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Теория монополии

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Iiiiiieenoe/aneea oaiaeaioeee e iiiiiieee

a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

( 1. Oi?iu e aeaeu iiiiiieee.

Nouanoaotho ?aciua aeaeu iiiiiieee, eioi?ua iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ia
o?e iniiaiuo: anoanoaaiiay, aaeieieno?aoeaiay e yeiiiie/aneay.

Anoanoaaiiay iiiiiieey aicieeaao aneaaenoaea iauaeoeaiuo i?e/ei. Iia
io?aaeaao neooaoeeth, eiaaea ni?in ia aeaiiue oiaa? a eo/oae noaiaie
oaeiaeaoai?yaony iaeiie eee ianeieueeeie oe?iaie. A aa iniiaa (
iniaaiiinoe oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae.
Caeanue eiieo?aioeey iaaiciiaeia eee iaaeaeaoaeueia. I?eia?ii iiaoo
neoaeeoue yia?aiiaania/aiea, oaeaoiiiua oneoae, naycue e o.ae. A yoeo
io?aneyo nouanoaoao ia?aie/aiiia eiee/anoai, anee ia aaeeinoaaiiia
iaoeeiiaeueiia i?aaei?eyoea, e iiyoiio, anoanoaaiii, iie caieiatho
iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiay iiiiiieey aicieeaao aneaaenoaea aeaenoaee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. N iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi i?aaeinoaaeaiea
ioaeaeueiui oe?iai eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa ia auiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
?iaea aeayoaeueiinoe. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yoi i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u
aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eiaaea iie iauaaeeiythony e
iiae/eiythony ?aciui aeaaeai, ieienoa?noaai, annioeeaoeeyi. Caeanue, eae
i?aaeei, a?oiie?othony i?aaei?eyoey iaeiie io?anee. Iie aunooiatho ia
?uiea eae iaeei oicyenoaaiiue noauaeo e iaaeaeo ieie ia nouanoaoao
eiieo?aioeee. Yeiiiieea auaoaai Niaaoneiai Nithca i?eiaaeeaaeaea e
iaeaieaa iiiiiieece?iaaiiui a ie?a. Aeiieie?othuae oai auea eiaiii
aaeieieno?aoeaiay iiiiiieey, i?aaeaea anaai iiiiiieey ananeeueiuo
ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa. Aieaa oiai, nouanoaiaaea aaniethoiay iiiiiieey
ainoaea?noaa ia i?aaiecaoeeth e oi?aaeaiea yeiiiieeie, eioi?ay
iniiauaaeanue ia ainiiaenoaothuae ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe ia
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa.

Yeiiiie/aneay iiiiiieey yaeyaony iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiie. Aa iiyaeaiea
iaoneiaeaii yeiiiie/aneeie i?e/eiaie, iia ?acaeaaaony ia iniiaa
caeiiiia?iinoae oicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. ?a/ue eaeao i
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyo, eioi?ua noiaee caaiaaaoue iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea ia
?uiea. E iaio aaaeoo aeaa iooe. Ia?aue caeeth/aaony a oniaoiii ?acaeoee
i?aaei?eyoey, iinoiyiiii oaaee/aiee aai ianooaaia iooai eiioeaio?aoeee
eaieoaea. Aoi?ie (aieaa auno?ue) iniiauaaaony ia i?ioeannao
oeaio?aeecaoeee eaieoaeia, oi anoue ia aeia?iaieueiii iauaaeeiaiee eee
iiaeiuaiee iiaaaeeoaeyie aaie?ioia. Oai eee eiui iooai eee i?e iiiiue
iaaeo, i?aaei?eyoea aeinoeaaao oaeeo ianooaaia, eiaaea ia/eiaao
aeiieie?iaaoue ia ?uiea.

