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Валовой национальный продукт и его структура

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NIAeA?AEAIEA :

1. AAAAeAIEA

2 *OI OAEIA I?IIAAEOOI*IAss I?IAeOEOeEss ?

3. NIINIAU IIAeN*AOA AII

4. ?ANOIAeIUE IAOIAe IIAeN*AOA AII

A. ?anoiaeu ia ee/iia iio?aaeaiea

A. Eiaanoeoeee

A. Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeoiee

5. AeIOIAeIUE IAOIAe IIAeN*AOA AII

6. NINOAAEssTHUEA AII

7. IIIEIAEUeIUE E ?AAEUeIUE AII

8. IAAeINOAOEE AII

9 CAEETH*AIEA

1. AAAAeAIEA

A yeiiiieea iaaethaeathony i?ioeannu, eiathuea
iniiaiia e oeaio?aeueiia a iae cia/aiea. Yoi – iai?ae?auathuaany
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee ia iaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia, aaneiia/iia
nicaeaiea e ia?anicaeaiea aiaaonoaa, eioi?ui no?aia iaiieiyao, iaiiaeyao
e ?anoe?yao naith iaoa?eaeueioth aeeciue. Aieueoie oeaio?aeueiue iioie
io eioi?iai iu ana caaenei iacuaaaony Aaeiaue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo,
eee nie?auaiii AII. Eiaaea aeeeoi?u oaeaaeaeaiey aiai?yo, /oi AII
iiaeieiaaony eee iaaeaao, iie iiae?acoiaaatho, /oi oaaee/eaaaony eee
oiaiueoaaony iioie oie i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?oth iu i?iecaiaeei.

AII – iniiaiie iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey iauanoaa,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?uii/ioth noieiinoue anao eiia/iuo oiaa?ia e oneoa
i?iecaaaeaiiuo a oa/aiea aiaea. A oi?ie?iaaiee AII o/anoaotho
i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiey anao oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeeth/ay ee/iua iiaeniaiua
oicyenoaa e eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth o?oaeiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue.

Iaeiaei ia ana oiaa?u, i?iecaaaeaiiua a aeaiiii aiaeo, iiaoo auoue
i?iaeaiu : iaeioi?ua iiiieiyo caianu, iiyoiio ethaie i?e?ino caiania
aeieaeai auoue o/oai i?e iiaen/aoa aaee/eiu AII, o.e n iiiiuueth AII
ecia?ytho anth oaeouoth i?iaeoeoeeth, ia caaeneii io oiai, i?iaeaia iia
eee iao.

A AII iaeuecy aeeth/aoue i?iaeaaeo iiaea?aeaiiuo oiaa?ia, ?aiaa
iino?iaiiuo aeiiia, nii?oaeaiee ( iie oaea n/eoaeenue a ninoaaa AII a
i?aaeuaeouea aiaeu). A AII ia aeeth/atho iainee, iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea
e iiiaiaeaoiui naiueyi, aeaiaaeioth iiiiuue ?iaeeoaeyi nooaeaioai e
o/aueiny : ana yoe ia?aaiaeu ( o?ainoa?ou) aeaiaa i?inoi
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea oaea nicaeaiiiai AII. Iaeiie ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo, ii
ia o/eouaaaiuo noa? aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony aeiiaoiaa oicyenoai –
enoi/iee aaaeiaeoeo aeey /aeiaa/aneie aeecie oneoa e i?iaeoeoia, ia
i?eiaaoathueo oiaa?ioth oi?io.

yA iaoae no?aia a i?aeoeeo yeiiiie/aneeo ?an/aoia
iieacaoaeue AII aue aaaaeai a 1989 aiaeo. Aai en/eneaiea
inouanoaeyeinoue a niioaaonoaee n ooaa?aeaeaiiie a 1988 aiaeo iaoiaeeeie
, ?ac?aaioaiiie Aineiinoaoii NNN? niaianoii n Ainieaiii NNN? n o/anoeai
Aeaaeaiee iaoe NNN? e IE? NNN?. I?e yoii oeacaiiie iaoiaeeeie
i?aaeoniio?aia aiciiaeiinoue en/eneaiey AII i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iaoiaeii,
iaoiaeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia e iaoiaeii eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey
aeioiaeia. ( 4, no?. 32)

2. *OI OAEIA I?IIAAEOOI*IAss I?IAeOEOeEss ?

Iiieii eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee eiaaony aua i?iiaaeooi/iay.
Aieueoeinoai i?iaeoeoia i?ioiaeyo ianeieueei i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noaaeee,
i?aaeaea /ai iiiaaeatho ia ?uiie. Iiyoiio ioaeaeueiua /anoe e eiiiiiaiou
iaeioi?uo i?iaeoeoia iieoiathony e i?iaeathony ianeieueei ?ac. I?e
?an/aoa AII o/eouaaaony oieueei ?uii/iay noieiinoue eiia/iuo i?iaeoeoia
e eneeth/aaony i?iiaaeooi/iay i?iaeoeoeey, /oiau ecaaaeaoue
iiiaie?aoiiai o/aoa /anoae i?iaeoeoia.

