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Теория распределения Д. Рикардо

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IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss OE?AEIU

AeIAI?IIAO?IANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

E?AAeEOII – OEIAINIAUE OAEOEUeOAO

?aoa?ao

ii eo?no «Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee»

ia oaio

”Oai?ey ?ani?aaeaeaiey

Ae. ?eea?aei“

Auiieiee
nooaeaio a?oiiu EO – 97 -1

Nae? N. A.

AeIAI?IIAO?IANE 1998

Ieai.

?. Ianeieueei neia i Ae.?eea?aei e aai iaoiaea.

??. Oai?ey ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?eea?aei.

?eea?aei – iineaaeiaaoaeue Nieoa.

I?eaaai/iay noieiinoue a oai?ee ?eea?aei.

O?aeoiaea noieiinoe e oeaiu oiaa?a.

Enneaaeiaaiea i?eauee.

Aiaeec caiaeueiie ?aiou.

Iiieiaiea ?eea?aei noieiinoe e ca?ieaou.

Yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeai?a/ey eeannia.

???. O/aiea ?eea?aei – caaa?oathuee yoai ?acaeoey eeanne/aneie
ao?aeoaciie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee.

?iaeeeny Aeaaeae ?eea?aei a Eiiaeiia a ai?aea 1772 a. Iao/aeny a iau/iie
oeiea, a caoai aue ioi?aaeai ia aeaa aiaea a Ainoa?aeai, aaea ia/ae
iinoeaaoue a eiioi?a naiaai aeyaee oaeiu eiiia?oeee. A 16 eao Aeaaeae
oaea aue aeeaeaeoei iiiiuieeii iooea a eiioi?a e ia ae?aea. E 30-oe
aiaeai ii oaea aue i/aiue aiaao e a?e e?oiiua iia?aoeee. Cieioui aeiii
aeey iaai ieacaeny ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea e naeaeee n iaeeaaoeeyie
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia, a /anoiinoe, ea?a ia eo eo?nao. E 38-ie aiaeai
?eea?aei – iaeia ec e?oiiaeoeo oeao? eiiaeiineiai oeiainiaiai ie?a.
Iao/ioth aeayoaeueiinoue ia/ae a 26 eao. Oie/eii e iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe iineoaeeee ?aaiou Nieoa e Iaeueoona, a ia?aua ?aaiou auee
iaienaiu iiae ianoaaie/anoaii Aeae. Ieeey.

O ?eea?aei aue, a nouiinoe, iaoaiaoe/aneee oi. Niinia aai iuoeaiey e
iaia?a eceiaeaiey iaiiieiatho no?iainoue iaoaiaoe/aneeo aeieacaoaeuenoa.
?eea?aei iaeaaeae eneeth/eoaeueiie niiniaiinoueth aano?aae?iaaoueny io
anaai, /oi aio eacaeinue ia aeaaiui.

Iaeiaei a aai iaoaiaoe/aneii iiaeoiaea auee e iaaeinoaoee. A
?ani?aaeaeaiee, eae e a noieiinoe, ?eea?aei aeaeae i?aaeaea anaai
eiee/anoaaiioth noi?iio. Aai eioa?aniaaee aeiee e i?iii?oeee, ii iaei
eioa?aniaaea naia i?e?iaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey, aai naycue n ono?ienoaii e
?acaeoeai iauanoaa.

*****

?eea?aei ?acaeaae a iniiaiii nieoiau acaeyaeu ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo,
i?eaueue e ?aioo eae ia ia?ae/iua aeioiaeu o??o aeaaiuo eeannia
iauanoaa. O?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe aeaea ?eea?aei oa??aeia iniiaaiea
aeey aai oai?ee ?ani?aaeaeaiey. ?eea?aei i?aaeeueii enoiaeeo ec oiai,
/oi aaeeiui enoi/ieeii noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa yaeyaony
ia?iiue o?oae ?aai/eo. N iiceoeee o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe Ae.?eea?aei
ii?iaa?aaao oai?eth «i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe eaieoaea» e eiioeaioeeth i
caiea eae enoi/ieea ?aiou. O?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe iicaieyao
Ae.?eea?aei iiaeieoe e iao/iiio aiaeeco caeiiia, ?aaoee?othueo aeioiaeu
iniiaiuo eeannia ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa. Iao/iay caneoaa ?eea?aei ninoieo
a iiiuoea aeaoue iauyniaiea i?ioeanna ?ani?aaeaeaiey, enoiaey ec aaeeiie
iniiau – o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe.

