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Валютная система мира в межвоенный период

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Ieienoa?noai o?ainii?oa ?O

Iiaineae?neay Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeaaeaiey

Aiaeiiai O?ainii?oa

Eaoaae?a: Yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

?AOA?AO

«Aaethoiay nenoaia ie?a

a iaaeaiaiiue ia?eiae»

Auiieiee: no. a?. Ye-41

?ineyeia A. N.

I?iaa?ee: e.y.i. i?io.

?iaa/aaneee A. I.

Iiaineae?ne 1999

Aaaaeaiea

Oa?aeoa? iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aaethoiie nenoaiu ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony
oie ?ieueth, eioi?oth ea?aao a iae cieioi. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ca
iineaaeiaa noieaoea niaieeenue /aou?a aaethoiua nenoaiu, e yoe naeaeae
io?aaeatho iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey ie?iaiai eaieoaeecia. Ia?eiae aei
1914 aiaea aue yiioie eeanne/aneiai (iieiiai) cieioiai noaiaea?oa.
Iaaeaiaiiue ia?eiae – a?aiy ?aniaaea yoiai noaiaea?oa. A?aooii-aoaeneay
nenoaia (cieioiaeieea?iaue noaiaea?o) caieiaao ieiei o?ao aeanyoeeaoee
aei ia/aea 70-o aiaeia. Iaeiiaoe, a 1971-1973 aiaeao noi?ie?iaaeenue
iniiaiua /a?ou nia?aiaiiie aaethoiie nenoaiu.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa aoaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny aaethoiay nenoaia,
nouanoaiaaaoay a ie?a a iaaeaiaiiue ia?eiae (1918-1939aa..).

1. Aeaiaaeii-aaethoiay noa?a: iaiiiai oai?ee

Ai a?aiy I ie?iaie aieiu cieioie noaiaea?o aue ioiaiai, e
i?aaeoaeuenoaa oeiaine?iaaee /anoue naieo cia/eoaeueiuo aiaiiuo
?anoiaeia, ia/aoay aeaiueae. Aneaaenoaea aiaiiuo iioa?ue ?acei
nie?aoeeanue ?aai/ay neea e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe. A ?acoeueoaoa e
iiiaioo ieii/aiey aieiu a 1918 aiaeo o?iaaiue oeai n?aco au?in.
Ianeieueei no?ai, i?aaeoaeuenoaa eioi?uo iuoaeenue iiaeaea?aeaoue
i?ioeann ainnoaiiaeaiey n iiiiuueth ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia,
noieeioeenue n aaeiie?othuae eioeyoeeae. Oae, a Aa?iaiee eiaeaen oeai n
262 a yiaa?a 1919a. au?in aei 126 160 000 000 000 a aeaeaa?a 1923a., o.
a. a 481,5 ie?ae. ?ac! (1)

Ii i?aaeaea /ai ia?aeoe e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio ?acai?o yaiethoeee
cieioi-aaethoiuo i?iaeai 20-o e iineaaeothueo aiaeia, einiainy iaeioi?uo
yeaiaioia oai?ee, eioi?ua iiaoo ieacaoueny iieaciuie aeey iiieiaiey
iineaaeothuaai eceiaeaiey.

Ia?anoaiea e iaino?aiea yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeai?a/ee
eaieoaeecia ia?eiaee/anee auioaeaeatho ainoaea?noaa eciaiyoue naie
aeaiaaeiua nenoaiu, aeaiaaeiua noaiaea?ou e oi?iu aaethoiuo eo?nia,
i?eniinaaeeaay eo e iinoiyiii iaiythueiny oneiaeyi. I?iyaeaiea
oeene?iaaiiinoe e aeaeinoe aaethoiuo eo?nia a ?acee/iua yiioe
i?ienoiaeeei iaiaeeiaeiai: eo oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe eciaiyeenue n
o?ainoi?iaoeeae aeaiaaeiuo nenoai e noaiaea?oia.

Iiieiaiea i?iaeai aaethoiuo eo?nia e, a /anoiinoe, i?iaeaiu
oeene?iaaiiuo e aeaeeo eo?nia e aaethoiie ia?aoeiinoe aiciiaeii eeoue ia
iniiaa aiaeeca, aeaenoaothuaai ia eiie?aoiii enoi?e/aneii yoaia oeia
aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu. Aeey yoiai i?aaenoaaeyaony iieaciui iaoiaeieiae/anee
e oa?ieiieiae/anee ii?aaeaeeoue niaea?aeaiea neaaeothueo o?ao
acaeiicaaeneiuo caaiueaa aeaiaaeii-aaethoiie noa?u.(Iineieueeo /aoeia
?aca?aie/aiea yoeo caaiueaa ia anaaaea aiciiaeii, i?eaiaeeiay noaia
iiae?acoiaaaao ii?aaeaeaiioth aeieth oneiaiinoe).

1. AeAIAAEIUA NENOAIU a) nenoaiu, eiathuea a iniiaa
iaoaeee/an-

eea aeaiueae n aioo?aiiae (noanoaoeeiia?-

iie) noieiinoueth,

a)
aoiaaeiiaeaiaaeiua nenoaiu, eeoaiiua

iaoaeee/aneie iniiau, iino?iaiiua ia

i?aaenoaaeoaeueneii (?ai?acaioaoeaiii)

i?eioeeia.

2. AeAIAAEIUA NOAIAeA?OU a) cieioiiiiaoiue,

(eae yeaiaiou aeaiaaeiuo a) cieioineeoeiaue,

nenoai) a)
cieioi-aaethoiue,

a)
aaethoiue (iiiiaaethoiue eeai iiee-

aaethoiue).

3. OI?IU AAETHOIUO a) oeene?iaaiiua (ii cieioiio
niaea?aea-

EO?NIA ieth eeai
aeiaiai?ii)

a)
aeaeea (ieaaathuea eeai eieaaethueany).

Aeaiaaeiua nenoaiu – yoi oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey,
enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeany a ?aciuo no?aiao e iau/ii cae?aieaiiua a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea.(2) A ia?aii neo/aa ?ieue anaiauaai
yeaeaaeaioa i?enaaeaaeanue iaeiiio ec iaoaeeia (cieioo, na?aa?o) eee
aeaoi iaoaeeai (e cieioo, e na?aa?o). Ai aoi?ii neo/aa aeaiueae n
aioo?aiiae noieiinoueth (cieioua eee na?aa?yiua) i?aaenoaaeaiu ciaeaie –
aoiaaeiuie aeaiueaaie n oae iacuaaaiui «i?eioaeeoaeueiui» eo?nii,
iauyaeaiiui a ioeoeeaeueiii ii?yaeea.

Cieioiiiiaoiue noaiaea?o iaania/eaae oeene?iaaiiinoue aaethoiiai
eo?na aaieiio e iaaiciiaeiinoue aai /?acia?iiai ioeeiiaiey io ia?eoaoa
aaeaeo naiaiaeiie ia?aoeiinoe yoeo aeaiaa a cieioi e a ae?oaea, oiaea
ia?aoeiua a cieioi, aaethou, a oaeaea aeaaiaea?y naiaiaeiie ia?anueea
cieioa /a?ac a?aieoeu ainoaea?noa.

Eo?nu aaetho no?ai, aaea aue onoaiiaeai cieioiiiiaoiue noaiaea?o,
auee aanueia noaaeeueiuie ec-ca ano?iaiiiai i?eioeeia naii?aaoee?iaaiey:
eiay aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeii ioi?aaeoue cieioi ca a?aieoeo, ieaoaae ca
eiino?aiiue oiaa? iiaeii auei anaaaea i?iecaanoe ia aaieiioaie, a
cieioii.