AII ia ecia?yao noieiinoe anae i?iecaaaeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, a eeoue noieiinoue eiia/iuo i?iaeoeoia, o.a. i?iaeoeoia
eioi?ua aeaenoaeoaeueii iio?aaeythony , a ia iieoiathony aeey
ia?ai?iaeaaee eee aeaeueiaeoae ia?aaioee eee ia?a?aaioee , a oaeaea
i?iecaaaeaiu aeey yenii?oa. Anee au iu iiaen/eoaee i?iiaaeooi/iua
i?iaeoeou, oi aiciee au aeaieiie n/ao.

?anniio?ei i?inoie i?eia?. Ionoue i?aaeaea /ai iiianoue e eiia/iiio
iio?aaeoaeth oiaa? i?ioiaeeo /aou?a noaaeee i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. Ca
eiia/iue oiaa? i?eiai oeaa. Oa?ia? nia?ae ca?ii e iinoaaee aai ia
yeaaaoi? ia noiio 8 aaeeieoe. Ca?aaioaiiua oa?ia?ii 8 aaeaieoe
?ani?aaeaeythony a aeaea ca?aaioiie ieaou, ?aioiuo ieaoaaeae, i?ioeaioia
e i?eauee. Ia yeaaaoi?a iaetho ca?ii a ioeo e i?iaeatho iaea?ia ca 12
aaeeieoe. Ec yoeo 12 aaeeieoe 8 aaeeieoe ioaeii ioaeaoue oa?ia?o ca
iinoaaeaiiia ca?ii, a 4 aaeeieoeu eniieuecothony ia yeaaaoi?a aeey
auieaou ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aaioieeai, ?aioiuo ieaoaaeae, iaiiaeaiea
iai?oaeiaaiey e aeey ?acee/iuo ae?oaeo oeaeae. Iaea?iy i?iaeaao naie
ecaeaeey ?icie/iui i?iaeaaoeai ca 18 aaeeieoe, a caoai iio?aaeoaeue,
yaeythueeny eiia/iui iieueciaaoaeai i?iaeoeoa iieoiaao aai ca 10
aaeeieoe.

*oi aea aeeth/aoue a AII ? 10 aaeeieoe oiea/aiiua iio?aaeoaeai
ca oeaa eee 8-12-18-10 = 48 aaeeieoe, eioi?ua auiea/aiu ii anae oeaii/ee
io oa?ia?a aei iieoiaoaey. Iaaei aeeth/aoue 10 aaeeieoe, o.a noieiinoue
oieueei eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iieo/aaony ia noiie?iaaieai
noieiinoe i?iiaaeooi/iuo i?iaeoeoia, a noiie?iaaieai oieueei
aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe, o.a. noieiinoe, aeiaeaiiie a eiia/iue i?iaeoeo
i?aaei?eyoeyie ia eaaeaeie ec noaaeee aaeeiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna. Anee au iu neiaeeee noieiinoe anao i?iiaaeooi/iuo i?iaeoeoia
ni noieiinoueth eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa e aeeth/eee au iieo/aiiue ?acoeueoao
a iieacaoaeue AII, oi iu caauneee aai iauai. Iaeeoei aue au aeaieiie
n/ao, o.a. o/ao noieiinoe eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa, a oaeaea noieiinoae
i?iaeaae e ia?ai?iaeaae aai ?acee/iuo eiiiiiaioia a iiiainooiai/aoii
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna. *oiau ecaaaeaoue aeaieiiai n/aoa
iaiaoiaeeii i?e ?an/aoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea aeeth/aoue oieueei
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

Aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acieoeo iaaeaeo noiiie
i?iaeaae oe?iu e noiiie, ia eioi?oth oe?ia caeoiaao ia?a?aaaouaaaiua ath
i?iiaaeooi/iua i?iaeoeou e oiaa?u ( 2, no?. 130). Iiyoiio i?e ?an/aoa
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii neaaeeoue, /oiau a iaai
aeeth/aeanue oieueei aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue.

3. NIINIAU IIAeN*AOA AII

I?inoay iiaeaeue e?oaiiai?ioa aeioiaeia iieacuaaao, /oi AII
iiaeii iiaen/eoaoue aeaoiy niiniaaie :

Noiie?iaaieai anao ?anoiaeia ia iieoieo i?iecaaaeaiiuo a aeaiiii aiaeo
oiaa?ia eee oneoa.

Noiie?iaaieai anao aeioiaeia io i?iecaiaenoaa anaai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee
aeaiiiai aiaea. Yoe niiniau iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue oiaeaeanoaaiiuie
o?aaiaieai :

iauai ?anoiaeia ia iieoiee oiaa?ia = aeaiaaeiue aeioiae iieo/aiiue

i?iecaaaeaiiuo a aeaiiii aiaeo io i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee

aeaiiiai aiaea

Eoiey, oi anoue ?anoiaeiaaiea aeaiaa, e i?iaeaaea , oi anoue iieo/aiea
aeaiaa, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie a nouiinoe, aeaa noi?iiu iaeiie e oie aea
naeaeee. Oi, /oi iio?a/aii ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee, yaeyaony
aeioiaeii aeey oao, eoi aeiaeee naie /aeiaa/aneea e iaoa?eaeueiua
?ano?nu a i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e aai ?aaeecaoeeth ia ?uiea (
1, no?. 135).

