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Трудовая теория стоимости

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee.

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneay ainoaea?noaaiiay eiaeaia?ii-yeiiiie/aneay aeaaeaiey

Einoeooo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai a yeiiiieea e oi?aaeaiee

Eaoaae?a: yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

“O?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe”.

Auiieieea:

nooaeaioea a?. ?371 TH. I. Oeiioaaaa

I?iaa?ee:

aeaeaiee AAI, i?io. A. N. Aa/eaiia

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a

1998 Niaea?aeaiea.

Niaea?aeaiea 2 no?. 1. Aaaaeaiea 3-5 no?.

2. O?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe 5-26 no?.

I. Iaooe 5-8 no?.

II. Nieo 8-11 no?.

III. ?eea?aei 11-20 no?.

IV. Ia?en 20-26 no?.

3. Aeueoa?iaoeaiua oai?ee

noieiinoe 26-33 no?.

4. Caeeth/aiea 33-34 no?.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u 35 no?.

Aaaaeaiea.

A naiae ?aaioa y iiiuoaeanue ?anniio?aoue nooue e enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea
o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe, eioi?ay yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniiaiue oai?ee
noieiinoe a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea. A oaeaea iiiuoaony
n?aaieoue aa n aeueoa?iaoeaiuie ae oai?eyie.

O?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe nouanoaiaaea aua caaeieai aei Ia?ena. Ia?aui
yoio aii?in iiaeiye Oeueyi Iaooe, caoai i?iaeieaeee ?ac?aaioeo oai?ee
Aaeai Nieo, iioii Aeaaeae ?eea?aei, a Ia?en ieii/aoaeueii ioi?iee
o?oaeiaoth oai?eth noieiinoe.

O. Iaooe onoaiiaee, /oi a iniiaa i?iii?oeee iaiaia eaaeeo ?aaainoai
o?oaea, ?aai/aai a?aiaie, eioi?ia cao?a/aii ia niiinoaaeyaiua oiaa?u. Ii
iiae noieiinoueth Iaooe iiae?acoiaaaao oieueei o?oae, cao?a/aiiue ia
i?iecaiaenoai na?aa?a.

A. Nieo, oaeoaeyy eaeae Iaooe, i?eoae e naiiio oe?ieiio iaiauaieth:
“O?oae yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui anaiauei, ?aaii eae e aaeeinoaaiiui oi/iui
ia?eeii noieiinoe, eee aaeeinoaaiiie ia?ie, iin?aaenoaii eioi?ie iu
iiaeai n?aaieaaoue iaaeaeo niaie noieiinoue ?acee/iuo oiaa?ia ai ana
a?aiaia e ai anao ianoao”. Ii ii n/eoae, /oi yoa oai?ey ni?aaaaeeeaa
eeoue a i?inoii oiaa?iii i?iecaiaenoaa. Ae?oaia aai iiaiea a oii, /oi
noieiinoue, a cia/eo e oeaia ninoiyo ec cao?ao o?oaea, e i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe.

Ae. ?eea?aei iino?iee aieaa eiae/ioth oai?eth, /ai o Nieoa. Ii n/eoae,
/oi a noieiinoe oiaa?a neaaeoao o/eouaaoue ia oieueei, cao?aou o?oaea ia
aai i?iecaiaenoai, ii e cao?aou o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa n iiiiuueth eioi?uo i?iecaiaeeony aeaiiue oiaa?, a oaeaea
cao?aou o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai iaoa?eaeia.

E. Ia?en caeii/ee oi?ie?iaaiea o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe. Ii o/ae i?e
?anniio?aiee noieiinoe aeaienoaaiiue oa?aeoa? o?oaea. ?ac?aoee ana
i?ioeai?a/uey, /aoei ?acaeaeee iaiiaoth e iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoe e
i?aa?aoee o?oaeiaoth oai?eth noieiinoe a oeaeinoioth nenoaio.

Iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe iiaeii e?aoei au?aceoue
a neaaeothueo iieiaeaieyo.

Ia?aia iieiaeaiea. ?acii?iaeiua i?iaeoeou ?uii/iiai iaiaia eiatho
iaeeiaeiaia aioo?aiiaa niaea?aeaiea – noieiinoue. Iiyoiio iie iiaoo
i?e?aaieaaoueny ae?oa e ae?oao a ii?aaeaeaiiie iaiiaie i?iii?oeee.

Aoi?ia iieiaeaiea. Noieiinoue anao oiaa?ia nicaeaaony iauanoaaiiui
o?oaeii oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae. Yoio o?oae yaeyaony iauanoaaiiui iioiio,
/oi ecaioiaeoaeue ?uii/iiai i?iaeoeoa ?aaioaao ia ia naay, a nicaeaao
iieacioth aauue aeey ae?oaeo /eaiia iauanoaa. Noaei auoue, noieiinoue –
aiieiuaiiue a oiaa?a iauanoaaiiue o?oae. A ?aaainoai i?iaeoeoia ii eo
noieiinoe icia/aao, /oi a ieo caeeth/aii iaeeiaeiaia eiee/anoai o?oaea.

O?aouea iieiaeaiea. Nai o?oae, ia?acothuee noieiinoue, ?acee/aaony ii
aai neiaeiinoe eee ea/anoao. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue i?inoie (o?aaothuee
iaeiaiueoae iiaeaioiaee) e neiaeiue (eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue) o?oae. Ia
iineaaeiee i?aaeaa?eoaeueii cao?a/eaathony a?aiy, oneeey /aeiaaea, /oiau
i?eia?anoe ioaeiua o?oaeiaua iaauee e ciaiey. Iiyoiio 1 / neiaeiiai
o?oaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ?aaai 1 / i?inoiai o?oaea.

Iaeiaei i?e ?uii/iii iaiaia aauae i?ienoiaeeo oae iacuaaaiay ?aaeoeoeey
o?oaea: 1 / neiaeiiai o?oaea naiaeeony e ianeieueeei /anai i?inoiai
o?oaea. Aaaeue ia ?uiea ecaeaeey eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
aeaaiaea?y noieiinoe i?e?aaieaathony e i?iaeoeoai i?inoiai o?oaea.

E. Ia?en aeae oaeia oieeiaaiea ?aaeoeoeee o?oaea: “I?inoie n?aaeiee
o?oae, oioy e iineo ?acee/iue oa?aeoa? a ?acee/iuo no?aiao e a ?acee/iua
eoeueoo?iua yiioe, oai ia iaiaa, aeey eaaeaeiai ii?aaeaeaiiiai iauanoaa
anoue ia/oi aeaiiia. N?aaieoaeueii neiaeiue o?oae icia/aao oieueei
aicaaaeaiiue a noaiaiue, eee, nei?aa, iiiiiaeaiiue, i?inoie o?oae …
Oiaa? iiaeao auoue i?iaeoeoii naiiai neiaeiiai o?oaea, ii aai noieiinoue
aeaeaao aai ?aaiui i?iaeoeoo i?inoiai o?oaea”.

*aoaa?oia iieiaeaiea. O?oae eiaao aioo?aiiaa ia?eei – ?aai/aa a?aiy.
Anee o?oae yaeyaony iaeeiaeiaui ii ea/anoao, oi ii eiee/anoaaiii
ecia?yaony i?ioyaeaiiinoueth ai a?aiaie.

I/aaeaeii, /oi ?aai/aa a?aiy, i?eoiaeyuaany ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee,
iaiaeeiaeiai ii aaee/eia o ?aciuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae, auioneathueo iaeie e
oa aea eiie?aoiua aeaaa. Eae aea a oaeii neo/aa, – ii eaeiio
yeiiiie/aneiio caeiio – ?acaeaaaony oiaa?iia oicyenoai?

Oaeei yaeyaony caeii noieiinoe. Ii au?aaeaao oaeoth iauaeoeaioth
iio?aaiinoue, /oiau noieiinoue oiaa?a ii?aaeaeyeanue iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiui ?aai/ei a?aiaiai. Yoi oi ?aai/aa a?aiy, eioi?ia
cao?a/eaaaony ia ecaioiaeaiea i?iaeoeoia i?e:

a) iauanoaaiii ii?iaeueiui (ainiiaenoaothuai) ninoiyiea i?iecaiaenoaa;

a) n?aaeiae eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieeia;

a) n?aaeiae eioaineaiinoe o?oaea.

Oaeia a?aiy iau/ii cao?a/eaaao i?e nicaeaiee oiaa?a aieueoeinoai
i?iecaiaeeoaeae, oa n?aaeiaa a?aiy. Ii i?e ia?aie/aiiuo i?e?iaeiuo
oaeoi?ao (iai?eia?, a naeueneii oicyenoaa eee a aeiauaathueo io?aneyo
i?iiuoeaiiinoe) iauanoaaiii ii?iaeueiuie iiaoo auoue e ooaeoea oneiaey
oicyenoaiaaiey.

2. O?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe.

I. Iaooe.

Oeueyi Iaooe n/eoaaony ii i?aao ia?aui i?ioanneiiaeueiui yeiiiienoii, a
nia?aiaiiii niunea yoiai neiaa. Ii aeee a Aiaeee a 17-ii aaea. Ii eae
iau/ii auaaao, ii ia iniciaaae oiai, /oi ii yaeyaony ia?aiioe?uaaoaeai.
Naiia aieueoia, /oi ii i?eienuaae naaa, – yoi ecia?aoaiea iieeoe/aneie
a?eoiaoeee (noaoenoeee). A yoii aeaeaee aai aeaaioth caneoao e
nia?aiaiieee. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ii naeaeae oaeaea ia/oi eiia: naieie
auneacuaaieyie, eae au, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, iuneyie i noieiinoe, ?aioa,
ca?aaioiie ieaoa, ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea e aeaiueaao ii caeiaeee iniiau
iao/iie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. Oaeaea Iaooe iiaeii n/eoaoue iniiaaoaeai
o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe. Naiui aaaeiui yeiiiie/aneei ni/eiaieai Iaooe
n/eoaaony “O?aeoao i iaeiaao e nai?ao”.

Iaooe a iieiie ia?a aue ioe?uo aeey iaoee eeoue Ia?enii. Oieueei Ia?en,
ii-iiaiio inaaoea anth enoi?eth iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee naiei
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneei e eeanniaui aiaeecii, iieacae iiaeeeiiia ianoi,
eioi?ia caieiaao a iae aaieaeueiue aiaee/aiei. Iaooe – ?iaeiia/aeueiee
ao?aeoaciie eeanniaie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee, eioi?ay ia?aoea e aiaeeco
aioo?aiieo caeiiiia?iinoae eaieoaeenoe/aneiai niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa, e
iieneai caeiia aai aeaeaeaiey.

*a?ac 200 eao Ea?e Ia?en ienae i “O?aeoaoa”: “A ?anniao?eaaaiii iaie
i?iecaaaeaiee Iaooe ii nooe aeaea ii?aaeaeyao noieiinoue oiaa?ia
n?aaieoaeueiui eiee/anoaii niaea?aeauaainy a ieo o?oaea. A naith
i/a?aaeue, “io ii?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe caaeneo e ii?aaeaeaiea i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe”. A yoeo neiaao Ia?ena a naiie naeaoie oi?ia au?aaeaia nooue
iao/iiai aeinoeaeaiey aiaeeeneiai iuneeoaey.

I?eaaaeai iaeei ecaanoiue i?eia? ec “O?aeoaoa” Iaooe. “I?aaeiieiaeei,
/oi iaeoi caieiaaony i?iecaiaenoaii ca?ia. *anoue i?iecaaaeaiiiai ei
i?iaeoeoa aiiaue iieaeao ia naiaia, /anoue aoaeao iio?a/aia ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea ei nianoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae (a oii /enea iooai iaiaia),
a inoaoie oeaaa ninoaaeyao aaeeinoaaiioth e enoeiioth caiaeueioth
?aioo”. Caeanue iaia/aii aeaeaiea i?iaeoeoa e aai noieiinoe ia o?e
iniiaiua /anoe: 1) /anoue, i?aaenoaaeythuoth aiciauaiea cao?a/aiiuo
n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, a aeaiiii neo/aa naiy; 2) /anoue, iaiaoiaeeioth
aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeecie ?aaioieea e aai naiuee, e 3) ecauoie eee
/enoue aeioiae. Yoa iineaaeiyy /anoue niioaaonoaoao aaaaeaiiui Ia?enii
iiiyoeai i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa e i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.

Ethaiiuoii, /oi a ninoaaa ecaea?aeae n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa Iaooe
iioneaao ae?oaea cao?aou, iiieii naiyi: iaaic, eciin eioaaee, ieoaa,
na?ia o. i. Yoe cao?aou ia aiciauathony ca?iii a iaoo?a (iiyoiio Iaooe,
aiciiaeii, ia o/eouaaao eo), ii aeieaeiu auoue aiciauaiu ii noieiinoe.
Neaaeai, /a?ac 10 eao iaoa?th iio?aaoaony iiaay eioaaeue. Ec eaaeaeiai
aiaeiaiai o?iaeay ii aeieaeai oaea?aeeaaoue eaeoth-oi /anoue noieiinoe
aeey iineaaeothuae iieoiee yoie eioaaee.

Caiaoei oaeaea, /oi caeanue ?a/ue eaeao i i?iecaiaenoaa aac iaaiiiai
o?oaea. Io/anoe yoi iiaeii iauynieoue oai, /oi Iaooe no?aieony naeaeaoue
naith “iiaeaeue” aiciiaeii aieaa i?inoie e iaaeyaeiie. Ii aa?iaa anaai
oi, /oi i?inoia oiaa?iia i?iecaiaenoai (ia naiae caiea, naieie i?oaeeyie
e aac iaeia ?aai/eo) a aai a?aiaia eiaei aieueoia cia/aiea, i?aiaeaaeay
iaae eaieoaeenoe/anee i?aaieciaaiiui oicyenoaii.

