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Цикличность развития экономики и экономические кризисы

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Международный университет

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

Ia oaio: Oeeeee/iinoue ?acaeoey yeiiiieee

e yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu.

Auiieiee:

Nooaeaio a?oiiu i 11 a

1 eo?na

Naaa?i-caiaaeiiai oeeeaea Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oieaa?neoaoa

Eiaeei E.A.

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a

2003 aiae

Niaea?aeaiea:

1. Aaaaeaiea
………………………………………………………………
………….1 2. Aeaaa 1 Oeeeee/iinoue yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
……………………………2

3. Aeaaa 2 Yeiiiie/aneea
e?ecenu………………………………………………14

4. Aeaaa 3 Yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu e e?ecenu a ioa/anoaaiie
yeiiiieea……25

5.
Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
…………………30

6. Nienie
eeoa?aoo?u……………………………………………………..
……….32

Aaaaeaiea.

Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino – yoi ia ieaaiue, ?aaiiia?ii niaa?oathueeny iiaeu?i.
A aeaeaeaiee iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa anoue aiaeu, eiaaea ?ino iauaai
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa i?ienoiaeeo i/aiue auno?i, a ae?oaea aiaeu –
iaaeeaiiaa, eiiaaea i?ienoiaeeo aeaaea niaae. ?aaoey?ii iiaoi?ythueany
ca ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie eieaaaiey a aeaeaeaiee
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa icia/atho «oeeeee/aneee» oa?aeoa? aai
?acaeoey. Aeeaiacii aaeeie/iiai oeeeea ioaaouaaao aeaeaeaiea yeiiiieee
io iaeiiai e?ecena e ae?oaiio, eee, n/eoay eia/a, io iaeiie oi/ee aceaoa
(«aoia») e ae?oaie.

I?e/eiu oaeeo eieaaaiee a oiaea yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iauyniytho
ii-?aciiio. Iaeie yeiiiienou (AE. A. Nye, Ae. ?eea?aei e ae?.) aiiaua
io?eoeaee aiciiaeiinoue anaiaueo yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia; /anoe/iua aea
e?ecenu ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa iauyniyee ia?ooaieai i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie io?aneyie i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ay ainnoaiaaeeaaaony
naiei oiaeii aeaeaeaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Ae?oaay a?oiia yeiiiienoia
(Aeae. Eaein, Y. Oainai) iauyniytho e?ecenu ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa
iaaeinoaoi/iie neeiiiinoueth e iio?aaeaieth, eioi?ay ionoaao io ?inoa
aeioiaeia, iiyoiio auoiae ec e?ecenia aeaeyo a noeioee?iaaiee
niaieoiiiai ni?ina. Iaeiiaoe, ?yae yeiiiienoia oniao?eaatho i?e/eio
e?ecenia a iaaeinoaoeao e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee.Eae aeaeei,
iacaaoue aaeeinoaaiioth i?e/eio oeeeee/aneiai oiaea aeaeaeaiey ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee ieacuaaaony aanueia o?oaeiui aeaeii. Iiyoiio iiiaea
nia?aiaiiua yeiiiienou ia?aie/eaathony iauei oeacaieai ia oi, /oi
i?e/eia oeeeee/aneiai aeaeaeaiey caeiaeaia a neiaeiii e i?ioeai?a/eaii
oa?aeoa?a iiiaiia?aciuo nee e oaeoi?ia.

Nia?aiaiiia ainoaea?noai ?aniieaaaao oeaeui iaai?ii yeiiiie/aneeo
eino?oiaioia, niiniaiuo naea?aeaoue «ia?aa?aa» yeiiiieee eee i?eaeaoue
onei?ythuea eiioeuenu ia oaca aeai?annee. A yoeo oeaeyo aeaei
eniieuecoaony iaeiaiaay nenoaia: iiauoay eee iiieaeay noaaee iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue (ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue), ainoaea?noai noeioee?oao (eee,
iaiai?io, naea?aeeaaao) aeaeiaoth aeoeaiinoue a ii?aaeaeaiiuo noa?ao
aeayoaeueiinoe. A eniieuecoy nenoaio eueaio, iiaeii inouanoaeyoue
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia eiie?aoiua a?oiiu i?aaei?eyoee.

Oeaee: auyaeaiea i?e/ei aeieain?i/iuo eieaaaiee
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey eae niinia i?aaeioa?auaiey oao
iaaaoeaiuo aeeyiee, eioi?ua aeaeoo ca niaie ia?eiaeu niaaeu e ?aoeannee
a oicyenoaaiiie aeecie no?aiu.

Caaea/e: enneaaeiaaiea yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia ia ie?iaii o?iaia, a
/anoiinoe a ?innee.I?iaeaia yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia aeooaeueia a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy a iaoae no?aia, oae eae iu iaoiaeeiny a iai.. Iiieii
yoiai i/aiue aaaeii enneaaeiaaoue i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo
oeeeeia e auynieoue, eae naeaaeeaathony aiieeooaeu eo eieaaaiee, /oiau
eniieueciaaoue yoe ciaiey aeey naeaaeeaaiey yoeo oeeeeia, aeaau iie ia
ieacuaaee oaeiai ?ac?ooeoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiieeo.

Aeaaa 1. Oeeeee/iinoue yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

Aeey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, eae ioia/aeinue, oa?aeoa?iu ia?eiaeu
i?aeiouanoaaiii yenoaineaiiai e i?aeiouanoaaiii eioaineaiiai oeiia
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. A iniiaa oaeiai /a?aaeiaaiey eaaeeo i?aaeaea anaai
oeeeee/iinoue yeiiiie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey.

Yeiiiie/aneee oeeee e yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen. Oeeeee/iinoue yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey – yoi iai?a?uaiua eieaaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, eiaaea ?ino
i?iecaiaenoaa niaiyaony niaaeii, iiauoaiea aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe –
iiieaeaieai. Oeeeee/iinoue oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia?eiaee/aneeie aceaoaie e
iaaeaieyie ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u. Ia?eiaeu iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie
aeoeaiinoe oa?aeoa?ecothony i?aeiouanoaaiii yenoaineaiui ?acaeoeai, a
ia?eiaeu iiieaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe – ia/aeii i?aeiouanoaaiii
eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oeeee yaeyaony iinoiyiiie
aeeiaie/aneie oa?aeoa?enoeeie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, aac ‘iaai iao ?acaeoey
yeiiiieee. Yeiiiie/aneee oeeee – yoi oi?ia aeaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey
?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

A yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a oeeeeu ?acee/iie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
iieo/eee iacaaiey ii eiaie eo enneaaeiaaoaeae. Oae, oeeeeu
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth 3-4 aiaea. eiaiothony eae oeeeeu Eeo/eea,
10-eaoiea oeeeeu – oeeeeu AEoaey?a eee oeeeeu Ia?ena, 15-20-eaoiea
oeeeeu – oeeeeu Eociaoea, 40-60-eaoiea oeeeeu – oeeeeu Eiiae?aoueaaa.

Oeeeee/iinoue – yoi oi?ia ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee e ie?iaiai
oicyenoaa eae aaeeiiai oeaeiai, yoi aeaeaeaiea io iaeiiai
iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney a ianooaaa yeiiiieee a oeaeii e ae?oaiio.

Oeeee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eioa?aae a?aiaie a ?acaeoee ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee, a oa/aiea eioi?iai i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, a caoai nie?auaiea, niaae, aeai?anney,
iaeeaeaiea e, iaeiiaoe, niiaa aai ?ino (?en. 1).

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Ia aeaiiii a?aoeea e?aeiea oi/ee ?acaeoey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee
oa?aeoa?ecotho yeiiiie/aneee aoi e e?ecen. Iiaeuai, yeiiiieee ia/eiaaony
n iaeeaeaiey oacu ainnoaiiaeaiey aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe a oi?ia caeeth/aiey
iiauo oicyenoaaiiuo aeiaiai?ia, iinoaiaiii e i/aiue neaaiai oaaee/aiey
ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo, neaaeiaaoaeueii, nie?auaiey aac?aaioeoeu, ?inoa
iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina. Caoai ia/eiaaony /enoue ?ino, eioi?ue
oa?aeoa?ecoao iinoiyiiia, ia?anoathuaa oaaee/aiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa
oiaa?ia e oneoa, aunoay oi/ea yoiai iiaeuaia oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae aoi. A
yoi a?aiy a yeiiiieea iaaethaeaaony iieiay caiyoinoue, a i?iecaiaenoai
?aaioaao ia iieioth iiuiinoue. ?aaeueiue iau?i i?iecaiaenoaa aeinoeaaao
a yoie oi/ea naiaai iaeneioia. Oeaiu, eae i?aaeei, iiauoathony, a ?ino
aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe, aeinoeaioa iieiie caiyoinoe ?ano?nia, i?ae?auaaony
e caie?aao.

Enoiaeiie oacie oeeeea yaeyaony e?ecen (eiua iacaaiey:niaae,
?aoeanney-eao. – ionooieaiea).A iiiaio ?aoeannee iaaethaeaaony iaaeaiea
o?iaiy e oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa , a caoai , eae i?aaeei, e i?yiia
nie?auaiea ianooaaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee,Oaeea yaeaiey naycaiu n
ia?ai?iecaiaenoaii oiaa?ia.A yoi a?aiy ?acei oaaee/eaathony caianu
ia?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.I?ienoiaeyo ianniaua aaie?ionoaa
(?acci?aiea) i?iiuoeaiiuo e oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee,eioi?ua ia iiaoo
?ani?iaeaoue iaeiieaoeany oiaa?u.Ec-ca i?einoaiiaee i?iecaiaenoaa auno?i
?ano?o aac?aaioeoea,nie?auaaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa.A iauanoaa ia?ooathony
e?aaeeoiua nayce ,?anno?aeaaaony ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa,iaaeatho eo?nu
aeoeee.Ana i?aaei?eieiaoaee eniuouaatho ino?oth iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
aeaiueaao aeey oieaou auno?i ia?aciaaaoeony aeieaia e iiyoiio ii?ia
aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa cia/eoaeueii aic?ano?o.

Aneaae ca e?ecenii ianooiaao ae?oaay oaca – aeai?anney (eao.Depressio –
iiieaeaiea, iiaeaaeaiea).Oiaaea i?einoaiaaeeaaaony niaae i?iecaiaenoaa ,
a aianoa n iei nieaeaiea oeai. Iinoaiaiii oiaiueoathony caianu
oiaa?ia.Ec-ca iacia/eoaeueiiai ni?ina oaaee/eaaaony ianna naiaiaeiiai
aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea e noaaea aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa nieaeaaony aei
ieieioia . I?iecaiaenoai e caiyoinoue , aeinoeaioa naiiai ieceiai
o?iaiy, ia/eiatho iaaeeaiii e iinoaiaiii iaae?aoue oiae.

A ia?eiae aeai?annee i?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?ia ia?anoaiao iaaiiyoue ni?in ,
a iiyoiio iaaeaeo ieie onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaiiaanea (i?ae?auaiea auionea
oiaa?ia nieaeaao eo i?aaeeiaeaiea aei o?iaiy ni?ina).A oi aea a?aiy
nicaeathony anoanoaaiiua oneiaey aeey auoiaea ec
e?ecena.Oiaiueoaiea oeai ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e oaeaoaaeaiea
e?aaeeoa niinianoaoao iiaiio iaeiieaieth eaieoaea , aiciaiiaeaieth
?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa ia iiaie oaoie/aneie iniiaa.

Neaaeothuay oaca – iaeeaeaiea – icia/aao ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa aei
aai i?aaee?eceniiai o?iaiy.?acia?u oiaa?iuo caiania onoaiaaeeaathony ia
o?iaia , iaiaoiaeeiii aeey aania?aaieiiai niaaaeaiey ?uiea.Ia/eiiaony
iaaieueoia iiauoaiea oeai,aucaaiiia iaeeaeaieai iieoiaoaeueneiai
ni?ina.Nie?auathony ianooaau aac?aaioeoeu.Aic?anoaao ni?in ia aeaiaaeiue
eaieoae, e noaaea i?ioeaioa oaaee/eaaaony.

Iaeiiaoe, ianooiaao oaca iiaeu?ia.A yoio ia?eiae auione i?iaeoeoeee
i?aauoaao i?aaee?eceniue o?iaaiue.A nayce n yoei
,anoanoaaiii,nie?auaaony eee ?annanuaaaony aac?aaioeoea.N ?anoe?aieai
iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina aic?anoatho oeaiu ia oiaa?u.Iiauoaaony
i?eaueueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa.Oaaee/eaaaony ni?in ia e?aaeeoiua n?aaenoaa
,e,niioaaonoaaiii aic?anoaao ii?ia aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa. Iiaeu?i
caaa?oaaony aoiii , eiaaea yeiiiieea ?aaioaao ia i?aaeaea naieo
aiciiaeiinoae, iaaethaeaaony iieiay caiyoinoue , eiaanoeoeee e ?anoiaeu
iieoiaoaeae i/aiue auniee.

Yeiiiieea ieacuaaaony ia?aa?aoie e n iaecaaaeiinoueth neaouaaaony a
iiaue e?ecen

Iai?aaeaiey e oa?aeoa? eciaiaiey iniiaiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae iacuaaaony yeiiiie/aneie eiiutheoo?ie .Iiyoiio oai?eth
yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia iacuaatho oaeaea e oai?eae yeiiiie/aneie
eiiutheoo?u.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ninoiyiey e aeeiaieee eniieuecothony ?acee/iua
iieacaoaee , aaaeiaeoeie ec eioi?uo yaeythony:

iau?i AII, o?iaaiue caiyoinoe, o?iaaiue caa?ocee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiuiinoae, iau?i i?eauee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e ae?oaea ia?aiao?u. I?e yoii
a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eae iae?iyeiiiie/aneea ia?aiao?u iaiythony a
oiaea yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea, eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia i?ioeeeee/aneea,
eiio?oeeeee/aneea e aoeeeee/aneea.

I?ioeeeee/aneea ia?aiaiiua eiatho oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo a ia?eiae
iiaeu?ia e e nieaeaieth a ia?eiae niaaea.

Eiio?oeeeee/aneea ia?aiaiiua eiatho oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth a ia?eiae
iiaeu?ia e e ?inoo a ia?eiae niaaea.

Aoeeeee/aneeie iacuaathony ia?aiaiiua, aeeiaieea eioi?uo ia naycaia
iaiin?aaenoaaiii n oeeeeaie aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe.Oaeei ia?acii,
oeeeee/iinoue – yoi oi?ia aeaeaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieeie ie?iaiai
oicyenoaa a oeaeii, i?aaeiieaaathuay niaio ?aaiethoeeiiiuo e
yaiethoeeiiiuo noaaeee ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, yeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?anna.

E. Ia?en auaeaeye 4 oacu oeeeea, iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaiythuea ae?oa
ae?oaa: e?ecen, aeai?anney, iaeeaeaiea, iiaeuai. A nia?aiaiiie
yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a oe?iei eniieuecotho oa?ieiieiaeth,
au?aaioaiioth Iaoeeiiaeueiui ath?i yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee NOA,
niaeanii eioi?ie oeeee aeeth/aao neaaeothuea 4 oacu: aa?oeia (iee, aoi),
naeaoea (?aoeanney, niaae), aeii (aeai?anney), iaeeaeaiea (?anoe?aiea).

