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NIAeA?AEAIEA

TOC \o “1-3” Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc481118242 PAGEREF
_Toc481118242 2

Aeaaa I. Aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (AII). GOTOBUTTON
_Toc481118243 PAGEREF _Toc481118243 4

1.1 Ii?aaeaeaiea AII GOTOBUTTON _Toc481118244 PAGEREF _Toc481118244
4

1.2 ?an/ao AII GOTOBUTTON _Toc481118245 PAGEREF _Toc481118245 5

1.3 AII a i?ioeanna ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey: nenoaia acaeiinaycaiiuo
iieacaoaeae. GOTOBUTTON _Toc481118246 PAGEREF _Toc481118246 9

1.4 Ianiaa?oainoai iieacaoaey AII. *enoia yeiiiie/aneia aeaaininoiyiea.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc481118247 PAGEREF _Toc481118247 11

Aeaaa II. Aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo (AAI) GOTOBUTTON _Toc481118248
PAGEREF _Toc481118248 12

2.1 Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea AAI. GOTOBUTTON _Toc481118249 PAGEREF
_Toc481118249 13

2.2 Iaoiaeu ?an/aoa AAI GOTOBUTTON _Toc481118250 PAGEREF
_Toc481118250 15

Aeaaa III. Eniieueciaaiea nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia aeey
i?aaenoaaeaiey AAI i?e iae?iyeiiiie/aneii aiaeeca e i?iaiice?iaaiee.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc481118251 PAGEREF _Toc481118251 27

Caeeth/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc481118252 PAGEREF _Toc481118252 33

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc481118253 PAGEREF
_Toc481118253 34

Aaaaeaiea

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iauaecaanoii, /oi ethaay no?aia ?aii eee iicaeii
ia?aoiaeeo e ?uii/iie nenoaia yeiiiieee. I?e yoii ainoaea?noai
aeieaeii inouanoaeyoue ?acoiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a yeiiiieeo no?aiu.
Noaiaiue yoiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa iiaeao auoue ?acee/iie, ii iaeii i?aaeei
aoaeao aeaenoaiaaoue anaaaea. Aeey yooaeoeaiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie no?aiu ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao aeieaeai
?aniieaaaoue eaeeie-oi naaaeaieyie i i?ioeannao, i?ienoiaeyueo a
yeiiiieea. Yoe aeaiiua (eee iieacaoaee) noaiiayony aeinooiiuie
aeaaiaea?y aaaeaieth yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeee.

Yeiiiie/aneay noaoenoeea — yoi iaeia ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo io?aneae
noaoenoeee eae iao/iie aeenoeeieeiu e aeaea i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie noaoenoeee, eioi?ay caieiaaony eiee/anoaaiiie
oa?aeoa?enoeeie ianniauo yaeaiee e i?ioeannia a yeiiiieea. Iaeaieaa
i?inouie iieacaoaeyie eiee/anoaaiiuo ecia?aiee yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee
yaeythony iieacaoaee aeeiaieee oeai, iauaia i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee,
/eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey e o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, aac?aaioeoeu, noaiaie
?aaiiia?iinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia, iaee/ey iniiaiuo e iai?ioiuo
oiiaeia e o. ae. Iaeiaei a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo a yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeea
eiee/anoaaiii ecia?ythony aieaa neiaeiua yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu e
yaeaiey, a oaeaea onoaiaaeeaathony acaeiinayce iaaeaeo ieie, iai?eia?, n
iiiiuueth iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina aeaaony oeeo?iaay oa?aeoa?enoeea
iaaeio?aneaauo naycae, caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo auioneii i?iaeoeoeee io?aneae
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e eiia/iui i?iaeoeoii, o. a. i?iaeoeoeeae,
eniieuecoaiie aeey iio?aaeaiey e iaeiieaiey. Aeaiiua yeiiiie/aneie
noaoenoeee iicaieytho iaania/eoue nenoaiaoe/aneia eiee/anoaaiiia
iienaiea anao iniiaiuo aniaeoia yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeanna e yeiiiieee a
oeaeii..

Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeee yaeyaony aa nenoaiiue
iiaeoiae e eco/aieth yeiiiieee, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao ?ac?aaioeo aeey
eco/aiey yeiiiieee nenoaiu iieacaoaeae, eioi?ay ioaaouaaao iniiaiua
aeaeu yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e aniaeou yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeanna.
Nenoaiiue oa?aeoa? yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeee iiae?acoiaaaao
niaeaniaaiiinoue iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie iieacaoaeyie, eniieuecoaiuie aeey
iienaiey e aiaeeca ?acee/iuo, ii acaeiinaycaiiuo aniaeoia yeiiiie/aneiai
i?ioeanna.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee niaea?aeaiey iieacaoaeae i?iaiaeeony ea/anoaaiiue
aiaeec eco/aaiuo i?ioeannia e yaeaiee, eioi?ue, eae i?aaeei,
iniiauaaaony ia eiioeaioeeyo iieeoyeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Yoe
eiioeaioeee e iniiaiii ?ani?ino?aiythony ia iaeaieaa aaaeiua
iae?iyeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee, oaeea, eae AAI, iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae,
naa?aaeaiea e ae?. Iai?eia?, niaeanii iaeiie ec iieeoyeiiiie/aneeo
eiioeaioeee, eniieuecoaiuo a nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia (NIN),
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ii?aaeaeaiea aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?uo nicaeaaony noieiinoue, i?iecaiaeeony iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo. Ia
iniiaa ae?oaie aaaeiie eiioeaioeee iieeoyeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a
ii?aaeaeyaony niaea?aeaiea nenoaiu iieacaoaeae aeioiaeia: ia?ae/iiai
aeioiaea, ?aniieaaaaiiai aeioiaea, iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea.

Oeaeueth yoie ?aaiou yaeyaony ?ane?uoea iiiyoey aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa (AII), ii?aaeaeaiea aai ianoa a nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai
n/aoiaiaenoaa. Oaeaea aoaeao ?anniio?ai ianeieueei iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue
aa?eaio iieacaoaey AII – aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo (AAI). Iaa
iieacaoaey yaeythony iaiauathueie, oae eae iie io?aaeatho yeiiiie/aneee
iioaioeeae no?aiu. Yoi e ii?aaeaeyao oeaio?aeueiia ianoi AII e AAI a
nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai n/aoiaiaenoaa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii e a
yeiiiie/aneie noaoenoeea.

Aeaaa I. Aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (AII).

1.1 Ii?aaeaeaiea AII

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey e noaoenoeea aeey ecia?aiey iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa eniieuecotho ?yae iieacaoaeae, n?aaee eioi?uo aaaeiia
ianoi caieiaao AII. AII ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?uii/iay noieiinoue anae
i?iecaaaeaiiie eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa a yeiiiieea ca aiae. I?e
yoii o/eouaaaony aiaeiaie iauai eiia/iuo oiaa?ia e oneoa, nicaeaiiuo
a?aaeaeaiaie no?aiu, eae a ?aieao iaoeeiiaeueiie oa??eoi?ee, oae e ca
?oaaaeii. Ae?oaia ii?aaeaeaiea AII i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio aeioiaeia
i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee ianaeaiey a iaoa?eaeueiii e iaiaoa?eaeueiii
i?iecaiaenoaa. AII o/eouaaao e aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey, eioi?ua
ia?acothony a ?acoeueoaoa aeeth/aiey /anoe noieiinoe eniieuecoaiuo
oiaa?ia (noaiee, iaoeiu e o.ae.) a aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth. Aeey
i?aaeeueiiai ?an/aoa AII iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue ana i?iaeoeou e oneoae,
i?iecaaaeaiiua a aeaiiii aiaeo, anaai 1 ?ac. Yoi iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue
aeaieiiai n/aoa e caauoaiey noieiinoe AII, iineieueeo iiiaea i?iaeoeou
i?iaeathony ianeieueei ?ac, i?aaeaea /ai iie aoaeoo ia?a?aaioaiu, e
aieaeoo a eiia/iue i?iaeoeo. Eneeth/eoue aeaieiie n/ao iicaieyao
iieacaoaeue aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao ?acieoeo
iaaeaeo i?iaeaaeaie oe?i e iieoieaie oe?iaie iaoa?eaeia, eino?oiaioia,
oiieeaa, yia?aee, oneoa e o.i. Eiuie neiaaie, aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue –
yoi ?uii/iay oeaia i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu ca au/aoii noieiinoe iio?aaeaiiuo
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, eoieaiiuo o iinoaaueeia.

Noiie?oy aeiaaaeaiiua noieiinoe, i?iecaaaeaiiua anaie i?aaei?eyoeyie,
iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue AII, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao ?uii/ioth noieiinoue anao
auiouaiiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa.

Aaaeiie iiaeeoeeaoeeae AII yaeyaony iieacaoaeue AAI, eioi?ue noiie?oao
aeiaaaeaiiua noieiinoe anao i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiaa?ia e oneoa, iacuaaaiuo
?aceaeaioaie. ?aceaeaiou – yoi a?aaeaeaia, i?iaeeaathuea ia oa??eoi?ee
aeaiiie no?aiu, ca eneeth/aieai eiino?aioeaa, aeeaoueo a no?aia iaiaa 1
aiaea.

Anee e iieacaoaeth AAI aeiaaaeoue ?aciinoue iaaeaeo iinooieaieyie io
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa (oaeoi?iuie aeioiaeaie) ec-ca a?aieoeu e
oaeoi?iuie aeioiaeaie, iieo/aiiuie ca?oaaaeiuie eiaanoi?aie a aeaiiie
no?aia, oi iu iieo/ei iieacaoaeue AII. Oae, iai?eia?, aeey O?aioeee
iinea ?an/aoa iieacaoaey AAI, ioaeii aeiaaaeoue iinooieaiey oaeoi?iuo
aeioiaeia ec Aaeeeia?eoaiee, NOA, Aa?iaiee e o.ae. e au/anoue aeioiaeu
a?eoaineeo, aia?eeaineeo, aa?iaineeo iauaeoia ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa,
aaaeoueo naith aeayoaeueiinoue ai O?aioeee. ?aciinoue iaaeaeo AAI e AII
iacia/eoaeueia e eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ±
1% io AAI.

Noaoenoe/aneay neoaeaa III ?aeiiaiaeoao eniieueciaaoue AAI a ea/anoaa
iniiaiiai iieacaoaey aeey ninoaaeaiey Nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia. A
NOA e ssiiiee eniieuecoaony iieacaoaeue AAI.

A eiioea 1987 aiaea a NNN? auei i?eiyoi iinoaiiaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia
eniieueciaaiee iaoiaeieiaee III i?e ?an/aoa aaaeiaeoeo eoiaiauo
iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae. A 1989 aiaeo a io/aoa Aineiinoaoa oaea
oeao?e?iaae iieacaoaeue AII, oioy, i/aaeaeii, oi/iaa auei au iacaaoue
aai AAI, o.e. naeueaei caa?aie/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa a auaoai NNN? e
iuiaoiae ?inneae ninoaaeyao ana aua eneeth/eoaeueii iaaieueoea aaee/eiu.

1.2 ?an/ao AII

AII au/eneyaony a oaeoueo ?uii/iuo oeaiao, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao
iiieiaeueiia aai cia/aiea. Aeey iieo/aiey enoeiiie aaee/eiu yoiai
iieacaoaey iaiaoiaeeii i/enoeoue oeaiu io aeeyiey eioeyoeee, acaaneoue
eo, o.a. i?eiaieoue eiaeaen oeai, /oi aeaao ?aaeueiia cia/aiea AII. A
NOA, iai?eia?, a 1990 aiaeo AII a oaeoueo oeaiao ninoaaee 5570 ie?ae. $,
a a iinoiyiiuo oeaiao – 4254 ie?ae. $.

Ioiioaiea iiieiaeueiiai AII e ?aaeueiiio iieacuaaao oaaee/aiea AII ca
n/ao ?inoa oeai e iacuaaaony AII-aeaoeyoi?ii.

Oa?aeoa?ecoaony AII eae «iaeaieaa oi/iue noiia?iue ecia?eoaeue oiaa?ia e
oneoa, eioi?ua iiaeao i?iecaanoe no?aia» (I. Naioyeuenii). Yeiiiienou
i?aaenoaaeytho 2 iooe aai ecia?aiey.

Iaoiae ?an/aoa AII ii ?anoiaeai.

AII ii?aaeaeyaony eae noiia aeaa e oneoa a ?anii?yaeaiee iauanoaa a
ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie. Aaee/eia AII – yoi aeaiaaeiay ioeaiea
eiia/iuo i?iaeoeoia e oneoa, i?iecaaaeaiiuo ca aiae. Eiuie neiaaie,
iaiaoiaeeii noiie?iaaoue ana ?anoiaeu ia i?eia?aoaiea (iio?aaeaiea)
eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa.

A iieacaoaeue AII aoiaeyo:

Iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu (N).