Aeieaa Iaooe noaaeo aii?in: “…eaeiio eiee/anoao aiaeeeneeo aeaiaa iiaeao
?aaiyoueny ii naiae noieiinoe yoio oeaa eee yoa ?aioa? ss ioaa/ath:
oaeiio eiee/anoao aeaiaa, eioi?ia a oa/aiea iaeeiaeiaiai a?aiaie
i?eia?aoaao ca au/aoii naieo ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa eoi-ieaoaeue
ae?oaie, anee ii anaoeaei ioaeaaony i?iecaiaenoao aeaiaa, o. a.
i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi eoi-ieaoaeue ae?oaie ioi?aaeyaony a no?aio na?aa?a,
aeiauaay oai yoio iaoaee, i/euaao aai, aeinoaaeyao aai ia ianoi
i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaa ia?aui, /aeaieo ooo ec yoiai na?aa?a iiiaoo e o. ae.
I?aaeiieiaeei aeaeaa, /oi yoio eiaeeaeaeooi a oa/aiea oiai a?aiaie,
eioi?ia ii iinayuaao aeiauaaieth na?aa?a, i?eia?aoaao oaeaea n?aaenoaa,
ioaeiua aeey naiaai i?iieoaiey, iaeaaeaeu e o. ae. Oiaaea na?aa?i
iaeiiai aeieaeii auoue ?aaii ii noieiinoe oeaao ae?oaiai; anee ia?aiai
eiaaony, iai?eia? 20 oioeee, a iineaaeiaai 20 aooaeae, oi oioeey na?aa?a
aoaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie oeaio aooaey oeaaa”.

I/aaeaeii, /oi i?e?aaieaaiea ii noieiinoe /anoae ca?ia e na?aa?a,
i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo, ?aaiineeueii i?e?aaieaaieth
anaai aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa. Aaaeue yoe iineaaeiea 20 aooaeae ca?ia ie/ai
ia ioee/athony io inoaeueiuo, neaaeai 30 aooaeae, eioi?ua aiciauatho
naiaia e ninoaaeytho i?iieoaiea caieaaeaeueoea. Yoi aea ioiineony e e 20
oioeeyi na?aa?a, i eioi?uo auoa eaeao ?a/ue. A ae?oaii ianoa Iaooe
au?aaeaao o?oaeiaoth oai?eth noieiinoe a /enoii aeaea: “Anee
eoi-ieaoaeue iiaeao aeiauoue eo ia?oaineie ii/au e aeinoaaeoue a Eiiaeii
iaeio oioeeth na?aa?a a oi aea naiia a?aiy, a oa/aiea eioi?iai ii a
ninoiyiee i?iecaanoe iaeei aooaeue oeaaa, oi ia?aay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
anoanoaaiioth oeaio ae?oaiai…”

Eoae, Iaooe, ii nouanoao, oi?ioee?oao caeii noieiinoe. Ii iiieiaao, /oi
yoio caeii aeaenoaoao e?aeia neiaeiui ia?acii, eeoue eae iauay
oaiaeaioeey. Yoi au?aaeaaony a neaaeothueo iienoeia oaeeaeoaeueiuo
o?acao: “ss ooaa?aeaeath, /oi eiaiii a yoii ninoieo iniiaa n?aaiaiey e
niiinoaaeaiey noieiinoae. Ii y i?eciath, /oi ?acaeaathuayny ia yoie
iniiaa iaaeno?ieea i/aiue ?aciiia?acia e neiaeia”.

Iaaeaeo iaiiaie noieiinoueth, aaee/eia eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyaony cao?aoaie
o?oaea, e ?aaeueiie ?uii/iie oeaiie – iiiaeanoai iin?aaenoaothueo
caaiueaa, eioi?ua aacia?ii oneiaeiytho i?ioeann oeaiiia?aciaaiey. N
iaiau/iie i?ici?eeainoueth Iaooe iacuaaao iaeioi?ua oeaiiia?acothuea
oaeoi?u, n eioi?uie i?eoiaeeoueny n/eoaoueny nia?aiaiiui yeiiiienoai e
ieaiiaeeai: aeeyiea oiaa?ia-caiaieoaeae, oiaa?ia-iiaeiie, iiae,
iiae?aaeaiey, o?aaeeoeee iio?aaeaiey.

Iaooe aeaeaao ia?aua oaae ia iooe aiaeeca naiiai o?oaea, nicaeathuaai
noieiinoue. Aaaeue eaaeaeue eiie?aoiue aeae o?oaea nicaeaao oieueei
eiie?aoiia aeaai, iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue: o?oae caieaaeaeueoea –
ca?ii, o?oae oea/a – iieioii e o. ae. Ii a ethaii aeaea o?oaea anoue
/oi-oi iauaa, aeaeathuaa ana aeaeu o?oaea n?aaieiuie, a yoe aeaaa –
oiaa?aie, iaiiauie noieiinoyie: cao?aou ?aai/aai a?aiaie eae oaeiaiai,
cao?aou i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie yia?aee ?aaioieea aiiaua.

Iaooe aue a enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneie iaoee ia?aui, eoi noae i?ieeaaeuaaoue
iooue e eaeaa aano?aeoiiai o?oaea, eioi?ay eaaea a iniiao ia?enenoeie
oai?ee noieiinoe.

Auei au no?aiii eneaoue o ca/eiaoaey e ia?aiioe?uaaoaey eaeoth-oi
no?ieioth e caeii/aiioth yeiiiie/aneoth oai?eth. Iiooaiiue
ia?eaioaeenoeeie i?aaenoaaeaieyie, ii aua ia iiaeao ioaeaeaoueny io
eeethcee, /oi o?oae a aeiau/a ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia – yoi ana aea
eaeie-oi iniaue o?oae, iaeaieaa iaiin?aaenoaaiii nicaeathuee noieiinoue.
Iaooe ia iiaeao ioaeaeeoue iaiiaoth noieiinoue, eioi?ay iaeaieaa
iaaeyaeii aiieiuaaony a yoeo iaoaeeao, io naiie noanoaioeee noieiinoe –
cao?ao anaiauaai /aeiaa/aneiai aano?aeoiiai o?oaea. O iaai iao
neieueei-ieaoaeue yniiai iiiyoey i oii, /oi aaee/eia noieiinoe
ii?aaeaeyaony cao?aoaie iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai o?oaea, oeie/iuie e
n?aaeieie aeey aeaiiiai o?iaiy oicyenoaa. Cao?aou o?oaea, i?aauoathuea
iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiua, i?iiaaeatho aea?ii, ia nicaeatho noieiinoue.
Iiiaia n oi/ee c?aiey iineaaeothuaai ?acaeoey iaoee iiaeii i?eciaoue o
Iaooe neaaui e i?yii ioeai/iui. Ii ?acaa yoi aeaaiia? Aeaaiia oi, /oi
Iaooe oaa?aei noieo ia eca?aiiie ei iiceoeee – o?oaeiaie oai?ee
noieiinoe – e oniaoii i?eiaiyao aa ei iiiaei eiie?aoiui i?iaeaiai.

II. Nieo.

Iio?aaiinoe yiioe ?iaeaeatho ioaeiiai /aeiaaea. Aoaeo/e iaoneiaeaia
?acaeoeai naiiai eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa, iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey a
Aiaeee aeinoeaea oaeie noaaeee, eiaaea aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue
nicaeaiey nenoaiu, iaiaoiaeeiinoue oii?yaei/aiey e iaiauaiey
yeiiiie/aneeo ciaiee. Nieo aue /aeiaaeii e o/aiui, eioi?iio oaeay
caaea/a ieacaeanue ii iea/o. Yoio oioeaiaeaoe n/anoeeai ni/aoae a naaa
niiniaiinoe aano?aeoiiai iuoeaiey n oiaieai aeeai ?anneacuaaoue i
eiie?aoiuo aauao. Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneoth o/aiinoue – n eneeth/eoaeueiie
aeia?iniaanoiinoueth e iao/iie /anoiinoueth. Oiaiea iieueciaaoue eaeae
ae?oaeo o/aiuo – n aieueoie naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth e e?eoe/iinoueth
iunee. Iao/ioth e a?aaeaeaineoth niaeinoue – n i?ioanni?neie
o?aaiiaaoaiiinoueth e nenoaiaoe/iinoueth. A Eiiaeiia a ia?oa 1776 aiaea
auoea a naao iaeia ec naiuo caia/aoaeueiuo eiea a enoi?ee iieeoe/aneie
yeiiiiee: “Enneaaeiaaiea i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia”.

A iniiao naiaai enneaaeiaaiey Aaeai Nieo iieiaeee o?oaeiaoth oai?eth
noieiinoe, n/eoay caeiiii ii?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe cao?a/aiiui ia
i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a o?oaeii e iaiai oiaa?ia niioaaonoaaiii
caeeth/aiiiio a ieo eiee/anoao o?oaea. Aianoa n oai ei auea i?aaei?eiyoa
iiiuoea i?iaeaeiooueny io enoiaeiie, i?inoaeoae oi?ioee?iaee o?oaeiaie
oai?ee noieiinoe e aiaeeco ?aaeueiie nenoaiu oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiiai iaiaia
e oeaiiia?aciaaiey a oneiaeyo eaieoaeecia naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee.
O?aeooy i?iaeaio noieiinoe n iaaeinoeaeeiie aeey iaai iao/iie aeoaeiie e
iniiaaoaeueiinoueth, Nieo, oai ia iaiaa, iaoieeioeny ia ia?ac?aoeiua
i?ioeai?a/uey.

Nieo n aieueoae /aoeinoueth, /ai eoi-eeai aei iaai, ii?aaeaeee e
?aca?aie/ee iaiiaoth e iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue oiaa?a. Ii i?eciae
?aaiicia/iinoue anao aeaeia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea eae nicaeaoaey e
eiia/iiai ia?eea noieiinoe, iieacae caeiiiia?iinoue oiai, /oi noieiinoue
iai?aiaiii aeieaeia au?aaeaoueny a iaiiauo i?iii?oeeyo, a eiee/anoaaiiii
ioiioaiee iaiaia oiaa?aie, a i?e aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoii oiaa?iii
i?iecaiaenoaa – a aeaiueaao. Iaeiaei Nieo ia enneaaeiaae o?oae eae
noanoaioeeth noieiinoe. Ii ia ?acee/ae i?ioeann o?oaea eae oaeoi?
nicaeaiey e ia?aianaiey noieiinoe, iineieueeo ana aai aieiaiea auei
iai?aaeaii ia iaiiaoth noieiinoue, ia eiee/anoaaiioth ia?o noieiinoe,
eae iia i?iyaeyaony a iaiiauo i?iii?oeeyo, a eiia/iii n/aoa – a oeaiao.

Nieo iiieiae, /oi aaee/eia noieiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony ia oaeoe/aneeie
cao?aoaie o?oaea ioaeaeueiiai oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey, a oaie cao?aoaie,
eioi?ua a n?aaeiai iaiaoiaeeiu aeey aeaiiiai ninoiyiey i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii
ioia/ae oaeaea, /oi eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue e neiaeiue o?oae nicaeaao a
aaeeieoeo a?aiaie aieueoa noieiinoe, /ai iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue e i?inoie,
e iiaeao auoue naaaeai e iineaaeiaio ii n?aaenoaai iaeioi?uo
eiyooeoeeaioia. O iaai iaia/aeinue iiiyoea ?aaeoeoeee o?oaea.

I aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee Nieoii oai?ee noieiinoe naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei
?aca?aie/aiea anoanoaaiiie e ?uii/iie oeai oiaa?a, i?e/ai ia?aay
o?aeoiaaeanue nia/aea eae aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea noieiinoe. Iia “eae au
i?aaenoaaeyea niaie oeaio?aeueioth oeaio, e eioi?ie iinoiyiii oyaioatho
oeaiu anao oiaa?ia, – ienae Nieo. – ?acee/iua neo/aeiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa
iiaoo eiiaaea aea?aeaoue eo ia cia/eoaeueii aieaa aunieii o?iaia e
eiiaaea ianeieueei iiieaeaoue eo ii n?aaiaieth n iath. Ii eaeiau au ie
auee i?aiyonoaey, eioi?ua ioeeiiytho oeaiu io yoiai onoie/eaiai oeaio?a,
iie iinoiyiii oyaioatho e iaio”. Nieo iieiaeee ia/aei enneaaeiaaieth
eiie?aoiuo oaeoi?ia, aucuaathueo ioeeiiaiea oeai io noieiinoe. Yoi, a
/anoiinoe, ioe?uaaei aiciiaeiinoe aeey enneaaeiaaiey ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey eae oaeoi?ia oeaiiia?aciaaiey, ?iee ?aciiai ?iaea
iiiiiieee.

Iaeiaei Nieo aue ia iineaaeiaaoaeai a eceiaeaiee naiae oai?ee noieiinoe.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eae ienae Ia?en, iu iaoiaeei o Nieoa “ia oieueei aeaa,
ii oeaeuo o?e, a, aiai?y nianai oi/ii – aeaaea /aou?a ?acei
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo acaeyaea ia noieiinoue, eioi?ua ie?ii ?aniieaaathony o
iaai ?yaeii eee ia?aieaoathony ae?oa n ae?oaii”. Ii-aeaeeiiio, iniiaiay
i?e/eia yoiai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi Nieo ia iia iaeoe
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuo n oi/ee c?aiey iao/iie eiaeee naycae iaaeaeo
o?oaeiaie oai?eae noieiinoe, eae iia neiaeeeanue a oi a?aiy e eae iia
auea ei caoeene?iaaia, e neiaeiinoueth eiie?aoiuo i?ioeannia
eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee. Ia iaoiaey yoeo naycae, ii noae
aa?uee?iaaoue e i?eniinaaeeaaoue enoiaeioth eiioeaioeeth.

I?aaeaea anaai, ia?yaeo ni noieiinoueth, ii?aaeaeyaiie eiee/anoaii
caeeth/aiiiai a oiaa?a iaiaoiaeeiiai o?oaea (ia?aue e iniiaiie acaeyae),
ii aaae aoi?ia iiiyoea, aaea noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii
o?oaea, eioi?ia iiaeii eoieoue ia aeaiiue oiaa?. A oneiaeyo i?inoiai
oiaa?iiai oicyenoaa, eiaaea iao iaaiiiai o?oaea e i?iecaiaeeoaee oiaa?ia
?aaioatho ia i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ei n?aaenoaao i?iecaiaenoaa, yoi ii
aaee/eia iaeii e oi aea. Oea/, neaaeai, iaiaieaaao eonie noeia ia
naiiae. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi eonie noeia noieo ia?u naiia, a iiaeii –
/oi ii noieo o?oaea naiiaeieea ca oi a?aiy, iiea ii ecaioiaeye yoe
naiiae. Ii eiee/anoaaiiia niaiaaeaiea ia neoaeeo aeieacaoaeuenoaii
oiaeaeanoaa, oae eae noieiinoue aeaiiiai oiaa?a iiaeao auoue
eiee/anoaaiii ii?aaeaeaia oieueei iaeiei-aaeeinoaaiiui niiniaii – a
ecaanoiii eiee/anoaa ae?oaiai oiaa?a.

