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Спрос и предложение, их эластичность

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Ieienoa?noai Yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e oi?aiaee ?O

Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao Eiiia?oeee

E?aniiaea?neee Oeeeae

Eaoaae?a iaiaaeaeiaioa

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

Oaia: «Ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea, eo yeanoe/iinoue»

Auiieiee: ooooooooo

oaeoeueoaoa eiiia?oeee

a?. ooooooooooooooo

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: Eaiaeeaeao

yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe

aeioeaio Oaaa?ia A.I.

E?aniiaea? – 2002

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

Ni?in eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, aai oaeoi?u e e?eaay

I?aaeeiaeaiea eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, aai oaeoi?u e e?eaay

Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ii ?acee/iui oaeoi?ai

I?eiaiaiea oai?ee yeanoe/iinoe

Iaoaieci ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey (?aaiiaaniay oeaia)

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea

Oeaio?aeueiay i?iaeaia yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee – yoi aii?in ?aaiiaaney
iaaeaeo aeaoiy i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie eeannaie iioeaia: ia?aiai eeanna,
aeeth/athuaai aeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo oaeiaieuenoaee, e aoi?iai,
oa?aeoa?ecothuaainy iai?eyoeai oi?i oyainoe o?oaea.

Aaaeiaeoeie eaoaai?eyie iee?iyeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca yaeythony ni?in e
i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ioaeaeueiuo ?uieao.

Oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia ?uiea neeaaeuaaaony a caaeneiinoe io ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey – aaaeiaeoeo yeiiiie/aneeo ?u/aaia ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

Ii naiae i?e?iaea ?uii/iay yeiiiieea ianoaaeeueia e iaoiaeeony a
iinoiyiiii aeaeaeaiee.

N iee?iyeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey ec i?eaaaeaiiuo ii?aaeaeaiee ?uiea
iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuei yaeyaony neaaeothuaa: ?uiie – yoi iaoaieci
acaeiiaeaenoaey iieoiaoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia, ae?oaeie neiaaie, niioiioaiea
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Ca iineaaeiea 15 eao eiee/anoai iio?aaeoaeae e i?aaei?eyoee, aeaaeathueo
ia?niiaeueiuie eiiiuethoa?aie, aeinoeaei iaaeaeaiiie auniou. Oeaia ia
iaooue eieaaaeanue io 3 aei 40 aeiee. ca aa??aeue, neaaeoy ca aceaoaie e
iaaeaieyie iaooyiuo ea?oaeae, ?aaiethoeeyie, yiaa?ai, aieiaie oeai e
i?inoi aieiaie. Oeaiu ia aeeeuea ?inee ana 1980-a aiaeu e caoai
nieceeenue ai iiiaeo /anoyo no?aiu. Aei 1990 aiaeu ?uiie ?aai/eo iano
aue aeaaii?eyoiui aeey ethaeae n aunoei ia?aciaaieai, a caoai iinea 1990
a., ai a?aiy niaaea, noae i/aiue aeanoeei.

O yeiiiieee anoue i/aiue aeaenoaaiiue eino?oiaio aeey iauyniaiey yoeo e
iiiaeo ae?oaeo eciaiaiee a yeiiiie/aneii ie?oaeaiee. Ii iacuaaaony
oai?eae ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Yoa oai?ey iieacuaaao, eae
iio?aaeoaeueneea i?aaeii/oaiey ii?aaeaeytho iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in ia
oiaa?u, a oi a?aiy eae cao?aou i?aaei?eyoee yaeythony iniiaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?ia. Anee au, iai?eia?, caiaoeoa, /oi ia oeaiu iaooue
oiaee, oi iauyniaiea yoiio e?iaony eeai a iaaeaiee ni?ina ia iaa, eeai a
?inoa aa i?aaeeiaeaiey. Yoi aea aa?ii aeey eaaeaeiai ?uiea, ia/eiay io
eiiiuethoa?ia, a?eeeeaioia e eii/ay caieae: eciaiaiey a i?aaeeiaeaiee e
ni?ina i?eaiaeyo e eciaiaieyi a auionea e oeaiao.

Iiiyoey i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina iieacuaaao, eae iie aeaenoaotho ia
eiieo?aioiuo ?uieao ii ioiioaieth e ioaeaeueiui aeaaai (oiaa?ai e
oneoaai). Nia/aea iu ?anniio?ei e?eaoth ni?ina, a caoai e?eaoth
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Eniieuecoy yoe iniiaiua iiiyoey, iu oaeaeei, eae
ii?aaeaeythony ?uii/iua oeaiu, eee eae iie aeinoeaatho naiaai
eiieo?aioiiai ?aaiiaaney a ianoa, aaea ia?anaeathony aeaa e?eaua e aaea
neeu i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina iaoiaeyony a ?aaiiaanee. Eiaiii aeaeaeaiea
oeai – iaoaieci oeai, o?aaiiaaoeaaao eee i?eaiaeeo e ?aaiiaaneth
i?aaeeiaeaiea e ni?ina.