Aeaiiia oiaeaeanoai aa?ii e aeey yeiiiieee a oeaeii.
Ioiioaiea ethauo aeaoo ia?aiaiiuo inoaaony iaeciaiiui, anee iaa
ia?aiaiiua iaeiia?aiaiii oaeaaeaathony eee oiaiueoathony aaeaia, oi
anoue ioiioaiea ia caaeneo io oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e oaaee/aieth
eee oiaiueoaieth iaaeo ia?aieaiiuo.

?aaeueiue e?oaiiai?io iioieia aeeth/aao aieueoa yeaiaioia, /ai a i?inoie
iiaeaee (?en.1).

?anniio?ei ?anoiaeiue e aeioiaeiue iaoiae ioaeaeueii.

4. ?ANOIAeIUE IAOIAe IIAeN*AOA AII

A ?anoiaeiii iaoiaea ian/eouaaaony 4 iniiaiua ninoaaiua /anoe
AII :

?anoiaeu ia ee/iia iio?aaeaiea

Niaieoiiua /anoiua aioo?aiiea eiaanoeoeee

Ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu

*enoue yenii?o (o.a. i?iaeaaea i?iaeoeoeee ca a?aieoeo (yenii?o) ieion
iieoiee i?iaeoeoeee ec ae?oaeo no?ai (eiii?o)).

A. ?anoiaeu ia ee/iia iio?aaeaiea.

Ee/iua iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu aeeth/atho ?anoiaeu aeiiaoieo
oicyenoa, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue aeaeyo ia :

– i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey

Yoi aaoiiiaeee, auoiaay oaoieea, e ae?.

Ia?iiiia ?aciiia?acea auoiaie oaoieee ia neo/aeii iacuaatho «
o?oaeinaa?aaathueie » i?eai?aie. Iioie o?ao ia ee/iia iio?aaeaiea
ninoaaeyao ieiei 2/3 AII (3, no?.86). Ieiei 40 % naiaeiuo caeoiie
i?eoiaeeony ia oiaa?u oaeouaai iio?aaeaiey. Ni?in ia oiaa?u
aeeeoaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey aieaa eciai/ea, /ai oaeouaai iio?aaeaiey :
ethaee aeieaeiu anoue, a n iieoieie oaeaaeci?a iiaeii e iiaeiaeaeaoue.

– oiaa?u oaeouaai iio?aaeaiey

Yoi i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, iaeaaeaea e ae?.

– iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu ia oneoae

Yoi oneoae ia?eoiaoa?ia, aeaeaciie aeiai?e, ay?ioeioa, a?a/ae e ae?.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaioth /anoue iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia iiaeiuatho
oneoae. Iie caiaiytho ee/iua oneeey iio?aaeoaey, aa?aaoo aai a?aiy.

Ee/iua iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu a oeaeii oa?aeoa?iu naiae
iaaeaaeiinoueth, i?aaeneacoaiinoueth e ianneaiinoueth.

A. Eiaanoeoeeoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu.

A /oi aeeth/aaony a iiiyoea « eiaanoeoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu » ?

Eiaanoeoeee – cao?aou ia iiaua eaieoaeueiua oiaa?u, /oiau n eo iiiiuueth
i?iecaiaeeoue oiaa?u e oneoae. Yoi aioo?aiiea /anoiua eiaanoeoeee –
eiaanoeoeee /anoiiai naeoi?a, eioi?ua aeaeathony aioo?e no?aiu.

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu aeaeyo ia :

– eiia/iua iieoiee iaoei, iai?oaeiaaiey e noaieia i?aaei?eyoey

– no?ieoaeuenoai

Aeeth/atho no?ieoaeuenoai iiaie oaa?eee, caaiaeia, neeaaeia, aeeeuo
aeiiia. Eae iino?iaiiua oaa?eee e caaiaeu, eioi?ua yaeythony aeoeaaie
i?eiinyueie aeioiae, aeeeua aeiia, ii oie aea i?e/eia aeeth/atho a
eaoaai?eth eiaanoeoeee.

Iiiaieaa?oe?iua aeeeua aeiia, a oaeaea ae?oaea aeeeua aaeeieoeu iiaeii
naeaaaoue aiaai. AEeeua aeiia, caieiaaiua nianoaaiieeaie, ioiinyony e
eaoaai?ee eiaanoeoeee aeaaea a oii neo/aa, anee eo aeaaeaeaoe ia naeaao
eo aiaai, o.e. iie iiaoo auoue naeaiu aiaai, n oai /oiau i?eiineoue
aeaiaaeiue aeioiae.

– eciaiaiea caiania, i?iaeoeou eioi?ua i?iecaaaeaiu a aeaiiii aiaeo, ii
ia i?iaeaiu.