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Ia a?aoeea ii ai?eciioaeueiie ine ioeeaaeuaaaony a?aiy (t), ii
aa?oeeaee – iauai i?iecaiaenoaa (Q). Aic?anoathuay i?yiay IA
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iinoiyiiii yeiiiie/aneii ?inoa e ?acaeoee ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee a oeaeii.

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00030000000000

Anee a?aoue aieaa ei?ioeea i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie, oi aeeiaieea ?acaeoey
?uii/iie yeiiiieee n o/aoii ?acee/iuo ia?eiaeia (100, 50, 8-10 eao)
iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia ae?oaei, aieaa oi/iui a?aoeeii .

Iiae yeiiiie/aneei ?inoii i?eiyoi iiieiaoue oaaee/aiea iauaiia oiaa?ia e
oneoa, nicaeaiiuo ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae.

Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino – oeaio?aeueiay yeiiiie/aneay i?iaeaia, noiyuay
ia?aae anaie no?aiaie. Ii aai aeeiaieea (eciaiaieth) noaeyo i ?acaeoee
iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiiee, i aeeciaiiii o?iaia ianaeaiey, i oii, eae
?aoathony i?iaeaiu ia?aie/aiiinoe ?ano?nia. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino iiaeii
en/eneeoue aeaoiy niiniaaie:

1) eeai iiaen/eoaa iauee ?ino AII;

2) eeai ii?aaeaeea ?ino AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey. Ii oaeie iiaen/ao ia
aeaao iieiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia yeiiiie/aneii ?inoa no?aiu, eai
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino – yoi ia oieueei eiee/anoaaiiia eciaiaiea iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?iaeoeoa e oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino ii?aaeaeyaony iiiaeanoaii oaeoi?ia, aaaeiaeoeie ec
eioi?uo yaeythony oaeoi?u ni?ina, i?aaeeiaeaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

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a20400000002010100040000002701ffff040000002d010000030000000000

Iinoiyiiue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea eiaao ?yae
nouanoaaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia (eioeyoeey, aac?aaioeoea e ae?.), a oii /enea
oeeeee/iinoue. Aeaei a oii, /oi ?acaeoea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee i?ienoiaeeo
aieiiia?acii, eee oeeeee/ii. A ?aciua aiaeu i?iecaiaenoai iiaeao
aic?anoaoue aieueoeie eee iaiueoeie oaiiaie, a a ?yaea neo/aaa ?acaeoea
yeiiiieee iiaeao eiaoue io?eoeaoaeueiue ciae, /oi icia/aao iaaeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyoiio aeeiaieeo ?acaeoey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee oi/iaa
io?aaeaao aieiiia?aciay eeiey aaea eaaeaeay aieia oa?aeoa?ecoao oeaeue
oeeee yoiai ?acaeoey.

I?e yoii aeaaea oeeeeu iaeiiai ii?yaeea, oa?aeoa?ecothueany
i?eaeeceoaeueii ?aaiie aeeeoaeueiinoueth e aeaeaeoueie neeaie, ia
iioiaee iaeei ia ae?oaie, ii eiatho iiiai iauaai. Eae iaienae a naiai
o/aaieea ecaanoiue aia?eeaineee yeiiiieno, eao?aao Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee
(1970) I. Naioyeuenii: “Iie ia yaeythony aeeciaoeaie, ii a ieo iiaeii
i?ineaaeeoue /a?ou i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e iaeiie naiuea. Oi/iua oi?ioeu,
iiaeiaiua oai, eioi?ua i?eiaiythony i?e ii?aaeaeaiiii aeaeaeaiee eoiu
eee eieaaaiee i?inoiai iayoieea, ia iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey
i?aaeneacaiee niaiu oac yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea. Ii naiaio ao?iiio e
iao?aaiiaaoaiiiio i?iyaeaieth yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu nei?aa iaiiieiatho
aieiu yieaeaie/aneeo caaieaaaiee, eai?ecu iiaiaeu eee eieaaaiea
oaiia?aoo?u o aieueiiai”.

I?eiyoi ?acee/aoue yenoaineaiue e eioaineaiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

A ia?aii neo/aa oaaee/aiea iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao
eiee/anoaaiiiai oaaee/aiey oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa: aiaea/aiea a
i?iecaiaenoai aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?ano?nia o?oaea, eaieoaea (n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa), caiee. I?e yoii oaoiieiae/aneay aaca i?iecaiaenoaa
inoaaony iaeciaiiie. Oae, ?aniaoea oeaeeiiuo caiaeue n oeaeueth
iieo/aiey aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ca?iiauo eoeueoo?, aiaea/aiea ana
aieueoaai e aieueoaai eiee/anoaa ?aai/eo aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa
yeaeo?inoaioeee, i?iecaiaenoai ana aieueoaai eiee/anoaa ca?iioai?i/iuo
eiiaaeiia – ana yoi i?eia?u yenoaineaiiai iooe oaaee/aiey iauanoaaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa. I?e yoii oeia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa i?e?ino i?iaeoeoeee
aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao eiee/anoaaiiiai ?inoa /eneaiiinoe e
eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiai ninoaaa ?aaioieeia e ca n/ao oaaee/aiey iiuiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey, o.a. oaaee/aiey onoaiiaeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. A
?acoeueoaoa auione i?iaeoeoeee a ?an/aoa ia iaeiiai ?aaioieea inoaaony
i?aaeiei.

I?e eioaineaiii oeia ?inoa aeaaiia- iiauoaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
yooaeoeaiinoe, ?ino ioaea/e io eniieueciaaiey anao oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa, oioy eiee/anoai i?eiaiyaiiai o?oaea, eaieoaea e ae?.
iiaeao inoaaaoueny iaeciaiiui. Aeaaiia caeanue- niaa?oainoaiaaiea
oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, iiauoaiea ea/anoaa iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaaeiaeoee oaeoi? eioaineaiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa –
iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Yoio iieacaoaeue iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea ae?iae: IO=I/O, aaea IO- i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
o?oaea, I- nicaeaiiue i?iaeoeo a iaoo?aeueiii eee aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee,
O- cao?aou aaeeieoeu o?oaea (iai?eia?, /aeiaaei-/an).

Eioaineaiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaaee/aieai
ianooaaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ue iniiauaaaony ia oe?ieii
eniieueciaaiee aieaa yooaeoeaiuo e ea/anoaaiii niaa?oaiiuo oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa. ?ino ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa, eae i?aaeei, iaania/eaaaony
ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey aieaa niaa?oaiiie oaoieee, ia?aaeiauo oaoiieiaee,
aeinoeaeaiee iaoee, aieaa yeiiiie/iuo ?ano?nia, iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee
?aaioieeia. Ca n/ao yoeo oaeoi?ia aeinoeaaaony iiauoaiea ea/anoaa
i?iaeoeoeee, ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey e o.i.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann yaeyaony aaaeiui aeaeaaoaeai yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa. Ii ioaaouaaao oeaeue ?yae yaeaiee, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. Iao/ii- oaoie/aneee i?ioeann
aeeth/aao a naay niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiaee, iiaua iaoiaeu e oi?iu
oi?aaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann
iicaieyao ii-iiaiio eiiaeie?iaaoue aeaiiua ?ano?nu n oeaeueth oaaee/aiey
eiia/iiai auionea i?iaeoeoeee. I?e yoii, eae i?aaeei, aicieeatho iiaua,
aieaa yooaeoeaiua io?anee. Oaaee/aiea yooaeoeaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
noaiiaeony iniiaiui oaeoi?ii yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

Iiieiaiea oeeeee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a ?acaeoey yeiiiieee iniaaiii
oe?iei ?ani?ino?ai?iiui noaei a eiioea – XIX ia/aea XX aa., eiaaea
o/?iua iiiaeo no?ai ia?aoeee aieiaiea ia aeeiaieeo ioaeaeueiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae. Ii ia?a enneaaeiaaiey oaiiiaia oeeeee/iinoe
auaeaeythony an? iiaua oaeoi?u, iaoneiaeeaathuea aai. E eo /eneo ioiinyo
iaoai?ieiae/aneea oneiaey, ineoieiae/aneea ioeaee a ioeaiea
eiiuthieoo?u, nicaeaiea iiaiai i?iiuoeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e iiaoth
oaoieeo, ?acia?u iaeiieaiey, aaieianeea iia?aoeee, iaoaieci aeaeaeaiey
aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai e ?yae ae?oaeo. An? yoi
aeaei iniiaaiea aeey eeanneoeeaoeee oai?ee yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia,
eioi?oth iaeaieaa iieii i?aaenoaaee a naiae ?aaioa «Yeiiiie/aneea
oeeeeu» O. Ieo/aee. Aia?eeaineei yeiiiienoii auaeaeythony neaaeothuea
oai?ee yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia:

1. Oai?ee, naiaeyuea yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu e i?e?iaeii-oece/aneei
i?ioeannai. Yoe oai?ee iauyniyee oeeeee/iinoue oicyenoaaiiie aeecie
oeeeeaie nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee, niaiie iieiaeaiey Aaia?u ioiineoaeueii
Caiee, iaoai?ieiae/aneeie oneiaeyie. Oa?aeoa?iui i?eia?ii iiaeiaiuo
oai?ee yaeyaony oai?ey O.Aa?oaey, eioi?ue iainiiauaae oeeeee/iinoue
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eciaiaieyie ia Nieioea, /oi aucuaaao
eciaiaiey a iaoaioneiaeyo, a /a?ac ieo a o?iaeaeiinoe e aeaeaa a oeaiao.
Iineieueeo iiyaeaiea nieia/iuo iyoai eiaao oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa? (a
n?aaeiai 11 eao), oi e oicyenoaaiiay aeeciue eiaao oeeeeu iiaeiaiie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe.

2. Oai?ee, naiaeyuea yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu e ineoieiae/aneei i?e/eiai,
eioi?ua nicaeatho eeai aeaaii?eyoioth, eeai iaaeaaii?eyoioth n?aaeo aeey
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo yeiiiienoia,
eieaaaiey a ianniauo iano?iaieyo ethaeae i?aaeoanoaoao eieaaaieyi a
iioiauo oeaiao, ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia i?eiyoea ?aoaiee a yeiiiie/aneie
noa?a. A iniiaa aeaiiuo oai?ee eaaeeo iiaeia/aiiue a iauanoaaiiie aeecie
oaeo, oeacuaathuee ia ia?eiaee/iinoue niaiu a iauanoaa iioeaaoeeiiiuo
no?oeoo?, oai?/aneie aeoeaiinoe ianaeaiey, nioeeaeueiuo iano?iaiee.
Oeeeee/aneea eciaiaiey nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie ia?aiaiiie,
ioaaouaathuae «noaiaiue aeoeaiinoe» ianaeaiey, aai i?aaei?eei/eainoue,
«iioeienoe/aneee acaeyae a aoaeouaa» e ae?oaea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua e
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea ono?aieaiey ethaeae, ii?aaeaeytho
aeieaia?aiaiiua oeeeeu yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

3. Oai?ee, naiaeyuea yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu e einoeoooeeiiaeueiui
i?ioeannai. Nooue oeeeee/iinoe, n iiceoeee aeaiiuo oai?ee, caeeth/aaony
a oii, /oi yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu aicieeatho aneaaenoaea eciaiaiee
oicyenoaaiiuo einoeoooia. Iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea
oeeeee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ieacuaaao
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nouanoaothueo oicyenoaaiiuo einoeoooia.

E?oa oai?ee, iauyniythueo i?e?iaeo yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia
ooieoeeiie?iaaieai oicyenoaaiiuo einoeoooia aeinoaoi/ii aaeee. Iaeie ec
ieo, a /anoiinoe oai?ey N. Eociaoea, iino?iaiu ia ooaa?aeaeaiee, /oi
oeeeeu aicieeatho a neeo oaoie/aneeo oneiaee iieo/aiey aeaiaaeiuo
aeioiaeia. Eieaaaiey ia?niaeoea ia iieo/aiea i?eauee aucuaaao eieaaaiey
a eaieoaeecaoeee i?aaei?eyoee e oneiaiii aeiaa?ee, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue
ii?iaeaeaao eieaaaiey ia?niaeoea ia iieo/aiea i?eauee. I?aaiecaoeey
aeaiaaeiiai oicyenoaa oaeiaa, /oi iia iaoneaaeeaaao eieaaaiey a ?acia?ao
caeacia ni noi?iiu oi?aiaoeaa, a i?iecaiaenoaa aioiauo ecaeaeee e
nu?uey. Aiieeooaea yoeo eieaaaiee iineaaeiaaoaeueii ia?anoaao ii ia?a
i?eaeeaeaiey e noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa nu?uey, e iia aieueoa, /ai
aiieeooaea eieaaaiee ni?ina, io eioi?iai i?yii eee einaaiii caaeneo
ninoiyiea ?uiea e anaai oicyenoaa.

Ae?oaea oai?ee enoiaeyo ec ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi oeeeeu aicieeatho ec-ca
ia?ooaiey ?aaiiaaney a i?ioeannao iauaai i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey
aeaa. Aeaaii?eyoiay oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiay eiiuthieoo?a aaae?o e auno?iio
?inoo i?iiuoeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, iicaeiaa e ?inoo auionea i?iaeoeoeee
e, a eiia/iii n/?oa, e iaaeaieth i?aaeaeueiuo oeai ni?ina ia
iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u. Neaaenoaeai yoiai yaeyaony aeai?anney, a
oa/aiea eioi?ie ?ino eiee/anoaa i?iiuoeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e
i?iaeoeoeee i?a?uaaaony. A eiioea eiioeia, i?aaeaeueiua oeaiu ni?ina ia
i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey iiyoue iiaeieiathony, e ia/eiaaony iiaue ia?eiae
iaeeaeaiey.

Ianiio?y ia iaeeea ?aaio ii i?iaeaia oeeeee/iinoe, aei neo ii? iao
aaeeiie eiioeaioeee ii iiaiaeo i?e/eiu nouanoaiaaiey yoiai yaeaiey.

Aii?in i i?e/eiao oeeeee/iinoe nia?aiaiiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiiee a
caaeneiinoe io oeiia oeeeee/iinoe o?aeooaony ?aciuie yeiiiie/aneeie
oeieaie n iaiaeeiaeiaie noaiaiueth ?aaiicia/iinoe. Oae, a ioeaieao
i?e/ei «aeeeiiuo aiei» e no?oeoo?iuo e?ecenia iiaeoiaeu ?acee/iuo
yeiiiienoia a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ai iiiaii noiaee (ii e?aeiae ia?a, eaeae
Eiiae?aoueaaa e Ooiiaoa?a i?eciathony oaeoe/anee anaie). I?e/eiu aea
«eeanne/aneeo», o. a. i?iiuoeaiiuo (yeiiiie/aneeo), oeeeeia
ii?aaeaeythony ii-?aciiio.

Aia/aea aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia o?aeoiaaee i?ioeann oeeeee/iinoe eae
?acoeueoao (io?aaeaiea) i?ioeannia a noa?a ia?auaiey.

