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Внешнеэкономическая деятельность российских предприятий (на примере машиностроения)

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Niaea?aeaiea.

Aaaaeaiea 2no?.

Iniiau aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey 3

1.1. I?aaei?eyoea eae noauaeo aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe 4

1.2. Iniiaiua oi?iu aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe

?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee 7

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
12

2. I?iaeaiu ?acaeoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe

(ia i?eia?a iaoeiino?iaiey) 17

2.1. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe

?inneeneiai iaoeiino?iaiey 18

2.2. Ia?niaeoeau e iooe ?acaeoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie

aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee (ia i?eia?a
iaoeiino?iaiey)

23

Caeeth/aiea 30

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u 31

Aaaaeaiea.

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo noa? aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee ia
nia?aiaiiii yoaia yaeyaony aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay. Aei iaaeaiey
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu yeiiiieea iaoaai ainoaea?noaa
i?aaenoaaeyea niaie caieiooue iaoaieci. Aeieaea aiaeu i?aaiaie aeanoe
i?iaiaeeeanue iieeoeea aaoa?eee, yaeyaoayny oi?iicii yeiiiie/aneiai e
oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. I?e oaeie iieeoeea ioa/anoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey ia
ioaeaeaeenue a auoiaea ia aiaoiea ?uiee, e ?acaeoea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia i?aaenoaaeyei aeey ieo eioa?ana. Iinea iaaeaiey
«aeaeaciiai caiaaana» o i?aaei?eyoee iiyaeeenue aiciiaeiinoe
eniieueciaaiey i?aeiouanoa aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae, a oaeaea
aoiaeaeaiey a ie?iaie i?ioeann eioaa?aoeee e eiiia?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.
Ioa/anoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey noaee i?iyaeyoue aeoeaiinoue ai
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai aicieeea iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eco/aiee
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aaaeue aeey iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai aa
inouanoaeaiey i/aiue aaaeii iaeaaeaoue aeinoaoi/iuie oai?aoe/aneeie e
i?aeoe/aneeie ciaieyie a yoie iaeanoe, eioi?uo, e niaeaeaieth, ia
eiaaony o iiiaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ia ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo.
Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ia/aea aeoeaii eco/aoueny oieueei a
eiioea 80-o ia/aea 90-o aiaeia, eiaaea ieaiiaay yeiiiieea ecaeeea naay e
?ac?ooeeny «aeaeaciue caiaaan». Aei yoiai a?aiaie iia ia i?aaenoaaeyea
eioa?ana aeey eco/aiey, oae eae ioa/anoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey inouanoaeyee
naith aeayoaeueiinoue oieueei a ianooaaao iaoae no?aiu e ia
ioaeaeaeenue a auoiaea ia aiaoiea ?uiee. Nae/an neooaoeey ei?aiiui
ia?acii eciaieeanue. Iiyoiio oaia yoiai enneaaeiaaiey i?aaenoaaeyaony
aanueia aeooaeueiie e ioaeaeathuaeny a eco/aiee.

Oeaeueth ?aaiou yaeyaony io?aaeaiea oai?aoe/aneeo aii?inia
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee, io?aaeaiea
aa nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey. Iaeaieaa aaaeiui yaeyaony auyaeaiea
ia?niaeoea e iooae ?acaeoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

?aaioa ninoieo ec niaea?aeaiey, aaaaeaiey, aeaoo aeaa, caeeth/aiey e
nienea eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. Iniiau aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ?aaeecoaony eae ia o?iaia
ainoaea?noaa, oae e ia o?iaia ioaeaeueiuo oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia. A
ia?aii neo/aa aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue iai?aaeaia ia
onoaiiaeaiea iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo iniia nio?oaeie/anoaa, nicaeaiea
i?aaiauo, oi?aiauo e iieeoe/aneeo iaoaieciia, noeioee?othueo ?acaeoea e
iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae. ?aoeeiiaeueiay
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa iiaeao i?eaanoe e iiauoaieth
oaiiia ?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, onei?aieth iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
i?ia?anna, iiauoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e yooaeoeaiinoe
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee.

I?aaei?eyoeai yaeyaony oicyenoaothuee noauaeo, eioi?ue ia iniiaa
eniieueciaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia i?iecaiaeeo e ?aaeecoao oiaa?u,
auiieiyao ?aaiou, ieacuaaao oneoae. Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey – yoi noa?a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiay n
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eioaa?aoeeae e eiiia?aoeeae,
yenii?oii e eiii?oii oiaa?ia e oneoa, auoiaeii ia aiaoiee ?uiie. Ia
o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue iai?aaeaia ia
caeeth/aiea e eniieiaiea eiio?aeoia n eiino?aiiuie ia?oia?aie.
Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth anae
?aaiou aieueoeinoaa i?aaei?eyoee ?innee. ?acaeoea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe aeaao i?aaei?eyoeth iiaua aiciiaeiinoe, oaeea eae
eniieueciaaiea i?aeiouanoa iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiia?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
naiaiaea a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee aeey inouanoaeaiey naieo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
caaea/. Aeey ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee yoi oaeea caaea/e, eae:

naiaiaeiue auai? i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia n iii?ie ia aiciiaeiinoe
ie?iaiai ?uiea;

naiaiaea auai?a iai?aaeaiee e oi?i ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee n iaeneiaeueiie i?eaueueiinoueth;

naiaiaea auai?a i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ia?oia?a ii eiiia?aoeee, a
iaeaieueoae noaiaie ioaa/athuaai yeiiiie/aneei eioa?anai i?aaei?eyoey;

naiaiaea auai?a iooae e aiciiaeiinoae iiauoaiey oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy
i?iecaiaenoaa e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee,
oe?aieaiey yenii?oiiai iioaioeeaea;

aeeth/aynue a iaaeaeoia?iaeioth eiiia?aoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaei?eyoea
noaiiaeony o/anoieeii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna
eae aaeeiiai oeaeiai, ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou eioi?iai acaeiinaycaiu e
acaeiicaaeneiu. Yoi nicaeaao iniiao aeey yeiiiie/aneie noaaeeueiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo aai caaiueaa.

Ioee/ey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey io
aioo?eoicyenoaaiiie caeeth/athony a oii, /oi aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue inouanoaeyaony ia aaethoiie iniiaa, ?aaoee?oaony
niaoeeaeueiuie ia?aie ainoaea?noaa. Ia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ieacuaaao aeeyiea o?iaaiue ?acaeoey e
noaaeeueiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, nenoaia ie?iauo oeai, a oaeaea
i?aaiaay nenoaia nianoaaiiie no?aiu e i?aaiaua nenoaiu no?ai, a eioi?uo
i?aaei?eyoea inouanoaeyao aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue.

1.1 . I?aaei?eyoea eae noauaeo aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Caeiiii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “I i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe” i?aaei?eyoeyi ?ac?aoaii naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeyoue
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue. Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee “I eeaa?aeecaoeee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe” anai
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiui ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
i?aaei?eyoeyi e eo iauaaeeiaieyi iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe
?ac?aoaii inouanoaeaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aac
niaoeeaeueiie ?aaeno?aoeee. Yenii?o no?aoaae/anee aaaeiuo nu?ueaauo
oiaa?ia inouanoaeyaony i?aaei?eyoeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie,
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuie IAYN ?O aeey yoeo oeaeae.
Ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey aiinyony a niaoeeaeueiue ?aano?,
eioi?ue ioaeeeoaony a ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe. Ioeac a ?aaeno?aoeee e
eneeth/aiea eo ec ?aano?a iiaoo auoue a neo/aa ia?ooaiey
aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?O eee ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai,
iiaeaeoaai ca niaie yeiiiie/aneee e iieeoe/aneee oua?a aeey
?innee; iaauiieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa ii yenii?oiui iinoaaeai.
Ia?a/aiue no?aoaae/anee aaaeiuo nu?ueaauo oiaa?ia onoaiiaeai
niioaaonoaothuei iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O e niaea?aeeo 13
iiceoeee (oiieeai, yeaeo?iyia?aey, ca?ii e ae?oaea).

I?aaei?eyoea naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeyao aeae naiae aeayoaeueiinoe e
i?eieiaao ?aoaiey ii auiieiaieth iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/. E?eoa?eai auai?a
oie eee eiie i?aaiaie oi?iu aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony
yeiiiie/aneea aiciiaeiinoe e iio?aaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

I?aaei?eyoea iiaeao inouanoaeyoue ethaua aeaeu aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, anee iie ia cai?auaiu caeiiii e ioaa/atho oeaeyi,
i?aaeoniio?aiiui a onoaaa.

Ana i?aaei?eyoey – o/anoieee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
yaeythony naiinoiyoaeueiuie th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, iaeaaeathueie
iainiaeaiiui eiouanoaii, eiathueie i?aai io naiaai eiaie i?eia?aoaoue
eiouanoaaiiua e ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa e ianoe iaycaiiinoe, a
oaeaea auoue enooeaie a noaea. Eae o/anoiee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneiai
iai?ioa i?aaei?eyoea iaeaaeaao a?aaeaeaineie i?aai- e
aeaaniiniaiinoueth. A?aaeaeaineay i?aainiiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey iineo
niaoeeaeueiue oa?aeoa? (a niioaaonoaee n oeaeyie aeayoaeueiinoe) e
ii?aaeaeyaony a onoaaa. I?e niaa?oaiee naeaeee, i?ioeai?a/auae oeaeyi,
oeacaiiui a onoaaa, aeaiiay naeaeea iiaeao auoue i?eciaia
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie n iineaaenoaeyie a aeaea aeaonoi?iiiae ?anoeoooeee.

A?aaeaeaineay aeaaniiniaiinoue – yoi niiniaiinoue th?eaee/aneiai eeoea e
?aaeecaoeee naieo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae. Aeaaniiniaiinoue ianooiaao n
iiiaioa ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea e ?aaeecoaony
/a?ac aai eniieieoaeueiua i?aaiu.

Eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoey ninoaaeytho iniiaiua oiiaeu, iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa
e eiua oeaiiinoe, noieiinoue eioi?uo io?aaeaaony a aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey.
Eiouanoai iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny a nianoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e a
oicyenoaaiiii aaaeaiee.

Ca iaeniieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa ii aeiaiai?ai i?aaei?eyoea ianao iieioth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue naiei eiouanoaii.

Ana i?aaei?eyoey – i?iecaiaeeoaee eiieo?aioiniiniaiie i?iaeoeoeee eiatho
i?aai ia naiinoiyoaeueiia inouanoaeaiea yenii?oii-eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee. A
nayce n yoei a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaiai i?iecaiaeeoaey,
auoiaeyuaai ia aiaoiee ?uiie, nouanoaaiioth ?ieue iiaeao ea?aoue
aiaoiaoi?aiaay aeayoaeueiinoue. Auoiae ia aiaoiee ?uiie i?aaei?eyoey
iiaoo inouanoaeyoue eae naiinoiyoaeueii, oae e /a?ac aiaoiaoi?aiaua
i?aaiecaoeee-iin?aaeieee. Yoe i?aaiecaoeee, eae i?aaeei, ?aaeecotho
i?iaeoeoeeth iaeeeo e n?aaeieo oe?i ia ie?iaii ?uiea, ii e eo oneoaai
iiaoo i?eaaaaoue e e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey, ia eiathuea naiaai
aiaoiaoi?aiaiai aiia?aoa.