Nieo nianai iioa?ye ii/ao iiae iiaaie, eiaaea iiiuoaeny i?eiaieoue yoi
naia aoi?ia oieeiaaiea noieiinoe e eaieoaeenoe/aneiio i?iecaiaenoao.
Anee naiiaeiee ?aaioaao ia eaieoaeenoa, oi noieiinoue i?iecaaaeaiiuo ei
naiia e “noieiinoue aai o?oaea”, oi, /oi ii iieo/aao ca yoio o?oae, –
niaa?oaiii ?aciua aaue. Auoiaeeo, /oi iaieiaoaeue, eoiea o?oae ?aai/aai
(eae iieacae Ia?en, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iieoiaaony ?aai/ay neea,
niiniaiinoue e o?oaeo), iieo/aao aieueooth noieiinoue, /ai ieaoeo ca
yoio o?oae.

Nieo ia niia iauynieoue yoi yaeaiea n iiceoeee o?oaeiaie oai?ee
noieiinoe e naeaeae iaaa?iue auaiae, /oi noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony
o?oaeii oieueei a “ia?aiauoiii ninoiyiee iauanoaa”, eiaaea ia auei
eaieoaeenoia e iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, o. a., a oa?ieiao Ia?ena, i?e i?inoii
oiaa?iii i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey oneiaee eaieoaeecia Nieo neiino?oe?iaae
o?aoee aa?eaio oai?ee noieiinoe: ii ?aoee, /oi noieiinoue oiaa?a i?inoi
neeaaeuaaaony ec ecaea?aeae, aeeth/ay ca?aaioioth ieaoo ?aai/eo e
i?eaueue eaieoaeenoa. Aai iaiae?yei e oi, /oi yoa oai?ey noieiinoe,
eacaeinue, iauyniyea yaeaiea n?aaeiae i?eauee ia eaieoae, “anoanoaaiioth
ii?io i?eauee”, eae ii au?aaeaeny. Nieo i?inoi ioiaeaeanoaee noieiinoue
n oeaiie i?iecaiaenoaa, ia aeaey iaaeaeo ieie neiaeiuo iin?aaenoaothueo
caaiueaa.

Yoi auea “oai?ey ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa”, eioi?ie noaeaeaii auei
ea?aoue aaaeioth ?ieue a oa/aiea neaaeothuaai noieaoey. Nieo anoae
caeanue ia i?aeoe/aneoth oi/eo c?aiey eaieoaeenoa, eioi?iio
aeaenoaeoaeueii i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi oeaia aai oiaa?a a iniiaiii
ii?aaeaeyaony ecaea?aeeaie e n?aaeiae i?eaueueth, a a eaaeaeue aeaiiue
iiiaio oaeaea ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai. Oaeay eiioeaioeey noieiinoe
ioe?uaaea i?inoi? aeey oiai, /oi au ecia?aaeaoue o?oae, eaieoae e caieth
eae ?aaiii?aaiuo nicaeaoaeae noieiinoe. Yoio auaiae ec Nieoa nei?i e
naeaeae Nae e ae?oaea yeiiiienou, no?aiyueany eniieueciaaoue
iieeoe/aneoth yeiiiieth aeey caueou eioa?ania eaieoaeenoia e
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa.

III. ?eea?aei.

Ninoaaiie /anoueth oai?ee noieiinoe ?eea?aei yaeyaony e?eoeea ei
iaiao/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ii aeaiiie i?iaeaia. Yoa oai?ey, nianoaaiii, e
au?inea ec oaeie e?eoeee. ?eea?aei ianoiyoaeueii, a?aoiaioe?iaaii,
e?eoe/anee ?anniio?ae oeaeue ?yae oai?ee noieiinoe e ioaa?a eo iaeio ca
ae?oaie.

Iniaia aieiaiea i?e yoii ?eea?aei oaeaeee iaiao/iiio aa?eaioo o?oaeiaie
oai?ee noieiinoe Nieoa. Niioaaonoaaiii aeaienoaaiiinoe i?eiaiyaiiai
Nieoii iaoiaea ii ?ac?aaioae e aeaienoaaiioth oai?eth noieiinoe. N
iaeiie noi?iiu, Nieo i?eoiaeee e i?aaeeueiiio a oeaeii auaiaeo i oii,
/oi noieiinoue oiaa?ia ii?aaeaeyaony o?oaeii, cao?a/aiiui ia eo
i?iecaiaenoai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, Nieoo i?aaenoaaeyeinue, /oi iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue noieiinoue oiaa?ia e oai o?oaeii, eioi?ue “iieoiaaony ia
yoio oiaa?”. Ii Nieoo, yoi oiaeaeanoaaiiua ii?aaeaeaiey.

?eea?aei ?aoeoaeueii aunooiee i?ioea aoi?iai, iaiao/iiai ii?aaeaeaiey
noieiinoe Nieoa. Ii iieacae, /oi yoi ioithaeue ia oiaeaeanoaaiiua
iiceoeee, /oi aoi?ay oi/ea c?aiey Nieoa ia niioaaonoaoao
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. “Aoaeue yoi aeaenoaeoaeueii aa?ii, – ienae ?eea?aei,
– aoaeue aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ?aai/aai anaaaea i?iii?oeeiiaeueii oiio,
neieueei ii i?iecaae, eiee/anoai o?oaea, cao?a/aiiia ia oiaa?, e
eiee/anoai o?oaea, eioi?ia ca yoio oiaa? iiaeii eoieoue, auee au ?aaiu.
… Ii iie ia ?aaiu”. O?oae ?aai/aai aiana ia iiea/eaaaony aaeaia auoa,
anee yoio ?aai/ee aaeaia oaaee/ee iauai i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee,
iiyniee naith oi/eo c?aiey ?eea?aei.

?eea?aei iieacae, /oi ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?aai/aai oaeoe/anee ia caaeneo io
aeinoeaiooiai ei o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Ii ienae:
“Ca?aaioiay ieaoa ia caaeneo io eiee/anoaa oiaa?a, eioi?ia aoaeao
i?iecaaaeaii o?oaeii iaeiiai aeiy … anee aianoi /aou?ao ia? o?oaeii
iaeiiai aeiy iiaei au auoue i?iecaaaeaii aeanyoue ia?, ca?aaioiay ieaoa
ieneieueei ia iiauneeanue au e ?aai/ee ia iieo/ee aieaa cia/eoaeueiie
/anoe oeaaa, iaeaaeaeu eee oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo oeaiae”.

Yoi icia/aao, /oi ?eea?aei i?iaiaeee /aoeia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo o?oaeii,
cao?a/aiiui ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a e ii?aaeaeythuei aai noieiinoue, e
oai o?oaeii, eioi?ue iiaeii eoieoue ia aeaiiue oiaa?, iaaeaeo o?oaeii
cao?a/aiiui e o?oaeii iieoiaaiui. A ea/anoaa enoi/ieea noieiinoe o
?eea?aei aunooiaao o?oae, cao?a/aiiue ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a.

Aianoa n oai oacen ?eea?aei ia ionoonoaee iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caaeneiinoe
ca?aaioiie ieaou io eciaiaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea eae aoaeoi au
i?ioeai?a/eo ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ecaanoii, /oi a oneiaeyo
naeaeueiie iieaou, /ai aieueoa i?iecaaaeao ?aai/ee oiaa?ia, oai auoa aai
ca?aaioiay ieaoa. I?e/eia, ii eioi?ie ?eea?aei ionoaeaae aeaiiue oacen,
a oii, /oi ii no?aieeny auyaeoue ii?aaeaeaiioth caaeneiinoue
yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee, a iioiio e aano?aae?iaaeny io iaiaa nouanoaaiiuo
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae. A naiii aeaea, aeaiiue oacen ?eea?aei
iie?aaony ia neaaeothuea aeaa i?aaeiinueee. Ai-ia?auo, ?eea?aei enoiaeee
ec oiai, /oi ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?aaoee?oaony cao?aoaie o?oaea,
o?aaothueieny aeey i?iecaiaenoaa “o?oaea” eae oiaa?a (a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – ?aai/ae neeu eae oiaa?a). Iiyoiio-oi iia e ia
caaeneo io iaiin?aaenoaaiii io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Ai-aoi?uo,
aeaeii, /oi ?eea?aei aano?aae?iaaeny io aoi?e/iuo caeiiia ca?aaioiie
ieaou, onoaiaaeeaathueo caaeneiinoue ca?aaioiie ieaou io eiee/anoaa e
ea/anoaa o?oaea.

Oai ia iaiaa, yoa e?eoeea auea iaaeinoaoi/ia iineaaeiaaoaeueiie.
?eea?aei oaeoe/anee iieacae, /oi noieiinoue oiaa?ia ia neeaaeuaaaony ec
aeioiaeia, iineieueeo yoe iineaaeiea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oaea
nicaeaiioth noieiinoue. Iaeiaei ii i?eiye ae?oaie iaiao/iue oacen Nieoa
a oai?ee noieiinoe, a eiaiii aai iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi noieiinoue oiaa?a
?aniaaeaaony ia aeioiaeu. Iaaeaeo oai a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia aeioiaeu
?aniaaeaaony eeoue aiiaue nicaeaiiay noieiinoue. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoa
oi/ea c?aiey eaii?e?iaaea a no?oeoo?a noieiinoe oiaa?a oae iacuaaaioth
noa?oth noieiinoue, oi anoue noieiinoue, ia?aianaiioth ni n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa. E caeanue iu aeaeei, /oi iaiiieiaiea ?eea?aei
aeaienoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a o?oaea ia iicaieeei aio aeaoue iiaeeeiii
iao/iia ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu no?oeoo?u noieiinoe oiaa?a.

Ioiaoei, /oi no?oeoo?a noieiinoe iaeaaeaao aeaienoaaiiinoueth,
niaea?aeeo eae aiiaue nicaeaiioth (aano?aeoiui o?oaeii), oae e
ia?aianaiioth (o?oaeii eiie?aoiui) noieiinoue ni n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa,
eiaiii a neeo aeaienoaaiiie i?e?iaeu o?oaea, nicaeathuaai oiaa?.

Iu ciaai, /oi Nieo aue iaiineaaeiaaoaeai a naiae o?oaeiaie oai?ee
noieiinoe. Ii n/eoae, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe o?oaeii, ?aai/ei
a?aiaiai i?eiaieii eeoue e “i?eieoeaiiio ninoiyieth iauanoaa”, eiaaea ia
auei eaieoaea e iaaiiiai o?oaea. A nia?aiaiiii aea iauanoaa noieiinoue
ii?aaeaeyaony oaeoe/anee noiiie aeioiaeia a aeaea ca?aaioiie ieaou,
i?eauee e ?aiou, iieo/aaiuo io i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia.
Oaeay iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue auea iai?eaieaia aeey no?iaiai eiae/aneiai
oia ?eea?aei. Naienoaaiiia Nieoo aieueiia ia?auaiea n iniiaiuie
i?eioeeiaie aai ia ono?aeaaei. Oaeie ooiaeaiaioaeueiue caeii, eae caeii
noieiinoe, ia iiaeao iieiinoueth iaiyoueny n ?acaeoeai iauanoaa. Iao,
neacae ?eea?aei, ii?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe ?aai/ei a?aiaiai anoue
aaniethoiue anaiauee caeii. Oacen i iieiie i?eiaieiinoe caeiia o?oaeiaie
noieiinoe e ?acaeoiio eaieoaeenoe/aneiio iauanoao aue aieueoie iao/iie
caneoaie ?eea?aei.

E?eoeea ?eea?aei iaiao/iuo oai?ee noieiinoe ?an/enoeea aio aei?iao aeey
?ac?aaioee nianoaaiiie iao/iie eiioeaioeee.

Oi iiaia, /oi aianaii ?eea?aei a o?oaeiaoth oai?eth noieiinoe a ioee/ea
io aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, iaoneiaeaii aeaaiui ia?acii nouanoaaiiui
eciaiaieai enoi?e/aneie ianoaiiaee – ia?aoiaeii io iaiooaeoo?iiai
eaieoaeecia e eaieoaeecio iaoeiiie nooiaie ?acaeoey.

Iiaay enoi?e/aneay ianoaiiaea iio?aaiaaea io ?eea?aei i?aaeaea anaai
aianoe yniinoue a iiieiaiea naiie nooe caeiia noieiinoe, a naii iiiyoea
noieiinoe. Iiae/a?eeaay, /oi aai iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ii?iaeaeaao
iooaieoeo a iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee a oeaeii, ?eea?aei aieaa
iineaaeiaaoaeueii, /ai Nieo, ?ac?aaioae iieiaeaiea i o?oaea, cao?a/aiiii
ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia, eae enoi/ieea eo noieiinoe. Ii noi?ioee?iaae
eo i?eioeei, “a neeo eioi?iai noieiinoue i?aaeiaoia oaaee/eaaaony eee
oiaiueoaaony a caaeneiinoe io oaaee/aiey eee oiaiueoaiey cao?a/aiiiai ia
ieo o?oaea”.

Ii?aaeaeyy aaee/eio noieiinoe oiaa?a cao?aoaie o?oaea, iioaaeoeie ia aai
i?iecaiaenoai, ?eea?aei oeiaee iauoth caaeneiinoue noieiinoe io o?iaiy
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Ii ienae: “Anee iaiiaay noieiinoue oiaa?ia
ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii o?oaea, aiieiuaiiiai a ieo, oi anyeia
aic?anoaiea yoiai eiee/anoaa aeieaeii oaaee/eaaoue noieiinoue oiai
oiaa?a, ia eioi?ue cao?a/eaaaony o?oae, a anyeia iiieaeaiea oiaiueoaao
aa”.

