.

Теория спроса и предложения. Неценовые детерминанты спроса и предложения

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1116
Скачать документ

Oieaa?neoao ?inneeneie Aeaaeaiee Ia?aciaaiey

Eo?niaay ?aaioa ia oaio:

«Oai?ey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Iaoeaiiaua aeaoa?ieiaiou ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.»

nooaeaioa 1-ai eo?na

oaeoeueoaoa «Yeiiiieea e Aecian»

eaoaae?a «Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey»

Aaaeaaaa Iaeneia Aiae?aaae/a

Iineaa 2001 aiae

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

Iniiaiay /anoue

A. Iiiyoea ni?ina, caeii ni?ina, iaoeaiiaua aeaoa?ieiaiou ni?ina,
iiaaaeaiea ni?ina, a?aoee ni?ina.

A. Iiiyoea i?aaeeiaeaiey, caeii i?aaeeiaeaiey, iaoeaiiaua aeaoa?ieiaiou
i?aaeeiaeaiey, iiaaaeaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey, a?aoee i?aaeeiaeaiey.

3. Caeeth/aiea

4. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

«Yeiiiieea – yoi iaoea i iianaaeiaaiie aeaeiaie aeecie e

oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, a aa i?aaeiaoii

yaeyaony enneaaeiaaiea aiaaonoaa e /anoe/ii /aeiaaea,

oi/iaa noeioeia e aeaenoaeth e iioeaai i?ioeaiaeaenoaey.»

A.IA?OAEE

AAAAeAIEA.

Yeiiiieea yaeyaony iaeiie ec ae?aaiaeoeo iaoe. Iia anaaaea i?eaeaeaea
aieiaiea o/aiuo e anao ia?aciaaiiuo ethaeae. Iauyniyaony yoi oai, /oi
eco/aiea yeiiiieee – yoi ?aaeecaoeey iauaeoeaiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiciaiey
iioeaia, aeaenoaee ethaeae a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, caeiiia
oicyenoaiaaiey ai ana a?aiaia – io A?enoioaey, Enaiioiioa aei
naaiaeiyoieo aeiae.

Naaiaeiy eioa?an ia?aciaaiiuo ethaeae e yeiiiieea (yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee
eee iieeoyeiiiiee) ia oieueei ia ennye, ii aeaaea aic?anoaao.
Iauyniyaony yoi oaie aeiaaeueiuie ia?aiaiaie, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo ai
anai ie?a e a ?innee a /anoiinoe. Aeaeiue aia?eeaineee o/aiue
I.Naioyeuenii iacaae yeiiiieen eee iieeoe/aneoth yeiiiieeo ei?ieaaie
iaoe. Eao?aao Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee I.O?eaeiai ienae, /oi yeiiiieea –
i/a?iauaathuay iaoea, iia oaeeaeoaeueia oai, /oi aa ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
i?eioeeiu i/aiue i?inou e iiaoo auoue caienaiu ia iaeiii eenoa aoiaae,
oai ia iaiaa, eo iiieiatho iaiiiaea. Neiaeiinoue aeaiiie iaoee,
io?aaeathuae neiaeiue ie? oicyenoaiaaiey, a oii, /oi i?e eco/aiee iia
o?aaoao, ii neiaai ecaanoiiai a ie?a niaoeeaeenoa ii enoi?ee
yeiiiie/aneie iunee A.Oaeeuea?iiia?a, «auiineeainoe aa?aethaea e
oa?iaiey nayoiai».

I?aaeiao yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee – yoi enneaaeiaaiea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
ethaeueie ii iiaiaeo i?iecaiaenoaa, iaiaia, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iio?aaeaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e oneoa a ?acoeueoaoa yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey
?aaeeeo ?ano?nia aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey aaca?aie/iuo iio?aaiinoae.