Yoi iauyniaiea yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea yaeyaony /enoi iiiaoa?iui. Iaeaieaa
oe?iei e iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?anniao?eaaaony oeeee, eae /enoi aeaiaaeiia
yaeaiea a ?aaioao Oioo?e. Ii ooaa?aeaeae, /oi eco/aiea aeaiaaeiiai
iioiea yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiie i?e/eiie eciaiaiey yeiiiie/aneie
aeoeaiinoe, /a?aaeiaaiey ia?eiaeia i?ioeaaoaiey e aeai?annee,
iaeeaeaiiie e ayeie oi?aiaee. Eiaaea aeaiaaeiue iioie (eee ni?in ia
oiaa?u, au?aaeaiiue a aeaiueaao) oaaee/eony, oi oi?aiaey noaiiaeony
aieaa iaeeae?iiie, i?iecaiaenoai ?anoe?yaony, oeaiu ?anooo. Eiaaea
aeaiaaeiue iioie oiaiueoaaony, oi?aiaey ineaaaaaao, i?iecaiaenoai
nie?auaaony, oeaiu iaaeatho.

Ni?in ia oiaa?u, au?aaeaiiue a aeaiueaao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii?aaeaeyaony
iio?aaeoaeueneeie cao?aoaie eee iio?aaeoaeueneeie ecaea?aeeaie. Cia/eo,
oaeia ninoiyiea eae iauay aeai?anney aucuaaaony aeaiaaeiuie oaeoi?aie.
Eneeth/aiea iiaoo ninoaaeoue oieueei oa neo/ae, eiaaea ia aeaiaaeiua
oaeoi?u i?eaiaeyo e iaaeaieth iio?aaeoaeueneeo ecaea?aeae. Noiia
iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia eciaiyaony ca n/?o eciaiaiey eiee/anoaa
aeaiaa. Aiacaiiia nie?auaiea eiee/anoaa, oi anoue i?yiay aeaoeyoeey,
ieacuaaao oaiaoathuaa aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiie/aneoth aeoeaiinoue. Oae,
niaeanii aeaiiie oai?ee, i?ioeann naeaoey eee ?aoeannee i?ienoiaeeo
neaaeothuei ia?acii. Nie?auaiea eiee/anoaa aeaiaa aea/?o ca niaie
iaecaaaeiia nie?auaiea ni?ina. I?iecaiaeeoaee, ecaioiaeaoea i?iaeoeoeeth
a ?an/?oa ia iau/iue ni?in, noaeeeaathony n oai, /oi iie ia iiaoo
?aaeeciaaoue yoo i?iaeoeoeeth ii i?aaeiieaaaaiui oeaiai. Ia/i?ony
neiieaiea oiaa?iuo caiania, aicieeioo oauoee, i?iecaiaenoai
nie?aoeoueny, ?ani?ino?aieony aac?aaioeoea e iaecaaaeii ia/i?ony
i?ioeann nieaeaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou e ae?oaeo aeioiaeia. I?ioeann
nie?auaiey aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe yaeyaony eoioeyoeaiui. Eiaaea i?ienoiaeeo
iaaeaiea oeai, iioiaua oi?aiaoeu neeiiiu i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi iii aoaeao
i?iaeieaeaoueny e a aeaeueiaeoai. A niioaaonoaee n yoeie
i?aaeiieiaeaieyie, iie no?aiyony nie?aoeoue oiaa?iua caianu e
oiaiueoeoue eee i?ae?aoeoue nianai caeacu i?iecaiaeeoaeyi. Ii ?anoiaeu
iio?aaeoaeae, oae aea eae e aeioiaeu, oiaiueoathony, ni?in ineaaaaaao, a
caianu, aii?aee anai noa?aieyi oi?aiaoeaa nie?aoeoue eo, iaeaieeaathony;
e?aaeeo i?iaeieaeaao nieaeaoueny. Oaeei ia?acii, aeaeaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo
ii nie?aee.Oaca iiaeu?ia oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiiai oeeeea yaeyaony eiieae
aeaeaeaiey aiec ii nie?aee aeai?annee , ii nie?aeue a aeaiiii neo/aa
aoaeao eiaoue iiauoaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Iaeeaeaiea aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe
aucuaaaony ?anoe?aieai e?aaeeoa e aeeeony aei oao ii?, iiea yoi
?anoe?aiea i?iaeieaeaaony.

Iiiai/eneaiiua enneaaeiaaiey o/aiuo O?aioeee, Aa?iaiee, NOA, ?innee
auee iinayuaiu auyniaieth naieo iniia aeaeaeaiey eiiuthieoo?u e iiiuoeai
aai i?iaiice?iaaiey. A 1894 a. ?onneee yeiiiieno Ieoaee Eaaiiae/
Ooaai-Aa?aiianeee (1865-1918), iaeei ec ia?auo ioa/anoaaiiuo
o/aiuo-yeiii-ienoia iieo/eaoee ie?iaoth ecaanoiinoue, iioaeeeiaae eieao
«I?iiuoeaiiua e?ecenu a nia?aiaiiie Aiaeee, eo i?e/eiu e aeeaeaeoaa
aeeyiey ia ia?iaeioth aeeciue», eioi?ay noaea aaaeiie aaoie ia iooe
eco/aiey caeiiiia?iinoae ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. A yoie ?aaioa ii
enneaaeiaae oeaeue ?yae ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
oeeeee/aneei ?acaeoeai eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa. Aio oaeaeinue
i?aaeeiaeeoue iiaua aeey oiai a?aiaie iiaeoiaeu e yoiio aii?ino,
iainiiaaoue i?eioeeieaeueii aaaeiua auaiaeu, iiiaea ec eioi?uo
iiaeoaa?aeeea ?aaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey XX a.

Enneaaeiaaieyie oeeeee/aneiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee Ooaai-Aa?aiianeee
caieiaeny anth naith aeeciue, auaeaeyy an? iiaua i?iaeaiu e nouanoaaiii
aeiiieiyy i?aaeiea iaaethaeaiey e auaiaeu. Boi?ia ecaeaiea aai eieae
iiae iacaaieai «I?iiuoeaiiua e?ecenu. I/a?e ec nioeeaeueiie enoi?ee
Aiaeee» i?iecaaei ia Caiaaea ia?iiiia aia/aoeaiea – noieue iaiaeeaeaiiu
auee iiiaea iinoaiiaeaiiua ei aii?inu. A i?aaeeneiaee Ooaai-Aa?aiianeee
oae oa?aeoa?eciaae caaea/e naiae ?aaiou: «Eieaa yoa iinayuaia
enneaaeiaaieth naiiai caaaaei/iiai e iaiiiyoiiai yaeaiey oicyenoaaiiiai
no?iy iaoaai a?aiaie, – yaeaiey, aei neo ii? aua inoathuaainy
iaiauyniaiiui a iaoea, – ia?eiaee/aneeo i?iiuoeaiiuo e?ecenia.

Iaoaieci oeeeee/aneiai ?acaeoey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa aue
i?aaenoaaeai I.E.Ooaai-Aa?aiianeei neaaeothuei ia?acii. A iieneao
i?eaueueiiai i?eeiaeaiey naiaiaeiue aeaiaaeiue eaieoae ieacuaaao
iinoiyiiia aeaaeaiea ia i?iecaiaenoai. E eae oieueei ii ooaea i?iieeaao,
ia/eiaaony oeaiiay ?aaeoeey – ?anoe?aiea eaeie-eeai iaeiie io?anee
o?aaoao ?anoe?aiey niaaeiuo io?aneae, e iaeeaeaiea ioaaouaaao iinoaiaiii
ana ia?iaeiia oicyenoai, i?e/ai a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue – io?anee,
i?iecaiaeyuea n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, oae eae ethaia ?anoe?aiea
i?iecaiaenoaa o?aaoao oaaee/aiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea. Iinoaiaiii, ii ia?a
iaeeaeaiey anaai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, ?aiaa naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua
eaieoaeu oneeaiii i?eaeaeathony a i?iecaiaenoaaiioth noa?o /a?ac
e?aaeeoioth nenoaio e i?aa?auathony ec iioaioeeaeueiie iieoiaoaeueiie
neeu a aeoeaioth, iiauoay ni?in e nicaeaaay iieiaeeoaeueioth
eiiuthieoo?o. Ii eae oieueei ?anoiaeiaaiea naiaiaeiiai eaieoaea i?aauneo
nei?inoue aai iaeiieaiey, ?aca?a, nicaeaiiue a ia?eiae canoiy,
iinoaiaiii aoaeao en/a?iai e oaaee/aiea ni?ina i?ae?aoeony. I?ae?auaiea
iinooieaiey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia au?aaeaaony a ae?aeaaii
e?ecena, /oi iieiinoueth ia?ooaao nenoaio e?aaeeoa. Ii ia?a
?anoiaeiaaiey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia no?iyony iiaua
i?aaei?eyoey, e, eae oieueei eo no?ieoaeuenoai caeai/eaaaony, ec
yeaiaioia oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina iie i?aa?auathony a yeaiaiou oi?ie?iaaiey
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea iaiyaony. Oaia?ue i?aaeeiaeaiea
ia/eiaao iia?aaeaoue ni?in, ?uii/iay eiiuthieoo?a ?acei oooaeoaaony,
oiaa?iua oeaiu iaaeatho ianoieueei, /oi ia iiaoo iie?uoue ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeia, ii iiaieth o/aiiai, iaoaieci oeeeee/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa.

Iaeiia?aiaiii e oacu oeeeeia eiatho ?acee/iua n?iee. Ii iaaethaeaieyi
Ieo/aeea, oacu ?aoeannee e iaeeaeaiey – ei?i/a, /ai oacu ?anoeaaoa e
aeai?annee, a n?aaeiai ?anoeaao aeeeony ianeieueei aeieueoa aeai?annee.
«Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?anoeaaoii e aeai?anneae n iniaie io/?oeeainoueth
auyaeythony a ia?eiaeu iiauoaoaeueiie oaiaeaioeee iioiauo oeai e,
iaiai?io, iaiaa io/?oeeai a ia?eiae iiieaeaoaeueiie oaiaeaioeee eo;
nouanoaiaaiea ioiineoaeueii aeeeoaeueiuo oeeeeia iaycaii a aieueoae
noaiaie oaeeeiaieth aeai?annee, /ai ?anoeaaoa». Eiae/anee i?aaeeueii
aoaeao i?aaeiieiaeeoue, n/eoae o/aiue, /oi anee aa?ii iiaiea i
iai?a?uaiii iinooiaoaeueiii ?acaeoee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa i?e nio?aiaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oi aa?ia
e ia?aoiay iiceoeey – anee nio?aiaiea e iinoiyiiia iiaeaea?aeaiea
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iaaiciiaeii a neeo
iauaeoeaiuo i?e/ei, oi e ia?iaeiia oicyenoai aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny
nea/eaie, niaiaie ia?eiaeia iiaeuaia e aeai?annee.

Iaeaieaa aeoaieay ?ac?aaioea eiioeaioeee yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia
i?eoiaeeony ia ia?eiae iaaeaeo aeaoiy ie?iauie aieiaie e naycaia a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n o?oaeaie o/aieea I.E.Ooaai-Aa?aiianeiai –
auaeathuaainy ioa/anoaaiiiai yeiiiienoa I.Ae.Eiiae?aoueaaa. Eiaiii
Eiiae?aoueaao i?eiaaeeaaeeo caneoaa nicaeaiey ia?aie nenoaiaoe/aneie
eiioeaioeee oeeeee/aneeo eieaaaiee yeiiiieee. O/?iue nouanoaaiii
?anoe?ee yiie?e/aneoth aaco enneaaeiaaiee. Ii auaeaeioe aeiioaco i
iaoaiecia aeeeiiuo oeeeeia a yeiiiieea («aieueoeo oeeeeia eiiuthieoo?u»
ii aai oa?ieiieiaee), naycaa eo ia oieueei n aeeiaieeie oeai, ii e n
i?ioeannii iaeiieaiey eaieoaea, oaiiaie ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa e aeeiaieeie
eiiiaaoeee, n iinoiyiiui yaiethoeeiie?iaaieai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

Oai?ey aeeeiiuo oeeeeia Eiiae?aoueaaa oi?ioee?oaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:
«Yeiiiie/aneea yeaiaiou eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa ieeiaaea ia
iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee ?aaiiaaney. Iie oieueei no?aiyony e iaio,
iienuaay aieiiia?aciua aeaeaeaiey ieiei o?iaiy eo ?aaiiaaney. Aianoa n
oai a nayce n ?acaeoeai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa iinoiyiii yaiethoeeiie?oao
e nai o?iaaiue ?aaiiaaney. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
yeiiiie/aneea yeaiaiou eieaaethony ieiei iaiythuaainy o?iaiy ?aaiiaaney.

I?eieiay ai aieiaiea, /oi ?acee/iua yeiiiie/aneea yeaiaiou ii naiie
naiae nouiinoe eiatho eiiuthieoo?iua aieiu ?acee/iie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe, iiaeii aiai?eoue i ?acee/iuo aeaeao ?aaiiaaney
i?eiaieoaeueii e ?acee/iui ia?eiaeai a?aiaie.

Eae i?aaeei, iaeaieaa aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eiatho
iniiaiua aeaeu i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee (iniiaiua e e?oiiaeoea no?ieee,
nii?oaeaiey aeaeaciuo aei?ia, i?i?uoea eaiaeia, e?oiiaeoea iaeei?aoeee,
eaae?u eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai o?oaea e o.i.). Ia?eiae oneeaiiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa yoeo eaieoaeueiuo aeaa yaeyaony ia?eiaeii ioeeiiaiey
?aaeueiiai o?iaiy yeiiiie/aneeo yeaiaioia aaa?o io nouanoaothuaai
o?iaiy ?aaiiaaney. Ia?eiae caoeouey a eo no?ieoaeuenoaa yaeyaony,
iaiai?io, ia?eiaeii aeaeaeaiey ?aaeueiiai o?iaiy yeiiiie/aneeo yeaiaioia
e o?iaith ?aaiiaaney e aeaaea ieaea aai (a oa/aiea yoeo i?ioeannia
o?iaaiue oaeaea iaiyaony). Oaeei ia?acii, aieueoea oeeeeu eiiuthieoo?u
i?aaenoaaeytho i?ioeannu ioeeiiaiee ?aaeueiiai o?iaiy yeaiaioia
eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu io yaiethoeeiie?othuaai o?iaiy ?aaiiaaney yoie
nenoaiu».

Aeaeaeaiea aeeeoaeueiuo eieaaaiee ii Eiiae?aoueaao i?ienoiaeeo ii
neaaeothuaio i?eioeeio: ia?aae ia/aeii aieueoiai oeeeea iaeaieeaaaony
aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai naiaiaeiuo n?aaenoa – ?ino aaieianeeo ?aca?aia,
/oi iicaieyao e?aaeeoi?ai nieaeaoue i?ioeaioioth noaaeo. I?ioeaio ii
aeieain?i/iui iiiauaieyi iecie. A oa/aiea i?aaeoanoaothuaai ia?eiaea
iiieaeaiey iaeiieeinue cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai oaoie/aneeo iiaeiie
(ecia?aoaiee). I?e iaee/ee yoeo oneiaee ia/eiaao aic?anoaoue
eiaanoe?iaaiea eaieoaea a e?oiiua nii?oaeaiey, /oi aucuaaao na?ue?ciua
eciaiaiey a oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaa (nicaeathony oaoie/aneea aiciiaeiinoe
aeey iieo/aiey i?eauee), i?e yoii i?iecaiaenoai noaiiaeony
?aioaaaeueiui, a aeaeaa, niioaaonoaaiii neaaeoao iiauoaoaeueiay aieia
aieueoiai oeeeea yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u.