Aaeiaua /anoiua eiaanoeoeee a iaoeeiiaeueioth yeiiiieeo (Ig).

Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeoiee oiaa?ia e oneoa (G).

*enoue yenii?o Xn, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao ?aciinoue iaaeaeo yenii?oii e
eiii?oii.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia?a/eneaiiua caeanue ?anoiaeu ninoaaeytho AII e
iieacuaatho ?uii/ioth noieiinoue aiaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, noiia?iue AII iiaeii au/eneeoue ii oi?ioea:

AII = C + Ig + G + Xn

Iaoiae ?an/aoa AII ii aeioiaeai.

AII, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ninoaaeyao noiio aeioiaeia ioaeaeueiuo eeoe e
i?aaei?eyoee (ca?ieaoa, i?ioeaio, i?eaueue, ?aioa) e ii?aaeaeyaony eae
noiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey aeaaeaeueoeaa oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa. A yoii
neo/aa a AII oaeaea aeeth/aiu einaaiiua iaeiae ia i?aaei?eyoey,
aii?oecaoeey, aeioiaeu io nianoaaiiinoe.

AII iiaeao oaeaea ii?aaeaeyoueny eae noiia aeioiaeia io?aneae ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa.

Niaiauaiea aeaoo iiaeoiaeia e ?an/aoo AII ii aeioiaeai e ?anoiaeai
iieacaii a oaaeeoea 1. Aeaiiay noaia iienuaaao iaeiia?aiaiii aeaa
niaeaniaaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie iiaeoiaea e ?an/aoo ?anniao?eaaaiiai
iieacaoaey. AII, ?ann/eoaiiue ii aeioiaeai, ?ani?aaeaeyaony ia ca?ieaoo
iaaiiui ?aai/ei, ?aioiua ieaoaaee, i?ioeaiou, aeeaeaeaiou, aeioiaeu
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo nianoaaiieeia, iaeiae ia i?eaueue ei?ii?aoeee,
einaaiiua iaeiae ia aecian, aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey.

Neaaeothuea aeaeaa au/aou aeiaaaeaieth, iieacaiiua no?aeeaie, iicaieytho
iieo/eoue iieacaoaee /enoiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa, iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea. Noaia o/eouaaao oaeaea iaeiae n a?aaeaeai, oiea/eaaaiua ec
ee/iiai aeioiaea, iaeiae n ei?ii?aoeee, aciinu ia nioeeaeueiia
no?aoiaaiea, enoi/ieee eiaanoeoeee o i?aaei?eyoee e ae?.

AII, ?ann/eoaiiue ii ?anoiaeai, aeeth/aao a naay 4 iioiea: eiaanoeoeee
/anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ainoaea?noaaiiua caeoiee oiaa?ia e
oneoa, iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu e /enoue yenii?o.

I/aaeaeii oaeaea, /oi e?oaiiai?io aeioiaeia – aiciaiiaeyaiue e
?anoe?ythueeny i?ioeann: ?anoiaeu noeioee?otho ?ino aeioiaeia, eioi?ua a
naith i/a?aaeue iicaieytho oaaee/eoue ?anoiaeu.

Iaa iaoiaea n/eoathony ?aaiioeaiiuie e aeatho iaeeiaeiaua ?acoeueoaou.

Oaaeeoea 1

Iaoeeiiaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai e e?oaiiai?io aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia

Aaeiaie Iaoeeiiaeueiue I?iaeoeo

*enoue yenii?o

Eiaanoeoeee

Aii?oecaoeey

Iaeiae ia i?eaueue ei?i.

Aecian

Ain. caeoiee oiaa?ia e oneoa

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iaeiae

Ee/iue aeioiae

Ainoaea?noai

?an/ao AII ii ?anoiaeai ?an/ao AII ii aeioiaeai

Iaeaieaa ?ac?aaioaiiie yaeyaony noaoenoeea AII a NOA, eioi?ay
i?iaiaeeony Ath?i yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca Ieienoa?noaa oi?aiaee no?aiu.
Caeanue AII en/eneyaony ia eciee?iaaiii, a a ?aieao nenoaiu
iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia, eioi?ay iiieii n/aoia aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa e iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, aeeth/aao iaaeio?aneaaie aaeain
i?iaeoeoa e eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, aaeain oeiainiauo iioieia, aaeain
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa e aaeain o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

A NOA AII o/eouaaao eiia/iua oiaa?u e oneoae, o.a. a AII aeeth/aaony
oieueei oaeay i?iaeoeoeey, eioi?ay eeai iaanaaaea iieeaeaao i?ioeann
i?iecaiaenoaa, iinooiay a iauanoaaiiia eee ee/iia iio?aaeaiea, eeai
aica?auaaony a noa?o i?iecaiaenoaa a aeaea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia.
Nu?uea, iieooaa?eeaou, e aniiiiaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu ia o/eouaathony.

AII aeeth/aao naeueaei aiaoiaoi?aiauo iia?aoeee NOA n ae?oaeie no?aiaie.
Aeey naaaeaiey aaeaina a AII aeeth/aaony /anoue i?iaeoeoa,
i?iecaaaeaiiiai a?aaeaeaiaie NOA aia no?aiu, a i?iaeoeo, nicaeaiiue ia
a?aaeaeaiaie NOA ia oa??eoi?ee Ooaoia ia o/eouaaaony. E?iia oiai, a AII
aoiaeeo /enoue i?eoie aeioiaeia eae noiia i?eauee, aeeaeaeaiaeia,
i?ioeaioia ia aeiaeaiiue ca a?aieoeae eaieoae, ?aioiuo ieaoaaeae e o.i.

Ia?aiia/aeueii a NOA AII en/eneyeny a oaeoe/aneeo oaeoueo oeaiao, /oi
eneaaeaei ecia?aiiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa aneaaenoaea eioeyoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna, aeeythuaai ia oeaiu (yoi i?eaiaeeei e iienaiiiio ?aiaa
aeaieiiio n/aoo). Aeeiaieeo i?iecaiaenoaa a /enoii aeaea iieacuaaao AII
e iinoiyiiuo oeaiao aaceniiai aiaea (eaaeaeua 10-15 eao ii?aaeaeyaony
iiaue aaceniue aiae). Iieacaoaeue AII a iinoiyiiuo oeaiao aic?anoao
caiaoii iaiueoa, /ai a oaeoueo oeaiao. Oae, iai?eia?, n?aaeiaaiaeiaie
oaii i?e?inoa AII a oaeoueo oeaiao a NOA a 1973-1985 aa. ninoaaeye 9,8
%, oiaaea eae oaii ?inoa AII i?e eniieueciaaiee iinoiyiiuo oeai ca oio
aea ia?eiae a?aiaie ?aaai 2,8%. Ianiaiaaeaiea yoeo iieacaoaeae
iauyniyaony eioeyoeeae.

E?iia oiai, a NOA Yeiiiie/aneee niaao i?e I?aceaeaioa ?ann/eouaaao oae
iacuaaaiue iioaioeeaeueiue AII, eioi?ue iieacuaaao i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
aiciiaeiinoe aia?eeaineie yeiiiieee, o.a. o/eouaaao iieiinoueth
eniieueciaaiiua o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu no?aiu. Oaeie iiaeoiae iicaieyao
ioeaieaaoue yooaeoeaiinoue aioo?eyeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee aia?eeaineiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, e, i?aaeaea anaai iieeoeee a iaeanoe caiyoinoe, /oi ia
eeoaii niunea e aeey ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee,
i?iaiaeeiie eniieieoaeueiie aeanoueth iaoae no?aiu.

Oaaeeoea 2

N/ao aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa e ?anoiaeia NOA (oi?iuaiiay noaia)

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa e ae?oaea auieaou.

Aeioiae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

I?eauee ei?ii?aoeee.

*enoua i?ioeaiou.

O?ainoa?oiua ieaoaaee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Einaaiiua iaeiae ia aecian e iaiaeiaiaua ianneau.

Iio?aaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea.

Iinooieaiea oaeoi?iuo aeioiaeia ec-ca ?oaaaea.

Ieaoaaee oaeoi?iuo aeioiaeia ca ?oaaae.

Aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo

Ee/iua iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu.

Aaeiaua /anoiua aioo?aiiea eiaanoeoeee.

*enoue yenii?o.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeoiee.

Aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo

Enoi/iee: Survey of Current Business. July, 1992, tab 8.

1.3 AII a i?ioeanna ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey: nenoaia acaeiinaycaiiuo
iieacaoaeae.

AII e AAI – ia aaeeinoaaiiua iieacaoaee iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia, eioi?ua
io?aaeatho aeaeaeaiea niaieoiiuo aaee/ei a yeiiiieea no?aiu.

A yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee e noaoenoeea oe?iei eniieuecoaony acaeiinaycaiiuo
iieacaoaee iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia, eioi?ua ?ann/eouaathony ia iniiaa AII.
E iei ioiinyony /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo, iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae,
ee/iue aeioiae, ?aniieaaaaiue aeioiae.

*enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aieaa niaa?oaiiue
iieacaoaeue ii n?aaiaieth n AII, iineieueeo a iai ia o/eouaathony
aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey. N iiiiuueth iieacaoaey /enoiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa (*II) iiaeii ecia?eoue aiaeiaie iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ue yeiiiieea (i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee,
ainoaea?noaa eee eiino?aiiuo a?aaeaeai) a ninoiyiee iio?aaeoue, ia
nie?auay i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia. Ionthaea

*II = AII – aii?oecaoeey.

Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iieacaoaey iauaai iauaia
ca?ieaou, i?ioeaioa, i?eauee e ?aiou, o.a. ieaoaaeae, iieo/aiiuo i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa AII a aeaiiii aiaeo, iaiaoiaeeii au/anoue ec *II einaaiiua
iaeiae ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Niune yoiai iiaen/aoa ninoieo a oii, /oi
ainoaea?noai, aceiay einaaiiua iaeiae n i?aaei?eyoee, ie/aai ia
aeeaaeuaaao a i?iecaiaenoai e iiyoiio aai iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue eae
iinoaaueea yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia. Oaeei ia?acii, iu iiaeai iieo/eoue
iieacaoaeue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea (IAe). N oi/ee c?aiey nianoaaiieeia
?ano?nia, IAe yaeyaony ecia?eoaeai eo aeioiaeia io o/anoey a
i?iecaiaenoaa ca oaeouee ia?eiae. I?aaei?eyoea ?anniao?eaaao IAe eae
iieacaoaeue, io?aaeathuee o?iaaiue oeai ia oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa eee
?ano?nu.

Enneaaeiaaieai IAe caieiaeenue yeiiiienou ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaiee. Oae,
aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno XVII aaea O. Iaooe i?aaei?eiye a 1664 aiaeo iiiuoeo
aiaeeca aeioiaeia eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa e eo ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Ii
ninoaaee aaeain aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ianaeaiey Aiaeee oiai a?aiaie. I?e
yoii i?e ?an/aoa ?acia?a IAe ii ii?aaeaeee noiio aeioiaeia anaai
ianaeaiey, iieo/aiiuo n caiee, aeiiia, eaieoaeia e ca n/ao o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia.

I?iaeaiu i?iecaiaenoaa e IAe eco/aee A. Nieo, Ae. ?eea?aei. Iie
ii?aaeaeeee noieiinoue anaai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa noiiie aeioiaeia
iauanoaa, eneeth/ay i?e yoii aoiaeyuoth a noieiinoue i?iaeoeoa
noieiinoue n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aiaeiae/iuo acaeyaeia i?eaea?aeeaaeny oaaeoea?neee yeiiiieno Neiiiae aea
Neniiiaee, eioi?ue ia aeaeae ?acee/ey iaaeaeo aaee/eiaie aiaeiaiai
i?iaeoeoa iauanoaa e IAe.

O?aioeocneee yeiiiieno AEai-Aaoeno Nae ooaa?aeaeae, /oi noieiinoue e
iieaciinoue aaue anoue ?acoeueoao oneoa o?ao oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa –
o?oaea, caiee e eaieoaea., a iauay noieiinoue anao i?iaeoeoia
neeaaeuaaaony ec aeioiaeia o?ao eeannia – ?aai/eo, eaieoaeenoia,
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa. IAe nicaeaao eaaeaeue /aeiaae, iieo/athuee aeioiae.

Nia?aiaiiua caiaaeiua yeiiiienou oianeaaeiaaee io yeiiiienoia i?ioeiai,
i?aaeaea anaai io AEaia-Aaoenoa Nay, i?aaenoaaeaiey i oii, /oi IAe
nicaeatho ?acee/iua e ?aaiii?aaiua oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa. Niune oaeiai
iiaeoiaea ninoieo a oii, /oi eaaeaeue aeae aeayoaeueiinoe iaeeiaeiai
i?eiineo aeioiae, eaaeaeue iieo/aoaeue aeioiaea iaeiia?aiaiii yaeyaony
aai oai?oeii, iacaaeneii io i?ioannee e noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe. Nthaea
aeeth/athony ainoaea?noaaiiua /eiiaieee, aiaiiineoaeauea,
nayuaiiineoaeeoaee e ae?.