Eiaiii a onoaiiaeaiee caeiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiey «i?iaeoeoa caiee» (o.a.
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea e iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa) iaaeaeo o?aiy
aeaaiuie eeannaie iauanoaa ?eea?aei aeaeae iniiaioth caaea/o
iieeoyeiiiiee.

?eea?aei ieaaea ia ?anniao?eaaao i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue iainiaeaiii io
a? eiie?aoiuo oi?i – i?eauee, nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa e ?aiou, oioy e
iiaeoiaeeo e oaeiio iiieiaieth, o?aeooy i?ioeaio e ?aioo eae au/ao ec
i?eauee, eioi?ua i?iiuoeaiiue eaieoaeeno auioaeaeai aeaeaoue a iieueco
nianoaaiieea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea e caieaaeaaeaeueoea. A nouiinoe, oio
oaeo, /oi ?aai/ee nicaea?o naiei o?oaeii aieueooth noieiinoue, /ai
iieo/aao a aeaea ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?aaenoaaeyaony ?eea?aei i/aaeaeiui e
ia ioaeaeaaony, ii aai iiaieth, a eaeii-oi iniaii aiaeeca. Aai
eioa?anoao eeoue eiee/anoaaiiia niioiioaiea, ?aniaaeaiea ia ca?ieaoo e
i?eaueue. Ia?en ioia/ae, /oi yoio acaeyae ?eea?aei auoaeae ec
i?aaenoaaeaiey i eaieoaeecia eae i «anoanoaaiiie oi?ia» anyeiai
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

?anniao?eaay no?oeoo?o noieiinoe e oeaiu oiaa?a, ?eea?aei iau/ii
eaii?e?iaae oo a? /anoue, eioi?ay io?aaeaea ia?aianaiioth eiie?aoiui
o?oaeii noieiinoue iinoiyiiiai eaieoaea, o.a. neaaeiaae «aeiaia Nieoa».
Iineieueeo noieiinoue oiaa?a ?aniaaeaaony ia ca?ieaoo e i?eaueue,
iineaaeiyy iaoiaeeony a ia?aoiii ioiioaiee e ia?aie e caaeneo io ia?.
I?eaueue anaaaea aunooiaao o iaai eae inoaoie iinea au/aoa ec noieiinoe
oiaa?a cao?ao ia ca?ieaoo. Iiieiaaiay oaeei ia?acii i?eaueue
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie, ii nooe, i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue. Ii aeaeaa
?eea?aei ia?aoiaeeo e ?anniio?aieth i?eauee a oii aeaea, eae iia
aunooiaao ia iiaa?oiinoe yaeaiee, o.a. i?eauee iinea oieaou caiaeueiie
?aiou. E?iia oiai, ii n/eoaao i?eaueue i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie aaee/eia
aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea. Aeaaiay i?iaeaia, eioi?ay caieiaea aai i?e
o?aeoiaea i?eauee, caeeth/aeanue a oaiaeaioeee e iiieaeaieth a? ii?iu.
Yoo oaiaeaioeeth ii iauyniee ia niaoeeoe/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a aeaenoaeai i?e?iaeiuo oaeoi?ia, a
eiaiii oae: ?eea?aei i?eieiae oai?eth ia?iaeiianaeaiey Iaeueoona e
n/eoae, /oi aeey i?iei?ieaiey iaoaea?aeeii ?anoouaai ianaeaiey
iaecaaaeii i?eoiaeeony ia?aoiaeeoue e ia?aaioea anao ooaeoeo caiaeue,
aeathueo iiieaeaiioth ioaea/o. Yoi auciaao ?ino oeai naeueoici?iaeoeoeee
e caiaeueiie ?aiou. Aeaiaaeiay ca?ieaoa ia?iiuo ?aai/eo niioaaonoaaiii
aeieaeia iiauneony (o.e. o ?eea?aei iia ii?aaeaeyaony oece/aneei
ieieioiii n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey). a oae eae i?iiuoeaiiua eaieoaeenou ia
iiaoo a oneiaeyo naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee iiauoaoue oeaiu naieo oiaa?ia
ii ia?a ?inoa ca?ieaou, oi eo i?eauee ieacuaathony caaeaouie iaaeaeo
?anoouae iiieiaeueii e ?aaeueii ?aioie e ?anoouae oieueei iiieiaeueii
ca?ieaoie. Iiyoiio ii?ia i?eauee nieaeaaony.