*oi yaeyaony i?e/eiie iiyaeaiey e ?acaeoey iiiiiieenoe/aneeo
oaiaeaioeee? Ii yoiio aii?ino a yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a nouanoaotho
aeaa oi/ee c?aiey. Ii ia?aie iiiiiieeci o?aeooaony eae neo/aeiue, ia
naienoaaiiue ?uii/iiio oicyenoao. *oi eanaaony ae?oaie oi/ee c?aiey, oi
iiiiiieenoe/aneea ia?aciaaiey ii?aaeaeythony eae caeiiiia?iua. Iaeei ec
i?aaeii/eoaoaeae oaeeo acaeyaeia ( aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno A. Ieao. Ii
ianoaeaaao ia oii, /oi “iiiiiieenoe/aneay aeanoue ia aicieeaao
neo/aeii”*. Iia yaeyaony eiae/aneei caaa?oaieai no?aoaaee i?aaei?eyoee.
Ia?ao?ace?iaaa ecaanoiia au?aaeaiea, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ana aei?iae
aaaeoo e iiiiiieee. Aua noi?ioee?iaaiiue A. Nieoii i?eioeei
yeiiiie/aneie auaiaeu canoaaeyao i?aaei?eyoey iinoiyiii eneaoue
aiciiaeiinoe oaaee/aiey naieo i?eaueae. Iaeiie ec ieo, iaeaieaa
i?eoyaaoaeueiie e iaaeaaeiie, yaeyaony nicaeaiea eee aeinoeaeaiea
iiiiiieueiiai iieiaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii , iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
iiiiiieenoe/aneea oaiaeaioeee a yeiiiieea auoaeatho ec caeiia
iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee.

Eiie aeaeaeouae neeie aeaenoaee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a yoii iai?aaeaiee
yaeyaony caeii eiioeaio?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e eaieoaea. Eae ecaanoii,
aeaenoaea yoiai caeiia iaaethaeaaony ia anao yoaiao ?acaeoey ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee. Aai aeaeaeeoaeai yaeyaony eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa. *oiau
auaeeoue a oaeie ai?ueaa, iieo/eoue aieueoea i?eauee, i?aaei?eieiaoaee
auioaeaeaiu aaiaeeoue iiaoth oaoieeo, oaaee/eaaoue ianooaau
i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e yoii ec iannu n?aaeieo e iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee
ioaeaeyaony ianeieueei aieaa e?oiiuo. Eiaaea yoi i?ienoiaeeo, o
e?oiiaeoeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae aicieeaao aeueoa?iaoeaa: eee i?iaeieaeaoue
iaaeaeo niaie oauoi/ioth eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao, eee i?eeoe e niaeaoaieth
ioiineoaeueii ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa, oeai, ?uieia nauoa e o.ae. Eae
i?aaeei, iie auae?atho aoi?ie aa?eaio, eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth
naiai?a iaaeaeo ieie, /oi yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo i?eciaeia
iiiiiieecaoeee yeiiiieee. Oaeei ia?acii, iai?aoeaaaony auaiae, /oi
iiyaeaiea i?aaei?eyoee-iiiiiieenoia iaoneiaeaii i?ia?annii
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, ?aaeecaoeeae i?aeiouanoa e?oiiiai i?aaei?eyoey
iaae iaeui.

Nia?aiaiiay oai?ey auaeaeyao o?e oeia iiiiiieee:

1) iiiiiieey ioaeaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoey;

2) iiiiiieey eae niaeaoaiea;

3) iiiiiieey, iniiauaathuayny ia aeeooa?aioeeaoeee i?iaeoeoa.

Aeinoe/ue iiiiiieueiiai iieiaeaiey ia?aui iooai iaeaaei, i /ai
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao nai oaeo eneeth/eoaeueiinoe yoeo ia?aciaaiee. E?iia
yoiai, yoio iooue e iiiiiieee iiaeii n/eoaoue “ii?yaei/iui”, iineieueeo
ii i?aaeoniao?eaaao iinoiyiiia iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe,
aeinoeaeaiey i?aeiouanoaa iaae eiieo?aioaie.