2. Cieioinoaiaea?oiue oanaae 20-o aiaeia

Oi, /oi cieioiiiiaoiue noaiaea?o aue ?anno?aeyi iooeaie ia?aie
ie?iaie aieiu, aeaei iiaiae iiiai/eneaiiui aaoi?ai iaoaai a?aiaie
aiai?eoue i «?aniaaea», «ioiaia», «e?aoa» cieioiai noaiaea?oa a 1914
aiaeo.

I?aaiia?iu ee oaeea ooaa?aeaeaiey?

Aea, anee iiae cieioui noaiaea?oii iiae?acoiaaaoue oieueei
cieioiiiiaoiue noaiaea?o.

Iao, anee ca cieioinoaiaea?oiuie ii?iaeaeaieyie 20, 30 e 40-o
aiaeia oiaea i?eciaoue i?aai iacuaaoueny cieiouie, oioy e «o?acaiiuie»
ii n?aaiaieth n cieioiiiiaoiui noaiaea?oii. A yoii neo/aa aeaoo ioiaiu
cieioiai noaiaea?oa a aai iineaaeiae ecaanoiie iai oi?ia i?eaeaony
ioiaeaeiooue aei ia/aea 70-o aiaeia.(3)

Aieia 1914-1918 aa. e Aaeeeay Ieoya?ueneay nioeeaeenoe/aneay
?aaiethoeey iieiaeeee ia/aei iauaio e?eceno eaieoaeecia. A
aeaiaaeii-aaethoiie noa?a yoe niauoey iaoee naia io?aaeaiea a
auioaeaeaiiii iooiaea io iniia aeaenoaiaaaoae aei 1914 a. nenoaiu
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. Eaieoaeenoe/aneee ie? anooiee a yiioo
o?iie/aneiai ?anno?ienoaa aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e iaanoeaiaiey aaetho.

Iinea ieii/aiey aieiu iaaethaeaeinue oneeaiea aiaoaoaeuenoaa
ainoaea?noaa a aaethoioth noa?o. Anee a yiioo eaieoaeecia naiaiaeiie
eiieo?aioeee oaeia aiaoaoaeuenoai ia?aie/eaaeinue i?iaaaeaiea
aeeneiioiie e aeaaeciie* iieeoeee, oi a yiioo iauaai e?ecena eaieoaeecia
a a?naiaea ?aaoee?othueo ia?ii?eyoee i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaeii ec aeaaiuo
iano caieiatho iiiuoee aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia oicyenoaaiioth eiiuthieoo?o,
a oii /enea ia aaethoiua ioiioaiey , iaoiaeaie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie e
oeiainiaie iieeoeee. I?aaeaea aea a oicyenoaaiiie noa?a aac?acaeaeueii
ainiiaenoaiaae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue eee ei?ii?aoeaiue eaieoaeeno,
iiae/eiyaoeeny eeoue caeiiai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

* Aeeneiioiay iieeoeea – aeeyiea oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ia ieaoaaeiue
aaeain iin?aaenoaii iaieioee?i-

aaiey i?ioeaioiie noaaeie ca e?aaeeo; aeaaeciay iieeoeea –
i?iaaaeaiea oeaio?aeueiui aaieii aaetho

iuo eioa?aaioeee, o. a. eoiee-i?iaeaaee eiino?aiiie aaethou n
oeaeueth iiaeaea?aeaiey eo?na iaoeeiiaeue-

iie aaethou.

Ainoaea?noai, iaeiaei, iianaynue iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo
iaino?aiee, no?aieeinue iaeaieeaaoue cieioua caianu, ecuiay iaoaee ec
aioo?aiiaai aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.

No?aieaiea ainoaea?noaa nie?aoeoue noa?u eniieueciaaiey cieioa
ioithaeue ia yaeyaony naeaeaoaeuenoaii oiaiueoaiey ?iee yoiai iaoaeea.
Iai?ioea, iinoaiaiiia ecuyoea cieioa ec /anoiieaieoaeenoe/aneiai iai?ioa
ia ia?aii yoaia iauaai e?ecena eaieoaeecia e aai iiiiiieecaoeey
aaethoiuie i?aaiaie oeacuaatho ia aai aic?inoaa cia/aiea, ia iicaieyaoaa
i?iaeieaeaoue ?anoi/eoaeueioth i?aeoeeo aai eniieueciaaiey a aeaea
iiiao. Aua E. Ia?en ienae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe «ia?iiiuo aea?oa ?aaeueiui
aiaaonoaii aeey oiai, /oiau a e?eoe/aneee iiiaio oaea?aeaoue
iaoaeee/aneee aacen». Ec yoiai, aeaeeii, eaieoaeenoe/aneea no?aiu e
enoiaeeee: eeeaeaee?iaaa iaoaeee/aneee aacen, iie iaaciianeee naay io
/?acia?iuo aea?oa, eioi?ua au?aaeaeenue au a iioa?a cieioa, oai aieaa
/oi iinea aieiu iie auee ia niiniaiu eaeoe ia oaeea aea?oau. Aio aaea
e?ithony iianaianoiua ioeacu io cieioiai noaiaea?oa. A oneiaeyo
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey cieiouie ?aca?aaie yoio iaoaee noae
iaeaieeaaoueny eae no?aoaae/aneee ?aca?a au?aaieaaiey ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina e eae aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneee caian, eiaaea ana i?i/ea n?aaenoaa
oaea eniieueciaaiu.

Aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai a ia?eiae iineaaiaiiiai
ainnoaiiaeaiey ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeanue oceiiaoeeiiaeueiuie niia?aaeaieyie.
Iauei yaeyeinue eeoue iiaiea, /oi ia?ooaiey a iaeanoe yeiiiie/aneeo e
aaethoii-oeiainiauo ioiioaiee iinyo a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa? e aica?ao e
ie?iui oneiaeyi iicaieeo ainnicaeaoue aeia?ua noa?ua ioiioaiey,
i?a?aaiiua a 1914 a.

Iuneue i nio?aiaiee onoaiiaeaiiie ai a?aiy aieiu aeaeie oi?iu
aaethoiuo eo?nia aeaaea ia aeiioneaeanue – i?aaaee?iaaei iiaiea a
iieueco aaaaeaiey a aeaeueiaeoai oieueei oeene?iaaiiuo ia?eoaoia.(4)

Iiaeiaiia iiaiea auneacuaaeinue ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiioa?aioeeyo a
A?thnnaea (1920 a.) e Aaioa (1922 a.), aaea ?ac?aaaouaaeenue iooe
noaaeeecaoeee aaetho eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai. N/eoaeinue, /oi oeenaoeey
ia?eoaoia aeieaeia auoue i?iecaaaeaia ii aeiaiaiiiio ia?acoeo ia iniiaa
«eeanne/aneiai» cieioiai noaiaea?oa e ii aiciiaeiinoe ia aeiaiaiiuo
o?iaiyo. A 1922 a. ia eiioa?aioeee a Aaioa (Eoaeey) a?oiia no?ai,
aeeth/athuay Aaeeeia?eoaieth, O?aioeeth, Eoaeeth e ssiiieth, i?eiyea
i?ia?aiio, iai?aaeaiioth ia iauee aica?ao e cieioiio noaiaea?oo e
nio?oaeie/anoai iaaeaeo oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie a aeaea aeinoeaeaiey
aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo oeaeae. Iiieiay, /oi caiania cieioa iiaeao ia
oaaoeoue aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ni?ina oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?aca?au, Aaioycneay eiioa?aioeey naieoeeiie?iaaea
/anoe/iue cieioiaaethoiue noaiaea?o, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui iaaieueoea
no?aiu a ea/anoaa ?aca?aia aea?aeao aaethou ianeieueeeo aieueoeo no?ai,
/uee nianoaaiiua ?aca?au iieiinoueth ninoiyo ec cieioa.(5)

Iaeiaei eiaaea e na?aaeeia 20-o aiaeia a ioaeaeueiua no?aiu noaee
iinoaiaiii ainnoaiaaeeaaoueny oeene?iaaiiua eo?nu, oi, oioy iie
ii?aaeaeyeenue enoiaey ec cieioiai niaea?aeaiey aaetho, inoaaeoue
i?aaeiea i?eioeeiu iieiioeaiiiai cieioiai noaiaea?oa ia oaeaeinue. Yoi e
i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth aai «o?acaiiuo» ?aciiaeaeiinoae – cieioineeoeiaiai
e cieioi-aaethoiiai noaiaea?oia.