Ni?in eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, aai oaeoi?u e e?eaay

Ni?inii iacuaaaony eiee/anoai oiaa?a eee oneoae, eioi?ia aoaeao eoieaii
ii ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaia ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae. Aaniieacii iuoaoueny
ii?aaeaeeoue ni?in aac oeaiu, oae eae ii eciaiyaony eiaiii a caaeneiinoe
io iaa.

Iieoiaoaeue i?aaeeaaaao oeaio ni?ina – i?aaeaeueii iaeneiaeueioth oeaio,
ca eioi?oth ii niaeanai eoieoue oiaa?. Auoa yoa oeaia iiaeiyoueny ia
iiaeao, oae eae o iieoiaoaey iao aieueoa aeaiaa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?e
iaeciaiiinoe anao ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia o iieoiaoaey nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiia
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ?uii/iie oeaiie oiaa?a e aaee/eiie ni?ina ia iaai.
Yoi niioiioaiea iacuaaaony e?eaie ni?ina. Aa a?aoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea
i?aaenoaaeaii ia a?aoeea.

Aeaenoaoao caeii ni?ina: i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo ni?in ia oiaa?u a
eiee/anoaaiiii au?aaeaiee eciaiyaony a ia?aoiie caaeneiinoe io oeaiu.
Yoi i?ienoiaeeo ii aeaoi i?e/eiai: ai-ia?auo, i?e nieaeaiee oeaiu
iio?aaeoaeue oi/ao i?eia?anoe aieueoa oiaa?a (yooaeo aeioiaea);
ai-aoi?uo, oiaa? i?e nieaeaiee oeaiu ia iaai aeaoaaaao ioiineoaeueii
ae?oaeo oiaa?ia e i?eia?aoaoue aai noaiiaeony ioiineoaeueii auaiaeiaa
(yooaeo caiauaiey).

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue ianeieueei eneeth/aiee ec caeiia ni?ina. Iie
eanathony oae iacuaaaiuo iecoeo e aunoeo oiaa?ia. E ia?aui ioiinyony
oiaa?u, iio?aaeaiea eioi?uo oiaiueoaaony n oaaee/aieai aeioiaeia. Yoi
iauyniyaony oai, /oi aeey oaeeo aeaa nouanoaotho aeueoa?iaoeaiua aeaaa,
oa?aeoa?ecothueany aieaa aunieei ea/anoaii eee aieueoeie oaeianoaaie.
Eiaaea oiaa? aeey aeaiiiai iio?aaeoaey noaiiaeony iaiaa iieacai, ii
ia?aoiaeeo ia iio?aaeaiea ae?oaeo oiaa?ia. Aiciiaeia e oaeay neooaoeey,
eiaaea n ?inoii oeai ia ii?aaeaeaiiua oiaa?u (eae i?aaeei, yoi oiaa?u
ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe) aaee/eia ni?ina ia ieo nieaeaoueny ia aoaeao.
A?yae ee iu nie?aoei iio?aaeaiea oeaaa, anee oeaia ia iaai ianeieueei
aic?anoao. A yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee yoi yaeaiea iieo/eei iacaaiea
«ia?aaeiena Aeooaia». Ei aoi?ie a?oiia ioiinyo, eae i?aaeei, i?aaeiaou
?ineioe. I?e nieaeaiee oeaiu ia oaeea oiaa?u nieaeaaony e aaee/eia
ni?ina ia ieo. Yoi ioiineony e oiaa?ai, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo eiaeeaeaeu
no?aiyony iiae/a?eiooue naia aunieia nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea. A
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee oaeia yaeaiea iacuaatho «yooaeoii niiaa», eee
«yooaeoii Aaaeaia».

Oiaa?u, ni?in ia eioi?ua aic?anoaao ii ia?a ?inoa aeioiaeia, ioiinyo e
ii?iaeueiui oiaa?ai. Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi auoai?eaaaeaiiay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey oiaa?ia ai iiiaii caaeneo io aeona iio?aaeoaey, a
iioiio a eaeie-oi ia?a iineo noauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?.