Aiaoiaoi?aiaua i?aaiecaoeee ieacuaatho e ae?oaea iin?aaeie/aneea oneoae,
iai?eia?: e?aaeeoiaaiea iieoiaoaeae, caeeth/aiea eiio?aeoia n
o?ainii?oiuie e no?aoiauie eiiiaieyie, iin?aaeie/anoai a ieaoaaeiuo
iia?aoeeyo e ae?oaea. Eiiaaea aiaoiaoi?aiaua oe?iu inouanoaeytho
i?aaei?iaeaaeioth aei?aaioeo oiaa?ia, iiauoay eo eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieaa iieiaeiu ie?iaiai oiaa?iiai?ioa inouanoaeyaony
/a?ac oe?iu-iin?aaeieee. Eo i?eaea/aiea i?aneaaeoao oeaee iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe aiaoiaoi?aiauo iia?aoeee, eniieueciaaiey eiiuthieoo?u,
i?aaeinoaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo oi?aiauo oneoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, ethaia i?aaei?eyoea, auoiaeyuaa ia ie?iaie ?uiie, iiaeao
naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeyoue aiaoiaoi?aiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue, ia?acoy
i?e yoii nianoaaiiua aiaoiaoi?aiaua oe?iu, eioi?ua iiaoo nicaeaaaoueny
ia iauai aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey eee ia naiinoiyoaeueiii aaeaina n i?aaii
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea. Eeai i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao i?eaaaaoue e oneoaai
iin?aaeie/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, a neo/aa iaaieueoiai iauaia auionea
i?iaeoeoeee.

E?eoa?eai auai?a niiniaa auoiaea ia ie?iaie ?uiie neoaeeo ieieiecaoeey
?anoiaeia ia inouanoaeaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. E?iia
oiai, i?aaei?eyoeth iaiaoiaeeii ?aniieaaaoue eioi?iaoeeae i
aaethoii-oeiainiauo, i?aaiauo aniaeoao auoiaea ia ie?iaie ?uiie,
eiiuthieoo?a ie?iaiai ?uiea, nenoaia oeai e ii?aaeaeyoue yooaeoeaiinoue
inouanoaeaiey yenii?oii-eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee.

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa
eiio?aeoa. ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeienuaaao
iaycaoaeueioth ienueiaiioth oi?io aiaoiayeiiiie/aneiai eiio?aeoa.
Naeaeea iiaeao auoue caeeth/aia eeai iooai ninoaaeaiey e iiaeienaiey
iaeiiai aeieoiaioa, eeai iooai iaiaia ienueiaie, oaeaa?aiiaie.
Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneee eiio?aeo niaea?aeeo ianeieueei ?acaeaeia,
?aniieiaeaiiuo a ii?aaeaeaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii
eaaeaeue eiio?aeo eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua th?eaee/aneea ao?eaoou, aac
iaee/ey eioi?uo ii oa?yao i?aaiaoth neeo, e i?aaa, ec iaai auoaeathuea,
ia iiaoo auoue caueuaiu. Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneee eiio?aeo aeieaeai
niaea?aeaoue iieiia ioeoeeaeueiia iaeiaiiaaiea noi?ii e eo
th?eaee/aneea aae?ana, iieiia eiy e oaieeeth eeoea,
i?aaenoaaeythuaai i?aaiecaoeeth, aai aeieaeiinoue, a oaeaea
oeacaiea, ia iniiaaiee /aai inouanoaeyaony i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai.

1.2. Iniiaiua oi?iu aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo
i?aaei?eyoee.

Iniiaiuie oi?iaie aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee
yaeyaony aiaoiaoi?aiaay aeayoaeueiinoue e iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiiia?aoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aiaoiaoi?aiaay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaiai oiaa?aie e
oneoaaie, naycaiiuie n inouanoaeaieai oiaa?iiai?ioa. A iniiaa
aiaoiaoi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe eaaeao aiaoiaoi?aiaua iia?aoeee.
Aiaoiaoi?aiaay iia?aoeey – yoi eiiieaen aeaenoaee eiio?aaaioia, oi anoue
eiino?aiiuo ia?oia?ia ai aiaoiaoi?aiaie iia?aoeee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
niaa?oaiea oiaa?iiai iaiaia e iaania/eaathueo aai. A iieiue eiiieaen,
oa?aeoa?ecothuee aiaoiaoi?aiaoth iia?aoeeth, iiaoo aoiaeeoue: eco/aiea
?uiea eiie?aoiiai oiaa?a, aai ?aeeaia, nicaeaiea nauoiaie naoe,
i?i?aaioea eiiia?/aneeo i?aaeeiaeaiee, i?iaaaeaiea ia?aaiai?ia,
caeeth/aiea e eniieiaiea eiio?aeoia.

A iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea auaeaeytho /aou?a iniiaiuo aeaea
aiaoiaoi?aiauo iia?aoeee:

Yenii?oiay iia?aoeey – yoi i?iaeaaea oiaa?a eiino?aiiiio eiio?aaaioo n
auaicii aai ca i?aaeaeu no?aiu.

Eiii?oiay iia?aoeey – yoi i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?a o eiino?aiiiai eiio?aaaioa
n aaicii aai a no?aio.

?ayenii?oiay iia?aoeey – i?iaeaaea n auaicii ca i?aaeaeu no?aiu ?aiaa
eiii?oe?iaaiiiai, ii ia iiaeaa?aoaainy ia?a?aaioea oiaa?a.

?aeiii?oiay iia?aoeey – i?eia?aoaiea n aaicii ec-ca a?aieoeu ?aiaa
yenii?oe?iaaiiiai e ia iiaeaa?aoaainy oai ia?a?aaioea oiaa?a.

I?aaei?eyoey no?aiyony e aiaoiaoi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ii ?aciui
i?e/eiai. Oae, a /anoiinoe, iiaeao iio?aaiaaoueny caeoiea nu?uey eee
eaeeo-eeai oiaa?ia ca ?oaaaeii ii oie i?e/eia, /oi iao aiciiaeiinoe
i?eia?anoe aeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth o ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Oaeay
neooaoeey i?eaiaeeo e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiii?oa. Aiciiaeia e ia?aoiay
neooaoeey – eiaaea oe?ia eiaao oiaa?u, i?iaeaaea eioi?uo ca ?oaaaeii
iiaeao ieacaoueny aieaa auaiaeiie, /ai a naiae no?aia. Oae i?iyaeyaony
iio?aaiinoue a yenii?oa.

Iaiaoiaeeiie i?aaeiinueeie e iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai aiaoiaoi?aiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony auiieiaiea oeaeiai ?yaea iia?aoeee,
naycaiiuo n iaania/aieai i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a io i?iaeaaoea e
iieoiaoaeth. A ?yaeo yoeo iia?aoeee auaeaeytho oaeea, eae o?ainii?oiua,
o?ainii?oii-yeniaaeeoi?neea, no?aoiaua, a oaeaea iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n
aaaaeaieai iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia. Oaeei ia?acii, aiaoiaoi?aiaua
iia?aoeee ioaaouaatho oe?ieee eiiieaen yeiiiie/aneiai,
aaethoii-oeiainiaiai e i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a.

Aiaoiaoi?aiaua iia?aoeee inouanoaeythony ia iniiaa caeeth/aaiuo naeaeie.
Iiae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaie naeaeeie iiieiatho aeiaiai? iaaeaeo
aeaoiy eee ianeieueeeie oe?iaie, iaoiaeyueieny a ?aciuo no?aiao, ii
iinoaaea oiaa?a e/eee ieacaieth oneoa a niioaaonoaee n niaeaniaaiiuie
oneiaeyie.

Aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee ia n/eoaaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiui, anee ii
caeeth/ai iaaeaeo noi?iiaie ?aciie ainoaea?noaaiiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe,
oe?iu eioi?uo iaoiaeyony ia oa??eoi?ee iaeiiai ainoaea?noaa. E a oi aea
a?aiy aeiaiai? i?eciaaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiui, anee ii caeeth/ai iaaeaeo
noi?iiaie iaeiie ainoaea?noaaiiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, eiiia?/aneea oe?iu
eioi?uo iaoiaeyony ia oa??eoi?ee ?aciuo ainoaea?noa.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiui i?eciaeii iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee yaeyaony
ia?ana/aiea a?aieoeu no?aiu-i?iaeaaoea oiaa?ii, anee yoi iaoa?eaeueiue
iauaeo. Oaeaea iaaeaeoia?iaeioth oi?aiaoth naeaeeo oa?aeoa?ecoao e oi,
/oi iia nii?iaiaeaeaaony ieaoaaeii a eiino?aiiie aaethoa ii ioiioaieth e
iaeiie eee iaaei noi?iiai. Iaeiaei yoio i?eioeei iiaeao ia
niaethaeaoueny, iai?eia?, i?e oiaa?iiaiaiiuo naeaeeao.

E iiiyoeth «oi?aiaay naeaeea» ioiinyony ana naeaeee, naycaiiua n iaiaiii
oiaa?ia e i?aaeinoaaeaieai oneoa.

N?aaee i?i/eo oi?i aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo
i?aaei?eyoee iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo yenii?oo. Ii,
auoiaey ia aiaoiee ?uiie, ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeii iiieiaoue,
/oi a nia?aiaiiii ie?iaii oicyenoaa iau/iay oi?aiaey ana auno?aa
onooiaao ianoi aieaa neiaeiui ioiioaieyi iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie e
iieoiaoaeyie. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue nauoa i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
naycaia n ?acee/iuie oi?iaie i?iiuoeaiiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa. ?a/ue eaeao
i iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiia?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa (IEI). ?inneeneea
i?aaei?eyoey oaea eiaee iaeioi?ue iiuo ?acaeoey oaeeo ioiioaiee n
auaoeie no?aiaie NYA, ii yoa eiiia?aoeey auea, eae i?aaeei, aeey ieo
iaauaiaeia a nayce n onoa?aaoei iaoaieciii oicyenoaiaaiey e
iaaycuaaeanue ei «naa?oo».

«Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiiia?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa – yoi neii?aeeie?iaaiiay eee
niaianoiay, iau/ii aeieaia?aiaiiay i?iecaiaenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneay, e,
eae i?aaeei, iao/ii-oaoie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ia?oia?ia ec ?aciuo
no?ai, iniiaaiiay ia ?acaeaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiauo i?ia?aii,
?aaiii?aaiii e acaeiiauaiaeiii nio?oaeie/anoaa» [3, c.57].