?eea?aei iianaeny, /oi iiieaeaiea ii?iu i?eauee a eiia/iii n/?oa
i?eaaae?o e oiaiueoaieth iaeiieaiey eaieoaea. Eaieoaeii ii n/eoae
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea cao?aou eaieoaeenoia ia ca?ieaoo. Aeey
?eea?aei oa?aeoa?ii iaoo?aeenoe/aneia e aiaenoi?e/aneia iiieiaiea
eaieoaea. A aai i?aaenoaaeaiee eaieoaeii iaeaaeae oaea ia?aiauoiue
ioioiee eee ?uaieia.

?eea?aei aeinoeaaao aaaeiuo iao/iuo ?acoeueoaoia i?e enneaaeiaaiee
iniiaiie oi?iu i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, o.a. i?eauee. Iie?aynue ia
o?oaeiaoth oai?eth noieiinoe, ?eea?aei onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi i?eaueue anoue
/anoue noieiinoe oiaa?a e, eae anyeay noieiinoue, eiaao naiei enoi/ieeii
o?oae ia?iiuo ?aai/eo. ?eea?aei a ecaanoiie ia?a ?ane?uaaao
yenieoaoaoi?neoth i?e?iaeo i?eauee. Ii ieoao, /oi i?eaueue anoue /anoue
noieiinoe oiaa?a ca au/aoii ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aai/eo. I?eaueue o
?eea?aei aunooiaao eae iaiiea/aiiue i?enaiaiiue eaieoaeenoii o?oae
ia?iiuo ?aai/eo.

Iaeiaei ?eea?aei ia aeae iiaeeeiioth iao/ioth oai?eth i?eauee, ii ia
noiae iaia?oaeeoue iauae iniiau eaieoaeenoe/aneeo aeioiaeia –
i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue e ia aeae ae iauyniaiey n iiceoeee o?oaeiaie
oai?ee noieiinoe. Aieaa oiai, ?eea?aei niaoeaae i?eaueue n i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoueth. Yoi neaaeoao ec aai ii?aaeaeaiey i?eauee eae /anoe
noieiinoe oiaa?a, inoathuaeny ca au/aoii ca?ieaou. I?eaueue
o?aeoiaaeanue eae ia?ae/iay, iniiaiay oi?ia aeioiaea, iniiaaieai
eioi?iai yaeyaony eaieoae, o.a., a nouiinoe, eae i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue.
Ioiaeaeanoaeaiea o ?eea?aei i?eauee e i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe auei naycaii
n ioiaeaeanoaeaieai oeaiu i?iecaiaenoaa ni noieiinoueth. Oai?ey
?ani?aaeaeaiey ianea ia naaa oa aea aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee, /oi e
oai?ey noieiinoe.

A nayce n yoei ?eea?aei niaoeaae caeiiu i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe n caeiiaie
i?eauee.

?eea?aei ia noiae iauynieoue i?ienoiaeaeaiea i?eauee n oi/ee c?aiey
o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe. Ii iieaaae, /oi iauaeoii eoiee – i?iaeaaee
iaaeaeo eaieoaeenoii e ia?iiui ?aai/ei yaeyaony o?oae iineaaeiaai.
Iaeiaei i?e oaeie o?aeoiaea iaiiiyoii i?ienoiaeaeaiea i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe (i?eauee), a a? ?aaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea iiaeii iauynieoue
eeoue ia?ooaieai caeiia noieiinoe.

Aoi?ui aaaeiaeoei iaaeinoaoeii a i?eiaiaiee o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe
e aiaeeco i?iaeaiu i?eauee yaeeanue ianiiniaiinoue ?eea?aei iauynieoue n
iiceoeee yoie oai?ee ia?aciaaiea n?aaeiae i?eauee, a aianoa n iae e
oeaiu i?iecaiaenoaa. Enoiaey ec oiai, /oi noieiinoue nicaea?ony
eneeth/eoaeueii o?oaeii ia?iiuo ?aai/eo, ?eea?aei (niaoeaaaoee i?eaueue
e i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue e eo caeiiu) n/eoae, /oi aaee/eia nicaeaaaaiie
eie i?eauee aeieaeia auoue i?iii?oeeiiaeueia eiee/anoao caiyouo ?aai/eo
eee aaee/eia cao?a/aiiiai ia ia?i o?oaea eaieoaea. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
aea ieacuaaeinue, /oi aaee/eia nicaeaaaaiie ia?iiuie ?aai/eie i?eauee
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia aaee/eia anaai eaieoaea. ?eea?aei iiieiae, /oi
cao?a/aiiue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa eaieoae noieiinoe ia nicaea?o.
O.a. ?eea?aei ia niia n oi/ee c?aiey o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe
iauynieoue ?aaainoai i?eauee ia ?aaiiaaeeeea eaieoaeu.