Ethaeyi naienoaaiiu eae aeieiae/aneea, oae e nioeeaeueii iaoneiaeaiiua
iio?aaiinoe. *oiau oaeiaeaoai?eoue yoe iio?aaiinoe (a ieua, iaeaaeaea,
aeeeuea e aaneiia/iii iiiaeanoaa ae?oaeo oiaa?ia e oneoa), iaiaoiaeeii
eniieueciaaoue eiathueany ?ano?nu: ?aai/oth neeo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea
niiniaiinoe, eaieoae, caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey, i?e?iaeiua aiaaonoaa.
Niaaeeiaiea ?ano?nia, inouanoaeyaiia a ?aieao ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, iacuaaaony niiniaii i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia?aie/aiiinoue ?ano?nia ia iicaieyao eiaoue ana, /oi oioaeinue au
/aeiaaeo. Iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea i?aauoatho aai aiciiaeiinoe, oae eae ana
eiathueany ?ano?nu a eaaeaeie no?aia, aea e a ie?a a oeaeii, ia?aie/aiu.
Iiyoiio anaiauaa eciaeeea – yoi ieo.

INIIAIAss *ANOUe.

Yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui
n?aaenoaii, eioi?ia iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaii e oe?ieiio e?oao
?aciiia?aciuo i?iaeai. A eo /enea iiaeii iacaaoue: i?iaiic aeeyiey
iaiythueony ie?iauo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee ia ?uii/ioth oeaio e
yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa; ioeaiea aeeyiey i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ia? ii
eiio?ieth oeai, ieieiaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa e yeiiiie/aneea noeioeu,
aeeyiea iaeiaia, noaneaeee, iioeei ia eiii?o e eaio iio?aaeoaeae e
i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey i ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiee noaee /anoueth
iianaaeiaaiiai ycuea e iiuoa. Iai?eia?, anee o i?iaeaaoea aieueoay
ia?oey aaoiiiaeeae, oi ii nieaeaao oeaio. A yoii neo/aa, i/aaeaeii, /oi
oeaia oiaea aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiiiai oiaa?a
oaaee/eeinue. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oeaiu ia eo?i?oao eaoii auoa, /ai
ceiie. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi eaoii ni?in auoa, /ai ceiie.

Ni?in – yoi iaiauathuee oa?iei, iienuaathuee iiaaaeaiea oaeoe/aneeo e
iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae oiaa?a. Ni?in – yoi iio?aaiinoue,
au?aaeaiiay a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia. Iauai ni?ina – yoi eiee/anoai oiaa?a,
eioi?ia iieoiaoaee aeaeatho i?eia?anoe ca iaeioi?ue ia?eiae a?aiaie
(aeaiue, ianyoe, aiae e o.ae.). «AEaeaiea i?eia?anoe» caeanue icia/aao,
/oi iieoiaoaee aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaee au aeaeaiea e aiciiaeiinoue
caieaoeoue ca o?aaoaiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a, anee au oaeiaia eiaeinue a
iaee/ee. Aaaeii ?acee/aoue iauai ni?ina e iauai oaeoe/aneie iieoiee.
Iauai ni?ina ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei iiaaaeaieai iieoiaoaeae, oiaaea eae
iauai iieoiee ii?aaeaeyaony e iieoiaoaeyie, e i?iaeaaoeaie niaianoii.
Iauai ni?ina caaeneo io oeaiu aeaiiiai oiaa?a, oeaiu ae?oaeo oiaa?ia,
iaoeaiiauo aeaoa?ieiaio, aeeth/athueo, aeioiaeu iieoiaoaeae e eo aeonu,
iaeiieaiiia eiouanoai, eioeyoeeiiiua e aeaoeyoeeiiiua iaeeaeaiey
iieoiaoaeae, oeaiu ia acaeiicaiaiyaiua e acaeiiaeiiieiyaiua oiaa?u.
Iiyoiio ni?in i/aiue iiaeaeaeai e eciai/ea. Anoue e ae?oaea iaoeaiiaua
oaeoi?u (aic?ano iieoiaoaeae, iaoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe e o.ae.),
eioi?ua niiniaiu aeeyoue ia iauai ni?ina. Eo iaiaoiaeeii auyaeyoue,
i?aaeaea /ai ia/eiaoue aiaae?youe ia ?uiie oio eee eiie oiaa?.

A caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy yeiiiieee, ia eioi?ii oi?ie?oaony ni?in,
auaeaeytho:

Niaieoiiue ni?in.

Ii oi?ie?oaony ia o?iaia iae?iyeiiiieee.

Io?aneaaie ni?in.

Ii oi?ie?oaony ia iacio?iaia e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ni?in ni noi?iiu
ae?oaeo io?aneae e aeiiioicyenoa ia i?iaeoeoeeth aeaiiie io?anee.

?uii/iue ni?in.

Yoi ni?in ia eaeie-eeai ii?aaeaeaiiue aeae i?iaeoeoeee.

Ni?in eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iieoiaoaey.

Caaeneo io ?acia?ia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, iaoiaeyueony ia ?oeao
ianaeaiey, a naa?eannao, io ?acee/iuo auieao e ianeaaenoaa, ?acia?ia
?uiea, oeaiu, iieaciinoe e ea/anoaa oiaa?ia, noauaeoeaiuo aeonia e
i?aaeii/oaiee.

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue auoa, iauai ni?ina caaeneo io iiiaeo oaeoi?ia.
Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo yaeyaony oeaia ia aeaiiue oiaa?. Onoie/eaay
iiaoi?ythuayny acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo iauaiii ni?ina e oeaiie, eiathuay
ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? iacuaaaony caeiiii ni?ina.

Eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, eioi?ia iieoiaaony ethaeueie, anaaaea caaeneo io
oeai ia oiaa?u. Iaaeaeo ?uii/iie oeaiie oiaa?a e oai aai eiee/anoaii, ia
eioi?ia i?aaeuyaeyaony ni?in, anaaaea nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiia
niioiioaiea. Aunieay oeaia oiaa?a ia?aie/eaaao ni?in ia iaai,
oiaiueoaiea oeaiu ia yoio oiaa?, eae i?aaeei, iaoneaaeeaaao aic?anoaiea
ni?ina ia iaai. Yoo acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo oeaiie e eiee/anoaii
iieoiaaiiai oiaa?a iiaeii io?aceoue ia a?aoeea (?en.1)

?

P2 A

P1
B

Qd2

Qd1

Q2
Q1 Q

?en.1 E?eaay ni?ina

I?e oeaia ?1, eioi?ay yaeyaony aieaa ieceie ii n?aaiaieth n oeaiie ?2,
ni?in i?aaeuyaeai ia aieueoaa eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoa Q1. Eiaaea oeaia
iiauoaaony aei ?2, ni?in nieaeaaony. I?e/eia yoiai e?iaony a oii, /oi
i?e ?inoa oeaiu ethaee aeaeatho auai?, eaeea i?iaeoeou ei iio?aaeyoue.
Ec caeiia ni?ina iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi i?e ?aaiioeaiiinoe ae?oaeo
ninoaaiuo aaee/ei ?acoeueoaoii iiauoaiey oeaiu anaaaea aoaeao
oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa iieoiaaiiai oiaa?a.

Yoio caeii aia?aua noi?ioee?iaae o?aioeocneee iaoaiaoee Aiooai Iathnoai
Eo?ii a ?aaioa «Enneaaeiaaiea iaoaiaoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia oai?ee
aiaaonoaa». A niioaaonoaee n aai oi?ioee?iaeie caeiia ni?in ia oiaa?
ninoaaeyao iaeioi?oth ooieoeeth oeaiu, i?e/ai, eae i?aaeei, oauaathuoth.
Oaeia iieiaeaiea aiieia iainiiaaii e ia i?ioeai?a/eo ?uieo.

Oi?ioea caeiia iaaeathuaai ni?ina A.Eo?ii oaeiaa:

D = f(P),

aaea f(P)0, aaea S – i?aaeeiaeaiea, f – ooieoeey, P –

oeaia.

E?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaeao iaiyoue naia iieiaeaiea ia a?aoeea (?en.4).