Ianiio?y ia i?iaeieaeathueany nii?u i oi/iinoe e i?aaenoaaeoaeueiinoe
noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, eioi?ua eniieueciaae Eiiae?aoueaa, n/eoaaony
onoaiiaeaiiui, ai-ia?auo, nouanoaiaaiea aeeeiiiai oeeeea a yeiiiie/aneii
?acaeoee, a oiaea eioi?iai eciaiyaony aeeiaieea iiiaeo yeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae io oacu ainoiaea e oaca niaaea, e iaiai?io; ai-aoi?uo,
iaee/ea acaeiinayce nea/eiia?aciuo eciaiaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e
niioaaonoaothueo ei yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee n aiaeiae/iuie eciaiaieyie
anao ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo no?oeoo?. Ia neo/aeii, ai a?aiy ainoiaeyuae
aieiu aic?anoaao /enei nioeeaeueiuo iio?ynaiee, aiei e ?aaiethoeee, a ai
a?aiy ienoiaeyuae eo /enei ioiineoaeueii nieaeaaony.

Iiaeaeue yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea. Ii?aaeaeythuay ?ieue ia?aaiiia?iinoe
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a eioaineaiinoe oeeeee/aneeo eieaaaiee iieiaeaia a
iniiao iino?iaiey iiaeaee yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea. I?aaenoaaeoaee
iaieaeineaineiai iai?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie iunee (I. Naioyeuenii, Y.
Oainai, Aeae. Oeen, A. Aeiia?, ?. Oa??iae), i?eciaaay eeth/aaia cia/aiea
iio?aaeoaeueneiai e eiaanoeoeeiiiiai ni?ina a ia?aciaaiee oeeeea,
n/eoatho, /oi ia oeeeee/aneea eieaaaiey a aieueoae ia?a aicaeaenoaotho
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey e a iaiueoae ia?a iio?aaeaiea.

Yeiiiie/aneee oeeee iaieaeineaioeaie ?anniao?eaaaony eae ioeeiiaiea io
ninoiyiey aeeiaie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney, oa?aeoa?ecothuaainy onoie/eauie
?aaiiia?iuie oaiiaie i?e?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea (i?e iinoiyiiii
iaeiieaiee e i?iaaaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee noaaeeecaoeee
yeiiiieee).

Iaieaeineaineay iiaeaeue yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea (iai?eia?, iiaeaeue
Naioyeueniia-Oeena) no?ieony ia niaaeeiaiee eiioeaioeee ioeueoeieeeaoi?a
e aenaea?aoi?a. Niaeanii eiioeaioeee ioeueoeieeeaoi?a Eaeina
caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo ?inoii eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee e iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea
i?aaenoaaeyao iinoiyiioth aaee/eio, ii?aaeaeyaioth onoie/eainoueth aeiee
iio?aaeaiey a i?e?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Eiioeaioeey
aenaea?aoi?a oa?aeoa?ecoao ia?aoioth naycue iaaeaeo i?e?inoii
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea e iineaaeothuei i?e?inoii eiaanoeoeee.
Aenaea?aoi? iieacuaaao, ianeieueei aeieaeiu aic?anoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey
i?e aeaiiii ?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Aenaea?aoeeiiiue ia?eiae
oa?aeoa?ecoaony eiuie oneiaeyie, /ai ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiue. A yoio
ia?eiae ?ino iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea aoaeao ?anoe?youe i?iecaiaenoai e
oaaee/eaaoue eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey, a nieaeaiea oaiiia iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea i?eaaaeao e nieaeaieth oaiiia eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee.

Iaeua e aieueoea oeeeeu yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ia i?ioeainoiyo ae?oa
ae?oao, a acaeiiaeaenoaotho, aeiiieiyy ae?oa ae?oaa. Yoi au?aaeaaony a
neaaeothuai:

e iaeua, e aieueoea oeeeeu – yoi oi?ia yeiiiie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey,
?acaeoey. A ethaii oeeeea eaaeaeay iineaaeothuay oaca anoue neaaenoaea
eoioeyoeaiiai iaeiieaiey oneiaee a oa/aiea i?aaeuaeouae oacu. Eaaeaeue
iiaue oeeee caeiiiia?ii neaaeoao ca ae?oaei, oae aea eae iaeia oaca
iaeiiai e oiai aea oeeeea niaiyaony ae?oaie. A oeeeea ni/aoathony
i?aaeaeu e ?aca?au ?acaeoey, oeeeee/aneea e?ecenu anoue ia oieueei
ia?ooaiea ?aaiiaaney, ii e enoiaeiue iiiaio ainnoaiiaeaiey
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe. Iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey e?ecenia aucuaatho
iaiaoiaeeiinoue nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey. Yoo ooieoeeth auiieiyao
ainoaea?noai. A oi aea a?aiy, yaeyynue eiioeuenii iiaiai aeoea ?acaeoey,
e?ecen nii?iaiaeaeaaony noeioee?iaaieai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ni
noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa. A ?acoeueoaoa a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea yeiiiie/aneea
oeeeeu eae oi?ia aeaeaeaiey ni/aoatho noeoeeiia e i?aaieciaaiiia ia/aei;

iniiaie iaoaiecia e?aoeia?aiaiiuo e aeieaia?aiaiiuo ia?eiaee/aneeo
eieaaaiee yaeyaony iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann. A iaeuo oeeeeao e?ecen
yaeyaony oie/eii e iiaea?iecaoeee e oaoie/aneiio oeo/oaieth
i?iecaiaenoaa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ?anoe?aieth ?uiea. A aieueoeo
oeeeeao e?eceniua i?ioeannu o?aaotho aiaae?aiey aaciauo iiaiaaaaeaiee.
Yoi noeioee?oao ia oieueei ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e no?oeoo?ioth
ia?ano?ieeo anae yeiiiieee e iaoaiecia aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aieueoea oeeeeu oa?aeoa?ecothony ia oieueei ?anoe?aieai
?uiea, ii e nicaeaieai iiauo;

e iaeua, e aieueoea oeeeeu a yeiiiieea ?acaeouo no?ai aeaeaeoony
ioiineoaeueii neio?iiii, ia?acoy ie?iaua oeeeeu;

iaeua oeeeeu yaeythony i?aaie/aneie /anoueth aieueoeo oeeeeia. Anee iie
aicieeee ia iiieaeaoaeueiie oaca aieueoeo oeeeeia, oi iie
oa?aeoa?ecothony aeoaeiie e?ecena, aeeeoaeueiinoueth aeai?annee,
neaainoueth e e?aoeinoueth iiaeuaia. Aeey iiauoaoaeueiie oacu aieueoeo
oeeeeia oa?aeoa?iu iaeua oeeeeu n neeueiuie iiaeuaiaie e neaauie
aeai?anneyie.

Oaeei ia?acii, n ?inoii yeiiiieee nei?aa naycaiu iaeua oeeeeu, oae eae
?ino yeiiiieee – yoi i?aaeaea anaai onoie/eai ?anoe?ythueeny nauo
i?iaeoeoeee. Ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony eiee/anoaaiiuie eciaiaieyie
iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae, aieaa aeoaieei eciaiaieai a iaeiieaiee
eaieoaea, nii?iaiaeaeaaiui ?inoii iaoa?eaeueiiai aiaaonoaa iauanoaa.
Ninoiyiea ?acaeoey icia/aao, /oi aioo?e yeiiiieee aaia?e?othony
eiioeuenu aeey ea?aeeiaeueiiai eciaiaiey aa oaoiieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u.
Oicyenoaothuea noauaeou aioiau e oi?ie?iaaieth ieaiia iaeiieaiey
?aaeueiiai eaieoaea. Ia ?uiea iiyaeyaony aieueoia /enei iiaiaaaaeaiee:
oiaa?ia, oneoa, oaoiieiaee, ?ano?nia eee iiauo ?uieia nauoa. Eo
iiyaeaiea naycaii n oai, /oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeoeaiinoue
iai?aaeaia ia iiene iiauo i?eaioe?ia ?acaeoey, oae eae i?aaeiea oeaee
oaea aeinoeaioou. Eiiiaaoeee noaiiayony ?uii/iui i?eaioe?ii aeey iannu
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Ii?aaeaeyy iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey, iie nicaeatho aieaa
eee iaiaa aieee ?uiie nia/aea aeey oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa (eiiiaaoeee a
o?oae e eaieoae), a caoai e aeey anaai auionea i?iaeoeoeee. E /ai
yooaeoeaiaa iiaua oaoiieiaee, /ai oe?a iie ?ani?ino?aiythony a
i?iecaiaenoaa, /ai aieaa aiie ?uiie eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee e /ai neeueiaa
eiioeuen, aeaiiue eiiiaaoeeyie anae yeiiiieea, oai oniaoiaa iaeiieaiea
?aaeueiiai eaieoaea, oai aieueoa ?ino aai yooaeoeaiinoe eee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. A yoii caeeth/aaony ?acoeueoao noaaeee ?acaeoey,
iaania/eaathuaai ?ino e i?ioeaaoaiea ia aeanyoeeaoey. Oaeea eciaiaiey ai
a?aiaie ninoiyiey yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu naycaiu n aieueoeie
yeiiiie/aneeie oeeeeaie (aeeeiiuie aieiaie), a eioi?uo caeeth/aia eiaeea
?acaeoey nenoaiu.

Aeaaa 2. Yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu

Понятие кризис имеет много уровней и трактовок. Выражение “кризис”
происходит от греческого слова “crisis”, которое означает “приговор,
решение по какому-либо вопросу, или в сомнительной ситуации”. Также
может означать “выход, решение конфликта (к пр. военного)”. Но
современное значение слова наиболее частое применение находит у
Гиппократа и врачей: и кризис означает решающую фазу развития болезни. В
этом смысле речь заходит о “crisis” тогда, когда болезнь усиливает
интенсивность или переходит в другую болезнь или вообще заканчивается
смертьth.

В 17-18. столетиях понятие кризис стало применяться и в отношение к
процессам происходящим в обществе, как то военные, политические кризисы,
при этом использовалось почти не измененное значение кризиса взятое из
медицины.

И наконец в 19. веке значение перешло в экономику. “Классическое”
экономическое понятие кризиса, сформировавшееся в то время, означает не
желаемую и драматическую фазу в капиталистической экономической системе,
характеризующейся колебаниями и негативными явлениями, помехами.

Eaaeaeue e?ecen nic?aaaao a oacao iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia. Yoi oacu
onoie/eaiai ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa. A yoio ia?eiae oaaee/eaathony
aeioiaeu ianaeaiey e ?anoao niaieoiiue iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in. ?ino
iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina iiaoaeaeaao i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ?anoe?youe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe e oaaee/eaaoue eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?anoao ni?in ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaaee/aiea
iauaai niaieoiiiai ni?ina ia/eiaao iia?aaeaoue oaiiu ?inoa iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. E?oaiiai?iou eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo eaieoaeia i?ioaeatho
aani?aiyonoaaiii, nieaeaaony ino?ioa eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau. Iiyoiio
oiaiueoathony noeioeu iiauo aiaae?aiee, iaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.
Aini?iecaiaenoai i?ioaeaao ia i?aeiouanoaaiii yenoaineaiie iniiaa. Oaeia
?acaeoea i?iaeieaeaaony aei oao ii?, iiea oaiiu ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa ia
ia/eiatho iia?aaeaoue oaiiu ?inoa ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina. Eiaaea yoi
i?ienoiaeeo, oi ianooiaao ia?ai?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia, a aianoa n iei e
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen. Yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen iaia?oaeeaaao ia?aiaeiieaiea
eaieoaea, eioi?ia aunooiaao a o?ao oi?iao: ia?ai?iecaiaenoai oiaa?iiai
eaieoaea (?ino ia?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee), ia?aiaeiieaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eaieoaea (oaaee/aiea iaaeia?ocee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiuiinoae, ?ino aac?aaioeoeu), ia?aiaeiieaiea aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea
(oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa aeaiaa, ia aeiaeaiiuo a i?iecaiaenoai). Iauei
?acoeueoaoii ia?aiaeiieaiey eaieoaea noaiiaeony ?ino ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaaeaiea oeai e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eauee.

Ii yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen iaia?oaeeaaao ia oieueei i?aaeae, ii e eiioeuen
a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee, auiieiyy noeioee?othuoth («i/enoeoaeueioth»)
ooieoeeth. Ai a?aiy e?ecena aicieeatho iiaoaeeoaeueiua iioeau e
nie?auaieth ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e oaaee/aieth i?eauee, oneeeaaaony
eiieo?aioeey. Yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen i?eaiaeeo e ii?aeueiiio eciino
n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, ia niiniaiuo iaania/eoue i?eaueueiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eaieoaea. Ii aea nicaeaao noeioeu aeey iaiiaeaiey
eaieoaea ia iiaie oaoie/aneie iniiaa. Iiyoiio e?ecen aeaao ia/aei
i?aeiouanoaaiii eioaineaiiio ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee. N iei eii/aaony
i?aaeuaeouee ia?eiae ?acaeoey e ia/eiaaony neaaeothuee. E?ecen –
aaaeiaeoee yeaiaio iaoaiecia naii?aaoee?iaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.Oaeei
ia?acii, oeeeee/iinoue eae oi?ia aeaeaeaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee eiaao
naiei yieoeaio?ii e?ecen, a eioi?ii iaia?oaeeaathony e i?aaeae, e
eiioeuen ?inoa yeiiiieee. Aucuaay ianniaue ii?aeueiue eciin iniiaiiai
eaieoaea, e?ecen ?an/euaao iooue aeey ianniauo eiaanoeoeee, i?e/ai ia
iiaii oaoie/aneii o?iaia.

Ii ia?aoiae e ?anoe?aieth i?iecaiaenoaa e e aai iaiiaeaieth ia iiaeao
i?iecieoe a iaeei iiiaio. Iiyoiio ia niaio e?eceno i?eoiaeeo oaca
aeai?annee. A e?ecena nicaeathony oneiaey aeey eioaineoeeaoeee
yeiiiieee. A oiaea aeai?annee yoe oneiaey cae?aieythony e ia/eiaaony
ia?eiae eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey, eioi?ue ioaaouaaao anth neaaeothuoth oaco
– iaeeaeaiea. A eiioea oacu iaeeaeaiey noeioeu iaiiaeaiey en/a?iuaatho
naay. E neaaeothuay oaca oeeeea – iiaeuai – niiaa ia/eiaao yenoaineaiia
?acaeoea.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e/eia oeeeee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a ?acaeoey yeiiiieee
e?iaony a eiioeeeoa oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e oneiaee ?aaeecaoeee, a
i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii, no?aiyueiny e ?anoe?aieth, e ia
oniaaathuei ca iei ?inoii ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina. Nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey a niaieoiiii i?aaeeiaeaiee e niaieoiiii ni?ina
iaia?oaeeaathony a yeiiiie/aneii E?ecena, eioi?ue yaeyaony ia oieueei
ia?ooaieai i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e
oie/eii e ?aaiiaaneth e naaeaine?iaaiiinoe yeiiiieee. Iaoaieciii
oeeeee/aneiai aeaeaeaiey aunooiaao iaaeaiea oeai (niioaaonoaaiii
iaanoeaiaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea e nieaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou).