Aieaa aeinooiiui e ?ani?ino?aiaiiui yaeyaony iooue niaeaoaiey
ianeieueeeo e?oiiuo oe?i. Ii aeaao aiciiaeiinoue auno?i nicaeaoue
neooaoeeth, eiaaea i?iaeaaoeu (i?iecaiaeeoaee) aunooiatho ia ?uiea
“aaeeiui o?iioii”, eiaaea naiaeeony ia iao eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa,
i?aaeaea anaai oeaiiaay, iieoiaoaeue ieacuaaaony a aacaeueoa?iaoeaiuo
oneiaeyo.

?acee/atho iyoue iniiaiuo oi?i iiiiiieenoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee. Iiiiiieee
iiiiiieece?otho ana noa?u iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa:
iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?iecaiaenoai, iaiai, ?ani?aaeaeaiea e iio?aaeaiea. Ia
iniiaa iiiiiieecaoeee noa?u ia?auaiey aicieeee i?inoaeoea oi?iu
iiiiiieenoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee ( ea?oaee e neiaeeeaou.

Ea?oaeue ( yoi iauaaeeiaiea ianeieueeeo i?aaei?eyoee iaeiie noa?u
i?iecaiaenoaa, o/anoieee eioi?iai nio?aiytho nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iecaaaeaiiue i?iaeoeo, i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e
eiiia?/aneoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, e aeiaiaa?eaathony i aeiea eaaeaeiai
a iauai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, oeaiao, ?uieao nauoa.

Neiaeeeao ( yoi iauaaeeiaiea ?yaea i?aaei?eyoee iaeiie io?anee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o/anoieee eioi?iai nio?aiytho n?aaenoaa ia n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, ii oa?ytho nianoaaiiinoue ia i?iecaaaeaiiue i?iaeoeo, a
cia/eo, nio?aiytho i?iecaiaenoaaiioth, ii oa?ytho eiiia?/aneoth
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. O neiaeeeaoia nauo oiaa?a inouanoaeyaony iauae
nauoiaie eiioi?ie.

Aieaa neiaeiua oi?iu iiiiiieenoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee aicieeatho oiaaea,
eiaaea i?ioeann iiiiiieecaoeee ?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia noa?o
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia yoie iniiaa iiyaeyaony oaeay aieaa
aunieay oi?ia iiiiiieenoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee eae o?ano.

O?ano ( yoi iauaaeeiaiea ?yaea i?aaei?eyoee iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo
io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o/anoieee eioi?iai oa?ytho nianoaaiiinoue ia
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iecaaaeaiiue i?iaeoeo, i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e
eiiia?/aneoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, oi anoue iauaaeeiytho i?iecaiaenoai,
nauo, oeiainu, oi?aaeaiea, a ia noiio aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea nianoaaiieee
ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee iieo/atho aeoeee o?anoa, eioi?ua aeatho ei
i?aai i?eieiaoue o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee e i?enaaeaaoue niioaaonoaothuoth
/anoue i?eauee o?anoa.

Iiiaiio?aneaaie eiioea?i ( yoi iauaaeeiaiea aeanyoeia e aeaaea nioai
i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o?ainii?oa, oi?aiaee,
o/anoieee eioi?iai oa?ytho nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e
i?iecaaaeaiiue i?iaeoeo, a aeaaiay oe?ia inouanoaeyao iaae ae?oaeie
o/anoieeaie iauaaeeiaiey oeiainiaue eiio?ieue.

A 60-o aiaeao a NOA e iaeioi?uo no?aiao eaieoaea iiyaeeenue ia/aee
?acaeaaoueny eiiaeiia?aou, oi anoue iiiiiieenoe/aneea iauaaeeiaiey,
ia?aciaaiiua iooai iiaeiuaiey i?eaueae ?aciiio?aneaauo i?aaei?eyoee, ia
eiathueo oaoie/aneiai e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aaeeinoaa.