Nooue cieioineeoeiaiai noaiaea?oa caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi ioiuia
/anoiia eeoei ia iiaei i?eianoe a aaie aaieiioo e iio?aaiaaoue aa iaiaia
ia cieiooth iiiaoo oiai aea iiieiaea (eee ?yaea iiiao ia ii?aaeaeaiioth
noiio) i?inoi iioiio, /oi cieioua iiiaou auee ecuyou ec ia?auaiey. Ii
caoi aai iiaee i?aaeeiaeeoue oeaeue neeoie, /aua anaai aanii a 12,5 ea.
Anoanoaaiii, /oi aeaiaa ia iiaeiaioth iieoieo oaaoaei aeaeaei ia o anao.
Oaeei ia?acii, cieioie noaiaea?o a?iaea au nio?aiyeny, ii i?e yoii
ainoaea?noai nie?auaei naiaiaeo /anoiiai naeoi?a a niaa?oaiee iia?aoeee
n cieioii a no?aia.

A oneiaeyo cieioi-aaethoiiai noaiaea?oa aaieiiou ia iaiaieaaeenue
aeaaea ia neeoee: inoaaaeanue eeoue aiciiaeiinoue eiiaa?oe?iaaoue
aaethoo no?aiu, aaea aue onoaiiaeai oaeie noaiaea?o, ia aaethoo
cieioiiiiaoiiai eee cieioineeoeiaiai noaiaea?oa e eeoue /a?ac ieo
iieo/eoue cieioi niioaaonoaaiii a iiiaoao eee a neeoeao.

Ii/aio aea ia aue aiciiaeai aica?ao e «eeanne/aneie» oi?ia cieioiai
noaiaea?oa? Iioiio, /oi ieii/aiea aieiu ia i?eaaei e aaoiiaoe/aneie
ii?iaeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao.
Iaiai?io, eiaiii a ia?eiae ainnoaiiaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoa e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee auyaeeenue
ii?iaeaeaiiua aieiie aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea o?oaeiinoe e i?ioeai?a/ey.
Eioeyoeey, naea?aeeaaaoayny ai a?aiy aieiu aaeieieno?aoeaiuie ia?aie
(ea?oi/iie nenoaiie, onoaiiaeaieai iaeciaiiuo oeai ia ii?aaeaeaiiua
aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee e ae?.), cia/eoaeueii oneeeeanue iinea oiai, eae yoe
ia?aie/aiey auee niyou. A ?acoeueoaoa oaea a ia/aea 20-o aiaeia
eaieoaeenoe/aneee ie? ieacaeny a iiooa iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneeo
i?ioeai?a/ee, iiaeaeeaoeo aaaeouea eaieoaeenoe/aneea no?aiu ia aeaa
a?oiiu: NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, ssiiiey e ?yae auaoeo iaeo?aeueiuo
ainoaea?noa i?iaiaeeee eeieth ia iiauoaiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe
naieo iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho e ia oeenaoeeth eo eo?na ia o?iaia
aeiaiaiiuo ia?eoaoia, eee, eie aiai?eeinue a yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a,
noaee ia iooue aeaoeyoeee; O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey, Eoaeey e aieueoeinoai
inoaeueiuo aiaaaaoeo e neeueii iino?aaeaaoeo io aieiu no?ai auee
auioaeaeaiu nia?eoueny n eioeyoeeae. Ieacaaoenue ia a ninoiyiee
inoaiiaeoue ia/aaoeeny ai a?aiy aieiu eioeyoeeiiiue i?ioeann, iie
i?aaeinoaaeee naiei aaethoai aiciiaeiinoue noeoeeii «aueneeaaoue» naaa
eo?n, ia o?iaia eioi?iai aiineaaenoaee ?aaeno?e?iaaeenue eo ia?eoaou.

Iaiaeeiaeiaua iaoiaeu, i?eiaiyaoeany ?acee/iuie no?aiaie aeey
i?aiaeieaiey yeiiiie/aneeo o?oaeiinoae, nii?iaiaeaeaeenue e ?aciie
aaethoiie iieeoeeie, aeiiieieoaeueii cao?oaeiyaoae aica?ao e
oeene?iaaiiui eo?nai. Aeey auyaeaiey iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee, ii?aaeaeyaoeo
oi?io aaethoiiai eo?na a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao a 20-a aiaeu,
ia?aie/einy e?aoeei ?anniio?aieai iieeoeee Aaeeeia?eoaiee, O?aioeee e
Aa?iaiee a oio ia?eiae. Auai? eiaiii yoeo no?ai iauyniyaony oai, /oi
ia?aua aeaa no?aiu i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an, oae eae a 20-a, a caoai e a
30-a aiaeu eniieueciaaee cieioineeoeiaue noaiaea?o aia?aiaaeeo n aeaeeie
eo?naie, a oi a?aiy eae o?aouey – Aa?iaiey – aaaea o naay
cieioi-aaethoiue noaiaea?o. Iineieueeo aieia ia iaane?iaeea, a iaiai?io
iaiaaoeea NOA, iie niiaee aacaieaciaiii aa?iooueny e cieioiiiiaoiiio
noaiaea?oo e nio?aiyoue aai oaeoe/anee iiiiiieueii aieioue aei 1933 a.

2.1. Aaeeeia?eoaiey

Ioiioaiea Aaeeeia?eoaiee e aaethoiui i?iaeaiai auei eiina?aaoeaiui:
Eiieoao Eaieeoa, iacaaiiue oae a /anoue ei?aea Eaieeoa – oi?aaeythuaai
Aaiea Aiaeee iinea ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu, a 1918 a. n/eoae, /oi
iaiaoiaeeii ia oieueei ioeoeeaeueii caoeene?iaaoue cieioia niaea?aeaiea
ooioa noa?eeiaia, ii i?e yoii nio?aieoue aai cieioie ia?eoao ia
aeiaiaiiii o?iaia. Aaeeeia?eoaiee oaeaeinue-oaee aa?iooueny e
oeene?iaaiiiio eo?no, ii eeoue a 1925 a., i?e yoii i?eoeinue ioeacaoueny
io aeiaiaiiiai cieioiiiiaoiiai noaiaea?oa e aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny
cieioineeoeiaui – aieaa yeiiiie/iui. Auei ioaee/ii cayaeaii, /oi
ia?auaiea cieiouo iiiao – yoi «iaiaycaoaeueiay e iaaeaeaoaeueiay
?ineioue».