E eneeth/aieth ec caeiia ni?ina ioiineony oaeaea neooaoeey
«eioeyoeeiiiuo iaeeaeaiee». Eiaaea iieoiaoaee ineoieiae/anee iano?iaiu
ia iinoiyiiue ?ino oeai, oaaee/aiea ni?ina iiaeao iaaethaeaoueny i?e
?inoa oeai.

Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oeaiie e ni?inii au?aaeaaony a aeaea a?aoeea eee
oaaeeoeu:

Oeaia. oun. ?oa. 8 6 4 2

Ni?in, oo. 1 2 3 4

Ia eciaiaiea ni?ina aeeytho e iaoeaiiaua oaeoi?u:

a) eciaiaiey a aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeao ianaeaiey. Iai?eia?, ?ino aeioiaeia
oaaee/eaaao ni?in ia ?aciua aeaeu oiaa?ia (iaaaeue, auoiaoth oaoieeo,
aunieiea/anoaaiiua i?iaeoeou ieoaiey e ae?.) i?e anao aiciiaeiuo oeaiao
ia ieo;

a) eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey. Iai?eia?, noa?aiea ianaeaiey,
oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa iaineiia?ia oaaee/eaaao ni?in ia eaea?noaa,
iaaeeoeeineia ianeoaeeaaiea;

a) eciaiaiea oeai ia ae?oaea oiaa?u, iniaaiii ia oiaa?u (noanoeooou).
Oae ?ino oeai ia neeai/iia ianei auciaao iiauoaiea ni?ina ia ia?aa?ei;

a)yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Aeaiaaeiua iiniaey,
auiea/eaaaiua ainoaea?noaii iaeieiouei neiyi ianaeaiey, oaaee/eaaao
ni?in ia oiaa?u, iio?aaeyaiua yoie a?oiiie ianaeaiey;

ae) eciaiaiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo i?aaeii/oaiee iiae aicaeaenoaeai ?aeeaiu,
iiaeu e ae?. Iai?eia?, oaaee/aiea ni?ina ia nii?oeaioth iaoaue a 80-o
aa. Auei naycaii n oai, /oi n?aaee iieiaeaaee noaei iiaeii iineoue yoo
iaoaue eaaeaeue aeaiue.

Anee ni?in eciaieeny iiae aicaeaenoaeai iaoeaiiauo oaeoi?ia, oi i?e oie
aea oeaia yoi oaea iiaue ni?in e ii aoaeao eiaoue ae?oaia a?aoe/aneia
ioia?aaeaiea

I?aaeeiaeaiea eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey,

aai oaeoi?u e e?eaay

I?aaeeiaeaieai iacuaaaony eiee/anoai oiaa?a eee oneoa, eioi?ia
i?iecaiaeeoaee aioiau i?iaeaoue ii ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaia ca ii?aaeaeaiiue
ia?eiae. Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oeaiie e i?aaeeiaeaieai oaea ia ia?aoiay,
a i?yiay.

Eae naycaii i?aaeeiaeaiea n oeaiie? I?iecaiaeeoaee no?aiyony i?iaeaoue
oiaa? iiaei?iaea. I?iaeaaoeu iacia/atho naie oiaa? i?aaeaeueii
ieieiaeueioth oeaio, oae eae aieaa ieceay oeaia naeaeaao eo
i?iecaiaenoai ia?aioaaaeueiui. Niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ?uii/iuie oeaiaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey e eiee/anoaii oiaa?a iacuaaaony e?eaie i?aaeeiaeaiey.
A?aoee i?aaeeiaeaiey i?aaenoaaeai ia ?enoiea.

Caeii i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaneo: i?aaeeiaeaiea, i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo,
eciaiyaony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey oeaiu. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, ii
ia?a ?inoa oeai i?iecaiaeeoaee i?aaeeaaatho e i?iaeaaea aieueoea
eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia, a ii ia?a eo iaaeaiey – iaiueoa.

I?aaeeiaeaiea, eae e ni?in ecia?aaeaaony a?aoeeii, iaeiaei ?acaa?iooui a
ae?oaoth noi?iio (eiaao iaeeii ni?aaa iaeaai).

Oaaeeoea i?aaeeiaeaiey no?ieony aiaeiae/ii oaaeeoea ni?ina:

?aaeoeey i?aaeeiaeaiey ia oeaio iauyniyaony oai, /oi, ai-ia?auo, oe?iu,
caiyoua a io?anee, i?e iiauoaiee oeaiu caaeaenoaotho ?aca?aiua (anee
oaeiaua eiathony) eee auno?i aaiaeeiua iiaua iiuiinoe, /oi i?eaaaeao e
oaaee/aieth i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ai-aoi?uo, a neo/aa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai e
onoie/eaiai iiauoaiey oeaiu a yoo io?aneue ono?aiyony ae?oaea
i?iecaiaeeoaee, /oi aua aieaa oaaee/eo i?iecaiaenoai e i?aaeeiaeaiea.