Caianu n/eoatho eiaanoeoeeyie iioiio, /oi iie ana aua
i?aaenoaaeytho niaith iaiio?aaeaiiue i?iaeoeo, o. a. Aeiaeaiiue eaieoae,
a ia eaieoae i?eianoee ioaea/o (2, no?. 133).

Oae eae AII yaeyaony ecia?eoaeai anaai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, oi ii
aeieaeai aeeth/aoue ?uii/ioth noieiinoue anao i?e?inoia caiania a
oa/aiea aiaea. Anee au iu eneeth/eee oaaee/aiea caiania, oi caieceee au
iauai aiaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Caianu i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoee, o?aiyony
ia neeaaeao. I?e?ino caiania aeieaeai auoue i?eaaaeai e AII a ea/anoaa
iieacaoaey oaeouaai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oiaiueoaiea caiania aeieaeii auoue
au/oaii ec iieacaoaey AII, oae eae iauai i?iaeoeoeee, i?iaeaaaaiie a
yeiiiieea, i?aauoaao iauai oaeouaai i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
oiaiueoaiea caiania a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii aiaeo icia/aao, /oi a
yeiiiieea i?iaeaii aieueoa, /ai i?iecaaaeaii a oa/aiee aiaea, oi anoue
/oi iauanoai iio?aaeei aanue nicaeaiiue a aeaiiii aiaeo i?iaeoeo iethn
iaeioi?ua caianu inoaaoeany io i?ioeuo eao (1, no?. 137).

Iiae neiaaie eiaanoeoeey iiiaea iiae?acoiaaatho iieoieo aeoeee e
iaeeaaoeee. Iaeiaei e eiaanoeoeeyi iie ia ioiinyony. Eiaaea iu iieoiaai
iaueiiaaiiua aeoeee eee iaeeaaoeee ia ae?aea, iu iau/ii iieoiaai eo o
oiai, eoi aeaaeae eie ?aiueoa. Iiyoiio n yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey
i?inoi i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaea/a iaeeo i?aa, ia eiathuay i?yiiai ioiioaiey e
nicaeaieth iiaiai aiaaonoaa. Oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee iu eoieee aiiaue
auiouaiiua aeoeee eee iaeeaaoeee e oieueei anee aeioiae io eo i?iaeaaee
aoaeao i?yii ia?auai ia nicaeaiea iiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey eee iiaiai
caaiaea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue aeo eiaanoeoeee caaa?oeony aeiaaaeie e
aiaaonoao iauanoaa.

Niaae i?iecaiaenoaa, eioeyoeey, ?anoaneeaaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa e oo?aoa oi?aaeyaiinoe i?ioeannii
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa i?eaaee yeiiiieeo ?innee a
oiaaeie e aucaaee eiaanoeoeeiiiue e?ecen. Ia aeieth eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a
?innee i?eoiaeeony 15- 16 % -AAI, oiaaea eae a ?acaeouo no?aiao 25-30 %.
Ca iyoue eao yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu iaeaieaa neeueiue niaae a ?innee ia
70 % – eiae ianoi a eiaanoeoeeiiiie noa?a, A 1996 aiaeo ii ieacaeny ia
o?iaia 29 % io o?iaiy 1991 aiaea. ( 5, no?. 1)

Aaaeiia ?aoaiea, eioi?ia iaaei i?eiyoue, caaeoiuaay
eiaanoeoeeth,- aeano ee oaaee/aiea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa oi?ioee
aeioiae, i?eaueue. Ii n oi/ee c?aiey AII a i?eauee aaaeii oi, /oi iia
anaaaea i?eaioe?iaaia ia aoaeouaa. Anee i?aaei?eyoea, iieo/athuaa
aieueoea i?eauee io naiaai caaiaea e aai iai?oaeiaaiey, ia niae?aaony
oaaee/eaaoue naie aeioiaeu iooai iiauo eiaanoeoeee, oi iii ia oaaee/eo
naie eaieoae. Ae?oaay oe?ia, iiaeao auoue, aeaaea oa?iyuay oauoee, ia
i?aaeaeaeyuay aieueoea i?eauee io caoayiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo
oiaa?ia, iiaeao neeueii naie eaieoae oaaee/eoue. Aeaaea eiaaea noeioe e
no?ieoaeuenoao iuouaanoy a ianoiyuai, ?an/aou – aeaeaoue eee ia aeaeaoue
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey – o/eouaatho aoaeouea aeioiaeu oe?iu. Iiyoiio
eiaanoeoeey ii i?e?iaea naiae – aaee/eia eciai/eaay.

A. Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeoiee.