Aaaaeaiea cieioineeoeiaiai noaiaea?oa iaycuaaei Aaie Aiaeee
i?iaeaaaoue ethaiio aeaeathuaio ii oeene?iaaiiiio eo?no cieioua neeoee
aanii ia iaiaa 400 o?ieneeo oioeee* (o. a. oaeoe/anee 12,5-eeeia?aiiiaua
neeoee a ea/anoaa ciaeiiiai n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea). Aeey oaeie iieoiee
ioaeii auei eiaoue ieiei 1700 aoiaaeiuo ooioia noa?eeiaia (ieiei 8000
aeiee. NOA ii eo?no oao eao). Ii aeaei auei aeaaea ia a oii, /oi oaeay
naeaeea auea i?aeoe/anee iaaeinyaaaiie aeey aieueoeinoaa aeaeathueo
iaaciianeoue naie iaeiieaiey, i?aa?aoea eo a cieioi, a a oii, /oi
aaethoiua i?aaiu Aaeeeia?eoaiee, eciaiea oi?io aeaaeaiey cieioii, aaaee
aua e eiio?ieue ca iaeiieaieyie, ia?aie/ea aiciiaeiua ?acia?u ee/iiai
o?aiaiey cieioa noiiie a 10 oun. o. no. Oai naiui Aaie Aiaeee iaania/ee
naaa aiciiaeiinoue eiio?iee?iaaoue ?uiie, /ai na?ueacii iiaei?aae
aeeyiea /anoiieaieoaeenoe/aneeo aea?aeaoaeae iaoaeea. Ii aeey i?anoeaea
Aaeeeia?eoaiee aa ianiiniaiinoue aa?iooueny e cieioiiiiaoiiio
noaiaea?oo, a oi a?aiy eae NOA, niya aiaiiia yiaa?ai, a oii /enea ia
auaic cieioa, ainnoaiiaee yoio noaiaea?o, i?aaeaauaea ia/aei caeaoa
cia/aiey Aaeeeia?eoaiee a ie?a, aa eaieooeyoeeth ia?aae caieaaineei
eiieo?aioii.

Aaethoiay iieeoeea Aaeeeia?eoaiee a 20-a aiaeu neeaaeuaaeanue ec
aeaoo yoaiia. Ia ia?aii yoaia (1920-1924 aa.), eiaaea aeaenoaiaae aeaeee
eo?n ooioo noa?eeiaia, aeaoeyoeeiiiua oneeey auee iai?aaeaiu ia
aeinoeaeaiea oneiaee aeey i?iaicaeaoaiey oeene?iaaiiiai ia?eoaoa ia
aeiaiaiiii o?iaia. Iiea aiaeeeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaeaiiyei o?iaaiue
oeai a no?aia iiae aia?eeaineee, aeaenoaiaaee ia?aie/aiey ia eiii?o
oiaa?ia e auaic eaieoaea, /oi einaaiii yaeyeinue iiaeaea?aeeie eo?na
ooioo noa?eeiaia.

Aoi?ie yoai (1925-1931 aa.) – yoai aeaenoaey oeene?iaaiiiai eo?na
aiaeeeneie aaethou – ia/aeny n onoaiiaeaiey ia?aaeueiiai caauoaiiiai
ia?eoaoa, eioi?ue caaaaeiii ia?aeae Aaeeeia?eoaieth ia na?ueaciua
aiaoiaoi?aiaua iioa?e ec-ca iaeiieo?aioii aunieeo oeai ia yenii?oioth
i?iaeoeoeeth no?aiu. Neaaeoao oaeaea o/anoue, /oi e 20-i aiaeai
Aaeeeia?eoaiey iioa?yea nauoa /aoaa?oe naieo caa?aie/iuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, cia/eoaeueii oiae aa oaeaeueiue aan a ii?neii
oiiiaaea, Eiiaeii oo?aoee iiiiiieeth iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oeiainiaiai
oeaio?a, a a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea e oeiainiaii iai?ioa ooio
noa?eeiaia noae iooaniyoueny aia?eeaineei aeieea?ii. Oaeei ia?acii,
nie?aoeeenue enoi/ieee iie?uoey aeaoeoeeoa oi?aiaiai aaeaina – aeioiaeu
io eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, io i?aaeinoaaeaiey o?aooiauo, aaieianeeo,
no?aoiauo oneoa, e aiaoiaoi?aiaua o?oaeiinoe no?aiu aua aieaa
onoaoaeeenue. Onoa?aaoaa iai?oaeiaaiea aeiiieieoaeueii ia?aeaei
aiaeeeneoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue ia iaeiyooaeoeaiia i?iecaiaenoai, ia
iicaieyaoaa nieaeaoue oeaiu ia i?iaeoeoeeth, i?aaeiacia/aiioth aeey
yenii?oa, /oiau eiieo?e?iaaoue ia ie?iauo ?uieao. A ?acoeueoaoa
i?iecaiaenoai nie?auaeinue, aac?aaioeoea i?eieiaea iaauaaeua ianooaau.

A oa a?aiaia iiiaea ?acaeaeyee iiaiea i oii, /oi eeoeii,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeiiaiui a ?inoa e ?ani?ino?aiaiee aac?aaioeoeu a
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, aue ia eoi eiie, eae aoaeouee i?aiuea?-ieieno? Oeinoii
*a?/eeeue, caieiaaoee oiaaea iino eaioeea?a eacia/aenoaa. «Aica?ao e
ieioaoae neaaa Aaeeeia?eoaiee ieeiai oae ia caai?aaeeaae, eae eaioeea?a
eacia/aenoaa *a?/eeey, – ienae aiineaaenoaee aia?eeaineee o/aiue Aeae.
E. Ayea?aeo. – Aeey iaai i?ioeia auei ia oieueei /anoueth aeecie, ii e
ieiaeiiiniui enoi/ieeii oaieeueiiai i?anoeaea e ee/iiai aeioiaea». (6)

Aeaaeaiea ia ia?aaeueii caauoaiiue eo?n ooioa noa?eeiaia ?acei
iiauneeinue ai a?aiy ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiiai e?ecena 1929-1933 aa. E?oiiua iioa?e cieiouo
?aca?aia, aucaaiiua ieaoaaeaie a?aieoea ec-ca oooaeoaiey ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina, a 1931 a. auioaeeee Aaeeeia?eoaieth ioeacaoueny io ci-

* O?ieneay oioeey – aaeeieoea ecia?aiey aana ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia,
?aaiay 31,1 a.

eioineeoeiaiai noaiaea?oa. Iinea yoiai ooio noa?eeiaia aiiaue aa?ioeny e
aeaeiio eo?no. Ei?ae Eaein caiaoee, oo?e?oy, /oi ia ooio noa?eeiaia
iieeioe cieioi, a cieioi iieeioei ooio noa?eeiaia, iineieueeo iinea
naioya?y 1931 a. eo?n aiaeeeneie aaethou ia?anoae iiauoaoueny
niioaaonoaaiii iiauoaieth oeaiu cieioa.

2.2. O?aioeey

Ai O?aioeee 20-o aiaeia, eae e a Aaeeeia?eoaiee, oaeaea
iaaethaeaeinue iaaeiiiieiaiea i?ienoaaeoeo a ie?a ia?aiai. I?e
?anniio?aiee aii?ina i iineaaiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
aaethoiie nenoaiu ia Aaioycneie eiioa?aioeee o?aioeocneee aeaeaaao oiaea
iaauae, /oi ia?eoao o?aiea aoaeao ainnoaiiaeai ia aeiaiaiiii o?iaia.
Iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea o?aioeocneee o?aie aei aeaeaa?y 1926 a. eiae aeaeee
eo?n, eioi?ue, a ioee/ea io n?aaieoaeueii oia?aiiuo eciaiaiee eo?na
ooioa noa?eeiaia, eieaaaeny /ooue ee ia a 5-e?aoiii aeeaiaciia – io 9,23
aei 2,05 oeaioa ca 1 o?aie.