A nia?aiaiiii ie?a IEI caieiaao aaaeouaa ianoi n?aaee inoaeueiuo oi?i
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae, a neeo i?enoueo ae iauaeoeaiuo i?aeiouanoa.
Nooue IEI ninoieo a:

iauaaeeiaiee eiino?aiiuo ia?oia?ia ia iniiaa iauiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo,
oaoiieiae/aneeo, iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo e eiuo eioa?ania;

i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa i?iiaaeooi/iie i?iaeoeoeee (i?eiaieoaeueii e
iaoeiino?iaieth – eiiieaeoothueo aeaoaeae) ia i?aaei?eyoeyo – o/anoieeao
IEI n iineaaeothuae nai?eie ec iaa aioiauo ecaeaeee;

oaycea oaoie/aneeo ia?aiao?ia aioiauo ecaeaeee e eo /anoae,
iaania/eaathuae acaeiicaiaiyaiinoue e oieoeeaoeeth eiiia?e?iaaiiuo
ecaeaeee n o/aoii noaiaea?oia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee e
no?ai-eiiia?aioia.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiiia?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa eiaao ?yae iniai aaaeiuo
i?aeiouanoa aeey i?aaei?eyoee ?innee a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. Iia
iicaieyao:

iin?aaenoaii iaaieueoiai oaaee/aiey iauaia acaeiiuo iinoaaie
eiiieaeoothueo iaaeaeo ?inneeneeie e ca?oaaaeiuie ia?oia?aie aeiaeoueny
cia/eoaeueiiai e auno?iai oaaee/aiey auionea i?aaei?eyoeyie eiia/iie
i?iaeoeoeee n iineaaeothuae aa ?aaeecaoeeae. Yoi aeinoeaaaony aeaaiaea?y
oiio, /oi e iaaieueoie /anoe eiii?oiuo eiiieaeoothueo, eioi?ua a ?innee
ia i?iecaiaeyony, iaoe i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo i?eniaaeeieoue cia/eoaeueii
aieueoa eiiiiiaioia naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa e aeeaiai o?oaea;

a iaeaieueoae noaiaie yeiiiieoue aaethoo, /oi yaeyaony ia?ainoaiaiiui
aeey ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee a nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo,
eiaaea iaia?oaeeaaaony ionoonoaea NEA o iiiaeo iaoeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae;

auno?aa iiauoaoue oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaa aeaaiaea?y
niaa?oainoaiaaieth i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey ei,
aiaae?aieth aeinoeaeaiee ie?iaie i?aeoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa e ia?eaoeiaa,
yooaeoeaiiio iaiaio oaoiieiaeyie n eiino?aiiuie oe?iaie.

?inneeneea i?aaei?eyoey, anooiay a IEI, noaayo naiae ia?aii/a?aaeiie
oeaeueth iiauoaiea ea/anoaa e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iecaiaeeiie
i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iieueciaaeanue au oniaoii, eae ia aioo?aiiai, oae
e ia ie?iaii ?uiea, a oaeaea i?eiaiaiea aunieiyooaeoeaiie e
yeieiae/anee /enoie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee.

IEI eiaao iiiaeanoai oi?i e ?aciiaeaeiinoae, i?aaeii?aaeaeyaiuo
iniaaiiinoyie eiiia?aoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo e?eoa?eaa i?e auai?a i?aaei?eyoeai iaeaieaa
iiaeoiaeyuae aeey iaai oi?iu IEI, yaeythony ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe.
Caeanue iiaeii auaeaeeoue oaeea aa?eaiou, eae:

iieiia iainiaeaiea nianoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee-ia?oia?ia ec ?innee e
ae?oaeo no?ai ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ano?nu e eiouanoai;

iauaaeeiaiea nianoaaiiinoe ?inneeneeo e ca?oaaaeiuo ia?oia?ia a
?acee/iuo oi?iao niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa;

?acee/iua ni/aoaiey aeaoo ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa aeaeia ioiioaiee
nianoaaiiinoe.

A i?eiaiyaiie Aa?iiaeneie Yeiiiie/aneie Eiienneae III oe?oiiaiiie
a?oiie?iaea oi?i IEI, auaeaeaiu neaaeothuea iiaeaee aeiaiai?iie IEI.

Eiiia?aoeey ia eeoeaiceiiiie iniiaa. Caeanue inouanoaeyaony ia?aaea/a
eeoeaicee aa aeaaeaeueoeai (eeoeaicea?ii) ia?oia?o (eeoeaiceaoo) ia
eniieueciaaiea iineaaeiei i?iiuoeaiiie eee eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia?aiai. A ?yaea neo/aaa ia?aaea/a eeoeaicee aeiiieiyaony
i?iaeaaeae eeoeaicea?ii eeoeaiceaoo iaeioi?uo aeaeia iai?oaeiaaiey eee
oaoiieiae/aneeo eeiee, ioiinyueony e ia?aaeaiiui eeoeaiceyi e i?aaeiaoo
eiiia?aoeee. A iieaoo anaai iieo/aiiiai eeoeaiceao iinoaaeyao
eeoeaicea?o eiiia?e?iaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, a oaeaea iiaeao auiieiyoue
?aaiou e oneoae.

Eiiia?aoeey ii iiaeaee 1, aeiiieiyaiay iinoiyiiie iinoaaeie eeoeaicea?ii
eeoeaiceaoo eiiieaeoothueo a ii?aaeaeaiiie aeiea noieiinoe eiiiiiaioia
eee eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee.

Eiiia?aoeey ii iiaeaee 1 n iaeiia?aiaiiie ia?aaea/ae iai?oaeiaaiey a
ii?yaeea eeceiaa.

Niaianoiia i?iecaiaenoai, i?aaeoniao?eaathuaa:

eniieueciaaiea oaoiieiaee, ia?aaeaiiuo ae?oa ae?oao noi?iiaie
eiiia?aoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa;

i?iecaiaenoai ia eo iniiaa eiiia?e?iaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e acaeiiua aa
iinoaaee;

niaoeeaeecaoeeth eaaeaeie noi?iiu aeiaiai?a i IEI ia i?iecaiaenoaa eaeie
eeai eiia/iie eee i?iiaaeooi/iie i?iaeoeoeee a niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii
i IEI;

?ani?aaeaeaiea nauoa i?iaeoeoeee iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie IEI.

Niaianoiia i?iecaiaenoai, aeeth/athuaa iiieii ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa ioieoia
aua e niaianoiia i?iaaaeaiea IEIE?.

IEI ii eiiieaeno ?aaio, ioaaouaaaiuo anaie ia?a/eneaiiuie auoa
iiaeaeyie.

Iiae?yaeiay IEI, i?e eioi?ie caeac/eeo i?aaeinoaaeyaony niaeaniaaiiia
eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiie iiae?yae/eeii n eniieueciaaieai
«iio-oao» e aeieoiaioaoeee caeac/eea. Yoa oi?ia IEI iaeaieaa i?inoa e
?ani?ino?aiaia. Ii iia /aua auaaao iaaeieaia?aiaiiie aeey ?inneeneeo
i?aaei?eyoee, oae eae eiino?aiiue caeac/ee i?e ii?aaeaeaiiii iiai?ioa
niauoee iiaeao i?einoaiiaeoue e ia aiciaiiaeyoue caeac, /oi noaaeo
?inneeneiai iiae?yae/eea a cao?oaeieoaeueiia iieiaeaiea.

Iaeiaei ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ?inneeneei i?aaei?eyoeyi i?eoiaeeony
aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny eeoue iiae?yaeiie eiiia?aoeeae, e ae?oaeie i?inouie
oi?iaie IEI. Nea/eo e iaeaieaa ?acaeoui, eiiieaeniui oi?iai IEI a ?innee
i?aiyonoaotho: ionoonoaea o iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee iiuoa eiiia?aoeeiiiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa; ia?aie/aiiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneee e
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoiieiae/aneee iioaioeeae, nouanoaaiii onooiathuee
aaaeouei eiiiaieyi ?acaeouo no?ai; ionoonoaea n?aaenoa, iniaaiii
aaethoiuo, ia ia?ano?ieeo i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a ?inneeneoth
yeiiiieeo iieo/eea ?ani?ino?aiaiea oaeay oi?ia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eae nicaeaiea niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Iie nicaeaaaeenue
ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo ioa/anoaaiiui ainoaea?noaaiiui
i?aaei?eyoeai, eioi?ia auaeaeyei ii?aaeaeaiioth /anoue eiouanoaa,
eiaaoaainy a aai ?anii?yaeaiee (caeaiey, iai?oaeiaaiea,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneea ciaiey), a ea/anoaa aeeaaea a onoaaiue oiiae NI.
Aeiey eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a a onoaaiii oiiaea ii?aaeaeyeanue
noieiinoueth iinoaaeyaiuo ei iaoei, iai?oaeiaaiey, nia?aiaiiuo
oaoiieiaee e iaee/iuo aeaiaa a NEA. N naiiai ia/aea a i?ioeanna
nicaeaiey NI iaeaieaa ino?i anoaea i?iaeaia ii?aaeaeaiey ?aaeueiiai
niioiioaiey aeeaaeia ?inneeneiai e eiino?aiiiai ia?oia?ia. Oaea ia
ia?auo yoaiao auyaeeenue ii?aaeaeaiiua iaaeinoaoee yoie oi?iu
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa aeey iaoae no?aiu, iineieueeo caieaeaeanue
?aaeueiay aeiey ioa/anoaaiiuo o/anoieeia i?e oi?ie?iaaiee onoaaiuo
oiiaeia NI.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy na?ueaciuo caiaaeiuo eiaanoi?ia eioa?anoao ia noieueei
ia?oia?noai n ?inneeneeie i?aaei?eyoeyie, neieueei i?eia?aoaiea
iaaeaaeiuo yeaiaioia eiio?iey iaae i?iecaiaenoaii. Iiyoiio ana aieueooth
?ieue a i?eaea/aiee eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee ea?aao nicaeaiea
i?aaei?eyoee ni 100%-iui eiino?aiiui o/anoeai. Eiaaea i?aaei?eyoea
nicaeaaony iieiinoueth ca n/ao eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a, oi ia aicieeaao
aii?in i i?aaeeueiie ioeaiea ?inneeneiai aeeaaea. E a yoii niunea oaeea
i?aaei?eyoey aeaaea i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa NI.

1.3. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. ?inney i?iaicaeaneea eo?n ia oi?ie?iaaiea ioe?uoie
yeiiiieee, eioi?ay i?ecaaia niinianoaiaaoue ?inoo yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii, o/eouaay ie?iaie iiuo, iieiinoueth ioe?uaaoue
?inneeneee ?uiie aeey eiino?aiiuo eiiiaiee iiaeii oieueei iinoaiaiii,
oae eae aieueoeinoai iaoeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae ia auaea?aeeaatho n ieie
eiieo?aioeee.