Iiuo iieacuaaao, /oi iiiiiieee, iiiiiieece?iaaa ii?aaeaeaiioth io?aneue
e caoaaoea i?i/iua e iiiiiieueiua iiceoeee, ?aii eee iicaeii oa?ytho
aeeiaieeo ?acaeoey e yooaeoeaiinoe. Iauyniyaony yoi oai, /oi
i?aeiouanoaa e?oiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia yaeythony aaniethoiuie, iie
i?eiinyo oaaee/aiea i?eaueueiinoe oieueei aei ii?aaeaeaiiuo ii?.

( 2. Iiiiiieueiay oeaia. Iiiiiieey e eiieo?aioeey.

Iniaiai aieiaiey o?aaoao aii?in oeaiiaie iieeoeee iiiiiieenoe/aneeo
ia?aciaaiee. Iineaaeiea, eae oaea aiai?eeinue auoa, eniieuecoy naia
iiiiiieenoe/aneea iieiaeaiea, eiatho aiciiaeiinoue aeeyoue ia oeaiu, a
eiiaaea e onoaiaaeeaaoue eo. Aneaaenoaea yoiai iiyaeyaony iiaay
?aciiaeaeiinoue oeaiu ( iiiiiieueiay oeaia, eioi?ay onoaiaaeeaaaony
i?aaei?eieiaoaeai, caieiathuei iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea, e
i?eaiaeeo e ia?aie/aieth eiieo?aioeee e ia?ooaieth i?aa iio?aaeoaey. E
yoiio neaaeoao aeiaaaeoue, /oi yoa oeaia ?an/eoaia ia iieo/aiea
naa?oi?eaueae, eee iiiiiieenoe/aneeo i?eaueae. Eiaiii a oeaia
?aaeecoaony auaiaea iiiiiieueiiai iieiaeaiey.

Iniaaiiinoue iiiiiieueiie oeaiu caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iia niciaoaeueii
ioeeiiyaony io ?aaeueiie ?uii/iie, eioi?ay onoaiaaeeaaaony a ?acoeueoaoa
acaeiiaeaenoaey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iiiiiieueiay oeaia yaeyaony
aa?oiae eee ieaeiae a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eoi aa oi?ie?oao ( iiiiiieeno
eee iiiiiniieno. A iaieo neo/ayo iaania/eaaaony auaiaea iineaaeieo ca
n/ao iio?aaeoaey eee iaeeiai i?iecaiaeeoaey: ia?aue ia?aiea/eaaao, a
aoi?ie ia iieo/aao iaaeeaaeauae aio /anoe i?iaeoeoa. Oaeei ia?acii,
iiiiiieueiay oeaia yaeyao niaie ii?aaeaeaiioth “aeaiue”, eioi?oth
iauanoai auioaeaeaii ieaoeoue oai, eoi caieiaao iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea.

io?aaeaao e yeiiiie/aneea i?aeiouanoaa e?oiiiai, aunieioaoie/aneiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/eaay iieo/aiey naa?oeceeoiaai i?iaeoeoa.

No?oeoo?a iiiiiieueiie oeaiu iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia oi?ioeie:

? EQ iii.= ?1 + ?2 +?3,

aaea ?1 ( n?aaeiyy i?eaueue, iieo/aaiay i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie a oneiaeyo
naiaiaeiiai ia?aiauaiey eaieoaea a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey iaaeio?aneaaie
eiieo?aioeee; ?2 ( iau/iay naa?oi?eaueue, iieo/aaiay i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie,
eioi?ua inouanoaeytho iiaiaaaaeaiey; ?3 ( iiiiiieueiay naa?oi?eaueue io
eniieueciaaiey (ceioiio?aaeaiey) iiiiiieueiiai iieiaeaiey.

Iiiiiieueiay oeaia ( yoi aa?oiyy oeaia, ca eioi?oth iiiiiieeno iiaeao
i?iaeaoue oiaa? eee oneoao e eioi?ay niaea?aeeo a naaa iaeneiaeueioth
?3. Iaeiaei, eae iieacuaaao iiuo, oaea?aeaoue oaeoth oeaio a oa/aiea
aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie iaaiciiaeii. Naa?oi?eauee, eae iiuiue iaaieo,
i?eoyaeaatho a io?aneue ae?oaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, eioi?ua a ?acoeueoaoa
“eiiatho” iiiiiieeth.

Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue e oi, /oi iiiiiieey iiaeao ?aaoee?iaaoue
i?iecaiaenoai, ii ia ni?in. Aeaaea iia auioaeaeaia o/eouaaoue ?aaeoeeth
iieoiaoaeae ia oaaee/aiea oeai. Iiiiiieece?iaaoue iiaeii oieueei oiaa?,
ia eioi?ue nouanoaoao iayeeanoe/iue ni?in. Ia e a oaeie neooaoeee
iiaei?iaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee i?eaiaeeo e ia?aie/aieth aa iio?aaeaiey.
Iiiiiieeno eiaao aeaa aiciiaeiinoe: eee i?eiaieoue iaaieueoie aeaoeoeeo
aeey oaea?aeaiey aunieie oeaiu, eee oaaee/eoue iauai i?iaeaaee, ii oaea
ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai.

Iaeiei ec aa?eaioia oeaiiaiai iiaaaeaiey ia ieeaiiieenoe/aneeo ?uieao
yaeyaony “eeaea?noai a oeaiao”. Nouanoaiaaiea ianeieueeeo ieeaiiieenoia,
eacaeinue au, aeieaeii iiaea/ue ca niaie eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao iaaeaeo
ieie. Ii ieacuaaaony, /oi iia a oi?ia oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee i?eaaea au
oieueei e iauei iioa?yi. O ieeaiiieenoia anoue iauee eioa?an aeey
oaea?aeaiey aaeeiuo oeai e iaaeiiouaiey “oeaiiauo aiei”. Yoi
aeinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth iaaeaniiai niaeaoaiey i?eieiaoue oeaiu
oe?iu-eeaea?a. Iineaaeiyy ( yoi, eae i?aaeei, naiay e?oiiay oe?ia,
ii?aaeaeythuay oeaio ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?a, inoaeueiua aea oe?iu
i?eieiatho aa. Naioyeuenii ii?aaeaeyao, /oi “oe?iu iie/a au?aaaouaatho
oaeoth eeieth iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ay eneeth/aao ino?oth eiieo?aioeeth a
io?anee oeai”.

Aiciiaeiu e ae?oaea aa?eaiou oeaiiaie iieeoeee, ia eneeth/ay i?yiiai
niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo ieeaiiieenoaie. Oeaia i?e?iaeiuo iiiiiieenoia
iaoiaeeony iiae eiio?ieai ainoaea?noaa. I?aaeoaeuenoai iinoiyiii
i?iaa?yao oeaiu, onoaiaaeeaaao i?aaeaeueiua a?aieoeu, enoiaey ec
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaania/eoue ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe oe?iu,
aiciiaeiinoae ?acaeoey e o.ae.

I?aaeoaeuenoai Oe?aeiu a 1993 a. aaaei i?yiia ainoaea?noaaiiia
onoaiiaeaiea oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth i?e?iaeiuo iiiiiieenoia. Aeey
yeiiiie/aneeo iiiiiieenoia i?aaeoniio?aii onoaiiaeaiea aeanoeiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey ca oeaiaie /a?ac nenoaio aeaeea?e?iaaiey, a
i?ioeanna eioi?iai ainoaea?noaaiiua eiio?ieueiua i?aaiu ia iniiaa
iiyeaiaioiiai eiio?iey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao e i?eauee ii?aaeaeytho
i?aaiia?iinoue eciaiaiey oeai. Iiiiiieee a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea.
Eiieo?aioeey i?eiaaeeaaeeo e iniiaiui iiiyoeyi ?uiea, oi anoue e oaeei,
aac eioi?uo ii ia iiaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
?acaeoea ?uiea auei iaeiia?aiaiii e ?acaeoeai eiieo?aioiuo ioiioaiee.