Ia aeeeoaeueiinoue e aeoaeio yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena nouanoaaiii aeeyao
eieaaaiea eiaanoeoeee. E?ecen ia?acoao enoiaeiue iiiaio aeey iiauo
ianniauo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi, ai-ia?auo, e?ecen
iaanoeaieaaao iniiaiie eaieoae e oai naiui nicaeaao oneiaey aeey
iaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa. Ai-aoi?uo, e?ecen i?eioaeaeaao e
iaiiaeaieth iniiaiiai eaieoaea ia iiaie oaoie/aneie aaca, /oi aucuaaao
nieaeaiea ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e ainnoaiiaeaiea aeie?eceniiai o?iaiy
i?eauee. Ianniaue ii?aeueiue eciin iniiaiiai eaieoaea, aucaaiiue
e?ecenii, canoaaeyao anao i?aaei?eieiaoaeae i?eiaiyoue iiaoth oaoieeo.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e?ecen ?an/euaao iooue aeey ianniauo eiaanoeoeee,
iiiiaay yeiiiieea ia?aeoe a ae?oaoth oaco. Iiyoiio iaiiaeaiea iniiaiiai
eaieoaea yaeyaony iaoa?eaeueiie iniiaie ia?eiaee/iinoe e?ecenia e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe oeeeea.

A oiaea anaai yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea aeeiaieea i?iecaiaenoaa ia?ac?uaii
naycaia n aeaeaeaieai iniiaiiai eaieoaea e niaa?oaaony ia aaca yoiai
aeaeaeaiey. E?ecen caaa?oaao ia?eiae iai?ioa aieueoeinoaa
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo eaieoaeia e a oi aea a?aiy aeaao ia/aei iiaiio oeeeeo
iai?ioa. Oai naiui nicaeaaony iiaay iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneay aaca aeey
neaaeothuaai yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeeeee/iinoue eae oi?ia aeaeaeaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee
eiaao naiei yieoeaio?ii e?ecen, a eioi?ii iaia?oaeeaathony e i?aaeae, e
eiioeuen ?inoa yeiiiieee. Aucuaay ianniaue ii?aeueiue eciin iniiaiiai
eaieoaea, e?ecen ?an/euaao iooue aeey ianniauo eiaanoeoeee, i?e/ai ia
iiaii oaoie/aneii o?iaia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii?aeueiue eciin oaoieee e
aeeiaieea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna i?aa?auaao iaiiaeaiea iniiaiiai
eaieoaea a neio?iiiia a ianooaaao anae yeiiiieee. A eciai/eainoue
eiiuthieoo?u i?eaeaao ianniaiio iaiiaeaieth iniiaiiai eaieoaea
aeiiieieoaeueioth ia?aaiiia?iinoue. Ionthaea iai?a?uaiua eieaaaiey
aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe, /a?aaeiaaiea i?aeiouanoaaiii yenoaineaiiai (oaca
iiaeuaia) e i?aeiouanoaaiii eioaineaiiai (iinea e?ecena) oeiia
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. A ?aaeueiue oeeeee/aneee i?ioeann i?aaenoaao
neiaeiui yaeaieai, iaoneiaeaiiui iai?ioii iniiaiiai eaieoaea,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii, aeeiaieeie eiiuthieoo?u.No?oeoo?iua
e?ecenu ii?iaeaeathony aeoaieeie aeeni?iii?oeeyie iaaeaeo ?acaeoeai
ioaeaeueiuo noa? e io?aneae i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyoiio iie iinyo
aeeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? e ia oeeaaeuaathony a ?aiee iaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai
oeeeea. Ooieoeey no?oeoo?iuo e?ecenia – a?aiaiiia ?ac?aoaiea
i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. Eo aicieeiiaaiea
naycaii n eiioeeeoii iaaeaeo ?acaeouie ainoaea?noaaie e ?acaeaathueieny
no?aiaie iinea e?ooaiey eieiieaeueiie nenoaiu. Yoi au?aceeinue a
aeoaieie aeeni?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe ie?iaiai ?acaeoey, eiaaea ieceea oeaiu
ia iaooue e nu?uea, iaaycaiiua iieiaeui ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai, i?eaaee
e ioiineoaeueiie iaoaaoea yoeo oiaa?ia. Onoaiiaeaiea noaa?aieoaoa,
?anii?yaeaiea naieie i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie iicaieeee ?acaeaathueiny
no?aiai aeiaeoueny aieaa ni?aaaaeeeauo oeai ia nu?uea e oaaee/eoue
aeioiaeu io yenii?oa. Ii ?acaeoua no?aiu noiaee a 80-a aiaeu ca n/ao
i?eiaiaiey aeaoaauo caiaieoaeae e ia?aoiaea ia ?ano?ninaa?aaathuea
oaoiieiaee aeiaeoueny nieaeaiey oeai ia iaooue e nu?ueaaua oiaa?u.

Необходимо разделение кризисного процесса на различные стадии связана
в первую очередь с тем, чтобы определить точку и время применения
мероприятий по оказанию влияния на кризис, недопущению и преодолению
кризиса.

Кристек характеризует стадии кризисного процесса с точки зрения
возможностей, потенциала преодоления кризиса и раннего оповещения о нем.

Отдельные стадии кризисного процесса по Кристеку можно описать
следующим образом:

1. Стадия: потенциальный кризис

Кризис предприятия как процесс находит свое начало в фазе
потенциального, т.е. только возможного но еще не реального кризиса
предприятия. И из-за отсутствия достоверных симптомов кризиса данное
состояние предприятия характеризуется как квазинормальное, т.е.
практически как состояние в котором постоянно находится предприятие, и
оно дает время/точку отсчета возникновения кризиса на предприятии.

2. Стадия: латентный/скрытый кризис

Эта фаза кризисного процесса характеризуется скрытым уже имеющимся или с
большой вероятностью скоро начинающимся кризисом, воздействия которого
не определяемы имеющимся в наличии у предприятия стандартным
инструментарием. Но применение специальных методик раннего распознавания
позволяет на этой стадии оказать активное воздействие на латентный
кризис с помощью предупреждающих мероприятий.

В общем на данной стадии имеющийся в наличии у предприятия потенциал
преодоления кризиса как правило не используется в полном объеме.
Основной упор здесь лежит в применении систем раннего
оповещения/распознавания.

3. Стадия: острый преодолимый кризис

На этом этапе начинается непосредственное ощущение предприятием
исходящего от кризиса негативного воздействия. Вместе с этим усиливается
интенсивность реальных, против предприятия направленных деструктивных
воздействий, что вызывает резкую нехватку, давление времени,
срочность/неотложность принятия решений. При дальнейшем уменьшении
альтернативных вариантов действий из-за исчерпывания имеющегося в
наличии времени повышаются требования по нахождению действенных путей
решений проблем (факторов преодоления кризиса). На этом этапе для
преодоления кризиса требуется мобилизация все больших сил предприятия и
исчерпываются полностью имеющиеся в наличие резервы по преодолению
кризиса. На данной стадии еще есть возможность преодоления (обуздание)
острого кризиса, т.к. имеющийся в наличии потенциал преодоления кризиса
достаточен для того чтобы справиться с кризисом. Повышаются до предела
требования к преодолению кризиса, и мероприятия по преодолению кризиса
должны проявить свое действие на улучшение ситуации за очень
незначительный промежуток времени, имеющийся в распоряжении.

4. Стадия: острый не преодолимый кризис

Если не удается обуздать острый кризис, то предприятие вступает в
последнюю стадию развития кризисного процесса, которая заканчивается
ликвидацией предприятия. На этом этапе требования для преодоления
кризиса значительно превышают имеющийся потенциал. Преодоление
кризисного процесса не возможно, в особенности из-за отсутствия или
неудачных мероприятий, действий, из-за экстремально сильного давления
времени и из-за усиливающейся интенсивности направленных против
предприятия деструктивных воздействий.

Кризис предприятия представляет собой переломный момент в
последовательности процессов событий и действий. Типичным для кризисной
ситуации является два варианта выхода из нее, или это ликвидация
предприятия как экстремальная форма, или успешное преодоление кризиса.

Промежутки между началом и завершением кризиса бывают разной
длительности. С одной стороны есть продолжительные, слабо ускоряющиеся
кризисные процессы, с другой стороны существуют неожиданно возникающие
кризисные процессы, высокой интенсивности и с коротким сроком развития.
Кризис может абсолютно неожиданно проявиться во время гармоничного
развития предприятия и носить характер непреодолимой катастрофы или
возникнуть в соответствии с предположениями и расчетами. Но в редких
случаях кризис появляется неожиданно, т.е. без какого-либо
предупреждения для специалистов предприятия.

При кризисе господствует нехватка времени и решений. Оценка
ограниченного времени для принятия решений зависит от состояния кризиса
и определяет этим нехватку времени или срочность решения проблем.

При кризисе важным является проблема управления. Высокая
комплексность управления в условиях кризиса позволяет с одной стороны
оказывать влияние на развитие автономных процессов и охватывает с другой
стороны специфическую проблематику руководства: необходимость его
высокого качества и наличие только двух вариантов конечного результата
действий менеджмента, т.е. возможно либо банкротство, либо успешное
преодоление кризиса.

Eiaaea Aia?eea auea iieiaea e aua oieueei ?acaeaaeanue, aaieianeia aeaei
auei aecianii, a eioi?ue iiaeii auei eaaei aieoe. Aeey yoiai aeinoaoi/ii
auei iaeieaeeoue iaiiiai aeaiaa e iaeoe, aaea ioe?uoue n/ao. A oi a?aiy
ia nouanoaiaaei caeiiia, ia?aie/eaathueo eiee/anoai eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee,
i?aaee aaaeaiey aaieianeiai aeaea, ieeaeeo ae?oaeo ia?, caueuathueo eee
iai?aaeythueo ?acaeoea yeiiiieee. Aaieianeay nenoaia eiaao niiniaiinoue
«nicaeaaaoue» aeaiueae. Iia iiaeaea?aeeaaao ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue
?aca?aia aeaiiceoi?neeo aeaiaa e caoai ?anoe?yao aeaiaaeioth ianno
aaneiia/ii iiaoi?ythueiny i?ioeannii auaea/e aeaiaa a aeiea, n
iineaaeothuei io/eneaieai ?aca?aiiai oiiaea ec yoeo aeaiaa e aiiaue n
iineaaeothuae eo auaea/ae. E oaeouaio ?aca?ao a aieueoeinoaa caiaaeiuo
no?ai naaiaeiy i?aaeuyaeyaony o?aaiaaiea, /oiau ii ninoaaeye 18-20 %.
Yoi iicaieyao i?aaeinoaaeyoue e?aaeeo ia noiio, i?aauoathuoth a 5 ?ac
?acia?u aeiaeaiee. Eae au iiaeaoa i?aaenoaaeoue, neooaoeey, eiaaea
e?aaeeooaony noiia a 5 aeiee., a ia n/aoo eiaaony anaai 1 aeiee., iiaeao
ieacaoueny e?eoe/aneie a iiiaio oeeeee/iuo ia?aiaaeia. Iau/ii ethaee ia
oi?iiyony nieiaoue naie aeaiueae n aaieianeeo n/aoia, ii iie oioyo auoue
oaa?aiiuie a oii, /oi iie anaaaea iiaoo niyoue eo ni n/aoa, eiaaea yoi
ei aoaeao iaiaoiaeeii. A e?eoe/aneeo neooaoeeyo ethaee ia/eiatho
iianaoueny, /oi iie iiaoo ia iieo/eoue naie aeaiueae n?aco. Ana
aeeaae/eee auno?aeaathony a i/a?aaeue, /oiau niyoue ni n/aoia naie
aeaiueae. Aaie aea ia iiaeao auaeaoue aeaiueae anai aeeaae/eeai
iaeiia?aiaiii ec-ca oiai, /oi eiaao ia?aie/aiiia eiee/anoai aeaiaa ia
?oeao, a iaee/ee (aaie caieiaaony oai, /oi i?eieiaao io iaeieo ethaeae
aeeaaeu, a ae?oaei ethaeyi auaeaao yoe aeaiueae acaeiu), eai iniiaiua
aeaiueae aaiea iaoiaeyony a caeiao. Caeiu iaeaaei i?aa?aoeoue a iaee/iua
aeaiueae. Iiyoiio, anee aeeaae/eee iaia?aiu ana iaeiia?aiaiii iieo/eoue
naie aeeaaeu, oi iaania/eoue yoi i?inoi iaaiciiaeii, e aaie auioaeaeai
cae?uoueny.

Ia?aiia/aeueii aaiee eiaee i?aai ia/aoaoue aeaiueae. Iie auioneaee
aaieiiou, eioi?ua aa?aioe?iaaee iieo/aiea ca ieo cieioa. Caoai aaiee
noaee auioneaoue aaieiiou, ia iaania/aiiua cieioii. Aaieiiou
auioneaeenue aaieaie, eioi?ua iaoiaeeeenue ia ?annoiyiee ouny/ ieeue io
ethaeae, i?eia?aoaaoeo eo. Oio o?iaaiue eiiioieeaoeee e o?ainii?oa,
eioi?ue oiaaea nouanoaiaae, aa?aioe?iaae iaaiciiaeiinoue aueoia cieioa
ii yoei aaieiioai. Yoa i?aeoeea /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy aucaaea ninoiyiea
iauae ianoaaeeueiinoe a yeiiiieea, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaia
eae iaieea. Iaieea – yoi oaeay neooaoeey, eiaaea ethaee ia/eiatho
aieiiaaoueny ca noaeueao naieo aeeaaeia e cae?uaatho naie n/aoa. Eiaaea
ana aeeaae/eee aae?oa o?aaotho naie aeeaaeu, aaie cae?uaaaony,
iineieueeo ii ia iiaeao aa?iooue eo anai. Yoi a naith i/a?aaeue aucaaei
aaie?ionoai e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Oaeei ia?acii, niaaeu,
e?ecenu iauyniyeenue ianoaaeeueiinoueth oeiainiaiai naeoi?a, eioi?ue i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo aucuaaao niaae yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe ai anao
noa?ao iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.

Iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae e o?aeoiaea i?iaeaiu oeeeee/iinoe naaiaeiy iooiaeeo
ia aoi?ie ieai, ii i?eciaaony ecia/aeueii iiaa?oiinoiui, oae eae
enoiaeeo ec aiaeeca oieueei noa?u ia?auaiey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
oeeeee/iinoue ?anniao?eaaaony a nayce n i?iecaiaenoaii e ia?auaieai. A
oeaio? aiaeeca auiineony aeeiaieea i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, AII,
iiaeooaaiai aeioiaea. I?e yoii aeeiaieea oeai, i?ioeaioa, iai?ioa
o?aeooaony eeoue eae eiaeeeaoi? iauayeiiiie/aneeo eciaiaiee.Ana
iiiaiia?acea e?ecenia iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii o?ai ?aciui
iniiaaieyi.Ia?aia iniiaaiea – ii ianooaaai ia?ooaiey ?aaiiaaney a
oicyenoaaiiuo nenoaiao. Iauea e?ecenu ioaaouaatho ana iaoeeiiaeueiia
oicyenoai.