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue a ?innee ?aaoee?oaony
niaieoiiinoueth ii?i, eceiaeaiiuo a caeiiao ?O eee oeacao I?aceaeaioa. E
/eneo aaaeiaeoeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, ?aaoee?othueo
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, ioiinyony Caeii «I
ainoaea?noaaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee aiaoiaoi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe»,
Oaiiaeaiiue eiaeaen ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, Caeii «I oaiiaeaiiii
oa?eoa».

A noaouea 4 Caeiia «I ainoaea?noaaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee aiaoiaoi?aiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe» noi?ioee?iaaiu i?eioeeiu yoiai ?aaoee?iaaiey:

aaeeinoai aiaoiaoi?aiaie iieeoeee eae ninoaaiie /anoe aiaoiae iieeoeee
?O;

aaeeinoai nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe e eiio?iey ca aa inouanoaeaieai;

aaeeinoai oaiiaeaiiie oa??eoi?ee ?O;

i?ei?eoao yeiiiie/aneeo ia? ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

?aaainoai o/anoieeia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e eo
iaaeene?eieiaoeey;

caueoa ainoaea?noaii i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania o/anoieeia
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

eneeth/aiea iaii?aaaeaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa e aai i?aaiia ai
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, iaianaiey oua?aa aa o/anoieeai.

Eiie?aoiue iaoaieci ?aaoee?iaaiey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
ii?aaeaeyaony oeacaie i?aceaeaioa e iinoaiiaeaieyie i?aaeoaeuenoaa,
eioi?ua eiie?aoece?otho caeiiiaeaoaeueiua iieiaeaiey. Iie onoaiaaeeaatho
ii?yaeie eeoeaice?iaaiey e eaioe?iaaiey ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea, noaaee
oaiiaeaiiuo ieaoaaeae e ii?yaeie eo aceiaiey.

A oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, neeueiiai niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue. Iniiaiuie iaoiaeaie ?aaoee?iaaiey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae yaeythony oeiainiaia, aaethoiia, e?aaeeoiia,
oaiiaeaiii-oa?eoiia e iaoa?eoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea; iaania/aiea yenii?oiiai
eiio?iey; ii?aaeaeaiea iieeoeee a iaeanoe na?oeoeeaoeee oiaa?ia a nayce
n eo aaicii e auaicii; aaeieieno?aoeaiua n?aaenoaa ?aaoee?iaaiey. Ii a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?aaeoaeuenoai ii/oe iieiinoueth ioeacaeinue io
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo iaoiaeia (e?iia niaoeeoe/aneeo aeaeia oi?aiaee), a
oaeaea io eaioe?iaaiey yenii?oa. Ioiaiaiu oaeaea e yenii?oiua iioeeiu.

Niaeanii Caeiio ?O «I ainoaea?noaaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee aiaoiaoi?aiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe», yenii?o ec ?innee e eiii?o a ?inneth inouanoaeyaony aac
eiee/anoaaiiuo ia?aie/aiee. Ia?aie/aiey iiaoo aaiaeeoueny oieueei a
eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo, oaeeo eae ia?aie/aiea yenii?oa no?aoaae/anee
aaaeiiai nu?uey e oiaa?ia aeey ecaaaeaiey iaianaiey oua?aa
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea.

Caeiiii i?aaeoniao?eaathony e oaeea ia?u niaeaenoaey yenii?oa e
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a oeaeii, eae aaeaaiaeiia ninoaaeaiea
i?ia?aii ?acaeoey aiaoiaoi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. A aeieain?i/iii ieaia
iaeaieaa aaaeii nicaeaoue nenoaio noeioee?iaaiey iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai e
ia?niaeoeaiiai yenii?oa – yenii?oa aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. A 1996 aiaeo
I?aaeoaeuenoaii auei i?eiyoi iinoaiiaeaiea «I aeiiieieoaeueiie
iiaeaea?aeea ioa/anoaaiiiai yenii?oa oiaa?ia e oneoa». A iai
i?aaeoniio?aiu ii?aaeaeaiiua eueaiou yenii?oii?eaioe?iaaiiui
i?aaei?eyoeyi, iniaaiii i?iecaiaeyuei iaoeii-oaoie/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth,
a iieo/aiee e?aaeeoia, a /anoiinoe iiae iaania/aiea eo iai?ioiuie
n?aaenoaaie, ca n/ao oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ia aica?aoiie iniiaa n
oieaoie i?ioeaioia a ?acia?a iieiaeiu o/aoiie noaaee Oeaio?aeueiiai
aaiea ?O. I?aaeoniio?aii aa?aioe?iaaiea e no?aoiaaiea yenii?oiuo
e?aaeeoia aeey iaania/aiey caueou yenii?oa?ia io aeieain?i/iuo
eiiia?/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo ?eneia.

A ia/aea 1996 aiaea auea iaeia?aia Oaaea?aeueiay i?ia?aiia ?acaeoey
yenii?oa, a eioi?ie i?aaeoniio?aiu oaae a iai?aaeaiee eco/aiey
ca?oaaaeiuo ?uieia, iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia, ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiiia?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?aaeoaeuenoai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?eieiaao ia?u ii nicaeaieth
aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey aeinooia ?inneeneeo eeoe ia ?uiee ae?oaeo
ainoaea?noa, anooiay, a /anoiinoe, a yoeo oeaeyo a aeaonoi?iiiea e
iiiainoi?iiiea ia?aaiai?u e caeeth/ay iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u, a
oaeaea o/anoaoy a nicaeaiee e aeayoaeueiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
i?aaiecaoeee e iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo eiiennee, i?ecaaiiuo
niaeaenoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneeo naycae ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee n eiino?aiiuie ainoaea?noaaie.

A oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena iaeiei ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo iai?aaeaiee
a iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony
i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e eiiia?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa.
?aaoee?iaaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee, aaethoiuo e oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo
iia?aoeee, inouanoaeyaony niioaaonoaothueie oaaea?aeueiuie caeiiaie e
eiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Iaeiei ec oaeeo aeoia
yaeyaony caeii «Ia #G0eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a ?NON?». #G0Ianoiyuee
Caeii ii?aaeaeyao i?aaiaua e yeiiiie/aneea iniiau inouanoaeaiey
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee ia oa??eoi?ee ?O e iai?aaeai ia i?eaea/aiea e
yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
eiino?aiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, ia?aaeiaie ca?oaaaeiie
oaoieee e oaoiieiaee, oi?aaeai/aneiai iiuoa.

Ainoaea?noai any/anee niaeaenoaoao ?inneeneei i?aaei?eyoeyi a
i?eaea/aiee eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee. A /anoiinoe, oaeei i?aaei?eyoeyi
iii i?aaeinoaaeyao eueaiou e ieacuaaao iiiiuue, a oii /enea e
oeiainiaoth. I?eoie eiaanoeoeee ai iiiaii caaeneo io oiai, ianeieueei
noeioee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ieacuaaao ia ieo iaeiaiaay nenoaia no?aiu.
I?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiui o/anoeai eueaioaie i?e iaeiaiaii e
oaiiaeaiiii iaeiaeaiee. Oae io iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
inaiaiaeaeaiu:

oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea, eiiieaeoothuea e caianiua /anoe e iaio;

oiaa?u, aaiceiua a ea/anoaa aeeaaea a onoaaiua oiiaeu i?aaei?eyoee n
eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie;

e?aaeeoiua n?aaenoaa;

oiaa?u, aaiceiua a n/ao iiaaoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aaeeoia.

Io aceiaiey oaiiaeaiiie iioeeiu inaiaiaeaeathony oiaa?u, aaiceiua a
ea/anoaa aeeaaea a onoaaiua oiiaeu i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie, aaiceiua ?aaioieeaie i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie aeey nianoaaiiuo ioaeae.

Aunieiyooaeoeaiui eiaanoeoeeiiiui i?iaeoai, n?ie ieoiaaiinoe eioi?uo ia
i?aauoaao aeaoo eao e a eioi?ua /anoiue eiaanoi? aeeaaeuaaao nianoaaiiua
n?aaenoaa, i?aaeinoaaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea, ia iaiaa 20 %
io noieiinoe i?iaeoa [3, c.229].

?acia? ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiue, i?aaeinoaaeyaiie ca n/ao n?aaenoa
oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa, onoaiaaeeaaaony a caaeneiinoe io eaoaai?ee
i?iaeoa, e ia iiaeao i?aauoaoue:

50 % noieiinoe aeey i?iaeoia, iaania/eaathueo i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee,
ia eiathuae ca?oaaaeiuo aiaeiaia;

40 % aeey i?iaeoia, iaania/eaathueo i?iecaiaenoai yenii?oiuo oiaa?ia
ianu?ueaauo io?aneae;

30 % aeey i?iaeoia, iaania/eaathueo i?iecaiaenoai eiii?oicaiauathuae
i?iaeoeoeee;

20 % aeey i?iaeoia, iaania/eaathueo i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee,
iieuecothuaeny ni?inii ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea [3, c.229].

?acia? ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiue a aeaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee
onoaiaaeeaaaony a caaeneiinoe io eaoaai?ee i?iaeoa e ia iiaeao
i?aauoaoue 60 % caaiiuo n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aai inouanoaeaiey[3,
c.229].

*anoiue eiaanoi? ai?aaa auae?aoue iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueioth aeey iaai
oi?io ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee, a oii /enea:

i?aaeinoaaeaiea n?aaenoa oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ia aica?aoiie iniiaa;

i?aaeinoaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?ano?nia ia oneiaeyo cae?aieaiey a
ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe /anoe aeoeee nicaeaaaaiuo aeoeeiia?iuo
iauanoa;

i?aaeinoaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee aeey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa.

Oneiaey i?aaeinoaaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee ca n/ao n?aaenoa
oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ii?aaeaeythony a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii i
oaaea?aeueiii athaeaeaoa ia i/a?aaeiie aiae.

I?aaei?eyoey, a onoaaiii oiiaea eioi?uo eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee
ninoaaeytho aieaa 30 %, ai?aaa aac eeoeaicee yenii?oe?iaaoue
i?iaeoeoeeth nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e eiii?oe?iaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth
aeey nianoaaiiuo ioaeae, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
aeaenoaothueie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aeiaiai?aie ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee[3,
c.230]. Yenii?o e eiii?o ae?oaie i?iaeoeoeee inouanoaeyaony
i?aaei?eyoeyie n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie ia iaueo iniiaaieyo.

A oeaeii ?aaeei oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie oaeie aea, eae e aeey anao ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee, oioy
ia?aua iieuecothony iaeioi?uie eueaioaie i?e iaeiaiaii e oaiiaeaiiii
iaeiaeaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ainoaea?noai ia nicaeaao
i?aiyonoaee ia iooe ?acaeoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee, e noa?aaony niinianoaiaaoue ae. I?aaei?eyoea
aac eaeeo eeai ia?aie/aiee iiaeao iaoiaeeoue ?uiee nauoa aeey
i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee ca i?aaeaeaie naiae no?aiu, eiiia?e?iaaoue
i?iecaiaenoai e i?eaeaeaoue eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee, /oi niinianoaoao
?acaeoeth e iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii ?aoathuoth ?ieue a niaa?oainoaiaaiee no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa e
aiaoiae oi?aiaee aeieaeii nua?aoue ia ainoaea?noai, a naie i?aaei?eyoey.
Oieueei ia iooe ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiiai eiieo?aioiniiniaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, a oii /enea e iaoeiaieiai, iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe io
?aaiou ia ie?iauo ?uieao, ?inneeneee aecian iiaeao noaoue ?aaiii?aaiui
ia?oia?ii Caiaaea.