Eiieo?aioiue ?uiie i?aaeoniao?eaaao iaee/ea iaia?aie/aiiiai /enea
i?iaeaaoeia, a oaeaea neooaoeeth, a eioi?ie eaaeaeue ec ieo ia eiaao
aiciiaeiinoe aeeyoue ia oeaio. Caeanue oaeaea nouanoaoao naiaiaeiue,
aaci?aiyonoaaiiue aeinooi oicyenoaaiiuo iauaeoia e ethaiio aeaeo
aeayoaeueiinoe, iaaeyaeiay e aeinooiiay eaaeaeiio eioi?iaoeey i
ninoiyiee ?uiea e aiciiaeiuo aeueoa?iaoeaao, caeanue eiaao ianoi aeeeoao
iio?aaeoaey iaae i?iecaiaenoaii. Ana yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ainiiaenoaa
naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee.

Ii iaaaciianiinoue eiieo?aioeee iiaeoaeeeaaao i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e
iiiuoeai oeeiieoueny io iaa, a yoi aiciiaeii oieueei i?e caaiaaaiee
iiiiiieueiiai iieiaeaiey.

Iiiiiieey ( yoi iiiyoea, i?ioeaiiieiaeiia eiieo?aioeee. Yoi oi?ioi
aeaeii ia i?eia?a aano?aeoiie eaoaai?ee “/enoay iiiiiieey”, eioi?ay
oa?aeoa?ecoao neooaoeeth aaniethoiie iiiiiieecaoeee ?uiea iaeiie oi?iie.
Anoanoaaiii, /oi yoi iiey?ii i?ioeaiiieiaeiay neooaoeey, aaea aeey
eiieo?aioeee nianai ia inoaaony ianoa.

Eiieo?aioeee a eiioea i?ioeiai noieaoey iaianai cia/eoaeueiue oaea? ni
noi?iiu iiiiiieee. No?aieoaeueiay iiiiiieecaoeey oicyenoaaiiie aeecie
ni?iaioee?iaaea nai?a/eaaiea e iiaeeoeeaoeeth eiieo?aioiuo ioiioaiee,
aicieeea oa?ica nouanoaiaaiey eiieo?aioeee eae oaeiaie. Iaeiaei iauanoai
auno?i ioeaieei iaaoaiinoue oaeie neooaoeee e naieie ?aoeoaeueiuie
aeaenoaeyie ia aeiionoeei ia?aoiaea aa ninoiyiey a e?eoe/aneia
iieiaeaiea.

Nia?aiaiiay ?uii/iay yeiiiieea oa?aeoa?ecoaony ninouanoaiaaieai,
ia?aieaoaieai eiieo?aioeee e iiiiiieee. I/aiue aaaeiie yaeyaony i?iaeaia
eo niioiioaiey. Iiaeii aanoe ?a/ue i aeeaeaeoe/aneii aaeeinoaa iiiiiieee
e eiieo?aioeee. E. Ia?en aiai?ee: “A i?aeoe/aneie aeecie iu iaoiaeei ia
oieueei eiieo?aioeeth, iiiiiieeth e eo aioiaiieci, ii oaeaea e eo
neioac, eioi?ue yaeyaony ia oi?ioeie, a aeaeaeaieai. Iiiiiieey nicaeaao
eiieo?aioeeth, eiieo?aioeey nicaeaao iiiiiieeth. Neioac caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi iiiiiieey iiaeao oaea?aeaoueny aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi iia
iinoiyiii anooiaao a eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao”*. A oaeeo oneiaeyo
eiieo?aioeey ia?anoaao auoue aaeeiui ?aaoeyoi?ii i?iecaiaenoaa.

Nia?aiaiiue oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iauaaeeiaiea
noeoeeiiai ?uii/iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey n niciaoaeueiui oi?aaeaieai ni
noi?iiu iiiiiieee e ainoaea?noaa. Iaeio ec aai iniia ninoaaeyao
eiieo?aioeey, ii a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo yoi i?aeiouanoaaiii
ianiaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea iniaaiiinoe ianiaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee:

1. Yoi eiieo?aioeey, eioi?ay aicieeaao i?e oneiaeyo nouanoaiaaiey
iiiiiieenoe/aneeo ia?aciaaiee, ni?aaiothueony eae iaaeaeo niaie, oae e n
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie n?aaeiaai e iaeiai aeciana. A iae oii caaeatho
i?iaeaaoeu e iieoiaoaee, eioi?ua eiatho ii?aaeaeaiioth iiiiiieueioth
aeanoue iaae i?iaeoeoii, eiatho aiciiaeiinoue iaieioee?iaaoue oeaiaie.