Aeaeay oi?ia eo?na iicaieeea o?aieo nouanoaaiii iaanoeaieoueny,
auyaea auaiaeiua aeey O?aioeee oiai a?aiaie noi?iiu ieceiai eo?na. A
?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey oaeie iieeoeee O?aioeey oaea a 1926 a., ca aeaa
aiaea aei ioeoeeaeueiiai aaaaeaiey oeene?iaaiiiai eo?na, ia i?aeoeea
ioeacaeanue io aeaeie oi?iu. Aianoa n oai aeaeueiaeoay aaethoiay
iieeoeea O?aioeee ?acei ?acioeanue n aiaeeeneie: oioy a 1928 a. ia?eoao
o?aiea, eae e ooioa noa?eeiaia, aue ioeoeeaeueii caoeene?iaai ia
i?eioeeiao cieioineeoeiaiai noaiaea?oa, a iiaii ia?eoaoa o?aiea
inoaeinue anaai ieiei 20% aai aeiaiaiiiai cieioiai niaea?aeaiey. A
ioee/ea io Aaeeeia?eoaiee, iaaeaeeaoae ooio noa?eeiaia /?acia?iui
cieioui niaea?aeaieai, O?aioeey i?iaiaeeea iieeoeeo iaanoeaiaiey naiae
aaethou a oeaeyo iiauoaiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe yenii?oa, iieo/eaooth
oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea n?aaee ae?oaeo no?ai ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 30-o
aiaeia iiae iacaaieai aaethoiiai aeaiieiaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
i?iiuoeaiiinoue Aaeeeia?eoaiee auea auioaeaeaia ?aaioaoue n i?inoiyie
ec-ca iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe naiaai yenii?oa, a oi a?aiy eae O?aioeey
iieo/eea aiciiaeiinoue noeioee?iaaoue i?iaeaaeo o?aioeocneeo oiaa?ia ia
aiaoieo ?uieao. Ia neo/aeii, /oi cieioua ?aca?au O?aioeee aic?inee n
1919 ii

1930 a. aieaa /ai ia 300%, a oi a?aiy eae caianu Aaeeeia?eoaiee – anaai
ia 24%.

Caieaeaiiinoue eo?na o?aioeocneiai o?aiea niinianoaiaaea ?acaeoeth
yenii?oiuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe O?aioeee e i?eoieo aeioiaeia io
eiino?aiiiai oo?ecia, a a ia?aua aiaeu ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena
iicaieeea ae ecaaaeaoue ?aceiai nieaeaiey o?iaiy i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, nouanoaaiiuo iioa?ue aiaoiaoi?aiauo iinooieaiee e
oooaeoaiey ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina.

2.3. Aa?iaiey

Eioeyoeey a Aa?iaiee a 20-a aiaeu aeinoeaea iaeaunoae noaaeee –
aeia?eioeyoeee. E eiioeo 1923 a. iioiaua oeaiu iiaeiyeenue a n?aaeiai a
1,4 o?ei. ?ac: aacaoa noieea 200 ie?ae. ?aeonia?ie, a eoith?u
auioneaeenue aeinoieinoaii aei 100 o?ei. Aia?oey oeaiiia?aciaaiey
ia?ooaea i?eau/ioth niiinoaaeiinoue oiaa?ia e oneoa: oae, eiiaaea auei
aeaoaaea i?iaoaoue ii aeaeaciie aei?iaa ec iaeiiai ai?iaea a ae?oaie,
/ai iieaoeoue o?aiaaeioth iiacaeeo. 20 iiya?y 1923 a. noa?oth ?aeonia?eo
iinoea ia/aeueiue eiiaoe, a aianoa n iae, ii oaeeaeoaeueiiio
niaiaaeaieth, neii/aeny e aeaaa ?aeonaaiea – ?oaeieueo Oaaaiooaei.

A 1924 a. aue ?ac?aaioai oae iacuaaaiue «ieai Aeaoyna»,
i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey oeo/oaiey ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe Aa?iaiee ii
?aia?aoeeyi, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui ae i?aaeinoaaeyeenue
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua e?aaeeou aeey niaa?oaiey ?aia?aoeeiiiuo ieaoaaeae.

A yoeo iniauo oneiaeyo iiaeaea?aeee ecaia Aa?iaiey oaea a 1924 a.
i?e i?iaaaeaiee aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu niiaea aa?iooueny e oeene?iaaiiiio
eo?no ia?ee ii ioiioaieth e cieioo, iia?aaeea a yoei e Aaeeeia?eoaieth e
O?aioeeth. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, iaeiaei, /oi ia?aoeiinoue a cieioi auea
ainnoaiiaeaiu eeoue ia aaca cieioi-aaethoiiai noaiaea?oa,

o. a. aua aieaa o?acaiiie ?aciiaeaeiinoe cieioiai noaiaea?oa, /ai
cieioineeoeiaue. Yoa oi?ia ia?aoeiinoe iaania/eaaea aiciiaeiinoue
einaaiiie eiiaa?nee a cieioi: iaia?aoeiay a cieioi ia?ea
eiiaa?oe?iaaeanue a ia?aoeiua a cieioi aaethou no?ai, aaea aue
onoaiiaeai eeai cieioiiiiaoiue noaiaea?o – aeieea? NOA, eeai
cieioineeoeiaue noaiaea?o – ooio noa?eeiaia, o?aioeocneee o?aie e ?yae
ae?oaeo.

Aa?iaiey, i?eiya cieioiaaethoiue noaiaea?o, iaeiie ec ia?auo
ioai?iaeeea naie cieioua ?aca?au io /anoiieaieoaeenoe/aneiai naeoi?a.
Ia?ae?ua eaiaeu aeey ooa/ee cieioa, Aa?iaiey ia/eiay n 1924 a. i?eaeaeea
ec-ca a?aieoeu aaeaia aieueoa n?aaenoa, /ai iia auiea/eaaea a n/ao
?aia?aoeee. Iieeoeea «aeecie a e?aaeeo» iicaieeea Aa?iaiee oe?aieoue
eo?n ia?ee, iiauneoue aeiaa?ea e iae. Yoi yaeeinue noeioeii aeey i?eoiea
aeiiieieoaeueiuo eiino?aiiuo eaieoaeia, eioi?ua aa?iaineea
ieeeoa?enoneea e?oae aiineaaenoaee eniieueciaaee a naieo ?aaaioenoneeo
oeaeyo.

A oneiaeyo ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, eiaaea oneeeeanue
ooa/ea eaieoaeia ec Aa?iaiee, ?acei aic?inei aeaaeaiea ia aa
cieioi-aaethoiua ?aca?au, ec-ca /aai eaoii 1931 a. Aa?iaiey auea
auioaeaeaia oaeoe/anee ioeacaoueny io cieioi-aaethoiiai noaiaea?oa, oioy
oi?iaeueiiai ioeaca io iaai a oi a?aiy aua ia auei.

