaai-iua ?ano?nu:

caiee,

eana,

iieaciua eneiiaaiua,

aiaeiua,

eeeiaoe/an-eea e ae?.

Eaieoae

eiaanoeoeeii-iua ?ano?nu, n?aaenoaa i?i-aiaenoaa:

iaoeiu,

iai?oaeiaa-iea,

caeaiey,

nii?oaea-iey,

o?ainii?o e o.i.

O?oae

niiniaiinoue /a-eiaaea e o?oaeo, niaieoiiinoue

oece/aneeo

oinoaaiiuo,

ineoieiae/aneeo naienoa ee/iinoe,

eniieuecoaiuo a i?iecaiaenoaa oi-aa?ia e oneoa

I?aaei?eie-iaoaeueneay niiniaiinoue e:

iiaeeecaoeee ?ano?nia

i?eiyoeth ?aoaiee

eiiiaaoeeii-iie aeayoaeue-iinoee

eiiia?/aneiio ?eneo

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