Aia?eeaineay noaoenoeea, eae ioia/aeinue auoa, ii?aaeaeyao IAe eae noiio
ca?ieaou, i?eauee, i?ioeaioa, ?aioiuo ieaoaaeae. IAe iaiueoa AII ia
noiio einaaiiuo iaeiaia e aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee io noieiinoe
iniiaiiai eaieoaea. ?yae o/aiuo a iaoae no?aia ii-i?aaeiaio n/eoaao, /oi
yeiiiie/anee iaii?aaaeaiii a IAe o/eouaaoue aeioiaeu io aeayoaeueiinoe
iieeoeaeneiai, aiaiiiai, th?enoa, ?aaioieea NIE. Ana yoe i?ioannee,
niaeanii iiaeoiaeo ia?enenoneie iieeoieiaee, nicaeatho niaoeeoe/aneea
oneoae, ii ia eiatho i?yiiai ioiioaiey e i?ioanneyi iauanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa a no?aia. Aieaa oiai, ii iiaieth yoeo o/aiuo, iiaeiaiay
iaoiaeeea iiaen/aoa aeaao iiaoi?iue n/ao aeioiaeia, eneonnoaaiii
oaaee/eaay iieacaoaeue IAe ia 20-30%.

Ee/iue aeioiae (EAe). I?aaenoaaeyao niaie iieo/aiiue aeioiae, a ioee/ea
io IAe, eioi?ue yaeyaony ca?aaioaiiui aeioiaeii. Caeanue neaaeoao
caiaoeoue, /oi /anoue ca?aaioaiiiai aeioiaea – aciinu ia nioeeaeueiia
no?aoiaaiea, iaeia ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e eo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea – ia
iinooiatho a ?anii?yaeaiea ianaeaiey. A oi aea a?aiy o?ainoa?oiua
ieaoaaee, eioi?ua ia yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
?aaioieeia, ii nooe, i?aaenoaaeytho /anoue eo aeioiaea. Oaeei ia?acii,
EAe eae oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiue aeioiae iiaeii au/eneeoue iooai au/eoaiey
ec IAe aciinia ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea, iaeiaia ia i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoee, ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eaeee, e aeiaaaeaiey noiiu anao
o?ainoa?oiuo ieaoaaeae.

?aniieaaaaiue aeioiae iaoiaeeony a ee/iii ?anii?yaeaiee /eaiia iauanoaa.
Aai aaee/eia iiaeao auoue iieo/aia iooai au/eoaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
iaeiaia (iiaeioiaeiiai, iaeiaia ia ee/iia eiouanoai, ia ianeaaenoai) ec
EAe.

1.4 Ianiaa?oainoai iieacaoaey AII. *enoia yeiiiie/aneia aeaaininoiyiea.

Iieacaoaeue AII aeaao aiciiaeiinoue a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee ecia?eoue
iauai aiaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa no?aiu. Aianoa n oai n/eoaaony, /oi AII
ia iieiinoueth io?aaeaao ?aaeueiia yeiiiie/aneia ninoiyiea iaoeee, /oi
iauyniyaony neaaeothueie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie.

I?aeoe/anee ai anao no?aiao ionoonoaoao nenoaiaoe/aneay e aeinoiaa?iay
noaoenoeea oaeeo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, eae aeiiaoiee ooiae ca aieueiuie
e aeaoueie, aeiiaoiaa aeaaiono?ienoai, ?aiaoeoi?noai, eioi?ua,
ianiiiaiii, oaaee/eaatho aeaaininoiyiea iauanoaa. Ia o/eouaathony a AII
?acoeueoaou oaeeo naeoi?ia yeiiiieee, eae iaeaaaeueiua aeaeu
?acaea/aiee, ?yeao, oi?aiaey ia?eioe/aneeie aauanoaaie e i?oaeeai,
eioi?ua io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaathony ia aeaaininoiyiee iauanoaa. AII ia
aeeth/aao oaeaea aeiiaoithth ?aaiou (?aiiio eaa?oe?, yeaeo?i e
?aaeeiaiia?aoo?u, iaoae, aaoiiaoei e ae?. ), eioi?ua oaaee/eaatho
aeaaininoiyiea iauanoaa, ii eiatho ia?uii/iue oa?aeoa?. Oaeaea
ionoonoaoao a AII ioeaiea iaaaoeaiuo ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa
(enoiuaiea ?ano?nia, eciaiaiea eeeiaoa, caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu), /oi aea/ao ca niaie iaeciaiiia oiaiueoaiea o?iaiy
aeaaininoiyiey /eaiia iauanoaa. E?iia oiai, eae ecaanoii, a oneiaeyo
auniei?acaeoie yeiiiieee o?iaaiue aeioiaeia aeinoaoi/ai aeey
ea/anoaaiiiai ioaeuoa e oaaee/aiey a?aiaie aeinoaa cia/eoaeueiie /anoe
ianaeaiey, /oi ?aaiicia/ii ?inoo aeaaininoiyiey.

O/anoue aeeyiea yoeo oaeoi?ia ia iauanoaaiiia aeaaininoiyiea iicaieyao
iieacaoaeue /enoiai yeiiiie/aneiai aeaaininoiyiey (*YA), aaaaeaiiue a
iao/iue iai?io aia?eeaineeie yeiiiienoaie A. Ii?aeoaonii e Aeae.
Aiaeiii. Yoio iieacaoaeue iiaeii au/eneeoue ii neaaeothuae oi?ioea:

*YA = AII – io?eoeaoaeueiua oaeoi?u + ia?uii/iay aeayoaeueiinoue (a
aeaiaaeiie ioeaiea) + aeaiaaeiay ioeaiea naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie.

Aeaaa II. Aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo (AAI)

2.1 Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea AAI.

Eae auei ioia/aii auoa, aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo (AAI) — yoi iaeei ec
aaaeiaeoeo iieacaoaeae nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia, eioi?ue
oa?aeoa?ecoao eiia/iue ?acoeueoao i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
yeiiiie/aneeo aaeeieoe—?aceaeaioia e ecia?yao noieiinoue oiaa?ia e oae
i?iecaaaeaiiuo yoeie aaeeieoeaie aeey eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey.

I?aaeaea /ai i?enooieoue e oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoiaeia ?an/aoa AAI,
iaiaoiaeeii iiynieoue a aeiiieiaiea e oiio, /oi auei neacaii ?aiaa,
iaeioi?ua eeth/aaua iiiaiou a aai ii?aaeaeaiee, /oiau ecaaaeaoue
niaoaiey iiiyoee aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa e iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea.

Ai-ia?auo, AAI — yoi iieacaoaeue i?iecaaaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, eioi?ue
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noieiinoue i?iecaaaeaiiuo eiia/iuo oiaa?ia e oneoa.
Yoi icia/aao, /oi noieiinoue i?iiaaeooi/iuo oiaa?ia e oneoa,
eniieueciaaiiuo a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa (oaeeo, eae nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu,
oiieeai. yia?aey, naiaia, ei?ia, oneoae a?ociaiai o?ainii?oa, iioiaie
oi?aiaee, eiiia?/aneea e oeiainiaua oneoae e o. i.), ia aoiaeeo a AAI. A
i?ioeaiii neo/aa AAI niaea?aeae au iiaoi?iue n/ao.

Ai-aoi?uo, AAI —yoi aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo, iioiio /oi ii i?iecaaaeai
?aceaeaioaie. E ?aceaeaioai ioiinyony ana yeiiiie/aneea aaeeieoeu
(i?aaei?eyoey e aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa) iacaaeneii io eo iaoeeiiaeueiie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e a?aaeaeainoaa, eiathuea oeaio? yeiiiie/aneiai
eioa?ana ia yeiiiie/aneie oa??eoi?ee aeaiiie no?aiu. Yoi icia/aao, /oi
iie caieiathony i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth eee i?iaeeaatho ia
yeiiiie/aneie oa??eoi?ee no?aiu aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy (ia iaiaa aiaea).
Yeiiiie/aneay oa??eoi?ey no?aiu—oa??eoi?ey, aaeieieno?aoeaii oi?aaeyaiay
i?aaeoaeuenoaii aeaiiie no?aiu, a i?aaeaeao eioi?ie eeoea, oiaa?u e
aeaiueae iiaoo naiaiaeii ia?aiauaoueny. A ioee/ea io aaia?aoe/aneie
oa??eoi?ee iia ia aeeth/aao oa??eoi?eaeueiua aieeaau ae?oaeo no?ai
(iinieuenoaa, aiaiiua aacu e o. i.), ii aeeth/aao oaeea aieeaau aeaiiie
no?aiu, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia oa??eoi?ee ae?oaeo no?ai.

A-o?aoueeo, AAI — yoi aaeiaie i?iaeoeo, iioiio /oi ii en/eneyaony au/aoa
iio?aaeaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea. Iio?aaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oiaiueoaiea noieiinoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea a oa/aiea
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea a ?acoeueoaoa aai oece/aneiai e ii?aeueiiai eciina
neo/aeiuo iia?aaeaeaiee, ia iinyueo eaoano?ioe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

Oai?aoe/anee aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo aeieaeai ii?aaeaeyoueny ia /enoie
iniiaa, o. a. ca au/aoii iio?aaeaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea. Iaeiaei aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey iio?aaeaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea a niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiaie
NIN o?aaothony niaoeeaeueiua ?an/aou ia iniiaa aeaiiuo i
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia, eo n?iea neoaeau e eciina
ii aeaeai iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Aii?oecaoeey iiaeaiiui aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
ia iiaeoiaeeo aeey yoie oeaee. Ia ana no?aiu i?iecaiaeyo oaeea ?an/aou,
a oa, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyo, eniieuecotho ?acee/iua iaoiaeu. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeaiiua i AAI aieaa aeinooiiu e n?aaieiu iaaeaeo no?aiaie, e
iiyoiio iieacaoaeue AAI iieo/ee aieaa oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea, /ai
/enoue aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo.

Anee au yeiiiieea no?aiu auea cae?uoie (o. a. anee au ia auei naycae n
aiaoiei ie?ii), oi AAI ?aaiyeny au noiia aaeiauo aeioiaeia ?aceaeaioia,
iieo/aiiuo io i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei ana no?aiu eiatho nayce n aiaoiei
ie?ii, a oie eee eiie oi?ia iieo/atho aeioiaeu io ae?oaeo no?ai e
auiea/eaatho ei /anoue naieo aeioiaeia. Anee i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea yoe
iioiee aeioiaeia, oi iiaeii iieo/eoue iieacaoaeue aaeiaiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. A NIN 1968 aiaea ii iacuaaeny aaeiaui
iaoeeiiaeueiui i?iaeoeoii, /oi ia nianai i?aaeeueii io?aaeaei aai
nouiinoue eae niaieoiiinoe ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia, iieo/aiiuo ?aceaeaioaie
a ?acoeueoaoa eo o/anoey a i?iecaiaenoaa e io nianoaaiiinoe. Iiyoiio a
NIN 1993 aiaea ?aeiiaiaeoaony iacuaaoue aai aaeiaui iaoeeiiaeueiui
aeioiaeii (AIAe).

Ieaea iieacaia acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo iieacaoaeyie aaeiaiai e /enoiai
aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa e aaeiaiai e /enoiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea.

Aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo

– Iio?aaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea = *enoue aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo

+

+

Naeueaei ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia ec-ca a?aieoeu

Naeueaei ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia ec-ca a?aieoeu

=

=

Aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae

– Iio?aaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea

= *enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae

2.2 Iaoiaeu ?an/aoa AAI

AAI iiaeao auoue en/eneai neaaeothueie o?aiy iaoiaeaie:

eae noiia aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe (i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iaoiae);

eae noiia eiiiiiaioia eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey (iaoiae eiia/iiai
eniieueciaaiey);

eae noiia ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia (?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue iaoiae).

AAI eae noiia aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe

I?e ?an/aoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iaoiaeii AAI en/eneyaony iooai
noiie?iaaiey aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe anao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
aaeeieoe ?aceaeaioia, na?oiie?iaaiiuo ii io?aneyi eee naeoi?ai. Aaeiaay
aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue — yoi ?acieoea iaaeaeo noieiinoueth
i?iecaaaeaiiuo oiaa?ia e ieacaiiuo oneoa (auioneii) e noieiinoueth
oiaa?ia e oneoa, iieiinoueth iio?aaeaiiuo a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa
(i?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea).