*anoe/iua ?ani?ino?aiythony ia eaeoth-eeai iaeio noa?o eee io?aneue
yeiiiieee.

Oae, oeiainiaue e?ecen – aeoaieia ?anno?ienoai ainoaea?noaaiiuo
oeiainia. Iii i?iyaeyaony a iinoiyiiuo athaeaeaoiuo aeaoeoeeoao. E?aeiei
i?iyaeaieai oeiainiaiai e?ecena yaeyaony iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue
ainoaea?noaa ii eiino?aiiui caeiai (ai a?aiy ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai
e?ecena 1929-1933 aa. i?ae?aoeee ieaoaaee ii aiaoiei caeiai
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey, Eoaeey. A 1931 a. NOA ia aiae
ion?i/eee ana ieaoaaee ii aiaoiei aeieaai).

Aeaiaaeii- e?aaeeoiue e?ecen – iio?ynaiea aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu.
I?ienoiaeeo ?aceia nie?auaiea eiiia?/aneiai e aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa,
ianniaia ecuyoea aeeaaeia e e?ao aaieia, iiaiiy ianaeaiey e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ca iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie, iaaeaiea eo?nia aeoeee e
iaeeaaoeee, a oaeaea ii?iu aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa.A a e th o i u e
e?ecen au?aaeaaony a eeeaeaeaoeee cieioiai noaiaea?oa a ia?auaiee ia
ie?iaii ?uiea e iaanoeaiaiee aaethou ioaeaeueiuo no?ai (iaoaaoea
eiino?aiiuo «oaa?aeuo» aaetho, enoiuaiea aaethoiuo ?aca?aia a aaieao,
iaaeaiea aaethoiuo eo?nia).A e ? ae a a i e e?ecen – ?aceia nieaeaiea
eo?nia oeaiiuo aoiaa, cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea eo yiennee, aeoaieea
niaaeu a aeayoaeueiinoe oiiaeiaie ae?aee.

Aoi?ia iniiaaiea eeanneoeeaoeee e?ecenia – ii ?aaoey?iinoe ia?ooaiey
?aaiiaaney a yeiiiieea.Ia?eiaee/aneea e?ecenu iiaoi?ythony ?aaoey?ii
/a?ac eaeea-oi i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie (ae?oaia iacaaiea – oeeeee/aneea
e?ecenu).

I?iiaaeooi/iua ia aeatho ia/aea iieiiai aeaeiaiai oeeeea e i?a?uaathony
ia eaeie-oi oaca; yaeythony iaiaa aeoaieeie e iaiaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuie.

Ia?aaoey?iua e?ecenu eiatho naie iniaua i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey.

I o ? a n e a a i e e?ecen ioaaouaaao iaeio ec io?aneae ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa e aucuaaaony eciaiaieai no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?ooaieai
ii?iaeueiuo oicyenoaaiiuo naycae e ae?. I?eia?aie iiaoo neoaeeoue e?ecen
ii?neiai noaeioiaenoaa 1958-1962 aa., e?ecen a oaenoeeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe 1977 a.

A a ? a ? i u e e?ecen – yoi ?aceay i?einoaiiaea nauoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (iaaeaiea oeai ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth).

N o ? o e o o ? i u e e?ecen iaoneiaeai ia?ooaieai ii?iaeueiuo
niioiioaiee iaaeaeo io?aneyie i?iecaiaenoaa (iaeiiaieei e o?iaeeeaui
?acaeoeai iaeieo io?aneae a oua?a ae?oaei, oooaeoaieai iieiaeaiey a
ioaeaeueiuo aeaeao i?iecaiaenoaa). IaiO?aouea iniiaaiea eeanneoeeaoeee
e?ecenia – ii oa?aeoa?o ia?ooaiey i?iii?oeee aini?iecaiaenoaa. Caeanue
auaeaeytho 2 aeaea e?ecenia.

ia?eia?, a na?aaeeia 70-o aiaeia aiciee nu?ueaaie e yia?aaoe/aneee
e?ecen.

E?ecen ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia – auione eceeoiaai eiee/anoaa iieaciuo
aauae, ia iaoiaeyueo nauoa.

E?ecen iaaeii?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia – ino?ay eo iaoaaoea aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina ianaeaiey.E?ecenu OIO e ia/aea
OO noieaoee i?ioiaeeee ii aaeeiiio ae?aiaoe/aneiio noeaia?eth. ?uiie,
aieouaaaoee aani?aiyonoaaiii ana i?iecaiaeeiua oiaa?u, a eaeia-oi a?aiy
ieacuaaeny ia?aiieiaiiui, ii oiaa?u i?iaeieaeaee iinooiaoue. Ni?in aea
iinoaiaiii ia/eiae oiaiueoaoueny, ii ionoaaae io i?aaeeiaeaiey, e,
iaeiiaoe, ii/oe i?ae?auaeny. Ni?in iaaeae, a iaaeaeo oai iiiaeanoai
i?aaei?eyoee ana aua i?iaeieaeaee ?aaioaoue a neeo eia?oeee e
aua?anuaaee ia ?uiie ana iiaua e iiaua ia?oee oiaa?ia. No?aieoaeueii
iaaeaee oeaiu. Ia/eiaeenue eeeaeaeaoeee e e?aoe, i?e/ai, i?aaeaea anaai,
aeaee oeiainiaua e e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey, aaiee. A oneiaeyo iaoaaoee
eeeaeaeiinoe aeey ?anieaou ii aeieaai aaiee iiauoaee nnoaeiue i?ioeaio,
e?aaeeo noaiiaeeny iaaeinooiiui aeey iniiaiie iannu i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.
Ia/eiaee ?aci?youeny oaea e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey, inoaiaaeeaaeenue
oaa?eee, caaiaeu. Oae, eee, ai anyeii neo/aa, ii/oe oae i?ioiaeeee
e?ecenu a 1825 aiaeo a Aiaeee, a 1836 aiaeo a Aiaeee e NOA, a 1841 aiaeo
a NOA. E?ecen 1847 aiaea ioaaoee oaea NOA, Aiaeeth, O?aioeeth e
Aa?iaieth. Neaaeothuee ca iei e?ecen 1858 aiaea yaeeny, ii nooe, ia?aui
ie?iaui oeeeee/aneei e?ecenii. Iinea yoiai yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu
nio?ynaee ie?iaoth yeiiiieeo a 1873, 1882, 1890 aiaeao.

Iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi e?ecenu ianoo a naaa e naia ea/aiea. Ii ia?a
?acaeoey e?ecena, oeaiu ia oiaa?u iaaeaee ieaea e ieaea, nicaeaaay oai
naiui aiciiaeiinoue nauoa e ia?niaeoeao auoiaea ec e?ecena. Iinea ia?aie
ie?iaie aieiu oeeeee/aneea e?ecenu i?iaeieaeaee ?aaoey?ii nio?ynaoue
ie?iaoth yeiiiieeo, iaeiaei, oa?aeoa? eo noae eiui. A?aiaeeiciue
ae?aeaaie e?ao a «/a?iue» aoi?iee 29 ieoya?y 1929 aiaea iieiaeee ia/aei
e?eceno, eee Aaeeeie aeai?annee 1929-1933 aa., eioi?ue ii naiae aeoaeia
i?aacioae ana i?aaeuaeouea. Iaaeaiea oeai, eioi?iai aua ia ciaea
yeiiiieea NOA, Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee e Aiaeee, nii?iaiaeaeaeinue ?aceei
nie?auaieai i?iecaiaenoaa, i?ienoiaeee aeoaieee e?ecen anae aaieianeie
nenoaiu, iaanoeaieaaeenue aaethou – aio aeaeaei ia iieiue ia?a/aiue
aaae, naaeeaoeony ia yeiiiieeo ainoaea?noa, aua iaaeaaii n/eoaaoeony
aiaaoaeoeie e i?aoniaaathueie. Iaeiaei e?ecen 1929 aiaea canoaaee
i?aaeoaeuenoai yoeo no?ai i?aaei?eieiaoue na?ueaciua iiiuoee
aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea e i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey eo
?ac?ooeoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee. Yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu e e?ecenu ia
nouanoaotho aia nayce n iauaeoeaiuie oneiaeyie. Eaaeaeue oeeee e e?ecen
aini?iecaiaeeo oo yeiiiie/aneoth ianoaiiaeo, a eioi?ie ii ?acaeaaaony.
Ii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue oio eee eiie oeeee eee e?ecen iiaeii oieueei n
a?aiaiiiai ?annoiyiey. Nia?aiaiiay ?uii/iay yeiiiieea ooieoeeiie?oao a
oneiaeyo aeoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia iaa ainoaea?noaa. Ainoaea?noaaiiia
aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiieeo niiniaii nouanoaaiii iiaeeyoue ia oiae
yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea, iaiyy oa?aeoa? yeiiiie/aneie aeeiaieee: aeoaeio e
/anoioo e?ecenia, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue oac oeeeea e niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
ieie. Iiae aeeyieai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey iaiyaony iaoaieci
oeeeee/aneiai aeaeaeaiey.Aeaenoaothuay a oneiaeyo ?aaoee?oaiie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee eiiieaeniay nenoaia iinoiyiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey
ia oeeeee/aneia aini?iecaiaenoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieei o?iaiai
oeaio?aeecaoeee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa, oe?ieeie
ianooaaaie aai oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a i?ioeann
aini?iecaiaenoaa, ?acaeoeai e aeeaa?neoeeaoeeae eino?oiaioa?ey
yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea iai?aaeaii ia niya/aiea oeeeee/aneeo
eieaaaiee, iiyoiio iii iineo aioeoeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa?. Aaaeiaeoeie
iaoiaeaie, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ainoaea?noai aicaeaenoaoao ia
yeiiiie/aneee oeeee, aunooiatho e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiua e
athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua ?u/aae. Ai a?aiy e?ecena ainoaea?noaaiiua ia?u
iai?aaeaiu ia noeioee?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, a ai a?aiy iiaeuaia – ia aai
naea?aeeaaiea. Oae, n oeaeueth ineaaeaiey «ia?aa?aaa» yeiiiieee
ainoaea?noai a oaca iiaeuaia niinianoaoao aeaeueiaeoaio oaei?iaeaieth
e?aaeeoa, aaiaeeo iiaua iaeiae e iiauoaao noa?ua, ioiaiyao onei?aiioth
aii?oecaoeeth e iaeiaiaua eueaiou ia iiaua eiaanoeoeee. A oneiaeyo
e?ecena, iaiai?io, ainoaea?noaaiiua ia?u iai?aaeaiu ia oaeaoaaeaiea
e?aaeeoa, nie?auaiea iaeiaia, ia onei?aiioth aii?oecaoeeth e iaeiaiaua
neeaeee ia iiaua eiaanoeoeee.Inouanoaeaiea aioeoeeeee/aneie iieeoeee
aeieaeii o/eouaaoue e oio oaeo, /oi niaae iaiaeeiaeiai aeeyao ia ?aciua
io?anee yeiiiieee: iaeneiaeueii no?aaeatho eiaanoeoeeiiiua io?anee e
io?anee, i?iecaiaeyuea iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u aeeeoaeueiiai
iieueciaaiey (iniaaiii no?ieoaeuenoai), a aio io?anee, i?iecaiaeyuea
iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u e?aoeia?aiaiiiai iieueciaaiey, ?aaae?otho ia
niaae iaiueoa. Yoi naycaii n ieceie yeanoe/iinoueth ni?ina ia yoe
oiaa?u. Caoi a oaca iiaeuaia eiaanoeoeeiiiua io?anee iieo/atho
iaeneiaeueiia ?acaeoea. Oaeei ia?acii, a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea nouanoaotho
iaeiia?aiaiii oeeeee/aneee e iaoeeeee/aneee naeoi?a. Ec-ca caiacaeuaaiey
a ?aaeoeee i?iecaiaeeoaeae e neaaie iiaeeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiuiinoae oaca ?inoa iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia e noeioee?oaiay ath oaca
o?iaiy aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe aecianiaiia niaiaaeaoue ii a?aiaie ia iiaoo.
Iiyoiio a ?aaeueiinoe iio?aaeoaee e i?iecaiaeeoaee iaoiaeyony a ?aciuo
oacao iaeiiai e oiai aea oeeeea. A yoii niunea neaaeoao aiai?eoue i
aeaoo iaeiia?aiaiii i?ienoiaeyueo a yeiiiieea oeeeeao, naeeaeaiea
eioi?uo – aaaeiaeoay oeaeue yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.

Ainoaea?noai ea?aao cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a ?aaoee?iaaiee yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa e neaaeoao ?anniio?aoue, eaeea ia?u ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey iaeeo/oei ia?acii iiaoo noeioee?iaaoue yoio i?ioeann.

1. Eaeineaioeu ?anniao?eaatho yeiiiie/aneee ?ino i?aeiouanoaaiii n oi/ee
c?aiey oaeoi?ia ni?ina. Iau/ii iie iauyniytho ieceea oaiiu ?inoa
iaaaeaeaaoiui o?iaiai niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia, eioi?ua ia iaania/eaatho
iaiaoiaeeiiai i?e?inoa AII. Iiyoiio iie i?iiiaaaeotho ieceea noaaee
i?ioeaioa (iieeoeeo “aeaoaauo aeaiaa”) eae n?aaenoai noeioee?iaaiey
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe oeiainiai-athaeaeaoiay iieeoeea
iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny aeey ia?aie/aiey i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e
iio?aaeaiey, n oai /oiau aunieee o?iaaiue eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ia
i?eaiaeee e eioeyoeee.

2. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eaeineaioeai, iaieeanneee aeaeatho oii? ia
oaeoi?u, iiauoathuea i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iioaioeeae yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu.
A /anoiinoe, iie i?ecuaatho e nieaeaieth iaeiaia eae e n?aaenoao,
noeioee?othuaio naa?aaeaiey e eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey, iiiu?ythuaio o?oaeiaua
oneeey e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee ?ene. Iai?eia?, nieaeaiea eee ioiaia
iaeiaa ia aeioiae io i?ioeaioia i?eaaaeao e oaaee/aieth ioaea/e io
naa?aaeaiee. Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii, anee iaeaaaoue iiaeioiaeiui iaeiaii
noiiu, eaeouea ia auieaou ii i?ioeaioai, yoi i?eaaaeao e
ia?aie/aieth iio?aaeaiey e noeioee?iaaieth naa?aaeaiee. Iaeioi?ua
yeiiiienou aunooiatho ca aaaaeaiea aaeeiiai iaeiaa ia iio?aaeaiea a
ea/anoaa iieiie eee /anoe/iie caiaiu ee/iiai iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa.
Niune yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ninoieo a ia?aie/aiee iio?aaeaiey e
noeioee?iaaiee naa?aaeaiee. A ioiioaiee eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee yoe
yeiiiienou iau/ii i?aaeeaaatho oiaiueoeoue eee ioiaieoue iaeia ia
i?eauee ei?ii?aoeee, a /anoiinoe i?aaeinoaaeoue cia/eoaeueiua iaeiaiaua
eueaiou ia eiaanoeoeee. Auei au i?aaiia?ii neacaoue, /oi eaeineaioeu
oaeaeytho aieueoa aieiaiey e?aoein?i/iui oeaeyi, a eiaiii
iiaeaea?aeaieth aunieiai o?iaiy ?aaeueiiai AII, aicaeaenoaey ia
niaieoiiua ?anoiaeu. A ioee/ea io ieo, noi?iiieee “yeiiiieee
i?aaeeiaeaiey” ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea aeieain?i/iui ia?niaeoeaai,
aeaeay oii? ia oaeoi?u, iaania/eaathuea ?ino iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa
i?e iieiie caiyoinoe e iieiie caa?ocea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae.