Anee noieiinoue oiaa?ia ii?aaeaeyaony o?oaeii, cao?a/aiiuo ia eo
i?iecaiaenoai, oi aicieeaao aii?in, a i eaeii nianoaaiii o?oaea caeanue
eaeao ?a/ue? Aaaeue ynii, /oi o?oae eiaao naiua ?acee/iua
oa?aeoa?enoeee. Ii aunooiaao eae aeeaie e iaauanoaeaiiue, eae i?inoie e
neiaeiue, eiathuee e oiio aea ?acee/ioth noaiaiue neiaeiinoe, eae o?oae
caiyoue a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo e noa?ao i?iecaiaenoaa, a naiuo ?acee/iuo
oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaa – eo/oeo, n?aaeieo e ooaeoeo, e oiio aea e
aiciaa?aaeaeaaony o?oae ii-?aciiio a ?acee/iuo noa?ao aai i?eiaiaiey,
ii-?aciiio ii aii?oaeai oaoie/anee, aai inouanoaeytho i?aaenoaaeoaee
?acee/iuo o?oaeyueony eeannia e o. i.

Caneoaa ?eea?aei ninoieo a oii, /oi ii noiae i?iaanoe naia ii?aaeaeaiea
noieiinoe /a?ac ana yoe oneiaeiythuea ianoiyoaeuenoaa e i?eeoe e auaiaeo
i oii, /oi iie aiana ia io?eoeatho oiai oaeoa, /oi noieiinoue oiaa?ia
ii?aaeaeyaony o?oaeii, cao?a/aiiui ia eo i?iecaiaenoai.

?eea?aei iinoaaee e a oeaeii i?aaeeueii ?aoee aii?in ia ioiioaiee o?oaea
?acee/iie noaiaie neiaeiinoe e ii?aaeaeaieth noieiinoe o?oaeii.

Cia/aiea yoiai aii?ina ninoieo a oii, /oi ii oanii naycai n nouiinoueth
i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey noieiinoe oiaa?ia. Caiaoei, /oi i?inoie o?oae
iaeuecy ai ana a?aiaia ioiaeaeanoaeyoue n o?oaeii iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui.
I?inoie o?oae – yoi ainiiaenoaothuee ?iae o?oaea, ii?aaeaeythuee
noieiinoue oiaa?ia, e eioi?iio naiaeeony aieaa neiaeiue e iaiaa neiaeiue
o?oae. Eiaiii a neeo oiai, /oi i?inoie o?oae, eae o?oae ainiiaenoaothuae
noaiaie neiaeiinoe, ii?aaeaeyao noieiinoue oiaa?ia, e noaiiaeony
aiciiaeiui e iaiaoiaeeiui naaaeaiea e iaio eae aieaa neiaeiiai, oae e
iaiaa neiaeiiai o?oaea.

?eea?aei onoaiiaee, /oi ?acee/ey a neiaeiinoe o?oaea ia yaeythony
i?aiyonoaeai e oiio, /oiau ?anniao?eaaoue o?oae a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea
noieiinoe, iineieueeo “ioeaiea o?oaea ?acee/iuo ea/anoa nei?i
onoaiaaeeaaaony ia ?uiea n aeinoaoi/iie aeey anao i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeae
oi/iinoueth …”. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ?eea?aei aeaeae, /oi ia ?uiea o?oae
?acee/iiai ea/anoaa naiaeeony e ii?aaeaeaiiiio eiee/anoao i?inoiai
o?oaea. Aianoa n oai ii aeaeae e oi, /oi ?acee/iia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea
o?oaea ?acee/iiai ea/anoaa ia aiineo neieueei-ieaoaeue nouanoaaiiuo
eciaiaiee a ii?aaeaeaiee noieiinoe oiaa?ia o?oaeii, cao?a/aiiui ia eo
i?iecaiaenoai. Ii ienae, /oi “o?oae ?acee/iiai ea/anoaa
aiciaa?aaeaeaaony ?acee/ii. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ia neoaeeo i?e/eiie
eciaiaiey ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoe oiaa?ia”, iineieueeo ca?aaioiay ieaoa
ia ii?aaeaeyao noieiinoue oiaa?ia.

?eea?aei a oeaeii i?aaeeueii ?aoee e i?iaeaio niioiioaiey noieiinoe
oiaa?a e aai iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe, oioy e ia aeae naiae iiceoeee
neieueei-ieaoaeue ianoiyoaeueiiai iainiiaaiey. E niiaa caeanue naith
iaaaoeaioth ?ieue nua?aei iaiiieiaiea ei aeaienoaaiiie i?e?iaeu o?oaea,
nicaeathuaai oiaa?.

A naiai aiaeeca ?eea?aei iiaeioae e iiieiaieth i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe oiaa?a e aai noieiinoe a oneiaeyo
iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea. Yoa i?iaeaia iieo/eea iao/iia
?ac?aoaiea a o?oaeao Ia?ena, i?aaeaea anaai a “Eaieoaea”. Iia eiaao
ia?iiiia iao/iia e i?aeoe/aneia oicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea, iineieueeo oaeia
yooaeoeaiiai oicyenoaiaaiey caeeth/aia eiaiii a iiieiaiee yoie
caeiiiia?iinoe.

Aeaiioth i?iaeaio ?eea?aei inaauae i?e ?anniio?aiee niioiioaiee
eaoaai?ee “ aiaaonoai” e “noieiinoue”. Iaeiaei iiae aiaaonoaii ii eiae a
aeaeo eiaiii iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue, aa ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai.

I?e yoii ?eea?aei iaia?oaeee, /oi eiee/anoaaiii “noieiinoue” e
“aiaaonoai”, o. a. noiia iio?aaeoaeueiuo noieiinoae, ioithaeue ia
niaiaaeatho. Ii ienae: “Noieiinoue nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony … io
aiaaonoaa, eai iia caaeneo ia io eciaeeey, a io o?oaeiinoe eee eaaeinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa. O?oae iaeiiai iei. /aeiaae ia oaa?eeao anaaaea
i?iecaaaeao iaeio e oo aea noieiinoue, ii ii ia i?iecaaaeao iaeii e oi
aea aiaaonoai”.

Aieaa oiai, ?eea?aei aeecei iiaeioae e iiieiaieth oiai, /oi e aeeiaieea
iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe e noieiinoe i?e iiauoaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea aoaeao ?acee/iie. Aai ?annoaeaeaiey naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio.
I?eiaiaiea iaoei iicaieyao i?iecaiaeeoue aieueoa i?iaeoeoia o?oaea a
aaeeieoeo a?aiaie, a oi a?aiy eae cao?aou o?oaea ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee oiaiueoathony. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, noiia iio?aaeoaeueiuo
noieiinoae aic?anoaao, a noieiinoue aaeeieoeu oiaa?a iaaeaao. Aieaa
oiai, oiaiueoaaony e iauay noiia noieiinoe oiaa?ia, aneaaenoaea oiai,
/oi iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea oiaiueoaao noieiinoue ?aiaa
i?iecaaaeaiiuo oiaa?ia. Oaeei ia?acii, “iauanoai, ianiio?y ia aic?inoaa
eiee/anoai oiaa?ia … eiaei au a naiai ?anii?yaeaiee iaiueooth noiio
noieiinoe”.

?eea?aei aeaeae e iaoiaeieiae/aneee aniaeo iiaeieiaaiie ei i?iaeaiu. Ii
iiieiae, /oi iiiaea ioeaee a iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee i?ienoaeatho ec
niaoaiey iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe oiaa?a e aai noieiinoe ia?aaeei a
naiuo iaiaeeaeaiiuo oi?iao. ?eea?aei ienae: “Iiiaea caaeoaeaeaiey a
iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee iauyniythony ioeai/iuie acaeyaeaie ia yoio
i?aaeiao, a eiaiii ioiaeaeanoaeaieai aic?anoaiey aiaaonoaa n
aic?anoaieai noieiinoe …”. Yoi iieiaeaiea ?eea?aei aanueia aeooaeueii a
iaoe aeie.

Iaeiaei ia?acaeoinoue o?oaeiaie noieiinoe, i?aaeaea anaai ionoonoaea o
?eea?aei yniiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeaienoaaiiie i?e?iaea nicaeathuaai
oiaa? o?oaea, ia iicaieeea aio ?ane?uoue aei eiioea i?iaeaio niioiioaiey
noieiinoe oiaa?a e aai iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe, auyaeoue i?e/eio eo
i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey a oneiaeyo iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
o?oaea, oioy ii oeene?iaae aeaiiia yaeaiea.

E?oiiui oaaii e ?ac?aaioea iao/iie oai?ee noieiinoe yaeeanue iinoaiiaea
?eea?aei i?iaeaiu iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai o?oaea, aac ?aoaiey eioi?ie
iaaiciiaeii ?ane?uoue iaoaieci aeaenoaey caeiia noieiinoe. Oai nai ii
iiaeioae e ?aca?aie/aieth eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie e iauanoaaiiie noieiinoe
oiaa?a, ia i?ioeai?a/eaii aaeeinoaa eioi?uo e iniiauaaaony aeaenoaea
caeiia noieiinoe.

Enoi?e/aneea oneiaey i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?aai?ioa o?aaiaaee eiie?aoecaoeee
auaiaea i o?oaea eae enoi/ieea noieiinoe. Yoe oneiaey iiaeieiaee aii?in
i oii, eaeei, nianoaaiii, o?oaeii ?aaoee?oaony noieiinoue: aaaeue
cao?aou o?oaea iaeeiai ?aianeaiieea, ?aai/aai ia iaiooaeoo?a e ?aai/aai
ia iaoeiiie oaa?eea i?e i?iecaiaenoaa iaeiiai e oiai aea aeaea
nouanoaaiii ?acee/athony.

?anniao?eaay yoo i?iaeaio, ?eea?aei i?eoae e caeeth/aieth i oii, /oi
?acee/ey a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia ioiaiyao ii?aaeaeaiea
noieiinoe o?oaeii, iineieueeo aaee/eia noieiinoe ?aaoee?oaony ia oai
o?oaeii, eioi?ue oaeoe/anee iioae ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a, a oai
o?oaeii, eioi?ue iaiaoiaeei aeey aai ecaioiaeaiey i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo, a
eiaiii ooaeoeo, oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaa. ?eea?aei ienae: “ Iaiiaay
noieiinoue anao oiaa?ia, aoaeoo ee oi i?iiuoeaiiua ecaeaeey, eee
i?iaeoeou ?oaeieeia, eee caieaaeaeue/aneea i?iaeoeou … ?aaoee?othony
iaeaieueoei eiee/anoaii o?oaea, ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe cao?a/eaaaiui ia
i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia oaie, eoi… i?iaeieaeaao i?iecaiaeeoue i?e naiuo
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo; iiae iineaaeieie iiieiathony oaeea, i?e eaeeo
iaiaoiaeeii aanoe i?iecaiaenoai, /oiau auei i?iecaaaeaii o?aaoaiia
eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia”.

Caeanue ?eea?aei oaeoe/anee i?iaae ?acee/ea iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui e
iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiui o?oaeii, no?aiynue oai naiui ?aoeoue i?iaeaio,
iaae eioi?ie aeeanue yeiiiie/aneay iuneue ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia. Aua
Iaooe noieeioeny n i?iaeaiie iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai o?oaea, eiaaea
iaia?oaeee, /oi ia ?uiea i?iaeathony oaeea oiaa?u, ia eioi?ua ia iioei
ieeaeiai o?oaea, oioy iie e ?aaeecothony ii oai aea oeaiai, /oi e
oiaa?u, i?iecaaaeaiiua o?oaeii (iai?eia?, neio, au?inoee a anoanoaaiiuo
oneiaeyo aac eaeeo-eeai cao?ao /aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea, naii?iaeie cieioa e
o. i.). Yoi icia/aei, /oi, oioy ia ecaioiaeaiea oaeeo oiaa?ia ia
cao?a/aii o?oaea, noieiinoueth iie, oai ia iaiaa, iaeaaeatho. A yoi a
naith i/a?aaeue iiaei eiaoue ianoi eeoue i?e iaeiii ec neaaeothueo aeaoo
oneiaee. Eeai enoi/ieeii noieiinoue ia?yaeo n o?oaeii aunooiatho e
ae?oaea oaeoi?u, eeai noieiinoue nicaeaaony ia oai o?oaeii, eioi?ue
oaeoe/anee caeeth/ai a oiaa?a, o.a. eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui o?oaeii, a oai
o?oaeii, eioi?ue cao?a/eaaaony ia i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiiai oiaa?a i?e
n?aaeieo, iauanoaaiii ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaa.

Caneoaa ?eea?aei ninoiyea a oii, /oi ii iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?acaeaae
i?eioeei o?oaeiaie noieiinoe, oaaaeeoaeueii aeieacuaay
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue ooaa?aeaeaiee i iiiaeanoaaiiinoe enoi/ieeia
noieiinoe. Iiceoeey ?eea?aei nua?aea auaeathuothny ?ieue a ?acaeoee
yeiiiie/aneie iaoee.

Iaeiaei ?aoaiea, aeaiiia ?eea?aei, yaeyaony aeaeaei ia iieiui e ia
oi/iui. A ea/anoaa ?aaoeyoi?a aaee/eiu noieiinoe ei ecia?aaeathony
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua cao?aou o?oaea i?e ooaeoeo oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi
icia/aao iaiiieiaiea iauanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a o?oaea, nicaeathuaai
noieiinoue oiaa?ia. E oiio aea iaaa?ii ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu aaee/eiu
noieiinoe i?eiaieoaeueii e i?iiuoeaiiui oiaa?ai. Oio i?ioeann
oeaiiia?aciaaiey, eioi?ue oeie/ai aeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa,
aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe (noieiinoue oiaa?a ii?aaeaeyaony cao?aoaie
o?oaea i?e ooaeoeo oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaa), ?eea?aei ?ani?ino?aiye ia
ana io?anee yeiiiieee, a oii /enea e ia i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oai naiui ii
cao?oaeiee aeey naay iiieiaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiie caaeneiinoe aaee/eiu
noieiinoe io o?iaiy ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoaa.

