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Industry and agriculture of the UK

In the past English industrial prosperity rested on a few important
products, such as textiles, coal and heavy machinery. Now the UK has a
great variety of industries, for example heavy and light industry,
chemical, aircraft, electrical, automobile and many other industries.
The United Kingdom is considered one of the world’s major manufacturing
nations. Now high technology industries are more developed than heavy
engineering. Heavy engineering and other traditional industries have
experienced a certain decline.

Certain areas are traditionally noted for various types of industries.
For instance, Newcastle is famous for coal industry, the county of
Lancashire for its textile industry. The Midlands, or the central
counties of England, are famous for the production of machinery, coal,
motor cars and chemicals. In recent times regional industrial
distinctions have become less clear as more and more new factories are
built in the different parts of the country.

Speaking about the cities of the United Kingdom the first mention should
be made of London, the capital of the UK. It is a big port on the River
Thames, a major commercial, industrial centre.

Leeds is a centre of clothing industry producing woolen articles.
Glasgow is a major port on the River Clyde where shipbuilding industry
is developed. Liverpool on the River Mersey is a flour milling and
engineering centre. Birmingham is an iron and steel centre, Manchester
is famous for textiles manufacturing.

Three-quarters of the United Kingdom’s land is dedicated to agriculture.
About two per cent of the population of the United Kingdom are engaged
in agriculture, but the yields of English farms and pastures are very
high. Wheat, barley, oats and potatoes are the most important crops
grown.

Sheep, cattle and pigs are the most numerous types of livestock. Sheep
is a source of both wool for textile industry and mutton for food
industry. Mutton is the best liked English meat.

Vocabulary

industry

industries

industrial

agriculture

agricultural

prosperity

prosperous

coal

heavy machinery

variety

various

for example

syn. for instance

chemical

chemical industry

chemicals

aircraft

to consider

world

in the world

major

major product

manufacturing

to manufacture

to develop

developed

development

to experience

experience

certain

decline

to decline

area

to note

note

to be famous for smth

production

to produce

recent

regional

region

distinction

mention

to mention

the first mention should be made of

capital

river

the river Thames

the river Clyde

the river Mersey

clothing industry

woolen articles

wool

ship

shipbuilding

flour

flour milling

engineering

heavy engineering

iron

steel

textiles

textiles manufacturing

quarter

land

to dedicate

to be dedicated to smth

to be dedicated to agriculture

per cent

one per cent

two per cent

about two per cent

population

to engage

to be engaged in smth

yields

pasture

wheat

barley

oats

potato

pl. potatoes

crop

to grow (grew, grown)

sheep

cattle

pig

numerous

livestock

source

mutton

food

meat

a book full of meat [?IndqstrI]

[In?dAstrIql]

[xgrIkAlCq]

[,xgrI?kAlCqrql]

[pros?perItI]

[?prospqrqs]

[mq?SJnqrI]

[vq?raIqtI]

[?vFqrIqs]

[?kemIkql]

[kqn?sIdq]

[?meIGq]

[,mxnju?fxkCqrIN]

[,mxnju?fxkCq]

[Iks?pIqrIqns]

[sWtn]

[?FqrIq]

[rJsnt]

[dIs?tInkSn]

[temz]

[wHln]

[flauq]

[,enGI?nIqrIN]

[?tekstaIlz]

[?kwO:tq]

[?dedIkeIt]

[pq?sent]

[In?geIG]

[jJldz]

[?pRsCq]

[wJt]

[?bRlI]

[outs]

[?nju:mqrqs]

[?laIvstOk]

[sO:s]

[mAtn]

промышленность, индустрия

отрасли промышленности

промышленный

сельское хозяйство сельскохозяйственный

процветание, преуспевание

процветающий

уголь

машинное оборудование, машины

разнообразие

разнообразный

например

химический

химическая промышленность

продукты химической промышленности

самолет (ы)

авиационный

рассматривать

мир

в мире

основной, главный

основной продукт

производство

производить

развивать

развитый

развитие

испытывать

опыт

определенный

снижение

снижать(ся)

площадь

замечать, отмечать

заметка, запись

быть известным чем-либо

производство

производить

недавний, последний, свежий

региональный

регион

различие, разграничение

упоминание

упоминать

в первую очередь следует упомянуть о

столица

река

река Темза

река Клайд

река Мёрси

швейная промышленность

шерстяные изделия

шерсть

судно

судостроение

мука

мукомольный

машиностроение

тяжелое машиностроение

железо, чугун

сталь

текстиль

текстильное производство

четверть

земля

посвящать, предназначать

быть предназначенным чему-либо

предназначаться/отводиться сельскому хозяйству

процент

один процент

два процента

около двух процентов

население

заниматься

быть занятым в чем-либо

сбор плодов, урожай

пастбище

пшеница

ячмень

овес

картофель (растение), картофелина

(мн.ч. картофель)

урожай, жатва

выращивать

овца/ы

крупный рогатый скот

свинья, поросенок

многочисленный

домашний скот

источник

баранина

пища, питание

продовольственный

мясо

содержание

содержательная книга

Economy of the USA

The United States of America is a highly developed industrialized
country. Shipbuilding, electronics, automobile industry, aircraft
industry, space research are highly developed in the States.