Auione — yoi noieiinoue oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?iecaaaeaiiuo e ieacaiiuo
yeiiiie/aneeie aaeeieoeaie-?aceaeaioaie ca ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae. A
niioaaonoaee n i?eiyoie a NIN o?aeoiaeie a?aieoe noa?u i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe auione aeeth/aao:

ana oiaa?u iacaaeneii io eo eniieueciaaiey (eae oiaa?u, iinoaaeaiiua
ae?oaei aaeeieoeai, ia yaeythueiny eo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, oae e oiaa?u,
i?iecaaaeaiiua aeey nianoaaiiiai eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey eee iaeiieaiey,
aeeth/ay i?e?ino caiania iaoa?eaeueiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoao
i?iecaiaeeoaey);

oneoae, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua ae?oaei einoeoooeeiiaeueiui aaeeieoeai, e
/anoiinoe, ia?uii/iua oneoae i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e
iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee;

oneoae aeiiaoieo oicyenoa ii i?iaeeaaieth a nianoaaiiii aeeeeua e
aeiiaoiea oneoae, ieacuaaaiua iiea/eaaaiie aeiiaoiae i?eneoaie.
Aanieaoiua aeiiaoiea oneoae, ieacuaaaiua /eaiaie aeiiaoiaai oicyenoaa
ae?oa ae?oao (i?eaioiaeaiea ieue, noe?ea, oai?ea, ?aiiio aeiiaoiaai
iai?oaeiaaiey e o.i.), ia aeeth/athony a a?aieoeu noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa a
NIN.

A a?aieoeu noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa aeieaeiu aeeth/aoueny oaeaea
i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e ieacaiea oneoa oaiaaie yeiiiieeie, o. a.
i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e ieacaiea oneoa, cai?auaiiua caeiiii (iacaeiiiia
i?iecaiaenoai), e i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e ieacaiea oneoa, a i?eioeeia
?ac?aoaiiua caeiiii, ii ne?uaaaiua io ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia n
oeaeueth nie?uoey aeioiaeia (ne?uoia i?iecaiaenoai).

?acee/athony aeaa oeia auionea ?uii/iue e ia?uii/iue. ?uii/iue auione
aeeth/aao oiaa?u e oneoae:

?aaeecoaiua ii yeiiiie/anee cia/eiui oeaiai iooai i?iaeaaee eee aa?oa?a

i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ?aaioieeai a ea/anoaa iieaou o?oaea a iaoo?aeueiie
oi?ia, i?iecaiaeeiua iaeiei caaaaeaieai i?aaei?eyoey (iiae?acaeaeaieai,
iaoiaeyuainy ia naiinoiyoaeueiii aaeaina eee yaeythueiny ioaeaeueiie
o/aoiie aaeeieoeae) e iinoaaeyaiua ae?oaei caaaaeaieyi oiai aea
i?aaei?eyoey aeey eniieueciaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa a oii aea eee
iineaaeothueo ia?eiaeao (iai?eia? i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, ia?aaeaiiua
iiaeniaiuie oicyenoaaie i?aaei?eyoey a noieiaua, aeaoneea o/?aaeaeaiey,
aeiia ioaeuoa, i?eiaaeeaaeauea aeaiiiio i?aaei?eyoeth, e o.i.)

aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth e iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, iinooiathuea a
caianu iaoa?eaeueiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa o i?iecaiaeeoaey e
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ?uii/iiai eniieueciaaiey, o. a. ia ia?a/eneaiiua
auoa oeaee.

Ia?uii/iue auione aeeth/aao oiaa?u e oneoae:

i?iecaiaeeiua yeiiiie/aneeie aaeeieoeaie aeey eo nianoaaiiiai eiia/iiai
iio?aaeaiey eee iaeiieaiey (iai?eia?, naeueneioicyenoaaiiua e ae?oaea
i?iaeoeou, i?iecaaaeaiiua aeey yoeo oeaeae a oa?ia?neeo, e?anoueyineeo
eee iiaeniaiuo oicyenoaao ianaeaiey, no?ieoaeuenoai oicyenoaaiiui
niiniaii, oneoae ii i?iaeeaaieth a nianoaaiiii aeeeeua, oneoae
iiea/eaaaiie aeiiaoiae i?eneoae e o. i.);

i?aaeinoaaeyaiua aanieaoii eee ii oeaiai, ia eiathuei yeiiiie/aneiai
cia/aiey, ae?oaei einoeoooeeiiaeueiui aaeeieoeai, aeeth/ay oneoae,
ieacuaaaiua iauanoao a oeaeii (iai?eia?, aanieaoiia ia?aciaaiea e
iaaeeoeeineia ianeoaeeaaiea, oneoae ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey,
iai?iiu e ae?.);

aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth e iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, i?aaeiacia/aiiua
aeey ia?uii/iiai eniieueciaaiey e iinooiathuea a caianu iaoa?eaeueiuo
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa o i?iecaiaeeoaey.

?uii/iue auione oiaa?ia e oneoa ?aeiiaiaeoaony ioeaieaaoue e iniiaiuo
oeaiao eee, anee yoi iaaiciiaeii, a oeaiao i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Iniiaiay oeaia — oeaia, iieo/aaiay i?iecaiaeeoaeai ca oiaa?u e oneoae,
eneeth/ay ethaua iiaeeaaeauea oieaoa iaeiae ia i?iaeoeou e aeeth/ay
noaneaeee ia i?iaeoeou.

Oeaia i?iecaiaeeoaey — oeaia, iieo/aaiay i?iecaiaeeoaeai ca oiaa?u e
oneoae, aeeth/ay iiaeeaaeauea oieaoa iaeiae ia i?iaeoeou (e?iia iaeiaa
ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue e iaeiaia ia eiii?o) e eneeth/ay noaneaeee
ia i?iaeoeou.

Iaeiae ia i?iaeoeou — yoi iaeiae, aceiaaiua i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eiee/anoao
eee noieiinoe oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?iecaiaeeiuo, i?iaeaaaaiuo eee
eiii?oe?oaiuo i?aaei?eyoeyie-?aceaeaioaie. E iei ioiinyony neaaeothuea
iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua iaeiae: iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
(IAeN) e iaeiae oeia IAeN; aeoeecu; iaeiae ia i?iaeaaee, iieoiee, iaeia
n iai?ioa e o. i.; iaeiae ia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu oneoa (oneoae o?ainii?oa,
nayce, no?aoiaaiea, ?aeeaia, ea?u e eioa?ae, nii?oeaiua ia?ii?eyoey e o.
i.); iaeiae ia i?eaueue oeneaeueiuo iiiiiieee (n?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie, eioi?ui ii caeiio i?aaeinoaaeyaony
iiiiiieey ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo oiaa?ia e
oneoa, a ?acoeueoaoa i?aauoaiey i?aaeaeueiiai o?iaiy ?aioaaaeueiinoe e
acuneaiiua a aeioiae athaeaeaoa aeey iiauoaiey aeioiaea ainoaea?noaa);
iaeiae ia eiii?o e yenii?o, oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu. Noaneaeee ia i?iaeoeou
— yoi noaneaeee, auiea/eaaaiua iau/ii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eiee/anoao eee
noieiinoe oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?iecaiaeeiuo, i?iaeaaaaiuo eee eiii?oe?oaiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyie-?aceaeaioaie. E iei ioiinyony, iai?eia?, ?aaoey?iua
aiciauaiey i?aaei?eyoeyi ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa iinoiyiiuo
oauoeia, aicieeathueo a ?acoeueoaoa oiai, /oi i?iaeaaeiay oeaia ia
i?iecaiaeeioth eie i?iaeoeoeeth onoaiaaeeaaaony ieaea n?aaeieo
ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa, noaneaeee ia yenii?o e eiii?o e ae?.

Oiaa?u e oneoae, i?iecaaaeaiiua aeey nianoaaiiiai eiia/iiai
eniieueciaaiey, ioeaieaathony a iniiaiuo oeaiao ia aiaeiae/iua ?uii/iua
oiaa?u e oneoae. Ia?uii/iua oneoae, ieacuaaaiua o/?aaeaeaieyie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e iaeiiia?/aneeie i?aaiecaoeeyie,
ianeoaeeaathueie aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa, ioeaieaathony enoiaey ec oaeoueo
cao?ao yoeo i?aaiecaoeee, aeeth/ay iio?aaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea.

?anoiaeu ia i?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea — yoi noieiinoue oiaa?ia (ca
eneeth/aieai iniiaiuo oiiaeia) e ?uii/iuo oneoa, iio?aaeaiiuo a oa/aiea
aeaiiiai ia?eiaea n oeaeueth i?iecaiaenoaa ae?oaeo oiaa?ia eee oneoa.
Iie aeeth/atho:

cao?aou nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, oiieeaa, yia?aee, naiyi, ei?iia (iieoiiuo e
nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa), i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, iaaeeeaiaioia,
eaioeaey?neeo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae, niaoeiaeaaeaeu e o. i.;

iieaoo ?aaio e oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie e
ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie (?aiiio, oneoae o?ainii?oa, nayce, au/eneeoaeueiuo
oeaio?ia, eiiioiaeueiua oneoae, oneoae ?aeeaiu, aaieia, th?enoia,
eiinoeueoaioia, no?aoiaaiea e o. i.);

?anoiaeu ia eiiaiaee?iaee a /anoe iieaou i?iacaea e ainoeieoe.
I?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea ioeaieaaaony ii oeaiai iieoiaoaeae,
aeaenoaothuei ia iiiaio iinooieaiey oiaa?ia e oneoa a i?ioeann
i?iecaiaenoaa e aeeth/athuei oi?aiai-o?ainii?oioth iaoeaieo e iaeiae ia
i?iaeoeou (e?iia iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue) ca au/aoii
noaneaeee ia i?iaeoeou.

I?e en/eneaiee aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny
oaeaea ?anoiaeu ia i?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea einaaiii ecia?yaiuo oneoa
oeiainiaiai iin?aaeie/anoaa, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo
i?ioeaioaie, iieo/aiiuie e auiea/aiiuie oeiainiauie iin?aaeieeaie
(iai?eia?, aaieaie), e ioiinyony ei anai eo eeeaioai, o. a. e
i?aaei?eyoeyi e aeiiaoiei oicyenoaai, ?aceaeaioai e ia?aceaeaioai. Ii
yoiio iie aeieaeiu auoue ?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo ieie e iieacaiu,
niioaaonoaaiii, a i?iiaaeooi/iii iio?aaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aaeeieoe,
eiia/iii iio?aaeaiee aeiiaoieo oicyenoa e yenii?oa oneoa, /oi
niioaaonoaoao o?aaiaaieyi NIN 1993 aiaea. Iaeiaei aeaiiay iaoiaeeea
?an/aoa iaoiaeeony a noaaeee ?anniio?aiey, a iiea aieueoeinoai no?ai
eniieuecoao iaoiae NIN 1968 aiaea, niaeanii eioi?iio ana einaaiii
ecia?yaiua oneoae oeiainiaiai iin?aaeie/anoaa ioiinyony e ?anoiaeai ia
i?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea oneiaiie aaeeieoeu, auione eioi?ie ?aaai
ioeth. Oaeei ia?acii, noiia aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe io?aneae eee
naeoi?ia aeieaeia auoue oiaiueoaia ia aaee/eio noieiinoe oneoa
oeiainiaiai iin?aaeie/anoaa.

Iaeiaei aeey ioeaiee AAI a ?uii/iuo oeaiao yoiai iaaeinoaoi/ii.
Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oaeaea /enoua iaeiae ia i?iaeoeou, o. a.
aeiaaaeoue iaeiae ia i?iaeoeou, ia aeeth/aiiua a ioeaieo aaeiaie
aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe io?aneae eee naeoi?ia, e au/anoue noaneaeee ia
i?iaeoeou, aeeth/aiiua a ioeaieo aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe. E oaeei
iaeiaai ia i?iaeoeou ioiinyony i?aaeaea anaai iaeiae ia eiii?o e iaeia
ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, eioi?ua ia o/eouaathony a aaeiaie
aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe. E?iia oiai, anee aaeiaay aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue
en/eneyaony a iniiaiuo oeaiao, eae yoi ?aeiiaiaeoao NIN 1993 aiaea, oi
iaiaoiaeeii aeiaaaeoue e ana inoaeueiua iaeiae ia i?iaeoeou (aeoeecu,
iaeiae ia yenii?o, iaeiaa i?iaeaae, iaeia n iai?ioa e o. i.), oae eae a
yoii neo/aa iie ia o/eouaathony a aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe.
Noaneaeee ia i?iaeoeou (e?iia noaneaeee ia eiii?o), iai?ioea,
aeeth/athony a ioeaieo aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe io?aneae eee
naeoi?ia a iniiaiuo oeaiao e iiyoiio aeieaeiu auoue eneeth/aiu ec iauaai
eoiaa AAI a ?uii/iuo oeaiao.

AAI eae noiia eiiiiiaioia eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey

Niaeanii iaoiaeo eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey AAI ii?aaeaeyaony eae noiia
neaaeothueo eiiiiiaioia: ?anoiaeu ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea oiaa?ia e
oneoa, aaeiaia iaeiieaiea, naeueaei yenii?oa e eiii?oa oiaa?ia e oneoa.