Iaeiaei a e?aoein?i/iii ieaia oaaee/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey ia anaaaea
ianooiaao iaiaaeeaiii ca iiauoaieai oeaiu, oae eae iiaeao ia ieacaoueny
?aca?aia aeey oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa (eiathuaany iai?oaeiaaiea
?aaioaao n iaeneiaeueiie caa?oceie a o?e ?aai/ea niaiu), a ?anoe?aiea
iiuiinoae (aeeth/ay iaei aeiiieieoaeueii ?aai/ae neeu e ae?.) e ia?aeea
eaieoaea ec ae?oaeo io?aneae iau/ii ia iiaoo auoue inouanoaeaiu a
ei?ioeea n?iee. Ii a aeieain?i/iii ieaia oaaee/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey
anaaaea neaaeoao ca iiauoaieai oeaiu.

I?aaeeiaeaiea, oae aea eae e ni?in, iiaeao eciaiyoueny iiae aeeyieai
iaoeaiiauo oaeoi?ia:

a)eciaiaiey ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa a ?acoeueoaoa oaoie/aneeo
iiaiaaaaeaiee, eciaiaiey enoi/ieeia ?ano?nia, iaeiaiaie iieeoeee,
noieiinoe oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiauoaiea ecaea?aeae naeaeiao e?eaoth
i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaai, nieaeaiea – ai?aai;

a) auoiaea ia ?uiie iiauo oe?i, /oi oaaee/eaaao i?aaeeiaeaiea aia
caaeneiinoe io oeai;

a) eciaiaiey oeai ia ae?oaea oiaa?u, i?eaiaeyuaai e ia?aeeao ?ano?nia
(ooiae oe?i ec io?aneae), /oi oiaiueoeo i?aaeeiaeaiea;

a) i?e?iaeiuo eaoano?io, iieeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee, aiei, ?ac?ooathueo
yeiiiieeo, /oi auciaao nie?auaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ii ?acee/iui oaeoi?ai

Ia?a ?aaeoeee iaeiie aaee/eiu ia eciaiaiea ae?oaie iacuaaaony
yeanoe/iinoueth.

Yeanoe/iinoue iieacuaaao, ianeieueei i?ioeaioia eciaieoueny iaeia
ia?aiaiiay yeiiiie/aneay aaee/eia i?e eciaiaiee ae?oaie ia iaeei
i?ioeaio. I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ii oeaia, eee
oeaiiaay yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina, eioi?ay iieacuaaao ia neieueei eciaieony
a i?ioeaioiii ioiioaiee aaee/eia ni?ina ia oiaa? i?e eciaiaiee aai oeaiu
ia iaeei i?ioeaio.

Anee iaicia/eoue oeaio ?, a aaee/eio ni?ina Q, oi iieacaoaeue
(eiyooeoeeaio) oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina Ep ?aaai:

aaea (Q – eciaiaiea aaee/eiu ni?ina, %; (? – eciaiaiea oeaiu, %; «?» a
eiaeaena icia/aao, /oi yeanoe/iinoue ?anniao?eaaaony ii oeaia.

Aiaeiae/ii iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue iieacaoaeue yeanoe/iinoe ii aeioiaeai eee
eaeae-oi ae?oaie yeiiiie/aneie aaee/eia.

Iieacaoaeue oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina aeey anao oiaa?ia yaeyaony
io?eoeaoaeueiie aaee/eiie. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee oeaia oiaa?a nieaeaaony
– aaee/eia ni?ina ?anoao, e iaiai?io. Iaeiaei aeey ioeaiee yeanoe/iinoe
/anoi eniieuecoaony aaniethoiay aaee/eia iieacaoaey (ciae «ieion»
iioneaaony).

Iai?eia?, nieaeaiea oeaiu noe?aeueiiai ii?ioea ia 5% aucaaei oaaee/aiea
ni?ina ia iaai ia 10%. Iieacaoaeue yeanoe/iinoe aoaeao ?aaai:

Anee aaniethoiay aaee/eia iieacaoaey oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina
aieueoa 1, oi iu eiaai aeaei n ioiineoaeueii yeanoe/iui ni?inii. Eiuie
neiaaie, eciaiaiea oeaiu a aeaiiii neo/aa i?eaaaeao e aieueoaio
eiee/anoaaiiiio eciaiaieth aaee/eiu ni?ina.