2. Anee niaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey i?ienoiaeeea i?aaeaea anaai ca
iaania/aiea nauoa i?iaeoeoeee, oi iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiaao cia/eoaeueii
aieueoee aeeaiacii oeaeae. Caeanue eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa aaaeaony ca
iiiiiieecaoeeth ?uieia nauoa, enoi/ieeia nu?uey, ?acoeueoaoia
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia,
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie ?aai/ae neeu e o.ae.

3. Eiieo?aioeey ana aieueoa ia?aiauaaony ec noa?u ia?auaiey, aaea
i?ienoiaeeo ?aaeecaoeey oiaa?ia, a noa?o iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, n io?aneaaiai ia iaaeio?aneaaie, iauaoicyenoaaiiue
o?iaaiue. Ianiaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey iniiauaaaony i?aaeaea anaai ia
iiaiaaaaeaieyo a n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, oaoiieiaeth, eioi?ua nieaeatho
cao?aou ia aaeeieoeo oiaa?a. Eiiiaaoeee a ?oeao iiiiiieenoia noaiiayony
iaoiaeii eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau.

4. Cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?yaony a?naiae niiniaia oaeie ai?ueau. ?yaeii n
oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeeae, eniieueciaaaoaeny ?aiaa, i?eiaiythony e ae?oaea
niiniau. Ioee/atho o?e iniiaiua oi?iu eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau: oeaiiaay,
iaoeaiiaay e iayeiiiie/aneay (ia/anoiay). Oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey ( yoi
ni?aaiiaaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeae iooai oiaiueoaiey cao?ao i?iecaiaenoaa,
nieaeaiey oeai ia oiaa?u e oneoae aac nouanoaaiiiai eciaiaiey eo
anni?oeiaioa eee ea/anoaa. I?iecaiaeeoaee eniieuecotho iaieioee?iaaiea
oeaiaie, oaiaaua oeaiu, oaeiua oiaiueoaiey, iaiaa?e?iaaiea oeaiaie ia
?aciuo ?uieao. Iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey ( yoi caaiaaaiea eiieo?aioiiai
i?aeiouanoaa ca n/ao eo/oaai eniieueciaaiey aeinoeaeaiee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Caeanue i?eiaiyaony i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia
aieaa aunieiai ea/anoaa, i?aaeeiaeaiea iiauo oiaa?ia aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey oao aea iio?aaiinoae, ieacaiea aieueoaai iauaia oneoa,
oaaee/aiea n?ieia aa?aioeeiiai ianeoaeeaaiey, eo/oea oneiaey auaeaeaiey
iio?aaeoaeueneiai e?aaeeoa, i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiuo eaiiaiee e o.ae. E,
iaeiiaoe, oe?iei i?aeoeeothony oae iacuaaaiua iayeiiiie/aneea iaoiaeu
eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau. Yoi iiaeeoiu neoaeaaiuo eeoe aeey oeaaeeaaiey
aeae, oaoie/aneee oieiiaae, ia?aiaieaaiea ia naith noi?iio eo/oeo
niaoeeaeenoia e o.ae.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi naaiaeiy aeaenoaoao
ea/anoaaiii iiaay eiieo?aioeey, eioi?ay io?aaeaao iiaoth no?oeoo?o
?uiea, aai iiiiiieueiue oa?aeoa?.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. ?ocaaei A., Ia?ouiia A. “Iiiiiieee e ianiaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey”

Eo?n ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, I., 1994 a., n. 81-96

2. Naioyeuenii I. “Yeiiiieen” ,n. 531

PAGE \# “‘No?: ‘#’

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