2. I?iaeaiu ?acaeoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo
i?aaei?eyoee (ia i?eia?a iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie io?anee).

Iaoeiino?iaiea yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeoueo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe
?innee. Ianoi e ?ieue, eioi?oth yoa io?aneue caieiaao a ia?iaeiii
oicyenoaa no?aiu, i?aaeii?aaeaeyao ai iiiaii iai?aaeaiea iieeoeee
ainoaea?noaa a iaeanoe yeiiiieee. Iaoeiino?iaiea, nicaeaaay iaeaieaa
aeoeaioth /anoue iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia – i?oaeey o?oaea – a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia oaiiu e iai?aaeaiey
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, a oaeaea ia ae?oaea yeiiiie/aneea
iieacaoaee a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Yoi e yaeyaony aai
ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth. Ia aeieth iaoeiino?iaiey i?eoiaeeony
aieaa 1/3 oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?innee, 2/5
i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ia?niiaea, ii/oe 1/4 iniiaiuo
i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. Iaoeiino?iaiea yaeyaony /anoueth
anae eiaeono?ee ?innee, e iniaaiiinoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee iaoeiino?iaiey noiaee n aa iniaaiiinoyie a inoaeueiuo
io?aneyo [14, c.102].

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo noa?
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee iaoeiino?iaiey. Aei iaaeaiey
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu a yeiiiieea o i?aaei?eyoee ia
aicieeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue auoiaeeoue ia ie?iaie ?uiie, iineieueeo eo
i?iaeoeoeey anaaaea iaoiaeeea ?uiee nauoa aioo?e no?aiu, /oi
iaania/eaaeinue iinoiyiiui aeaoeoeeoii, eioi?ue auioaeaeae iieoiaoaey
i?eia?aoaoue eiathuothny ia ?uiea i?iaeoeoeeth, a oaeaea i?aaiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, iaania/eaaaoeo ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee (iai?eia?, Ainieaiii). Ii a nayce n e?ooaieai aee?aeoeaiiai
ieaie?iaaiey e ia oiia aeoaieiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena i?iaeoeoeey
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie io?anee ia?anoaea noieue oniaoii ?aaeeciauaaoueny ia
aioo?aiiai ?uiea. Yoi oaeaea naycaii n nie?auaieai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
caeaca ia aii?oaeaiey, oae eae aieueoeinoai i?aaei?eyoee io?anee
iaoiaeeeinue a ninoaaa aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena.

?aoi?ie?iaaiea ?inneeneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eiiaa?ney aiaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, nieaeaiea athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia n 1992 aiaea i?eaaee e
e?eceno iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai eiiieaena. A ia?aie iieiaeia 90-o aiaeia
oiaiueoeeanue aieinoue ?uieia eiaanoeoeeiiiuo, iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia,
aii?oaeaiey e aiaiiie oaoieee.

Ianooaau niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa a iaoeiino?ieoaeueiii eiiieaena, ii
aeaiiui ?ineiiiaoa, ca aiaeu ?aoi?i oa?aeoa?ecothony neaaeothueie
iieacaoaeyie: a 1992 aiaeo iauai i?iecaiaenoaa nieceeny ia 11,7 %; a
1993 – ia 14,9 %; a 1994 – ia 42,4 %; a 1995 – ia 4,4 % [8, c.44]. Ii
iaeioi?ui aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa oiaee iaiiiai ieaea
i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiiai o?iaiy, iaania/eaathuaai caiaio eciioaiiiai e
auauaathuaai iai?oaeiaaiey o iio?aaeoaey e nio?aiaiea noaaeeueiiai
o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa o i?iecaiaeeoaey. Aiciee e?eoe/aneee aeenaaeain
iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iioaioeeaeii e oaeoe/aneei o?iaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

?inney, caieiaaoay a eiioea 80-o aiaeia iyoia ianoi (iinea ssiiiee,
Aa?iaiee, NOA, Eoaeee) ii i?iecaiaenoao iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuaai
iai?oaeiaaiey ?acei naeaea naie iiceoeee.

Iieiaeaiea a iaoeiino?ieoaeueiii eiiieaena oaeaea onoaoaeyaony iooieii
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia, a oii /enea ec iao/iuo e
eiino?oeoi?nei-oaoiieiae/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee.

Oaeaea aua iaeiei e?eceniui yaeaieai a iaoeiino?iaiee ?innee yaeyaony
naa?ouaaiea eiaanoeoeee. Yoi yaeyaony iaeiie ec naiuo iaaaoeaiuo
oaiaeaioeee. Ia/eiay n 1991 aiaea, eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey ia iie?uaatho
auauoea e eciin iniiaiuo oiiaeia, i?ienoiaeeo ?ac?ooaiea iiuiinoae.
Ia?anoaao ea/anoaaiiay aeaa?aaeaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa, ec-ca
/aai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue i?iaeoeoeee iaaeaao.

Ana yoe oaeoi?u i?eaaee e iniai iaaeaeaoaeueiui aeey i?aaei?eyoee
iineaaenoaeyi, oaeei, eae ?aceiio niaaeo i?iecaiaenoaa, nie?auaieth
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe e ?inoo caaeieaeaiiinoae i?aaei?eyoee, ianniaiio
aaie?ionoao.

A oeaeyo aeaeueiaeoaai auaeeaaiey ?inneeneea iaoeiino?ieoaeueiua
i?aaei?eyoey noaee iuoaoueny auoiaeeoue ia aiaoiea ?uiee e aeoeaii
caieiaoueny aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth, a oii /enea e
i?eaea/aieai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee. Ii e caeanue o ieo aicieeee
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iaeaiu, i eioi?uo ?a/ue iieaeao ieaea.

2.1. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
?inneeneiai iaoeiino?iaiey.

A oeaeii, neooaoeeth a iaeanoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae neiaeioth. E yoi naycaii, i?aaeaea anaai, n
yeiiiie/aneei e?ecenii a no?aia, iaaeaieai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiinoueth i?iaeoeoeee, iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth n?aaenoa.

Ninoiyiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee ia/iai oa?aeoa?eciaaoue n yenii?oa e
eiii?oa i?iaeoeoeee, aeaiiua i eioi?ii i?eaaaeaiu a neaaeothueo
oaaeeoeao.

Oaaeeoea 2.1.

?inneeneee yenii?o iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iaeoeoeee (a iei.
aeiee.)[1,c.60].

Iaoeiu, iai?oaeiaaiea e o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa

a oii /enea:

a aeaeueiaa ca?oaaaeuea

a aeeaeiaa ca?oaaaeuea 1997 Ni?aai/ii e 1996

Noiia Noiia

8548,6

5598,7

2949,9

8232,4

5590,2

2642,2

Oaaeeoea 2.2.

?inneeneee eiii?o iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iaeoeoeee (a iei. aeiee.)
[1,c.60].

Iaoeiu, iai?oaeiaaiea e o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa

a oii /enea:

ec aeaeueiaai ca?oaaaeuey

ec aeeaeiaai ca?oaaaeuey 1997 Ni?aai/ii e 1996

Noiia Noiia

18446,7

14966,1

3450,6

14634,6

11772,2

2862,4

Eae aeaeii ec auoai?eaaaeaiiuo oaaeeoe, iauay noiia yenii?oa a 1997
aiaeo ii ioiioaieth e 1996 ninoaaeea 103,8 %, a eiii?oa – 126,0 %.
Naeueaei aiaoiaoi?aiaiai iaiaia ii iaoeiai, iai?oaeiaaieth e
o?ainii?oiui n?aaenoaai (a iei. aeiee.) a 1996 aiaeo ninoaaeei –6402,2,
a a 1997 aiaeo -9898,1.

Oaeei ia?acii, ec i?eaaaeaiiuo aeaiiuo iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea
auaiaeu.

Ai-ia?auo, ii yenii?oii-eiii?oiui iinoaaeai iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey ?inney
eiaao io?eoeaoaeueiia e ?anoouaa naeueaei, oi anoue yaeyaony /enoui
eiii?oa?ii i?iaeoeoeee iaoeiino?iaiey. Aeiey ecaeaeee iaoeiino?iaiey a
iauai eiii?oa aeinoeaaao iaeiie o?aoe, /oi yaeyaony i/aiue aieueoie
aaee/eiie, e i?e yoii ieiei 81% eiii?oe?oaony ec no?ai aeaeueiaai
ca?oaaaeuey [9, c.19].

Aunieay aeiey eiii?oa iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey ec auaoeo nithciuo
?anioaeee iauyniyaony aeaeaieai nei?aa iaiiaeoue iiuiinoe i?iiuoeaiiiai
eiiieaena. Ii a ia?niaeoeaa caeanue oaeony na?ueaciay iianiinoue. Anee
oaeay oaiaeaioeey nio?aieony, iaoeiino?ieoaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey i?eaeoo a
oiaaeie, eeoeaoenue caeacia ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee, oiaaea eae
ioa/anoaaiiua caaiaeu, iniauaiiua caiaaeiui oaoiieiae/aneei
iai?oaeiaaieai, iiiaaeoo a caaeneiinoue io iinoaaie eiiieaeoothueo e
caianiuo /anoae.

Ai-aoi?uo, aeiey iaoeiioaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee a iauai yenii?oa no?aiu
ninoaaeyao ieiei 6 %, a ii ae?oaei aeaiiui iaiiiai iaiueoa, /oi ia
oa?aeoa?ii aeey eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai ie?a [9, c.19].

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy oiaiueoeeanue aeiey no?ai NIA a ?inneeneii
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiii yenii?oa e eiii?oa, /oi neoaeeo i?e/eiie ?ac?uaa
eiiia?aoeeiiiuo naycae iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie, eioi?ua a iaaeaaiai
i?ioeii yaeyeenue aaeeiui iaoeiino?ieoaeueiui eiiieaenii.

Oaeaea iaeiie ec nouanoaaiiuo i?iaeai yaeyaony oi, /oi a iauai yenii?oa
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee iecea aeiey iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee. A a
iauai yenii?oa ?innee iia ninoaaeyao anaai eeoue 1 % [8, c.45].

I?iaeoeoeey ?inneeneiai iaoeiino?iaiey a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa auoiaea
i?aaei?eyoee ia aiaoiea ?uiee ia iiaeao auaea?aeaoue eiieo?aioeeth
caiaaeiuo aiaeiaia. Ieceay eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue yaeyaony iniiaiie
i?e/eiie iaaethaeathuaeny oaiaeaioeee e oo?aoa ioa/anoaaiiuie
i?aaei?eyoeyie /anoe aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo oiaa?iuo ?uieia. Yoi
iai?aiaiii iiaeao i?eaanoe e cia/eoaeueiiio nieaeaieth yeiiiie/aneiai
iioaioeeaea no?aiu.