Noieeioaoenue n yoeie i?ioeai?a/eyie, ?eea?aei iuoaaony iaeoe ?aoaiea a
oii, /oi a iaeieo io?aneyo, aaea cao?a/eaathony e?oiiua eaieoaeu
(aiaeiue o?ainii?o, aiaoiyy oi?aiaey n ioaeae?iiuie no?aiaie e io?anee,
eniieuecothuea aei?iaia iaoeiiia iai?oaeiaaiea ), i?eaueue
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia aaee/eia eaieoaea, a ae?oaeo aea – eiee/anoao
i?eiai?iiiai o?oaea. Ii o/eouaay oi, /oi eaieoae o ?eea?aei – yoi
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e cao?aou ia auieaoo ca?ieaou, oi a oeaeii ii
n/eoaao i?eaueue i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie aaee/eia aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea.

Aiaeec caiaeueiie ?aiou aue iaeiei ec na?ue?ciuo aeinoeaeaiee ?eea?aei.
N iiceoeee o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe ii noiae aeaoue i?aaeeueioth a
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou. Enoiaey ec oiai, /oi
noieiinoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oeaiu naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia
ii?aaeaeythony cao?aoaie o?oaea ia eo i?iecaiaenoai i?e iaeooaeoeo
oneiaeyo, oi anoue ia ooaeoeo caieyo, ?eea?aei i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi
oa?ia?u ia n?aaeieo e eo/oeo caieyo iieo/atho aeiaaai/iue aeioiae,
eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acieoeo a ecaea?aeeao i?iecaiaenoaa ia
ooaeoeo (?aaoee?othueo oeaiu) e aeaiiuo (n?aaeieo e eo/oeo) o/anoeao. Ii
oae eae i?eaueue aeieaeia on?aaeiyoueny, a?aiaeaoi?u auioaeaeaiu
ioaeaaaoue yoio eceeoae caieaaeaaeaeueoeai a aeaea ?aiou. Yoio auaiae
?eea?aei iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aiaeecii eae aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou I
(aeiaaai/iay i?eaueue, aicieeathuay eae ?acieoea a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea i?e ?aaiiaaeeeeo cao?aoao ia n?aaeieo e eo/oeo (ii
ianoiiieiaeaieth eee ieiaei?iaeeth) caieyo), oae e aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie
?aiou II (aeiaaai/iay i?eaueue i?e aeiaaai/iuo aeiaeaieyo eaieoaea ia
iaeiii e oii aea caiaeueiii o/anoea).

Oaeei ia?acii ?eea?aei aeieacae, /oi enoi/iee ?aiou ia caiey, a o?oae
ia?iiuo ?aai/eo a naeueneii oicyenoaa. ?aioa o ?eea?aei aunooiaao ia eae
anoanoaaiiia yaeaiea, a eae nioeeaeueiue oaiiiai, aicieeiiaaiea eioi?iai
naycaii n iiyaeaieai /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth. Aicieeiiaaiea
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou Ae.?eea?aei aia?aua a enoi?ee iieeoyeiiiiee
iauyniee n oi/ee c?aiey aeaenoaey caeiia noieiinoe.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay ?aioa o ?eea?aei ia aunooiaao a ea/anoaa iniaie
oi?iu i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, oi anoue eae ?acoeueoao yenieoaoaoeee
ia?iiiai o?oaea, oioy ?eea?aei oa?aeoa?ecoao ?aioo eae i?eaaai/iue
i?iaeoeo.