Iiaeaiaey eoia aiaeeco ia?eiaea, a iniiaiii ioaaouaathuaai 20-a
aiaeu, iiaeii ioiaoeoue neaaeothuaa. Aica?ao e cieioiio noaiaea?oo a yoe
aiaeu neaaaeny ec ioaeaeueiuo iaeii?aeeie?iaaiiuo aeoeee ?aciuo
ainoaea?noa. Eaaeaeay no?aia, ia niaeaniauaay naie aeaenoaey n ae?oaeie
no?aiaie, a iaeiinoi?iiiai ii?yaeea iuoaeanue iiaeuneaoue i?eaieaiue
eo?n e aaethoai naieo iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuo ia?oia?ia e eiieo?aioia. A
?acoeueoaoa iaeie no?aiu onoaiaaeeaaee ia?eoaou naieo aaetho enoiaey
/ooue ee ia aaeeinoaaiii ec niia?aaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?anoeaea
(Aaeeeia?eoaiey), ae?oaea – yaii caieaeaee ?aaeueiinoue ia?eoaoia aeey
aeinoeaeaiey aiaoiaoi?aiauo i?aeiouanoa (O?aioeey), o?aouee – ecae?aee
eo iiae aeeyieai neo/aeiuo e?aoein?i/iuo aeaeaeaiee eaieoaea.

A eoiaa e eiioeo 1925 a. eeoue ieiei 35 no?ai eeai niiaee ia?aaanoe
eo?nu naieo aaetho ia noaoon oeene?iaaiiuo n cieiouie ia?eoaoaie, eeai
iiaeaea?aeeaaee eo onoie/eaua o?iaie.(7) A oa/aiea 1926 a. oaeoe/aneee
ia?aoiae e iaeiie ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae cieioiai noaiaea?oa aue caaa?oai a
Eoaeee, Aaeueaee, Iieueoa, O?aioeee e ?yaea ae?oaeo no?ai. E eiioeo 1928
a. oeene?iaaiiua ii ioiioaieth e cieioo eo?nu auee aea-th?a
ainnoaiiaeaiu ii/oe ai anao no?aiao, aaea cieioie noaiaea?o nouanoaiaae
aei aieiu. Iaeiaei cieioua ia?eoaou ia io?aaeaee, eae i?aaeei,
?aaeueioth niiinoaaeioth iieoiaoaeueioth neeo ?acee/iuo aaetho.

Aiaeece?oy eoiae ia?aiai aeanyoeeaoey iinea ieii/aiey ia?aie
ie?iaie aieiu, iao?oaeii caiaoeoue, /oi eaieoaeenoe/aneea no?aiu ia
niiaee aeiaeoueny aeaenoaeoaeueiie aaethoiie noaaeeueiinoe, iineieueeo
ca i?iaicaeaoaiiui ?acee/iuie no?aiaie no?aieaieai aa?iooueny e
oeene?iaaiiui ii ioiioaieth e cieioo eo?nai ne?uaaeenue ?acee/iua
enoiaeiua iiceoeee, ?aciua oeaee e iooe ec aeinoeaeaiey.

3. O?eaeoeaoua aiaeu

Yeiiiie/aneia ineaaeaiea Aaeeeia?eoaiee a 20-o aiaeao aeieacaei
niiieoaeueiinoue onoie/eaiai oa?aeoa?a ainnoaiiaeaiey cieioiai
noaiaea?oa. Neaaeoy ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi Aaioycneie eiioa?aioeee, iiiaea
no?aiu aea?aeaee iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?aca?au a aeaea ooioiauo aeaiiceoia a
Eiiaeiia. Iaeiaei cieioua caianu Aaeeeia?eoaiee auee ia?aie/aiu, a
ia?aaeeaaaiay no?aiie noaaiaoeey anaeyea iaei iaaeaaeaeu a aa
niiniaiinoue auiieieoue aiaoiea iaycaoaeuenoaa. Ia/aei Aaeeeie
aeai?annee iinea 1929 a. nii?iaiaeaeaeinue e?aoaie aaieia ii anaio ie?o.
Eiino?aiiua aea?aeaoaee ooioia iioa?yee aeiaa?ea e iaycaoaeuenoao
Aaeeeia?eoaiee iiaeaea?aeeaaoue noieiinoue aaethou e noaee ia?aaiaeeoue
naie ooioiaua aeeaaeu a cieioi. Iiiaea no?aiu ioeacuaaeenue io naieo
iaycaoaeuenoa ii cieioiio noaiaea?oo e iicaieyee naiei aaethoai
naiaiaeii eieaaaoueny ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii aaethoiii ?uiea. NOA ioioee io
cieioiai noaiaea?oa a 1933 aiaeo., ii aiiaue aa?ioeenue e iaio a 1934
a., iiaunea aeieea?iaoth oeaio n 20,67 aei 35 aeiee. ca oioeeth.
Ianeieueei ae?oaeo no?ai oaeaea aa?ioeenue e eaeie-eeai ec oi?i cieioiai
noaiaea?oa iinea aeaaaeueaaoeee. Oaeiai ?iaea «eiieo?aioiua
aeaaaeueaaoeee» i?aaei?eieiaeenue eaaeaeie ec no?ai a iaaeaaeaea
nio?aieoue cieioi e ia?aeeth/eoue ie?iaie ni?in ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth.
Iaeiaei aieueoae /anoueth iie eiiiaine?iaaee ae?oa ae?oaa e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiiiaaee no?aiai ai?ioueny n aac?aaioeoeae, a eaeie
ia?a ie?iaay e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay yeniainey iaania/eaaeanue iiauoaieai
aeaiaaeiie oeaiu cieioa.

Iaeaieueoee yeiiiie/aneee oua?a iaiineee ia?aie/aiey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee e ieaoaaeae ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui naeaeeai,
eioi?ua i?ienoaeaee ec iiiuoie ainoaea?noa nie?aoeoue eiii?o e
nio?aieoue niaieoiiue ni?in a no?aia. Aaaaeaiiue NOA a 1930 a. oa?eo
Niooa-Oiee ieacae ?ac?ooeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia caiyoinoue ca
a?aieoeae. A ioaao ca?oaaaeiua no?aiu ia?aie/eaaee ?icie/ioth oi?aiaeth
e i?eieiaee i?aoa?aioeeaeueiua oi?aiaua niaeaoaiey.(8)

Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue a ioiioaiee iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa aaea e ?aceei
eieaaaieyi ?aca?aia o no?ai n oeene?iaaiiui aaethoiui eo?nii e ?aceei
eieaaaieyi aaethoiuo eo?nia o no?ai n ieaaathuei eo?nii. *oiau
ia?aie/eoue oaeia aicaeaenoaea aaethoiiai ?uiea, iiiaea no?aiu cai?auaee
naeaeee ii n/aoo aeaeaeaiey /anoiiai eaieoaea. Aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey
ia?aie/aiiuo ?aca?aia eiino?aiiie aaethou iaaeaeo aeueoa?iaoeaiuie
niiniaaie eniieueciaaiey iaeioi?ua ainoaea?noaa i?eiaiyee oaeaea
aaeieieno?aoeaiua iaoiaeu eee iaieioeyoeeth aaethoiui eo?nii. Oi?aiaua
aa?uea?u e aeaoeyoeey a i?iiuoeaiiuo no?aiao Aa?iiu e Aia?eee, iniaaiii
eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo ainoaea?noa, o eioi?uo en/acae yenii?oiue ?uiie, aaee
e oe?ieiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth ioeaca io auieaou iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeieaia.