Ii i?e/eia oaeiai iieiaeaiey aeae a iaeanoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e?iaony ia oieueei a ianiiniaiinoe
?inneeneiai iaoeiino?iaiey yooaeoeaii aieoe a ie?iaia oicyenoai. Yoiio
oaeaea i?aiyonoaotho caiaaeiua iiiiiieee.

?inneeneea i?aaei?eyoey ia ioneatho ia ?uiee aunieioaoiieiae/iuo
oiaa?ia ni naiae i?iaeoeoeeae, oaaee/eaatho aa?uea?u aoiaea ia ?uiee.
?inneth aeiioneatho oaeoe/anee oieueei e oi?aiaea nu?ueai e
yia?aiiineoaeyie. E a oi aea a?aiy, i?e iuiaoiae ioe?uoinoe ?inneeneie
yeiiiieee Caiaae iieo/ee i?aeoe/anee aaca?aie/iue aeinooi ia ?inneeneea
?uiee e e ia?aaeiaui ioa/anoaaiiui oaoiieiaeyi.

Ia aeaiiii yoaia a iaoeiino?ieoaeueiii eiiieaena neiaeeeanue e?aeia
neiaeiay neooaoeey. Iaoeiino?iaiea noieo ia a?aie oo?aou aai
oaoiieiae/aneiai iioaioeeaea. *oiau oeoe io yoie a?aie, iaiaoiaeeii
inouanoaeoue oe?ieee eiiieaen aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?. Eo yooaeo
aoaeao aieueoa, a cao?aou ia aai aeinoeaeaiea iaiueoa, anee oaeanony
aiaea/ue iaoe i?aaei?eyoey a ie?ioicyenoaaiiue i?ioeann i?iiuoeaiiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa e i?aaeaea anaai iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee.

Aic?iaeaeaiea iaoeiino?iaiey, caaiaaaiea e oe?aieaiea iiceoeee ia
ie?iauo ?uieao caaenyo io ?yaea oaeoi?ia. Iniiaiuie ec ieo yaeythony:

iaee/ea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia, aeinoaoi/iuo aeey iiaea?iecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aacu, nii?oaeaiey iiauo iauaeoia;

iaee/ea ?acaeoiai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea, niiniaiiai inaaeaaoue
iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee;

yooaeoeaiia acaeiiaeaenoaea ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee e eo ca?oaaaeiuo
ia?oia?ia ia eiiia?aoeeiiiie iniiaa;

aeinoaoi/iinoue ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie
io?anee.

Eae ecaanoii, nianoaaiiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia a iaoae no?aia
iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey aic?iaeaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ea/anoaaiiie aa
ia?ano?ieee, iaania/eaoae au auoiae ia aiaoiea ?uiee. Eiino?aiiua
eiaanoi?u oiaea ia niaoao aeeaaeuaaoue n?aaenoaa a iaoa iaoeiino?iaiea.
Yoi i?aaeaea anaai naycaii n yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie
ianoaaeeueiinoueth a no?aia, a oaeaea n ionoonoaeai oae iacuaaaiie
«eiaanoeoeeiiiie i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe» o aieueoeinoaa i?aaei?eyoee
io?anee. Onoa?aei iai?oaeiaaiea e iao/ii-oaoie/aneay aaca iaoeo
caaiaeia. Eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia iooaeeeaaao e oi, /oi aieueoeinoai
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee, iino?iaiiuo a ia?eiae ainiiaenoaa
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu, eiatho ia?iiiua ?acia?u e naycaiiua
n ieie eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou o?aaotho i/aiue cia/eoaeueiuo n?aaenoa.

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua ia?aie/aiey yaeythony iuia ?aoathueie aeey
iaoeiino?iaiey. Ii iaeioi?ui ioeaieai, niaae eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a
yoo io?aneue a ianeieueei ?ac i?aaunee i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiue aeey
aini?iecaiaenoaa iniiaiuo oiiaeia, oaoiieiaee e nicaeaiey ia?niaeoeaiuo
iao/iuo caaeaeia (yoio i?aaeae ioeaieaaaony a 16-30 %).

Ioaeii neacaoue, /oi aieueoeinoai ?inneeneeo iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoee ia iaeaaeaao aeinoaoi/iui iao/ii-oaoie/aneei e
eioaeeaeooaeueii-eaae?iaui iioaioeeaeii aeey auoiaea ia ie?iaie ?uiie.
Eneeth/aieyie yaeythony eeoue io?anee n aunieeie oaoiieiaeyie,
iai?eia?, aaeaeinie/aneay. A ae?oaeo aea io?aneyo ii iaaeinoaoi/ai, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai iiiaea ?inneeneea i?aaei?eyoey auee auoaniaiu n
ioa/anoaaiiiai ?uiea eiino?aiiuie oe?iaie.

A oeo/oaiee iieiaeaiey aeae a iaeanoe iaoee, oaoieee e oaoiieiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa iiiaia caaeneo io aeinoeaeaiee ioa/anoaaiiie iaoee,
eioi?ay oeiaine?oaony e?aeia iaaeinoaoi/ii a iineaaeiaa a?aiy, io
aeinoeaeaiee a noa?a IEIE?, a oaeaea io ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa (IION), iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
eiiia?aoeee ?innee n ca?oaaaeiuie ia?oia?aie. Ia ?acaeoea IION
auaeaeyaony eeoue iaeia nioay n?aaenoa, anneaioaiuo ia iaoeo a oeaeii.

Ii e a iaeanoe IION ?innee n caiaaeii nouanoaotho i?iaeaiu. Iie ninoiyo
a oii, /oi a iineaaeiea aiaeu IION iineo ia?aaiii?aaiue aeey ?innee
oa?aeoa?. ?ac?aaioee a iniiaiii oeiaine?othony Caiaaeii ii i?yiui naycyi
n ?inneeneeie iao/ii-oaoie/aneeie i?aaiecaoeeyie. E a eoiaa ?acoeueoaou
?ac?aaioie noaiiayony nianoaaiiinoueth caiaaeiuo eiiiaiee, eioi?ua
?anii?yaeathony eie ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Oaeei ia?acii, aicieeaao
neooaoeey, eiaaea aeinoeaeaiey ?inneeneie iaoee ?aaioatho ia /oaeoth
yeiiiieeo. A nayce n yoei aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iieneao
acaeiiauaiaeiuo aa?eaioia oaeiai nio?oaeie/anoaa, a oaeaea niaiauaieai
aai n acaeiiaeaenoaeai a noa?ao i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee. IION
aeaao iaiiiai aieueoee yooaeo, anee ia?a?anoaao a
iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiioth eiiia?aoeeth.

Aianoa n oai nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe i?e aeeth/aiee
?inneeneeo iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee a IEI. Yoi o?oaeiinoe
aioo?aiiaai ii?yaeea, oaeea eae eioeyoeey, eiaanoeoeeiiiue e?ecen,
eo?niaay iaonoie/eainoue ?oaey, aeaa?aaeaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiuiinoae, ia noi?ie?iaaiiay ii?iaoeaiay aaca o/anoe i?aaei?eyoee a IEI,
a oaeaea o?oaeiinoe aiaoiaai ii?yaeea – yoi ianiaianoeiinoue ?inneeneie
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iaeoeoeee ii ia?aiao?ai aiaeiaia caiaaeiuo oe?i e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oia e ae?oaea.

Oaeaea ia niioaaonoaotho nia?aiaiiiio ie?iaiio o?iaith
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee no?oeoo?u e iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey ia ?inneeneeo
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie i?aaei?eyoey
?innee a neeo ?yaea i?e/ei iiea ia niiaee aienaoueny a ie?iaie
eiiia?aoeeiiiue i?ioeann.

Oaeei ia?acii, ec anaai auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae
oiaaei/iia. Ia iooe auoiaea ia aiaoiea ?uiee e acaeiiaeaenoaey n
eiino?aiiuie ia?oia?aie i?aaei?eyoey noaeeeaathony n cia/eoaeueiuie
cao?oaeiaieyie e i?aiyonoaeyie. Ii e ec yoie neooaoeee ianiiiaiii anoue
auoiae, anee ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi i?aaei?eyoee e ainoaea?noao i?iaiaeeoue
a?aiioioth yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo. Eaeea aea nouanoaotho ia?niaeoeau e
iooe ?aoaiey i?iaeai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee
iaoeiino?iaiey a ?innee?

2.2. Ia?niaeoeau e iooe ?acaeoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee (ia i?eia?a iaoeiino?iaiey).

Iaeiie ec ia?ainoaiaiiuo i?iaeai ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee, n oi/ee c?aiey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneiai aniaeoa, yaeyaony ieceee o?iaaiue
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee. Iiieii oiai, /oi
ioa/anoaaiiua i?iecaiaeeoaee cao?oaeiythony aueoe n iae ia aiaoiee
?uiie, iie oaeaea auoaniythony n aioo?aiiaai ?uiea. Ii, oai ia iaiaa,
noieo neacaoue, /oi ?inney ?aniieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiiuie aeaaii?eyoiuie
i?aaeiinueeaie aeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa.

A no?aia eiaaony e?oiiay ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaay aaca, eiathony
oieeaeueiua oaoiieiaee e iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neea ?ac?aaioee, a /anoiinoe
a aaeaeinie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e AIE. Oaeaea no?aia ia eniuouaaao
iaaeinoaoea a o?oaeiauo ?ano?nao. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeiey
o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey a aai iauae /eneaiiinoe ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii
55 % [11, c.92]. I/aiue aaaeii oaeaea oi, /oi caiyoay a ia?iaeiii
oicyenoaa ?aai/ay neea iaeaaeaao n?aaieoaeueii aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeeae e
ioiineoaeueiie aeaoaaeciie.