A neeo iaaeinoaoi/iie ?ac?aaioaiiinoe o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe e
i?aaeaea anaai iaiiieiaiey niioiioaiey noieiinoe e oeaiu i?iecaiaenoaa
oiaa?a, ?eea?aei ia enneaaeiaae aaniethoioth caiaeueioth ?aioo e aeaaea
io?eoeae a? nouanoaiaaiea ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi iia yeiau i?ioeai?a/eo
caeiio noieiinoe. ?eea?aei iieaaae, /oi iineieueeo noieiinoue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, i?iecaiaeeiuo i?e iaeooaeoeo oneiaeyo
(eioi?oth ii ioiaeaeanoaeye n oeaiie i?iecaiaenoaa), ?aaoee?oao
noieiinoue e oeaiu anao oaeeo oiaa?ia, iinoieueeo yoe caiee ia iiaoo
aeaaaoue ?aioo, o.e. ?aioa – yoi ?acieoea a ecaea?aeeao i?iecaiaenoaa ia
iaeooaeoeo e aeaiiuo caieyo. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa ?aioa auea au
iaaeaaaeie iaae noieiinoueth oiaa?a.

No?aiynue nio?aieoue yoo iniiao, ?eea?aei ioaa?aaao nouanoaiaaiea
aaniethoiie caiaeueiie ?aiou.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?eea?aei n/eoae, /oi naiua ooaeoea o/anoee ia i?eiinyo
?aiou. Iaeiaei Ia?en iieacae, /oi yoi iaaa?ii, oae eae a oneiaeyo
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth caieaaeaaeaeaoe ia ioaeano aea?ii a
a?aiaeo aeaaea naiue ieioie o/anoie.

Ae?oaie aaaeiie i?e/eiie io?eoeaiey ?eea?aei aaniethoiie ?aiou yaeyaony
iaiiieiaiea ei aeaeaiey eaieoaea ia iinoiyiioth e ia?aiaiioth /anoue. A
nayce n yoei ?eea?aei ia noiae iaia?oaeeoue ?acee/ey a i?aaie/aneii
no?iaiee eaieoaea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneii oicyenoaa, a ionthaea e
oio eceeoae i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe a naeueneii oicyenoaa, eioi?ue
aunooiaao a oi?ia aaniethoiie ?aiou.

?eea?aei ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ?aioa ia oaei?iaeaao naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
oiaa?u. «Ia iioiio oeaa aei?ia, -ienae ii, – /oi ieaoeony ?aioa, a ?aioa
ieaoeony iioiio, /oi oeaa aei?ia». Yoi i?aaeeueii aeey
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou, o.e. «ioeac caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa» io
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou i?ea?e au e oiio, /oi a? i?enaieee au oa?ia?u,
oeaia oiaa?ia ia eciaieeanue au. Ii ioiioaieth e aaniethoiie ?aioa yoi
iai?aaeeueii.

Ioeaea ?eea?aei caeanue ei?aieony a niaoaiee ei noieiinoe e oeaiu
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia?en ienae: «?eea?aei i?aa, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi ?aioa
ieeiaaea ia aoiaeeo a oeaio ecaea?aeae. Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii
iai?aa, o.e. aeieacuaaao yoi ia ioo?i ?acee/ey iaaeaeo oeaiie ecaea?aeae
e noieiinoueth, a ioiaeaeanoaeyy eo».

Iaeiaei ?eea?aei oeene?oao oaeo oeaiu i?iecaiaenoaa, oaeo nouanoaiaaiey
n?aaeiae i?eauee. Ia?en ioia/ae, /oi oai?ey ?aiou ?eea?aei iniiaaia ia
aai o/aiee i n?aaeiae i?eauee. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iicaieyao ?eea?aei
?anniao?eaaoue aeeooa?aioeeaeueioth ?aioo a ea/anoaa ecauoea iaae
n?aaeiae i?eaueueth, eae iaeoth aeiaaai/ioth i?eaueue, i?eiineioth
eaieoaeaie, ?aaioathueo a eo/oeo oneiaeyo. Eaieoaeu, aeiaeaiiua a
naeueneia oicyenoai, ii ?eea?aei, ioee/athony io i?iiuoeaiiuo eaieoaeia
eeoue niiniaii i?eeiaeaiey. Ii ii ia o/eouaaao oio oaeo, /oi
caieaaeaeue/aneea eaieoaeu ioee/athony io i?iiuoeaiiuo aieaa ieceei
i?aaie/aneei no?iaieai e /oi yoi ?acee/ea yaeyaony iniiaie aaniethoiie
caiaeueiie ?aiou.