Iaanoeaiaiea aaethou iiaeiaii oa?eoiie iieeoeee iacuaaaony
iieeoeeie «?aci?ye ninaaea», anee iia i?eiineo auaiaeo nianoaaiiie
no?aia eeoue iioiio, /oi oooaeoaao yeiiiie/aneoth neooaoeeth ca
a?aieoeae. Ai a?aiy ioaaoeaoae aanue ie? Aeai?annee iieeoeea «?aci?ye
ninaaea» iaecaaaeii ineiaeiyea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey e /anoi
oooaeoaea iieiaeaiea anao no?ai.

Na?ueaciua iio?ynaiey ia ie?iauo ?aieao i?iaeieaeaeenue aei ia/aea
a 1939 a. Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu, ianiio?y ia ia?aie/aiiua oaae a
iai?aaeaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa,
i?aaei?eiyoua a eiioea 1930-o aa. Iaeaioia Aaeeeie aeai?annee iiiaea
no?aiu naeaeaee auai? iaaeaeo aiaoiei e aioo?aiiei ?aaiiaaneai, nie?aoea
oi?aiaua nayce n inoaeueiui ie?ii e eneeth/ea ainoaea?noaaiiui aeae?aoii
aiciiaeiinoue neieueei-ieaoaeue nouanoaaiiiai aiaoiaai aeenaaeaina.
Iaeiaei oaeie iooue, oiaiueoaaoee auaiaeu io oi?aiaee, iaaycuaae aunieea
ecaea?aeee ie?iaie yeiiiieea e niinianoaiaae oiio, /oi auoiae ec
Aeai?annee aue iaaeeaiiui e e 1939 a. ai iiiaeo no?aiao oae e ia
caeii/eeny. Ana no?aiu iiaee au auea?aoue io aieaa naiaiaeiie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee, anee au iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai
iiiiaei eaaeaeie ec ieo iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aiaoiaa ?aaiiaanea e
oeiainiaoth noaaeeueiinoue, ia iinooiaynue aioo?aiiei oeaeyi.

4. Oeiainiaay nenoaia iino?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee

A aiaeu a?aaeaeaineie aieiu oi?aiaey eae oaeiaay auea
eeeaeaee?iaaia e caiaiaia ieaiiia?iui ?ani?aaeaeaieai i?iaeoeoia a
iauaainoaea?noaaiiii ianooaaa. Niaaaeaiea a?aaeaeaineiai ianaeaiey
aaeinue /a?ac iio?aaeoaeueneoth eiiia?aoeeth.

I?e ?ac?ooaiiii oicyenoaa, a oneiaeyo aieiu o ainoaea?noaa ia iiaei
auoue nieeaeiuo enoi/ieeia aeioiaeia. I?iecaiaenoai iaaeaei,
nie?aoeeanue noiia i?iecaiaeeiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae. Ianiio?y ia
yeni?ii?eaoeeth aeaiaaeiuo iaeiieaiee, ?anoiaeu ainoaea?noaa auee
ianiecia?eii auoa aeioiaeia. A?iiaaeiuo n?aaenoa o?aaiaaea aieia. E?iia
oiai, aia?aua a enoi?ee ia/aeinue ainoaea?noaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eioi?ay ia aeaaaea aeioiaeia. ?anoiaeia o?aaiaaei e
niaea?aeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa. Aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa, eioi?ue a 1920 a. i?aaunee 3 iei. ?oa., i?eoeinue iie?uaaoue
oieueei ca n/ao yiennee aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa. Aaeaeo ia?iiiiai ?inoa
aeaiaaeiie iannu e eiioeo 1920 a. iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue aoiaaeiiai
?oaey oiaea a 13000 ?ac ii n?aaiaieth n 1913 a. (9)

A 1920 a. aue auiouai ii/oe o?eeeeii ?oaeae aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa, a
?aaeueiue aeioiae io oaeie eieinnaeueiie yiennee ninoaaeye anaai 144
iei. cieiouo ?oaeae. I?ioeann eieinnaeueiiai ?inoa yiennee aoiaaeiuo
aeaiaa i?eaae no?aio e neeueiaeoae eioeyoeee. A oneiaeyo aeoaieie
iaoo?aeecaoeee oicyenoaa aeaiueae oaeoe/anee ia?anoaee neoaeeoue
n?aaenoaii o/aoa e eiio?iey iaae niioiioaieai o?oaea e iio?aaeaiey.
Aeaiaaeiua ooieoeee noaee auiieiyoue oiaaea iniai aeaoeoeeoiua oiaa?u –
oeaa, nieue, ea?inei, neoaoe. Iiyoiio e?aaeeoii-aaieianeay nenoaia
ieacaeanue iaioaeiie. A nayce n yoei a yiaa?a

1920 a. Ia?iaeiue (ainoaea?noaaiiue) aaie aue oi?acaeiai.

Ainnoaiiaeaiea oicyenoaa, i?iaaaeaiea iiaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee
nicaeaei aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey o?aaoee?iaaiey oeiainiaie i?iaeaiu.
Oic?an/aoiua i?aaei?eyoey, ia o?aaiaaaoea athaeaeaoiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
?anoiaeia, io/eneyee ainoaea?noao /anoue i?eaueae. Aic?iaeeaoayny
aiaoiyy oi?aiaey ia/aea iiiieiyoue cieioie caian e n 1921 a. niiaa
ia/ae ooieoeeiie?iaaoue Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie. A 1921-1923 aa. auea
nicaeaia niaaoneay e?aaeeoiay nenoaia. Aneaae ca Ainaaieii auee
o/?aaeaeaiu: Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiue aaie aeey oeiaine?iaaiey
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, Yeaeo?iaaie niaoeeaeueii aeey e?aaeeoiaaiey
yeaeo?eoeeaoeee, ?inneeneee eiiia?/aneee aaie (n 1924 a. – Aiaooi?aaaie)
aeey oeiaine?iaaiey aiaoiae oi?aiaee, Oeaio?aeueiue aaie eiiioiaeueiiai
oicyenoaa e aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa (Oeaeiiaaie NNN?), Oeaio?aeueiue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiue aaie.

Ia?aui i?aeoe/aneei oaaii e noaaeeecaoeee ?oaey yaeeinue
i?iaaaeaiea aeaoo aeaiiieiaoeee* aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia. A 1922 a. auee
auiouaiu ainoaea?noaaiiua ciaee ?NON?

oae iacuaaaiua niaciaee. Iaeei ?oaeue iiauo aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia
niioaaonoaiaae 10 oun. i?aaeieo ?oaeae. Aoi?ay aeaiiieiaoeey auea
i?iaaaeaia a 1923 a. Iaeei ?oaeue ia?acoea 1923 a. ?aaiyeny 1 iei.
i?aaeieo ?oaeae e 100 ?oaeae ia?acoea 1922 a. Auee auiouaiu
aeanyoe?oaeaaua aaieiiou – «/a?aiioeu», i?e?aaiaiiua e 1 cieioieeo 78,24
aeiee /enoiai cieioa (o. a. i?e?aaiaiiua e noa?ie aeanyoe?oaeaaie
cieioie iiiaoa). *a?aiioeu, a ioee/ee io i?aaeieo aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia,
auioneaeenue ia aeey iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, a aeey
iaania/aiey ioaeae ii?iaeueiiai oicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa, aeey
ianeoaeeaaiey oieueei eeeaioo?u aaiea. Onoie/eainoue /a?aiioea
iaania/eaaeanue Ainoaea?noaaiiui aaieii ia 25% ae?aaioeaiiuie iaoaeeaie
e onoie/eaie eiino?aiiie aaethoie e ia 75% – eaaei ?aaeecoaiuie
oiaa?aie, aaenaeyie e ae?oaeie iaycaoaeuenoaaie. A oa/aiea 1923 a. e
ia?aiai eaa?oaea 1924 a. a ia?auaiee iaoiaeeeenue eae onoie/eaua
/a?-

* Aeaiiieiaoeey – eciaiaiea ia?eoeaoaeueiie noieiinoe aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia
n iaiaiii ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio

niioiioaieth noa?uo aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia ia iiaua aeaiaaeiua aaeeieoeu.

aiioeu, oae e iaaeathuea a naiae iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe i?aaeiea
aeaiaaeiua ciaee. A yoio ia?eiae i?ienoiaeee i?ioeann iinoaiaiiiai
auoaniaiey iineaaeieo e oneeaiey ?iee /a?aiioea.