A oeaeyo iino?iaiey aunieiyooaeoeaiie yeiiiieee, aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay
iieeoeea ?innee aeieaeia auoue i?eaioe?iaaia ia ?acaeoea yenii?oa e ia
eiii?oicaiauaiea. I?ioeann eiii?oicaiauaiey ?aoaao oeaeue eiiieaen
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/, oaeeo eae aic?iaeaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiiai
eiiieaena, nie?auaiea aac?aaioeoeu, oe?aieaiea yeiiiie/aneie
aaciianiinoe no?aiu. Ii oai ia iaiaa ia oeaeaniia?acii nicaeaaaoue
aaoa?ee/anee caieiooia i?iecaiaenoai. E iiyoiio iniiaiia aieiaiea
aeieaeii oaeaeyoueny yenii?oiiio naeoi?o. Iiaea?iecaoeey i?aaei?eyoee
o?aaoao caeoiee nia?aiaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey ca ?oaaaeii, a yenii?o iiaeao
aunooiaoue aeaaiui enoi/ieeii n?aaenoa aeey yoiai.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo e aaaeiaeoei ia?niaeoeaiui oeaeyi ?acaeoey
yenii?oa ?acaeoey yenii?oa i?iaeoeoeee iaoeiino?iaiey neaaeoao ioianoe:

ainnoaiiaeaiea iauaiia iaoeiioaoie/aneiai yenii?oa, aeeth/ay aiaiioth
oaoieeo;

?anoe?aiea auaica i?iaeoeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea, oaeeo eae
eeoeaicee, «iio-oao», ?acoeueoaou IEIE?, i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea;

i?aeiouanoaaiiue ?ino iaoeiaieiai yenii?oa – i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa
aaeaoeeiiiie, einie/aneie e aoiiiie io?aneae e oae aeaeaa;

?acaeoea eiiia?aoeeiiiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa – iaeaaeeaaiea iinoaaie ca
?oaaae e ec-ca ?oaaaea oceia e aeaoaeae aeey ecaioiaeaiey niaianoii
?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee;

auiieiaiea ii caeacai ec-ca a?aieoeu i?eeeaaeiuo iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee a
oeaeyo niaa?oainoaiaaiey niaianoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa;

?anoe?aiea oaoie/aneiai niaeaenoaey a no?ieoaeuenoaa, ?aeiino?oeoeee e
yenieoaoaoeee iauaeoia, a oaeaea a eo oaoie/aneii iniauaiee.

Aanueia aaaeiui enoiaeiui ioieoii aeey au?aaioee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
no?aoaaee ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony aiaeec ?uieia nauoa. Iiyoiio
aeey i?aaei?eyoey aanueia oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue ia?eaoeiaiaua
enneaaeiaaiey aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe io auoiaea ia aiaoiea ?uiee.
Aeieaeai i?iaiaeeoueny aiaeec aaia?aoee, aieinoe, niaoeeoe/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae e o?aaiaaiee ?uieia nauoa, aiciiaeiuo eciaiaiee a aaee/eia
e oa?aeoa?a ni?ina. Oi anoue ii?aaeaeaieth yenii?oiie iieeoeee
i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeii i?aaeoanoaiaaoue auyaeaiea ia?niaeoea ?aaeecaoeee
eiie?aoiie i?iaeoeoeee ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?uieao. I/aaeaeii, /oi
auaea?aeaoue eiieo?aioeeth ia aiaoiai ?uiea niiaoo eeoue oa
i?iecaiaeeoaee,. Eioi?ua a ninoiyiee /ooei oeaaeeaaoue eciaiaiey a
oa?aeoa?a ni?ina, aeaei i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e iaio. Oaeie iiaeoiae
i?aaenoaaeyaony aieaa i?iaeoeoeaiui, ii n?aaiaieth n o?aaeeoeeiiiie
iiaeaioiaeie i?ia?aii, enoiaey ec i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae e
oeiainiauo iio?aaiinoae ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Oaeaea, neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee e eo eioaa?aoeey a ie?iaia
oicyenoai iaaiciiaeii aac iaee/ey eiiia?aoeeiiiuo naycae n eiino?aiiuie
ia?oia?aie. aiaeec oaiaeaioeee a ie?iaii oicyenoaa oaaaeaeaao a
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?ei?eoaoiiai ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiia?aoeee a
i?iecaiaenoaa e yenii?oa iaoeiaieie, aunieioaoiieiae/iie i?iaeoeoeee.
Eiiia?e?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa iicaieeo i?aaei?eyoeyi inaaeaaoue iiaua
oaoiieiaee, iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa.
Eiiia?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa aeaao ?inneeneei i?aaei?eyoeyi aiciiaeiinoue
aani?aiyonoaaiiiai auoiaea ia aiaoiea ?uiee, a oaeaea oniaoii
?aaeeciauaaoue eiiia?e?iaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth ia aioo?aiieo ?uieao.

Oaea/iui i?eia?ii eiiia?aoeee ?inneeneiai i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiui
ia?oia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue nicaeaiea a 1995 aiaeo iauaaeeiaiey ia?ineiai
i?aaei?eyoey «Yia?aiiao» e eiiiaiee «I?aeo yiae Oeooie». Aeaiiia
i?aaei?eyoea i?iecaiaeeo a ?innee e iinoaaeyao ca ?oaaae ?aeaoiua
aeaeaaoaee ?Ae-180. A niaianoiie ?ac?aaioea aeaeaaoaey eniieueciaaiu
?inneeneea oaoiieiaee. «I?aeo yiae Oeooie» ianeieueei eao oeiaine?iaaea
?ac?aaioee. Eiiiaiey caieiaao neeueiua iiceoeee a ie?a ii i?iecaiaenoao
iaaeaaeiuo yeiiiie/iuo aaeaaeaeaaoaeae, e a iineaaenoaee oe?ia iaia?aia
aeiaeeoue cia/eoaeueiua n?aaenoaa a oeo/oaiea eiino?oeoeee ?inneeneiai
aeaeaaoaey IN-90, oaaee/aiea aai ?ano?nia aei caiaaeiuo noaiaea?oia.
Eiiiaiey iaia?aia aiaae?youe ia i?aaei?eyoee nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu
oi?aaeaiey i?iaeoe?iaaieai e i?iecaiaenoaii.

Aeeth/aiea ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee a ie?iaie eiiia?aoeeiiiue i?ioeann
aeieaeii eaeoe neio?iiii n iaeaaeeaaieai eee iiaeaea?aeaieai ?aiaa
neiaeeaoeony eiiia?aoeeiiiuo naycae aioo?e no?aiu. Aac yoiai o?oaeii
iaeaaeeaaoue IEI n ca?oaaaeiuie ia?oia?aie. Oaeay eiiia?aoeey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aaeueioth eioaa?aoeeiiioth iniiao, ia eioi?ie
iiaeao eo/oa ?acaeaaoueny IEI, oae eae iia eiaao a?iiaaeiue
eioaeeaeooaeueiue, iao/ii-oaoie/aneee, i?iecaiaenoaaiiue e
i?e?iaeii-?ano?niue iioaioeeae.

Oaeaea ?inneeneei i?aaei?eyoeyi a ie?iaii eioaa?aoeeiiiii i?ioeanna
iaiaoiaeeia aeaoo?uii/iay i?eaioaoeey, oi anoue iaeiia?aiaiiia
ecaioiaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee e ia ?inneeneee e ia aiaoiee ?uiie. Oieueei
oaeei iooai iiaeii iinoaiaiii caiieiyoue ioa/anoaaiiue ?uiie
i?iaeoeoeeae aunieiai ea/anoaa, iiaoaeeoue iaoe i?aaei?eyoey e
iiauoaieth eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe naiae i?iaeoeoeee ia aioo?aiiai e
aiaoiai ?uieao. Aaaeue aeeth/aiea a IEI auaeaeaaao aeaaiui o?aaiaaiea
aunieie eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe.

Iaoeiino?ieoaeueiui, eae e anai i?aaei?eyoeyi ?innee o?aaoaony
iaiiaeaiea iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, ii i?e/eia eo oece/aneiai
e ii?aeueiiai onoa?aaaiey, a oaeaea iaiiaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeaaea
e no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa. Ana yoi o?aaoao nouanoaaiiiai iauaia
eiaanoeoeee. A oae eae a no?aia iaaethaeaaony aeaoeoeeo nianoaaiiuo
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia, oi aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a i?eaea/aiee
eiino?aiiuo. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii caeioa?aniaaoue eiino?aiiiai
eiaanoi?a ?aoeeiiaeueiui eiaanoeoeeiiiui i?iaeoii, eioi?ue, e
niaeaeaieth, ionoonoaoao o aieueoeinoaa i?aaei?eyoee.

Ia noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey ieaiia no?aoaae/aneiai ia?oia?noaa ?inneeneea
i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeiu eiaoue /aoeoth ioeaieo iioeaia e oeaeae eiaanoi?a.
I?e ?ac?aaioea iaoaieciia nio?oaeie/anoaa iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue oaeea,
eioi?ua ia iicaieytho ia?oia?o aeiee?iaaoue aoiaeaeaiea iaoaai
i?aaei?eyoey ia iiaua ?uiee e oai naiui auaiaeeoue ec eiieo?aioeee aai
ia?niaeoeaioth i?iaeoeoeeth.

I?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e i?eoiaeyueo n ieie iiauo
oaoie/aneeo ?ac?aaioie e iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey aeaao ioa/anoaaiiiio
i?iecaiaeeoaeth iiuiue oie/ie aeey noaiiaeaiey nianoaaiiiai
eiieo?aioiniiniaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A ea/anoaa iaaeyaeiiai i?eia?a
iiaeii i?eaanoe THaeioth Ei?ath. Iie ioee/athony aunieie aeeiaieeie
?inoa i?iaeaae ca ?oaaaeii e oaea ia/eiatho eiieo?e?iaaoue n i?aaeieie e
iuiaoieie no?aoaae/aneeie ia?oia?aie (Daewoo – General Motors, KIA –
Ford, Mazda).

I?e eiaanoeoeeiiiii nio?oaeie/anoaa i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeiu inouanoaeyoue
aeaa ii nooe ?aciua no?aoaae/aneea i?ia?aiiu. Ia?aay aiieiuaao ieai
nio?oaeie/anoaa n eiino?aiiui ia?oia?ii e iaycaoaeueii io?aaeaao aai
eioa?anu. Aoi?ay eiioeaio?e?oao ia?u aeey nicaeaiey naiaai ioiineoaeueii
iacaaeneiiai eiieo?aioiniiniaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e/ai yoe i?ia?aiiu ia
yaeythony acaeiiiooi?aathueie.

No?aoaaey ?aoi?ie?iaaiey e?oiiiai ioa/anoaaiiiai iaoeiino?iaiey aeieaeia
i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia noaiiaeaiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiiai i?iecaiaeeoaey.
Neaaeoao auaeaeeoue yoaiu ?aaeecaoeee yoie no?aoaaee:

Eniieueciaaiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e oaoiieiaee a oeaeyo iaania/aiey
eiioeaio?aoeee ?ano?nia a oae iacuaaaiuo «oi/eao ?inoa», iiae eioi?uie
iiieiaaony aunieioaoiieiae/iua i?iecaiaenoaa, niiniaiua /a?ac
oaoiieiae/aneea oeaii/ee aanoe ca niaie nii?yaeaiiua iiae?acaeaeaiey e
io?anee ia iiaue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey. Ia yoii yoaia iaiaoiaeeii auyaeaiea
eeth/aauo iai?aaeaiee, ii eioi?ui neaaeoao nio?oaeie/aoue n eiino?aiiuie
ia?oia?aie.

Yoio yoai ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi nicaeaiiua «oi/ee ?inoa» aeieaeiu
i?eiauaoue e nio?oaeie/anoao n ca?oaaaeiuie eiiiaieyie ?inneeneea
niaaeiua i?aaei?eyoey. Iaiaeiaaaeii e oi, /oi «oi/ee ?inoa» yaeythony
i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie aeey ioa/anoaaiiuo eiaanoi?ia, e eiaiii iie yaeythony
iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey OIA.