?eea?aei i?iaiaeeo /?oeia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo o?oaeii, eioi?ue aiieiu?i a
oiaa?a (e ii?aaeaeyao aai noieiinoue) e oae iacuaaaiie «noieiinoueth
o?oaea», o.a. ca?aaioiie ieaoie. «Noieiinoue oiaa?a, – ienae
Ae.?eea?aei, – yoi eee eiee/anoai eaeiai-eeai ae?oaiai oiaa?a, ia
eioi?ia ii iaiaieaaaony, caaeneo io ioiineoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa o?oaea,
eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii aeey aai i?iecaiaenoaa, a ia io aieueoaai eee
iaiueoaai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ia oiea/eaaaony ca yoio o?oae». Ii
iiieiaao, /oi ii?aaeae?iiia eiee/anoai cao?a/aiiiai o?oaea,
niaea?aeauaainy a iaiaieaaaiuo oiaa?ao, ia iiaeao eciaieoueny io
eciaiaiey oie aeiee i?iaeoeoa o?oaea, eioi?oth iieo/aao ?aai/ee a aeaea
ca?ieaou. ?eea?aei ioia/aao oaeaea e oi, /oi noieiinoue aieueoa
«noieiinoe o?oaea». Oaeei ia?acii ?eea?aei i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi
nouanoaiaaiea ca?ieaou e eciaiaiea a? aaee/eiu ia i?ioeai?a/eo o?oaeiaie
oai?ee noieiinoe.

?eea?aei ia noaaeo e ia ?aoaao aii?ina i i?eiaieiinoe caeiia noieiinoe
a iaiaia o?oaea ia eaieoae. Ii ia niia i?eeoe e iiieiaieth oiai, /oi a
oneiaeyo eaieoaeecia ?aai/ay neea aunooiaao eae oiaa?. Ii ioiaeanoaeyao
?aai/oth neeo n i?enouae ae ooieoeeae – o?oaeii.

Iieaaay, /oi nai o?oae, a ia ?aai/ay neea, yaeyaony oiaa?ii, ?eea?aei
?aca?aie/eaaao anoanoaaiioth e ?uii/ioth oeaio o?oaea (ca?ieaoo). Ii
n/eoaao, /oi ?uii/iay oeaia o?oaea (ca?ieaoa) ii?aaeaeyaony a naiae
iniiaa anoanoaaiiie oeaiie e eieaaeaony aie?oa ia? iiae aicaeaenoaeai
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Caeanue ii ionooiee io naiae iniiaiie iinueee –
caeiia noieiinoe. Iiae anoanoaaiiie oeaiie o?oaea ?eea?aei
iiae?acoiaaaao noieiinoue ?aai/ae neeu, iineieueeo ii?aaeaeye a?
noieiinoueth n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey ?aai/aai e aai naiuee. Oioy ?eea?aei
oeacuaae ia oi, /oi ninoaa yoeo n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony
enoi?e/anee io o?iaiy ?acaeoey e neiaeeaoeony ii?i e o?aaeeoeee, o iaai
neeueia oaiaeaioeey naiaeeoue anoanoaaiioth oeaio o?oaea e oece/aneiio
ieieioio. Ii, iai?eia?, aeaeeo i?yioth naycue iaaeaeo oeaiie oeaaa e
?acia?aie aeaiaaeiie ca?ieaou: ii aai i?aaenoaaeaieyi, anee i?e ?inoa
oeaiu ia oeaa ia iiauneony ca?ieaoa, ?aai/ea ia/ioo aieiaeaoue e
auie?aoue.

Ii?aaeaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou noieiinoueth n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey
?aai/aai e aai naiuee auei aini?eiyoi ?eea?aei io i?aaeoanoaaiieeia.
Iiae yoo oai?eth ii iiaea?e aaco iaeueoonianeie oai?ee ia?iaeiianaeaiey.
?eea?aei n/eoae, /oi ca?aaioiay ieaoa oaea?aeeaaaony a ae?noeeo
i?aaeaeao oece/aneiai ieieioia ia a neeo caeiiia eaieoaeecia, a a neeo
anoanoaaiiiai anaiauaai caeiia: eae oieueei n?aaeiyy ca?ieaoa iaiiiai
i?aauoaao ieieioi n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey, ?aai/ea ia/eiatho
i?iecaiaeeoue ia naao aieueoa aeaoae, eiieo?aioeey ia ?uiea ?oaea
oneeeaaaony, e ca?ieaoa aiiaue nieaeaaony. Eeoue a naiuo
eneeth/eoaeueiuo, naiuo aeaaii?eyoiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao aiciiaeiinoue
?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee i?aainoiaeeo niiniaiinoue ianaeaiey e
?aciiiaeaieth. I?e ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiiia eiee/anoai caiee e
iaaeaiea ioaea/e ia aeiiieieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey eaieoaea aaaeoo e oiio,
/oi i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue caiee ionoa?o io niiniaiinoe ianaeaiey e
?aciiiaeaieth. Oiaaea anooiaao a aeaenoaea noeoeeiue iaoaieci
?aaoee?iaaiey: ca?ieaoa iaaeaao ieaea anoanoaaiiie oeaiu o?oaea, /oi
naea?aeeaaao ?ino ianaeaiey.