?eea?aei oae aea iuoaeny ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, /oi i?ienoiaeeo ni
noieiinoueth n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. E yoie
i?iaeaia a oie eee eiie oi?ia iiaeoiaeeee e iaeioi?ua i?aaeoanoaaiieee
?eea?aei (i?aaeaea anaai Eaiy – iniiaaoaeue o/aiey oeceie?aoia, eioi?ue
a naiae “Yeiiiie/aneie oaaeeoea” oaeoe/anee enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi
noieiinoue ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa a i?ioeanna eo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey ia oo?a/eaaaony, a ia?aiineony ia
iiaue oiaa?). Iaeiaei iaaeaeo iiceoeeyie Eaiy e ?eea?aei eiaaony aanueia
nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea. Anee Eaiy aieueoa iie?aeny ia eiooeoeeth, eeoue
eiinoaoe?iaae nai oaeo ia?aianaiey noieiinoe ni n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa,
oi o ?eea?aei aia?aua eiaao ianoi niciaoaeueiay iinoaiiaea aeaiiie
i?iaeaiu, aieaa oiai – iiiuoea ?aoeoue aa n iiceoeee o?oaeiaie oai?ee
noieiinoe. Iacaaiea 3-ai ioaeaea 1-ie aeaau aeaaiiai o?oaea ?eea?aei
oi?ioee?oao aai iiceoeeth neaaeothuei ia?acii: “ Ia noieiinoue oiaa?ia
aeeyao ia oieueei o?oae, i?eiaiyaiue iaiin?aaenoaaiii e iei, ii e o?oae,
cao?a/aiiue ia i?oaeey, eino?oiaiou e caeaiey, niinianoaothuea yoiio
o?oaeo”.

?eea?aei i?eoae e caeeth/aieth, /oi eaieoae anoue ia /oi eiia, eae
iaeiieaiiue a n?aaenoaao i?iecaiaenoaa o?oae ?aai/eo. I?e anae
ia?aie/aiiinoe oaeie o?aeoiaee eaieoae (eioi?ue a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniaia iauanoaaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiia ioiioaiea
iaaeaeo eaieoaeenoii e iaaiiui ?aai/ei, a eiaiii ioiioaiey yenieoaoaoeee
ia?aui aoi?iai) yoa iiceoeey ?eea?aei icia/aea, /oi n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa ia iiaoo nicaeaaaoue iiaie noieiinoe, iie oieueei
ia?aiinyo naith noieiinoue ia iiaue oiaa?. Oai naiui ?ane?uaaeanue
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue aiieiae/aneie oai?ee “i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
eaieoaea”.

Aianoa n oai aeaiiay oi/ea c?aiey ?eea?aei i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a iniiaaiea o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe. Ia iniiaa
naiaai aiaeeca ?eea?aei i?eoae e auaiaeo i oii, /oi e a oneiaeyo
eaieoaeecia, a ia oieueei i?e i?inoii oiaa?iii oicyenoaa, eae iieaaae
Nieo, noieiinoue oiaa?ia ii?aaeaeyaony o?oaeii, cao?a/aiiui ia eo
i?iecaiaenoai, a aiana ia aeioiaeaie, /oi iaeiieaiea eaieoaeia ia
ioiaiyao caeii noieiinoe, a eeoue oneiaeiyao i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey
noieiinoe. ?eea?aei iieacae, /oi e caiey, a ia oieueei oaa?e/iua
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, ia nicaeaao noieiinoue, /oi i?eiineiue caieae
aeioiae – caiaeueiay ?aioa – nicaeai o?oaeii iaaiiuo ?aai/eo e
iaoneiaeai aeaenoaeai caeiia noieiinoe.

Ec yoeo ?annoaeaeaiee ?eea?aei neaaeiaae aanueia aaaeiue auaiae,–
aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii noieiinoe yaeyaony eeoue o?oae iaaiiuo ?aai/eo,
iioaaeoee ia ecaioiaeaiea oiaa?ia. Yoio auaiae iiaeaiaeee ao?aeoacioth
iieeoe/aneoth yeiiiieth e oie a?aie, ca i?aaeaeaie eioi?ie iao/iay
enoeia noaiiaeeanue ianiaianoeiie n ao?aeoaciie oi?iie iuoeaiey.

Iaeiaei ?eea?aei, ia ?ane?uaoee aeaienoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a o?oaea, ia
noiae iauynieoue, eae noieiinoue n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aiineony ia
iiaue oiaa?, eaeia iaoaieci yoiai i?ioeanna. Ii yoie aea i?e/eia ii ia
aeae /aoeie oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaienoaaiiinoe i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey
noieiinoe oiaa?a, a aianoa n oai e aeaienoaaiiinoe aai ?acoeueoaoa:
ia?aianaiiie noieiinoe (eae ?acoeueoaoa eiie?aoiiai o?oaea) e aiiaue
nicaeaiiie noieiinoe (eae ?acoeueoaoa aano?aeoiiai o?oaea). Ionthaea
i?ienoaeaao e aanueia i?ioeai?a/eaia ioiioaiea ?eea?aei e oae iacuaaaiie
aeiaia Nieoa. Ii ioaa?aae iaeio aa noi?iio, a eiaiii oacen Nieoa i oii,
/oi noieiinoue neeaaeuaaaony ec aeioiaeia, e niaeaoaeny n ae?oaie aa
noi?iiie – ooaa?aeaeaieai i oii, /oi noieiinoue ?aniaaeaaony ia
aeioiaeu. Iaaeaeo oai e aoi?ay noi?iia aeiaiu Nieoa eaii?e?iaaea
noa?oth, ia?aianaiioth noieiinoue a no?oeoo?a noieiinoe oiaa?a, /oi yaii
i?ioeai?a/eei iiceoeee ?eea?aei i “aeeyiee” o?oaea, cao?a/aiiiai ia
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, ia noieiinoue i?iecaiaeeiiai oiaa?a.

Ae?oaei iaaeinoaoeii iiceoeee ?eea?aei i?e ?anniio?aiee aeaiiie i?iaeaiu
yaeeinue oi, /oi ii ia noiae auyaeoue ?ieue iai?ioiie /anoe iinoiyiiiai
eaieoaea, aauanoaaiii i?aaenoaaeaiiie nu?ueai, iaoa?eaeaie, oiieeaii e
o. i., a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey noieiinoiie no?oeoo?u oiaa?a. A
ioia/aiiie auoa oi?ioee?iaea ?eea?aei aiai?eony eeoue ia “i?oaeeyo,
eino?oiaioao e caeaieyo, niinianoaothueo o?oaeo” e ia oiiieiaaony ia
iai?ioiii eaieoaea.

O?oaeiinoue, n eioi?ie noieeioeny ?eea?aei, i?ienoaeea ec naiaia?aciie
?iee a i?ioeanna o?oaea i?aaeiaoia o?oaea. ?eea?aei niaoeaae aeaeaiea
eaieoaea ia iniiaiie e iai?ioiue, ia iinoiyiiue e ia?aiaiiue.

N oi/ee c?aiey ia?aiai aeaeaiey i?aaeiaou o?oaea aianoa n o?oaeii
i?ioeainoiyo n?aaenoaai o?oaea, a n oi/ee c?aiey aoi?iai – i?aaeiaou
o?oaea aianoa ni n?aaenoaaie o?oaea i?ioeainoiyo o?oaeo. Iineieueeo
?eea?aei niaoeaae aeaa ?acee/iuo i?eioeeia aeaeaiey eaieoaea, iineieueeo
?ieue i?aaeiaoia o?oaea, oi/iaa – eo noieiinoue, a i?ioeanna
oi?ie?iaaiey noieiinoe i?aaenoaaeyeanue iaaeinoaoi/ii yniie. Aianoa n
oai, neaaeoai eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ?eea?aei, eneeth/ay i?aaeiaou o?oaea
ec oao yeaiaioia eaieoaea, eioi?ua ia?aiinyo naith noieiinoue ia
i?iecaiaeeiue oiaa?, i?e iauaoai?aoe/aneie o?aeoiaea i?iaeaiu aeeth/ae
eo a yoo ?oa?eeo i?e ?anniio?aiee /anoiuo neo/aaa i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa.

?acaeoay ?eea?aei o?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe yaeeanue auaeathueiny
niauoeai a enoi?ee iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee, aunoei yoaiii ?acaeoey aeaiiie
oai?ee a aeiia?enenoneee ia?eiae, ianiio?y ia iaeioi?oth
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iiceoeee ?eea?aei, enoi?e/aneoth e eeanniaoth
ia?aie/aiiinoue aai aicc?aiee, ia ?ac?aaioaiiinoue ?yaea eeth/aauo
i?iaeai oai?ee oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oi?ie?iaaiea e iainiiaaiea o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe a ?aaioao ?eea?aei
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie e?oiiia aeinoeaeaiea iao/iie ao?aeoaciie
iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo. Ai-ia?auo,
yoa oai?ey niaea?aeeo enneaaeiaaiea naiuo iaueo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee
e caeiiiia?iinoae, eaaeaueo a iniiaa eaieoaeenoe/aneiai niiniaa
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ai-aoi?uo, iia aeaao ?ac?aaioeo aaaeiaeoaai
iaoiaeieiae/aneiai i?eioeeia aiaeeca aieaa ?acaeouo e neiaeiuo
nouiinoiuo ioiioaiee eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee, eioi?ue iicaieyao
enneaaeiaaoue anth niaieoiiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee eaieoaeecia n
oi/ee c?aiey eo aioo?aiiae iniiau. O?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe ?eea?aei,
iainiiauaathuay iieiaeaiea i o?oaea eae aaeeinoaaiiii enoi/ieea
noieiinoe oiaa?a, iiaeaiaeeea e iiieiaieth eae
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie nouiinoe eaieoaeecia, oae e a ecaanoiie ia?a
(oioy e ia yaiui ia?acii) aai enoi?e/anee i?aoiaeyuaai oa?aeoa?a. E oioy
yoeo i?iaeai ?eea?aei ia ?aoee, aai oai?ey noieiinoe en/a?iaea oa
aiciiaeiinoe iao/iiai iiaeoiaea, eioi?ua aeaaaea ao?aeoaciay oi?ia
iuoeaiey.

IV. Ia?en.

Ia?en i?aa?aoee o?oaeiaoth oai?eth noieiinoe a aeoaieoth e eiae/anee
no?ieioth nenoaio, ia iniiaa eioi?ie iino?iee ana caeaiey
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. Ii inaiaiaeee o?oaeiaoth
oai?eth noieiinoe io i?ioeai?a/ee e ooieeia, eioi?ua io/eee ?eea?aei.
?aoathuaa cia/aiea i?e yoii eiae aiaeec aeaienoaaiiie i?e?iaeu o?oaea,
caeeth/athuaainy a oiaa?a, – o?oaea eiie?aoiiai e aano?aeoiiai. Enoiaey
ec o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe, Ia?en nicaeae oaeaea oai?eth aeaiaa,
iauyniythuoth yaeaiey iaoaeee/aneiai e aoiaaeii-aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.

Ia?en ?ac?aoee i?ioeai?a/ea, eioi?ia ia?aae niaie noaaee aua ?eea?aei,
iii caeeth/aeinue a iauyniaiee iaiaia iaaeaeo ?aai/ei e eaieoaeenoii.
O?oae ?aai/aai nicaeaao noieiinoue oiaa?a, a eiee/anoai yoiai o?oaea
ii?aaeaeyao aaee/eio noieiinoe. Ii a iaiai ia naie o?oae ?aai/ee
iieo/aao a aeaea ca?aaioiie ieaou iaiueooth noieiinoue. Anee au yoio
caeii niaethaeaeny, oi ?aai/ee aeieaeai aue au iieo/aoue iieioth
noieiinoue nicaeaaaaiiai aai o?oaeii i?iaeoeoa, ii a yoii neo/aa auea au
iaaiciiaeia i?eaueue eaieoaeenoa. Iieo/aeinue i?ioeai?a/ea: eeai oai?ey
ia niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eeai caeii noieiinoe iai?a?uaii
ia?ooaaony a aaaeiaeoae noa?a iaiaia. Ii Ia?en iieacae, /oi ?aai/ee
i?iaeaao eaieoaeenoo ia o?oae, eioi?ue anoue eeoue i?ioeann,
aeayoaeueiinoue, cao?aoa /aeiaa/aneie yia?aee, a naith ?aai/oth neeo, o.
a. niiniaiinoue e o?oaeo. Iieoiay aa, eaieoaeeno i?e iau/iuo oneiaeyo
iiea/eaaao ?aai/aio iieioth noieiinoue aai ?aai/ae neeu, eai yoa
noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony aiana ia oai, /oi nicaeaao o?oae, a oai, /oi
iaiaoiaeeii ?aai/aio aeey aeecie e aini?iecaaaeaiey naaa iiaeiaiuo.
Oaeei ia?acii, iaiai iaaeaeo eaieoaeii e o?oaeii niaa?oaaony a iieiii
niioaaonoaee n caeiiii noieiinoe, /oi ioithaeue ia eneeth/aao
yenieoaoaoeeth ?aai/aai eaieoaeenoii.

Oiaa? aunooiaao – oaeiaa aai aeaeeiinoue, – n iaeiie noi?iiu, eae
iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue, n ae?oaie eae iaiiaay noieiinoue.
Iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue icia/aao naienoai aaue e iieiinoueth ath
iaoneaaeeaaaony. “Iieaciinoue aaue” (aa naienoai oaeiaeaoai?youe
/aeiaa/aneoth iio?aaiinoue oiai eee eiiai ?iaea) “aeaeaao aa
iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue”. E iia ia caaeneo io oiai, iiiai eee iaei
o?oaea iio?aoee /aeiaae ia oi /oiau i?iecaanoe aeaiiue oiaa?. I?e
?anniio?aiee iio?aaeoaeueiuo noieiinoae anaaaea i?aaeiieaaaaony eo
eiee/anoaaiiay ii?aaeaeaiiinoue, iai?eia? aethaeeia /ania, oiiia aeaeaca
e o. ae. Iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue inouanoaeyaony oieueei a
iieueciaaiea e iio?aaeaiee, e yaeythony a oi aea a?aiy aauanoaaiiuie
iineoaeyie iaiiaie noieiinoe.