A a?oiio ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoiie oiaa?ia e oneoa aeeth/atho
ana ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu, aeeth/ay oaaea?aeueiua, ooaoia, a oaeaea
ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe ia eiia/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth i?aaei?eyoee e ia ana
i?yiua iieoiee ?ano?nia. Iai?eia?, oneoae o/eoaeae eee iiaea?ieeia,
eioi?ua oooao iiaea? ia iaooyiuo neaaaeeiao, yaeythony /anoueth
iauanoaaiiiai, a ia ee/iiai iio?aaeaiey. Yoi ni?aaaaeeeai aeaaea oiaaea
eiaaea naiuee iieuecothony oneoaaie o/eoaeae eee iiaea?ieeia : ee/iinoue
eioi?ay iiea/eaaao eo oneoae – yoi ainoaea?noai.

Eae auei oaea neacaii, nouanoaoao aieueoie e cia/eoaeueiue iioie
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo cao?ao, iniaaiii oaaea?aeueiuo eioi?ua iacuaathony
o?ainoa?oiua ieaoaaee. Iie ia aoiaeyo a AII, oae eae o?ainoa?oiua
ieaoaaee anoue ia?a/eneaiea, auieaoa, i?aneaaeothuay nioeeaeueiua oeaee,
a ia ieaoa iieo/aoaeth ca iieaciua oneoae. Eiaaea iu ieaoei iaeiae,
eaeouea ia oeiaine?iaaiea oeie, eee iiaea?iuo eiiaiae, eee a?iee, iu
ieaoei ethaeyi, i?aaeinoaaeythuei iai oneoae. Ii /anoue iaeiaia, eioi?ua
iu ieaoei eaeoo ia iieaoo oao, eoi ia iiaeao iaeoe ?aaioo, eee aeinoea
iaineiiiiai aic?anoa, – yoi ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca o?oae. Oaeoe/anee
yoi iauanoaaiiue yeaeaaeaio /anoiie aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoe.

Aieueoay /anoue oaaea?aeueiuo caeoiie AII ioiineony e aiaiiui ?anoiaeai.
Aieueoay /anoue caeoiie AII i?ienoiaeeo ia ooaoiii e ianoiii, a ia ia
oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia. Aieueoay /anoue o?ainoa?oiuo ieaoaaeae eaeao io
oaaea?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, a ia io ianoiiai e ooaoiiai ia/aeuenoaa (
3, no?. 96).

A 1985 – 1989 a.a. aiaeiaie aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa a ?innee oaaee/eeny n
2 % aei 9-10 % AII . (6, no?.56). A anee ?anniio?aoue aeaa aiaea , oi
aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa au?in n 2,5 % AII a 1985 aiaeo aei aieaa /ai 8,5 %
a 1987 aiaeo.

A. *enoue yenii?o

E iineaaeiyy ninoaaiay /anoue AII, aaea iiaen/eouaaaony
any i?iaeoeoeey no?aiu, i?iaeathuay ca a?aieoeae, e au/eoaaony
caa?aie/iay i?iaeoeoeey, i?iaeaaaaiay a yoie no?aia. Yoi aeaeaaony aeey
oiai, /oiau ecaaaeaoue caauoaiey iauaai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiie
no?aiu. *oiau ia aanoe o/ao aeaoo iieacaoaeae – yenii?oa e eiii?oa
ioaeaeueii, iau/ii ii?aaeaeyaony ?acieoea iaaeaeo oeacaiiuie aaee/eiaie.
Anee iu i?iaeaai ca a?aieoeae aieueoa, /ai iieoiaai, oi o ian «
iieiaeeoaeueiue oi?aiaue aaeain » eae /anoue AII. Anee aea, iu iieoiaai
ca a?aieoeae aieueoa, /ai i?iaeaai – yoi « io?eoeaoaeueiue oi?aiaue
aaeain », iioie iieoiaoaeueneie niiniaiinoe, ooiaeyuae ca a?aieoeo.

5. AeIOIAeIUE IAOIAe IIAeN*AOA AII

A aeioiaeiue iaoiae iiaen/aoa AII aeeth/atho :
ca?aaioiay ieaoa, ?aioa, i?eaueue, i?ioeaio. Noiie?oao aeioiaeu oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa ( o?oae, caiey, eaieoae, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea oneoae).
Nthaea aea aeeth/atho aii?oecaoeeiiiua nienaiey – n?aaenoaa aeey
oece/aneiai ainnoaiiaeaiey eciioaiiiai eaieoaea.

Noiia aeioiaeia AII aeieaeia iieiinoueth niaiaaeaoue n noiiie ?anoiaeia.
Anee yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeo, yoi icia/aao, /oi no?aia aeeaao ca /ae-oi
n/ao, o.a. aeeaao a aeiea.

Iieaciue ia?eiae neoaeau aieueoeinoaa aeaeia iai?oaeiaaiey
iaiiiai aieueoa aiaea. Aaeaaiaeiua io/eneaiey, eioi?ua iieacuaatho iauai
eaieoaea, iio?aaeaiiiai a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa a ioaeaeueiua aiaeu,
iacuaatho – aii?oecaoeeae. Anee iu oioei oi/ii ?ann/eoaoue aaee/eio
i?eauee e aaeiaiai aeioiaea a yeiiiieea, iu aeieaeiu o/anoue a aaeiaii
aeioiaea aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey.