Each region of the United States has characteristics of its own due to
the differences in climate, landscape and geographical position.

Great Lakes, Atlantic Coast, Pennsylvania, New Jersey are biggest
industrial regions of the country.

The United States has a lot of mineral deposits or resources such as
coal, gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc. The south, especially Texas
is rich in oil. The coalfields of Pennsylvania are rich in coal. There
are plenty of coal mines.

Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska is the richest farming region of America and it
is known as the Corn Belt. The land is fertile and well watered. They
grow mostly corn and wheat there. Much livestock is also raised here.

There is a lot of fruit raising area. For example, California oranges,
grapefruit, lemons, as well as other fruits, wines and vegetables are
shipped all over the States and to other parts of the world. The most
important crops grown in the States are also tobacco, soy-beans,
peanuts, grapes and many others.

There are a lot of large and modern cities, but a great proportion of
the country consists of open land dotted with farmhouses and small
towns. The usual average town, in any part of the United States, has its
Main Street with the same types of stores selling the same products.
Many American residential areas tend to have a similar look. As to big
cities their centres or downtowns look very much alike. Downtown is the
cluster of skyscrapers imitations of New York giants.

New York City is the first biggest city of the States. Its population is
more than eight million people. It is a financial and advertising
business centre. It is also a biggest seaport of the Hudson River.
Industry of consumer goods is also developed here.

Chicago with a population of more than three and a half million is the
second largest city in the USA. It deals in wheat and other grains,
cattle meat processing and manufacturing. Other big cities are Huston,
an oil refining and NASA space research centre, New Orleans, a cotton
industry centre, Los Angeles with Hollywood, Philadelphia, a shipping
commercial centre, Detroit, a world’s leading motor car producer and
many others.

Vocabulary

space

research

space research

due to

climate

landscape

coast

Atlantic coast

mineral deposits, resources

gold

silver

copper

lead

zinc

rich

to be rich in smth

plenty of

syn. much, many, a lot of

mine

to mine

mining industry

corn

pop-corn

belt

the Corn Belt

the Cotton Belt

the Bible Belt

fertile

fertility

to water

water

well watered

to raise

to raise livestock

vegetable

to ship

to dot

to be dotted with…

average

to average

at an average

store

syn. shop

to tend

They tend to have a similar look.

downtown

to look alike

cluster

skyscraper

giant

to advertise

advertisement = ad consumer goods

to deal in smth

to deal with smb processing

meat processing

to process

process

oil

to refine

oil refining centre

refinery

refinement

NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration

cotton

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[dju:]

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?i

N

X

Y

a

ae

ae

c

e

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n

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I

R

S

Z

_

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k

k

l

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I

e

i

[email protected]?

&

F

lyUe

©)¶)·)O)

[email protected]?

[email protected]?-?-A-A-E-I-ss-a-e-?-.

.

°.?.C.O.O.a.

klaImIt]

[dI?pOzIt]

[led]

[?fq:tail]

[fq(:)?tIlItI]

[?xvqrIG]

[?GaIqnt]

[?xdvqtaIz]

[qd?vq:tIsmqnt]

[kqn?sju;mq]

[?prqusesIN]

[?prqusqs]

[rI?faIn]

космос, пространство

исследование

космические исследования

вследствие, из-за

климат

ландшафт

берег

Атлантическое побережье

запасы минералов, полезных ископаемых

золото

серебро

медь

свинец

цинк

богатый

быть богатым чем-либо

много

шахта, рудник

добывать (руду и т.п.)

добывающая промышленность

кукуруза

поп-корн

пояс

«Кукурузный пояс» «Хлопковый пояс» «Библейский пояс»

плодородный, изобильный

плодородие, изобилие

снабжать влагой, поливать, орошать

вода

хорошо орошаемый (естественным путем)

выращивать

выращивать домашний скот

овощ

растительный

отправлять, отгружать

усеивать

быть усеянным…

средний, среднее число

выводить, составлять среднее число

в среднем

магазин

иметь тенденцию, склонность

&

&

ольше и больше становятся похожими друг на друга.)

деловая часть города выглядеть одинаково

скопление, концентрация

небоскреб

гигант

рекламировать

реклама

потребительские товары

иметь дело с чем-либо, заниматься (чем-либо)

иметь дело с кем-либо переработка

переработка мяса перерабатывать

процесс

нефть

масло (растительное)

очищать, рафинировать, повышать качество

нефтеперерабатывающий центр

очистительный завод

очищение, рафинирование

Национальное управление по аэронавтике и исследованиям космического
пространства

хлопок

хлопчатобумажный

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