Iiae iaiiaie noieiinoueth iiae?acoiaaaaony i?iii?oeey, niaeanii eioi?ie
iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue iaeiiai aeaea iaiaieaaaony ia
iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue ae?oaiai aeaea, yoi niioiioaiea iinoiyiii
iaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io a?aiaie e ianoa. Iaeei oiaa? iiaeao eiaoue ia
iaeio, a ianeieueei iaiiauo noieiinoae, iai?eia?: x ea aeaeaca iiaeii
iaiaiyoue eae ia y ea cieioa, oae e ia z ea na?aa?a. Iaiiaua noieiinoe
oiaa?ia iaiaoiaeeii naanoe e /aio-oi iauaio aeey ieo, aieueoea eee
iaiueoea eiee/anoaa /aai iie i?aaenoaaeytho.

Yoei iauei ia iiaoo auoue aaiiao?e/aneea, oece/aneea, oeie/aneea eee
eaeea-eeai eiua i?e?iaeiua naienoaa oiaa?ia. Yoe naienoaa o/eouaathony
oieueei i?e ?anniio?aiee iieaciinoe oiaa?ia, o. a. i?e o/aoa
iio?aaeoaeueiuo noieiinoae.

“Iio?aaeoaeueiua noieiinoe ia?acotho aauanoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea
aiaaonoaa, eaeiaa au ia auea aai iauanoaaiiay oi?ia”. Iaiiaay noieiinoue
aiciiaeia eeoue a oiaa?iii oicyenoaa, a oicyenoaa, aaea i?iecaiaeyo ia
aeey nianoaaiiiai iio?aaeaiey, a aeey iaiaia. Eae iio?aaeoaeueiua
noieiinoe oiaa?u ?acii?iaeiu. Iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue iaeiiai oiaa?a
ia iioiaea ia iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue ae?oaiai oiaa?a. Eae iaiiaua
noieiinoe oiaa?u iaeii?iaeiu. Ia?en, oeeoe?oy Aa?aiia ieoao: “Iaeei ni?o
oiaa?ia oaeaea oi?io, eae e ae?oaie, anee ?aaiu eo iaiiaua noieiinoe.
Iaaeaeo aauaie, eiathueie ?aaiua iaiiaua noieiinoe, ia nouanoaoao
ieeaeie ?acieoeu eee ?acee/ey”.

Anee ioaea/ueny io iio?aaeoaeueiuo noieiinoae oiaa?ia, oi o ieo inoaaony
eeoue iaeii naienoai, a eiaiii oi, /oi iie – i?iaeoeou o?oaea.

Ii ?ac iu ioaeaeeenue io eo iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe, iu aianoa n oai
ioaeaeeenue io oao ninoaaiuo /anoae oiaa?ia, eioi?ua aeaeatho eo
iio?aaeoaeueiuie noieiinoyie.

Aianoa n iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoueth i?iaeoeoa o?oaea en/acaao e
iieaciue oa?aeoa? i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a iai aeaeia o?oaeia; iineaaeiea ia
?acee/athony aieaa iaaeaeo niaie, a naiaeyony ana e aano?aeoiiio
/aeiaa/aneiio o?oaeo, o. a. cao?aou /aeiaa/aneie ?aai/ae neeu
aacioiineoaeueii e oi?ia yoie cao?aou. Oiaa?u i?aaenoaaeytho au?aaeaiey
oiai, /oi a eo i?iecaiaenoaa cao?a/aia /aeiaa/aneay ?aai/ay neea,
iaeiieai /aeiaa/aneee o?oae, iie nooue noieiinoe – oiaa?iua noieiinoe.

Oiaa?u, eae e aaue ia ?aaiu, e iaia?oaeaiiia a iaiiaii ioiioaiee
?aaainoai ioiineony e iei eeoue eae e i?iaeoeoai o?oaea. Anee ?aiueoa
eiinoaoe?iaaeinue, /oi a ea/anoaa iaiiaie noieiinoe iaeei oiaa? iioiae
ia ae?oaie, oi oaia?ue yoio oaeo i?eia?aoaao oaeie niune: eae iaiiaua
noieiinoe oiaa?ia yaeythony eeoue i?iaeoeoaie o?oaea. “Oaia?ue yoi oaea
ia noie, eee aeii, eee i?yaea, eee eaeay-eeai ae?oaay iieaciay aauue.
Ana /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiua naienoaa iiaanee a iai”. Ii i?iaeoeo
o?oaea – e oieueei.

Ii ?aaainoai oiaa?ia eae i?iaeoeoia o?oaea icia/aao e ?aaainoai naiiai
o?oaea, o. a. naaaeaiea anao aeaeia o?oaea “e iaeeiaeiaiio /aeiaa/aneiio
o?oaeo, e aano?aeoiiio /aeiaa/aneiio o?oaeo”, e /aeiaa/aneiio o?oaeo
aiiaua. Ionthaea auaiae: “Ana yoe aaue i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oaia?ue
eeoue au?aaeaiey oiai, /oi a eo i?iecaiaenoaa cao?a/aia /aeiaa/aneay
?aai/ay neea, iaeiieai /aeiaa/aneee o?oae”.

E, iaeiiaoe, iineaaeiaa caaii ai anae yoie oeaie: “Eae e?enoaeeu yoie
iauae ei anai iauanoaaiiie noanoaioeee, iie – noieiinoe, oiaa?iua
noieiinoe”.

Iu ?anniao?eaaee iaiiaoth noieiinoue oiaa?ia niaa?oaiii iacaaeneii io eo
iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoae. Oaeei ia?acii, oi iauaa, /oi au?aaeaaony a
iaiiaie noieiinoe oiaa?ia, e anoue eo noieiinoue.

Oae Ia?en iaiae ia “neaae” noieiinoe, ne?uaathuaeny ca iaiiaie
noieiinoueth, o. a. ia?aoae io aeaeeiinoe yaeaiee e eo nouiinoe. Ii
eaeao io iaiiaie noieiinoe oiaa?ia e o?oaeo e io o?oaea e noieiinoe.
Iaeii?iaeiinoue oiaa?ia, i?iyaeyaiay eie a iaiaia, au?aaeaao eeoue eo
iaeii?iaeiinoue eae i?iaeoeoia o?oaea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iaeii?iaeiinoue naiiai o?oaea. E, iaiai?io, oiaa?u oaia?ue oaea
i?aaenoaaeythony eae i?iaeoeou iaeeiaeiaiai /aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea, eae
e?enoaeeu iauae ei anai iauanoaaiiie noanoaioeee e eae oaeiaua
yaeythony noieiinoyie.

Ia?en oi?ioee?oao ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aano?aeoiui o?oaeii, ia?acothuei
noieiinoue, e eiie?aoiui o?oaeii, nicaeathuei iio?aaeoaeueiua noieiinoe,
neaaeothuei ia?acii. “Anyeee o?oae anoue, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
?anoiaeiaaiea /aeiaa/aneie ?aai/ae neeu a oeceieiae/aneii niunea, – e a
yoii naiai ea/anoaa iaeeiaeiaiai, eee aano?aeoii /aeiaa/aneiai, o?oae
ia?acoao noieiinoue oiaa?ia. Anyeee o?oae, anoue n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
?anoiaeiaaiea /aeiaa/aneie ?aai/ae neeu a iniaie –oeaeaniia?aciie oi?ia,
e a yoii naiai ea/anoaa eiie?aoiiai iieaciiai o?oaea ii nicaeaao
iio?aaeoaeueiua noieiinoe”.

“Eoae, – aiai?eo Ia?en, – iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue, eee aeaai, eiaao
noieiinoue eeoue iioiio, /oi a iae iaauanoaeai, eee iaoa?eaeeciaai,
aano?aeoii /aeiaa/aneee o?oae. Eae aea ecia?youe aaee/eio aa noieiinoe?”

Ioaao ia yoio aii?in iiaeneacai anai i?aaeuaeouei aiaeecii: anee
noieiinoue anoue aauiia au?aaeaiea aano?aeoiiai o?oaea, oi iia
ecia?yaony eiee/anoaii yoiai o?oaea, eee – ii au?aaeaieth Ia?ena –
“eiee/anoaii niaea?aeauaainy a iae o?oaea, yoie niceaeathuae noieiinoe
noanoaioeee”.

Noanoaioeey noieiinoae ia?acoaony iaeeiaeiaui /aeiaa/aneei o?oaeii,
cao?aoie iaeiie e oie aea /aeiaa/aneie ?aai/ae neeu. Any ?aai/ay neea
iauanoaa, au?aaeathuayny a noieiinoyo oiaa?iiai ie?a, aunooiaao caeanue
eae iaeia e oa aea /aeiaa/aneay ?aai/ay neea, oioy iia e ninoieo ec
aan/eneaiiiai /enea ?aai/eo nee. Eaaeaeay ec yoeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
?aai/eo nee, eae e anyeay ae?oaay, anoue iaeia e oa aea /aeiaa/aneay
?aai/ay neea, ?ac iia iaeaaeaao oa?aeoa?ii iauanoaaiiie n?aaeiae ?aai/ae
neeu e ooieoeeiie?oao eae oaeay iauanoaaiiay n?aaeiyy ?aai/ay neea,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, oiio?aaeyao ia i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiiai oiaa?a eeoue
iaiaoiaeeiia a n?aaeiai eee iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiia ?aai/aa a?aiy.

Ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai o?oaea Ia?en aeaao oaeia.
“Iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiia ?aai/aa a?aiy anoue oi ?aai/aa a?aiy, eioi?ia
o?aaoaony aeey ecaioiaeaiey eaeie-eeai iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe i?e
iaee/ea iauanoaaiii ii?iaeueiuo oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e i?e n?aaeiai a
aeaiiii iauanoaa o?iaia oiaeinoe e eioaineaiinoe o?oaea”.

Ii anee ana aeaeu o?oaea naiaeyony e iaeeiaeiaiio iaeii?iaeiiio
/aeiaa/aneiio o?oaeo, oi n?aco aicieeatho aii?inu: 1) /oi neaaeoao
iiieiaoue iiae eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui o?oaeii e o?oaeii i?inoui? 2) Eae e
aaea i?ienoiaeeo naaaeaiea eo iaeiiai e ae?oaiio e e o?oaeo aiiaua?
Ia?en ioaa/aao: “N?aaieoaeueii neiaeiue o?oae icia/aao oieueei
aicaaaeaiiue a noaiaiue, eee, nei?aa, iiiiiaeaiiue, i?inoie o?oae …
Oiaa? iiaeao auoue i?iaeoeoii naiiai neiaeiiai o?oaea, ii aai noieiinoue
aeaeaao aai ?aaiui i?iaeoeoo i?inoiai o?oaea”. Yoi e anoue ioaao ia
ia?aue aii?in. “Iiuo iieacuaaao, /oi oaeia naaaeaiea neiaeiiai o?oaea e
i?inoiio niaa?oaaony iinoiyiii. Oiaa? iiaeao auoue i?iaeoeoii naiiai
neiaeiiai o?oaea, ii aai noieiinoue aeaeaao aai ?aaiui i?iaeoeoo
i?inoiai o?oaea, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, naia i?aaenoaaeyao eeoue
ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai i?inoiai o?oaea”. Yoi ioaao ia aoi?ie aii?in.

Eoae, aaee/eia noieiinoe aeaiiie iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony
eeoue eiee/anoaii o?oaea, eee eiee/anoaii ?aai/aai a?aiaie, iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey aai ecaioiaeaiey. Eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue oiaa? a
aeaiiii neo/aa eiaao cia/aiea eeoue eae n?aaeiee yecaiiey? naiaai ?iaea.
Iiyoiio oiaa?u, a eioi?uo niaea?aeaoueny ?aciua eiee/anoaa o?oaea, eee
eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ecaioiaeaiu a oa/aiea iaeiiai e oiai aea ?aai/aai
a?aiaie, eiatho iaeeiaeiaoth aaee/eio noieiinoe. Noieiinoue iaeiiai
oiaa?a ioiineony e noieiinoe eaaeaeiai ae?oaiai oiaa?a, eae ?aai/aa
a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aiai, e ?aai/aio a?aiaie,
iaiaoiaeeiiio aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aoi?iai. “Eae noieiinoe, ana oiaa?u
nooue eeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua eiee/anoaa canouaoaai ?aai/aai a?aiaie”.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aaee/eia noieiinoe oiaa?a inoaaaeanue au iinoiyiiie,
anee au auei iinoiyiiui iaiaoiaeeiia aeey aai i?iecaiaenoaa ?aai/aa
a?aiy. Ii ?aai/aa a?aiy eciaiyaony n eaaeaeui eciaiaieai
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeu o?oaea.

Iineieueeo aaee/eia noieiinoe aaeeieoeu oiaa?a au?aaeaao niaie
eiee/anoai iaauanoaeaiiiai (iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai) o?oaea, o. a.
?ino iineaaeiaai aucuaaao niioaaonoaothuaa oaaee/aiea noieiinoe, a
oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa iaauanoaeaiiiai o?oaea aea/ao ca niaie oaeia aea
oiaiueoaiea aaee/eiu noieiinoe. Ii eiee/anoai iaauanoaeaiiiai a oiaa?a
o?oaea a naith i/a?aaeue ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaiai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeu
o?oaea: /ai auoa yoio o?iaaiue, oai iaiueoa o?oaea iaauanoaeyaony a
aaeeieoea oiaa?a, a /ai ieaea oeacaiiue o?iaaiue, oai aieueoa
iaauanoaeaiiiai o?oaea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aaee/eia noieiinoe ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neea o?oaea. Eiaiii iioiio, /oi
aaee/eia noieiinoe i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueia eiee/anoao iaauanoaeaiiiai a
oiaa?a o?oaea, iia ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neea.
I?iecaiaeeoaeueiay neea o?oaea ii?aaeaeyaony ?aciiia?aciuie
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, iaaeaeo i?i/ai n?aaeiae noaiaiueth eneonnoaa
?aai/aai, o?iaiai ?acaeoey iaoee e noaiaiueth aa oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?eiaiaiey, iauanoaaiiie eiiaeiaoeeae i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna,
?acia?aie e yooaeoeaiinoueth n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, i?e?iaeiuie
oneiaeyie.

Yoa ?anniio?aiiay auoa caaeneiinoue a iineaaenoaea e iieo/eea iacaaiea
caeiia noieiinoe, caeii aeaeaeaiey e ?aaoeyoi? oiaa?iiai oicyenoaa.