Einoaaiiua iaeiae ia aecian – yoi aeae ecaea?aeae
eioi?ua aceiaao ainoaea?noai.

Aeanoe aaiaeyo iaeiae ia ana oiaa?u e oneoae. Yoe iaeiae iaacee/aiu e ia
ioiinyony e eaeei-eeai eiie?aoiui aeaaeaeueoeai oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.
Oaeea iaeiae iinooiatho aeanoyi e ie/aai ia i?eaaaeytho aeciano e
aeiiaoiei oicyenoaai. Eiiiaiee ?anniao?eaatho eo eae ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e iiyoiio i?eaaaeytho e oeaiai ia i?iaeoeou. Iai?eia?,
aeoeecu, iaeiae ia eiouanoai, eaoeaiceiiiua ieaoaaee, oaiiaeiua iioeeiu,
IAeN.

Naiay e?oiiay eaoaai?ey aeioiaea aeeth/aao ca?aaioioth
ieaoo. Aciinu ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea, iaaeeoeeineea oneoae e
ae?oaea ?anniao?eaatho eae iiiaeanoai aeiiieiaiee e ca?aaioiie ieaoa.

6. NINOAAEssTHUEA AII

Nouanoaoao oeaeue ?yae acaeiinaycaiiuo iieacaoaeae iaoeeiiaeueiuo
n/aoia, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ?an/eoaiu ia iniiaa AII.

Iaeei ec ieo yoi /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo –
iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyaony iooai
au/eoaiey ec AII io/eneaiee ia ainnoaiiaeaiea eciioaiiiai a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa ( aii?oecaoeeiiiua nienaiey ) oece/aneiai eaieoaea ( 3,
no?.119). Oaeei ia?acii *II – yoi iieacaoaeue, eioi?ue ecia?yao iauai
eiia/iuo oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua no?aia iiaeao eniieueciaaoue, ia
iaiiny oua?aa naiaio oece/aneiio eaieoaeo, oi anoue ia oiaiueoay
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea.

Eiaaea iu aiai?ei i aeioiaeao a yeiiiieea a aeaiiii aiaeo, oi eiaai a
aeaeo aeioiaeu, iieo/aaiua aeaaeaeueoeaie oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa. *enoue
iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo aeeth/aao yeaiaio, eioi?ue ia yaeyaony aeioiaeii
io eaeiai-eeai ec oaeoi?ia – yoi einaaiiua iaeiae.

*oiau ii?aaeaeeoue iieacaoaeue iauaai iauaia ca?aaioiie
ieaou, ?aioiuo ieaoaaeae, i?ioeaioa, e i?eauee, iieo/aiiuo a oiaea
i?iecaiaenoaa iauaia AII aeaiiiai aiaea, iu aeieaeiu au/anoue ec *II
einaaiiua iaeiae ia aecian. Iieo/aiiue iieacaoaeue iacuaaaony
iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae.

Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae ieion aciinu ia nioeeaeueiia
no?aoiaaiea ieion aciinu ia i?eauee eiiiaiee iethn o?ainoa?ou ia?acotho
noiio ee/iuo aeioiaeia. Ee/iua aeioiaeu iaeaaathony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie
iaeiaaie. Noiia inoaaoayny iinea yoiai, iacuaaaony ?aniieaaaaiui ee/iui
aeioiaeii. E eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui iaeiaai ioiinyo ee/iua iiaeioiaeiua
iaeiae, iaeiae ia ee/iia eiouanoai e iaeiaia ia ianeaaenoai.
?aniieiaaaiue ee/iue aeioiae – aeaiaaeiay noiia, eioi?oth aeiiaoiea
oicyenoaa iiaoo naiaiaeii ?anoiaeuaaoue ia iio?aaeaiea e naa?aaeaiea.
Aeiey naa?aaeaiee a ?aniieaaaaiii ee/iii aeioiaea iacuaaaony ii?iie
ee/iuo naa?aaeaiee ( 3, no?. 120).

Io AII, /a?ac *II, iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, ee/iue aeioiae e
?aniieaaaaiiio ee/iiio aeioiaeo – ana yoi e anoue nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo
n/aoia. Iia /?acau/aeii aaaeia aeey iiieiaiey ninoiyiey yeiiiieee a
oeaeii, ioeaiee a? aeeiaieee, e aeey i?iaiicia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
. Ii-nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia iiaeii noaeeoue, eaeie aeeaae a AII
aeaao oa eee eiay io?aneue.