?anoiaeu ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa — ?anoiaeu aeiiaoieo
oicyenoa-?aceaeaioia ia iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u e oneoae, a oaeaea
?anoiaeu o/?aaeaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey (athaeaeaoiuo
i?aaiecaoeee) e iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, ianeoaeeaathueo aeiiaoiea
oicyenoaa, ia oiaa?u e oneoae aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e eieeaeoeaiiai
iio?aaeaiey. Oaeay a?oiie?iaea iieacuaaao, eoi oeiaine?oao ?anoiaeu ia
eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea. ?anoiaeu ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea aeiiaoieo
oicyenoa aeeth/atho:

?anoiaeu ia iieoieo iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e oneoa;

iio?aaeaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa, iieo/aiiuo a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia a ii?yaeea
iieaou o?oaea, iiaea?eia e o. ae.;

iio?aaeaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?iecaaaeaiiuo aeiiaoieie oicyenoaaie aeey
nianoaaiiiai eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey. Eae auei ioia/aii auoa, a /anoe
oneoa yoi ioiineony oieueei e oneoaai ii i?iaeeaaieth a nianoaaiiii
aeeeeua e oneoaai iiea/eaaaiie aeiiaoiae i?eneoae.

?anoiaeu ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea aeiiaoieo oicyenoa aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue
iieoiee ?aceaeaioaie oiaa?ia e oneoa ca a?aieoeae (iai?eia?, ai a?aiy
eiiaiaee?iaie, oo?enoe/aneeo iiacaeie) e eneeth/aoue aiaeiae/iua iieoiee
ia?aceaeaioia ia oa??eoi?ee aeaiiie no?aiu.

?anoiaeu ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea aeiiaoieo oicyenoa ii?aaeaeythony a
?acia?a oaeoe/aneie iieaou eie iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e oneoa,
i?ioiaeeiie ca n/ao eo aeioiaeia.

?anoiaeu ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea o/?aaeaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey e iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, ianeoaeeaathueo aeiiaoiea
oicyenoaa, ii?aaeaeythony neaaeothuei ia?acii: oaeouea ?anoiaeu ia
niaea?aeaiea yoeo o/?aaeaeaiee, aeeth/ay iio?aaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea
(auione), ieion iinooieaiey yoei o/?aaeaeaieyi io i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia e
oneoa ii ?uii/iui oeaiai e io /anoe/iiai aiciauaiey iio?aaeoaeyie eo
noieiinoe (o/eouaathony a ?anoiaeao ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea aeiiaoieo
oicyenoa eee i?iiaaeooi/iii iio?aaeaiee i?aaei?eyoee a caaeneiinoe
iooiai, eoi eo iieaoee, iethn noieiinoue iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e
oneoa, eoieaiiuo ie o/?aaeaeaieyie o ?uii/iuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae aeey
ia?aaea/e aeiiaoiei oicyenoaai aanieaoii eee ii oeaiai, ia eiathuei
yeiiiie/aneiai cia/aiey, iethn aiciauaiea ?anoiaeia aeiiaoieo oicyenoa
ia i?eia?aoy oiaa?ia e oneoa ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo oiiaeia
nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey (iai?eia?, aiciauaiea eiaaeeaeai noieiinoe
i?eia?aoaiey aaoiiiaeeae, aaiceia e o. i.).

Athaeaeaoiua i?aaiecaoeee cae?aaiio?aiaiey, nioeeaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey,
eoeueoo?u e eneonnoaa, a oaeaea iaeiiia?/aneea, ianeoaeeaathuea
aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa, i?aaeinoaaeyy oneoae aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
iio?aaeaiey, eioi?ua eniieuecothony , aeiiaoieie oicyenoaaie aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey ee/iuo iio?aaiinoae. Oneoae eieeaeoeaiiai iio?aaeaiey,
o. a. iauanoao a oeaeii, i?aaeinoaaeytho athaeaeaoiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie
oi?aaeaiey, iai?iiu, iaoee e ae?.

Eae auei ioia/aii auoa, aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey n
oi/ee c?aiey oiai, eoi oaeoe/anee iio?aaeyao oiaa?u e oneoae, a NIN 1993
aiaea aaaaeai iiaue iieacaoaeue — oaeoe/aneia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea,
eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoao noieiinoue anao oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?eia?aoaiiuo
aeiiaoieie oicyenoaaie-?aceaeaioaie aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey
iacaaeneii io enoi/ieea oeiaine?iaaiey, e noieiinoue eieeaeoeaiuo oneoa,
i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey iauanoao a
oeaeii.

Ana oiaa?u e oneoae, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua iaeiiia?/aneeie i?aaiecaoeeyie,
ianeoaeeaathueie aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa, ?anniao?eaathony eae
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua e ioiinyony e nioeeaeueiui o?ainoa?oai a ie iie oi?ia.
Aeey yoeo i?aaiecaoeee iieacaoaeue oaeoe/aneiai eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey
ionoonoaoao.

Iauay noiia nioeeaeueiuo o?ainoa?oia a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia, iieo/aiiuo
aeiiaoieie oicyenoaaie, ?aaia noiia yoeo o?ainoa?oia, ia?aaeaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaieyie ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e iaeiiia?/aneeie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, ianeoaeeaathueie aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa, iiyoiio aeey
yeiiiieee a oeaeii iieacaoaee oaeoe/aneiai eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey e
?anoiaeia ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea aeieaeiu auoue ?aaiu.

Aaeiaia iaeiieaiea — /enoia i?eia?aoaiea (i?eia?aoaiea ca au/aoii
auauoey) ?aceaeaioaie oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?iecaaaeaiiuo e ieacaiiuo a
oaeouai ia?eiaea, ii ia iio?aaeaiiuo a iai. Aaeiaia iaeiieaiea
aeeth/atho aaeiaia iaeiieaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea, eciaiaiea caiania
iaoa?eaeueiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e /enoia i?eia?aoaiea oeaiiinoae.

Aaeiaia iaeiieaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeiaeaiea
n?aaenoa a iauaeou iniiaiiai eaieoaea aeey nicaeaiey iiaiai aeioiaea a
aoaeouai iooai eniieueciaaiey eo a i?iecaiaenoaa. Iniiaiie eaieoae — yoi
aeoeau, yaeythueany ?acoeueoaoii i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ua iiiaie?aoii
eniieuecothony a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa: caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey, iaoeiu
e ‘iai?oaeiaaiea, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa; neio ieaiaiiie, iiei/iue,
?aai/ee; naaeu, aeiia?aaeieee e ae?oaea ianaaeaeaiey; cao?aou ia
aaieiai?acaaaei/iua ?aaiou; cao?aou ia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea e aacu
aeaiiuo aeey YAI; i?eaeiaeu eeoa?aoo?iuo e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee (oeeueiu, caoeicaiene, ?oeiiene, yaeythueany iniiaie aeey
oe?aaee?iaaiey).

I?e ia?aniio?a NIN eaoaai?ey aaeiaiai iaeiieaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea
i?aoa?iaea a eiioeaiooaeueiii ieaia cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey, eioi?ua
au?aaeathony a ?anoe?aiee yoiai iiiyoey e oaaee/aiee iauaia AAI ca n/ao
aeeth/aiey cao?ao ia aaieiai?acaaaei/iua ?aaiou, ia nicaeaiea e
i?eia?aoaiea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey YAI e i?eaeiaeia eeoa?aoo?iuo e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. A NIN 1968 aiaea yoe cao?aou
o/eouaaeenue eae i?iiaaeooi/iua, o. a. ia eo aaee/eio oiaiueoaeny iauai
AAI. Aeeth/aiea yoeo cao?ao a iniiaiie eaieoae iainiiauaaaony oai, /oi
eo ?acoeueoaou iiiaie?aoii e aeeeoaeueii o/anoaotho a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii
i?ioeanna.

Aaeiaia iaeiieaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea ii?aaeaeyaony eae i?eia?aoaiea
aeoeaia ca au/aoii auauoey iiauo e nouanoaothueo iniiaiuo oiiaeia.
I?eia?aoaiea aeoeaia aeeth/aao iieoiee, aa?oa?, iieo/aiea eaieoaeueiuo
o?ainoa?oia a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia, i?iecaiaenoai aeey nianoaaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey, eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio. Auauoea aeoeaia iieacuaaaony eae
io?eoeaoaeueiia i?eia?aoaiea.

Ioeaiea ninoaaiuo yeaiaioia aaeiaiai iaeiieaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea
i?iecaiaeeony:

i?e iieoiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea ii oeaiai i?eia?aoaiey (oeaiai
iieoiaoaey, o, a. aeeth/ay ana cao?aou ia ia?aaea/o i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe
(noieiinoue oneoa, ieacaiiuo aaeaieaoaie, aaaioaie ii iia?aoeeyi n
iaaeaeaeeiinoueth e ae?oaeie iin?aaeieeaie, iioeeiu, eiienneiiiua,
iaeiae e o. i.);

i?e i?iecaiaenoaa iniiaiiai eaieoaea aeey nianoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey ii
iniiaiui oeaiai eee ii cao?aoai ia i?iecaiaenoai.

Aaeiaia iaeiieaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea aeeth/aao oaeaea cao?aou ia
oeo/oaiea iai?iecaaaeaiiuo aeoeaia e ?anoiaeu a nayce n ia?aaea/ae i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia iai?iecaaaeaiiua aeoeau. E iai?iecaaaeaiiui aeoeaai
ioiinyony aeoeau, ia yaeythueany ?acoeueoaoii i?iecaiaenoaa, iai?eia?,
caiey, iaae?a e ae?oaea i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, a oaeaea iaoaiou, eeoeaicee
e o. i. Iie ia aoiaeyo a ninoaa iniiaiiai eaieoaea, iaeiaei ?aaiou ii eo
oeo/oaieth (iaeei?aoeey, inooaiea, ?acaeoea e ?anoe?aiea oaoo, eaniuo
o/anoeia, ieaioaoeee, naaeia e ae?oaeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee) e
oneoae, ieacuaaaiua a nayce n eo ia?aaea/ae ae?oaei aaeeieoeai,
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue, e iiyoiio eo
noieiinoue aeeth/aaony a aaeiaia iaeiieaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea.

Eciaiaiea caiania iaoa?eaeueiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa — yoi eciaiaiea
noieiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania, iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee e oiaa?ia aeey ia?ai?iaeaaee. Eciaiaiea noieiinoe
caiania iaoa?eaeueiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa aeieaeii ii?aaeaeyoueny eae
?acieoea iaaeaeo iinooieaieyie i?iaeoeoeee a caianu e ecuyoeyie ec ieo,
i?e yoii i?iaeoeoeey aeieaeia ioeaieaaoueny a ?uii/iuo oeaiao,
aeaenoaothueo niioaaonoaaiii a iiiaio iinooieaiey eee ecuyoey. Iaeiaei
ia i?aeoeea o?oaeii iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i anao iinooieaieyo e
ecuyoeyo i?iaeoeoeee a oa/aiea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, iiyoiio eciaiaiea
caiania iau/ii ?ann/eouaaaony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo noieiinoueth caiania
ia eiiaoe e ia/aei ia?eiaea ii aeaiiui aooaaeoa?neeo io/aoia
i?aaei?eyoee. A yoii neo/aa iaiaoiaeeii eneeth/eoue aeeyiea eciaiaiey
noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee a ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiey oeai ca a?aiy iaoiaeaeaiey
aa a caianao.

*enoia i?eia?aoaiea oeaiiinoae — yoi iiaay eaoaai?ey, iiyaeaoayny a NIN
1993 aiaea. Oeaiiinoyie yaeythony i?aaeiaou, eioi?ua i?eia?aoathony ia
aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eee iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeaeae, a aeey nio?aiaiey
noieiinoe, o. a. i?aaeiaou, oeaiiinoue eioi?uo ni a?aiaiai
oaaee/eaaaony: ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu e eaiie (e?iia iiiaoa?iiai cieioa,
a oaeaea cieioa e eaiiae, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey), thaaee?iua ecaeaeey, aioeeaa?eao, eieeaeoeee e o. i. A
NIN 1968 aiaea iie o/eouaaeenue a AAI a ninoaaa eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey.

Yenii?o e eiii?o oiaa?ia e oneoa — yenii?oii-eiii?oiua iia?aoeee aeaiiie
no?aiu ni anaie no?aiaie,

Yenii?o e eiii?o oiaa?ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noieiinoue auaacaiiuo ec
no?aiu eee aaacaiiuo a no?aio (ia?anaeathueo ainoaea?noaaiioth a?aieoeo)
oiaa?ia. Noieiinoiay ioeaiea iauaia yenii?oa e eiii?oa oiaa?ia a oeaeii
ii no?aia ii?aaeaeyaony a oeaiao oia- eee o?aiei-a?aieoea no?aiu
yenii?oa?a.