?
Qs1

Qs2

Qs3

Q

?en.4 E?eaua i?aaeeiaeaiey

Qs1 – yoi eeiey ia?aiaiu a i?aaeeiaeaiee. Oi anoue aue aaaaeai eaeie-oi
yeaiaio, eioi?ue aucaae cia/eoaeueiia no?oeoo?iia eciaiaiea ai
acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo oeaiie e eiee/anoaii oiaa?a. Noieiinoue oiaa?a
iiauneeanue. Qs1 eiaao aieueoee iauai oeaiiinoae, noaey ii inyi P e Q,
/ai Qs2.

Qs2 – yoi oneiaea, eiaaea /oi-oi aiaoaeinue a i?ioeann ?uiea. Iai?eia?,
iaeia ia oiaa? eee ae?oaie yeaiaio, eioi?ue aucaae iiaeuai oeaiu. Yoi
iiaeao auoue oneiaea, eioi?ia oaaee/eaaao i?eaueue i?iaeaaoea, ii
iiae?uaaao ?uiie.

Qs3 – yoi neooaoeey, iiaeaeoay ca niaie iiieaeaiea oeaiu. Iia iau/ii
aicieeaao i?e aaaaeaiee aieaa nia?aiaiiie oaoiieiaee. Iiyoiio ia ?en.4
ecia?aaeaia neooaoeey ia?aiaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey: nia/aea iiauoaiea oeaiu ia
i?iaeoeo (Qs1), a caoai – iiieaeaiea oeaiu (Qs3). Iaeaey iiaeoiaeyuoth
oeaio e niioaaonoaothuaa ae eiee/anoai oiaa?a ia ?en.4, iiaeii eaaei
ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeei ia?acii yoe ia?aiaiu a i?aaeeiaeaiee io?aaeathony ia
?uiea.

Iaeaieaa i?inoua yeaiaiou, aucuaathuea eciaiaiey a i?aaeeiaeaiee, – yoi
iiaay oaoiieiaey e iaeiae. Iaeia auciaao eciaiaiea a i?aaeeiaeaiee io
Qs2 aei Qs1. Oaoiieiaey i?eaaaeao e eciaiaieyi io Qs2 aei Qs3.
Aiaoaoaeuenoaa a nenoaio ?uiea oaeaea auciaoo eciaiaiey a yoii a?aoeea.
Iai?eia?, aeioaoeee ia i?iaeoeo iiaoo i?eaanoe e eciaiaieth
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ii?ie?iaaiea oiaa?a oiaea iiae?uaaao i?aaeeiaeaiea.

?uii/iia ?aaiiaanea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neooaoeeth, i?e eioi?ie
eioa?anu iieoiaoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia niaiaaeatho. Yoi au?aaeaaony a oii,
/oi eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, eioi?ia i?iaeaaoeu oioyo e iiaoo i?iaeaoue ii
ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaia, niaiaaeaao n eiee/anoaii oiaa?ia, eioi?ua
iieoiaoaee oioyo e iiaoo eoieoue ii yoie aea oeaia.

?aaiiaaniia iieiaeaiea ?uiea iiaeii au?aceoue ia a?aoeea (?en.5).

?
Qs

pe A

Qd

qe
Q

?en. 5 ?aaiiaaniia ninoiyiea ?uiea

Anoue iiiyoey ii?aaeaeythuea n ea/anoaaiiie e eiee/anoaaiiie noi?iiu
?aaiiaaniia ninoiyiea ?uiea. Yoi iiiyoea aaeeinoaaiiinoe e onoie/eainoe
?aaiiaaney. ?aaiiaanea aaeeinoaaiiia, anee : 1. Iii i?enoonoaoao 2. Aio
niioaaonoaoao aaeeinoaaiiia cia/aiea P e Q.

?anniio?ei i?eia?u ninoiyiey ?uiea ia eioi?ii yoi oneiaea ia
niaethaeaaony (?en. 6).

?
?