?eea?aei, eae e Iaeueoon, aunooiae ca oi, /oiau ainoaea?noai ia
aiaoeaaeinue a ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ?uiea o?oaea. Ii aue i?ioea a?ioiaie
iiiiue aaaeiyeai, eioi?ay, ii aai iiaieth, iaoaea aeaenoaeth
anoanoaaiiuo caeiiia e, iiiiaay oaea?aeaoue /eneaiiinoue aaaeiyeia ia
iaii?aaaeaiii aunieii o?iaia, iaoaea oeo/oaieth iieiaeaiey ?aai/aai
eeanna a oeaeii. Acaeyaeu Iaeueoona e ?eea?aei a aeaeueiaeoai eaaee a
iniiao oae iacuaaaiiai «aeaeaciiai caeiia ca?ieaou», i?eaiaeyuaai e
eaeaa aaniieaciinoe ai?ueau ?aai/aai eeanna ca naie yeiiiie/aneea
eioa?anu.

Aii?in i aaee/eia «noieiinoe o?oaea» ?eea?aei a oeaeii ?aoaao
i?aaeeueii, iie?aynue i?e yoii ia oai?eth noieiinoe. Ii i?eoiaeeo e
auaiaeo i oii, /oi «noieiinoue o?oaea» ii?aaeaeyaony ?aai/ei a?aiaiai,
iaiaoiaeeiui aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aeeciaiiuo n?aaenoa, aeinoathueony
?aai/ei. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iia ia ii?aaeaeyaony ie noiiie aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, ninoaaeythueo ca?ieaoo, ie noiiie iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia,
iieo/aaiuo ia ia? ?aai/ei. Ii e yoio iiaeoiae ia iicaieyao ?eea?aei
iiaeieoe e ?ane?uoeth i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. Aieaa oiai, iiaeoiae,
iniiaaiiue ia niaoaiee o?oaea e ?aai/ae neeu, cao?oaeiyao iiieiaiea a?
i?ienoiaeaeaiey.

Noieiinoue ioaeaeueiiai oiaa?a e anao oiaa?ia, ia?acothueo
iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, ii?aaeaeyaony iauaeoeaii cao?aoaie o?oaea. Yoa
noiia ?aniaaeaaony ia ca?ieaoo e i?eaueue (aeeth/ay ?aioo). Ionthaea o
?eea?aei auoaeea i?eioeeieaeueiay i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eeanniauo
eioa?ania i?ieaoa?eaoa e ao?aeoacee.

E?oiiie caneoaie ?eea?aei yaeyaony oi, /oi a yoii aii?ina ii
iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iaiaeeo eaeath i o?oaea eae aaeeinoaaiiii enoi/ieea
noieiinoe e n yoeo iiceoeey iiaeoiaeeo e ?ane?uoeth yeiiiie/aneeo
i?ioeai?a/ee eeannia.

?eea?aei onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi ca?ieaoa e i?eaueue iaoiaeyony a ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoe: n ?inoii ca?ieaou i?eaueue iiieaeaaony e
iaiai?io. «Eaeay aeiey i?iaeoeoa oiea/eaaaony a oi?ia ca?aaioiie ieaou,
– ienae ?eea?aei, – aii?in a aunoae noaiaie aaaeiue i?e eco/aiee
i?eauee. Eai ioaeii caiaoeoue, /oi iineaaeiyy aoaeao auniea eee iecea a
oie aea naiie i?iii?oeee, a eaeie aoaeao iecea eee auniea ca?ieaoa».
Oaeoth aea caaeneiinoue iaia?oaeeaaao ?eea?aei e a ioiioaiee i?eauee e
caiaeueiie ?aioa. Iaeiaei ?eea?aei aeaeaao iaaa?iue auaiae i oii, /oi oi
iaaiciiaeii iiauoaiea i?eauee aac iaaeaiey noieiinoe o?oaea. Oae eae
i?eaueue anoue ioiioaiea i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe ei anaio aaaine?iaaiiiio
eaieoaeo, oi ia naiii aeaea i?eaueue iiaeao iiauoaoueny e i?e
oiaiueoaiee eaieoaea.