Iiieii yenii?oa e eiii?oa oiaa?ia, o/eouaaaiuo noaoenoeeie
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a NIN yenii?o e eiii?o oiaa?ia
aeeth/aao oiaa?u, iinoaaeyaiua a ii?yaeea ieacaiey aacaiciacaeiie
(aoiaieoa?iie) iiiiue e a ea/anoaa aea?a, oiaa?u iai?aaieciaaiiie
oi?aiaee, iinueee, eiouanoai iea?aioia,

Yenii?o e eiii?o oneoa ioaaouaatho o?ainii?oiua oneoae, oo?eci,
eiiioieeaoeeiiiua oneoae, no?ieoaeueiua, no?aoiaua, oeiainiaua,
eiiiuethoa?iua e eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae, ?aeeaio, aooaaeoa?neee o/ao,
oi?aaeai/aneia eiinoeueoe?iaaiea e ae?oaea aeaeu oneoa.

AAI eae noiia ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia (?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue iaoiae).

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee AAI ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiui iaoiaeii ii aeeth/aao
neaaeothuea aeaeu ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia, auiea/aiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie
aaeeieoeaie—?aceaeaioaie: iieaoa o?oaea iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia, /enoua
iaeiae ia i?iecaiaenoai e eiii?o (iaeiae ia i?iecaiaenoai e eiii?o ieion
noaneaeee ia i?iecaiaenoai e eiii?o), aaeiaay i?eaueue e aaeiaua
niaoaiiua aeioiaeu.

Iieaoa o?oaea iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aiciaa?aaeaeaiea a
aeaiaaeiie eee iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia, eioi?ia aeieaeii auoue auiea/aii
?aaioiaeaoaeai iaaiiiio ?aaioieeo ca ?aaioo, auiieiaiioth a io/aoiii
ia?eiaea. Iia o/eouaaaony ia iniiaa ia/eneaiiuo noii e neeaaeuaaaony ec
aeaoo iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia:

ca?aaioiay ieaoa;

io/eneaiey ?aaioiaeaoaeae ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea.

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa ioaaouaaao ana aeaeu ca?aaioeia (aeeth/ay ?acee/iua
i?aiee, aeiieaou, iaaeaaaee), ia/eneaiiuo a aeaiaaeiie eee iaoo?aeueiie
oi?ia iacaaeneii io enoi/ieea oeiaine?iaaiey, o. a. ca n/ao
naaanoieiinoe e i?eauee, a oaeaea aeaiaaeiua noiiu, ia/eneaiiua
?aaioieeai niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ca iai?i?aaioaiiia a?aiy
(aaeaaiaeiue ioione, i?acaeie/iua aeie e o. i.). Ca?aaioiay ieaoa
o/eouaaaony aei au/aoa iaeiaia e ae?oaeo oaea?aeaiee, aceiaaiuo n
iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia. Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi a yoii neo/aa
iieacuaaaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa, aa/aiiay i?aaei?eyoeyie e
i?aaiecaoeeyie-?aceaeaioaie ?aaioieeai ?aceaeaioai, oae e ia?aceaeaioai.

Io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea i?iecaiaeyony ?aaioiaeaoaeyie,
/oiau iaania/eoue iaaiiui ?aaioieeai a aoaeouai i?aai ia iieo/aiea
nioeeaeueiuo iiniaee.

Nioeeaeueiua iiniaey auiea/eaathony i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai
no?aoiaaiey, ainoaea?noaaiiuie e iaainoaea?noaaiiuie iaineiiiuie
oiiaeaie, no?aoiauie o/?aaeaeaieyie, ?aaioiaeaoaeyie aeiiaoiei
oicyenoaai i?e ianooieaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, eioi?ua, eae
i?aaeei, i?eaiaeyo e nieaeaieth aeioiaeia e aeaaininoiyiey aeiiaoieo
oicyenoa, iai?eia?:

iio?aaiinoue aea/aiee a ?acoeueoaoa aieacie, o?aaiu, ?iaeaeaiey ?aaaiea,
eiaaeeaeiinoe, noa?inoe e ae?.;

iaiaoiaeeiinoue niaea?aeaiey eaeaeeaaioeaa: noi?oaa(e), aeaoae,
i?anoa?aeuo ?iaenoaaiieeia, eiaaeeaeia e o. ae.;

iaaiciiaeiinoue ?aaioaoue aiiaua eee iieiia a?aiy a ?acoeueoaoa auoiaea
ia iaineth, aac?aaioeoeu, aieacie, o?aaiu, ?iaeaeaiey ?aaaiea e o. ae.;

nia?oue ei?ieeueoea;

iaiaoiaeeiinoue iieaou ?anoiaeia ia ia?aciaaiea;

iaaiciiaeiinoue iieaou aeeeuey aeiiaoieie oicyenoaaie n ieceei aoiaeii
(iaineiia?u, iiiaiaeaoiua naiuee e ae?.).

?acee/atho oaeoe/aneea e oneiaii en/eneaiiua io/eneaiey ?aaioiaeaoaeae
ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea.

Oaeoe/aneea io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea ninoiyo ec ieaoaaeae,
i?iecaiaeeiuo ?aaioiaeaoaeyie o?aoueae noi?iia, o. a. a i?aaiecaoeee
nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey a niioaaonoaee n i?ia?aiiaie nioeeaeueiiai
iaania/aiey e nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey ianaeaiey (oiiaeiaia
nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea). Yoe ieaoaaee yaeythony iniiaiui enoi/ieeii
n?aaenoa aeey auieao ianaeaieth iainee, iiniaee, oeiaine?iaaiey ?anoi
aeia ia ea/aiea e ioaeuo ?aaioieeia. Oioy yoe ieaoaaee i?iecaiaeyony
?aaioiaeaoaeyie iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?aaiecaoeeyi nioeeaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey, iie ?anniao?eaathony eae eiiiiiaio iieaou o?oaea iaaiiuo
?aaioieeia a ?acia?a aciinia ?aaioiaeaoaeae ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea.

Oaeoe/aneea io/eneaiey ?aaioiaeaoaeae ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea
ii?aaeaeythony a ?acia?a ia/eneaiee ia oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou ii anai
aeaeai nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey, o. a. a oiiaeu nioeeaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey, iaineiiiue oiiae, oiiae caiyoinoe, oiiae nioeeaeueiie
iiaeaea?aeee ianaeaiey e ae?oaea aiaeiae/iua nioeeaeueiua
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu. E iei ioiinyony oaeaea iaycaoaeueiua io/eneaiey
?aaioiaeaoaeae ia iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea e ?anoiaeu i?aaei?eyoee ii
iieaoa oneoa iieeeeeiee ii aei aiai?ai, caeeth/aiiui n i?aaiaie
cae?aaiio?aiaiey ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea naiei ?aaioieeai iaaeeoeeineie
iiiiue. Aeia?iaieueiua io/eneaiey ?aaioiaeaoaeae ia iaaeeoeeineia
no?aoiaaiea a iaainoaea?noaaiiua nioeeaeueiua oiiaeu a iieueco
ioaeaeueiuo iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia niaeanii iieenai ee/iiai no?aoiaaiey
aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny eae ca?aaioiay ieaoa a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia.

Oneiaii en/eneaiiua io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie yeaeaaeaio nioeeaeueiui iiniaeyi, auiea/eaaaiui
?aaioiaeaoaeyie iaiin?aaenoaaiii eo ?aaioieeai, auaoei ?aaioieeai eee eo
eaeaeeaaioeai, eiathuei ia yoi i?aai, ca n/ao naieo n?aaenoa aac
i?eaea/aiey o?aoueae noi?iiu, iai?eia?, no?aoiaie eiiiaiee, e aac
o/?aaeaeaiey aeey yoie oeaee ioaeaeueiie einoeoooeeiiaeueiie aaeeieoeu a
oi?ia niaoeeaeueiiai oiiaea eee ?aca?aa. Oioy ieeaeeo ieaoaaeae n
oeaeueth eo no?aoiaaiey o?aoueae noi?iiie ia i?iecaiaeeony, iie
ii?aaeaeythony oneiaii e oaeaea aeeth/athony a iieaoo a?oaea iaaiiuo
?aaioieeia. Ia i?aeoeea a ea/anoaa aiciiaeiie ioeaiee oneiaii
en/eneaiiuo io/eneaiee ?aaioiaeaoaeae ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea
iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia iiaeao neoaeeoue noiia oaeoe/anee auiea/aiiuo
?aaioiaeaoaeyie a oaeouai ia?eiaea nioeeaeueiuo iiniaee. E iei
ioiinyony, iai?eia?, auoiaeiia iiniaea i?e i?ae?auaiee o?oaeiaiai
aeiaiai?a; noiiu, auiea/eaaaiua ia ia?eiae o?oaeiono?ienoaa oaieaiiui
?aaioieeai a nayce n nie?auaieai ooaoa, ?ai?aaiecaoeeae eee
eeeaeaeaoeeae i?aaei?eyoey; iiniaey a nayce n iioa?ae o?oaeiniiniaiinoe:
iaaeaaaee e iaineyi; iieaoa o/aaiuo ioioneia, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo
?aaioieeai; eiiiainaoeee, auiea/eaaaiua aeaiueiai, iaoiaeyueiny a
/anoe/ii iiea/eaaaiii ioionea ii ooiaeo ca ?aaaieii; noeiaiaeee
nooaeaioai e o/aueiny, iai?aaeaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyie ia iao/aiea.

Iaeiae ia i?iecaiaenoai e eiii?o — yoi iaycaoaeueiua aacaiciacaeiua
iaaica?aoiua ieaoaaee, aceiaaiua i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey n
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aaeeieoe a nayce n i?iecaiaenoaii e eiii?oii oiaa?ia e
oneoa eee eniieueciaaieai oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa. Iie iacuaathony
aacaiciacaeiuie, iioiio /oi ainoaea?noai ie/aai ia i?aaeinoaaeyao acaiai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aaeeieoea, i?iecaiaeyuae ieaoaae, oioy iii iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue n?aaenoaa, nia?aiiua n iiiiuueth iaeiaia, aeey
i?aaeinoaaeaiey oiaa?ia eee oneoa ae?oaei aaeeieoeai eee iauanoao a
oeaeii. Iaeiae, naycaiiua n i?iecaiaenoaii e eiii?oii, oiea/eaathony
i?aaei?eyoeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie iacaaeneii io iaee/ey i?eauee.

E iaeiaai ia i?iecaiaenoai e eiii?o ioiinyony iaeiae ia i?iaeoeou e
ae?oaea iaeiae ia i?iecaiaenoai. I iaeiaao ia i?iaeoeou oaea
oiiieiaeinue ?aiueoa.

Ae?oaea iaeiae ia i?iecaiaenoai—yoi iaeiae, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea ieaoaaee ca eeoeaicee e ?ac?aoaiea
caieiaoueny eaeie-eeai i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth eee ae?oaea
iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee, oieaoa eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeia aeey aeayoaeueiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aaeeieoeu—?aceaeaioa. Iie iiaoo auiea/eaaoueny ca
caieth, n?aaeeia i?iecaiaenoaa eee ?aai/oth neeo, eniieuecoaiua a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, eee ca i?aai inouanoaeyoue ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe eee iia?aoeee. Ae?oaea iaeiae ia i?iecaiaenoai ia
aeeth/atho iaeiae ia i?eaueue eee eiua aeioiaeu, iieo/aaiua
i?aaei?eyoeai, e iie iiaeeaaeao oieaoa a ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao
iacaaeneii io ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

Noaneaeee ia i?iecaiaenoai e eiii?o — yoi oaeouea aacaiciacaeiua
iaaica?aoiua ieaoaaee, eioi?ua ainoaea?noai i?iecaiaeeo i?aaei?eyoeyi a
nayce n i?iecaiaenoaii, i?iaeaaeae eee eiii?oii oiaa?ia e oneoa eee
eniieueciaaieai oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa aeey i?iaaaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie
yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee.

E noaneaeeyi ia i?iecaiaenoai e eiii?o ioiinyony noaneaeee ia i?iaeoeou
e ae?oaea noaneaeee ia i?iecaiaenoai. I noaneaeeyo ia i?iaeoeou oaea
nii?eeinue auoa.