7. IIIEIAEUeIUE E ?AAEUeIUE AII

I?e iiaen/aoao AII a ethaii aiaeo iie inouanoaeythony a oeaiao
eiie?aoiiai aiaea, o.a. a oaeoueo oeaiao. AII en/eneaiiue a oaeoueo
oeaiao, iacuaaaony iiieiaeueiui AII. Iiieiaeueiue AII iiaeao au?anoe ii
o?ai i?e/eiai :

1. Ca n/ao oaeaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa eiia/iuo oiaa?ia e oneoa.

2. Ca n/ao ?inoa oeai.

3. Ca n/ao ?inoa oeai e ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaeiaei o?iaaiue aeecie ethaeae caaeneo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue io
eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia, i?iecaaaeaiiuo e iai?aaeaiiuo a ?oee naiae , a ia
io oeaiu: /oiau ociaoue au?in AII ?aaeueii, oaaee/eeinue ee
i?iecaiaenoai eiia/iuo oiaa?ia e oneoa ioaeii ono?aieoue aicaeaenoaea
iaiythueony oeai ia iiaen/aou AII. I?eiai eaeie-ieaoaeue aiae ca
aaciaue. Yoi cia/eo, /oi oeaiu yoiai aiaea iu aa?ai ca 100 %. Oaia?ue iu
iiaeai i?eiaieoue aeaoeyoi? – oeaiiaie eiaeaen, eioi?ue ecia?yao
eciaiaiea oeai io aiaea e aiaeo e ?aaai au?aaeaiiiio a i?ioeaioao
/anoiiio io aeaeaiey o?iaiy oeai a aiaeo O ia o?iaaiue oeai a aaciaii
aiaeo :

o?iaaiue oeai a aiaeo O

aeaoeyoi? AII = ——————————————– * 100
%

o?iaaiue oeai a aaciaii aiaeo

Aeey oiai, /oiau ociaoue i ?inoa oeai e ii?aaeaeeoue aeeoeyoi?,
noaoenoeee nicaeatho ii?aaeaeaiiue iaai? oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ue
iacuaaaony “ ?uii/iie ea?ceiie”. Iie ioeaieaatho aai eaaeaeue aiae e
ninoaaeytho aeeoeyoi?Ii yoei aeaiiui iu iiaeai ociaoue ?aaeueiue AII :

iiieiaeueiue AII

?aaeueiue AII = ——————————————

aeaoeyoi? AII

AII eae iieacaoaeue ?aaeueiiai eiee/anoaa i?iecaaaeaiiuo eiia/iuo
oiaa?ia e oneoa, ii?aaeaeyaiue a ?acoeueoaoa ono?aiaiey yooaeoa
eciaieiey a oeaiao, iacuaaaony ?aaeueiui AII.

8. IAAeINOAOEE AII.

A ethaie no?aia n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie naiue iiioey?iue
yeiiiie/aneee iieacaoaeue – yoi AII, iioiio /oi io ninoiyiey e aeeiaieee
AII, aai ninoaaeythueo, aai no?oeoo?u caaeneo aeaaininoiyiea eaaeaeiai
eiie?aoiiai /aeiaaea, aeeciaiiue noaoon aeanyoeia ieeeeiiia ethaeae.
Nieaeaaony AII – aeaee aac?aaioeoeu, iaaeaiey o?iaiy aeecie e ae?oaeo
iai?eyoiinoae.Eiaaea au?anoaao noieiinoue aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa, yoi
icia/aao, /oi aoaeao iieo/aii aieueoa aeioiaeia. Oaeei ia?acii,
nouanoaoao i/aaeaeiay naycue iaaeaeo ?acia?ii AII oaeaea yaeyaony iauae
ia?ie eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia e oneo, eioi?ua iu niiaeai eoieoue,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii e eieeaeoeaii. Iiyoiio, a iauai, naa aeiaieueiu,
eiaiaea AII iiaeieiaaony, e iaaeiaieueiu , eiaaea ii iaaeaao.

Iaeiaei AII iaaacoi?a/iay e aeaaea iaiai/eaay ia?a iaoaai
aeaaininoiyiey.

I?aaeaea anaai AII au?aaeaao ana a aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoea
ecia?aiey, a ia a oece/aneeo aaeeieoeao. Iiyoiio iu aeieaeiu
ei??aeoe?iaaoue aai n o/aoii eioeyoeee.

Eiaiaea iu n?aaieaaai AII iaeiiai aiaea n AII ae?oaiai, iaecaaaeii
aicieeaao niiiaiea, i?eaaaeeinue ee ?aaeueiia aiaaonoai iaoeee. Anee
oeaiu ai aoi?ii aiaeo auoa, AII oiaea iieaaeaony auoa,. aeaaea anee
o?iaaiue i?iaeoeoeee inoaeny oai aea eee aeaaea iiieceeny. Iinoiyiii
ioaeii oae?aoue i?ioeaio eioeyoeee ec iaoaai ecia?aiey. Ii aeaaea anee
iu ?an/eoaai ?aaeueiue AII, anaaaea inoaaony iaeee i?ioeaio
iaoaa?aiiinoe i?e n?aaiaiee naaiaeiyoiaai ni a/a?aoiei.

Aoi?ay neaainoue AII oiaea eanaaony aai iaoi/iinoe, eae
iieacaoaey “?aaeueiie” oaiaeaioeee a?aiaie. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo a
?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiey ea/anoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa. A no?aia n ia?aaeiaie
oaoiieiaeae oiaa?u iau/ii oeo/oathony n oa/aieai a?aiaie. A oi aea a?aiy
a iauanoaa n aieueoie ieioiinoueth ianaeaiey ea/anoai ae?oaeo oiaa?ia
iiaeao oooaeoeony. I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua noaoenoeee noa?athony o/anoue a
AII oaeea eciaiaiey ea/anoaa, oioy e ooo inoaaony ianoi aeey
iaoaa?aiiinoe.