3. Yeiiiienou ?aciuo oai?aoe/aneeo iai?aaeaiee ?aeiiaiaeotho e ae?oaea
aiciiaeiua iaoiaeu noeioee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Iai?eia?,
iaeioi?ua o/aiua i?iiaaaiaee?otho eiaeono?eaeueioth iieeoeeo,
iin?aaenoaii eioi?ie i?aaeoaeuenoai acyei au ia naay i?yioth aeoeaioth
?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee no?oeoo?u i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeey iiiu?aiey
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. I?aaeoaeuenoai iiaei au i?eiyoue ia?u, onei?ythuea
?acaeoea aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo io?aneae e niinianoaothuea
ia?aiauaieth ?ano?nia ec iecei i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo io?aneae.
I?aaeoaeuenoai oaeaea iiaei au oaaee/eoue naie ?anoiaeu ia
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee, noeioee?oy oaoie/aneee
i?ia?ann. ?ino ?anoiaeia ia ia?aciaaiea oaeaea iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue
iiauoaieth ea/anoaa ?aai/ae neeu e ?inoo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, nia?aiaiiue iaoaieci naiiiano?ieee ?uii/iie yeiiiieee
/a?ac oeeeee/aneea e?ecenu iiaeeoeoee?iaaeny. Ia?aieaoaiea
noeoeeii-?uii/iiai iaoaiecia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee a oi?ia
oeeeee/aneeo e?ecenia n niciaoaeueiui ainoaea?noaaiiui aicaeaenoaeai ia
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann oneiaeiyao «i/enoeoaeueioth» ooieoeeth
e?ecenia, eciaiyao oa/aiea oeeeea a oeaeii. Iiyoiio iaiythony
niaea?aeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea, oi?iu i?iyaeaiey oeeeeia e e?ecenia,
iaoaieci oeeeea.Iaiouaieaiui yeaiaioii nia?aiaiiiai yeiiiie/aneiai
oeeeea noaea eioeyoeey. Eioeyoeey acaeiiaeaenoaoao n oeeeee/aneei
aeaeaeaieai yeiiiieee. Yoi neacuaaaony i?aaeaea anaai ia eciaiaiee
iaoaiecia oeeeea, a eioi?ii oaia?ue ia?aieaoathony oeeeee/aneea
caeiiiia?iinoe aeaeaeaiey oeai (eo iaaeaiea a oaca e?ecena e ?ino a oaca
iiaeuaia) n oeaiiia?acothueie oaeoi?aie ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
(aucuaathueie ?ino oeai).Iaiouaieaiui yeaiaioii nia?aiaiiiai
yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea noaea eioeyoeey. Eioeyoeey acaeiiaeaenoaoao n
oeeeee/aneei aeaeaeaieai yeiiiieee. Yoi neacuaaaony i?aaeaea anaai ia
eciaiaiee iaoaiecia oeeeea, a eioi?ii oaia?ue ia?aieaoathony
oeeeee/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe aeaeaeaiey oeai (eo iaaeaiea a oaca e?ecena
e ?ino a oaca iiaeuaia) n oeaiiia?acothueie oaeoi?aie ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey (aucuaathueie ?ino oeai).A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo e?oiiue
eaieoae i?eniinaaeeaaaony e ieaoaaeaniiniaiiio ni?ino iooai nie?auaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa i?e nio?aiaiee aunieeo oeai. Ainoaea?noai, a naith
i/a?aaeue, iiiiaaao e?oiiui oe?iai «oi?aaeyoue» oaeei iooai e?ecenii.
Iiyoiio iiaeeoeeaoeee oeaiiaiai iaoaiecia au?aaeathony a oiaiueoaiee
«/oanoaeoaeueiinoe» oeai e e?eceniiio noaeaieth ?uii/iiai ni?ina e
oaaee/aieth yoie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e ?inoo ni?ina. A ?acoeueoaoa
oeeeee/aneia ?anoe?aiea ?uii/iiai ni?ina ia oiaa?u e oneoae ieacuaaao
aieueoaa aeeyiea ia aeaeaeaiea oeai, /ai e?eceniia noaeaiea ?uieia
nauoa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaeaeaiea oeai a nia?aiaiiuo e?ecenao io?aaeaao
i?ioeaiai?noai aeaoo oaiaeaioeee: iiauoaoaeueiie, naycaiiie n
aeayoaeueiinoueth e?oiiiai eaieoaea e ainoaea?noaa, e iiieaeaoaeueiie,
ii?iaeaeaaiie oeeeee/aneei nie?auaieai aieinoe ?uiea. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
iaoaieci nia?aiaiiuo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo oeeeeia ni/aoaao a naaa e?ecen e
eioeyoeeth.Iaiythony e oi?iu i?iyaeaiey nia?aiaiiuo oeeeeia e e?ecenia.
Yoi au?aaeaaony: a neio?iiecaoeee oeeeee/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a ?aciuo
no?aiao, /oi ia?aie/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe niya/aiey e?eceniuo i?ioeannia ca
n/ao ?anoe?aiey yenii?oa; a o/auaiee oeeeee/aneeo e?ecenia e nie?auaiee
aeeeoaeueiinoe oeeeea; a ioiineoaeueiii oiaiueoaiee aeoaeiu e?ecenia; a
iaonoie/eainoe oac iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia; a eciaiaiee iieacaoaeae
ianooaaia e aeoaeiu e?ecenia.Eioeyoeey ni?ina i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oaiaeaioeeth e iiauoaieth o?iaiy oeai aneaaenoaea oaaee/aiey niaieoiiiai
ni?ina, oi anoue aioiaiinoe aieueoa ieaoeoue ca oio aea iaai? aeaa. Eae
i?aaeei, oaeay a?iaea au iaeiae/iay neooaoeey aicieeaao a ia?eiae
iaeeaeaiey e iaeeaeaiey oaaee/aiey oeiainiauo aeioiaeia a iaic?eiii
aoaeouai, iauyniyaiay, iai?eia?, i?inoi “noaaeiui /oanoaii”, eciaiaieai
aai iano?iy. Oaeouee ni?in ia aeaiueae i?e yoii oaaee/eaaaony e anee
i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa i?eaiaeeony a niioaaonoaea n iei, oi oaiaeaioeey
cae?aieyaony e oiaaea oaaee/aiea iau?iia naeaeie, oi anoue ?aaeueiia
iaeeaeaiea, o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiie yiennee aeaiaa.

E?ecen ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
iio?aaiaae io i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?acaeouo no?ai eneaoue auoiae ec
neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee, ii ia iooai ioeaca io ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey oeeeee/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a iin?aaenoaii ia?ano?ieee
aai oi?i e iaoiaeia. Aioeoeeeee/aneay iai?aaeaiiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiie
iieeoeee niaieeanue aioeeioeyoeeiiiie.

Aeaaa 3. Yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu e e?ecenu a ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieea.

A yeiiiieea oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey ia nouanoaiaaei i?iaeaiu
oeeeeia e e?ecenia. Yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu n/eoaeenue iniaaiiinoueth
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa, a caieiee e eieaaaiey a nioeeaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieea ?anniao?eaaeenue eae ianouanoaaiiua eee ia ieo ia ia?auaeinue
aieiaiea. Naycaii yoi n oai, /oi ?aaeueiue nioeeaeeci aue caaeoiai eae
aioeoaca ?uii/iiio eaieoaeecio.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea auea eeeaeaee?iaaia
aieueoay /anoue ?uiea (?uiie n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, ?uiie ?aai/ae neeu,
?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa, aaethoiue ?uiie). Inoaeny oieueei iaeei o?aaiaio
?uii/iie yeiiiieee – ?uiie iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, ia eioi?ii
caeeth/aeenue ia?aaiua naeaeee iaaeaeo iio?aaeoaeai e ainoaea?noaii.
Iiyoiio ?uii/iia ia?aaiiaanea auei aiiioe?iaaii a naio nenoaio
oicyenoaa. Aeinoe/ue ?uii/iiai ?aaiiaaney auei iaaiciiaeii, oae eae
nouanoaiaaea oieueei iaeia, e ia naiay aaaeiay, /anoue ?uiea; oeaiu
oi?ie?iaaeenue ia ia iniiaa ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey; ieaie?oaiay oeaia ia
ianea eioi?iaoeeth i ninoiyiee ?uiea (i oaeoe/aneeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
cao?aoao).

A yoeo oneiaeyo ionoonoaiaaea eioi?iaoeey i noieiinoe eaieoaea, iniiaiuo
oiiaeia, ?aai/ae neeu. A ?acoeueoaoa oeaio? iia i?eieiaoue ioeai/iua
no?aoaae/aneea ?aoaiey. Ii aeaaea anee a ii?yaeea ?aoi?ie?iaaiey
yeiiiieee oeaia ia onoaiaaeeaaeanue naa?oo, a ia?aaeaaaeanue a
eiiiaoaioeeth i?aaei?eyoee, ana ?aaii ?aaiiaanea ia aeinoeaaeinue, oae
eae a neeo ionoonoaey ?uiea eaieoaea e ?aai/ae neeu oeaia ia aeeth/aea
eioi?iaoeeth ia yeaiaioao ?an/aoa ?uii/iie noieiinoe (aeaiiuo i
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaieyo, noieiinoe ?aai/ae neeu). A yoie
neooaoeee ?aoaiey i oeaiao aace?iaaeenue ia aeaiiuo i oeaiao
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua a neeo nouanoaiaaiey iiiiiieee
i?iecaiaeeoaey auee aeaoi?ie?iaaiu. I?aaei?eyoey i?eieiaee ?aoaiey,
?oeiaiaenoaoynue naieie e?aoein?i/iuie eioa?anaie, aac o/aoa eioa?ania
iauanoaa a oeaeii. A ?acoeueoaoa aic?anoaee o?oaeiinoe, iiyaeyeenue
iiaua iaaeaeaoaeueiua i?iaeaiu, iineieueeo ?aoi?iu ioaaouaaee iaeaiueeee
ino?iaie yeiiiieee, a iniiaiay, ia?uii/iay /anoue aa ?acaeaaeanue a
eioa?anao ainoaea?noaa, ia niaiaaeathueo n eioa?anaie iio?aaeoaeae.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?acaeoea yeiiiieee oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey,
aiaoia aanueia aeeiaie/iie, ninoiyei ec /a?aaeu aiei ia?ooaiey
?aaiiaaney. Oeaio?aeeciaaiiua iaoaieciu ainnoaiiaeaiey ?aaiiaaney auee
yooaeoeaiu aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiiaioa, aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai aa?uea?a.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaeoi?u yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea aeaenoaiaaee a niaaoneie
yeiiiieea, ii a ne?uoie oi?ia. Ia yoii e?anii?a/eai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
i?aeoeea eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. A neeo naiae iaoa?eaeueiie i?e?iaeu
(iaoo?aeueiie oi?iu) eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey n o?oaeii iiaeaeathony
?aaoee?iaaieth, a oii /enea aee?aeoeaiiio. Aeaei a oii, /oi
yeiiiie/aneay ioaea/a io eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee i?ienoiaeeo n caaea?aeeie a
ianeieueei eao – oae iacuaaaiui eiaanoeoeeiiiui eaaii. Iiyoiio ca?aiaa
eneeth/aaony ?aaeoeey eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ia ?aaoee?othuea eiioeuenu.
E?iia oiai, eiaanoeoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue (iniaaiii e?oiiua
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeiie?aoiua, ia iiaoi?ythueany
aeoeee, eioi?ua iaeuecy io?aaoee?iaaoue. Ii aeaaiia ninoieo a oii, /oi
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey – yoi iiiai/eneaiiua eoioeyoeaiua i?ioeannu
(eiaanoeoeeiiiue ioeueoeieeeaoi?) e niioaaonoaaiii iaeanoue ia?anoaiey
?acaeoey (aenaea?aoi?). Iaoa?eaeueiay i?e?iaea eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee
iiiiaaao ne?uaaoue aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey oicyenoaa, oneeeaay eo
ino?ioo a aeaeueiaeoai.

Iaeiaei iaoo?aeueiay oi?ia eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ia naia ii naaa nicaeaao
oneiaey aeey oeeeee/aneeo eieaaaiee. Aaaeai iioea eiaanoeoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe (a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea – yoi i?eaueue). A yeiiiieea
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey – yoi eioa?an ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaei?eyoee. «Oeaio?» caeioa?aniaai a ?inoa eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, /oiau
nicaeaoue ooiaeaiaio aeey iaoa?eaeueiiai aeaaininoiyiey ia aieaa
iicaeiee ia?eiae e iaania/eoue iaoeeiiaeueioth aaciianiinoue.
I?aaei?eyoey iiaeaea?aeeaatho e oneeeaatho ?aciao eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, oae
eae ei eaa/a a yoeo oneiaeyo auiieiyoue ieai e i?ioeainoiyoue
iineaaenoaeyi aeaoeoeeoa. Ca n/ao ?anoe?aiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia
i?aaei?eyoey eaaei i?eia?aoatho iauanoaaiiue aan a no?aia, a ana naie
i?iaeaiu ?aoatho ia ca n/ao ?aoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea, a ca n/ao ?anoe?aiey eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. Aaaeii
ioiaoeoue oaeaea, /oi eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey ia nicaeatho aeey i?aaei?eyoey
ieeaeiai ?enea, eai iieiaeaiea, /oi i?iaeoeoeey, nicaeaiiay ca n/ao
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, iicaeiaa iiaea ia noaoue noieiinoueth, ia eiaei iiae
niaie ?aaeueiinoe. Ia neo/aeii oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eei
au?aaeaiea «inaiaiea eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee».

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ainoaea?noaii, e i?aaei?eyoeyie nicaeaaaeenue oneiaey
aeey ia?aiai?yaeaiey ieaiia ii eaieoaeiaeiaeaieyi, /oi aucuaaei
iinoiyiioth iianiinoue ecauoi/iuo eiaanoeoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, a oneiaeyo ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieee e ionoonoaey
«ii?iaeueiiai» ?uiea (eiaaea iao ?aaeueiuo nianoaaiieeia ia eaieoae, iao
eiieo?aioeee e ?aaeueiuo oeai) eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey ?aaee eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee
nicaeaaaee eeethceth yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e oaaee/aiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea. Ia naiii aea aeaea i?ienoiaeee niaae a naiie nouanoaaiiie
/anoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea – a i?iecaiaenoaa oiiaea iio?aaeaiey. A
oneiaeyo oiiaee?iaaiiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoey
ia?aea/eaaee a cao?aou iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeioth /anoue oiiaea
iio?aaeaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa iio?aaeaiea ana aieueoa aunooiaei a
e??aoeeiiaeueiie oi?ia ?acaaca?eaaiey anaaiciiaeiuo oiiaeia. E /ai
aieueoa yeiiiieea i?iecaiaeeea, /ai auoa auee oaiiu eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee,
oai aaaeiaa noaiiaeeinue ianaeaiea.