Oe?aieaieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia, eeeaeaeaoeee athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa e icaei?iaeaieth anae nenoaiu aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey
niinianoaiaaee ia?ii?eyoey, naycaiiua n auioneii ia?auo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
caeiia (ia?aue caai a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia aue auiouai a ieoya?a 1922a.),
i?aaiecaoeeae ainoaea?noaaiiuo o?oaeiauo naa?aaaoaeueiuo eann,
aeinoeaeaieai a 1923/24 a. aeoeaiiai aaeaina aiaoiae oi?aiaee.

Iaeiaei ia?aeeaeueiia oiaeaeaiea /a?aiioea e aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia
i?aaeieo auioneia io?eoeaoaeueii aeeyei ia oicyenoaaiioth aeeciue
no?aiu. Iaiaoiaeeii auei caaa?oeoue aeaiaaeioth ?aoi?io. Yoi auei
naeaeaii a 1924 a. a ia?auaiea auee auiouaiu eacia/aeneea aeeaou
aeinoieinoaii a 1, 3, 5 ?oa. Ioiioaiea iaaeaeo eacia/aeneeie aeeaoaie e
/a?aiioeaie auei iniiaaii ia oaa?aeii ia?eoaoa: 1 /a?aiiaoe ?aaai 10
?oa. a eacia/aeneeo aeeaoao. Auione aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia noa?iai ia?acoea
aue i?ae?auai, a iaoiaeyueany iiaeeaaeaee ecuyoeth iooai aueoia eo ii
eo?no 1 ?oa. eacia/aeneeo aeeaoia ca 50000 ?oa. aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia
ia?acoea 1923 a. Iaiai i?ae?auaeny n 30 ai?aey 1924 a.

*a?aiiaoe naiaiaeii iaiaieaaeny ai anao no?aiao ia cieioi, aue
aeinoaoi/ii e?aieie aaethoie e auniei oeaieeny ia ii?iaii ?uiea. Iaeiaei
a 1926 a., eiaaea aue cai?auai auaic iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou ca i?aaeaeu
NNN? e NNN? ioeacaeny io naieo aiaoieo aeieaia, oiaeaeaiea /a?aiioea ia
ie?iaii ?uiea i?ae?aoeeinue. Ie?iaie aaethoiue ?uiie ieacuaae, eiia/ii,
aeeyiea ia aioo?aiiee aaethoiue ?uiie NNN? (aiaoiyy oi?aiaey aaeanue),
ii yoi aeeyiea auei einaaiiui.

Caeeth/aiea

Ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue ninoiyiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai ?uiea a
20-o aiaeao iiaeii anaai aeaoiy neiaaie: iaoaaoea cieioa. E yoi
aeaenoaeoaeueii oae: ianiio?y ia oi, /oi eiee/anoai cieioa a ie?a a oi
a?aiy auei ii/oe a 2 ?aca aieueoa, /ai a 1913 aiaeo, iio?aaiinoe no?ai
aic?inee aua neeueiaa. ?acei oneeeeanue ia?aaiiia?iinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey
cieiouo caiania (2/3 anaai cieioa iaoiaeeeenue a aeaoo no?aiao – NOA e
O?aioeee). Ii iaeaieaa aaaeii ae?oaia: i?aaeaiaiiue eaieoaeeci oaea ia
iia nouanoaiaaoue, en/acea yiioa n?aaieoaeueiie noaaeeueiinoe,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aeiaa?ey. Iineaaiaiiue cieioie noaiaea?o aue eeoue
iaeei iiaeiaeai aeiaiaiiiai. Aeaenoaiaaei ianeieueei aai
?aciiaeaeiinoae, nooue eioi?uo caeeth/aeanue a ii/oe iieiii ecuyoee
cieioa ec aioo?aiiaai ia?auaiey e eiioeaio?aoeee aai a ?oeao
ainoaea?noaa eae ie?iauo aeaiaa, eae n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?uiea. Ii yoa nenoaia nouanoaiaaea anaai ianeieueei
eao: ie? noie ia ii?iaa aeoai/aeoaai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena.

Iooiae io cieioiai noaiaea?oa a ?aciuo no?aiao inouanoaeyeny
ii-?aciiio, ii aue iauee aaaeiue yeiiiie/aneee ?acoeueoao,
caeeth/aaoeeny a oii, /oi oaa?aeua niioiioaiey i/ae aaethoaie ia?anoaee
nouanoaiaaoue e aaethou ia?aoee ia ieaaathuea eo?nu. Eae oieueei no?aia
iooiaeeea io cieioa, eo?n aa aaethou ?acei nieaeaeny, ii yoi aeaaaei
na?ueaciua i?aeiouanoaa a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa ca ?uiee. Cieioi
iieiinoueth auei ecuyoi ec aioo?aiiaai ia?auaiey, eciaieeny e iaoaieci
aai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey. Oaia?ue cieioi iiaei ia?aoiaeeoue
oieueei ec o?aieeeua iaeiiai oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea a ae?oaia. Ai?i/ai, a
i?aaeaiaiiua aiaeu iooue o iaai aue iaeei – a NOA.

Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aeiaciaa I. E. «Cieioi e aaethoa: i?ioeia e ianoiyuaa»

I, «Oeiainu e noaoenoeea», 1988 a.

2. Aieeei A. A. «Cieioi: iaaeaeoia?iaeiue yeiiiie/aneee aniaeo»

I, «Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey», 1989 a.

3. E?oaiai I. ?. «Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay yeiiiieea: oai?ey e iieeoeea»

I, IAO, «THIEOE», 1997 a.

4. *oiooeia A. O., E?aaoeiaa I. N. «Yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey NNN?»

I, «Aunoay oeiea», 1987 a.

I?eia/aiey

(1) E?oaiai I. ?. «Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay yeiiiieea», I, 1997a., no?. 536

(2) Aeiaciaa I. E. «Cieioi e aaethoa: i?ioeia e ianoiyuaa», I, 1988,
no?. 30

(3) Oai aea, no?. 32

(4) Oai aea, no?. 33

(5) E?oaiai I. ?. «Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay yeiiiieea», no?. 538

(6) Aeiaciaa I. E. «Cieioi e aaethoa: i?ioeia e ianoiyuaa», no?. 37

(7) Oai aea, no?. 39

(8) E?oaiai I. ?. «Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay yeiiiieea», no?. 539

(9) *oiooeia A. O. «Yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey NNN?», I, 1987 a., no?. 171

Niaea?aeaiea

no?.

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaiaaeii-aaethoiay noa?a: iaiiiai oai?ee

Cieioinoaiaea?oiue oanaae 20-o aiaeia

Aaeeeia?eoaiey

O?aioeey

Aa?iaiey

O?eaeoeaoua aiaeu

Oeiainiaay nenoaia iino?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee

Caeeth/aiea

I?eia/aiey

Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a

2

2

3

5

7

7

8

10

11

12

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