Ii ?eea?aei iiyoue-oaee eioa?aniaaee oieueei i?iii?oeee, eiee/anoaaiiay
noi?iia aeaea. I?e?iaea, aaiacen e ia?niaeoeau oao ioiioaiee, eioi?ua
ii?iaeaeatho i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iaaeaeo ca?ieaoie e i?eaueueth, aai ia
caieiaee. Iiyoiio ii ia niia ?ane?uoue «oaeio i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe»,
oioy aeecei iiaeoiaeee e yoiio, iiieiay, /oi eaieoaeeno caae?aao o
?aai/aai /anoue noieiinoe, nicaeaiiie aai o?oaeii.

?eea?aei iiaeoiaeeo e iiieiaieth oiai, /oi n ?acaeoeai iauanoaa
yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo eeannaie eiatho oaiaeaioeeth
aic?anoaoue. ?eea?aei iieaaae, /oi ii ia?a ?inoa /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey
iauanoai auioaeaeaii aoaeao ai an? aieueoae ia?a ia?aoiaeeoue e
ia?aaioea an? aieaa ooaeoeo o/anoeia caiee. A nayce n yoei noieiinoue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia aeieaeia aic?anoaoue e aianoa n iae aoaeao
?anoe aaee/eia caiaeueiie ?aiou. Ionthaea ?eea?aei aeaeaao auaiae i
iaecaaaeiinoe ?inoa aeaiaaeiie ca?ieaou (i?e iaeciaiiii o?iaia
?aaeueiie) e iaaeaiee i?eauee. A eoiaa, eae iiaeii caeeth/eoue ec
?annoaeaeaiey ?eea?aei, i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, e inoaeueiuie eeannaie – n ae?oaie, a oaeaea
i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo eaieoaeenoaie e ?aai/eie iaino?yony, a aianoa n oai
(a neeo iaaeaiey i?eauee, eioi?oth ?eea?aei ioiaeaeanoaeye n ii?iie
i?eauee) ineaaaaaao aioo?aiiee noeioe ?acaeoey eaieoaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieee.

*****

Oaeei ia?acii, a o?oaeao ?eea?aei iaoea nai? iaeaieaa iieiia au?aaeaiea
nenoaia eeanne/aneie ao?aeoaciie iieeoyeiiiiee. Ana naie enneaaeiaaiey
?eea?aei no?iee ia iniiaa o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe. ?eea?aei iuoaaony
onoaiiaeoue caeiiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey, enoiaey ec oneiaee e eioa?ania
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiei ec aeanoyueo iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee ?eea?aei aue
aiaeec i?e?iaeu e aaee/eiu aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie caiaeueiie ?aiou.
?eea?aei aue noi?iiieeii oae iacuaaaiiai «aeaeaciiai caeiia ca?aaioiie
ieaou», o.a. naiaeee ca?ieaoo e oece/aneiio ieieioio; iauyniee, /oi oaeo
nouanoaiaaiey ca?ieaou ia i?ioeai?a/eo caeiio noieiinoe. Ii i?eo?e e
auaiaeo i i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe eioa?ania eaieoaeenoia e ia?iiuo ?aai/eo, i
oii, /oi aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii noieiinoe yaeyaony o?oae.
?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea a iauanoaa i?aaenoaaeyeinue
?eea?aei eae aeae?ae ie?iaa, aieaa /ai ne?iiioth aeieth ec iaai
iieo/atho ?aai/ea. An? inoaeueiia aeinoa?ony eaieoaeenoai, eioi?ua
auioaeaeaiu aeaeeoueny n caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1.Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee. Ecaeaoaeuenoai «Iuneue». Iineaa, 1965.
?aaeaeoeeiiiay eieeaaey: N.E.Auaiaeneee, A.N.Aoaianueaa, A.E.A?iiaea.

2.A.A.Aieeei. THiinoue iaoee. AEeciue e eaeae yeiiiienoia aei Ia?ena.
Ecaeaoaeuenoai iieeoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?u. Iineaa, 1975.

3.Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee. Iineaa, «Aunoay oeiea» 1983. Aaoi?neee
eieeaeoea: ?uiaeeia I.I., Aeaoeia E.A., Aieeei A.A. e ae?.

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