Anee aaniethoiay aaee/eia iieacaoaey oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina
iaiueoa 1, oi ni?in ioiineoaeueii iayeanoe/ai. A yoii neo/aa eciaiaiea
oeaiu iiaea/ao ca niaie iaiueoaa eciaiaiea aaee/eiu ni?ina.

I?e eiyooeoeeaioa yeanoe/iinoe, ?aaiii 1, aiai?yo i aaeeie/iie
yeanoe/iinoe. A yoii neo/aa eciaiaiea oeaiu i?eaiaeeo e oaeiio aea
eiee/anoaaiiiio eciaiaieth aaee/eiu ni?ina.

Nouanoaoao aeaa e?aeieo neo/ay. A ia?aii aiciiaeii nouanoaiaaiea oieueei
iaeiie oeaiu, i?e eioi?ie oiaa? aoaeao i?eia?aoaoueny iieoiaoaeyie.
Ethaia eciaiaiea oeaiu i?eaaaeao eeai e iieiiio ioeaco io i?eia?aoaiey
aeaiiiai oiaa?a (anee oeaia iiauneony), eeai e iaia?aie/aiiiio
oaaee/aieth ni?ina (anee oeaia nieceony). I?e yoii ni?in yaeyaony
aaniethoii yeanoe/iui, iieacaoaeue yeanoe/iinoe aaneiia/ai. A?aoe/anee
yoio neo/ae iiaeii ecia?aceoue a aeaea i?yiie, ia?aeeaeueiie
ai?eciioaeueiie ine.

Iai?eia?, ni?in ia iiieaei?u, i?iaeaaaaiua ioaeaeueiui oi?aiaoeai ia
ai?iaeneii ?uiea, aaniethoii yeanoe/ai. Iaeiaei ?uii/iue ni?in ia
iiieaei?u ia yaeyaony yeanoe/iui.

Ae?oaie e?aeiee neo/ae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?eia? aaniethoii
iayeanoe/iiai ni?ina: eciaiaiea oeaiu ia io?aaeaaony ia aaee/eia ni?ina.
A?aoee aaniethoii iayeanoe/iiai ni?ina auaeyaeeo eae i?yiay,
ia?iaiaeeeoey?iay ai?eciioaeueiie ine.

I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue ni?in ia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu eaea?noa, aac
eioi?uo aieueiie ia iiaeao iaieoenue, e o.i.

Oaeei ia?acii, aaniethoiay aaee/eia iieacaoaey oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe
ni?ina iiaeao eciaiyoueny io ioey aei aaneiia/iinoe:

1I?eiaiaiea oai?ee yeanoe/iinoe Oai?ey yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey eiaao aaaeiia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea. I?ieeethno?e?oai i?eiaiaiea yoie oai?ee ia iaeioi?uo i?eia?ao. Oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ecaea?aeae oieeaao i?aaei?eyoea ia iiauoaiea oeaiu i?iaeoeoeee. *oi i?iecieaeao ni nauoii? Nieceony ee ii cia/eoaeueii eee aiiaua ia eciaieony? Eiiiaine?oao ee ?ino oeaiu nie?auaiey i?eauee ca n/ao iioa?e /anoe iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina? *oiau ioaaoeoue ia yoe aii?inu e i?aeeueii aua?aoue oeaiiaoth no?aoaaeth i?aaei?eyoey, iaaei ciaoue yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia aeaiiue oiaa?. Ieaea i?eaaaeaiu eiyooeoeeaiou oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina ia iaeioi?ua aeaeu oiaa?ia e oneoa: Oeaa ..............................................0,15 Aiayaeeia .......................................0,64 Aa?aieia .......................................2,65 sseoea ..............................................0,32 Yeaeo?e/anoai a aeiiao ................0,13 Oaaa/iua ecaeaeey ........................0,46 Aacaou e aeo?iaeu ........................0,42 Iaeaaeaea e iaoaue ............................0,20 I?eaaaeaiiua aeaiiua oa?aeoa?iu aeey yeiiiieee NOA. Aeey ?innee iieacaoaee oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe ?uii/iiai ni?ina aoaeoo ianeieueei eiuie a caaeneiinoe io iaee/ey oiaa?ia-caiaieoaeae e ae?oaeo ianoiyoaeuenoa, i eioi?uo aiai?eeinue auoa. Aeey oe?iu aaaeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ia aa i?iaeoeoeeth e yeanoe/iinoue ?uii/iiai ni?ina ia niaiaaeatho. Ia?aay anaaaea (ca eneeth/aieai aaniethoiie iiiiiieee oe?iu ia ?uiea) auoa aoi?ie. ?ann/eoaoue oeaiiaoth yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth oe?iu aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii, oae eae iaiaoiaeeii i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea e ?aaeoeeth eiieo?aioia ia iiauoaiea eee iiieaeaiea oe?iie oeaiu. Iiii/ue a yoii iiaeao eniieueciaaiea iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae eee iiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae oe?iu. Anee oe?ia i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey i oeaia aoaeao ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny oieueei aeaiiuie ia yeanoe/iinoe ?uii/iiai ni?ina, oi iioa?e nauoa io iiauoaiey oeai iiaoo noaoue aieaa cia/eoaeueiuie, /ai iaeeaeaeinue. Iai?eia?, anee i?eiai yeanoe/iinoue ?uii/iiai ni?ina ia oaaa/iua ecaeaeey 0,46, oi yoi niaa?oaiii ia icia/aao, /oi yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ia neaa?aou oaa?eee «ssaa» eee «Aeoeao» aoaeao eiaoue oi aea cia/aiea. Eiieo?aioeey iiauneo eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina ia neaa?aou eaaeaeie ec yoeo oaa?ee. Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina yaeyaony aaaeiui oaeoi?ii, aeeythuei ia oeaiiaoth iieeoeeo oe?iu. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi eaeay-oi oe?ia iino?ieea noieaa?oe?iue aeii e ?aoaao aii?in, ii eaeie oeaia neaaeoao i?aaeeaaaoue eaa?oe?u nuaiueeai. ?anoiaeu ia no?ieoaeuenoai e yenieoaoaoeeth oaeoe/anee ia caaenyo io oiai, neieueei eaa?oe? aoaeao naeaii (ca eneeth/aieai ?anoiaeia ia oaeouee ?aiiio, noi ninoaaeyao iaaieueooth aeieth io iaueo ?anoiaeia). Anee oe?ia ciaao ni?in ia eaa?oe?u e aai yeanoe/iinoue, iia iiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue, ii eaeie oeaia neaaeoao naeaaaoue yoe eaa?oe?u, /oiau iaania/eoue iaeneiaeueioth au?o/eo. I?e yoii iaeneiaeueiay au?o/ea iiaeao aeinoeaaoueny aeaaea a oii neo/aa, anee /anoue eaa?oe? inoaiaony ionoiaaoue. Aaaaeaiee einaaiiuo iaeiaia ainoaea?noai i?aneaaeoao oeaeue oaaee/eoue iauai iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee a athaeaeao aeey ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia a yeiiiieea, ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia ianaeaiey e iiaeaea?aeea iaeieioueo, ?acaeoey nioeeaeueiie noa?u, eio?ano?oeoo?u, iai?iiu e o.i. Iaeiaei a caaeneiinoe io yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu oiaa?ia e oneoa iaeiaiaia a?aiy aoaeao ?ani?aaeaeyoueny ii-?aciiio iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e iio?aaeoaeyie i?iaeoeoeee. ?anniio?ei neo/ae ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie i?e yeanoe/iii e iayeanoe/iii ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth (yeanoe/iinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eieiaaony iinoiyiiie). Ia ?enoiea iieacaii, eae eciaieony oeaia e iauai i?iaeaae iinea aaaaeaiey iaeiaa. Ia ?enoiea «A» a?aoee ni?ina D iieacuaaao aai aunieoth yeanoe/iinoue. Ia ?enoiea «A» ni?in io?eoeaoaeueii iayeanoe/ai. A?aoeee i?aaeeiaeaiey S0 – i?aaeeiaeaiea aei aaaaeaiey iaeiaa. Aei aaaaeaiey iaeiaa ?aaiiaaniua oeaia e iauai i?iecaiaenoaa auee niioaaonoaaiii P0 e Q0. *oi i?iecioei, eiaaea ainoaea?noai aaaei iaeia? E?eaua i?aaeeiaeaiey ia?aianoeeenue aeaai aaa?o ia aaee/eio iaeiaa. Aicieeea iiaay neooaoeey ?aaiiaaney P1 e Q1. Oaeei ia?acii, oeaia oiaa?a aoaeao iiauoaia i?iecaiaeeoaeai. Ii ianeieueei? I?iecaiaeeoaeue a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee ia iiaeao oaaee/eoue oeaio ia noiio iaeiaa (oioy a ?innee a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea yoi /anoi aiciiaeii), onoaiiaeoue aa auoa ?aaiiaaniie, oae eae a oneiaeyo eiieo?aioeee ii aoaeao auoaniai n ?uiea. Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi ii iiaeao naeaeaoue – yoi iiaeiyoue oeaio aei ?aaiiaaniiai o?iaiy. A neo/aa, anee ni?in yeanoe/ai, iioa?e i?iecaiaeeoaey aoaeoo auoa, a?aiy iaeiaa eyaeao a iniiaiii ia iaai. Ia ?enoiea «A» auaeaeaiiue i?yiioaieueiee iieacuaaao aaee/eio iaeiaa, aai /anoue ieaea ioieoe?iie eeiee – iioa?e i?iecaiaeeoaey io iaeiaa. E?iia oiai, i?iecaiaeeoaeue aoaeao auioaeaeai nie?aoeoue i?iecaiaenoai aei Q1, iioa?ya /anoue iieoiaoaeae naiae i?iaeoeoeee ca n/ao aieaa aunieie oeaiu ia iaa. A neo/aa, anee aii?in iayeanoe/ai, iaeiaiaia a?aiy eyaeao i?aeiouanoaaiii ia iio?aaeoaey. E?iia oiai, aaniethoiue ?acia? iaeiaa oaeaea aoaeao auoa i?e iayeanoe/iii ni?ina. Eiaiii iiyoiio ainoaea?noai iaeaaeaao aeoeeciuie e ae?oaeie einaaiiuie iaeiaaie oiaa?u, ni?in ia eioi?ua iayeanoe/ai (neaa?aou, aeeiaieueiua iaieoee e o.i.). Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea e ia caoo?eoiaaiiua i?yiioaieueieee ia ?enoiea «A» e «A». Iie i/a?/eaatho i?iaeoeoeeth, eioi?ay auea i?iecaaaeaia e eoieaia, anee au ainoaea?noai ia aaei iaeia. Yoi oa i?iecaiaeeoaee, eioi?ua oioyo, ii ia iiaoo i?iecaanoe aai. Ianiaiaaeaiea aeaeaiee e aiciiaeiinoae yaeyaony i?yiui neaaenoaeai onoaiiaeaiiiai iaeiaa e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iioa?th aeey iauanoaa. I?e/ai yoa iioa?y aoaeao oai auoa, /ai auoa yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ia aeaiiue oiaa?. ?anniio?ei oaia?ue caaeneiinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie io yeanoe/iinoe i?aaeeiaeaiey (yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina, i?eiai iinoiyiiie). ?enoiie eeethno?e?oao neooaoeeth aei e iinea aaaaeaiey iaeiaa. I?e yeanoe/iii i?aaeeiaeaiee iaeiaiaia a?aiy eyaeao a iniiaiii a iniiaiii ia iio?aaeoaey, ?ino oeaiu e nie?auaiey e nie?auaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa aoaeoo cia/eoaeueiuie, noiia iaeiaa aoaeao ioiineoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai i?e iayeanoe/iii i?aaeeiaeaiee, iioa?e iauanoaa auoa. Iaoaieci ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey (?aaiiaaniay oeaia) Anee ainoaea?noai ia aiaoeaaaony a ?uii/iue iaoaieci, o.a. ia aaiaeeo eiio?ieue ca oeaiaie, oi ni?in e i?aaeeeiaeaiea ia eiieo?aioii ?uiea i?eaeoo a ?aaiiaanea e onoaiiaeony ?uii/iay oeaia oiaa?a e aai iauee iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. ?aaiiaanea aicieeaao i?e oaeeo oeaiao e i?e oaeeo eiee/anoaao oiaa?ia, i?e eioi?uo eiieo?aioiua neeu naaeaine?iaaiu, o.a. eiaaea eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, eioi?ia oioyo eoieoue iieoiaoaee, niioaaonoaoao eiee/anoao oiaa?ia, eioi?ia i?iaeaaoeu oioyo i?iaeaoue. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?acoaony ?aaiiaaniay oeaia - oeaia oaeiai o?iaiy, eiaaea iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey niioaaonoaoao iauaio ni?ina. A?aoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea ?aaiiaaniie oeaiu i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?enoiea, aaea oi/ea ia?ana/aiey e?eaie ni?ina (D) e e?eaie i?aaeeiaeaiey (S) - A - ?aaiiaaniay oeaia. Eieaaaiey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey eciaiytho ?aaiiaanioth oeaio e ?aaiiaanea eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia ia ?uiea. Yoi au?aaeaaony a neaaeothuai: - oaaee/aiea ni?ina aucuaaao ?ino eae ?aaiiaaniie oeaiu, oae e ?aaiiaaniiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a; - oiaiueoaiea ni?ina i?eaiaeeo e iaaeaieth ?aaiiaaniie oeaiu e ?aaiiaaniiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a; - ?ino i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?a aucuaaao oiaiueoaiea ?aaiiaaniie oeaiu e oaaee/aiea ?aaiiaaniiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a; - nie?auaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey aaaeao e oaaee/aieth ?aaiiaaniie oeaiu e oiaiueoaieth ?aaiiaaniiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a. Oaeei ia?acii, ia ?uiea ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia anaaaea o?aaiiaaoaiu, ii ?uiie oyaioaao e ?aaiiaaneth. A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea aeaenoaoao caeii ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, niaeanii eioi?iio ethaia eciaiaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey aaoiiaoe/anee aeeth/aao noeoeeiua iaoaieci iienea ?aaiiaaniuo oeai, o.a. ?aaiiaaney i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey, /oi e nicaeaao naaeaine?iaaiiinoue yeiiiieee. A oeaeii eiioeaioeey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia ?uiie ?ano?nia. Iaeiaei ?uiie ?ano?nia eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe. A neeo ia?aie/aiiinoe ?ano?nia ia ?uiea nouanoaoao onoie/eaue ni?in ia oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa. Ni?in ia ?ano?nu yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiui ni?inii io aioiauo oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyony n iiiiuueth aeaiiuo ?ano?nia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?ano?nu oaeiaeaoai?ytho iio?aaiinoe iio?aaeoaey ia i?yii, a einaaiii, /a?ac i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e oneoa. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue oa?aeoa? ni?ina ia ?ano?nu icia/aao, /oi onoie/eainoue ni?ina ia ethaie ?ano?n aoaeao caaenaoue io aai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e io oeaiu oiaa?a, nicaeaiiiai n iiiiuueth yoiai ?ano?na. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u Iie A. Naioyeuenii, Aeeueyi Ae. Ii?aeoaon «Yeiiiieea», 1999 a., I. iiae ?aae. A.N. Aoeaoiaa «Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey», 1999 a., I. I.A. Naaeeia, A.A. *ea?eeia «Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey», 1999 a., I. iiae ?aae. I.E. Aacueaaa, N.I. Ao?ei «Yeiiiie/aneay oi?ey», 1999 a. , I. P Q D A?aoee ni?ina: D - ni?in; P - oeaia; Q - eiee/anoai oiaa?a P, oun. ?oa. 8 6 4 2 5 4 3 2 1 Q, oo. A?aoee ni?ina: P - oeaia; Q - aaee/eia ni?ina P a S D1 D P S1 S D a P a Q S D D1 P S1 S D a Q Q Q Onoaiiaeaiea oi/ee ?aaiiaaney ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey: ? - oeaia, Q - aaee/eia ni?ina eee i?aaeeiaeaiey; D, D1 - ni?in aei e iinea eciaiaiey; S, S1 - i?aaeeiaeaiea aei e iinea eciaiaiey; a - oaaee/aiea ni?ina aaaeao e ?inoo oeai e ?anoe?aieth i?aaeeiaeaiey; a - oiaiueoaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey aaaeao e iiauoaieth oeaiu e nie?auaieth ni?ina; a - oiaiueoaiea ni?ina aaaeao e iaaeaieth oeaiu e nie?auaieth i?aaeeiaeaiey; a - oaaee/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey aaaeao e iaaeaieth oeaiu e ?anoe?aieth ni?ina. P S Q A?aoee i?aaeeiaeaiey: S - i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ?uiea A?aoee ni?ina: P - oeaia; Q - aaee/eia i?aaeeiaeaiey P, oun. ?oa. 8 6 4 2 5 4 3 2 1 Q, oo. ? D ?/ Q P D Q Q/ P Q1 S1 P1 P0 Q Q0 S0 D Iaeia Iaeia D P Q1 S1 P1 P0 Q Q0 S0 A A ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie i?e yeanoe/iii (a) e iayeanoe/iii (a) ni?ina; S0, S1 – i?aaeeiaeaiea aei e iinea aaaaeaiey iaeiaa. D S0 S0 P Q1 S1 P1 P0 Q Q0 Iaeia Iaeia D P Q1 S1 P1 P0 Q Q0 A A ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie i?e yeanoe/iii (a) e iayeanoe/iii (a) ni?ina; D – ni?in; S0, S1 – i?aaeeiaeaiea aei e iinea aaaaeaiey iaeiaa. A?aoee ?aaiiaaniie oeaiu. P Q D S A?aoee iiaiai ?aaiiaaney: a - i?e eciaiaiee ni?ina; a - i?e eciaiaiee i?aaeeiaeaiey; a - i?e eciaiaiee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey a P Q D S S1 a P D1 Q D S S1 a Q P D1 D S

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