Aauue iiaeao auoue iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoueth e ia auoue noieiinoueth.
Oae auaaao, eiaaea aa iieaciinoue aeey /aeiaaea ia iiin?aaeiaaia
o?oaeii. Oaeiau: aicaeoo, aiaea, anoanoaaiiua eoaa, aeeei?anoouee ean e
o. ae. Aauue iiaeao auoue iieaciie e auoue i?iaeoeoii iauanoaaiiiai
o?oaea, ii ia auoue oiaa?ii. Oio, eoi i?iaeoeoii naiaai o?oaea
oaeiaeaoai?yao naith nianoaaiioth iio?aaiinoue, nicaeaao
iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue, ii ia oiaa?. *oiau i?iecaanoe oiaa? ii
aeieaeai i?iecaanoe ia i?inoi iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue, ii
iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue aeey ae?oaeo, iauanoaaiioth iio?aaeoaeueioth
noieiinoue.

Aeey oiai /oiau noaoue oiaa?ii, i?iaeoeo aeieaeai auoue ia?aaeai a ?oee
oiai, eiio ii neoaeeo a ea/anoaa iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe, iin?aaenoaii
iaiaia. Iaeiiaoe, aauue ia iiaeao auoue noieiinoueth, ia aoaeo/e
i?aaeiaoii iio?aaeaiey. Anee iia aaniieacia, oi e cao?a/aiiue ia iaa
o?oae aaniieacai, ia n/eoaaony ca o?oae e iioiio ia ia?acoao ieeaeie
noieiinoe.

3. Aeueoa?iaoeaiua oai?ee noieiinoe.

Aano?eeneay oeiea i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe (aa iniiaaoaee E. Iaiaa?, I.
Aai-Aaaa?e e O. Aeca?) aeaea iauyniaiea noieiinoe (oeaiiinoe) e oeaiu
aeaa e oneoa n iiceoeee yeiiiie/aneie ineoieiaee iio?aaeoaey iieaciuo
aauae. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey aeaiiie oai?ee oaeiau.

Ia?aia iieiaeaiea. Aano?eeneea o/aiua iieaaaee, /oi iieaciinoue iaeuecy
ioiaeaeanoaeyoue n iauaeoeaiuie naienoaaie oiaa?ia. Iieaciinoue, ii eo
iiaieth, – yoi noauaeoeaiay ioeaiea, eioi?oth aeaao eaaeaeue iieoiaoaeue
?iee ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaaa a oaeiaeaoai?aiee aai ee/iuo iio?aaiinoae.
Oeaiiinoue (neiiiei noieiinoe) aeaaa – yoi iiieiaiea /aeiaaeii cia/aiey
iio?aaeyaiie aaue aeey aai aeecie e aeaaininoiyiey. E. Iaiaa?
eaoaai?e/anee ooaa?aeaeae, /oi “oeaiiinoue ia anoue ia/oi i?enouaa
aeaaai… Oeaiiinoue – yoi noaeaeaiea, eioi?ia oicyenoaothuea ethaee
eiatho i cia/aiee iaoiaeyueony a eo ?anii?yaeaiee aeaa aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiee eo aeecie e eo aeaaininoiyiey, e iioiio aia eo niciaiey
ia nouanoaoao”.

A yoii ooaa?aeaeaiee niaea?aeeony ii?aaeaeaiiay aeiey enoeiu. Iu ciaai
ec iianaaeiaaiie aeecie, /oi ethaee aeaaea a iaeiie naiuea neeueii
?anoiaeyony ai acaeyaeao ia cia/aiea iaeiie e oie aea aaue aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey eo iio?aaiinoae. Iie i?eaeatho oiio eee ae?oaiio aeaao
?acioth oeaiiinoue aeey eo aeecie e aeaaininoiyiey.

Aoi?ia iieiaeaiea. Iieaciua aeaaa iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa aeaea:

a) eiathueany a aaca?aie/iii eiee/anoaa (aiaea, aicaeoo e o. i.). Yoe
aaue ethaee ia n/eoatho oeaiiuie aeey naay. Eai iie eiathony a oaeii
ecauoea, eioi?ue ia ioaeai aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey /aeiaa/aneeo
iio?aaiinoae;

a) yaeythueany ioiineoaeueii ?aaeeeie e iaaeinoaoi/iuie aeey ianuuaiey
neiaeeaoeony iio?aaiinoae a ieo. Eiaiii yoei aeaaai oicyenoaothuea eeoea
i?eienuaatho oeaiiinoue.

E. Iaiaa? ni naieo iiceoeee iiiuoaeny ?aoeoue aeaaii aicieeoee
ia?aaeien. Naiua iieaciua aeey /aeiaa/aneie aeecie aeaaa aeaeaei ia
anaaaea ieacuaathony naiuie oeaiiuie. I oii ianeieueei aai acaeyaeu ii
yoiio iiaiaeo ioee/athony io i?aaenoaaeaiee Aaeaia Nieoa, iiaeii
aeaeaoue ec aeaiiuo i?eaaaeaiiuo ieaea.

Acaeyaeu E. Iaiaa?a e A. Nieoa ia iieaciinoue e iaiiaoth noieiinoue

E. Iaiaa?:

“Ioaao ia aii?in, ii/aio, iai?eia?, ooio aiae aeey ieouey ia eiaao aeey
ian ieeaeie oeaiiinoe i?e iaueiiaaiiuo oneiaeyo, oiaaea eae aanueia
iaeay /anoeoea ooioa cieioa eee a?eeeeaioia eiaao anaaaea aanueia
aunieoth oeaiiinoue, auoaeay ec neaaeothueo oneiaee.

A?eeeeaiou e cieioi noieue ?aaeee, /oi ana aeinooiiua ?anii?yaeaieth
ethaeae eiee/anoaa ia?auo iiaee au iiianoeony a yueea, a ana aeinooiiua
?anii?yaeaieth ethaeae eiee/anoaa aoi?iai – a iaeiie aieueoie eiiiaoa.…
Iaiai?io, aiaea aeey ieouey eiaaony ia Caiea a noieue aieueoii
eiee/anoaa, /oi aaeaa ee iiaeii naaa i?aaenoaaeoue ?aca?aoa?, eioi?ue
aianoee au anth aa”.

A. Nieo:

“I?aaeiaou, iaeaaeathuea aanueia aieueoie iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoueth,
/anoi eiatho nianai ia aieueooth iaiiaoth noieiinoue eee aeaaea nianai
aa ia eiatho; iai?ioea, i?aaeiaou eiathuea i/aiue aieueooth iaiiaoth
noieiinoue, /anoi eiatho nianai ia aieueooth iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue
eee nianai aa ia eiatho. Iao ie/aai iieaciaa aiaeu, ii ia iaa ii/oe
ie/aai iaeuecy eoieoue. … Iai?ioea, aeiac ii/oe ia eiaao ieeaeie
iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe, ii /anoi a iaiai ia iaai iiaeii iieo/eoue
i/aiue aieueoia eiee/anoai ae?oaeo oiaa?ia”.

Oioy E. Iaiaa? e A. Nieo i?eaiaeyo ii nouanoao aeeceea eeethno?aoeee, eo
iieiaeaiey i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/athony.

A ia?aii neo/aa iaiaeeiaeiaua aaee/eiu oeaiiinoe aiaeu e a?eeeeaioia,
cieioa iauyniytho ?aciie noaiaiueth eo ?aaeeinoe.

A ai aoi?ii neo/aa iiaeiaiia aea ia?aaainoai iaiiaie noieiinoe aiaeu e
aeiacia iioeae?oaony ianiaiaaeaieai aaee/eiu cao?ao o?oaea ia eo
iieo/aiea.

Aianoa n oai eiee/anoaaiiay ia?aie/aiiinoue aeaa aeieaeia i?eieiaoueny a
?an/ao ia i?aeoeea i?e onoaiiaeaiee oeai. Eiaiii oae yoi i?ienoiaeeo,
iai?eia?, i?e oeaiiia?aciaaiey ia i?iaeoeoeeth caieaaeaeey, aaea eiaaony
iaei oi?ioeo ii ea/anoao caiaeueiuo o/anoeia. Aua a aieueoae ia?a
oieeaeueiinoue iaeioi?uo aeaa ieacuaaao aicaeaenoaea ia oeaiu, eiaaea ia
aoeoeeiiao i?iaeathony ?a?eoaou.

O?aouea iieiaeaiea. *aeiaae ?aniieaaaao naie iio?aaiinoe a ii?yaeea
iiieaeaiey noaiaie eo aaaeiinoe e iuoaaony oaeiaeaoai?eoue eo eiathueiny
a aai ?anii?yaeaiee eiee/anoaii aeaa. I?e yoii oeaiiinoue eaaeaeiai
aeaaa aoaeao caaenaoue, ai-ia?auo, io aaaeiinoe oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoe, a ai-aoi?uo, io noaiaie aa ianuuaiey.

A oaeii neo/aa iiaeii ?ani?aaeaeeoue iio?aaiinoe ii ii?aaeaeaiiui
?iaeai, oa?aeoa?ecothuei eo cia/aiey aeey iaania/aiey aeecie. A ninoaaa
eaaeaeiai ?iaea iio?aaiinoae auaeaeythony nooiaie ianuuaiey /aeiaa/aneeo
cai?inia.

Oae, aeiionoei, oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe a ieua ia aunoai o?iaia
eiaao iieiia cia/aiea aeey nio?aiaiey aeecie /aeiaaea. Aeaeueiaeoaa
iio?aaeaiea eiaao cia/aiea aeey nio?aiaiey caei?iauey. Iaeiiaoe,
iineaaeothuaa i?eiyoea ieue niaa?oaaony ?aaee oaeiaieuenoaey, eioi?ia
iau/ii iinoaiaiii iiieaeaaony. Iii aeinoeaaao ecaanoiie a?aieoeu, eiaaea
iio?aaiinoe a ieua oaeiaeaoai?aiu ianoieueei iieii, /oi i?iiaaeaao
oaeiaieuenoaea. A iai?ae?auathuaany ieoaiea i?aa?auaaony oaea a io/aiea
e iiaeao oa?iaeaoue iianiinoueth caei?iaueth e aeaaea aeecie. Iiaeiaiay
ea?oeia iaaethaeaaony e a ioiioaiee cia/aiey iiauoaiey noaiaie ianuuaiey
iio?aaiinoe a aeeeeua e ioaeae ae?oaiai ?iaea.

Iio?aaiinoe ?aciiai ?iaea e noaiaie eo ianuuaiey eiatho ?aciia cia/aiea
aeey iaania/aiey aeecie e aeaaininoiyiey /aeiaaea. Eo ?aniieiaeaiea ii
ia?a oauaaiey oaeiai cia/aiey iieacaii a oeaea Iaiaa?a. A iae
i?aaenoaaeai iaoaieci ia?aciaaiey ?iaeiaie e eiie?aoiie iieaciinoe aeaaa
(?eineea oeeo?u niioaaonoaotho ?iaeiaui, a a?aaneea oeeo?u – eiie?aoiui
iio?aaiinoyi).

Oeaea Iaiaa?a.

I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

6 5 4 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0

4 3 2 1 0

3 2 1 0

2 1 0

4. 0

0

Oeaea Iaiaa?a iino?iaia ii i?eioeeio oauaathuae iieaciinoe. Iia
iiiiaaao iiiyoue, ii/aio aeaaa iaiueoae ?iaeiaie iieaciinoe iiaoo
iaeaaeaoue aieueoae oeaiiinoueth. Yoi ii?aaeaeyaony ianoii eaaeaeiai
aeaaa a oeaea iio?aaiinoae e noaiaiueth ianuuaiey iio?aaiinoe a iai.

*aoaa?oia iieiaeaiea. A i?ioeanna ee/iiai iio?aaeaiey aeaenoaoao caeii
oauaathuae iieaciinoe. Iaiaoeeee yeiiiieno Aa?iai Ainnai (1810 – 1858)
noi?ioee?iaae yoio caeii oae. Noaiaiue oaeiaeaoai?aiey iaeiei e oai aea
i?iaeoeoii, anee iu iai?a?uaii i?iaeieaeaai ei iieueciaaoueny,
iinoaiaiii oiaiueoaaony, oae /oi, iaeiiaoe, ianooiaao ianuuaiea.

Eaaeaeue /aeiaae iaaa?iyea eniuouaae ia naaa aeaenoaea caeiia oauaathuae
iieaciinoe. Ecaanoii, /oi i?iaieiaeaaoeeny /aeiaae n aieueoei aiiaoeoii
nuaaeaao ia?aue eiiioue oeaaa. Caoai n eaaeaeui iiaui eoneii
oo?a/eaaaony iieaciinoue oeaaa, aei oao ii? iiea i?iiaaeaao aeaeaiea
anoue yoio i?iaeoeo. Ana nuaaeaiiia eiee/anoai oeaaa ia?acoao aaee/eio
ianuuaiey.

Iniiaaoaee aano?eeneie oeieu iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee no?aieeenue i?eaeaoue
caeiio oauaathuae iieaciinoe anaiauaa cia/aiea. O. Aeca? cayaee, /oi
yoio caeii ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ana i?ioeannu – io aieiaea aei ethaae.

Iyoia iieiaeaiea. Oeaiiinoue aeaaa ii?aaeaeyao i?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue,
o. a. noauaeoeaiay iieaciinoue “i?aaeaeueiiai yecaiiey?a”,
oaeiaeaoai?ythuaai iaeiaiaa ianoiyoaeueioth iio?aaiinoue a i?iaeoeoa
aeaiiiai ?iaea.

I?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue iiaeao aicieeaoue ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo iio?aaeaiey
aeaa. A oaeeo neo/ayo iia icia/aao aaee/eio iuouaaiie /aeiaaeii
aeiaaai/iie iieaciinoe, eioi?ay iieo/aia io i?e?inoa iio?aaeaiey iiaie
aaeeieoeu eaeiai-oi i?iaeoeoa (iai?eia?, iaeiie ii?oeee ii?iaeaiiai).

Anee i?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue aeinoeaaao “oi/ee ianuuaiey”, oi /aeiaae
ia?anoaao iuouaoue iieueco io iio?aaeyaiie aaue. Eiaaea aea yoio ?oaaae
a iio?aaeaiee i?aiaeieaaaaony, oi iau/iue i?iaeoeo aini?eieiaaony eae
aioeaeaai, a iieaciinoue i?aa?auaaony ai a?aaeiinoue. Oaeia ninoiyiea
ia?anuuaiey ecaanoii iiiaei ethaeyi, iiae?uaaaoei naia naii/oanoaea e
caei?iauea.