Yieciaee/aneia «acaaae?eaaiea» yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a yoeo oneiaeyo
i?ienoiaeeei ca n/ao a?aiaiiuo ?aoi?i, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?anoe?aiea
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee (1965 a.), eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia,
aeeeooaiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii, a oaeaea ca n/ao oaaee/aiey
iauaia aiaoiaoi?aiauo iia?aoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, a yeiiiieea ?innee ia auei «i?aaeeueiuo» oeeeeia, ca
eneeth/aieai aieueoiai oeeeea yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey 1929-1932 –
1981-1985 aa. Oeeeee/aneea eieaaaiey a ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieea eiaee a
iniiaiii aiayeiiiie/aneea i?e/eiu.

Iai?eia?, e?ecen nauoa a i?iiuoeaiiinoe 1923-1924 aa. eae ?acoeueoao
i?iecaieueiiai eciaiaiey oeai; oeaaiue e?ecen 1927-1928 aa. eae
neaaenoaea ianeeuenoaaiiie eiiee o?aaeeoeeiiiiai oeeaaea
aa?a?ii-eiaeono?eaeueiuo ioiioaiee; aieiae 1932 a.;

aeoaieee aiaiiue e?ecen 1941-1942 aa.; niaae 1952-1953 aa., ineiaeiaiiue
niaiie iieeoe/aneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa; iauee e?ecen ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa
1963 a. eae ?acoeueoao aaeieieno?aoeaii-iieeoe/aneeo i?in/aoia a
oi?aaeaiee yeiiiieeie; niaae e aeai?anney 1972 a. eae neaaenoaea
ia?anoaiey e?ecena aaeieieno?aoeaii-iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu; niaae eiioea
80-o e ia/aea 90-o aiaeia eae ?acoeueoao iieiiai ?aceiaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiii-iaoo?aeueiiai oeeaaea oicyenoaiaaiey. N ia/aea 90-o
aiaeia ioa/anoaaiiay yeiiiieea ia?aaeeaaao noaaoeyoeeth (ni/aoaiea
eioeyoeee e niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa). A ninoiyiee niaaea iaoiaeyony
aaaeiaeoea iae?iyeiiiie/aneea ia?aiao?u – eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey,
i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, aiaoiyy oi?aiaey.

Nia?aiaiiay ?inneeneay yeiiiieea iaoiaeeony a noaaeee noaiiaeaiey
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. Iiea aua iao iieiuo iniiaaiee iacaaoue aeaeaeaiea
ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee oeeeee/aneei, oioy iaeeoei e niaaeu
i?iecaiaenoaa, e eioeyoeey, e e?ecen eiaanoeoeee. Oa?aeoa? anao yoeo
i?ioeannia io?aaeaao a aieueoae noaiaie iineaaenoaey ?acaaea
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu, iaaeaee iaoaieci ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee, eioi?ue iaoiaeeony oieueei a noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey.

Aeey noaiiaeaiey oeeeee/aneie oi?iu aeaeaeaiey a ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieea
iaiaoiaeeiu nouanoaaiiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua aeeaaiey a i?iecaiaenoai,
eioi?ua a oneiaeyo iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e noeoeeiiai ?uii/iiai
iaoaiecia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee i?eia?aooo eieaaaoaeueiua
aeaeaeaiey. Yeiiiie/aneee oeeee noaiao iaoaieciii naii?aaoee?iaaiey, a
e?ecenu aoaeoo auiieiyoue ?ieue ea/anoaaiiiai no?oeoo?iiai oaeoi?a
iaiiaeaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea.

I?iaeaia ?inoa e ?acaeoey ?inneeneie yeiiiieee. Noaiiaeaiea oeeeee/aneie
oi?iu aeaeaeaiey ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee naycaii n i?iaeaiie
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa caaeneo io oiai, ia eaeea
?uiee, ia eaeie ni?in i?eaioe?iaaia yeiiiieea. Aeey ?innee nouanoaotho
aeaa aa?eaioa yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Ia?aue naycai n i?eaioaoeeae ia
aiaoiee ?uiie nu?ueaauo ?ano?nia eae iaeaieaa onoie/eaue, iaaeaaeiue e
aeinooiiue aeey iaoae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A yoii neo/aa aioo?aiiea
eiaanoeoeee aoaeoo iai?aaeyoueny ia aeiau/o nu?uey e a
iai?iecaiaenoaaiioth noa?o, a iniiaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eiaanoeoeee –
ca a?aieoeo. I?e yoii ni?in aoaeao oi?ie?iaaoueny ?acaeouie no?aiaie,
eioi?ua oioyo iieoiaoue nu?uea iiaeaoaaea. Ca a?aieoeae aoaeoo
oi?ie?iaaoueny e oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa – o?oae e eaieoae. Iaeaieaa
caeioa?aniaaiiuie a oaeii oeia ?inoa aoaeoo io?anee
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena e aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Aoi?ie aa?eaio naycai n iaeeaeaieai aioo?aiiaai ?uiea. Iaeiaei yoi
iio?aaoao ?ai?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, ?inoa yooaeoeaiinoe ia
ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. *a?ac iaaeio?aneaaua nayce i?ioeann
oaoiieiae/aneiai ?inoa aoaeao aini?iecaiaeeoueny.

Iiii/ue eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeii
ainoaea?noai iooai inaiaiaeaeaiey eo io /anoe iaeiaia eee
i?aaeinoaaeaiey ei ion?i/ee a auieaoa iaeiaia. ?ino ia oaoie/aneie
iniiaa auaiaeai io?aneyi iio?aaeoaeueneiai e eiaanoeoeeiiiiai ni?ina.
Naaiaeiy aeey ?innee iaeaieaa ?aaeueia niaoaiiay iiaeaeue yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa.

Aeey ?acaeoey ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee iaiaoiaeeia aa i?eaioaoeey ia
iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaea /a?ac aeoeaiia aiaae?aiea
iiaiaaaaeaiee. Yoiai iiaeii aeinoe/ue oieueei a ?aieao iiaie yeiiiieee,
iniiaaiiie ia eiaanoeoeeiiiii ?acaeoee, ?aaeecaoeee aeieain?i/iuo
no?aoaae/aneeo ieaiia ainoaea?noaa.

Aaaeiui oaeoi?ii yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa yaeyaony caiey, a oi/iaa,
eiee/anoai e ea/anoai i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. I/aaeaeii, /oi aieueoea
caianu ?aciiia?aciuo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, iaee/ea ieiaei?iaeiuo caiaeue,
aeaaii?eyoiua eeeiaoe/aneea e iiaiaeiua oneiaey, cia/eoaeueiua caianu
ieia?aeueiuo e yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia aiinyo aaniiue aeeaae a
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino no?aiu.

Iaeiaei iaee/ea iaeeueiuo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia ia anaaaea yaeyaony
naiiaeinoaoi/iui oaeoi?ii yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Iai?eia?, iaeioi?ua
no?aiu Ao?eee e THaeiie Aia?eee iaeaaeatho nouanoaaiiuie caianaie
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, ii aei neo ii? ninoiyo a nieneao ionoaeuo no?ai.
Yoi icia/aao, /oi oieueei yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia aaaeao e
yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo.

A oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena ii?aaeaeeoue ?aaeiiu, iauaeoeaii
ioaeaeathueany a oeaeaaie ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeea, i/aiue neiaeii.
Aeey yoiai i?aaiai aeanoe, eae ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia, oae e a
noauaeoao Oaaea?aoeee iaiaoiaeeia iaeneiaeueii aeinoiaa?iay eioi?iaoeey
i nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a ?aaeiiao. Caiaaeiua niaoeeaeenou
ii noaoenoeea n/eoatho, /oi a aee?aeoeaiie ieaiiaie yeiiiieea aieaa
aeinoiaa?iu iee?iyeiiiie/aneea e iaiaa aeinoiaa?iu iae?iyeiiiie/aneea
iieacaoaee, a a ?uii/iie – iaiai?io. Iaeiaei ?inneeneee iiuo
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi a ia?eiae ?aoi?i eae iae?i-, oae e
iee?iyeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee ioeoeeaeueiie noaoenoeee ia iieiinoueth
io?aaeatho ?aaeueioth neooaoeeth. Eiee/anoaaiiua ioeaiee
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey ?aaeiia ieacuaathony
iaaeinoaoi/iuie, eai eneaaeaiiay eioi?iaoeey i iioaioeeaea oa??eoi?ee,
iauaiao i?iecaiaenoaa a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee, ?aaeueiie iaeiaiaie aaca,
aeioiaeao i?aaei?eyoee, o?iaia aeecie ianaeaiey e o.i. ia iicaieyao
i?eieiaoue aaeaeaaoiua ?aoaiey.

A ia?niaeoeaa, eiaaea aoaeao i?aiaeieai e?ecen ?inneeneie yeiiiieee e
no?aia ia?aeaeao e ii?iaeueiiio ?acaeoeth, anoaiao aii?in ia
iioeiaeueiuo oaiiao yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi
iioeiaeueiua oaiiu aeieaeiu aace?iaaoueny ia neiaeeaoainy
iae?iyeiiiie/aneii ?aaiiaanee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee e iaeiia?aiaiii
aunooiaoue aaaeiaeoei n?aaenoaii aai iaania/aiey. Iie ia iiaoo auoue
neeoeii aunieeie, eai eceeoia aunieea oaiiu ?acaeoey, eae yoi
aeieacuaaao iae?iyeiiiieea, iaecaaaeii aaaeoo e eioeyoeee. A oeaeii
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi yoa i?iaeaia iiea a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee ia
?ac?aaioaia.

Caeeth/aiea

I?iaeaia oeeeee/iinoe yeiiiieee ca aieaa /ai aaeiaoth enoi?eth a?
nouanoaiaaiey noaea n?aaeioi/eai aeey enneaaeiaaiey iiiaeo oaeoi?ia,
ieacuaathueo iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoaiu ie?iaiai e iaoeeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaa.
Oeeeee/iia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee nii?iaiaeaeaaony aunieei o?iaiai
yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie, a caoai
niaaeii yoie aeoeaiinoe aei o?iaiy ieaea aeiionoeiiai. Ia?eiaee/aneay
iiaoi?yaiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo niaaeia aaaeao e iaieuaieth, aieiaeo,
no?aaeaieyi ethaeae, /oi ia iiaeao ia aaniieieoue oeeaeeeciaaiiia
iauanoai. Iiyoiio i?iaeaia oeeeee/iinoe anaaaea i?eaeaeaea aieiaiea
o/aiuo-yeiiiienoia e naaiaeiy inoaaony iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo i?iaeai
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

Iie?aynue ia ia?ainiuneaiiia ianeaaeea, nia?aiaiiua enneaaeiaaoaee
oi?ie?otho iiaoth oai?eth oeeeee/aneie aeeiaieee, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo
iiaeii iauynieoue aieiiia?aciua eieaaaiey yeiiiieee, iaoneiaeaiiua
iineaaeiaaoaeueiui caiauaieai aeiieie?othueo a iae oaoiieiae/aneeo
oeeaaeia e naycaiiuo n ieie yoaiia oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.
Eco/aiea ia?eiaee/aneeo eieaaaiee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
iieacaei eo i?yioth caaeneiinoue io iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e
eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua oi?ie?otho i?aaeiinueee aeey
aicieeiiaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie naaiaeiy yaeythony neaaeothuea iai?aaeaiey
iauyniaiey i?e/ei e?ecenia e oeeeeia:

Ai-ia?auo, iauyniaiea e?ecenia iaaeiiio?aaeaieai ia?iaeiuo iann,
aucuaathuei iaaae i?iecaiaenoaa. Eaea?noai io e?ecenia a yoii neo/aa –
noeioee?iaaiea iio?aaeaiey. Iaaeaeo oai, ia?aaiiia?iay aeeiaieea
iio?aaeaiey, eae oaaaeaeaao ian i?aeoeea, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nei?aa
neaaenoaea, /ai i?e/eio yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea.

Ai-aoi?uo, a?oiia o/aiuo-yeiiiienoia naycuaaao e?ecen n ionoonoaeai
«i?aaeeueiuo i?iii?oeee» iaaeaeo io?aneyie e ?aaeiiaie, n ia?aaoee?oaiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Ninoaaiie /anoueth yoeo acaeyaeia
iiaeii n/eoaoue eiioeaioeeth, iauyniythuoth e?ecenu naiyie a aeaiaaeiii
ia?auaiee eee aaieianeie noa?a, iienaiiie auoa.

A-o?aoueeo, ecaanoioth iiioey?iinoue iieo/ee iiene i?e/ei oeeeee/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a ?acaeoey yeiiiieee a eiioeeeoa oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e oneiaee
?aaeecaoeee, a i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii, no?aiyueiny e
?anoe?aieth, e ia oniaaathuei ca iei ?inoii ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina.
Yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen iaia?oaeeaaao nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a niaieoiiii
i?aaeeiaeaiee e niaieoiiii ni?ina, iiyoiio e?ecen yaeyaony ia oieueei
?acoeueoaoii ia?ooaiey i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e eiioeuenii e aeinoeaeaieth ?aaiiaaney e
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.

Oaeia iaeeea acaeyaeia iauyniyaony neiaeiinoueth .e aaaeiinoueth
aeaiiiai yeiiiie/aneiai yaeaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeeeee/iinoue aunooiaao eae oi?ia aeaeaeaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee e ie?iaiai oicyenoaa a oeaeii. Nia?aiaiiue
iaoaieci naiiiano?ieee ?uii/iie yeiiiieee /a?ac oeeeee/aneea e?ecenu
eciaiyaony iiae aeeyieai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey. I?ienoiaeeo
ia?aieaoaiea noeoeeii-?uii/iiai iaoaiecia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee a
oi?ia oeeeee/aneeo e?ecenia n niciaoaeueiui ainoaea?noaaiiui
aicaeaenoaeai ia aini?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. Ieeieaaaa E.A., *a?iay E.I. I.,2000a.

2. Ec?yaeiiaa I. ?aaeueiue naeoi? yeiiiieee: iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee. I.
2001

3. Ai?enia A.O. Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. – I.: TH?aeo, 2000

4. Naioyeuenii I. A., Ii?aeoaon A. Ae. Yeiiiieea. I., 1997.

5. Yeiiiie/aneia ianeaaeea I.Ae.Eiiae?aoueaaa e nia?aiaiiinoue. – NIa.,
1994.

6. Ooaai-Aa?aiianeee I.E. Ia?eiaee/aneea i?iiuoeaiiua e?ecenu. Enoi?ey
aiaeeeneeo e?ecenia. Iauay oai?ey e?ecenia. I., 1997.

7. Aeia?uiei A.E. Oa?anaae/ E.N. Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. NIA.,2002

8. ssaeaa?ia ss.N. Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee. I.,1996

9. Aenna?eiiia A. O?iee e?ecena Yeiiiieno, 1999,

10.Neae?yeia A. I?iaeoe?iaaiea e?ecenia – iooue e oniaoo I, 1999,

11. Iaiaaeia I.TH. Nia?aiaiiay yeiiiieea. I ., 1996.

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