Qd 1 Qs
Qd Qs

A

?a
B
2

Qs
Qd Qs
Qd

A A
Q Qe
Q

P
P

Qd
Qs

Qs

3
4

Qd

Q

Q

?en. 6. I?eia?u

I?eia?u 1 e 2 eeethno?e?otho iiiaeanoaaiiinoue ninoiyiey ?aaiiaaney. Ia
i?eia?a 1 i?e iaeiie e oie aea oeaia ?a iiaeao auoue i?iaeaii ethaia
eiee/anoai oiaa?a ia io?acea AA. Ia i?eia?a 2 i?e iaeiii e oii aea
cia/aiee Qe oiaa? iiaeao auoue i?iaeai ii ?acee/iui oeaiai a io?acea AA.
I?eia? 3 eeethno?e?oao neooaoeeth a eioi?ie iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey anaaaea
i?aauoaao iauai ni?ina. I?eia? 4 eeethno?e?oao neooaoeeth i?e eioi?ie
oiaa? ia aeinooiai aeey iieoiaoaeae i?e ethaie oeaia, eioi?ua
i?aaeeaaathony i?iaeaaoeii ia ?uiea. Aeey ethaiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a
oeaia i?iaeaaoea i?aauoaao oeaio, eioi?oth aioia caieaoeoue iieoiaoaeue.

Onoie/eaui ?aaiiaanea iacuaaaony oiaaea, eiaaea ?uiie, iinea ethaiai
ia?ooaiey ?aaiiaaney niiniaai naiinoiyoaeueii aa?iooueny e ?aaiiaaniiio
ninoiyieth (?en.7).

?

Q

?en.7 Iaooeiiia?aciay iiaeaeue ?uiea

Yoa iiaeaeue iacuaaaony iaooeiiia?aciie iiaeaeueth ?uiea. Aa aia?aua
?ac?aaioae Aaeue?an. Iia oaeaea iacuaaaony iiaeaeueth n caoooathueie
eieaaaieyie oeaiu. N oa/aieai a?aiaie oeaia aica?auaaony e naiaio
?aaiiaaniiio cia/aieth, aeaoeoeeo e eceeoae no?aiyony e ioeth, iauai
i?iaeaae no?aieony e Qe. Aeaeaeoueie neeaie i?eaiaeyueie ?uiie e
?aaiiaaneth yaeyaony eiieo?aioeey i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae.

A ninoiyiee ?aaiiaaney ?uiie naaeaine?iaai. Ie o iieoiaoaeae, ie o
i?iaeaaoeia iao aioo?aiieo iiaoaeaeaiee e aai ia?ooaieth. Iai?ioea, i?e
ethaie ae?oaie oeaia, ioee/iie io oeaiu ?aaiiaaney, ?uiie ia
naaeaine?iaai.

CAEETH*AIEA.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, eieaaaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea oeai
eae aai ?acoeueoao au?aaeatho nouiinoue caeiia ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

A.Ia?oaee i?aaeeueii n/eoae, /oi caeii ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey anoue
?acoeueoao aeaenoaey aieaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo i?e/ei, niinia ?aaeecaoeee
aaeeinoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. Yoio caeii –
anaiauay oi?ia, /a?ac eioi?oth ?aaeecoaony aeaenoaea iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia,
ii?aaeaeythueo aeaeaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e oeai.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U.

«Yeiiiieea» N.Oeoa?, ?.Aei?iaoo, ?.Oiaeaice

Ecae. «Aeaei»,Iineaa,1993

«Yeiiiieen» Eyiiaaee ?.Iaeeiiiaee, Noaiee E.A?th

oii 1. Ecae. «?anioaeeea», Iineaa, 1992

«Eo?n yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee» iiae ?aae. I.I.*aio?eia, A.A.Eenaeaaie

Ecae. «ANA», Ee?ia, 1994

«Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey» Iiniaa N.N.

Ecae. «Aeaaein», Iineaa, 1999

«Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey» E.Oiaa?ae, A.AEo?aaeaaa, I.Y?eaoaeee

Ecae. «THIEOE», Iineaa, 1998

«Yeiiiieea» Oii 1 e 2 I.Naioyeuenii

Ecae. III «AEAII» «Iaoeiino?iaiea», Iineaa, 1997

PAGE 1

PAGE 1

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Ответить

Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020