O?aouey neaainoue AII – aai neaiioa e eiia/iiio
eniieueciaaieth i?iaeoeoeee. Anee a iaeei aiae AII iiaeiyeny aeaaiaea?y
oaaee/aieth ?anoiaeia ia ia?aciaaiea, a a ae?oaie aiae iiaeiyeny ia
noieueei aea ec-ca oaaee/aiey i?iaeaaee neaa?ao , oeeo?u a iaieo neo/ayo
iieacuaatho iaeeiaeiaue ?ino. Aeaaea oaeay i?iaeoeoeey, eioi?ay onoa?aea
e iiiaioo naiaai iiyaeaiey, eee ieacaeanue ai?acaea ieaea i?eiyoiai
noaiaea?oa -, ana yoi ana ?aaii aoiaeeo a AII.

I?iaeaia caa?yciaiey N?aaeu oiaea aeiaaaeyao
o?oaeiinoe. Iaeioi?ua aeaeu ?inoa AII i?yii naycaiu n yoei caa?yciaieai
– yoi iai?eia?, i?iecaiaenoai aoiaae, oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa
aaoiiiaeeae. A iauanoao ioaeiu ae?oaea aeaeu ?inoa AII, eioi?ua
inoaiiaeee au caa?yciaiea, – yoi i?aaei?eyoey ii i/enoea noi/iuo aiae
eee i?iecaiaenoai /enouo aeaeaaoaeae aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey.

Iai?eia?, n/aoa , eioi?ua iu iiea/eaaai ca oi, /oi a oei/enoea
eeeaeaee?otho iyoia, aoiaeyo a AII, oioy /enoea iaeaaeaeu ia oeo/oaao
iaoaai aeaaininoiyiey, a oieueei aica?auaao aauai eo i?aaeiee aeae. Yoi
oiaea ieion.

AII ia aiai?eo ie/aai i ?ani?aaeaeaiee oiaa?ia e oneoa
n?aaee ianaeaiey.Iauanoai i/aiue ioee/athony a yoii ioiioaiee ae?oa io
ae?oaa : iiaeii n?aaieaaoue Iaeneeo e Oaaoeeth, o eaoi?uo i?eia?ii
iaeeiaeiaue AII, eee oo aea Oaaoeeth n NOA, n eioi?uie o iaa i?eia?ii
?aaiue o?iaaiue AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey . ( 3, no?.75). A aiaaoie
no?aia iiaeao auoue aieueoay aaaeiinoue, e eioi?ie iia ?aaiiaeooia, eee,
n eioi?ie ia a ninoiyiee ni?aaeoueny. A aaaeiie no?aia iiaeao auoue
ianeieueei naiaenoa ieeeeiia?ia.Oaeei ia?acii, ciaiea AII eee o?iaiy AII
ia aeooo ianaeaiey ia iiiaaaao ociaoue /oi-eeai i nioeeaeueiuo
?acoeueoaoao.

Aia?eeaineee yeiiiieno Yaeaa?ae Aeaiienii aiai?ee, /oi a?yae ee anoue
/oi-ieaoaeue aieaa aeeythuaa ia yeiiiie/aneia aeaaininoiyiea, /ai
iiaiaea, eioi?ay, eiia/ii, ia o/eouaaaony a AII.

9 CAEETH*AIEA

Ana yoe neaainoe aeieaeiu aiooaoue iai inoi?iaeiinoue ii ioiioaieth e
AII eae e ia?a nioeeaeueiiai aeiaieuenoaa e n/anouey.

E ana-oaee, i?e anao naieo iaaeinoaoeao, AII yaeyaony i?inoaeoei iooai
noiie?iaaiey iauaai o?iaiy aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yeiiiieee.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U :

1. Eyiiaaee ?.Iaeeiiiaee, Noayiee E.A?th

Yeiiiieen : i?eioeuiu, i?iaeaiu e iieeoeea I, 1996 aiae.

2. Ethaeiia E.E., ?aiiaaa I.A., Iniiau yeiiiie/aneeo ciaiee.

I, 1994 aiae.

3. ?iaa?o Oaeea?iia? e Eanoa? Oa?io, Yeiiiieea aeey anao

Oaa?ue, ecaeaoaeuenonai “Oaieeey”, 1994 aiae.

4. TH.Noaiaiia, Iae?iaiaeec e i?iaiice?iaaiea a oneiaeyo

ia?aoiaea ia nenoaio iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia ,

aeo?iae Aii?inu yeiiiieee ? 5 ca 1993 aiae.

5. A.Nie?iia ., O eiaanoeoeee naie i?ei?eoaou ,

aacaoa Yeiiiieea e aeeciue , ? 41 1997 aiaea.

6. AEo?iae Aii?inu yeiiiieee ? 5 1997 aiae.

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