I?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oeaiiinoue aeaaa,
caaeneo io “caiana” (iaee/ey eiee/anoaa) aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e
iio?aaiinoe a iai. Anee i?e iaeciaiiie aaee/eia iio?aaiinoe
oaaee/eaaaony “caian”, oi i?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue aaue nieaeaaony.
Eiaaea “caian” oiaiueoaaony, oi i?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue e oeaiiinoue
aic?anoatho. Ana yoi neacuaaaony ia aaee/eia ?uii/iie oeaiu i?iaeoeoa,
eioi?ay i?yii caaeneo io aai i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe. Iioiaea, /oi
?uii/iay i?aeoeea iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aeaiioth caaeneiinoue. Oae, a oneiaeyo
ioiineoaeueiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe eaeiai-oi i?iaeoeoa (oiaiueoaaony aai
“caian”) oeaia onoaiaaeeaaaony ia aieaa aunieii o?iaia, /oi, ii
nouanoao, ii?aaaeuaaao iieoieo “i?aaeaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa”.

Iaeiaei oai?ey i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe ia aiieia niioaaonoaoao
oicyenoaaiiie i?aeoeea e niaea?aeeo aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey. Aio
ianeieueei iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee yoiai.

Ai-ia?auo, ianniaua ?uii/iua naeaeee ioaeaeathony a eaeii-oi iauaeoeaiii
niecia?aiee anao oiaa?ia. Iaaeaeo oai noauaeoeaiay iieaciinoue ia eiaao
e ia iiaeao eiaoue eaeiai-eeai eiee/anoaaiiiai au?aaeaiey, oae eae
ionoonoaotho iauaeoeaiua aaeeieoeu aeey aa ecia?aiey.

A XIX aaea iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou n/eoaee, /oi nouanoaoao iaeioi?ue
eiee/anoaaiiue ecia?eoaeue n/anouey, eee iieaciinoe, aeey eaaeaeiai
/aeiaaea. Aaeeieoea ecia?aiey iieaciinoe auea iacaaia thoeeue (io aiae.
utility – iieaciinoue). *ai aieueoa thoeeae i?eia?aoae ia ?uiea
iio?aaeoaeue, oai aieueooth ii?oeeth n/anouey ii, yeiau, iieo/ae.

Ii iiaiaeo oaeiai iiaaaeaiey iieoiaoaey i?ioanni?a N. Oeoa?, ?. Aei?iaoo
e ?. Oiaeaice (NOA) a naiai o/aaieea “Yeiiiieea” caiaoeee neaaeothuaa.
“…O?oaeii iiaa?eoue, /oi ia naiii aeaea nouanoaoao iaeay ia?a n/anouey,
eioi?oth iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa oaeiai ?iaea
ooaa?aeaeaiee: “Aeee noae au a aeaa ?aca n/anoeeaaa, anee au ii nuae aua
iaeio oieieaaeeo”.

Ai-aoi?uo, noauaeoeaii-ineoieiae/aneay oai?ey i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe ia
niiaea ?aoeoue i?iaeaio iouneaiey aaeeiiai niecia?eoaey oeaiiinoe aeey
anaai iiiaiia?acey aeaa e aeey anao ethaeae. ?aciiii caiaoeoue, /oi o
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea aeieaeai aue au nouanoaiaaoue naie n/ao thoeeae. A
iauaai ecia?eoaey noaoai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai aini?eyoey iieuecu aeaa aeey
anaai /aeiaa/anoaa a i?eioeeia ia iiaeao auoue aiiaua. Aeaeaa
ni?aoeaaaony: ?acaa iiaeii i?e iiiiue thoeey niecia?eoue i?aaeaeueioth
iieaciinoue ?aciiai ?iaea aeaa e oneoa, aeiionoei eiioea?oa aeaeaciaie
iocuee, ono?eoe e a?aoca… Ioaao i/aaeaeai

A-o?aoueeo, caeii oauaathuae iieaciinoe ia yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui. Ii
i?iyaeyao naia aeaenoaea a ioiioaiee ia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa i?aaeiaoia
ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe (iai?eia?, oeaa, aiaea, aeeeeua). Oaeea aaue
eiatho aeey ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea e aeey eaaeaeiai iiiaioa a?aieoeo
ianuuaiey. Iaeiaei aeaiiue caeii ia i?eiaiei e iiaeaaeythuae ianna
oiaa?ia – iiiai/eneaiiui iai?iaeiaieuenoaaiiui i?iaeoeoai e oai aieaa e
n?aaenoaai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eoae, iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe a ii?aaeaeaiiie
ia?a io?aaeatho ?aaeueiua ?uii/iua nayce. Yoe nayce iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
a oi?ioea: iio?aaeoaeue – iio?aaiinoue – iieaciinoue aeaaa – aai
oeaiiinoue – ?uii/iay oeaia. Oae, ii-aeaeeiiio, iiaeii ioeaieaaoue oiaa?
e yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey ni noi?iiu iio?aaeoaey.

Noi?iiieee eiioeaioeee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe n/eoatho, /oi eiaiii
iio?aaeoaee, onoaiaaeeaathuea oeaiiinoue oiaa?ia, ii?aaeaeytho ?uii/ioth
oeaio. Iie ecia?aaeatho ?uiie eae a?aio yeiiiie/aneie aeaiie?aoee.
Caeanue a naiaiaeiie ioeaiea oiaa?ia o/anoaotho ana iieoiaoaee. Iie
i?iaiaeyo naiaai ?iaea “aieiniaaiea”: ioaeatho ca aua?aiiua eie oiaa?u
?oaee, aeieea?u eee eiua aeaiueae. Oaeei ia?acii, ioe?uaaaony eee
cae?uaaaony iooue anyeiio i?iaeoeoo a noa?a iio?aaeaiey. Eoiae yoiai
ia?iaeiiai “?aoa?aiaeoia” io?aaeathony a ?uii/iuo oeaiao.

E?eoeeoy eiioeaioeeth AE. A. Nay i iieaciinoe oiaa?ia eae ?aaoeyoi?a eo
noieiinoe, Ae. ?eea?aei ienae: “Yoi auei au aa?ii, anee au noieiinoue
oiaa?ia ?aaoee?iaaeanue oieueei iieoiaoaeyie”. Ae. ?eea?aei ioia/ae, /oi
iieaciinoue oiaa?ia, o. a. eo iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue, iaiaoiaeeia
aeey oiai, /oiau oiaa? iaeaaeae noieiinoueth, iaeiaei iia ia yaeyaony
enoi/ieeii noieiinoe. “Iieaciinoue aauae, – ienae ii, – i?aaenoaaeyao,
aannii?ii, iniiao noieiinoe, ii noaiaiue iieaciinoe ia iiaeao auoue
ia?ie noieiinoe. Oiaa?, i?iecaiaeeiue n aieueoae o?oaeiinoueth, aoaeao
anaaaea aei?iaea, /ai oiaa?, i?iecaiaeeiue n aieueoae eaaeinoueth,
aeaaea anee au ana ethaee aaeeiiaeooii n/eoaee, /oi iineaaeiee aieaa
iieacai, /ai ia?aue”.

Iinea iciaeiieaiey n o?oaeiaie oai?eae noieiinoe e n eiioeaioeeae
i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe iaeuecy ia caiaoeoue, /oi a oai?ee ?uii/iiai
oeaiiia?aciaaiey a oeaeii aicieeei na?ueaciia i?ioeai?a/ea. Aiaeeeneea
eeanneee iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee ?aoathuoth ?ieue a onoaiiaeaiee oeaiu
i?eienuaaee i?aaeeiaeaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeae, eioi?ua enoiaeyo ec o/aoa
o?oaea, cao?a/aiiiai ia nicaeaiea oiaa?a. A i?ioeaiaan yoiio ?aiiea
aano?eeneea oai?aoeee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe cia/aiea i?eaeaaaee ni?ino
iio?aaeoaeae. ?ac?aoeoue yoi i?ioeai?a/ea acyeny Aeueo?aae Ia?oaee.

A. Ia?oaee n/eoae iaeeiaeiai iai?aaeeueiui ioaeaaaoue i?aaeii/oaiea a
i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iie oeaiu eeai i?aaeeiaeaiey, eeai ni?ino.
Ii aai iiaieth, n ?aaiui iniiaaieai aaniieacii nii?eoue: eaeia eacaea
iiaeieoe ?ac?acaao eonie aoiaae – aa?oiaa eee ieaeiaa?

A. Ia?oaee iieiaeee a iniiao naiae oai?ee aeeiaieeo ooieoeee ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey, eo neioac. Oaeea yeiiiienou, eae Naioyeuenii, Eeii e
ae?., aneaae ca Ia?oaeeii naiaeyo oeaeue oai?ee oeaiiinoe e eco/aieth
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?acee/iuo io?aceao a?aiaie e aeeyiey oeaiu ia
eiee/anoai i?iecaaaeaiiuo eee eoieaiiuo oiaa?ia. I?ioanni? Eeii,
ioi?aaeyynue ia ?uiie, iouneeaaao oeaio oiaa?ia a oi/ea ia?ana/aiey
ooieoeee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, aeaeaeoueony a ?aieao i?aneiaoouo
noauaeoeaiuo ioeaiie i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe oiaa?a. Ii oaea Ia?en
oaaaeeoaeueii aeieacae, /oi ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ieeae ia iauyniytho
i?ioeanna oeaiiia?aciaaiey, eai iie aeeytho eeoue ia ioeeiiaiea ?uii/iie
oeaiu io noieiinoe, ii ia ii?aaeaeytho niaie aaee/eiu noieiinoe. A X
aeaaa III oiia “Eaieoaea” Ia?en iieacae, /oi a neo/aa ?aaainoaa ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey neeu, eaaeauea ia eo noi?iia, ia?anoatho aeaenoaiaaoue e
?uii/iua oeaiu oiaa?ia niaiaaeatho n eo noieiinoueth. Ni?in e
i?aaeeiaeaiea caaenyo io oeai, e eo aeaeaeaiea iiaeao auoue iauyniaii
oieueei ia iniiaa caeiia noieiinoe.

A. Ia?oaee iuoaeny ?anniio?aoue i?aaeeiaeaiea eae noiio oeai oaeoi?ia,
cao?a/aiiuo ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a. Iaeiaei iieo/eeinue, /oi
iacia/aiiay i?iaeaaoeii oeaia iauyniyaony oiaea oeaiie… A. Ia?oaee n/ae
iaoeaeaniia?aciui oaeoaeyoueny a ?anniio?aiea nooe ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ii ia?aie/eeny iienaieai aicaeaenoaey ?uii/iie oeaiu ia
yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea iieoiaoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia.

4. Caeeth/aiea.

Iinea anao iaoeo enneaaeiaaiee nicaeaaony no?aiiay ea?oeia.
Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia iaeia. Oai?ee noieiinoe, yoo nenoaio eiee/anoaaiii
iauyniythueo, aeaa. Iieo/aaony, iaeia ec oai?ee ia aa?ia?

Iao. Eaaeaeay ec ieo e aa?ia, e iaaa?ia: iie iaeiinoi?iiie. Iie
iienuaatho oicyenoai eae au n ?aciuo noi?ii. Eaaeaeay ioaaouaaao iaeei
aie, ia caia/ay, /oi anoue e ae?oaie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea oai?ee noieiinoe caeeth/aaony a iao/iii neioaca iaieo
aa?eaioia.

O?aaeeoeeiiiay o?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe neeoeii oaeaeaaony
i?iecaiaenoaii e iaaeio/eouaaao iio?aaeaiea. Ii n iiiiuueth neioaca
aeaoo oai?ee yoiai iiaeii ecaaaeaoue e oai?ey i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe
ainiieiyao aa iaeiinoi?iiiinoue.

O?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe ia iiaeao iauynieoue, eaeei ia?acii ethaee
o/eouaatho iauaeoeaiua o?oaeiaua i?iii?oeee, neeaaeuaathueany o ieo “ca
nieiaie”. Noauaeoeaiua ioeaiee, niioaaonoaothuea eciaiaieth o?oaeiauo
i?iii?oeee, a oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe ecaaaeytho aa e io yoeo
i?iaeai.

Yeiiiie/aneay iaoea eeai i?eieiaao oai?eth i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, eeai
inoaaony a ?aieao o?oaeiaie oai?ee, eeai au?aaaouaaao o?aoee aa?eaio.
O?aoueei aa?eaioii iiaeao auoue:

– au?aaioea niaa?oaiii eiiai iiaeoiaea e noieiinoe, /oi iaeiaa?iyoii;

– ?ac?aaioea eioi?iaoeeiiiie oai?ee noieiinoe, eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a
ca/aoi/iii ninoiyiee;

– neioac o?oaeiaie oai?ee e oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe.

Iineaaeiee aa?eaio (neioac oai?ee) yaeyaony aanueia ia?niaeoeaiui eae n
oi/ee c?aiey ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneie iaoee, oae e n oi/ee c?aiey iniciaiey
yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania ?innee.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. A. A. Aieeei “AEeciue e aeaea iuneeoaeae yeiiiienoia aei Ia?ena”.

2. A. O. Ai?enia “Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey”.

3. A. N. Aa/eaiia, A. ?. Aa/eaiiaa “Neiaa?ue ?uii/iie yeiiiieee”.

4. A. I. Caiyoiei “Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee”.

5. A. I. Iaeao?ae “Aaaaeaiea a enoi?eth yeiiiie/aneie iunee”.

6. E. Ia?en “Eaieoae”.

7. A. E. Ieoaeeooeei, I. E. Oeiei “Iniiau ?uii/iie yeiiiieee”.

8. A. E. ?aoyeue “Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee”.

9. Ae. E. ?icaiaa?a “Eiiaioa?ee e “Eaieoaeo” E. Ia?ena”.

10. Aaeai Nieo “Enneaaeiaaiey i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa
ia?iaeia”.

11. A. A. O?iiooei “Ao?aeoaciua oai?ee iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee”.

12. “Aaeai Nieo e ni?aiaiiay iieeoyeiiiiey” Iineianeee oieaa?neoao 1979
a.

13. “Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneie iunee” Iineianeee oieaa?neoao 1961 a.

14. “Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey” NIaAOYeO 1997a.

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