Ae?oaea noaneaeee ia i?iecaiaenoai — noaneaeee, eioi?ua i?aaei?eyoey
iieo/atho io i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey a nayce n
eniieueciaaieai oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa:

noaneaeee, auiea/eaaaiua a nayce n eniieueciaaieai o?oaea iniaiai
eiioeiaaioa eeoe (eiaaeeaeia , iiae?inoeia);

noaneaeee, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa,
iai?eia?, aeey noeioee?iaaiey eniieueciaaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia
nu?uey, yia?aee e o.ae.;

noaneaeee aeey oiaiueoaiey caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, iai?eia?,
aeey iie?uoey noieiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiie ia?aaioee iooiaeia
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aaeiaay i?eaueue e aaeiaua niaoaiiua aeioiaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
/anoue aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe, eioi?ay inoaaony o
i?iecaiaeeoaeae iinea au/eoaiey ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n iieaoie o?oaea
iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia e oieaoie iaeiaia ia i?iecaiaenoai e eiii?o. Yoa
noaouey ecia?yao i?eaueue (eee oauoie), iieo/aiioth io i?iecaiaenoaa,
aei o/aoa aeioiaeia io nianoaaiiinoe. Aeey iaei?ii?aoeaiuo i?aaei?eyoee,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aeiiaoiei oicyenoaai, a eioi?uo /eaiu aeiiaoiaai
oicyenoaa iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoue iaiiea/eaaaiua o?oaeiaua cao?aou, iia
niaea?aeeo yeaiaio aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca ?aaioo, eioi?ue ia iiaeao auoue
ioaeaeai io aeioiaea aeaaeaeueoea eee i?aaei?eieiaoaey. A yoii neo/aa
iia iacuaaaony niaoaiiui aeioiaeii. Yoa eaoaai?ey yaeyaony iiaie, aa ia
auei a NIN 1968 aiaea. E iae ioiinyony, iai?eia?, aeioiaeu ioee/iuo
iiaeniaiuo oicyenoa ianaeaiey, aeioiaeu iaeeeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Aaeiaay i?eaueue e aaeiaua niaoaiiua aeioiaeu ii?aaeaeythony aei
au/eoaiey iio?aaeaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea. Anee aai auaeaeeoue, oi
iieo/aony /enoay i?eaueue e /enoua niaoaiiua aeioiaeu.

Iniaaiiinoue ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai iaoiaea ?an/aoa AAI caeeth/aaoa oii,
/oi iaeei ec aai eiiiiiaioia (aaeiaay i?eaueue e aaeiaua niaoaiiua
aeioiaeu) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeaine?othuoth noaoueth n/aoa ia?aciaaiey
aeioiaeia e ?ann/eouaaaony naeueaeiaui iooai, o.a. eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo
AAI e ae?oaeie eiiiiiaioaie ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia (iieaoa o?oaea e /enoua
iaeiae ia i?iecaiaenoai e eiii?o). Oaeei ia?acii, ii n?aaiaieth n aeaoiy
ae?oaeie iaoiaeaie ii iineo iiae/eiaiiue oa?aeoa?. ?acoiaaony, iiaeii
i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiiuoaoueny ?ann/eoaoue aaeiaoth i?eaueue e aaeiaua
niaoaiiua aeioiaeu iacaaeneiui iooai, iai?eia?, ei??aeoe?oy
niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii aeaiiua i i?eauee, iieo/aiiua ec aooaaeoa?neeo
io/aoia i?aaei?eyoee, iaeiaei yoi naeaeaoue yoi aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii.
Iiyoiio aeaiiue iaoiae ?an/aoa AAI ia iieo/ee oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

Aeaaa III. Eniieueciaaiea nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia aeey
i?aaenoaaeaiey AAI i?e iae?iyeiiiie/aneii aiaeeca e i?iaiice?iaaiee.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo iai?aaeaiee yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca ia iniiaa
aeaiiuo NIN yaeyaony eco/aiea oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e eieaaaiee
yeiiiie/aneie eiiuetheoo?u. Oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, aiaeece?oaiua ia
iniiaa aeaiiuo i aeeiaieea iauaia AAI a iinoiyiiuo oeaiao, eae i?aaeei,
caaenyo io eciaiaiee yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu aneaaenoaea
ia?aueaaiey eiaanoeoeee. Eieaaaiey yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u iau/ii
?anniao?eaathony eae eciaiaiey iauaia AAI a e?aoein?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa
aneaaenoaea eciaiaiee o?iaiy eniieueciaaiey nouanoaothueo iniiaiuo
oiiaeia.

Iieacaoaee oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa eniieuecothony aeey aiaeeca iaueo
oaiaeaioeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu ca oio eee eiie ia?eiae,
ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?iaiaeeiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. Iai?eia?,
aeaiiua i oaiiao yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a no?aiao NIA, i?eaaaeaiiua a
oaae. 3, iicaieytho noaeeoue i aeoaeia yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea,
i?iecioaaeoaai a no?aiao NIA ca aiaeu yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i.

Oaaeeoea 3

Eiaeaenu oece/aneiai iauaia AAI no?ai NIA ca 1992-1998 aa.

(a iinoiyiiuo oeaiao, a i?ioeaioao e i?aaeuaeouaio aiaeo)

1992 a. 1995 a. 1996 a. 1997 a. 1998 a.

Aca?aaeaeaeai 77,4 88,2 101,3 105,8 110

A?iaiey 58,2 106,9 105,9 103,1 107,2

Aaea?onue 90,4 89,6 102,8 111,4 108,3

A?ocey 55,1 102,6 111,2 111,3 102,9

Eacaonoai 94,7 91,8 100,5 101,7 97,5

Eu?aucnoai 86,1 94,6 107,1 109,9 101,8

Iieaeiaa 71 98,1 94,1 101,6 91,4

?inney 85,5 95,9 96,5 100,8 95,4

Oaaeaeeeenoai … 87,6 83,3 101,7 105,3

Oo?eiaienoai … … … … …

Ocaaeenoai 88,9 99,1 107,1 105,2 104,4

Oe?aeia 90,1 87,8 90 97 98,3

A n?aaeiai ii NIA 86,1 94,7 96,6 101 96,6

Aianoa n oai ia iniiaa aeaiiuo oaae. 3 iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
ia/eiay n 1995 a. ai iiiaeo no?aiao NIA iaaeaiea iauaiia AAI
caiaaeeeeinue, a a iaeioi?uo ec ieo ioia/aeny aai ?ino a ?aaeueiii
au?aaeaiee. Aiaeec caaeneiinoe oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa io ae?oaeo
ia?aiaiiuo iieacuaaao, /oi aunieea oaiiu ?inoa yeiiiieee, eae i?aaeei,
iaania/eaathony i?e ieceeo oaiiao eioeyoeee, aunieie aeiea a iauaia AAI
naa?aaeaiee e eiaanoeoeee, ioiineoaeueii ieceie aeiea a iauaia AAI
?anoiaeia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, a oaeaea i?e ioiineoaeueii
ioe?uoii oa?aeoa?a yeiiiieee, /oi iicaieyao i?eaeaeaoue eiino?aiiua
eiaanoeoeee. aiaae?youe nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee, a oaeaea noeioee?oao
eiieo?aioeeth ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae n ca?oaaaeiuie.

Ae?oaei aaaeiui iai?aaeaieai yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca, iniiaaiiui ia
aeaiiuo NIN, aaeyaony eco/aiea io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u yeiiiieee, a oaeaea
aa eciaiaiee ca oio eee eiie ia?eiae. A oaae. 4 i?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua ia
io?aneaaie no?oeoo?a AAI ?innee ca 1991—1998 aa.

Oaaeeoea 4

AAI ?innee ii io?aneyi ca 1991-1998 aiaeu

(a oaeoueo oeaiao, a i?ioeaioao)

1991 a. 1992 a. 1995 a. 1996 a. 1997 a. 1998 a.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue 39,3 35 31,4 30,7 28,6 28,1

Naeueneia oicyenoai 14 7,2 8,1 7,6 7,1 6,5

No?ieoaeuenoai 9,4 6,3 8,8 8,2 7,8 7,1

O?ainii?o e naycue 7,4 7,4 11,5 13,5 12,2 11,9

Oi?aiaey 12,3 29 18,5 15,9 16,6 19,3

Oeiainu, no?aoiaaiea, iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai 7,6 6,9 8,8 9,4 13,4 12,5

Cae?aaiio?aiaiea, ia?aciaaiea, eoeueoo?a 7,6 6,1 7,8 8,9 8,8 9

Oi?aaeaiea 2,4 2,1 5,1 5,8 5,5 5,6

Eoiai 100 100 100 100 100 100

Eae aeaeii ec oaae. 4, ca aiaeu ?aoi?i a io?aneaaie no?oeoo?a AAI ?innee
i?iecioee cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey. I?aaeaea anaai yoi au?aceeinue i
cia/eoaeueiii oaaee/aiee aeiee oneoa. Oae, anee a 1991 a. aeiey oneoa e
iauaia AAI ninoaaeyea 37,3%, oi a 1998 a. iia aeinoeaea 57,3%. Iaeiaei
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?eaaaeaiiua a oaae. 4 aeaiiua ia io?aneaaie
no?oeoo?a AAI iieo/aiu ia iniiaa ioeaiee iieacaoaeae a oaeoueo oeaiao, e
iiyoiio iie io?aaeatho aeeyiea eae eciaiaiee oeai, oae e eciaiaiee
oece/aneiai iauaia i?iecaiaeeiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa.

Aaaeiui iai?aaeaieai aiaeeca aeaiiuo NIN aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee no?aiu yaeyaony eco/aiea no?oeoo?u
eniieueciaaiey AAI ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea, aaeiaia iaeiieaiea, /enoue
yenii?o. A eiioaenoa yoiai aiaeeca onoaiaaeeaaaony oaeaea no?oeoo?a
iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia aeiiaoieo oicyenoa (iai?eia?, aeiey ?anoiaeia
ia iieoieo i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia), aeiey AAI, ?anoiaeoaiiai ia
iai?iio, oi?aaeaiea, cae?aaiio?aiaiea, ia?aciaaiea e
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ?aaiou. Aeaiiua i no?oeoo?a eniieueciaaiey
AAI ?innee ca iineaaeiea 8 eao naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oaiaeaioeee e
nieaeaieth aeiee aaeiaiai iaeiieaiey e, a /anoiinoe, aaeiaiai iaeiieaiey
iniiaiiai eaieoaea. Oae, iai?eia?, anee a 1991 a. aeiey aaeiaiai
iaeiieaiey a AAI ?innee ninoaaeea 36,1%, oi a 1998 a. iia nieceeanue aei
18,2%. Aaaeiui yeaiaioii a no?oeoo?a AAI yaeythony ?anoiaeu aeiiaoieo
oicyenoa ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea. Iaeiia?aiaiii iie ia?acotho aaaeioth
/anoue ?aniieaaaaiuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey — iaeiiai ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo
iieacaoaeae o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey. A ia/aea 90-o aa. a ?innee e ai
iiiaeo ae?oaeo no?aiao NIA eioeyoeey iia?aaeaea ?ino iiieiaeueiuo
?aniieaaaaiuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey, e, oaeei ia?acii, i?iecioei
nouanoaaiiia nieaeaiea o?iaiy aeecie ai anao no?aiao NIA. Iai?eia?, a
?innee ?aaeueiua ?aniieaaaaiua aeioiaeu ianaeaiey a ?an/aoa iaaeooo
ianaeaiey nie?aoeeenue a 1998 a. ii n?aaiaieth n 1991 a. ia 50%. Ii
n?aaiaieth n 1991 a. a no?oeoo?a iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia aeiiaoieo
oicyenoa ai anao no?aiao NIA a iineaaeiea aiaeu ?acei iiauneeanue aeiey
?anoiaeia ia i?iaeoeou ieoaiey. Eae ecaanoii, aeiey ?anoiaeia ia ieoaiea
yaeyaony iaeiei ec iauai?eciaiiuo iieacaoaeae o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey.
Iai?eia?, a iaeaieaa ?acaeouo a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee no?aiao iia
ninoaaeyao ieiei 30%, oiaaea eae ai iiiaeo no?aiao NIA iia aeinoeaaao
50—70%.

Iaeaieaa iaueie iieacaoaeyie o?iaiy aeecie, ?ac?aaaouaaaiuie a ?aieao
NIN, yaeythony iieacaoaee oaeoe/aneiai eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey aeiiaoieo
oicyenoa e nei??aeoe?iaaiiiai ?aniieaaaaiiai aeioiaea, eioi?ua
aeeth/atho nioeeaeueiua o?ainoa?ou a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia, o. a.
noieiinoue aanieaoiuo oneoa a iaeanoe ia?aciaaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaiey,
nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey e o. ae., i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo aeiiaoiei
oicyenoaai o/?aaeaeaieyie ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e iaeiiia?/aneeie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, ianeoaeeaathueie aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa. Aeeiaieea
oaeoe/aneiai eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey aeiiaoieo oicyenoa a ?innee e iiiaeo
ae?oaeo no?aiao NIA auea a iineaaeiea aiaeu ieaea aeeiaieee ?anoiaeia
ianaeaiey ia eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi a oneiaeyo
iauae eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee yeiiiieee aeiey aanieaoiuo oneoa nieaeaaony.