Yoio yoai ninoieo a oii, /oiau ia aaca neiaeeaoaeny OIA ia?aeoe e
oi?ie?iaaieth no?oeoo?u o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiie ei?ii?aoeee.

Ii noieo neacaoue, /oi eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u ia iniai no?aiyony aeaeaoue
ianooaaiua aeiaeaiey a ioa/anoaaiioth yenii?oii?eaioe?iaaiioth
ia?aaaouaathuoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Caiaaeiua oe?iu, eae i?aaeei,
eiaanoe?otho eaieoae a iniiaiii a aeiauaathuea io?anee, e nianai ia
caeioa?aniaaiu a nicaeaiee eiieo?e?othueo i?iecaiaenoa a oeieoiuo
io?aneyo.

Ioaeii neacaoue, /oi yooaeoeaiia inouanoaeaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee iaaiciiaeii aac ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee. A /anoiinoe, aeey ainoaea?noaa oeaeaniia?acii
oeiaine?iaaoue eiieo?aioiniiniaiua io?anee e i?aaei?eyoey.
Oeiaine?iaaiea e e?aaeeoiaaiea iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny ec niaoeeaeueii
nicaeaiiiai oiiaea, oi?ie?oaiiai ca n/ao /anoe aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa io
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa, oaeeo eae oaiiaeaiiuo
ieaoaaeae, a oaeaea ca?oaaaeiuo aeoeaia ?inneeneeo yenii?oa?ia e
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie, ii nooe, e?aaeeo ?innee
Caiaaeo. Oeaeaniia?acii auei au eniieueciaaoue n?aaenoaa oiiaea aeey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey yenii?oa i?iaeoeoeee n aeeeoaeueiui
oeeeeii ecaioiaeaiey, no?aoiaaiey yenii?oiuo e?aaeeoia. I?e yoii
e?aaeeou iiaee au i?aaeinoaaeyoueny ia aieaa eueaioiuo oneiaeyo, /ai yoi
aeaeaaony eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie.

Ainoaea?noaii oaeaea aeieaeiu i?eiaiyoueny oaeea ia?u ii noeioee?iaaieth
yenii?oa, eae eueaioiia iaeiaiaia e oaiiaeaiiia iaeiaeaiea i?ei?eoaoiuo
io?aneae e eo noaneaee?iaaiey. I?aaeoaeuenoai oaeaea aeieaeii
ia?aie/eoue ioe?uoinoue ?inneeneie yeiiiieee, a oeaeyo caueou
nianoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

?aaeecaoeey auoaiaicia/aiiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee o?aaoao iiaee?aieaiey
niioaaonoaothueie i?aaiauie e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie ia?aie. Aeey eo
inouanoaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiu niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaeiaiaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, e?aaeeoiaaiea e oeiaine?iaaiea i?ei?eoaoiuo
i?iecaiaenoa ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa.

Ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa iaiaoiaeeii caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?ia ni no?aiaie
aeaeueiaai ca?oaaaeuey, eo nithcieeaie e a?oiie?iaeaie, a eioi?uo au
/aoei oeene?iaaeenue i?eioeeiu iaaeene?eieiaoeeiiiiai e ?inneeneei
i?aaei?eyoeyi. Aaaeii oaeaea aeaeueiaeoaa ?anoe?aiea a?aieoe
oaiiaeaiiiai nithca no?ai NIA. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao oneeaiea
eii?aeeiaoeee aeaenoaee yenii?oa?ia e eiii?oa?ia ia aiaoiai ?uiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, ec anaai auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
nouanoaotho neaaeothuea iooe ?acaeoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee e auoiaea eo ec e?ecena:

iaiiaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, aiaae?aiea iiaaeoeo oaoiieiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa;

iiauoaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea, i?iaaaeaiea IEIE? e
aiaae?aiea eo ?acoeueoaoia a i?iecaiaenoai, ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey;

iiauoaiea o?iaiy eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee,
aeiaaaeaiea o?iaiy aa ea/anoaa aei ie?iauo noaiaea?oia;

iiauoaiea iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee a iauai i?iecaiaenoaa e yenii?oa;

oi?aiaey iaoaioaie e eeoeaiceyie;

oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea ia?eaoeiaa a noa?a aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaenoai;

aeeth/aiea a ie?iaie i?ioeann eioaa?aoeee e IEI, iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa;

i?eiaiaiea nia?aiaiiuo oi?i oi?aaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa,
iiauoaiea o?iaiy eaaeeoeeaoeee ia?niiaea;

nicaeaiea ioa/anoaaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie nithcia i?iecaiaeeoaeae e
yenii?oa?ia;

ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea e noeioee?iaaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee, nicaeaiea aaeeiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie naoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee.

Caeeth/aiea.

Eoae, oaia?ue iiaeao auoue iiaeaaaeai eoia anae ?aaioa, a eioi?ie auee
inaauaiu iniaaiiinoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo
i?aaei?eyoee, a a /anoiinoe i?aaei?eyoee io?anee iaoeiino?iaiey.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo e?oiiia i?iecaiaenoai ia iiaeao iieiioeaiii
?acaeaaoueny oieueei a i?aaeaeao naiae no?aiu. Yoi iaaeyaeii
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea iieeoeea aaoa?eee, i?iaiaeeiay iaoei ainoaea?noaii a
aiaeu niaaoneie aeanoe. Ioa/anoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey oniaoii aeaenoaiaaee
oieueei a oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ?aieao NNN?. Ii n iaaeaieai «aeaeaciiai
caiaaana» auynieeinue, /oi o?iaaiue ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa a iaoae
no?aia iaiiiai onooiaao caiaaeiiio. E a nayce n yoei o ioa/anoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee aicieeee cao?oaeiaiey a inouanoaeaiee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo
naycae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy neooaoeeth a iaeanoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae
neiaeioth. Yoi naycaii ni iiiaeie oaeoi?aie, i?aaeaea anaai, n
yeiiiie/aneei e?ecenii a no?aia, iaaeaieai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa, ieceei
o?iaiai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee, o?iie/aneie
iaoaaoeie n?aaenoa o i?aaei?eyoee. Ioa/anoaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi i?enou
iaeue iao/ii oaoie/aneee iioaioeeae, onoa?aaoay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aaca e
oi?iu oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii. Ana yoi, ianiiiaiii, yaeyaony
ioaieineii i?iaiaeeiie a i?ioeii yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.

I?iaeoeoeey iaoeo i?aaei?eyoee ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia
iieuecoaony ni?inii ia eiino?aiiuo ?uieao. ?inneth a iniiaiii
aeiioneatho eeoue e oi?aiaea i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie. Eiino?aiiua
eiaanoi?u oaeaea ia niaoao aeeaaeuaaoue n?aaenoaa a ?inneeneoth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

Ii neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi iaoe i?aaei?eyoey iaeaaeatho aeinoaoi/iui
iioaioeeaeii aeey auoiaea ec neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee. A no?aia eiaaony
ia?iiiay ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaay aaca, iiiaeanoai iao/ii-eiino?oeoi?neeo
?ac?aaioie, aeinoaoi/ii eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu.

Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe naycaiu n
iiauoaieai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, aiaae?aieai iiaaeoeo
oaoiieiaee, i?iaaaeaieai ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee, aeeth/aieai a
i?ioeann IEI e IION, i?eaea/aieai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee.

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeia
aeoeaii iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny e noeioee?iaaoueny ainoaea?noaii. Oieueei oae
?inney niiaeao oniaoii eioaa?e?iaaoueny a ie?iaia oicyenoai.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aiaoiaoi?aiaue iai?io ?innee ca 1997 aiae //Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. –1998.
-?1. –n. 60.

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee /Iiae. ?aae. A.A.
Euaiei. –Iiaineae?ne, 1992.

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneee aecian a ?innee: ni?aai/iee /Iiae. ?aae. E.I.
Oaieineiai. – I.: ?anioaeeea, 1997.

A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?O.

Aeeaeaiei I.E. iniiau aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee. –NIa.: Iieeoaoieea, 1997.

#G1Caeii ?NON? «#G0Ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a ?NON?» (n eciaiaieyie
ia 16 iiya?y 1997 aiaea). io 4.07.91 N 1546-1.

Caeii ?O «I oaiiaeaiiii oa?eoa» io 21.05.93 N 5005-1.

Eiiuthieoo?a ?inneeneiai ?uiea iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iaeoeoeee //Aiaoiyy
oi?aiaey. –1996. -? 5. –n. 44-55.

Ei?iiia TH. Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea aniaeou ?acaeoey iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai
eiiieaena //Yeiiiieno. –1996. -?6. –n.18-27.

Eaa?ia N.I., O?ieia A.A. Aaethoii-oeiainiaua ioiioaiey i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee n ca?oaaaeiuie ia?oia?aie. –I., 1994.

Iaieaineee A.I., Aneaiiaa O.I. Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu iiauoaiey
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ?inneeneiai i?iecaiaenoaa //I?iaeaiu
i?iaiice?iaaiey. –1996. -? 5. –n.88-99.

Iniiau aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ciaiee /Iiae. ?aae. E.I. Oaieineiai. –I.:
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey, 1994.

I?aaei?eyoea ia aiaoieo ?uieao: Aiaoiaoi?aiaia aeaei: o/aaiee /Iiae.
?aae. N.E. Aeieaiaa, E.E. E?aoiaa. – I.: AAE, 1997.

?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea: o/aa. iiniaea /Iiae. ?aae. O.A. Ii?iciaie. -I.:
THIEOE, 1995.

Nia?oae A. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea yenii?oa a ?innee //Aiaoiyy
oi?aiaey. –1996. -?4. –n.8-12.

No?ianeee E.A. Aiaoiee ?uiie e i?aaei?eyoea. –I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea,
1993.

Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?O « #P 3 0 1 1 9002962
01000200000002100100000021A107000000020010100000000031000000EE20EBE8E1E5
F0E0EBE8E7E0F6E8E820E2EDE5F8EDE5FDEAEEEDEEECE8F7E5F1EAEEE920C4C5DFD2C5CB
DCCDCED1D2C80001000000000001000100#G0I eeaa?aeecaoeee
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oa??eoi?ee ?NON?» (n eciaiaieyie
ia 14 ethiy 1992 aiaea) io 15.11.91 N 213.

Oi?aaeaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth oicyenoaothueo
noauaeoia a ?innee: o/aa. iiniaea /Iiae. ?aae. A.E. Eaaiiaa. –I., 1998.

O?iaiia E. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou a ioa/anoaaiiii
iaoeiino?iaiee //?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae. –1996. -?8. –n.72-76.

Oaaea?aeueiue caeii ?O «I ainoaea?noaaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee aiaoiaoi?aiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe» io 13.10.1995 N 157-OC.

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