I?ioeannu ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia eco/athony a NIN n iiiiuueth ?yaea
iieacaoaeae (ia?ae/iua aeioiaeu, o?ainoa?ou e o. ae.), ?aaeno?e?oaiuo a
n/aoao ?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia. A nayce n yoei
aieueoie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea ?ieue
ainoaea?noaa a i?ioeannao ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia. I ianooaaao
ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia iin?aaenoaii ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iieacaoaeue, oa?aeoa?ecothuee ioiioaiea
aeioiaeiie /anoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa e AAI. Iineieueeo
athaeaeaoiua ioiioaiey oa?aeoa?ecothony aieueoei iiiaiia?aceai,
iieacaoaee io?aaeatho ?aciua iaoaieciu ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oeiainiauo
?ano?nia aa?oeeaeueiiai e ai?eciioaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a (iaaeaeo naeoi?aie
yeiiiieee, io?aneyie e oa??eoi?eyie).

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo oa?aeoa?enoee yooaeoeaiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey yaeythony ianooaau aeaoeoeeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa,
ii?aaeaeyaiua eae niioiioaiea ?acia?a aeaoeoeeoa e AAI. A nenoaia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee Aa?iiaeneiai Nithca onoaiiaeai
i?aaeaeueiue ?acia? aeaoeoeeoa ii n?aaiaieth n AAI (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
ieiei 3%), aeathuee i?aai no?aiai noaoue /eaiaie Aaethoiiai nithca.
Auaea/a e?aaeeoia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie oeiainiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie no?aiai n
ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie oaeaea iaoneiaeaia o?aaiaaieai aeanoeiai eiio?iey
iaae ?acia?ii aeaoeoeeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa.

A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee athaeaeao aue iaeaieaa aeaoeoeeoiui a 1994 a.
(10,3%), a 1995 a. aai o?iaaiue nieceeny aei 3,1%, iaeiaei a 1996 a.
aiiaue oaaee/eeny aei 4,3%, a 1997 a.—aei 5,0%, a a 1998 a. — nieceeny
aei 3,6%. Ai iiiaeo ?acaeouo no?aiao aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa ii ioiioaieth e AAI ninoaaeyao ieiei 2—4% (iai?eia?, a
ssiiiee, O?A, Eaiaaea, O?aioeee, NOA). A 1998 a. a no?aiao NIA aeaoeoeeo
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ia i?aauoae 3% oieueei a A?iaiee,
Eu?aucnoaia, Iieaeiaa e Oe?aeia.

Ii?aaeaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie ia iniiaiua a?oiiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae —
aaaeiia iai?aaeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca ia iniiaa aeaiiuo NIN. A NIN
i?aaeoniio?aiu /aoeea i?aaeea ?aaeno?aoeee iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae, aeaiu
?acee/ey iaaeaeo iaeiaaie ia i?iecaiaenoai e eiii?o, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
iaeiaaie ia aeioiaeu e eiouanoai, n ae?oaie. I?iecaiaeeoaee oiaa?ia e
oneoa ieaoyo e oa e ae?oaea iaeiae, e iiyoiio aaaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
aaee/eio iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie, niioiany aa n AAI. (Niioiioaiea oaiiia
?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu e eioeyoeee ii n?aaiaii n aeeiaieeie oece/aneiai
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa oa?aeoa?ecoao nei?inoue ia?auaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu.
Oae, ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui aeaiiui, ca 1998 1. a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
aeeiaieea aeaiaaeiiai aa?aaaoa I2 ionoaaaea ia 28 i?ioeaioiuo ioieoia io
oaiiia eioeyoeee. Yoi a naith i/a?aaeue a oneiaeyo nie?auaiey iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa AAI (ia 4,6%) icia/aei oaaee/aiea nei?inoe ia?auaiey
?oaeaaie iannu i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 20%. Eae n/eoatho iaeioi?ua yenia?ou,
nieaeaiea nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa, iaoneiaeaiiia ?inoii aeiaa?ey e
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoa, iicaieyao oaaee/eaaoue yienneth aeaiaa aac
iiauoaiey eioeyoeee.

Eioaineaiinoue eioeyoeee ecia?yaony iin?aaenoaii eiaeaenia—aeaoeyoi?ia
AAI e ioaeaeueiuo aai ninoaaeythueo. Aeey ?innee eiaeaen-aeaoeyoi? AAI a
1998 a. ii n?aaiaieth n 1990 a. oaaee/eeny a 7233 ?aca. Aeey ecia?aiey
eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia aieaa oe?iei i?eiaiyaony eiaeaen
iio?aaeoaeueneeo Oeai, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a i?aaeii?aaeaeythuee ?acia?u
aeaoeyoi?a AAI.

Aaaeiui iai?aaeaieai iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca yaeyaony eco/aiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a yeiiiieea e aeeyiey aa aeeiaieee ia
eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee. A noaoenoeea ecaanoiu aeaa iaiauathueo
iieacaoaey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe: iieacaoaeue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea
e iieacaoaeue iauae (oaeoi?iie) i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Iieacaoaeue
I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ioiioaiea auionea
i?iaeoeee e cao?aoai aeeaiai o?oaea, a ea/anoaa eioi?uo iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu iieacaoaeue /eneaiiinoe caiyouo a i?iecaiaenoaa, /enei
io?aaioaiiuo /aeiaaei-/ania eee ae?oaea aiaeiae/iua iieacaoaee,
iai?eia?, aeeiaieea oiiaea iieaou o?oaea a niiinoaaeiuo noaaeao iieaou.
Iieacaoaeue iauae (oaeoi?iie) i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe oa?aeoa?ecoao
ioiioaiea auionea i?iaeoeoeee e niaieoiiui cao?aoai o?oaea e eaieoaea.
Ia i?aeoeea ai iiiaeo no?aiao noaoenoe/aneea i?aaiu, eae i?aaeei,
ia?aie/eaathony en/eneaieai e ioaeeeaoeeae iieacaoaey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe aeeaiai o?oaea. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea i?eoiaeeony ?aoaoue
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu. Iaeia ec ieo aicieeaao i?e
ecia?aiee aeeiaieee oece/aneiai iauaia oaoiieiae/anee aieeo i?iaeoeoia,
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea ia?aiao?u eioi?uo auno?i eciaiythony ai a?aiaie.
Iai?eia?, a ?acoeueoaoa oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna a oa/aiea ioiineoaeueii
ei?ioeiai ia?eiaea ?aaeeeaeueii eciaieeenue oaoie/aneea aiciiaeiinoe
eiiiuethoa?ia e nieceeenue oeaiu ia ieo. Iaeiaei ?an/ao eiaeaenia oeai,
eioi?uie iiaeii auei au ainiieueciaaoueny aeey aeaoeyoe?iaaiey noieiinoe
i?iecaaaeaiiuo eiiiuethoa?ia n oeaeueth en/eneaiey eiaeaenia oece/aneiai
iauaia, nii?yaeai n aieueoeie o?oaeiinoyie, oae eae
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea ia?aiao?u eiiiuethoa?ia i?aoa?iaee cia/eoaeueiua
eciaiaiey. Ioiaoei, /oi ?an/ao eiaeaenia oeai i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi oeaiu e
aeaoo ia?eiaeao ioiinyony e iaeiei e oai aea oiaa?ai.

Ae?oaay i?iaeaia a yoie iaeanoe naycaia n ecia?aieai aeeiaieee auionea
ia?uii/iuo oneoa, ieacuaaaiuo o/?aaeaeaieyie ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey. Aeaei a oii, /oi auione a yoeo io?aneyo oneiaii i?eieiaaony
?aaiui noiia oaeoueo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai. Iiyoiio aeeiaieea auionea
i?e?aaieaaaony e aeeiaieea cao?ao. I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou auaatho oieueei i?e oneiaee, anee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea a yoeo io?aneyo nouanoaaiii ia eciaiyaony.
Iaeiaei oaeia oneiaiia aeiiouaiea iiaeao i?eaanoe e eneaaeaieth
?acoeueoaoia ?an/aoia.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aeey ecia?aiey aeeiaieee auionea a yoeo io?aneyo
i?eiaiythony iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea auione a iaoo?aeueiuo
ecia?eoaeyo (iai?eia?, /enei eeoe, iieo/eaoeo ia?aciaaiea, /enei
iaoeeaioia e o. ae.).

Aeey en/eneaiey iieacaoaey iauae (oaeoi?iie) i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea
o?aaoaony oaeaea niecia?aiea cao?ao o?oaea e eaieoaea. I?e ?aoaiee yoie
caaea/e aeey acaaoeaaiey iiaeii i?eiaiyoue aeiee iieaou o?oaea e i?eauee
a AAI. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiaeaen iauae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue ii oi?ioea:

,

aaea Iq – eiaeaen oece/aneiai iauaia AAI;

Iw – eiaeaen cao?ao o?oaea;

Ik – eiaeaen cao?ao eaieoaea;

Dw – aeiey iieaou o?oaea a AAI;

Dk – aeiey i?eauee a AAI.

Caeeth/aiea

Ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii aeaaininoiyiey iauanoaa yaeyaony o?iaaiue
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu, iiyoiio iniiaiua eiaeeeaoi?u ninoiyiey
yeiiiieee /anoi eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa iaiauathueo iieacaoaeae o?iaiy
aeecie. E yoei iieacaoaeyi e ioiinyony iauai aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai
i?iaeoeou iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae e /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue ?aniieaaaaiue
aeioiae. Iieacaoaeue iauaia AAI iaeaieaa oe?iei i?eiaiyaony a
noaoenoe/aneie i?aeoeea. Aeey aiaeeca o?iaiy aeecie, aai aeeiaieee e
i?iaaaeaiey n?aaieoaeueiie oa?aeoa?enoeee ii ?aaeiiai iauai AAI
?ann/eouaaaony a ?aaeueiii au?aaeaiee (a iinoiyiiuo oeaiao) ia aeooo
ianaeaiey. I?e i?iaaaeaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo niiinoaaeaiee aeaiiue
iieacaoaeue ioeaieaaaony a aeieea?ao ia iniiaa ia?eoaoa iieoiaoaeueiie
niiniaiinoe aaethou.

Aeey iaiauathuae oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaaininoiyiey iauanoaa a noaoenoe/aneie
i?aeoeea ia?yaeo n iieacaoaeyie AAI e AII eniieueciaaeny oaeaea eiaeaen
noieiinoe aeecie, ?an/aou eioi?iai a iaoae no?aia ia/aee i?iaiaeeoueny
aua a 20-a aa. Noieiinoue aeecie eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io aeeiaieee
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai e no?oeoo?u iio?aaeaiey, ia eioi?oth aeeytho oaeea
oaeoi?u, eae eciaiaiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina, ninoiyiea ?uii/iie
eiiuthieoo?u e ae?. Eiaeaen noieiinoe aeecie aeieaeai aue io?aaeaoue
aeeyiea oeai ia o?iaaiue aeaaininoiyiey ianaeaiey. N yoie oeaeueth
niiinoaaeyeenue ?anoiaeu, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
oeene?iaaiiiai o?iaiy aeecie, i?e eciaiaiee oeai ia iio?aaeoaeueneea
oiaa?u e oneoae. I?e en/eneaiee aeaiiiai iieacaoaey ii?aaeaeyeny iaai?
iio?aaeoaeueneeo aeaa (iio?aaeoaeueneay ei?ceia), oeie/iue aeey
no?oeoo?u ?anoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiiie a?oiiu ianaeaiey. Noieiinoue yoiai
iaai?a ?ann/eouaaeanue a oaeoueo e aaceniuo oeaiao, a caoai
i?iaiaeeeinue niiinoaaeaiea iieo/aiiuo aaee/ei. Iaeiaei i?e oaeie
iaoiaeieiaee ?an/aoa oaeoe/anee io?aaeaaony ia eciaiaiea noieiinoe
aeecie, a aeeyiea ia iaa iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai. Iiyoiio a eiioea 50-o —
ia/aea 60-o aa. a aieueoeinoaa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai, a eioi?uo ?aaoey?ii
ioaeeeiaaeny eiaeaen noieiinoe aeecie, eciaieee aai iacaaiea: ii noae
eiaiiaaoueny «eiaeaenii iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai». Aeaiiue eiaeaen
?ann/eouaaaony e a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Ii oa?aeoa?ecoao eciaiaiea
noieiinoe aeecie a caaeneiinoe io iaeiiai oaeoi?a — aeeiaieee oeai ia
oiaa?u e oneoae, aoiaeyuea a ninoaa iio?aaeoaeueneie ei?ceiu.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Eaaiia TH. I. Yeiiiie/aneay noaoenoeea. – I.: Eio?a-I, 2000. – 480 n.

Eaaiia TH. I. Nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia – eino?oiaio
iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca. – I.: Oeinoaoeioi?i, 1996.

Eaiaaa A. Ae. Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. – I.: AEAAeIN, 1998. – 640 n.

Eeiia I. Yeiiiie/aneay noaoenoeea. – Ooooaa?o, Eaia, 1995.

Nooaeaineee I. N. Aeioiae iaoeee. – I: Noaoenoeea, 1992.

*aio?ei I. I. Eo?n yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. – Ee?ia: “ANA”, 1995. – 327 n.

Aaoi? Kurt Hectic

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